Tromethamine: An organic amine proton acceptor. It is used in the synthesis of surface-active agents and pharmaceuticals; as an emulsifying agent for cosmetic creams and lotions, mineral oil and paraffin wax emulsions, as a biological buffer, and used as an alkalizer. (From Merck, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1424)Buffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Heavy Ions: Positively-charged atomic nuclei that have been stripped of their electrons. These particles have one or more units of electric charge and a mass exceeding that of the Helium-4 nucleus (alpha particle).Cetrimonium Compounds: Cetyltrimethylammonium compounds that have cationic detergent, antiseptic, and disinfectant activities. They are used in pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics as preservatives; on skin, mucous membranes, etc., as antiseptics or cleansers, and also as emulsifiers. These compounds are toxic when used orally due to neuromuscular blockade.Capillary Electrochromatography: A separation technique which combines LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY and CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS.Acetonitriles: Compounds in which a methyl group is attached to the cyano moiety.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Tetraethyl Lead: A highly toxic compound used as a gasoline additive. It causes acute toxic psychosis or chronic poisoning if inhaled or absorbed through the skin.Electrophoresis, Capillary: A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Aptamers, Nucleotide: Nucleotide sequences, generated by iterative rounds of SELEX APTAMER TECHNIQUE, that bind to a target molecule specifically and with high affinity.SELEX Aptamer Technique: A method of generating a large library of randomized nucleotides and selecting NUCLEOTIDE APTAMERS by iterative rounds of in vitro selection. A modified procedure substitutes AMINO ACIDS in place of NUCLEOTIDES to make PEPTIDE APTAMERS.Capillaries: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.Capillary Action: A phenomenon in which the surface of a liquid where it contacts a solid is elevated or depressed, because of the relative attraction of the molecules of the liquid for each other and for those of the solid. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Thrombin: An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.Electric Power Supplies: Devices that control the supply of electric current for running electrical equipment.Vibration: A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)PolandHand-Arm Vibration Syndrome: An occupational disorder resulting from prolonged exposure to vibration, affecting the fingers, hands, and forearms. It occurs in workers who regularly use vibrating tools such as jackhammers, power chain saws, riveters, etc. Symptoms include episodic finger blanching, NUMBNESS, tingling, and loss of nerve sensitivity.Dental Prophylaxis: Treatment for the prevention of periodontal diseases or other dental diseases by the cleaning of the teeth in the dental office using the procedures of DENTAL SCALING and DENTAL POLISHING. The treatment may include plaque detection, removal of supra- and subgingival plaque and calculus, application of caries-preventing agents, checking of restorations and prostheses and correcting overhanging margins and proximal contours of restorations, and checking for signs of food impaction.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Gastric Acidity Determination: Gastric analysis for determination of free acid or total acid.Acid-Base Equilibrium: The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Cytomegalovirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.OhioCytomegalovirus Infections: Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.United StatesPhysics: The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Nuclear Physics: The study of the characteristics, behavior, and internal structures of the atomic nucleus and its interactions with other nuclei. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Health Physics: The science concerned with problems of radiation protection relevant to reducing or preventing radiation exposure, and the effects of ionizing radiation on humans and their environment.Physical Phenomena: The entities of matter and energy, and the processes, principles, properties, and relationships describing their nature and interactions.Chlorine: A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Chlorine Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain chlorine as an integral part of the molecule.Carmine: Coloring matter from the insect Coccus cacti L. It is used in foods, pharmaceuticals, toiletries, etc., as a dye, and also has use as a microscopic stain and biological marker.Pigments, Biological: Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.Disinfectants: Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Carnosine: A naturally occurring dipeptide neuropeptide found in muscles.BenzaldehydesSarcoplasmic Reticulum: A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Sarcolemma: The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
  • This work shows that metal ions in sample buffer have a large effect on aptamer affinity CE-LIF analysis of thrombin using an Apt29 probe. (rsc.org)
  • Our complete selection of Ca 2+ indicators is described in Indicators for Ca2+, Mg2+, Zn2+ and Other Metal Ions-Chapter 19 . (thermofisher.com)
  • Indirect UV detection method for analysis of metal ions. (elsevier.com)
  • The developed capillary electrophoresis (CE) method was applied to evaluate the aggregation activity of divalent metal ions (zinc) on bacterial cells. (springer.com)
  • Therefore, CE may be a potential method for evaluating the aggregation activity of different types of bivalent metal ions against microbial cells. (springer.com)
  • Dimensions of atoms and ions, ionization energy, electronic affinity and interpretation of their periodic behavior. (unibo.it)
  • In general, Norman Good and his co-workers attracted attention of the scientific community to the possibility and benefits of using zwitterionic buffers in biological research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ion exchange is probably the most frequently used chromatographic technique for the separation and purification of proteins, polypeptides, nucleic acids, polynucleotides and other charged biomolecules (Ref1). (wikibooks.org)
  • Receptors, ion regulation, and enzyme systems linked to the cell-membrane complex contain extracellular, transmembrane, and intracellular components essential to their function. (medscape.com)
  • Conditioning of the Pb2+-ISE in 0.01 mol dm-3 PBS resulted in a super-Nernstian response which was related to fixation/extraction of Pb2+ in the ion-selective membrane via precipitation of Pb3(PO4)2 by PO43- anions present in PBS. (forskningsdatabasen.dk)
  • Ion flux also affects the cell's membrane potential, which can be measured with the probes described in Probes for Membrane Potential-Chapter 22 . (thermofisher.com)
  • These dynamic changes in intracellular Ca 2+ levels are regulated by ligand-gated and G-protein-coupled ion channels in the plasma membrane, as well as by mobilization of Ca 2+ from intracellular stores. (thermofisher.com)
  • In these technologies, membrane separation plays an important role in the achievement of high-performance separation especially ion exchange membranes, which takes the advantage of electrostatic interactions between the surface charges of protein and the charged groups on the membranes [ 12 - 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Outer hair cells, one of the two types of auditory hair cell in mammalian cochlea, rely on mobile calcium buffers and plasma membrane calcium pumps to regulate calcium levels. (case.edu)
  • The mobile phase contained methanol and water, in one set of experiments buffer, salt for adjustment of ionic strength and ion-pairing reagent were added. (springer.com)
  • The use of a polycationic substance, having a nitrogen content of at least about two percent (excluding the counter ions), to prepare a suitably charged solid phase provides a solid phase that can be subjected to a greater extent of manipulation, such as multiple washes, without losing the capability to attract and retain the capture reagent. (google.ca)
  • To obtain meaningful results, the separation must be done in the sequence specified below, as some ions of an earlier group may also react with the reagent of a later group, causing ambiguity as to which ions are present. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sulfuric acid may lead to the precipitation of the 5th group cations, whereas nitric acid oxidises the sulfide ion in the reagent, forming colloidal sulfur. (wikipedia.org)
  • This material shrinks on intercalation of sodium ions which is thought to be a result of enhanced interlayer Na-O interactions and weakened Nb-Nb and Nb-O bonding. (rsc.org)
  • The beads are treated to selectively adsorb either cations(positive) or anions(negative) and exchange certain ions based on their relative activity compared to the resin. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Tends to form precipitates in presence of calcium ions. (ou.edu)
  • During excessively loud sounds and noise a substantial amount of calcium ions enter hair cells through mechanotransduction channels. (case.edu)
  • Purpose: To separate a specific protein from its mixture by using the property of ion-charges. (wikibooks.org)
  • Protein binds to ion exchangers by electrostatic forces between the surface of the protein charges and cluster of the charged group on the exchangers. (wikibooks.org)
  • in other words, the net charge on the protein will be the same sign as that of the counterions displaced-therefore "ion exchange. (wikibooks.org)
  • For lysis buffers targeted at protein extraction, protease inhibitors are often included, and in difficult cases may be almost required. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each buffer choice has a specific pH range, so the buffer should be chosen based on whether your target protein is stable under a certain pH. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, for buffers with similar pH ranges, it is important to consider whether the buffer is compatible with your target protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • RIPA buffer is a commonly used lysis buffer for immunoprecipitation and general protein extraction from cells and tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Detection of clinically relevant levels of protein analyte under physiologic buffer using planar field effect transistors. (biomedsearch.com)
  • If a buffer containing more than one protein is used with an anion exchange resin, then the most negatively-charged protein will be most attracted to the stationary phase and will therefore elute last and the protein with the highest positive charge will elute first. (wikibooks.org)
  • Therefore, when the buffer solution's pH reaches the pI of the protein, the protein's net charge will be zero. (wikibooks.org)
  • According to Lowry-Bronsted acid base theory an acid is defined as a substance that is capable of donating protons (H+ ions) whereas a base is a substance that is capable of abstracting protons (H+ ions). (bartleby.com)
  • 10 Buffer Range : pk a ± 1 Buffer Capacity Buffer Capacity : The quantity of acid or gas that a buffer can neutralize while maintaining ph within the desired range. (sciencedocbox.com)
  • We studied [Ca(2+)] signaling in dendritic spines of CA1 pyramidal neurons and find that spines are specialized structures with low endogenous Ca(2+) buffer capacity that allows large and extremely rapid [Ca(2+)] changes. (nih.gov)
  • Because most biological reactions take place near-neutral pH between 6 and 8, ideal buffers would have pKa values in this region to provide maximum buffering capacity there. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. the buffering capacity in the desired pH range with the ability to maintain constant pH during fixation. (ou.edu)
  • 1. Maximum buffering capacity about 7.4. (ou.edu)
  • can remedy the lower buffering capacity. (thomassci.com)
  • Nikon's newest lightweight DSLR also adds increased buffer capacity compared to the D7100, includes new Picture Controls and offers the experience of Nikon Snapbridge, whereby users seamlessly shoot and share stunning photos from the camera to a compatible smartphone or tablet via built-in Wi-Fi®1 and Near Field Communication (NFC2). (dpreview.com)
  • Courtesy of EXPEED 4, the D7200 features 30% faster image processing than its predecessor, the Nikon D7100, and provides an increased buffer capacity that now allows the camera to shoot 18 consecutive RAW 14-bit lossless compressed images, 27 12-bit compressed shots or 100 JPEG frames. (dpreview.com)
  • We examined in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures whether artificially and reversibly enhancing the Ca 2+ buffering capacity of neurons reduces the neurotoxic sequelae of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), whether such manipulation has neurotoxic potential, and whether the mechanism underlying these effects is pre- or postsynaptic. (jneurosci.org)
  • The buffers should be chemically stable, resisting enzymatic and non-enzymatic degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The key questions of how ions can cool collisionally with cold atoms and whether the combined system allows stable coexistence, need to be answered. (nature.com)
  • Finally, it is experimentally and numerically demonstrated that the combined ion-atom system is intrinsically stable, which is critical for future cold chemistry experiments with such systems. (nature.com)
  • In the present study, we computationally investigated the mechanism of succinimide racemization catalyzed by dihydrogen phosphate ion, H 2 PO 4 − , by B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) density functional theory calculations, using a model compound in which an aminosuccinyl (Asu) residue is capped with acetyl (Ace) and NCH 3 (Nme) groups on the N- and C-termini, respectively (Ace-Asu-Nme). (mdpi.com)
  • The mechanism of single collision swap cooling of ions with atoms is discussed. (nature.com)
  • For the specific case of Rb + ions and Rb MOT atoms, the role of resonant charge exchange is explored in detail and the mechanism of swap cooling of ions in a single collision is explained. (nature.com)
  • 2. The mechanism of buffering. (scribd.com)
  • Inorganic Ions. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Written for beginners as well as those already working the in the field, Dr. SenGupta provides stepwise coverage, advancing from ion exchange fundamentals to trace ion exchange through the emerging area of hybrid ion exchange nanotechnology (or polymeric/inorganic ion exchangers). (wiley.com)
  • It was shown that an H 2 PO 4 − ion can catalyze the enolization of the H α -C α -C=O portion of the Asu residue by acting as a proton-transfer mediator. (mdpi.com)