A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the dehydrogenation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE. Several types of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase exist including phosphorylating and non-phosphorylating varieties and ones that transfer hydrogen to NADP and ones that transfer hydrogen to NAD.
Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Stable calcium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element calcium, but differ in atomic weight. Ca-42-44, 46, and 48 are stable calcium isotopes.
A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.
Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.
An aldotriose which is an important intermediate in glycolysis and in tryptophan biosynthesis.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
The calcium salt of oxalic acid, occurring in the urine as crystals and in certain calculi.
An oxidative decarboxylation process that converts GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE to D-ribose-5-phosphate via 6-phosphogluconate. The pentose product is used in the biosynthesis of NUCLEIC ACIDS. The generated energy is stored in the form of NADPH. This pathway is prominent in tissues which are active in the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS and STEROIDS.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
The calcium salt of gluconic acid. The compound has a variety of uses, including its use as a calcium replenisher in hypocalcemic states.
An important intermediate in lipid biosynthesis and in glycolysis.
Membrane proteins that are involved in the active transport of phosphate.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
Unstable isotopes of calcium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ca atoms with atomic weights 39, 41, 45, 47, 49, and 50 are radioactive calcium isotopes.
This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An aldose-ketose isomerase that catalyzes the reversible interconversion of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate. In prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms it plays an essential role in glycolytic and gluconeogenic pathways. In mammalian systems the enzyme is found in the cytoplasm and as a secreted protein. This secreted form of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase has been referred to as autocrine motility factor or neuroleukin, and acts as a cytokine which binds to the AUTOCRINE MOTILITY FACTOR RECEPTOR. Deficiency of the enzyme in humans is an autosomal recessive trait, which results in CONGENITAL NONSPHEROCYTIC HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.
An amino alcohol with a long unsaturated hydrocarbon chain. Sphingosine and its derivative sphinganine are the major bases of the sphingolipids in mammals. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.
Any salt or ester of glycerophosphoric acid.
An enzyme that transfers acyl groups from acyl-CoA to glycerol-3-phosphate to form monoglyceride phosphates. It acts only with CoA derivatives of fatty acids of chain length above C-10. Also forms diglyceride phosphates. EC 2.3.1.15.
Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDIC ACIDS that lack one of its fatty acyl chains due to its hydrolytic removal.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
The monoanhydride of carbamic acid with PHOSPHORIC ACID. It is an important intermediate metabolite and is synthesized enzymatically by CARBAMYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (AMMONIA) and CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (GLUTAMINE-HYDROLYZING).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
CALCIUM CHANNELS that are concentrated in neural tissue. Omega toxins inhibit the actions of these channels by altering their voltage dependence.
Proteins that bind to and are involved in the metabolism of phosphate ions.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Positively-charged atomic nuclei that have been stripped of their electrons. These particles have one or more units of electric charge and a mass exceeding that of the Helium-4 nucleus (alpha particle).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Agents that increase calcium influx into calcium channels of excitable tissues. This causes vasoconstriction in VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE and/or CARDIAC MUSCLE cells as well as stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic islets. Therefore, tissue-selective calcium agonists have the potential to combat cardiac failure and endocrinological disorders. They have been used primarily in experimental studies in cell and tissue culture.
Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.
Phosphatidylinositols in which one or more alcohol group of the inositol has been substituted with a phosphate group.
Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Ribose substituted in the 1-, 3-, or 5-position by a phosphoric acid moiety.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Enzymes that catalyze a reverse aldol condensation. A molecule containing a hydroxyl group and a carbonyl group is cleaved at a C-C bond to produce two smaller molecules (ALDEHYDES or KETONES). EC 4.1.2.
A subfamily of lysophospholipid receptors with specificity for LYSOSPHINGOLIPIDS such as sphingosine-1-phosphate and sphingosine phosphorylcholine.
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
A receptor that is specific for IGF-II and mannose-6-phosphate. The receptor is a 250-kDa single chain polypeptide which is unrelated in structure to the type 1 IGF receptor (RECEPTOR, IGF TYPE 1) and does not have a tyrosine kinase domain.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Phosphoric or pyrophosphoric acid esters of polyisoprenoids.
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of fructose-6-phosphate plus GLUTAMINE from GLUTAMATE plus glucosamine-6-phosphate.
Phosphoric acid esters of mannose.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
Lanthanum. The prototypical element in the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol La, atomic number 57, and atomic weight 138.91. Lanthanide ion is used in experimental biology as a calcium antagonist; lanthanum oxide improves the optical properties of glass.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A white powder prepared from lime that has many medical and industrial uses. It is in many dental formulations, especially for root canal filling.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.
A calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials, as a desiccant, in dentistry as an impression material, cast, or die, and in medicine for immobilizing casts and as a tablet excipient. It exists in various forms and states of hydration. Plaster of Paris is a mixture of powdered and heat-treated gypsum.
A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A fluorescent calcium chelating agent which is used to study intracellular calcium in tissues.
A group of hydrolases which catalyze the hydrolysis of monophosphoric esters with the production of one mole of orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
A sesquiterpene lactone found in roots of THAPSIA. It inhibits CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE mediated uptake of CALCIUM into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
An inorganic pyrophosphate which affects calcium metabolism in mammals. Abnormalities in its metabolism occur in some human diseases, notably HYPOPHOSPHATASIA and pseudogout (CHONDROCALCINOSIS).
A disease-producing enzyme deficiency subject to many variants, some of which cause a deficiency of GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE activity in erythrocytes, leading to hemolytic anemia.
Intracellular messenger formed by the action of phospholipase C on phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, which is one of the phospholipids that make up the cell membrane. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate is released into the cytoplasm where it releases calcium ions from internal stores within the cell's endoplasmic reticulum. These calcium ions stimulate the activity of B kinase or calmodulin.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
A condition of abnormally high level of PHOSPHATES in the blood, usually significantly above the normal range of 0.84-1.58 mmol per liter of serum.
An element of the alkaline earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sr, atomic number 38, and atomic weight 87.62.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
A colorless crystalline or white powdery organic, tricarboxylic acid occurring in plants, especially citrus fruits, and used as a flavoring agent, as an antioxidant in foods, and as a sequestrating agent. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.
Enzymes that catalyze the interconversion of aldose and ketose compounds.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Reversible chemical reaction between a solid, often one of the ION EXCHANGE RESINS, and a fluid whereby ions may be exchanged from one substance to another. This technique is used in water purification, in research, and in industry.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
Disorders in the processing of calcium in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of UDPgalactose from UTP and galactose-1-phosphate. It is present in low levels in fetal and infant liver, but increases with age, thereby enabling galactosemic infants who survive to develop the capacity to metabolize galactose. EC 2.7.7.10.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
The fluid inside CELLS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of myo-inositol-1-phosphate from glucose-6-phosphate in the presence of NAD. EC 5.5.1.4.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
An NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase found in the cytosol of eucaryotes. It catalyses the dehydrogenation and phosphorylation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE to 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate, which is an important step in the GLYCOLYSIS pathway.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A family of symporters that facilitate sodium-dependent membrane transport of phosphate.
Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
Reduction of the blood calcium below normal. Manifestations include hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, Chvostek's sign, muscle and abdominal cramps, and carpopedal spasm. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Abnormally high level of calcium in the blood.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
Pyridine moieties which are partially saturated by the addition of two hydrogen atoms in any position.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Phosphorus used in foods or obtained from food. This element is a major intracellular component which plays an important role in many biochemical pathways relating to normal physiological functions. High concentrations of dietary phosphorus can cause nephrocalcinosis which is associated with impaired kidney function. Low concentrations of dietary phosphorus cause an increase in calcitriol in the blood and osteoporosis.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Ribulose substituted by one or more phosphoric acid moieties.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A general class of integral membrane proteins that transport ions across a membrane against an electrochemical gradient.
An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes the reaction sedoheptulose 7-phosphate and D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to yield D-erythrose 4-phosphate and D-fructose phosphate in the PENTOSE PHOSPHATE PATHWAY. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 2.2.1.2.
A benzothiazepine derivative with vasodilating action due to its antagonism of the actions of CALCIUM ion on membrane functions.
A class of G-protein-coupled receptors that react to varying extracellular CALCIUM levels. Calcium-sensing receptors in the PARATHYROID GLANDS play an important role in the maintenance of calcium HOMEOSTASIS by regulating the release of PARATHYROID HORMONE. They differ from INTRACELLULAR CALCIUM-SENSING PROTEINS which sense intracellular calcium levels.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction 6-phospho-D-gluconate and NADP+ to yield D-ribulose 5-phosphate, carbon dioxide, and NADPH. The reaction is a step in the pentose phosphate pathway of glucose metabolism. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 1.1.1.43.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A condition of an abnormally low level of PHOSPHATES in the blood.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.
These compounds function as activated monosaccharide carriers in the biosynthesis of glycoproteins and oligosaccharide phospholipids. Obtained from a nucleoside diphosphate sugar and a polyisoprenyl phosphate.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A class of enzymes that transfers substituted phosphate groups. EC 2.7.8.
... calcium and phosphate ion deficient solution showed a developed layer of hydroxyapatite similar to the observed hydroxyapatite ... In the first phase, alkali metal ions are leached from the glass and replaced with hydrogen ions; small amount of calcium ions ... depleted in sodium and calcium ions. Precipitation in which an amorphous calcium phosphate layer is deposited on the gel. ... Mineralization in which the calcium phosphate layer gradually transforms into crystalline hydroxyapatite, that mimics the ...
The model suggests that the protein provides a flexible template for the rapid self-assembly of calcium and phosphate ions, so ... Tye CE, Rattray KR, Warner KJ, Gordon JA, Sodek J, Hunter GK, Goldberg HA (March 2003). "Delineation of the hydroxyapatite- ... Functional implications for cell attachment and hydroxyapatite binding". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (39): 36839-48. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... a hydroxyapatite-nucleating region of contiguous glutamic acid residues (rattus norvegicus residues 78-85, 155-164) and a ...
The primary mineral is hydroxyapatite, which is a crystalline calcium phosphate. Enamel is formed on the tooth while the tooth ... In 2019 Chinese scientists found that mixing calcium and phosphate ions with triethylamine in an alcohol solution causes enamel ... Ameloblast Odontoblast Amorphous calcium phosphate Dental caries Ivory Tooth development "Severe Plane-Form Enamel Hypoplasia ... The only distinguishing factor between the two is the orientation of the calcium phosphate crystals. In the maturation stage, ...
... scaffold is formed to attract and arrange calcium and/or phosphate ions to induce de novo precipitation of hydroxylapatite. Two ... Commonly used materials include hydroxylapatite, tricalcium phosphate, and calcium phosphate cement. Newer bioactive glasses ... Dental enamel mineral (as well as dentin and bone) is made of hydroxylapatite with foreign ions incorporated in the structure. ... Al-Sanabani, JS; Madfa, AA; Al-Sanabani, FA (2013). "Application of calcium phosphate materials in dentistry". International ...
These structures are made of crystalline calcium phosphate in the form of hydroxyapatite. The hard dense enamel of mammalian ... Removal of one or two protons gives the dihydrogen phosphate ion [H 2PO 4]− and the hydrogen phosphate ion [HPO 4]2− ion, ... In mineralogy and geology, phosphate refers to a rock or ore containing phosphate ions. Inorganic phosphates are mined to ... the acid is completely dissociated as the phosphate ion, (PO 4)3− . This means that salts of the mono- and di-phosphate ions ...
Calcium phosphate refers to numerous materials consisting of calcium ions (Ca2+) together with orthophosphates (PO43−), ... The precipitate will either be "amorphous tricalcium phosphate", ATCP, or calcium deficient hydroxyapatite, CDHA, Ca9(HPO4)(PO4 ... Calcium phosphate is one of the main combustion products of bone (see bone ash). Calcium phosphate is also commonly derived ... one containing only calcium ions and the other both calcium and phosphate. There are differences in chemical and biological ...
2 Tetracalcium phosphate is a component used in the formation of some hydroxyapatite calcium phosphate cements that used for ... any precipitates having the correct Ca/P ratio contain hydroxide ions in apatitic phases. Solid state reactions are used, one ... Tetracalcium phosphate is a component in some calcium phosphate cements that have medical applications. Tetracalcium phosphate ... Tetracalcium phosphate is the compound Ca4(PO4)2O, (4CaO·P2O5). It is the most basic of the calcium phosphates, and has a Ca/P ...
Unlike calcium phosphate, the primary component of teeth, calcium phosphate salts exist as electrically unstable ions. The ... listed here in order of decreasing ratio of phosphate to calcium: hydroxyapatite, Ca 5(PO 4) 3OH whitlockite, Ca 9(Mg,Fe)(PO 4 ... fossilized anaerobic bacteria whose biological composition has been replaced by calcium phosphate salts, and calcium phosphate ... This came to be a term used for calcium phosphate on teeth in the early 19th century. Calculus is composed of both inorganic ( ...
These abrasives include calcium carbonate, silica gels, magnesium carbonates and phosphate salts. Fluoride is available in ... The fluoride ions reduce the rate of tooth enamel demineralization and increase the rate of remineralization of teeth at the ... The main mineral found in natural tooth enamel is hydroxyapatite rather than the fluorapatite created in the presence of ... such as phosphate and calcium. Fluoride reduces the decay of tooth enamel by the formation of fluorapatite and its ...
... and the phosphate groups in hydroxyapatite, and metal chelation between hydroxyapatite calcium ions and negatively charged ... During demineralisation, calcium and phosphorus ions are drawn out from the hydroxyapatite.The mineral ions introduced during ... The sites occupied solely by phosphate anions in stoichiometric hydroxyapatite, are occupied by phosphate or hydrogen phosphate ... calcium amended-hydroxyapatite″ defluoridation technique was suggested to overcome the phosphate leaching from hydroxyapatite. ...
Tooth enamel is composed of calcium-deficient carbonated hydroxyapatite. Chelating agents like hydrogen ions combine with ... Hydrogen ions combine with carbonate and/ or phosphate, releasing all ions in the affected region, giving rise to direct ... Tooth enamel and dentine are both made up of calcium deficient carbonated hydroxyapatite. Acid and/or chelators present in the ... Moreover, it aids the precipitation of calcium phosphate under specific pH conditions and bathes the tooth surface in fluoride ...
It builds a 3-D bio-matrix with binding sites for calcium ions serving as nucleation point for hydroxyapatite (tooth mineral) ... Around the newly formed matrix de-novo enamel-crystals are formed from calcium phosphate present in saliva. Through the ... Medicine portal Amorphous calcium phosphate Remineralisation of teeth Oligopeptide Biomimetic materials Fluoride Recaldent ... The high affinity to tooth mineral is based on matching distances of Ca-ion binding sites on P11-4 and Ca spacing in the ...
It builds a 3-D bio-matrix with binding sites for Calcium-ions serving as nucleation point for hydroxyapatite (tooth mineral) ... Medicine portal Calcium lactate Calcium phosphate Tooth development Toothpaste Tooth enamel Featherstone, J. D. B. (2008). " ... When fluoride ions are present in plaque fluid along with dissolved hydroxyapatite, and the pH is higher than 4.5, a ... Remineralization occurs on a daily basis after attack by acids from food, through the presence of calcium, phosphate and ...
... of extracellular calcium is as dicalcium phosphate with a solubility of 2.0 mM and the hydroxyapatite of bones in an organic ... and calcium gluconate. The intestine absorbs about one-third of calcium eaten as the free ion, and plasma calcium level is then ... Calcium is the most abundant metal and the fifth-most abundant element in the human body. As electrolytes, calcium ions play a ... Inadequate amounts of calcium, vitamin D, or phosphates can lead to softening of bones, called osteomalacia. Because calcium ...
... phosphate ions with sulfate ions and balances the difference in charge by replacing several calcium ions with sodium ions. ... It has been presumed that in sequence hydroxylapatite is deposited followed by the formation of cesanite when the solution in ... Cesanite was originally determined by Tazzoli (1983) to be isotypic to that of hydroxylapatite. This was determined by refining ... 2003) Sequence of secondary phosphates deposition in a karst environment: evidence from Măgurici Cave (Romania). European ...
Another, cheaper way of protecting rebars is coating them with zinc phosphate. Zinc phosphate slowly reacts with calcium ... Chloride ions, which make up about 50% of these ions, are particularly aggressive as a cause of corrosion of carbon steel ... cations and the hydroxyl anions present in the cement pore water and forms a stable hydroxyapatite layer. Penetrating sealants ... is a chemical reaction between carbon dioxide in the air and calcium hydroxide and hydrated calcium silicate in the concrete. ...
First, calcium phosphate is generated by combining calcium and phosphate salts at neutral pH. This material then reacts further ... Replacement of some of the fluoride ions with chloride ions in the lattice caused a general shift of the emission bands to the ... Along with hydroxylapatite, it can be a component of tooth enamel, but for industrial use both minerals are mined in the form ... Fluorapatite, often with the alternate spelling of fluoroapatite, is a phosphate mineral with the formula Ca5(PO4)3F (calcium ...
... act as ionic pumps capturing calcium ions from the test fluids; then calcium cations bind with phosphate anions to generate ... The advantage of hydroxyapatite, (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, is being started to form inside the bone tissue through mineralization which ... in which calcium cations come from cells and physiological fluids while phosphate anions are produced from hydrolysis of ... calcium-phosphate mineral nuclei on the dendrimer surface.[citation needed] SPRM is expected to be sensitive enough to provide ...
... of sodium phosphate produces an insoluble precipitate of hydroxyapatite with magnesium hydroxide and magnesium and calcium ... form complex ions with calcium and magnesium. Solubility of these complex ions may reduce blowdown requirements if anionic ... Lignin may be processed for high temperature stability to control calcium phosphate scale and magnetic iron oxide deposits. ... Coordinated control of pH and phosphates attempts to limit caustic corrosion occurring from concentrations of hydroxyl ions ...
These structures are made of crystalline calcium phosphate in the form of hydroxyapatite. The hard dense enamel of mammalian ... The phosphate ion carries a −3 formal charge and is the conjugate base of the hydrogen phosphate ion, HPO2−. 4, which is the ... In mineralogy and geology, phosphate refers to a rock or ore containing phosphate ions. Inorganic phosphates are mined to ... The phosphate ion is a polyatomic ion with the empirical formula PO3−. 4 and a molar mass of 94.97 g/mol. It consists of one ...
Hydroxyapatite, which is one of the most stable forms of calcium phosphate, makes up about 60 to 65 percent of the bone. The ... hydroxyapatite). Alginate scaffolds, composed of cross-linked calcium ions, are actively being explored in the regeneration of ... HA nanocrystals are synthesized by wet synthesis using diammonium phosphate and calcium chloride as phosphorus and calcium ... The hydroxyapatite implant was produced from tricalcium phosphate powder which hardened after hydration. The surgical procedure ...
In bone, mineralization starts from a heterogeneous solution having calcium and phosphate ions. The mineral nucleates, inside ... Hydroxyapatite, calcium carbonate, silica, calcium oxalate, whitlockite, and monosodium urate are examples of minerals found in ... The mineral in bone (known as bone mineral) is hydroxyapatite with a lot of carbonate ions, while the organic portion is made ... In bone, studies have shown that calcium phosphate nucleates within the hole area of the collagen fibrils and then grows in ...
The tricalcium phosphate in bone char can be used to remove fluoride and metal ions from water, making it useful for the ... or hydroxyapatite) 57-80%, calcium carbonate 6-10% and carbon 7-10%. It is primarily used for filtration and decolorisation. ... most importantly sulfates and the ions of magnesium and calcium. The removal of these is beneficial, as it reduces the level of ... Modern alternatives to bone char include activated carbon and ion-exchange resins. Bone char is also used as a black pigment ...
... e1 Test Method for Shear and Bending Fatigue Testing of Calcium Phosphate and Metallic Medical and Composite Calcium Phosphate/ ... Induced by Heavy Ion Irradiation of Semiconductor Devices F1193-18a Practice for Quality, Manufacture, and Construction of ... Practice for X-ray Diffraction Determination of Phase Content of Plasma-Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coatings F2025-06(2018) Practice ... Specification for Calcium Phosphate Coatings for Implantable Materials F1611-20 Specification for Intramedullary Reamers F1613- ...
The bisphosphonates have an intrinsic affinity for the calcium ions (hydroxyapatite) of the bone mineral just as the endogenous ... is usually a hydroxyl group which enhances the affinity for the calcium by forming a tridentate ligand along with the phosphate ... apparently internalised by endocytosis of a membrane-bound vesicle where the drug is most likely in a complex with Ca2+ ions. ...
... (BAG-S53P4) is a biomaterial consisting of sodium, silicate, calcium and phosphate. S53P4 is ... CaP crystallizes, forming a layer of hydroxyapatite on the surface of the bioactive glass. Once the hydroxyapatite layer is ... The released Na, Ca, Si and P ions give rise to an increase in osmotic pressure due to an elevation in salt concentration, i.e ... Na, Si, Ca, and P ions are released. A silica gel layer forms on the bioactive glass surface. ...
... is a family of materials and minerals containing calcium ions (Ca2+) together with inorganic phosphate anions ... Hydroxyapatite Ca5(PO4)3(OH) Apatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH, F, Cl, Br)2 Tetracalcium phosphate (CAS#1306-01-0): Ca4(PO4)2O Klaus ... Tricalcium phosphate (tribasic calcium phosphate or tricalcic phosphate, sometimes referred to as calcium phosphate or calcium ... Some so-called calcium phosphates contain oxide and hydroxide as well. Calcium phosphates are white solids of nutritious value ...
... calcium phosphate, in a chemical arrangement known as calcium hydroxylapatite. It is the bone mineralization that give bones ... The osteoblast then deposits calcium phosphate which is hardened by hydroxide and bicarbonate ions. The brand-new bone created ... This cleaves the phosphate groups and acts as the foci for calcium and phosphate deposition. The vesicles then rupture and act ... which alongside the dominant hydroxyapatite phase, include other compounds of calcium and phosphate including salts. ...
... such as calcium (as calcium carbonate, calcium citrate, etc.) or magnesium (as magnesium oxide, etc.), or iron (as ferrous ... Red meat, dairy foods, fish, poultry, bread, rice, oats.[19][20] In biological contexts, usually seen as phosphate[21] ... Sigel, Astrid; Sigel, Helmut; Sigel, Roland K. O. (27 January 2014). Interrelations between Essential Metal Ions and Human ... "Reduced Adhesion of Oral Bacteria on Hydroxyapatite by Fluoride Treatment". Langmuir. doi:10.1021/la4008558. Retrieved 2017-06 ...
Phosphates. Main article: Phosphate minerals. The phosphate minerals are characterized by the tetrahedral [PO4]3− unit, ... In a limestone, calcite or aragonite (both CaCO3) form because the rock is rich in calcium and carbonate. A corollary is that a ... As a result, it is possible for one element to be substituted for another.[51] Chemical substitution will occur between ions of ... and hydroxylapatite (Ca5(PO4)3(OH)). Minerals in this group are the main crystalline constituents of teeth and bones in ...
It features the vanadyl ion, VO2+, which has been called the "most stable diatomic ion."[1] ... Viewed as a coordination complex, the ion is octahedral, with oxo, four equatorial water ligands, and a monodentate sulfate.[1] ... In solution, the sulfate ion dissociates rapidly. Being widely available, vanadyl sulfate is a common precursor to other ...
The tricalcium phosphate in bone char can be used to remove fluoride[3] and metal ions from water, making it useful for the ... or hydroxylapatite) 57-80%, calcium carbonate 6-10% and carbon 7-10%.[1] It is primarily used for filtration and decolorization ... most importantly sulfates and the ions of magnesium and calcium. The removal of these is beneficial, as it reduces the level of ... Its composition varies depending on how it is made; however, it consists mainly of tricalcium phosphate ( ...
Calcium chloride. Strontium chloride. Barium chloride. Radium chloride Except where otherwise noted, data are given for ... Magnesium ions are bitter-tasting, and magnesium chloride solutions are bitter in varying degrees, depending on the ... Calcium chloride damages concrete twice as fast as magnesium chloride.[11] It should be noticed that the amount of magnesium ... Magnesium can be depleted by mangrove plants and the use of excessive limewater or by going beyond natural calcium, alkalinity ...
... calcium carbonate, hydroxyapatite and calcium sodium phosphosilicate.[1] Desensitizing chewing gums[19] and mouthwashes are ... It is not known if this effect would occur with the twice-daily, transient and small increase in potassium ions in saliva that ... Calcium phosphate Calcium carbonate Bioactive glasses (SiO2-P2O5-CaO-Na2O) Dentin adhesive sealers. Fluoride varnishes ... "A clinical study of the efficacy of a new chewing gum containing calcium hydroxyapatite in reducing dentin hypersensitivity". ...
Fluoride may also indirectly alter the action of protease via a decrease in the availability of free calcium ions in the ... Hydroxyapatite is converted to fluoroapatite in a three step process. Dental fluorosis can be prevented at a population level ... Velu H, Balozet L (1931). "Reproduction experimentale chez Ie mouton de la dystrophie dentaire des animaux des zones phosphates ... Due to diffusion of exogenous ions (e.g., iron and copper), stains develop into the increasingly and abnormally porous enamel.[ ...
"Binding of Phosphate and pyrophosphate ions at the active site of human angiogenin as revealed by X-ray crystallography". ... Gradual calcium deposition within collagen occurs as a natural function of aging. Calcified points within collagen matrices ... which is hydroxylapatite (approximately) Ca10(OH)2(PO4)6.[43] Type I collagen gives bone its tensile strength. ...
Among metazoans, biominerals composed of calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate or silica perform a variety of roles such as ... which is a naturally occurring mineral form of calcium apatite with the formula Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. Hydroxyapatite crystals are ... Negatively charged ligands at the surface of the cells attract the positively charged uranyl ion (UO22+). If the concentrations ... In terms of taxonomic distribution, the most common biominerals are the phosphate and carbonate salts of calcium that are used ...
Burgess, J. (1978). Metal Ions in Solution. New York: Ellis Horwood. ISBN 978-0-85312-027-8. .. [page needed] ... though these are inferior in melting quality to calcium chloride [lowest usable temperature 12 °F (−11 °C) v. −25 °F (−32 °C ... In aqueous solution, it is essentially fully ionized into solvated K+ and Cl- ions. ... by the proportion by mass of potassium ions in potassium chloride (about 0.52445 mg K+/mg KCl).[16] In such quantities, it has ...
... of extracellular calcium is as dicalcium phosphate with a solubility of 2.0 mM and the hydroxyapatite of bones in an organic ... and calcium gluconate.[5] The intestine absorbs about one-third of calcium eaten as the free ion, and plasma calcium level is ... Calcium is the most abundant metal and the fifth-most abundant element in the human body.[5] As electrolytes, calcium ions play ... Calcium Forte)(Calcium Lactate Gluconate 2.94g +Calcium Carbonate 0.3 g) کاربرد کلسیم در کشاورزی(نقش در تغذیه گیاهی)[ویرایش]. ...
Calcium. 0.014. 1.0. 0.22. Yes[17][18][19] (e.g. Calmodulin and Hydroxylapatite in bones). 2 ... Dissolved inorganic ions such as sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, phosphate. *Gases such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, ... Yamada, Kazuhiro (2013). "Cobalt: Its Role in Health and Disease". Metal Ions in Life Sciences. 13: 295-320. doi:10.1007/978-94 ... Almost 99% of the mass of the human body is made up of six elements: oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, calcium, and ...
... enough magnesium is present to stabilize these ions in the saltwater and prevent their spontaneous precipitation into calcium ... Calcium sulfate. Strontium sulfate. Barium sulfate Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard ... Other inorganic sulfate salts such as sodium sulfate and calcium sulfate may be used in the same way. ... In a magnesium-deficient marine aquarium, calcium and alkalinity concentrations are very difficult to control because not ...
It has an empirical formula of MgO and consists of a lattice of Mg2+ ions and O2− ions held together by ionic bonding. ... "Sintering and mechanical properties of MgO-doped nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite" (PDF). Ceramics International. 39 (8): 8979- ... Aluminium phosphate. *Aluminium acetoacetate. *Aloglutamol. *Aluminium glycinate. *Carbaldrate. Calcium. *Calcium carbonate. * ...
... is a family of materials and minerals containing calcium ions (Ca2+) together with inorganic phosphate anions ... Hydroxy- and oxo-phosphatesEdit. These materials contain other anions in addition to phosphate: *Hydroxyapatite Ca5(PO4)3(OH) ... Tricalcium phosphate (tribasic calcium phosphate or tricalcic phosphate, sometimes referred to as calcium phosphate or calcium ... collectively referred to as colloidal calcium phosphate (CCP).[2] Various calcium phosphate minerals are used in the production ...
... estimates of maximum daily exposure to aspartate ions from the diet (13 g/day) and from calcium or magnesium aspartate ... Thus the Panel concludes that under these conditions aspartate ion exposure from a multi-mineral combination of this type could ... "Magnesium aspartate, potassium aspartate, magnesium potassium aspartate, calcium aspartate, zinc aspartate, and copper ... the levels of exposure estimated in this opinion amount up to 6 g/day for calcium aspartate (equivalent to 100 mg/kg bw/day for ...
... of extracellular calcium is as dicalcium phosphate with a solubility of 2.0 mM and the hydroxyapatite of bones in an organic ... and calcium gluconate.[5] The intestine absorbs about one-third of calcium eaten as the free ion, and plasma calcium level is ... Calcium is the most abundant metal and the fifth-most abundant element in the human body.[5] As electrolytes, calcium ions play ... For example, calcium and phosphorus are supplemented in foods through the addition of calcium lactate, calcium diphosphate, and ...
In the wet process a phosphate-containing mineral such as calcium hydroxyapatite is treated with sulfuric acid.[17] ... "phosphate". Removal of one or two protons gives dihydrogen phosphate ion H. 2PO−. 4, and the hydrogen phosphate ion HPO2−. 4, ... STPP (Na3P3O9), TCP, APP, DAP, zinc phosphate (Zn3(PO4)2), aluminium phosphate (AlPO4, H3PO4) ... Phosphate fertilizers, such as ammonium phosphate fertilizers. References[edit]. .mw-parser-output .reflist{font-size:90%; ...
The presence of ions, in particular divalent cations like magnesium and calcium, strongly affects this step. One of the ... Eanes ED, Hailer AW (January 1987). "Calcium phosphate precipitation in aqueous suspensions of phosphatidylserine-containing ... whereas PS in growth plate vesicles is necessary for the nucleation of hydroxyapatite crystals and subsequent bone ... In contrast to ion pumps, ion channels do not build chemical gradients but rather dissipate them in order to perform work or ...
Phosphates (hydroxyapatite); Magnetite or nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4) from extremely pure, low-iron water. The deposition rate by ... calcium carbonate or calcium sulfate) Particulate fouling, i.e., accumulation of particles, typically colloidal particles, on a ... Low-fouling surfaces (for example, very smooth, implanted with ions, or of low surface energy like Teflon) are an option for ... Calcium carbonate (calcite, aragonite usually at t > ~50 °C, or rarely vaterite); Calcium sulfate (anhydrite, hemihydrate, ...
When the body is located near soil, the sodium and potassium ions can be replaced by calcium and magnesium ions to form soaps ... which serves as support a mineral fraction that consists of hydroxyapatite(the mineral that contains the calcium and phosphorus ... Similarly, phosphates will be released from the body and undergo the same changes as those released from proteins and ... meaning that important ions, such as calcium, are lost to the environment. The strong protein-mineral bond that provided bone ...
... as blood levels of calcium ions (Ca2+), inorganic phosphate (Pi) and vitamin D metabolites usually are not reduced. ... When TSNALP is low, inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) accumulates outside of cells, and inhibits formation of hydroxyapatite, one ... Elevated calcium in the blood (hypercalcemia) and urine (hypercalcenuria) are also common, and may explain the renal problems ... The decrease in ALP activity leads to an increase in pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), which is the major form of Vitamin B6, in ...
Fluoride treatment can help recalcification of tooth enamel as well as the use of amorphous calcium phosphate. Micro-invasive ... In addition, as the acid from the bacteria demineralizes the hydroxyapatite crystals, calcium and phosphorus are released, ... Low concentration fluoride ions act as bacteriostatic therapeutic agent and high concentration fluoride ions are bactericidal. ... Besides lead, all atoms with electrical charge and ionic radius similar to bivalent calcium, such as cadmium, mimic the calcium ...
Inductively Couple Plasma showed the presence of some ions such as Mg, K, Al, Fe, Zn, and Na for all samples. The nanometric ... and width of the X-ray diffraction patterns for defatted and deproteinized bones as well as incinerated biogenic hydroxyapatite ... raw ordered bone crystals produce broad peaks which so far have been erroneously assigned to polycrystalline hydroxyapatite ... The preparation of calcium phosphate adsorbent from natural calcium resource and its application for copper ion removal *Marta ...
In this article, we review the latest advances in the field of plasma-assisted deposition of ion-substituted hydroxyapatite ... On the one hand biological apatite is a carbonated-HA, containing significant amounts of foreign ions, having low crystallinity ... and ions release in the peri-implant environment. On the other hand, thick plasma sprayed coatings can undergo cracking and ... as hydroxyapatite (HA) is normally regarded as similar to the mineralized phase of bone. However, these coatings exhibited ...
hydroxyapatite: mineral component of bone; calcium and phosphate; conjugated to small proportion magnesium carbonate, sodium ... and potassium ions; affinity for heavy metal and radioactive environmental pollutants; note: 20% or more of mineral component ... pyrophosphate: inhibitor calcium deposition; crucial for controlling bone mineralization matrix vesicles: membrane bound ... osteocalcin (Gla protein): noncollagen organic material, binds calcium during mineralization osteonectin: serves bridging ...
T1 - Influence of the high-power ion-beam irradiation of a hydroxyapatite target on the properties of formed calcium phosphate ... Influence of the high-power ion-beam irradiation of a hydroxyapatite target on the properties of formed calcium phosphate ... Influence of the high-power ion-beam irradiation of a hydroxyapatite target on the properties of formed calcium phosphate ... Influence of the high-power ion-beam irradiation of a hydroxyapatite target on the properties of formed calcium phosphate ...
... phosphate and casein in milk is described in which the micellar calcium phosphate is assumed to be in the form of calcium ... An equilibrium thermodynamic model of the interaction of calcium, ... calcium phosphate nanocluster. DCPD. dicalcium phosphate dihydrate. HA. hydroxyapatite. IAP. ion activity product ... phosphate and casein in milk is described in which the micellar calcium phosphate is assumed to be in the form of calcium ...
Hydroxyapatite crystals are deposited into the bone matrix.. *Calcification of bone occurs when calcium and phosphate ions move ... Of these, calcium and phosphorous are particularly important, as they are key elements in hydroxyapatite, which comprises about ... the osteoblasts slowly add calcium, magnesium, manganese, and phosphorous to existing bone. ...
Calcium ions and phosphate ions, which are released from BG, can further promote osteogenesis and activate osteogenic gene ... V. Uskoković and D. P. Uskoković, "Nanosized hydroxyapatite and other calcium phosphates: chemistry of formation and ... C. Shuai, P. Li, J. Liu, and S. Peng, "Optimization of TCP/HAP ratio for better properties of calcium phosphate scaffold via ... were helpful in improving mechanical properties of polymers and calcium phosphate ceramics. Converse et al. investigated the ...
Purchase Structure and Chemistry of the Apatites and Other Calcium Orthophosphates, Volume 18 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E- ... Preparation of stoichiometric hydroxyapatite powders. Preparation of other apatites with hydroxyl ions. Growth of ... Anhydrous tricalcium phosphates and whitlockite. Tetracalcium phosphate. Amorphous calcium phosphates. 2. Fluorapatite and ... Monocalcium phosphates (monohydrate and anhydrous). Octacalcium phosphate. Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, brushite. Dicalcium ...
Hydroxyapatite crystals are deposited into the bone matrix.. *Calcification of bone occurs when calcium and phosphate ions move ... Of these, calcium and phosphorous are particularly important, as they are key elements in hydroxyapatite, which comprises about ... But in addition to the most important hormone (aka Vitamin D3) and the important minerals (calcium, magnesium, boron, and ... the other calcium matrix reservoir in the body) than those of post-agricultural humans. Granted they did some heavy lifting but ...
CaHA is made up of ions of phosphate and calcium, which occur naturally in the human body. ... Radiesse is made of calcium hydroxyapatite (CaHA) gel microspheres that work immediately upon injection. ...
... ions into the HA lattice when these ions were individually introduced into the samples. The synthesis of HA with Mg(2+) or Mn( ... ions and samples with the addition of all three ions simultaneously were prepared using the precipitation method in an aqueous ... However, the incorporation of Sr(2+) along with Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) ions into the samples allowed for the synthesis of HA with ... The obtained results indicate that Sr(2+) ions were easily incorporated into the HA crystal structure, whereas it was difficult ...
Synthesis of Sulfate-ion-substituted Hydroxyapatite from Amorphous Calcium Phosphate. Takeshi Toyama, Shunichi Kameda and ...
... phosphate and a film-building carboxymethyl cellulose to repair and refill damaged enamel. Micro-hardness and elasticity were ... This article evaluates the ability of a toothpaste formulation containing calcium, ... hydroxyapatite is sensitive to acids, which destroy it by releasing calcium ions and hydrogen phosphates. Hydroxyapatite ... Since carboxymethyl cellulose also has ion-exchanging abilities, it could be binding ions from the toothpaste such as fluoride ...
"Remineralisation needs the correct chemical balance of calcium ions, phosphate ions and fluoride ions - in a bio-available form ... Another key ingredient in HiSmile is hydroxyapatite - also known as calcium phosphate - which is the main component of tooth ... "Hydroxyapatite is highly insoluble and chemically very stable, so simply adding some into a product does not necessarily mean ... Professor Walsh says, "There is no independent evidence that the form of hydroxyapatite used in HiSmile or the formulation of ...
It replaces hydroxyl ions in the natural calcium phosphate compound, called hydroxyapatite, that makes up teeth. The ... If the ions of calcium and phosphate combine before diffusing into teeth, the resulting calcium phosphate quickly crystallizes ... a swish of saliva full of calcium and phosphate. Saliva works to rebuild teeth in which the calcium phosphate has begun to ... a calcium fluoride precipitate forms only after the calcium and floride ions have a chance to infiltrate the tooth lesions and ...
The impact of doping with phosphate produced a result not previously reported. The cellular response showed that both Si and P ... Calcium phosphate ceramics such as hydroxyapatite that are substituted, doped, coated or merely contain traces of Si in the ... But rather as with the Ca doping, the calcium ions present limited the cellular response by the same mechanism as referred to ... 2.2.1. Ionic Doping with Calcium, Phosphate and Magnesium. Porous alumina blocks were bulk doped with calcium (Ca), phosphate ( ...
Almost all of this calcium is found in the skeleton and the rest is found in the teeth, the blood plasma, the bodys soft ... calcium is the most abundant mineral and forms about 2% of our total body weight. ... This structure is mainly provided by a form of calcium phosphate called hydroxyapatite crystals, which are found in collagen. ... Calcium ions on bone surfaces interact with those present in the bodily fluids, therefore enabling ion exchange. This is ...
... of collagen fibers whereby collagen fibers formed from collagen are contacted with a solution of calcium and phosphate ions ... The minerals containing calcium and phosphate ions can be in the form of brushite, amorphous or crystalline hydroxyapatite. In ... a solution of calcium and phosphate ions at a pH of from 5 to 10 under conditions to precipitate crystalline calcium phosphate ... and contacted with a solution of calcium and phosphate ions at different buffered pHs to precipitate calcium phosphate. The ...
Oral cavity has the capability to remineralize the demineralized enamel through the supply of calcium and phosphate ions in ... THE STUDY OF DEMINERALIZED AND REMINERALIZED ENAMEL and HYDROXYAPATITE USING NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE (NMR) ... hard tissue through the release of both calcium and phosphate in the form of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate. ... sodium fluoride or calcium phosphate/fluoride enhanced toothpaste to remineralize early stage lesions.. Opportunities to ...
Nanoparticles of Hydroxyapatite. Other non-ion forms of calcium phosphate materials have been used and studied as well. As ... Tricalcium phosphate, amorphous calcium phosphate, and CPP/ACP (casein phosphopeptide coated amorphous calcium phosphate) have ... Nanohydroxyapatite and Calcium Phosphate Ions. Dr. Philip Marsh first reported the biofilm nature of dental caries and ... Hydroxyapatite in nanoparticle crystallite form is also the most thermodynamically stable form of calcium phosphate11, and ...
More specifically, this invention relates to stable, single-part compositions containing calcium and phosphate salts which may ... the calcium and phosphate ions in the form of precipitated hydroxyapatite remineralize the lesion. ... calcium formate, calcium fumarate, calcium lactate, calcium butyrate and calcium isobutyrate, calcium malate, calcium maleate, ... calcium chloride, calcium bromide, calcium nitrate, calcium acetate, calcium gluconate, calcium benzoate, calcium ...
... octacalcium phosphate and/or dicalcium phosphate dehydrate, and low crystalline hydroxyapatite. The application of the PIII ... Calcium phosphate growth. The ability of the modified polymer films to induce calcium phosphate formation was tested by their ... controls with calcium phosphate layer (spectrum 2), modified with PIII films with calcium phosphate layer (dose 2 × 1016 N+/cm2 ... characteristic of calcium phosphates (PO4). This shows that calcium phosphate layer was grown on the control and PIII treated ...
... the mineralization of CaP at the surface of the oil droplet when incubated in a solution containing calcium and phosphate ions ... The CaP shells of the microcapsules were established to be calcium deficient hydroxyapatite with incorporated chlorine and ... Bell RV, Rochford LA, De Rosales RTM, Stevens M, Weaver JVM, Bon SAFet al., 2015, Fabrication of calcium phosphate ... We report on a versatile and time-efficient method to fabricate calcium phosphate (CaP) microcapsules by utilizing oil-in-water ...
The composition of human bone is an inorganic/organic nanohybrid consisting of calcium phosphates as hydroxyapatite (HAp, Ca10( ... Thus, the synthesis in the Zn:CAp can induce the higher replacement of the phosphate ions with carbonate ions to totally ... or OH− ions in the structure [14]. In the synthesis in the presence of sodium or potassium ions, these ions are partially ... lattice parameter with increasing the Zn ion substation suggested that the replacement of Ca ions with Zn ion causes the ...
Your saliva works to neutralize acids and maintain that balance, as well as to help replace phosphate and calcium ions that are ... Made of carbonated calcium hydroxyapatite, it has an estimated pH of 5.5. ...
Calcium phosphate is the name given to a family of minerals containing calcium ions together with orthophosphates , ... Hydroxylapatite. Hydroxylapatite, also called hydroxyapatite , is a naturally occurring mineral form of calcium apatite with ... The phosphate ion is a polyatomic ion. Polyatomic ion. A polyatomic ion, also known as a molecular ion, is a charged species ... The phosphate ion is a polyatomic ion. Polyatomic ion. A polyatomic ion, also known as a molecular ion, is a charged species ...
In particular, these compositions may comprise zeolites ion-exchanged with antimicrobial metals, in addition to other oral care ... In a preferred embodiment, the chewing gum product comprises an antimicrobial metal ion component and an inorganic ceramic ... Also, calcium and phosphate ions in the saliva precipitate to replace hydroxyapatite that has been dissolved by the organic ... ion-exchangeable ions present in zeolite, such as sodium ions, calcium ions, potassium ions and iron ions are partially ...
The roughened surface can subsequently be subjected to precipitation of calcium phosphate from a solution containing calcium ... The calcium phosphate can be any combination of calcium and phosphate ions, optionally together with e.g. hydroxide, chloride, ... Preferably, the calcium phosphate is not a hydroxyapatite, since the latter tends to have too large particles. ... The calcium coating can be applied from a solution containing calcium and phosphate ions. The solution may be saturated or even ...
These structures are made of crystalline calcium phosphate in the form of hydroxyapatite. The hard dense enamel of mammalian ... Removal of one or two protons gives the dihydrogen phosphate ion [H 2PO 4]− and the hydrogen phosphate ion [HPO 4]2− ion, ... In mineralogy and geology, phosphate refers to a rock or ore containing phosphate ions. Inorganic phosphates are mined to ... the acid is completely dissociated as the phosphate ion, (PO 4)3− . This means that salts of the mono- and di-phosphate ions ...
The frozen confection comprises at most 1.0 wt% milk protein, 0.1 to 5.0 wt% of calcium sulphate and 0.1 to 5.0 wt% of citric ... In low pH environments the hydroxyapatite molecules dissociate and calcium and phosphate ions are lost according to the ... Frozen confections comprising calcium sulphate (CaSO4) produce a high concentration of calcium ions in the mouth since calcium ... It has been proposed to add sources of calcium and / or phosphate ions to acidic foods and drinks in order to reduce tooth ...
  • Tricalcium phosphate, amorphous calcium phosphate, and CPP/ACP (casein phosphopeptide coated amorphous calcium phosphate) have all been added to different oral care products. (carifree.com)
  • 22) Another gum with recaldent, currently available in the U.S., claims to remineralize hard tissue through the release of both calcium and phosphate in the form of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • With patented Amorphous Calcium Phosphate, fluoride and potassium nitrate, Relief ACP Oral Care Gel is a unique solution for those who suffer from tooth sensitivity caused by gum recession, root exposure, post root-planting, or tooth bleaching. (dentist.net)
  • A model system for investigation of the in vivo maturation of HA is available, namely, the in vitro conversion of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) to HA in a supersaturated solution of calcium and phosphate ions. (nih.gov)
  • This recombinamer can self-assemble into nanoparticles that can control the transformation of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) into a fibre-like hydroxyapatite structure. (upc.edu)
  • 4. The calcium phosphate cement composition of claim 2, wherein said amorphous calcium phosphate is a solid. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 6. The calcium phosphate cement composition of claim 5, wherein said gel consists of said amorphous calcium phosphate and said physiologically acceptable liquid. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Hydroxyapatite (HA), the main mineral phase of mammalian tooth enamel and bone, originates in body fluids from amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP). (rsc.org)
  • Enhanced removal of humic acid from aqueous solution by novel stabilized nano-amorphous calcium. (deepdyve.com)
  • Wei, Wei 2018-01-01 00:00:00 Article history: Stabilized nano-amorphous calcium phosphate (nACP) was prepared using polyethylene glycol as sta- Received 27 May 2017 bilizer to obtain a nanosized amorphous adsorbent. (deepdyve.com)
  • The Sips modeling results revealed that the Nano-amorphous calcium phosphate stabilized nACP adsorbent had a considerably high adsorption capacity (248.3 mg/g) for HA at 298 K. The Stabilized adsorbent adsorption data fitted well into pseudo-second order and Elovich kinetic models. (deepdyve.com)
  • Rather, it contains amorphous calcium phosphate, a glassy compound that is a precursor to hydroxyapatite. (forbes.com)
  • 4) Precipitation in which an amorphous calcium phosphate layer is deposited on the gel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent evidence shows that native phosphorylated amelogenins have the capacity to prevent mineralization through the stabilization of an amorphous calcium phosphate precursor phase, as observed in vitro and in developing teeth. (frontiersin.org)
  • Usually, however, a natural champion of tooth health puts up a fight: a swish of saliva full of calcium and phosphate. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Saliva works to rebuild teeth in which the calcium phosphate has begun to dissolve. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Fluoride, the scientists realized, encourages the calcium and phosphate in saliva to remineralize teeth. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Saliva is the solution around the tooth that allows for remineralization as it is supersaturated with brushite, octacalcium phosphate, tricalciumphosphate, fluorapatite, and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles-all forms ofcalcium phosphate. (carifree.com)
  • As hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite are present in greatest quantities in saliva and are the most bioavailable form for remineralization, they play the most significant role in remineralization. (carifree.com)
  • Hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite are present in supersaturated levels in saliva, and as the saliva flow increases during stimulated saliva flow, the degree of supersaturation also increases. (carifree.com)
  • Partial reconstitution of destroyed enamel tissue has been known to occur both in natural and artificial in vitro conditions.3 Oral cavity has the capability to remineralize the demineralized enamel through the supply of calcium and phosphate ions in saliva to the teeth. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Saliva is supersaturated with respect to calcium and phosphate ions. (google.es)
  • Your saliva works to neutralize acids and maintain that balance, as well as to help replace phosphate and calcium ions that are lost to keep the enamel strong. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Maintaining appropriate levels of calcium and phosphate ions in saliva is essential for oral health, and the interface of enamel and saliva is of key importance since it is where both demineralization and remineralization processes occur (see Figure 1 ). (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • 2 Furthermore, saliva provides a source of calcium and phosphate ions, enabling remineralization to occur and repairing damaged teeth. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • Most important to enamel protection are salivary statherin and acidic proline-rich proteins, which aid in oral care by preserving the supersaturated state of calcium and phosphate ions in saliva. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • These particles dissolve slowly in saliva to release Calcium and Phosphate mineral ions to produce a hydroxyapatite coating very rapidly. (dentist.net)
  • The released ions form a protective fluorapatite layer by reacting with saliva in the mouth. (news-medical.net)
  • Nucleators bring together mineral ions from the surrounding fluids (such as saliva) into the form of a crystal lattice structure, by stabilizing small nuclei to permit crystal growth, forming mineral tissue. (rug.nl)
  • The calcium and phosphate ions in saliva then start to repair any damaged mineral crystals in the enamel - the process of remineralisation. (nature.com)
  • The number 5.5 state above is an approximate value that varies with the current conditions in the person's mouth, such as the level of calcium and phosphate in their saliva. (animated-teeth.com)
  • 2 Saliva can neutralize acids, form a protective membrane on tooth surfaces, and enhance remineralization by providing calcium, phosphate, and fluoride to enamel and dentin. (dimensionsofdentalhygiene.com)
  • 3 The pH level of saliva directly affects remineralization through the amount of calcium and phosphate ions available to the enamel via saliva in times of acidic challenge. (dimensionsofdentalhygiene.com)
  • 5 The extent of demineralization and remineralization depends on several factors, including both the amount of calcium and phosphate available and the pH levels of the saliva. (dimensionsofdentalhygiene.com)
  • Specifically, Predicta Bioactive products protect open parts of a tooth, like the edge of a filling, by releasing beneficial ions like calcium, phosphate and fluoride, but only in the presence of water (like the water in saliva). (parkell.com)
  • They are made up of pH-sensitive, hydroxyapatite mineral fillers that respond to an acidic environment (caused by bacteria in the mouth) by releasing calcium, phosphate and fluoride ions into the saliva around the tooth. (parkell.com)
  • Upon contact with saliva when applied to an oral cavity, the desensitizing/remineralizing is then formed in situ by the reaction between the calcium salt and the incompatible ingredient, thereby remineralizing exposed dentinal surface and open dentinal tubules. (patentgenius.com)
  • A simulation of the effect of the crystallite size on the shape and width of the X-ray patterns was done using PDF-4 software which confirmed that raw ordered bone crystals produce broad peaks which so far have been erroneously assigned to polycrystalline hydroxyapatite with low crystalline quality. (nature.com)
  • But, the peaks for biogenic hydroxyapatites (BIO-HAps) are less sharp and broader which is attributable to the small size of crystals 5 . (nature.com)
  • On the one hand biological apatite is a carbonated-HA, containing significant amounts of foreign ions, having low crystallinity and a small crystals size. (mdpi.com)
  • Hydroxyapatite crystals are deposited into the bone matrix. (crossfit.com)
  • Growth of hydroxyapatite single crystals. (elsevier.com)
  • This structure is mainly provided by a form of calcium phosphate called hydroxyapatite crystals, which are found in collagen. (news-medical.net)
  • There is disclosed a process for the mineralization of collagen fibers whereby collagen fibers formed from collagen are contacted with a solution of calcium and phosphate ions under conditions to effect nucleation and in-vitro growth of mineral crystals within and on the surface of the collagen fibers. (google.com)
  • Mineralization in nature is a process involving complex interactions between inorganic ions, crystals and organic molecules in an aqueous media. (springer.com)
  • 1 The oral environment endures a constant cycle of mineral loss and gain, and the calcium phosphate crystals in enamel can dissolve when exposed to acids from foods or oral bacteria-a process known as demineralization. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • The predominant mineral elements in bone are crystals of calcium and phosphate, known as hydroxyapatite crystals. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Thus, acidic conditions contribute to bringing phosphate and hydroxyl ions below saturation levels, allowing the solid hydroxyapatite crystals of the tooth mineral to dissolve. (nature.com)
  • If above saturation levels, the chemical reaction will move towards remineralisation and any damaged crystals will be repaired by the acquisition of ions from the solution. (nature.com)
  • Despite apparent differences, mineralized tissues are similarly derived by highly concerted extracellular processes involving matrix proteins, proteases, and mineral ion fluxes that collectively regulate the nucleation, growth and organization of forming mineral crystals. (frontiersin.org)
  • Demineralization is the process of removing mineral ions from hydroxyapatite crystals of hard tissues, such as enamel, and when unchecked, can result in caries development. (dimensionsofdentalhygiene.com)
  • The process of hydroxyapatite formation on materials is shown through morphological examination of the apatite crystals formed and comparison of the resulting calcium to phosphorus with that of the hydroxyapatite used. (alliedacademies.org)
  • He said the compound catalyzes the growth of larger hydroxyapatite crystals when in the presence of calcium and phosphate ions and rebuilds enamel in sheeting layers. (theodent.com)
  • First, new crystals form, that are composed of calcium and phosphate, which then grow and harden into calculus (Figures 18-19). (dentalcare.com)
  • Besides the release of antibacterial effects, the regular application of fluoride ions to a certain extend promotes the formation of fluorohydroxyapatite which is valued for its decreased solubility [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • 2. The product according to claim 1 wherein said product contains from about 0.01% to 5.0% of at least one water-soluble fluoride salt which yields fluoride ions. (google.es)
  • 12. The product according to claim 1 whererin the product contains from about 20 ppm to 5,000 ppm fluoride ions. (google.es)
  • It is well known that the presence of fluoride ions can enhance the natural remineralization process and this is one of the accepted mechanisms by which fluoride toothpastes and rinses protect against caries. (google.es)
  • While we have known that magnesium, carbonate and fluoride ions influence enamel properties, scientists have never been able to capture its structure at a high enough resolution or definition," says Julie Cairney , the University of Sydney materials scientist who co-led the study. (forbes.com)
  • Additionally, the materials innovative ability to recharge fluoride ions provides a unique combination of physical and chemical properties. (parkell.com)
  • As an added benefit, they release beneficial calcium, phosphate and fluoride ions into the environment around the tooth to protect against future decay. (parkell.com)
  • SDF, the golden standard for this study, was compared to NSF and PPF, which were made in our own laboratory, to evaluate their ability to release calcium, phosphate, and fluoride ions and act as anticariogenic agents. (innovareacademics.in)
  • The quantity of calcium, phosphate, and fluoride ions on the dentin discs surface was compared after being detected using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. (innovareacademics.in)
  • The levels of phosphate ions and fluoride ions in groups NSF and PPF increased significantly compared to SDF. (innovareacademics.in)
  • The study concluded that, in contrast to SDF, the prepared NSF and PPF fluoride-based varnishes were shown to release calcium, phosphate, and fluoride ions in this study. (innovareacademics.in)
  • One approach to control dentinal hypersensitivity involves the use of "nerve agents" or "nerve desensitizing agents" in commercial dentifrices comprising strontium ions, fluoride ions, or potassium salts such as potassium bicarbonate, potassiumnitrate, potassium chloride, and the like. (patentgenius.com)
  • This strategy was validated using rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) cultured on CDHA and beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) discs using different VCM/VB ratios. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • Abstract: Globular-shaped beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) granules were synthesized using a unique dropping slurry method and the biological response was analyzed by implantation into the rat femur. (scientific.net)
  • Biphasic [hydroxyapatite (HA) + beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP)] calcium phosphate powders with partial substitutions of Ca2+ by silver, copper, zinc and strontium ions were synthesized by precipitation. (ua.pt)
  • In addition, pearls and eggshells are made of calcium carbonate. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • the fifth most abundant element in the earth's crust (3.6 per cent), occurring esp as forms of calcium carbonate. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 2. The calcium phosphate cement composition of claim 1, wherein said at least one additional calcium source is a calcium source selected from the group consisting of calcium oxide, calcium hydroxide, calcium carbonate, and calcium phosphate. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • I argue that apatites, including bioapatites, are not pure end members such as hydroxylapatite, but naturally (and normally) contain species like F and carbonate as part of their structure. (wordpress.com)
  • Carbonate substitution for phosphate can have an opposite effect - things are never simple so there is a balancing act which makes isomorphous substitution of fluoride even more important. (wordpress.com)
  • I second this and find unfortunate the simplification we often see in more general texts where bioapatites are discussed as if they were the end members hydroxylapatite or fluorapatite rather than an intermediate hydroxyl-carbonate-fluoroapatite of somewhat variable composition. (wordpress.com)
  • Infrared spectra showed that CDHA exposed to culture media had a carbonated surface chemistry, suggesting that carbonate plays a key role in the ion reactivity of CDHA. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • Typical concentrations of carbonate and Mg ions in human bone are 5.8 and 0.55wt%, respectively. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Following the demineralization of hydroxyapatite, due to a low pH, fluoride interacts with the remaining apatite and forms fluoridated hydroxyapatite. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • 6. The antimicrobial chewing gum of claim 1 wherein the antimicrobial ceramic particles are selected from the group consisting of zeolites, hydroxy apatite and zirconium phosphates. (google.ca)
  • and calcium phosphate in the apatite group of minerals. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Although these tissues are similarly comprised of a crystalline calcium apatite mineral phase and a protein component, they differ with respect to crystal size and shape, level and distribution of trace mineral ions, the nature of the proteins present, and their relative proportions of mineral and protein components. (frontiersin.org)
  • Apatite calcium phosphate cements (CPCs), used for bone regeneration, give calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) as an end-product after a dissolution-precipitation reaction during fabrication. (diva-portal.org)
  • Samples disks of these cements immersed in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) solution were evaluated on days 1, 7 and 14 through measuring pH as well as examining the cement surface morphology and calcium to phosphorus ratio via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDXA) respectively and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of apatite deposited chemical groups. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Stimulates mineral apatite formation: Materials release mineral components (calcium, phosphate and fluoride) which trigger the formation of a protecti. (parkell.com)
  • Predicta® Bioactive Core is a dual-cure, core-build-up resin composite that releases fluoride, calcium and phosphate ions to stimulate mineral apatite. (parkell.com)
  • The main mineral component of bone tissue is a nonstoichiometric carbonated multi-substituted apatite with calcium to phosphorus ratio (Ca:P) between 1.37 and 1.87 [1]. (scribd.com)
  • Synthetic hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 - HA) is a popular bone replacement material because it has a similar crystal structure (Ca:P ratio fixed at 1.67) to native bone apatite. (scribd.com)
  • isomorphous substitution of these species for phosphate and oxygen occur during formation of the apatite compounds. (wordpress.com)
  • This isomorphous substitution of F for O strengthens the apatite and lowers it's solubility compared with the hydroxylapatite end member. (wordpress.com)
  • Another key ingredient in HiSmile is hydroxyapatite - also known as calcium phosphate - which is the main component of tooth enamel. (choice.com.au)
  • The visible crowns of teeth are covered by an up to 3-mm thick enamel layer comprising approximately 96% of the mineral hydroxyapatite. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • Although hydroxyapatite is the hardest substance in the human body, teeth are exposed to continuous aging by physicochemically driven, constant wear of the enamel. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • 2 Further, while hydroxyapatite is harder than other minerals, rating a moderate 5 on the Mohs scale, 3 substances of equal or greater hardness can mechanically remove enamel by abrasion. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • Fluoridated hydroxyapatite improves enamel hardness and resistance to acidic attacks, in turn reducing the risk of cavity formation. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • To repair small fissures or refill worn enamel, zinc hydroxyapatite is another technology introduced, which due to its biomimetic structure, is reported to bind to the surface of enamel and close small microscopic defects. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • This liquid enamel technology is composed of calcium glycerophosphate and a unique carboxymethyl cellulose. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • After 1 min of in situ pellicle formation on bovine enamel slabs, 8 subjects adopted CPP-ACP (GC Tooth Mousse), a mouthwash with hydroxyapatite microclusters (Biorepair), or a fluoride based mouthwash (elmex Kariesschutz) for 1 min each. (hindawi.com)
  • Furthermore, it is generally accepted that the accumulation of sodium or amino fluoride at the enamel surface leads to the precipitation of calcium fluoride-like deposits which subsequently release fluoride over time [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In case of strong or frequent erosive attack the potential calcium fluoride layer appears to be not dense or resistant enough to prevent enamel dissolution but may at most serve as a limited fluoride reservoir [ 1 , 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Some preparations try to mimic the smallest building units of dental enamel, the hydroxyapatite microcrystallites [ 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • This is due to the demineralization of hydroxyapatite, a major constituent of tooth enamel. (google.com)
  • More specifically, this invention relates to stable, single-part compositions containing calcium and phosphate salts which may be in a hydrophilic, non-aqueous vehicle and which when applied to lesions in dental enamel result in remineralization of subsurface dental enamel and/or mineralization of tubules in dentin thereby counteracting caries and/or hypersensitivity. (google.es)
  • The primary component of the enamel and dentin in teeth is calcium phosphate in the form of calcium hydroxyapatite. (google.es)
  • Rebuilds enamel - ACP rebuilds enamel by creating a new coating of hydroxyapatite over the original tooth surface. (dentist.net)
  • Unlike bone, which is composed of living cells capable of regeneration, dental enamel is constructed largely of mineral hydroxyapatite, Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 . (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • Remineralization works to restore calcium and phosphate ions to enamel, and the structure of hydroxyapatite allows for ion substitutions in the crystal lattice during this process. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • It provides an environment that is supersaturated with respect to hydroxyapatite and other calcium phosphate minerals, which helps to deter dissolution of enamel. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • Previously, the benefits of fluoride were attributed to modifications of surface enamel from hydroxyapatite to fluorapatite-a harder mineral that is more resistant to decay due to its low solubility properties of fluorapatite. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • 5 Moreover, fluoride adsorbs onto the surface of enamel and attracts calcium ions, promoting remineralization. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • In order for fluoride to provide lasting protection, repeated use is necessary to maintain the protective fluorapatite film on the surface of enamel hydroxyapatite. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • Mostly, though, enamel is a calcium mineral called hydroxyapatite. (forbes.com)
  • For instance, several studies suggest that magnesium ions play a big part in enamel formation. (forbes.com)
  • Fortunately, a technique called atom probe tomography now allows researchers to look at the distribution of the various atoms and ions in tooth enamel to see whether there are patterns. (forbes.com)
  • Dental enamel mineral (as well as dentin and bone) is made of hydroxylapatite with foreign ions incorporated in the structure. (rug.nl)
  • In a biomimetic mineralization strategy based on normal enamel histogenesis , a three-dimensional scaffold is formed to attract and arrange calcium and/or phosphate ions to induce de novo precipitation of hydroxylapatite. (rug.nl)
  • The acidic environment damages the tooth's hard tissues ( enamel and dentin ) by way of leaching mineral content from them (primarily calcium and phosphate ions). (animated-teeth.com)
  • Enamel is the most highly mineralized substance in the body, consisting of 96% hydroxyapatite. (theodent.com)
  • Rennou is thought to help rebuild the hydroxyapatite in the enamel, according to Dr. Sadeghpour. (theodent.com)
  • In normal enamel, the hydroxyapatite unit crystal is approximately a half micron in size. (theodent.com)
  • No. 4,183,915 discloses a one-part stable aqueous solution comprisingcalcium ions and phosphate ions for the remineralization of dental enamel. (patentgenius.com)
  • minor elements such as Mg, Na, S, and K. Even with the presence of these ions, the XRD patterns of the raw bone mineral phase almost exhibit the same positions as those of synthetic hydroxyapatite 4 . (nature.com)
  • Plasma sprayed coatings composed of stoichiometric hydroxyapatite have been extensively used to improve integration of metallic implants in the host bone, as hydroxyapatite (HA) is normally regarded as similar to the mineralized phase of bone. (mdpi.com)
  • When we load a bone with external resistance (for example, lifting a weight) and we repeat this activity over a long duration (months to years), the osteoblasts slowly add calcium, magnesium, manganese, and phosphorous to existing bone. (crossfit.com)
  • Of these, calcium and phosphorous are particularly important, as they are key elements in hydroxyapatite, which comprises about 50 to 70% of human bone by volume. (crossfit.com)
  • Calcification of bone occurs when calcium and phosphate ions move out of the blood into the bone tissues. (crossfit.com)
  • Calcium ions on bone surfaces interact with those present in the bodily fluids, therefore enabling ion exchange. (news-medical.net)
  • This is essential in maintaining the balance of calcium in the blood and bone. (news-medical.net)
  • Calcium deficiency leads to poor bone health and may be caused by inadequate calcium intake, poor calcium absorption or excess calcium loss, all of which may reduce bone mineralization. (news-medical.net)
  • Bone conditions such as osteoporosis and rickets are caused by a vitamin D deficiency, which impairs the intestinal absorption of calcium and, in turn, leads to a low rate of bone mineralization. (news-medical.net)
  • 7. The method of treating bone defects as defined in claim 2 wherein said mineralized collagen fibers are collagen fibers having precipitated crystalline calcium phosphate on the surface thereof. (google.com)
  • 8. The method of treating bone defects as defined in claim 7 wherein said crystalline calcium phosphate is selected from the group consisting of brushite and hydroxyapatite. (google.com)
  • During this time he developed a number of new calcium phosphate materials for use as bone-replacement implants. (abdn.ac.uk)
  • An important occurrence of phosphates in biological systems is as the structural material of bone and teeth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hench began development by submitting a proposal hypothesis to the United States Army Medial Research and Development command in 1968 based upon his theory of the body rejecting metallic or polymeric material unless it was able to form a coating of hydroxyapatite which is found in bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • The former is located in the hydration shells on bone crystallites, where fluoride may be exchanged isoionically or heteroionically with ions in the surrounding extracellular fluids. (nih.gov)
  • Calcium phosphates have long been used as synthetic bone grafts. (upc.edu)
  • Calcium phosphate cements are used as synthetic bone grafts, with several advantages, such as their osteoconductivity and injectability. (upc.edu)
  • Dry processes (using ion beams) and wet processes (performed in aqueous solutions) are conventional and predominant surface modification techniques used to accelerate bone formation. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Bioactive glass is more reactive than these materials, and promotes bone regeneration by releasing silica ions. (dentalproductshopper.com)
  • Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) have a great potential in the treatment of bone disorders due to their excellent biocompatibility. (diva-portal.org)
  • MTA is a bioactive and biocompatible hydrophilic calcium-silicate based cement which releases calcium in the presence of human body physiological fluids, leading to bone differentiation and stimulating mineralization of dental pulp stem cells [ 7 , 8 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The elements, calcium, phosphate and fluoride (or minerals, as they are commonly called), are essential to building teeth and bone in the human body. (parkell.com)
  • Taking into account the mineralization of bone tissue, one also cannot ignore the role of calcium. (fluoridationaustralia.com)
  • For example, magnesium favours blocking of calcium channels, disturbs oxidative phosphorylation, intensifies bone decalcification and increases muscle-cell diastole, while calcium intensifies contraction. (fluoridationaustralia.com)
  • Among all calcium phosphate bioceramics, hydroxyapatite (HA P ), Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 , is the most extensively used biocompatible ceramic materials for bone tissue engineering, as its chemical composition is similar to the bone mineral phase. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Although the extent of these elemental substitutions is minimal, they are important for biological activity and interaction between bone mineral and calcium-phosphate-based implant materials by influencing crystal growth, dissolution rate, solubility, surface chemistry and charge, morphology, and the mechanical properties. (alliedacademies.org)
  • This brief review focuses on calcium balance and homeostasis and their relationship to dietary calcium intake and calcium supplementation in healthy subjects and patients with chronic kidney disease and mineral bone disorders (CKD-MBD). (asnjournals.org)
  • Calcium balance refers to the state of the calcium body stores, primarily in bone, which are largely a function of dietary intake, intestinal absorption, renal excretion, and bone remodeling. (asnjournals.org)
  • Calcium homeostasis refers to the hormonal regulation of serum ionized calcium by parathyroid hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and serum ionized calcium itself, which together regulate calcium transport at the gut, kidney, and bone. (asnjournals.org)
  • Calcium balance studies have determined the dietary and supplemental calcium requirements needed to optimize bone mass in healthy subjects. (asnjournals.org)
  • Calcium requirement is dependent on the state of calcium metabolism, which is regulated by three main mechanisms: intestinal absorption, renal reabsorption, and bone turnover. (asnjournals.org)
  • These in turn are regulated by a set of interacting hormones, including parathyroid hormone (PTH), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH) 2 D], ionized calcium itself, and their corresponding receptors in the gut, kidney, and bone. (asnjournals.org)
  • This brief review focuses on the key mechanisms in the gut, kidney, and bone involved in the regulation of calcium metabolism in humans. (asnjournals.org)
  • Because of the interdependent relationship between calcium and phosphorus for mineralization in bone and soft tissues, this review also discusses the interactions between calcium and phosphorus balance and homeostasis, the dysregulation that occurs in chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorders (CKD-MBD) ( 3 ), and the impact of calcium supplementation on phosphate homeostasis. (asnjournals.org)
  • 99%) is present in the skeleton as calcium-phosphate complexes, primarily as hydroxyapatite, which is responsible for much of the material properties of bone ( 4 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • In bone, calcium serves two main purposes: it provides skeletal strength and, concurrently, provides a dynamic store to maintain the intra- and extracellular calcium pools. (asnjournals.org)
  • Unprecedented is the property of these biopolymers to deliver high-energy phosphate in the extracellular space to promote anabolic processes including extracellular matrix synthesis in bradytrophic tissues such as cartilage and mineralized bone. (rsc.org)
  • In this regard, point defects in hydroxyapatite (HAp) and octacalcium phosphate (OCP) were calculated in a first-principles manner, and the chemical-potential dependence of the defect formation energies was revealed. (ceramics.org)
  • In the reaction a limited amount of water is mixed with dry calcium phosphate precursors to produce a hydrated precursor paste. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Calcium Nitrate (Ca (NO 3 ) 2 .4H 2 O, Merck Gd, 99%) is taken as the Calcium precursor. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Diammonium Hydrogen Phosphate (NH 4 HPO 4 , Merck Gd, 99%) is taken as the Phosphate precursor. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Nanoparticles were synthesized, with TEGDMA being added to one of the precursor solutions at three different molar ratios (0:1, 0.5:1 and 1:1, in relation to the ammonium phosphate precursor). (readbyqxmd.com)
  • The biomimetic form of calcium phosphate is a 20 nm particle of hydroxyapatite. (carifree.com)
  • Hydroxyapatite in nanoparticle crystallite form is also the most thermodynamically stable form of calcium phosphate 11 , and studies examining nanoparticle hydroxyapatite as a biomimetic remineralization agent have been performed recently. (carifree.com)
  • The biomimetic materials also reduced ion release but their effect was less pronounced. (hindawi.com)
  • These fluid-mediated interactions are amplified in the case of highly reactive calcium phosphates (CaPs) such as biomimetic calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA), particularly in static in vitro cultures. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • The body maintains healthy tooth mineral by replacing the lost hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite crystal particles as soon as the pH rises above critical remineralization pH. (carifree.com)
  • 3 Understanding this, and in an attempt to mimic natural remineralization, various forms of calcium phosphate ions have been included in some therapeutic strategies in addition to fluoride. (carifree.com)
  • Fluoride enhances remineralization by absorbing to the crystal surface and attracting calcium ions, followed by phosphate ions, leading to new mineral formation. (dentist.net)
  • 3, 4 These proteins inhibit the precipitation of calcium phosphate salts out of solution, thereby preventing demineralization and providing solubilized ions for remineralization. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • 5 Systemic conditions, hereditary disorders, a variety of medications, and other medical interventions can negatively affect salivary production, buffering potential, and the amount of calcium and phosphate available for remineralization. (dimensionsofdentalhygiene.com)
  • Although demineralization results in the loss of mineral ions, it can be reversed during remineralization. (dimensionsofdentalhygiene.com)
  • 6 The toothpaste containing it does not contain fluoride, most likely because the hydroxyapatite would react with the fluoride ion and form fluorapatite within the formula. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • 2 For hydroxyapatite, this pH is 5.5, while for fluorapatite, the critical pH is 4.5. (carifree.com)
  • Fluorapatite is considerably more resistant to the acids produced by bacteria than the hydroxyapatite formed with bioactive glasses used in tissue engineering. (news-medical.net)
  • The roughened surface can subsequently be subjected to precipitation of calcium phosphate from a solution containing calcium and phosphate ions. (google.com)
  • 4. The process according to claim 1, wherein the roughened surface is subsequently subjected to precipitation of calcium phosphate from a solution containing calcium and phosphate ions. (google.com)
  • Membrane-mediated precipitation of calcium phosphate in model liposomes with matrix vesicle-like lipid composition. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The physical-mechanical of properties of biocompatible calcium phosphate coatings deposited onto titanium and silicon substrates from erosion materials, which are generated by irradiating hydroxyapatite (synthetic and natural) targets by means of the high-power pulsed ion beam of a Temp-4 accelerator, are investigated. (elsevier.com)
  • Their characteristics are analyzed as applied to the formation of calcium phosphate coatings. (elsevier.com)
  • Bleykher, GA , Volokitina, TL & Tverdokhlebov, SI 2013, ' Influence of the high-power ion-beam irradiation of a hydroxyapatite target on the properties of formed calcium phosphate coatings ', Journal of Surface Investigation , том. (elsevier.com)
  • The previously preferred technique for coating implant materials with hydroxyapatite is plasma deposition (for a review, see P. Serekian, in Hydroxylapatite Coatings in Orthopaedic Surgery, Ed. Geesink and Manley, Raven Press NY, 1993, p. 81-87). (google.com)
  • In the present work, we investigated the effect of employing ultrasonic waves during pulse electrochemical deposition on surface topography, chemical composition and biocompatibility of calcium phosphate (Ca-P) coatings. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Apatites other than those containing calcium and phosphorus are included. (elsevier.com)
  • The phosphate ion has a molar mass of 94.97 g/mol, and consists of a central phosphorus atom surrounded by four oxygen atoms in a tetrahedral arrangement. (wikipedia.org)
  • In biological systems, phosphorus can be found as free phosphate anions in solution (inorganic phosphate) or bound to organic molecules as various organophosphates. (wikipedia.org)
  • of SiO2 and 5:1 molar ratio of Calcium to Phosphorus. (wikipedia.org)
  • A multivalent nonmetal of the nitrogen group, phosphorus as a mineral is almost always present in its maximally oxidized state, as inorganic phosphate rocks. (absoluteastronomy.com)
  • The results obtained showed that during the PCF process, high pH and excessive calcium dosage conditions were required to obtain effluents with total phosphorus (T-P) and suspended solid (SS) concentrations below 0.2 and 10 mg/L, respectively, within 2 h of operation. (iwaponline.com)
  • The EDXA results showed that calcium and phosphorus increased in all cements as time passed. (alliedacademies.org)
  • However, the hard tissue compatibility of these materials is poorer than that of bioactive ceramics such as hydroxyapatite and bioactive glasses. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The most commonly used alloplastic graft materials are calcium phosphate-based ceramics such as hydroxyapatite (incompletely resorbed) and tricalcium phosphates (completely resorbed). (dentalproductshopper.com)
  • Almost all of this calcium is found in the skeleton and the rest is found in the teeth, the blood plasma, the body's soft tissues and the extracellular fluid. (news-medical.net)
  • Moreover, rMSCs showed an earlier expression of osteogenic genes on CDHA compared to sintered β-TCP when extracellular calcium fluctuations were reduced. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • Kinetic ion interaction studies of principal extracellular ions revealed non-linear sorption of Ca2+ (∼50% sorption) and K+ (∼8%) as well as acidification of all media during initial contact with CDHA (48 h). (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • This work is part of a wider investigation of the ability of plasma immersion ion implanted polymers to induce calcium phosphate formation from an aqueous solution resembling the human blood plasma. (springer.com)
  • The effect of the plasma modification on the calcium phosphate nucleation and growth from the aqueous solution was ambiguous. (springer.com)
  • This work is part of a wider investigation of the ability of PIII treated polymers (low density polyethylene, polytetrafluorethylene, 2103 and 2363 commercial Pelletane materials with medical applications and polyurethane synthesized from polypropyleneglycol and toluenediisocyanate, PPG-TDI) to induce calcium phosphate formation from an aqueous solution resembling the human blood plasma. (springer.com)
  • In this paper we study the modification of two conventional polymers, low density polyethylene and polytetrafluorethylene, by PIII with nitrogen ions, and their ability for calcium phosphate formation after the modification upon immersion in an aqueous solution of inorganic salts. (springer.com)
  • This means that salts of the mono- and di-phosphate ions can be selectively crystallised from aqueous solution by setting the pH value to either 4.7 or 9.8. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, because calcium phosphates are usually subjected to an aqueous solution, a methodology to evaluate ionic chemical potentials under chemical equilibrium of the solid-aqueous solution was introduced. (ceramics.org)
  • Preparation of other apatites with hydroxyl ions. (elsevier.com)
  • It replaces hydroxyl ions in the natural calcium phosphate compound, called hydroxyapatite, that makes up teeth. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Fluoride's high chemical reactivity and small radius allow it to either displace the larger hydroxyl (-OH) ion in the hydroxyapatite crystal, forming fluoroapatite, or to increase crystal density by entering spaces within the hydroxyapatite crystal. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Teeth were brushed (for 2-3 min, twice a day, for 21 days), with five different toothpastes (four commercially available and an experimental one) containing fluoride and hydroxyapatite. (mdpi.com)
  • If you look at strontium, it's chemistry is very similar to the element calcium, and calcium phosphate is what makes your bones and teeth. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • The bioactive glass releases fluoride, phosphate, and calcium ions over 8-10 hours, which is nearly the time between morning and evening teeth brushings. (news-medical.net)
  • The anion increases the structural stability of teeth and bones through interactions with calcium phosphates. (oregonstate.edu)
  • calcium phosphate apatites are important mineral constituents of bones and teeth. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • an inorganic mineral composed of calcium and phosphate that is found in the bones and teeth. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • hydroxyapatite is a component of bones and teeth. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Vacancies, impurities, and foreign ions dissolving in calcium phosphate bioceramics play an important role in the biological properties of the materials. (ceramics.org)
  • Radiesse is made of calcium hydroxyapatite (CaHA) gel microspheres that work immediately upon injection. (healthline.com)
  • Radiesse is comprised of calcium hydroxylapatite microspheres that are suspended in a carboxymethylcellulose gel and phosphate ions. (drgreenwald.com)
  • Radiesse™ is made up of synthetic Calcium Hydroxylapatite (CaHA) microspheres suspended in a gel carrier, which is an aqueous gel that contains sodiumcarboxymethylcellulose, glycerin and high purity water. (consultingroom.com)
  • Radiesse injects synthetic calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHA) microspheres with a diameter of 25-45μm that are suspended in a sodium carboxymethylcellulose gel, which is a biocompatible formulation that resorbs safely into the cellular matrix. (medicalsparx.com)
  • CaHA is made up of ions of phosphate and calcium, which occur naturally in the human body. (healthline.com)
  • The active ingredient is calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHA), a material with a history of almost three decades of medical use. (donaldrolandmd.com)
  • The CaHA spheres are composed of calcium and phosphate ions which occur naturally in human tissue. (consultingroom.com)
  • Its active ingredient, calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHA), is a biocompatible ingredient that can exist in the subdermal region without provoking any severe adverse reactions. (medicalsparx.com)
  • This filler is made of 30% calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHA), and the remaining 70% is a sodium carboxymethylcellulose gel carrier. (medicalsparx.com)
  • After 2-3 months, the carboxymethylcellulose degrades, and phagocytes break down the CaHA into calcium and phosphate ions. (medicalsparx.com)
  • Synthesis of magnesium- and manganese-doped hydroxyapatite structures assisted by the simultaneous incorporation of strontium. (semanticscholar.org)
  • As a member of the series of alkaline earth metals, calcium lies in group 2 (former group 2A) of the periodic table , between magnesium and strontium . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The team figures that since magnesium was so easily incorporated into enamel's glassy regions, perhaps ions like cavity-preventing fluoride would be, too. (forbes.com)
  • Both calcium and magnesium form insoluble complexes with fluoride and are capable of significantly decreasing fluoride absorption when present in the same meal. (oregonstate.edu)
  • 2) Fluoride ion clearly interferes with the biological activity of magnesium ion. (fluoridationaustralia.com)
  • The far-reaching antagonism between magnesium and calcium affects not only their different distribution in tissues, but also their mutual dislodging from cells. (fluoridationaustralia.com)
  • 13) In interactions of F - with Mg and Ca, it should be stressed that it is calcium rather than magnesium that intensifies mineralization processes. (fluoridationaustralia.com)
  • Determination of calcium and magnesium in hydroethanolic extracts of propolis by atomic absorption flame spectrophotometry. (innovareacademics.in)
  • This means that it differs from stoichiometric HA in terms of composition, stoichiometry, crystallinity degree, crystal size/morphology and, as a direct consequence, solubility, and ions release in the peri-implant environment. (mdpi.com)
  • Preparation of stoichiometric hydroxyapatite powders. (elsevier.com)
  • These reactions ultimately lead to the formation of stoichiometric hydroxyapatite. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Physicochemical properties of MTA, CEM, hydroxyapatite and nano hydroxyapatite-chitosan dental cements. (alliedacademies.org)
  • This study aims to evaluate the bioactivity of Mineral trioxide aggregates, Calcium enriched mixture, hydroxyapatite and nano hydroxyapatite-chitosan cements. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The nano hydroxyapatite-chitosan and hydroxyapatite cements have neutral pH values, and CEM and MTA cements are "slightly basic" and "very basic" respectively. (alliedacademies.org)
  • A synthetic process where calcium and phosphate ions are bonded together into calciumhydroxylapatite particles. (consultingroom.com)
  • These findings were the basis of the first paper on 45S5 bioactive glass in 1971 which summarized that in vitro experiments in a calcium and phosphate ion deficient solution showed a developed layer of hydroxyapatite similar to the observed hydroxyapatite later in vivo by Dr. Greenlee. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such glasses could contain significantly higher concentrations of SiO 2 than traditional melt-derived bioactive glasses and still maintain bioactivity (i.e., the ability to form a mineralized hydroxyapatite layer on the surface). (wikipedia.org)
  • Predicta Bioactive Core Instructions (EN) Predicta Bioactive Core Instructions (multilingual) Predicta Bioactive Core SDS (US) Predicta Bioactive Core. (parkell.com)
  • In the case of polymers introduced into a living organism as soft tissue implants, the biomineralization process, including the formation of calcium or calcium phosphate deposits, on their surface is not desired. (springer.com)
  • Little is known, however, about whether they are directly involved in the formation of calcium phosphate compounds. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The shorter the bonding time the greater the rate of ion exchange leading to the formation of calcium phosphate on the surface and crystallization of the material. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Bianchi, M. A Review on Ionic Substitutions in Hydroxyapatite Thin Films: Towards Complete Biomimetism. (mdpi.com)
  • Graziani G, Boi M, Bianchi M. A Review on Ionic Substitutions in Hydroxyapatite Thin Films: Towards Complete Biomimetism. (mdpi.com)
  • The adsorption efficiency of the nACP mate- Available online 19 August 2017 rial for aqueous humic acid (HA) was evaluated from the point of view of medium pH, adsorption time, temperature, and ionic strength, as well as the presences of metal ions. (deepdyve.com)
  • We used the pH-stat technique to follow the kinetics of calcium phosphate precipitation at pH 7.4, 37 degrees C, and ionic strength 0.150 mol/L, in the presence or absence of LDL, oxidized LDL, cholesterol, cholestane-3beta,5alpha,6beta-triol, and cholesteryl linoleate. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • It comprises free ions (∼51%), protein-bound complexes (∼40%), and ionic complexes (∼9%) ( 7 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • The modification of polymer surfaces by various ion beam treatments for reducing the calcification, as for example plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII), is well known and has a long time effect. (springer.com)
  • Phosphate, which penetrates the SMC wall through the Pit-1 co-transporter, directly stimulates vascular calcification whereas pyrophosphate acts as an inhibitor of calcification. (slideshare.net)
  • Vitamin D increases the entry of calcium into vascular cells, resulting in calcification. (slideshare.net)
  • Importantly, increasing evidence suggests that calcium supplementation may enhance soft tissue calcification and cardiovascular disease in CKD-MBD. (asnjournals.org)
  • Further research is needed to elucidate the risks and mechanisms of soft tissue calcification with calcium supplementation in both healthy subjects and CKD-MBD patients. (asnjournals.org)
  • An equilibrium thermodynamic model of the interaction of calcium, phosphate and casein in milk is described in which the micellar calcium phosphate is assumed to be in the form of calcium phosphate nanoclusters. (springer.com)
  • 2. A chewing gum of claim 1 wherein the antimicrobial metal ions are present in an amount from about 0.1 to 15 weight percent of the ceramic particles. (google.ca)
  • 3. A chewing gum of claim 1 wherein the antimicrobial metal ions are selected from silver, copper and zinc. (google.ca)
  • 16. A method for killing, reducing, or inhibiting growth of oral microbes comprising the step of masticating a chewing gum according to claim 1 , wherein the metal ions are selected from silver, copper, and zinc. (google.ca)
  • The information gathered is of high relevance for designing improved calcium phosphate bioceramics. (ua.pt)
  • Abstract: Osteoinductivity of hydroxyapatite (HA) was investigated using uncommitted pluripotent mouse stem cells, C3H10T1/2 in an in vitro differentiation assay. (scientific.net)
  • Oxidized LDL inhibits both nucleation and crystal growth, possibly by attracting calcium ions in the solution and thus reducing supersaturation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Anhydrous tricalcium phosphates and whitlockite. (elsevier.com)
  • It has been proposed to add sources of calcium and / or phosphate ions to acidic foods and drinks in order to reduce tooth damage. (google.com)
  • For example, US 7 279 152 discloses acidic oral compositions, in particular beverages, which contain polyphosphate optionally in combination with a calcium salt in order to reduce tooth damage. (google.com)
  • This is because calcium phosphate salts are more soluble in acidic media. (google.es)
  • In general, calcium hydroxylapatite, the functional component of Radiesse, has been safely used in the human body for over 25 years in several indications. (consultingroom.com)
  • Zinc and iron co-localized with hydroxyapatite, but copper signal could not be verified. (arvojournals.org)
  • In the 2-step and smooth texture formulas, the positively charged zinc ion (Zn2+) inhibits crystal growth by substituting for calcium in the crystal lattice of calcium phosphate (Figure 22). (dentalcare.com)
  • At 22 degrees C, the liposomes per se did not initiate precipitation in the suspending medium for up to 120 h when the latter was made supersaturated with respect to hydroxyapatite (2.25 mM Ca2+, 1.5 mM PO4, 240 mosmol, pH 7.4). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Improves luster - ACP restores luster by naturally filling surface defects with a new layer of hydroxyapatite. (dentist.net)
  • Inorganic phosphate is generally denoted Pi and at physiological (homeostatic) pH primarily consists of a mixture of [HPO 4]2− and [H 2PO 4]− ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chaplin LC (1984) Studies of micellar calcium phosphate: composition and apparent solubility product in milk over a wide pH range. (springer.com)
  • The incorporation of ions like fluoride into bioapatites can change their solubility product by several orders of magnitude according to Driessens (1973) . (wordpress.com)
  • The solution also employs an antinucleating agent to maintain the solubility of the calcium phosphate in the presence of fluoride sources. (patentgenius.com)
  • In particular, these compositions may comprise zeolites ion-exchanged with antimicrobial metals, in addition to other oral care compounds. (google.ca)
  • The various metaphosphate ions (which are usually long linear polymers) have an empirical formula of (PO 3)− and are found in many compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the formation of compounds, calcium readily loses these 2 electrons to produce Ca 2+ cations. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Phosphates are probably the most pervasive organophosphorus compounds. (absoluteastronomy.com)
  • In the absence of high dietary concentrations of calcium and certain other cations with which fluoride may form insoluble and poorly absorbed compounds, 80 percent or more is typically absorbed. (nih.gov)
  • 3 . Method according to any one of the previous claims, in which the process of ion implantation takes place in presence of a residual atmosphere of oxygen or of organic compounds in the treatment chamber. (google.com.au)
  • Due to the existence of a myriad number of phosphate compounds the calcium phosphate system is highly complex. (scribd.com)
  • Samples of crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) with and without the addition of individual Mg(2+), Mn(2+) and Sr(2+) ions and samples with the addition of all three ions simultaneously were prepared using the precipitation method in an aqueous medium. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 5) Mineralization in which the calcium phosphate layer gradually transforms into crystalline hydroxyapatite, that mimics the mineral phase naturally contained with vertebrate bones. (wikipedia.org)
  • sodium ions partially substituting calcium in solutions containing a mixture of sodium and calcium ions. (rsc.org)
  • 3) Condensation of silanols in which the disrupted glass network changes its morphology to form a gel-like surface layer, depleted in sodium and calcium ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • More specifically, this invention relates to stable, single-part compositions containing calcium and phosphate salts which may be in a hydrophilic, non-aqueous vehicle. (google.es)
  • These names are also used for salts of those anions, such as ammonium dihydrogen phosphate and trisodium phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • A polyatomic ion, also known as a molecular ion, is a charged species composed of two or more atoms covalently bonded or of a metal complex that can be considered as acting as a single unit in the context of acid and base chemistry or in the formation of salts. (absoluteastronomy.com)
  • 1. A process for producing a calcium phosphate coated implantable device, comprising subjecting a porous or non-porous material to a surface treatment until a roughened surface with an average peak distance between about 10 nm and about 1,000 nm is obtained and in vitro coating the surface with a layer of a calcium phosphate. (google.com)
  • In a preferred embodiment, the chewing gum product comprises an antimicrobial metal ion component and an inorganic ceramic carrier, and provides a concentration of such substances from about. (google.ca)
  • In a preferred embodiment, the chewing gum product comprises an antimicrobial metal ion component and an inorganic ceramic carrier, and provides a concentration of such substances from about 0.05 to 50 weight percent of the chewing gum. (google.ca)
  • The frozen confection comprises at most 1.0 wt% milk protein, 0.1 to 5.0 wt% of calcium sulphate and 0.1 to 5.0 wt% of citric acid or malic acid or a mixture thereof. (google.com)
  • The method comprises the ion implantation of controlled quantities of elements such as CO, C or O in endo-osseous implants or prostheses manufactured in metals, metallic alloys or biocompatible compound materials. (google.com.au)
  • 9. The calcium phosphate composition of claim 8, wherein said cement further comprises an organic polymer. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Calcium phosphate particles are described comprising a surface treatment wherein the surface treatment comprises at least one sugar alcohol, at least one glycerophosphoric acid compound, or mixture thereof. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 10. Calcium phosphate particles comprising a surface treatment wherein the surface treatment comprises at least one sugar alcohol. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 11. The calcium phosphate particles of claim 10 wherein the calcium phosphate comprises tricalcium phosphate. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • This paper focuses on the study of the effect of the change of the crystal size on the shape and width of the X-ray diffraction patterns for defatted and deproteinized bones as well as incinerated biogenic hydroxyapatite obtained from bovine, porcine, and human bones. (nature.com)
  • Calculated X-ray diffraction patterns of the calcium orthophosphates. (elsevier.com)
  • Deposits were highly mineralised and produced diffraction patterns characteristic of the inorganic calcium phosphate hydroxyapatite. (arvojournals.org)
  • Both processes occur on the tooth surface, however, a considerable number of mineral ions must be lost from hydroxyapatite before cavitation occurs. (dimensionsofdentalhygiene.com)
  • Solution-mediated surface reactions occur for most calcium phosphate-based biomaterials and may influence cellular response. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • Monocalcium phosphates (monohydrate and anhydrous). (elsevier.com)
  • 3. The process for mineralizing collagen fibers as defined in claim 1 wherein said crystalline calcium phosphate is selected from the group consisting of the brushite and hydroxyapatite. (google.com)
  • Ion-releasing dental restorative composites containing functionalized brushite nanoparticles for improved mechanical strength. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • 2006), are compared with that of the calcium phosphate hydroxyapatite cement and the nano hydroxyapatite-chitosan based composite cement. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The quantitative elemental analysis revealed that only strontium ions have been fully incorporated into both HA and beta-TCP phases. (ua.pt)
  • 7. The product according to claim 1 wherein the molar ratio of calcium and phosphate ions is from about 0.01 to 1 up to 100.0 to 1. (google.es)
  • In the present article, recent results based on such a methodology (the solution pH dependence of Ca/P molar ratio of HAp and the ion-exchange ability with foreign cations in HAp and OCP) were reviewed. (ceramics.org)
  • in which the formulae assume the significance specified in the description, in a quantity that is effective for the absorption of ions from the biological application environment of the dental material. (google.ca)
  • The polymerisable dental material has variably adjustable transparency, good polishability, high strength and the capacity to release and absorb ions into and from a biological environment. (google.ca)
  • Bioapatite, considered the major component in the mineralized part of mammalian bones, is a calcium phosphate mineral with a structure that closely resembles hydroxyapatite (HA, Ca10[PO4]6[OH]2) with variable chemical substitutions. (nih.gov)
  • Hydroxyapatite (HA) is one of the most biocompatible ceramic materials which has been studied extensively and clinically used due to the good bioactivity, high osteoconductive, and excellent osteoblastic responses [ 12 - 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • 2 . Method according to claim 1 , in which said base material is selected among a metal, a metallic alloy, a biocompatible material, and mixtures thereof, employed in the elaboration of endo-osseous implants and/or medical prostheses which comply with the standard UNE-EN ISO 10993. (google.com.au)
  • 3. The product according to claim 1 wherein the product contains from about 0.10% to 10.0% of said calcium salt. (google.es)
  • 4. The product according to claim 1 wherein the product contains from about 0.10% to 10.0% of said phosphate salt. (google.es)
  • 11. The product according to claim 1 wherein the product contains from about 100 ppm to 35,000 ppm calcium ions and from about 100 ppm to 40,000 ppm phosphate ions. (google.es)
  • 2. The tricalcium phosphate particles of claim 1 wherein the sugar alcohol has the general formula HOCH 2 [CH(OH)] n CH 2 OH, wherein n ranges from 4 to 6. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 4. The tricalcium phosphate particles of claim 1 wherein glycerophosphoric acid compound is a salt having the general formula HO(CH) 2 (O)P(O)(O − )(M +n ) 2/n wherein M is H or a metal ion having a valency of n, or a hydrate thereof. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 8. The oral care composition of claim 1 wherein the concentration of tricalcium phosphate ranges from 0.02 wt-% to 40 wt-% of the total solids content of the oral care composition. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 3. The composition of claim 1, wherein said water soluble calcium salt is present in an amount of from about 0.05 to 35 wt. (patentgenius.com)
  • 40 Ca, 42 Ca, 43 Ca, and 44 Ca. Of these, 40 Ca is the most abundant isotope, constituting 97 percent of naturally occurring calcium. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Fluorine occurs naturally as the negatively charged ion , fluoride (F - ). Fluoride is considered a trace element because only small amounts are present in the body (about 2.6 grams in adults), and because the daily requirement for maintaining dental health is only a few milligrams a day. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Subsequent methods of extraction have included electrolysis of calcium fluoride or calcium chloride. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Dr.Collins BioMin® Toothpaste contains BioMin® C, a patented ingredient combination of calcium, phosphate, silica and chloride, that is an integral component of the DR COLLINS BIORESTORE™ Complex. (dentist.net)
  • In chemistry, a phosphate is an anion, salt, functional group or ester derived from a phosphoric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phosphate minerals are those minerals that contain the tetrahedrally coordinated phosphate anion along with the freely substituting arsenate and vanadate. (absoluteastronomy.com)
  • The main sources of calcium in the diet are milk, dairy products and other calcium-rich foods such as fish with edible bones (e.g sardines and anchovies), beans, tofu, spinach, watercress and broccoli. (news-medical.net)
  • In addition to mechanical functions, bones have an essential role in metabolic activity as mineral reservoirs that are able to absorb and release ions. (nih.gov)
  • The basic inorganic compound of bones is hydroxyapatite, containing calcium phosphate. (fluoridationaustralia.com)
  • For a long time, there has been an increasing interest in utilizing polymers as matrices for calcium phosphate-based composites with applications in hard tissue implants. (springer.com)
  • A drawback of most hydroxyapatite-coated implants is that the anchoring of hydroxyapatite onto the implant requires high processing temperatures, which limit the choice of substrate materials and result in higher processing costs. (google.com)
  • 5 . Method according to any one of the previous claims, in which the process of ion implantation is applied on said endo-osseous implants or medical prostheses by means of techniques of line of sight ion implantation or beam ion implantation, plasma immersion ion implantation or plasma source ion implantation, or equivalent techniques. (google.com.au)
  • 7 . Method according to any one of the previous claims, in which the endo-osseous implants or the prostheses undergo a thermal treatment at a temperature of between approximately 250 C. and 800 C. after the process of ion implantation. (google.com.au)
  • This invention is related, in general, with surface treatments of implants and medical prostheses to improve their osseointegration properties, in particular, it refers to a method for the production of endo-osseous implants or prostheses manufactured in a base material and treated superficially by means of ion implantation with enhanced osseointegration properties. (google.com.au)