Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
Cationic ionophore antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces lasaliensis that, among other effects, dissociates the calcium fluxes in muscle fibers. It is used as a coccidiostat, especially in poultry.
A polyether antibiotic which affects ion transport and ATPase activity in mitochondria. It is produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
An antiprotozoal agent produced by Streptomyces cinnamonensis. It exerts its effect during the development of first-generation trophozoites into first-generation schizonts within the intestinal epithelial cells. It does not interfere with hosts' development of acquired immunity to the majority of coccidial species. Monensin is a sodium and proton selective ionophore and is widely used as such in biochemical studies.
A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
A divalent calcium ionophore that is widely used as a tool to investigate the role of intracellular calcium in cellular processes.
Chemical agents that increase the permeability of CELL MEMBRANES to POTASSIUM ions.
Chemical agents that increase the permeability of CELL MEMBRANES to SODIUM ions.
A proton ionophore. It is commonly used as an uncoupling agent and inhibitor of photosynthesis because of its effects on mitochondrial and chloroplast membranes.
A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.
A group of peptide antibiotics from BACILLUS brevis. Gramicidin C or S is a cyclic, ten-amino acid polypeptide and gramicidins A, B, D are linear. Gramicidin is one of the two principal components of TYROTHRICIN.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Compounds with a 5-membered ring of four carbons and an oxygen. They are aromatic heterocycles. The reduced form is tetrahydrofuran.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
Electrodes which can be used to measure the concentration of particular ions in cells, tissues, or solutions.
Chemical agents that increase the permeability of CELL MEMBRANES to PROTONS.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Solution titration in which the end point is read from the electrode-potential variations with the concentrations of potential determining ions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A suborder of the order ARTIODACTYLA whose members have the distinguishing feature of a four-chambered stomach, including the capacious RUMEN. Horns or antlers are usually present, at least in males.
Drugs used by veterinarians in the treatment of animal diseases. The veterinarian's pharmacological armamentarium is the counterpart of drugs treating human diseases, with dosage and administration adjusted to the size, weight, disease, and idiosyncrasies of the species. In the United States most drugs are subject to federal regulations with special reference to the safety of drugs and residues in edible animal products.
A carbodiimide that is used as a chemical intermediate and coupling agent in peptide synthesis. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
2-Hydroxy-N-phenylbenzamides. N-phenyl substituted salicylamides. Derivatives have been used as fungicides, anti-mildew agents and topical antifungal agents. In concentrated form may cause irritation of skin and mucous membranes.
A toxic dye, chemically related to trinitrophenol (picric acid), used in biochemical studies of oxidative processes where it uncouples oxidative phosphorylation. It is also used as a metabolic stimulant. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Agents useful in the treatment or prevention of COCCIDIOSIS in man or animals.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
Chemical agents that increase the permeability of CELL MEMBRANES to CALCIUM ions.
Metallochrome indicator that changes color when complexed to the calcium ion under physiological conditions. It is used to measure local calcium ion concentrations in vivo.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes, but has been shown to be an especially potent inhibitor of heme enzymes and hemeproteins. It is used in many industrial processes.
An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.
A potentially neurotoxic 8-hydroxyquinoline derivative long used as a topical anti-infective, intestinal antiamebic, and vaginal trichomonacide. The oral preparation has been shown to cause subacute myelo-optic neuropathy and has been banned worldwide.
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
Lanthanum. The prototypical element in the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol La, atomic number 57, and atomic weight 138.91. Lanthanide ion is used in experimental biology as a calcium antagonist; lanthanum oxide improves the optical properties of glass.
Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of arsenic acid.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
Quinolines substituted in any position by one or more amino groups.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
The contents included in all or any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.
A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.
A sesquiterpene lactone found in roots of THAPSIA. It inhibits CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE mediated uptake of CALCIUM into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
The secretion of histamine from mast cell and basophil granules by exocytosis. This can be initiated by a number of factors, all of which involve binding of IgE, cross-linked by antigen, to the mast cell or basophil's Fc receptors. Once released, histamine binds to a number of different target cell receptors and exerts a wide variety of effects.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.
An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.

Acetylcholine-induced membrane potential changes in endothelial cells of rabbit aortic valve. (1/1922)

1. Using a microelectrode technique, acetylcholine (ACh)-induced membrane potential changes were characterized using various types of inhibitors of K+ and Cl- channels in rabbit aortic valve endothelial cells (RAVEC). 2. ACh produced transient then sustained membrane hyperpolarizations. Withdrawal of ACh evoked a transient depolarization. 3. High K+ blocked and low K+ potentiated the two ACh-induced hyperpolarizations. Charybdotoxin (ChTX) attenuated the ACh-induced transient and sustained hyperpolarizations; apamin inhibited only the sustained hyperpolarization. In the combined presence of ChTX and apamin, ACh produced a depolarization. 4. In Ca2+-free solution or in the presence of Co2+ or Ni2+, ACh produced a transient hyperpolarization followed by a depolarization. In BAPTA-AM-treated cells, ACh produced only a depolarization. 5. A low concentration of A23187 attenuated the ACh-induced transient, but not the sustained, hyperpolarization. In the presence of cyclopiazonic acid, the hyperpolarization induced by ACh was maintained after ACh removal; this maintained hyperpolarization was blocked by Co2+. 6. Both NPPB and hypertonic solution inhibited the membrane depolarization seen after ACh washout. Bumetanide also attenuated this depolarization. 7. It is concluded that in RAVEC, ACh produces a two-component hyperpolarization followed by a depolarization. It is suggested that ACh-induced Ca2+ release from the storage sites causes a transient hyperpolarization due to activation of ChTX-sensitive K+ channels and that ACh-activated Ca2+ influx causes a sustained hyperpolarization by activating both ChTX- and apamin-sensitive K+ channels. Both volume-sensitive Cl- channels and the Na+-K+-Cl- cotransporter probably contribute to the ACh-induced depolarization.  (+info)

The cyclo-oxygenase-dependent regulation of rabbit vein contraction: evidence for a prostaglandin E2-mediated relaxation. (2/1922)

1. Arachidonic acid (0.01-1 microM) induced relaxation of precontracted rings of rabbit saphenous vein, which was counteracted by contraction at concentrations higher than 1 microM. Concentrations higher than 1 microM were required to induce dose-dependent contraction of vena cava and thoracic aorta from the same animals. 2. Pretreatment with a TP receptor antagonist (GR32191B or SQ29548, 3 microM) potentiated the relaxant effect in the saphenous vein, revealed a vasorelaxant component in the vena cava response and did not affect the response of the aorta. 3. Removal of the endothelium from the venous rings, caused a 10 fold rightward shift in the concentration-relaxation curves to arachidonic acid. Whether or not the endothelium was present, the arachidonic acid-induced relaxations were prevented by indomethacin (10 microM) pretreatment. 4. In the saphenous vein, PGE2 was respectively a 50 and 100 fold more potent relaxant prostaglandin than PGI2 and PGD2. Pretreatment with the EP4 receptor antagonist, AH23848B, shifted the concentration-relaxation curves of this tissue to arachidonic acid in a dose-dependent manner. 5. In the presence of 1 microM arachidonic acid, venous rings produced 8-10 fold more PGE2 than did aorta whereas 6keto-PGF1alpha and TXB2 productions remained comparable. 6. Intact rings of saphenous vein relaxed in response to A23187. Pretreatment with L-NAME (100 microM) or indomethacin (10 microM) reduced this response by 50% whereas concomitant pretreatment totally suppressed it. After endothelium removal, the remaining relaxing response to A23187 was prevented by indomethacin but not affected by L-NAME. 7. We conclude that stimulation of the cyclo-oxygenase pathway by arachidonic acid induced endothelium-dependent, PGE2/EP4 mediated relaxation of the rabbit saphenous vein. This process might participate in the A23187-induced relaxation of the saphenous vein and account for a relaxing component in the response of the vena cava to arachidonic acid. It was not observed in thoracic aorta because of the lack of a vasodilatory receptor and/or the poorer ability of this tissue than veins to produce PGE2.  (+info)

Differences in the actions of some blockers of the calcium-activated potassium permeability in mammalian red cells. (3/1922)

1. The actions of some inhibitors of the Ca2+-activated K+ permeability in mammalian red cells have been compared. 2. Block of the permeability was assessed from the reduction in the net loss of K+ that followed the application of the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 (2 microM) to rabbit red cells suspended at a haematocrit of 1% in a low potassium solution ([K]0 0.12-0.17 mM) at 37 degrees C. Net movement of K+ was measured using a K+-sensitive electrode placed in the suspension. 3. The concentrations (microM +/- s.d.) of the compounds tested causing 50% inhibition of K+ loss were: quinine, 37 +/- 3; cetiedil, 26 +/- 1; the cetiedil congeners UCL 1269, UCL 1274 and UCL 1495, approximately 150, 8.2 +/- 0.1, 0.92 +/- 0.03 respectively; clotrimazole, 1.2 +/- 0.1; nitrendipine, 3.6 +/- 0.5 and charybdotoxin, 0.015 +/- 0.002. 4. The characteristics of the block suggested that compounds could be placed in two groups. For one set (quinine, cetiedil, and the UCL congeners), the concentration-inhibition curves were steeper (Hill coefficient, nH, > or = 2.7) than for the other (clotrimazole, nitrendipine, charybdotoxin) for which nH approximately 1. 5. Compounds in the first set alone became less active on raising the concentration of K+ in the external solution to 5.4 mM. 6. The rate of K+ loss induced by A23187 slowed in the presence of high concentrations of cetiedil and its analogues, suggesting a use-dependent component to the inhibitory action. This was not seen with clotrimazole. 7. The blocking action of the cetiedil analogue UCL 1274 could not be overcome by an increase in external Ca2+ and its potency was unaltered when K+ loss was induced by the application of Pb2+ (10 microM) rather than by A23187. 8. These results, taken with the findings of others, suggest that agents that block the red cell Ca2+-activated K+ permeability can be placed in two groups with different mechanisms of action. The differences can be explained by supposing that clotrimazole and charybdotoxin act at the outer face of the channel whereas cetiedil and its congeners may block within it, either at or near the K+ binding site that determines the flow of K+.  (+info)

Bcl-2 alters the balance between apoptosis and necrosis, but does not prevent cell death induced by oxidized low density lipoproteins. (4/1922)

Oxidized low density lipoproteins (oxLDL) participate in atherosclerosis plaque formation, rupture, and subsequent thrombosis. Because oxLDL are toxic to cultured cells and Bcl-2 protein prevents apoptosis, the present work aimed to study whether Bcl-2 may counterbalance the toxicity of oxLDL. Two experimental model systems were used in which Bcl-2 levels were modulated: 1) lymphocytes in which the (high) basal level of Bcl-2 was reduced by antisense oligonucleotides; 2) HL60 and HL60/B (transduced by Bcl-2) expressing low and high Bcl-2 levels, respectively. In cells expressing relatively high Bcl-2 levels (lymphocytes and HL60/B), oxLDL induced mainly primary necrosis. In cells expressing low Bcl-2 levels (antisense-treated lymphocytes, HL60 and ECV-304 endothelial cells), the rate of oxLDL-induced apoptosis was higher than that of primary necrosis. OxLDL evoked a sustained calcium rise, which is a common trigger to necrosis and apoptosis since both types of cell death were blocked by the calcium chelator EGTA. Conversely, a sustained calcium influx elicited by the calcium ionophore A23187 induced necrosis in cells expressing high Bcl-2 levels and apoptosis in cells expressing low Bcl-2 levels. This suggests that Bcl-2 acts downstream from the calcium peak and inhibits only the apoptotic pathway, not the necrosis pathway, thus explaining the apparent shift from oxLDL-induced apoptosis toward necrosis when Bcl-2 is overexpressed.  (+info)

Release of Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum increases mitochondrial [Ca2+] in rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. (5/1922)

1. The Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent indicator rhod-2 was used to measure mitochondrial [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]m) in single smooth muscle cells from the rat pulmonary artery, while simultaneously monitoring cytosolic [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i) with fura-2. 2. Application of caffeine produced an increase in [Ca2+]i and also increased [Ca2+]m. The increase in [Ca2+]m occurred after the increase in [Ca2+]i, and remained elevated for a considerable time after [Ca2+]i had returned to resting values. 3. The protonophore carbonyl cyanide p-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP), which causes the mitochondrial membrane potential to collapse, markedly attenuated the increase in [Ca2+]m following caffeine application and also increased the half-time for recovery of [Ca2+]i to resting values. 4. Activation of purinoceptors with ATP also produced increases in both [Ca2+]i and [Ca2+]m in these smooth muscle cells. In some cells, oscillations in [Ca2+]i were observed during ATP application, which produced corresponding oscillations in [Ca2+]m and membrane currents. 5. This study provides direct evidence that Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, either through ryanodine or inositol 1,4, 5-trisphosphate (InsP3) receptors, increases both cytosolic and mitochondrial [Ca2+] in smooth muscle cells. These results have potential implications both for the role of mitochondria in Ca2+ regulation in smooth muscle, and for understanding how cellular metabolism is regulated.  (+info)

Mitochondrial regulation of the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration and the InsP3-sensitive Ca2+ store in guinea-pig colonic smooth muscle. (6/1922)

1. Mitochondrial regulation of the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c) in guinea-pig single colonic myocytes has been examined, using whole-cell recording, flash photolysis of caged InsP3 and microfluorimetry. 2. Depolarization increased [Ca2+]c and triggered contraction. Resting [Ca2+]c was virtually restored some 4 s after the end of depolarization, a time when the muscle had shortened to 50 % of its fully relaxed length. The muscle then slowly relaxed (t = 17 s). 3. The decline in the Ca2+ transient was monophasic but often undershot or overshot resting levels, depending on resting [Ca2+]c. The extent of the overshoot or undershoot increased with increasing peak [Ca2+]c. 4. Carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP; 5 microM), which dissipates the mitochondrial proton electrochemical gradient and therefore prevents mitochondrial Ca2+ accumulation, slowed Ca2+ removal at high ( > 300 nM) but not at lower [Ca2+]c and abolished [Ca2+]c overshoots. Oligomycin B (5 microM), which prevents mitchondrial ATP production, affected neither the rate of decline nor the magnitude of the overshoot. 5. During depolarization, the global rhod-2 signal (which represents the mitochondrial matrix Ca2+ concentration, [Ca2+]m) rose slowly in a CCCP-sensitive manner during and for about 3 s after depolarization had ended. [Ca2+]m then slowly decreased over tens of seconds. 6. Inhibition of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ uptake with thapsigargin (100 nM) reduced the undershoot and increased the overshoot. 7. Flash photolysis of caged InsP3 (20 microM) evoked reproducible increases in [Ca2+]c. CCCP (5 microM) reduced the magnitude of the [Ca2+]c transients evoked by flash photolysis of caged InsP3. Oligomycin B (5 microM) did not reduce the inhibition of the InsP3-induced Ca2+ transient by CCCP thus minimizing the possibility that CCCP lowered ATP levels by reversing the mitochondrial ATP synthase and so reducing SR Ca2+ refilling. 8. While CCCP reduced the magnitude of the InsP3-evoked Ca2+ signal, the internal Ca2+ store content, as assessed by the magnitude of ionomycin-evoked Ca2+ release, did not decrease significantly. 9. [Ca2+]c decline in smooth muscle, following depolarization, may involve mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. Following InsP3-evoked Ca2+ release, mitochondrial uptake of Ca2+ may regulate the local [Ca2+]c near the InsP3 receptor so maintaining the sensitivity of the InsP3 receptor to release Ca2+ from the SR.  (+info)

Inhibition of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase impairs NO.-mediated endothelium-dependent relaxations. (7/1922)

The superoxide anion (O-2.) appears to be an important modulator of nitric oxide (NO.) bioavailability. The present study was designed to characterize the role of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) in endothelium-dependent relaxations. Cu/Zn SOD was inhibited with the Cu2+ chelator diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DETCA). In isolated canine basilar arteries, DETCA (7.6 x 10(-3) M) inhibited total vascular SOD activity by 46% (P < 0.0001, n = 6-8 dogs). DETCA (7.6 x 10(-3) M) significantly reduced relaxations to bradykinin and A-23187 (P < 0.05, n = 7-11). The inhibitory effect of DETCA was abolished by the O-2. scavenger 4,5-dihydroxy-1,3-benzenedisulfonic acid (Tiron; 9.4 x 10(-3) M; P < 0.05, n = 6-13). Tiron significantly potentiated the relaxations to bradykinin in control rings (P < 0.05, n = 13), and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 3 x 10(-4) M) abolished these relaxations (P < 0.0001, n = 6). DETCA and Tiron had no effect on the relaxations to diethylamine-NONOate or forskolin (P > 0.05, n = 6). Our results demonstrate that endothelium-dependent relaxations mediated by NO. are impaired after the inhibition of Cu/Zn SOD. Relaxations to bradykinin (but not A-23187) were significantly augmented by Tiron. Pharmacological scavenging of O-2. reverses the effect of Cu/Zn SOD inhibition.  (+info)

Sialyltransferase isoforms are phosphorylated in the cis-medial Golgi on serine and threonine residues in their luminal sequences. (8/1922)

ST6Gal-I (alpha2,6-sialyltransferase) is expressed as two isoforms, STTyr and STCys, which exhibit differences in catalytic activity, trafficking through the secretory pathway, and proteolytic processing and secretion. We have found that the ST6Gal-I isoforms are phosphorylated on luminal Ser and Thr residues. Immunoprecipitation of 35S- and 32P-labeled proteins expressed in COS-1 cells suggests that the STTyr isoform is phosphorylated to a greater extent than the STCys isoform. Analysis of domain deletion mutants revealed that STTyr is phosphorylated on stem and catalytic domain amino acids, whereas STCys is phosphorylated on catalytic domain amino acids. An endoplasmic reticulum retained/retrieved chimeric Iip33-ST protein demonstrates drastically lower phosphorylation than does the wild type STTyr isoform. This suggests that the bulk of the ST6Gal-I phosphorylation is occurring in the Golgi. Treatment of cells with the ionophore monensin does not significantly block phosphorylation of the STTyr isoform, suggesting that phosphorylation is occurring in the cis-medial Golgi prior to the monensin block. This study demonstrates the presence of kinase activities in the cis-medial Golgi and the substantial phosphorylation of the luminal sequences of a glycosyltransferase.  (+info)

After Tyson began labeling its chicken antibiotic-free, the USDA warned the company that such labels were not truthful, because Tyson regularly treats its birds feed with bacteria-killing ionophores. Tyson argued that ionophores are antimicrobials rather than antibiotics, but the USDA reiterated its policy that ionophores are antibiotics.. Because ionophores are not used to treat human disease, however, the poultry company suggested a compromise, accepted by the USDA in December, whereby Tyson would use a label reading raised without antibiotics that impact antibiotic resistance in humans.. Tysons competitors Perdue Farms Inc., Sanderson Farms Inc. and Foster Farms sued, under the banner of the Truthful Labeling Coalition. In May 2008, a federal judge ruled in their favor and told Tyson to stop using the label.. Not long after, on June 3, USDA inspectors discovered that in addition to using ionophores, Tyson was regularly injecting its chicken eggs with gentamicin, an antibiotic that has ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ionophoric Properties of Angiotensin II Peptides. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Kinetic Studies of the Hormone-Mediated Transport of Manganese Ions Across Phosphatidylcholine Bilayers. AU - Degani, Hadassa. AU - Lenkinski, Robert E.. PY - 1980/1/1. Y1 - 1980/1/1. N2 - The linear peptide hormones angiotensin II and [Asn1, Val5] angiotensin II are found to mediate the transport of Mn(II) ions across phosphatidylcholine bilayers. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) is applied to monitor the rate of transport of Mn(II) ions by measuring the rate of disappearance of the NMR signal of the choline methyl groups of the inner phospholipid layer. This rate of disappearance is analyzed in terms of a pseudo-first-order rate equation for the transport process. The rate of transport of Mn(II) varies linearly with both the concentrations of Mn(II) and angiotensin II (A-II) present, suggesting that the ions are transported in a complex with 1:1 stoichiometry. An analysis of the ...
Chemicals. Salinomycin was prepared conveniently by isolation of its sodium salt from commercially available veterinary premix - SACOX® following acidic extraction using the procedure described previously (Huczyński et al., 2012). The spectroscopic data of salinomycin were in agreement with previously published assignments (Huczyński et al., 2012). Monensin was purchased from Sigma-Aldrich.. Bacterial strains. Twelve clinical S. epidermidis strains and two reference strains: S. epidermidis ATCC 12228 and S. epidermidis ATCC 35984 were used in this study.. The clinical strains were isolated from blood of hospitalised patients. S. epidermidis ATCC 12228 was used in biofilm assay as a negative control (low biofilm-producer), S. epidermidis ATCC 35984 was used as positive control (high biofilm-producer).. Microorganisms were obtained from the collection of Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland.. Evaluation of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and ...
We are delighted to announce that Craig Franklin (University of Queensland, Australia) has been appointed as the next EiC of JEB, starting on 1 August. With research interests in animal ecophysiology and conservation physiology, Craig is already familiar with the journal, having been a Monitoring Editor since 2011. We are looking forward to welcoming him in his new role.. ...
A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies ...
In the present study we examined the possible role of p90Rskin pathways leading to neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells induced by nerve growth factor (NGF) and the calcium ionophore ionomycin....
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of a typical interphase 3T3 fibroblast consists of a compact perinuclear arrangement of cisternae and lamellae which can be observed by immunofluorescence with anti-endoplasmin. During mitosis the reticulum dissociates into small fragments from which it appears to re-assemble in the daughter cells. When interphase 3T3 cells are exposed to calcium ionophores, but not other ionophores, there is a similar dissociation of the ER into small uniform fragments, which are dispersed throughout the cytoplasm. Electron microscopy shows that the fragments consist of small vesicular structures and that essentially all of the rough ER except the nuclear envelope is dissociated. The dissociation of the ER by calcium ionophore is a relatively specific process since other organelles and supramolecular assemblies remain unaffected. When cells with dissociated ER are returned to normal medium, there is a rapid reassembly of the fragments into the continuous reticulum. In a proportion ...
Ionomycin was isolated from Streptomyces conglobatus as a potent Gram positive antibiotic. During isolation, it was recognised that ionomycin exhibits a very high affinity and selectivity for calcium ions, suggesting the metabolite acts as a calcium ionophore. More recently, ionomycin has been used in cell biology as a universal calcium ionophore to explore the role of calcium regulation in the cell ...
Buy A23187 - an affordable, high quality calcium ionophore from Hello Bio, a trusted supplier for life science researchers worldwide
Salinomycin is a monocarboxylic polyether ionophore isolated from Streptomyces albus that has been used for more than 30 years as an agricultural antibiotic to prevent coccidiosis in poultry and to improve nutrient absorption and feed efficiency in ruminants and swine. As a inonophore with strict selectivety for alkali ions and a strong preference for potassium, salinomycin interferes with transmembrane potassium potential and promotes the efflux of K+ ions from mitochondria and cytoplasm. Salinomycin has recently been shown to kill human cancer stem cells and to inhibit breast cancer growth and metastasis in mice. Salinomycin is also able to induce massive apoptosis in human cancer cells of different origins that display multiple mechanisms of drug and apoptosis resistance. Salinomycin activates an unconventional pathway of apoptosis in human cancer cells that may contribute to the breakdown of apoptosis resistance. The ability of salinomycin to effectively kill both cancer stem cells and ...
Boron compounds have been used extensively in organic synthesis for more than sixty years. Some of the best known reactions in synthesis, such as the Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling and the hydroboration reaction, involve boron compounds. Several natural products containing boron have been isolated in the last fifty years, including ionophoric macrodiolide antibiotics boromycin, borophycin, aplasmomycins A, B, and C, and tartrolons B, C, and E, as well as autoinducer-2.
FOWLER J. E. Seminars in Developmental Biology: Simple Systems for the Analysis of Important Developmental Problems. 6, 347-58, 1995 被引用文献1件 ...
The Psp system is a widely conserved stress response triggered by events that can affect the integrity of the cytoplasmic membrane and perhaps cause aberrant transmembrane ion gradients (reviewed in reference 10). Many stimuli that induce psp gene expression, such as heat, ethanol, osmotic shock, or proton ionophores, also cause numerous other transcriptional responses. However, a notable exception is the mislocalization of a secretin, which induces only the psp genes (27, 50). Furthermore, in Y. enterocolitica it may be that only psp null mutations cause severe and specific sensitivity to secretins (50). We certainly do not contend that the only role of the Psp system is to deal with secretin-induced stress. Rather, it may have evolved as a more general response to stresses that can compromise cytoplasmic membrane integrity, with secretin mislocalization being just one example. Nevertheless, there is a highly specific and important relationship between the Psp system and secretin-induced ...
Activation of PPI hydrolysis by carbachol elicits a robust translocation of CaM from membranes into cytosol which was previously shown to be mimicked by the addition of the calcium ionophore ionomycin and the phorbol ester TPA28 ...
This page contains information on the chemical Lonomycin A, 11-O-demethyl-23,27-didemethoxy-, monosodium salt (28S)- including: 2 synonyms/identifiers.
Calcium ionophore IV | C52H100N2O3 | CID 601910 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
The Ca2+ ionophore 4-Br A23187 is effective in increasing [Ca2+]i and eliciting secretion when ICRAC is inhibited by SK&F 96365. Antigen (Ag) (1 μg/ml) sti
Understanding the key aspects of the pathogenesis of alcoholic fatty liver disease particularly alterations to mitochondrial function remains to be resolved. The role of fatty acids in this regard requires further investigation due to their involvement in fatty liver disease and obesity. This study aimed to characterize the early effects of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids alone on liver mitochondrial function and during concomitant ethanol exposure using isolated liver mitochondria and VA-13 cells (Hep G2 cells that efficiently express alcohol dehydrogenase). Liver mitochondria or VA-13 cells were treated with increasing concentrations of palmitic or arachidonic acid (1 to 160 μM) for 24 h with or without 100 mM ethanol. The results showed that in isolated liver mitochondria both palmitic and arachidonic acids significantly reduced state 3 respiration in a concentration-dependent manner (P,0.001), implicating their ionophoric activities. Increased ROS production occurred in a ...
The novel laser desorption method laser-induced liquid beam ionization/desorption (LILBID) is applied to the mass spectrometric examination of selective ion binding by natural and synthetic ionophores in methanol solutions. The ions are desorbed from a liquid jet with an IR laser pulse and then extracted perpendicularly into a reflectron time-of-flight (RE-TOF) analyzer. LILBID studies on the natural ion carriers valinomycin and monensin A are presented, as well as those on the synthetic crown ethers 18-crown-6, diaza-18-crown-6, and benzo-15-crown-5. No fragment ions are detected, and the measured ion selectivity is in good qualitative agreement with published stability constants of the complexes. The observed specific recognition of silver ions by diaza-18-crown-6 can be rationalized by the principle of hard and soft acids and bases, which predicts stable complexes when the polarizabilities of Lewis acid and base are similar. Weak, noncovalent interactions like those in the sandwich complex ...
An enhanced antimicrobial antithrombogenic medical device is formed by using an oligodynamic metal and a noble metal with a polymer, and forming the mixture into a device. By using low concentrations of conductive polymers or ionophoric compounds, non-conductive, or highly plasticized polymers can be likewise blended into an iontophoretic-capable composition. The surface of the device may be treated with a solvent to remove the top surface of the polymer and create surface voids in the composition in order to expose previously encapsulated iontophoretic materials. This surface treatment results in a larger reaction area of the iontophoretic capable composition that produces larger yields of bacteriostatic oligodynamic ions for a longer duration thereby increasing the antimicrobial effectiveness of the composition. The surface of the antimicrobial composition may be treated with an anticoagulant such as heparin or heparin complexed with a quaternary ammonium salt for an added bacteriostatic effect.
Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) plays an important role in the recruitment of leukocytes to the endothelium, which causes inflammation and initiation of atherosclerosis. We have previously shown that endothelium-specific over-expression of class III deacetylase SIRT1 decreases atheroscler …
foobsr writes ScienceDaily in an article points to research conducted at Colorado State University which produces evidence that antibiotics used for animal growth stimulation are making their way into the environment, among them three ionophore antibiotics exclusively used in agricultural applicati...
Salinomycin and Naracin belong to the group of polyether antibiotics (ionophores) and are fermentation products of the fungi Streptomyces albus and S. Aureofaciens,...
Definition of ionomycin in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of ionomycin. What does ionomycin mean? Information and translations of ionomycin in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
Enniatins are a complex of depsipeptides produced by several Fusarium species. Typically, the complex contains 4 major components: A, A1, B and B1 together with minor amounts of enniatins C, D, E and F. The enniatins act as ionophores. Recently their effects on acyl-CoA cholesterol transferase, as nematocides and the selectivity of their antitumor action have received more focus ...
Previous studies have shown that local selective in situ injury of pial arteriolar endothelium eliminates the dilations produced by acetylcholine or bradykinin. One means of producing such injury employs a helium-neon laser in the presence of intravascular Evans blue. Since the endothelium-dependent dilations produced by acetylcholine or bradykinin may be initiated by interaction with endothelial surface receptors, it is possible that the light simply inactivates or destroys these receptors. We used calcium ionophore A-23187, another dilating agent known from in vitro studies of large arteries to be endothelium-dependent, which moves calcium into endothelial cells rather than interacting with surface receptors. Our data in 10 mice show that before injury, 10(-5)M A-23187 dilated arterioles to 109 +/- 2% of control diameter. After selective endothelial injury by helium-neon laser, dilation was essentially abolished (101 +/- 1% of baseline diameter; p less than 0.01, Wilcoxon test). Undamaged ...
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Acquiring therapy resistance is one of the major obstacles in the treatment of patients with cancer. The discovery of the cancer stem cell (CSC)-specific drug salinomycin raised hope for improved treatment options by targeting therapy-refractory CSCs and mesenchymal cancer cells. However, the occurrence of an acquired salinomycin resistance in tumor cells remains elusive. To study the formation of salinomycin resistance, mesenchymal breast cancer cells were sequentially treated with salinomycin in an in vitro cell culture assay, and the resulting differences in gene expression and salinomycin susceptibility were analyzed. We demonstrated that long-term salinomycin treatment of mesenchymal cancer cells resulted in salinomycin-resistant cells with elevated levels of epithelial markers, such as E-cadherin and miR-200c, a decreased migratory capability, and a higher susceptibility to the classic chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin. The formation of salinomycin resistance through the acquisition of ...
2] Velthuis, A. J., Sjoerd H. E. Van Den Worm, Sims, A. C., Baric, R. S., Snijder, E. J., & Hemert, M. J. (2010). Zn2 Inhibits Coronavirus and Arterivirus RNA Polymerase Activity In Vitro and Zinc Ionophores Block the Replication of These Viruses in Cell Culture. PLoS Pathogens, 6(11). doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1001176 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cyclosporin A inhibits initiation but not progression of human T cell proliferation triggered by phorbol esters and calcium ionophores. AU - Kumagai, N.. AU - Benedict, S. H.. AU - Mills, G. B.. AU - Gelfand, E. W.. PY - 1988/12/1. Y1 - 1988/12/1. N2 - Cyclosporin A (CsA) is a potent inhibitor of T lymphocyte proliferation induced by Ag and mitogens. In an attempt to further delineate the mechanism of action of CsA, we have examined its effects on T cell proliferation induced by the combination of the phorbol ester, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDB), and the calcium ionophore, ionomycin. T cells were rendered competent as the result of a 30-min initial incubation with both drugs, after which the drugs were washed out. Competence is defined as the ability to subsequently proliferate in response to exogenously added IL-2 or PDB in the second phase of the culture, but not to synthesize IL-2 or proliferative without these additions. Addition of CsA (1 μg/ml) to the cells in the ...
The transmembrane migration method has permitted quantification of the effect of drugs on human sperm motility. Calcium ionophores and calcium antagonists have paradoxical effects on motility depending on the stage of sperm maturity. Drugs with membrane stabilizing properties inhibit sperm motility. Propranolol, for example, has been shown to have contraceptive activity when administered intra-vaginally. Pharmacokinetic studies have shown that the systemic availability of vaginally administered propranolol is markedly greater than after oral administration. Seminal fluid concentrations of propranolol after oral administration are similar to those in plasma, but cervicovaginal mucus concentrations are much higher, and residence times much longer. The clinical consequences of these observations await elucidation.. ...
A molecule that allows ions to cross lipid bilayers. There are two classes: carriers and channels. Carriers, like valinomycin, form cage like structures around specific ions, diffusing freely through the hydrophobic regions of the bilayer.…
BAM15, ST056388, mitochondrial protonophore uncoupler that does not depolarize the plasma membrane IDNUMBER ST056388 Other identifiers: SBB001916, ST4027337, T4021910, TBB011486, T3149443, ST236891 Formula: C16H10F2N6O MW: 340. 29 NAME: (2-fluorophenyl)amine SMILES: c12c(nc(c(n1)Nc1c(F)cccc1)Nc1c(F)cccc1)non2 InChI=1S/C16H10F2N6O/c17-9-5-1-3-7-11(9)19-13-14(20-12-8-4-2-6-10(12)18)22-16-15(21-13)23-25-24-16/h1-8H,(H,19,21,23)(H,20,22,24) InChIKey=OEGJBRZAJRPPHL-UHFFFAOYSA-N MDL: MFCD00373912 Contact us to order....
DU TOIT, A.N et al. The effect of dietary lipid saturation and monensin-Na on the CLA content of lambs meat. S. Afr. j. anim. sci. [online]. 2013, vol.43, suppl.1, pp.75-80. ISSN 2221-4062.. A study was conducted to investigate the influence of an ionophore antibiotic and lipid saturation within a standard finishing diet on the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of lambs meat. Two identical sheep grower diets containing 145 g CP, 282 g NDF and 45 g EE per kg DM were formulated. One diet contained no ionophore antibiotic and the other monensin-Na included at 165 g/ton. These two basal diets were supplemented, according to a 2 x 3 factorial design, with three lipid sources [i.e. 20 g/kg of either beef tallow, sunflower oil or a CLA oil concentrate] differing in saturation level and fatty acid profile. Sixty South African Mutton Merino lambs (31.15 ± 2.83 kg) were randomly allocated to the six treatments. After dietary adaptation of 10 days, the lambs received their respective treatment ...
The cattle producer has at his disposal numerous tools and management practices which can serve to improve the health, performance and productivity of his animals. These can include various medications and antibiotics, ionophores, a host of implants, trace element compounds and vitamins of all sorts. One area that has gained a fair bit of press is that of the feeding of yeast cultures and direct-fed microbials.
Complete information for DDHD1 gene (Protein Coding), DDHD Domain Containing 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for DDHD2 gene (Protein Coding), DDHD Domain Containing 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
"Enniatin ionophores. Conformation and ion binding properties". International Journal of Peptide & Protein Research. 6 (6): 465- ... The enniatins act as ionophores that bind ammonium, and they have been proposed as replacements for nonactin in specific ...
Fuoss, Raymond M. (1958). "Conductance of Ionophores". Journal of the American Chemical Society. American Chemical Society (ACS ...
... s are ionophores. Their dimers form ion channel -like pores in cell membranes and cellular organelles of bacteria and ... Dimers are long enough to span cellular lipid bilayers and thus function as ion channel -type of ionophores. Gramicidin mixture ...
Ionophores work by improving both feed efficiency and growth rate and lower methane production as one result. Ionophores have ... The most common form of antibiotics are called ionophores. Ionophores were originally developed as coccidiostats for poultry ... Prince, Stephen D. (April 11, 2003). Ionophores (PDF) (Student Research Summary). Texas A&M University. Archived from the ...
These electrodes are typical ion exchange resin membrane electrodes, using valinomycin, a potassium ionophore, as the ion ...
ISBN 978-3-527-30673-2. Sperelakis, Nicholas; Sperelakis, Nick (January 11, 2012). "Chapter 4: Ionophores in Planar Lipid ...
PBT2 Ionophore Albert, A.; Phillips, J. N. (1956). "264. Ionization Constants of Heterocyclic Substances. Part II. Hydroxy- ...
ionophore Moon, Sung-Kwon; Jung, Sun-Young; Choi, Yung-Hyun; Lee, Young-Choon; Patterson, Cam; Kim, Cheorl-Ho (2004). "PDTC, ...
It is shown that a synergistic effect in some biological activities and settings may occur when ionophores are combined with ... By binding different metal ions and serving as an ionophore, it accelerates the intracellular uptake of those ions and ... Thujaplicins Tropolone Ionophore Cupressaceae β-Thujaplicin at Sigma-Aldrich "Hinokitiol - Product Information" (PDF). www. ... The hydrophilic center binds metal ions and form ionophore-ion complexes. Hinokitiol and other thujaplicins have been mainly ...
Calcium ionophores are also ideal to induce capacitation. Adding heparin to capacitation inducing medium mimics the secretion ...
It is also an ionophore. It was isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces griseus. GRÄFE, U.; SCHADE, W.; ROTH, M.; RADICS, L.; ...
Zinc ionophores show antiviral activity against Equine viral arteritis. The virus causing EVA was first identified following an ... Equine arteritis virus leader TRS hairpin (LTH) Virology Ionophore "Equine Viral Arteritis: Introduction". The Merck Veterinary ... "Zn2+ Inhibits Coronavirus and Arterivirus RNA Polymerase Activity In Vitro and Zinc Ionophores Block the Replication of These ...
She has looked at iron and copper as ionophores; which are important in the virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans. Franz also ...
IP receptors bind with ionophores that induce ADP and serotonin secretion. PGE1 inhibits the secretion of factors that ... Fenstein, MB; Fraser, C (1975). "Human platelet secretion and aggregation induced by calcium ionophores. Inhibition by PGE1 and ...
... produces the ionophore valinomycin. List of Streptomyces species LPSN bacterio.net Straininfo of ...
... is an antibacterial and coccidiostat ionophore therapeutic drug. Salinomycin and its derivatives exhibit high ... "Polyether ionophores-promising bioactive molecules for cancer therapy", Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 2012,22, 7002 ... "Anticancer Activity of Polyether Ionophore-Salinomycin". Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. 15 (5): 575-591. doi: ...
Ionophore Beef cattle and sheep; promotes milk production in dairy cows[9][10] ... Some drugs listed below are ionophores, which are not antibiotics and do not pose any potential risk to human health. ... By 2014, Perdue had also phased out ionophores from its hatchery and began using the "antibiotic free" labels on its ... The rest were drug classes like ionophores, which are not used in human medicine.[64] ...
Ionophores (monensin, lasalocid), their structures, antibacterial activity and chemical modifications. Ion channels, proton ...
Fluorosurfactant Ionophore Stephen K. Ritter (January 2006). "Crystal Ball On The Environment: Detective work and expertise are ...
... probably because Diodoquin act as a zinc ionophore. Ionophore Ghaskadbi S, Vaidya VG (March 1989). "In vivo antimutagenic ... Aggett, P.J.; Delves, H.T.; Harries, J.T.; Bangham, A.D. (March 1979). "The possible role of Diodoquin as a zinc ionophore in ...
... s are considered to be generally safe.[citation needed] Hinokitiol Tropolone Ionophore ERDTMAN, HOLGER; GRIPENBERG, ...
... acts as an H+, K+, Pb2+ ionophore. Most commonly it is an antiporter of H+ and K+. In the past nigericin was used as ...
Friedberg I (September 1977). "The effect of ionophores on phosphate and arsenate transport in Micrococcus lysodeikticus". FEBS ...
Calcium ionophore treatment is used to artificially activate the oocyte. This treatment may be necessary as globozoospermic ... Dedkova, E. N.; Sigova, A. A.; Zinchenko, V. P. (2000-01-01). "Mechanism of action of calcium ionophores on intact cells: ... It has been found that treating globozoospermia with ICSI along with oocyte activation by calcium ionophore (an ion carrier ... ionophore-resistant cells". Membrane & Cell Biology. 13 (3): 357-368. ISSN 1023-6597. PMID 10768486. Karaca, Nilay; Akpak, ...
... confirming it acts as an ionophore. Compared to other ionophores, however, bafilomycin has a low affinity for K+. In many ... Bafilomycins have also been found to act as ionophores, transporting potassium K+ across biological membranes and leading to ... Bafilomycin acts as an ionophore, meaning it can transfer K+ ions across biological membranes. Typically, the mitochondrial ...
Saunders, M. J.; P. K. Hepler (1982). "Calcium ionophore A23187 stimulates cytokinin-like mitosis in Funaria". Science. 217 ( ...
Nanotechnology Supramolecular chemistry Macrocycles Amphiphile Ionophore Membrane biophysics Membrane protein Voltage-gated ion ... these corresponds to ionophore, detergent, and ion channel transporters. While synthetic ion channel research attempts to ...
Calcium Ionophore, Antibiotic A23187 and Calcium Ionophore A23187. It is produced at fermentation of Streptomyces ... The ionophore is used in laboratories to increase intracellular Ca2+ levels in intact cells. It also uncouples oxidative ... It also acts as a divalent cation ionophore, allowing these ions to cross cell membranes, which are usually impermeable to them ... In IVF field, Ca Ionophore can be used in case of low fertilization rate after ICSI procedure, particularly with ...
Catterall, William A. (10 December 1977). "Activation of the action potential Na+ ionophore by neurotoxins. An allosteric model ...
Also, incorporation of ionophores like Monensin in the cells facilitates elevation of pH. This is because of their capability ...
... unlike carrier ionophores. Examples of channel-forming ionophores are gramicidin A and nystatin. Ionophores that transport ... Ionophores can be selective to a particular ion but may not be exclusive to it. Ionophores facilitate the transport of ions ... An ionophore (from Greek ion and -phore, "ion carrier") is a chemical species that reversibly binds ions. Many ionophores are ... However, these ionophores become unable to transport ions under very low temperatures. An example of a carrier ionophore is ...
... ranchers should consider using a supplement containing an ionophore in the growing diet of the heifers. Ionophore is the ... Heifers that have been fed an ionophore will not be eligible to be sold in most "natural" or "organic" marketing programs.. ( ... Research (Moseley et al., 1977) has shown that ionophores, such as monensin and lasalocid, will hasten onset of puberty in ... There is an additional benefit that has often been observed when replacement heifers are fed a diet with an ionophore. The ...
Circular Dichroism Circular Dichroism Spectrum Circular Dichroism Band Liganding Moiety Neutral Ionophore These keywords were ... Painter G.R., Pressman B.C. (1982) Dynamic aspects of ionophore mediated membrane transport. In: Vögtle F. (eds) Host Guest ... A., Ivanov, V. T., Shkrob, A. M.: The Chemistry and Membrane Activity of Peptide Ionophores, in: Molecular Mechanisms of ... Painter, G. R., Pressman, B. C.: The Conformational Dynamics of the Carboxylic Ionophore Lasalocid A Underlying Cation ...
Calcium Ionophore A23187 hemimagnesium salt for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, ... Calcium Ionophore A23187 hemimagnesium salt Synonym: A23187 hemimagnesium salt, Antibiotic A 23187 hemimagnesium salt, ... Ionophore highly selective for Ca2+. Potentiates responses to NMDA but not quisqualate. In cell culture, stimulates nitric ... Biochemicals and Reagents, Calcium Ionophores, Calcium Signaling Research Tools, Cell Biology, Cell Signaling and Neuroscience ...
Cationic calix[4]arenes as anion-selective ionophores Irene Izzo,*a Sabina Licen,b Nakia Maulucci,a Giuseppina Autore,c ... Cationic calix[4]arenes as anion-selective ionophores I. Izzo, S. Licen, N. Maulucci, G. Autore, S. Marzocco, P. Tecilla and F ...
Ionophore are feed additives used to improve animal body weight gain and feed efficiency in beef cattle diets. These additives ... The majority of ionophores are provided to growing cattle, but mature cows can benefit from ionophores. Ionophores are ... What Are Ionophores?. Ionophores are feed additives used to improve animal body weight gain and feed efficiency in beef cattle ... Ionophore. Concentration, mg/day. Calf body weight, lb.. Control suppl. gain, lb./day. Ionophore suppl., gain, lb./day. ...
Dynamic electrochemistry with ionophore based ion-selective membranes G. A. Crespo and E. Bakker, RSC Adv., 2013, 3, 25461 DOI ...
Effect of calcium ionophores on early development in fucoid algae * * Hable Whitney E. HABLE Whitney E. ... Ionophore A23187 stops tip growth, but not cytoplasmic streaming, in pollen tubes of Lilium longiflorum. HERTH W. ...
Selective Electrodes Containing Ionophore-Functionalized Polymeric Microspheres. Shane Peper1,2 and Chad Gonczy1 ... Selective Electrodes Containing Ionophore-Functionalized Polymeric Microspheres," International Journal of Electrochemistry, ...
... plastic membrane coatings containing ionophores were applied. These functionalized ZnO nanorods sensors showed a high ... specific ionophore (DB18C6). All chemicals were from Sigma-Aldrich-Fluka. The ZnO-coated wires were dipped two times into and ... 2. Ionophores for potentiometric and optical sensors," Chemical Reviews, vol. 98, no. 4, pp. 1593-1687, 1998. View at: ... Studies on Calcium Ion Selectivity of ZnO Nanowire Sensors Using Ionophore Membrane Coatings,. Journal of Nanotechnology,. vol ...
Gain a better understanding of how new beef industry requirements have impacted antibiotic and ionophore usage in cattle over ... Ionophore usage. Ionophores are still medicated feed and dosages are very important when using such products. ... Ionophore feeds. A confusing point in all this is that we can still see "medicated feed" in mills that can be purchased without ... Ionophores are used by most feedlots in the country and have been shown to have a positive return for the majority of ...
Anticancer Activity of Polyether Ionophore-Salinomycin. Author(s): Michał Antoszczak, Adam Huczyński. Department of Bioorganic ... Keywords:Anticancer activity, Apoptosis, Cell proliferation, CSC, Polyether ionophores, Sensitizing effect.. Abstract:Since the ... Michał Antoszczak and Adam Huczyński, "Anticancer Activity of Polyether Ionophore-Salinomycin", Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal ...
Calcium ionophore IV , C52H100N2O3 , CID 601910 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, ...
Ionophore toxicosis, turkeys and chickens. Ionophore toxicosis in turkeys and chickens often results in rear limb weakness from ...
Effects of ionophore-mediated transport on the cardiac resting potential Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ...
Eyes excised from Xenopus embryos at stages 24 to 25 were cultured for 4 to 6 hours in a medium containing the ionophore X537A ... Premature specification of the retina in embryonic Xenopus eyes treated with ionophore X537A ... Premature specification of the retina in embryonic Xenopus eyes treated with ionophore X537A ... Premature specification of the retina in embryonic Xenopus eyes treated with ionophore X537A ...
As the different ionophores had no effect (P ,0.05) on any of the tested parameters, it is of special interest to note the ... Even though all ionophores are fermentation products, it is important that they should be viewed as discrete chemical entities ... Dietary treatment with ionophores in feedlot finisher diets for lambs had no effect on any of the feedlot performance ... Ionophores: Their effect on production efficiency and mode of action. J. Anim. Sci. 58, 1465-1483. [ Links ]. ...
... with the calcium ionophore A23187 (0, 1, 5, 10 µM) to promote somatic... ... Dedkova EN, Sigova AA, Zinchenko VP (2000) Mechanism of action of calcium ionophores on intact cells: ionophore-resistant cells ... Coconut Somatic embryogenesis Calcium ionophore A23187 Cn SERK This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check ... The ionophore treatment also promoted a change of pattern of the expression of the CnSERK gene during embryogenic callus ...
Drug: Ca Ionophore A23187 Sibling oocytes are to be randomized to artificially activated using Calcium ionophore in cases with ... Experimental: Ca ionophore Artificial activation of the oocytes using Calcium ionophore in the cases of severe male factor ... Ionophores. Calcium Ionophores. Bone Density Conservation Agents. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Membrane Transport Modulators ... Can Calcium Ionophore Application Enhance the ICSI Outcomes in Severe Male Factor Infertility?. The safety and scientific ...
Antiviral Activity of Zinc Ionophores Pyrithione and Hinokitiol against Picornaviral Infections. B. M. Krenn, E. Gaudernak, B. ... Antiviral Activity of Zinc Ionophores Pyrithione and Hinokitiol against Picornaviral Infections. B. M. Krenn, E. Gaudernak, B. ... Antiviral Activity of Zinc Ionophores Pyrithione and Hinokitiol against Picornaviral Infections. B. M. Krenn, E. Gaudernak, B. ... Antiviral Activity of Zinc Ionophores Pyrithione and Hinokitiol against Picornaviral Infections Message Subject (Your Name) has ...
Ionophores A-23187 and 4-Bromo A-23187. The Ca2+ ionophore A-23187 (A1493, Figure 19.8.7) is commonly used for in situ ... Figure 19.8.7 Chemical structures of the ionophores A-23187 (R = H, A1493) and 4-bromo A-23187 (R = Br, B1494).. ... Brominated A-23187 (4-bromo A-23187, B1494; Figure 19.8.7), which is essentially nonfluorescent, is the best ionophore for use ... is an effective Ca2+ ionophore that is commonly used both to modify intracellular Ca2+ concentrations and to calibrate ...
Inhibition of calcium ionophore (A23187) stimulated LTB4 formation in human neutrophils. ...
B. C. Pressman, Biological applications of ionophores, Ann. Rev. Biochem. 45:501 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... F. A. Lattanzio Jr., A study of the effects of carboxylic ionophores on the isolated rabbit heart, M.S. Thesis, Univ. of Miami ... M. Dobler, "Ionophores and their Structures", Wiley-Interscience, New York (1982).Google Scholar ... N. T. deGuzman and B. C. Pressman, The inotropic effects of the calcium ionophore X-537A in the anesthetized dog, Circulation ...
Effects of calcium ionophores on the transport and distribution of calcium in isolated cells and in liver and kidney slices ... Effect of the Ca^,2+, ionophore X-537A and a heat challenge on the distribution of mouse MEPP amplitude histograms KRIEBEL ME. ... Effects of the ionophore X-537A on acetylcholine release at the frog neuromuscular junction KITA H. ... Ionophore mediated equilibration of calcium ion gradients in fragmented sarcoplasmic reticulum SCARPA A. ...
Liposomes containing copper and the copper ionophore neocuproine were prepared and characterized for in vitro and in vivo ... Liposomes containing copper and the copper ionophore neocuproine were prepared and characterized for in vitro and in vivo ... Development and In Vivo Application of a Water-Soluble Anticancer Copper Ionophore System Using a Temperature-Sensitive ... "Development and In Vivo Application of a Water-Soluble Anticancer Copper Ionophore System Using a Temperature-Sensitive ...
Combined ionophore treatment permeabilized the cytoplasmic membrane of E. coli in an ion-specific manner and allowed the ... Manipulation of intracellular magnesium content in polymyxin B nonapeptide-sensitized Escherichia coli by ionophore A23187.. T ... Escherichia coli B cells were sensitized to ionophore A23187 by polymyxin B nonapeptide, and the induced magnesium and ... Manipulation of intracellular magnesium content in polymyxin B nonapeptide-sensitized Escherichia coli by ionophore A23187. ...
Buy Hydrogen ionophore II (CAS 70268-36-9), a product for proteomics research, from Santa Cruz. Molecular Formula: C24H43N, ... Hydrogen ionophore II CAS: 70268-36-9, MF: C24H43N, MW: 345.60, Purity: ≥98% *Home. ... Hydrogen ionophore II (CAS 70268-36-9) *bvseo_sdk, java_sdk, bvseo-3.2.0 ... H+-ionophore showing a linear response from pH 2 to 9 in an optimized membrane composition. ...
Endothelium dependence of dilation of pial arterioles in mouse brain by calcium ionophore.. W I Rosenblum, G H Nelson ... We used calcium ionophore A-23187, another dilating agent known from in vitro studies of large arteries to be endothelium- ... Endothelium dependence of dilation of pial arterioles in mouse brain by calcium ionophore. ... Endothelium dependence of dilation of pial arterioles in mouse brain by calcium ionophore. ...
Calcium ionophore A23187 (188 ng/ml) was added to respective wells 48 h later. After a total 96-h culture period, cells were ... In the studies presented here we show that under serum-free conditions, LPS, TNF-α, and calcium ionophore (CI) A23187 are each ... 3 Abbreviations used in this paper: DC, dendritic cell; CI, calcium ionophore; CsA, cyclosporin A; Mφ-SFM, macrophage serum- ... Calcium ionophore-treated peripheral blood monocytes and dendritic cells rapidly display characteristics of activated dendritic ...
An ion-sensitive membrane based on polyvinylchloride (PVC) doped with the ionophore was deposited on the Si3N4/SiO2/Si-p/Cu-Al ... helicene ionophore has been developed. An ion-sensitive membrane based on polyvinylchloride (PVC) doped with the ionophore was ... Electrochemical Capacitive K + EMIS Chemical Sensor Based on the Dibromoaza[7]helicene as an Ionophore for Potassium Ions ... helicene as an Ionophore for Potassium Ions Detection. Electroanalysis, Wiley-VCH Verlag, 2016, 28 (12), pp.2892-2899. 〈10.1002 ...
  • Ionophore A23187 stops tip growth, but not cytoplasmic streaming, in pollen tubes of Lilium longiflorum. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The present study reports the effect of treatment of coconut embryogenic structure explants (derived from embryogenic callus) with the calcium ionophore A23187 (0, 1, 5, 10 µM) to promote somatic embryogenesis under in vitro conditions. (springer.com)
  • It is proposed that if the use of ionophore A23187 treatment is coupled with an embryogenic callus multiplication process there could be a potentially greater increase in the efficiency of the formation of somatic embryos and plantlets of coconut. (springer.com)
  • Manipulation of intracellular magnesium content in polymyxin B nonapeptide-sensitized Escherichia coli by ionophore A23187. (asm.org)
  • Escherichia coli B cells were sensitized to ionophore A23187 by polymyxin B nonapeptide, and the induced magnesium and potassium ion fluxes were studied. (asm.org)
  • Using a series of 5' deletions, linker-scanning, and internal deletion mutations spanning a 100-bp region from -179 to -80, we correlate the cis-acting regulatory elements mediating the activation of grp78 by malfolded proteins, glycosylation block, and the calcium ionophore A23187. (asm.org)
  • Although ionophore A23187 mimicked the effects of the adrenergic amines, vasopressin was completely without effect on either phenylalanine hydroxylation or enzyme phosphorylation. (biochemj.org)
  • The calcium ionophore A23187 can reversibly induce the expression of two glucose-regulated genes, p3C5 and p4A3. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Calcium ionophore A23187 induces expression of glucose-regulated genes and their heterologous fusion genes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The Ca2+ ionophore A23187 (0.1 microM) triggered the rapid release of 20:4 metabolites from LPS-primed macrophages but not from cells not previously exposed to LPS. (rupress.org)
  • In the present study, the effects of the local anesthetic chlorpromazine and of the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 were compared. (rupress.org)
  • The induction of intracellular calcium mobilization through the use of the calcium ionophore A23187 (0.1, 0.5, 1, and 2 μM) resulted in a dose-dependent suppression of PA activity. (elsevier.com)
  • Zn(2+), derived from cell preparation, partly attenuates Ca(2+)-dependent cell death induced by A23187, calcium ionophore, in rat thymocytes. (hellobio.com)
  • Platelet particle formation by anti GPIIIa49-66 Ab, Ca2+ ionophore A23187, and phorbol myristate acetate is induced by reactive oxygen species and inhibited by dexamethasone blockade of platelet phospholipase A2, 12-lipoxygenase, and NADPH oxidase. (hellobio.com)
  • Role of calcium ionophore A23187-induced activation of IkappaB kinase 2 in mast cells. (hellobio.com)
  • The following papers have cited the use of Calcium Ionophore A23187 (HB1000) from Hello Bio. (hellobio.com)
  • After stimulation of MM6 cells by phorbol myristate acetate and ionophore A23187, a perinuclear ring pattern was observed for 5LO. (pnas.org)
  • Lenses from 4-week- old (young group) and 12-week-old (adult group) rats were divided into four subgroups: noncultured control, cultured control, cultured in calcium ionophore A23187, and cultured in ionophore plus calpain inhibitor E64. (elsevier.com)
  • The mechanism for transport of divalent cations across phospholipid bilayers by the ionophore A23187 was investigated. (elsevier.com)
  • Analysis and comparison with equilibrium constants for protonation and complexation show that A23187 and its metal:ionophore complexes bind near the membrane-water interface in the lipid polar-head region. (elsevier.com)
  • The transport cycle can be described as follows: a 1:1 complex is formed between the membrane bound A23187-(Am-) and the aqueous divalent cation with dissociation constant K1 approximately 4.6 x 10(-4) M. This is in equilibrium with a 1:2 (metal:ionophore) complex (K2 approximately 3.0 x 10(-4) [ionophore/lipid]) that is responsible for transporting the divalent cations across the membrane. (elsevier.com)
  • Kolber, MA & Haynes, DH 1981, ' Fluorescence study of the divalent cation-transport mechanism of ionophore A23187 in phospholipid membranes ', Biophysical journal , vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 369-391. (elsevier.com)
  • In contrast to other agents able to induce apoptosis of cultured cells, Ca 2+ ionophore A23187 was shown to elicit direct activation of intracellular signal(s). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The data illustrate that the ionophore A23187 exerts its pro-apoptotic effect by promoting a complex pattern of genetic changes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Ca2+ ionophore 4-Br A23187 is effective in increasing [Ca2+]i and eliciting secretion when ICRAC is inhibited by SK&F 96365. (nih.gov)
  • When the ionophore 4-Br A23187 was subsequently added, an increase in intracellular Ca2+ and resumption of secretory events were observed. (nih.gov)
  • The divalent cation ionophore A23187 (0.1-5 μM) produced a transient increase in P(s) to a peak value (within 1-3 min), followed (after 4-8 min) by a sustained increase in permeability (16-43% of peak values). (elsevier.com)
  • Curry, FE, Joyner, WL & Rutledge, JC 1990, ' Graded modulation of frog microvessel permeability to albumin using ionophore A23187 ', American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology , vol. 258, no. 2 27-2. (elsevier.com)
  • Ionophore' is the generalized name for the feed additives monensin and lasalocid. (agweb.com)
  • has shown that ionophores, such as monensin and lasalocid, will hasten onset of puberty in heifers (Scroll down to view Table 1).Age to puberty decreased and percent cyclicity at the beginning of the breeding season increased in monensin fed heifers, resulting in increased pregnancy rate during a short breeding season. (agweb.com)
  • There are three commercially available ionophores in the United States: monensin (Rumensin), lasalocid (Bovatec), and laidlomycin propionate (Cattlyst). (aces.edu)
  • Dietary treatments consisted of monensin, lasalocid, salinomycin or a control diet with no ionophore inclusion. (scielo.org.za)
  • R. K. Saini, R. K. Hester, P. Somani, and B. C. Pressman, Characterization of the coronary vasodilator and hemodynamic actions of monensin, a carboxylic ionophore, J. Cardiovasc. (springer.com)
  • Other ionophores approved for other species that have caused intoxications in swine are monensin, salinomycin, lasalocid and maduramicin (Table 1). (nationalhogfarmer.com)
  • Nine steers (300 to 350 kg body weight) were divided into three groups and received either no ionophore, monensin or lasalocid in a 70% cracked corn basal diet for the entire experiment. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Potentiation by metal ions of the efficacy of the ionophores, monensin and tetronasin, towards four species of ruminal bacteria. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A recent recall of horse feed contaminated with the ionophore antibiotic monensin has prompted many questions. (thehorse.com)
  • The aim of the study was to examine the activity of two ionophores - salinomycin and monensin against clinical S. epidermidis strains , using MIC/MBC method and biofilm formation inhibition assay. (pjmonline.org)
  • Ionophores are not used therapeutically and have a different mode of action than therapeutic antibiotics. (aces.edu)
  • Ionophores are not affected by the new Veterinary Feed Directive from the Food and Drug Administration unless used in combination with medically important antibiotics. (aces.edu)
  • Ionophores will target specific ruminant bacteria and inhibit their ability to reproduce without affecting general bacteria the way most antibiotics would. (farmanddairy.com)
  • Therefore, ionophores do not contribute to the cultural overuse of antibiotics, which has created antibiotic-resistant bacteria that have made so many people sick, especially in hospital settings. (farmanddairy.com)
  • Carboxylic polyether ionophore antibiotics, produced by various strains of Streptomyces spp. (scielo.org.za)
  • The first neutral ionophores used in ISE membranes were antibiotics. (axonmedchem.com)
  • Ionophores are a group of antibiotics used as feed additives to control bacterial and coccidial infections and to promote growth in poultry, cattle and swine. (nationalhogfarmer.com)
  • Salinomycin and Naracin belong to the group of polyether antibiotics (ionophores) and are fermentation products of the fungi Streptomyces albus and S. aureofaciens , respectively. (europroxima.com)
  • It is also named as Antibiotic K178/X-464, Helixin C, Azalomycin M or Polyetherin A. Both salinomycin and gramicidin are the antibiotics that also work as K + ionophores. (letstalkacademy.com)
  • Removal of antibiotics from the poultry industry in the U.S. today includes medically important antibiotics given in-ovo at the hatchery (gentamicin) but also non-medically important ionophore anticoccidials given in the feed. (msucares.com)
  • For example, ionophores are classified as not medically important because they have no applications in human medicine, but they are also classified as antibiotics in the United States. (msucares.com)
  • Both tested ionophore antibiotics showed the highest activity against planktonic bacteria of clinical as well as standard S. epidermidis strains and effectively inhibited the formation of bacterial biofilm. (pjmonline.org)
  • Some drugs listed below are ionophores , which are not antibiotics and do not pose any potential risk to human health. (wikipedia.org)
  • Michał Antoszczak and Adam Huczyński, "Anticancer Activity of Polyether Ionophore-Salinomycin", Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (2015) 15: 575. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Ionophores (especially salinomycin) have also exhibited effectiveness in the treatment of coccidial infections in poultry and cattle (Zinn, 1986). (scielo.org.za)
  • The Ionophore ELISA is a competitive enzyme immunoassay for the screening and quantitative analysis of Salinomycin and Naracin in pet feed and tissue. (europroxima.com)
  • The Ionophore ELISA is a competitive enzyme immunoassay based on antibodies directed against salinomycin. (pacificlab.vn)
  • Other ionophores include naracin, salinomycin, and laidlomycin. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Many ionophores are lipid-soluble entities that transport ions across the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structurally, an ionophore contains a hydrophilic center and a hydrophobic portion that interacts with the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple synthetic membrane-spanning ionophores have also been synthesized. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ionophores that transport hydrogen ions (H+, i.e. protons) across the cell membrane are called protonophores. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ionophores select against Gram-positive bacteria and protozoa in the rumen due to their cell membrane composition, while typically Gram-negative bacteria are resistant to ionophores. (aces.edu)
  • In order to adapt the sensors for calcium ion measurements in biological fluids with sufficient selectivity and stability, plastic membrane coatings containing ionophores were applied. (hindawi.com)
  • Combined ionophore treatment permeabilized the cytoplasmic membrane of E. coli in an ion-specific manner and allowed the manipulation of intracellular Mg2+ content from the outside. (asm.org)
  • H+-ionophore showing a linear response from pH 2 to 9 in an optimized membrane composition. (scbt.com)
  • A K+-sensitive capacitive electrolyte-membrane-insulator-semiconductor (EMIS) based on a novel dibromoaza[7]helicene ionophore has been developed. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • An ion-sensitive membrane based on polyvinylchloride (PVC) doped with the ionophore was deposited on the Si3N4/SiO2/Si-p/Cu-Al transducer. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • α-Dihydropicrotoxinin binding sites appear to be related to the physiological action of the drug, and this radioactive toxin may provide a useful probe for postsynaptic membrane macromolecules that regulate the inhibitory chloride ionophore at sites distinct from the γ-aminobutyric acid receptor. (aspetjournals.org)
  • It is a polymer in ringed form, which increases the permeability of K +. It is an ionophore that is capable of transporting potassium ions through the cell membrane. (agscientific.com)
  • Sodium ionophore III is suitable for the assay of sodium activity in blood, plasma, serum, etc. with a solvent polymeric membrane electrode. (axonmedchem.com)
  • We found that elevating cytoplasmic zinc using ionophores relaxed rat and human isolated blood vessels and caused hyperpolarization of smooth muscle membrane. (nature.com)
  • Non-selective calcium ionophore which facilitates transport of Ca 2+ across the plasma membrane. (hellobio.com)
  • While Quercetin Is a Proven Zinc Ionophore (It Transports Zinc Across The Cell Membrane), Standard Quercetin Is Badly Absorbed In Your Body And Has Limited Results In Helping Zinc Absorption. (revgenetics.com)
  • To Overcome This Limitation To Boost And Maximize Zinc Absorption Through The Cell Membrane To Where Its Needed The Most, We Use New Nano Technology (Nano Quercetin In Micelles) To Increase This Natural Zinc Ionophore Absorption Dramatically. (revgenetics.com)
  • Lazu Virocin TM is a natural Zinc Ionophore (Zinc Transporter) which utilises the proven ability of Quercetin (having no toxic side effects of other ionophores) to actively transport the body's natural zinc reserves across the cell membrane and into the cell where it can be far more effective. (lazu.co.nz)
  • Lazu Virocin TM is not just a zinc supplement, it is a natural Zinc Ionophore which utilises the proven ability of Quercetin (having no toxic side effects of other ionophores) to act as the carrier to transport the body's natural zinc reserves, across the cell membrane. (lazu.co.nz)
  • Use a Zinc Ionophore, which is a special class of compound that is known to bind with zinc and then move it across the cell membrane and into the cell where it can be most effective. (lazu.co.nz)
  • Ionophore is a fat-soluble substance that can transport non-fat soluble elements across the cell membrane. (prnewswire.com)
  • The neutral (protonated) form of the ionophore binds strongly to the membrane, with a high quantum yield relative to that in the aqueous phase. (elsevier.com)
  • The negatively charged form of the ionophore binds somewhat less strongly, with a lower quantum yield, and does not move across the membrane. (elsevier.com)
  • An apparent rate constant (kapp) for transport of the ionophore across the membrane was determined from the rate of fluorescence changes observed in stopped-flow rapid kinetic experiments. (elsevier.com)
  • The variation of kapp was studied as a function of pH, temperature, ionophore concentration, membrane lipid composition, and divalent cation concentration and type. (elsevier.com)
  • The membrane was prepared, based on CMCR as an ionophore, sodium tetrakis(4-fluorophenyl) borate (NaTFPB) as a lipophilic ionic additive, and dioctylphthalate (DOP) as a plasticizer. (elsevier.com)
  • In the second, a Ca(2+) ionophore was used to transport Ca(2+) randomly across the plasma membrane. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, zinc ionophores lowered blood pressure in anaesthetized rats and increased blood flow without affecting heart rate. (nature.com)
  • Zn(2+) inhibits coronavirus and arterivirus RNA polymerase activity in vitro and zinc ionophores block the replication of these viruses in cell culture. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Increasing the intracellular Zn(2+) concentration with zinc-ionophores like pyrithione (PT) can efficiently impair the replication of a variety of RNA viruses, including poliovirus and influenza virus. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Virocin™ contains one of the few natural Zinc ionophores known to exist. (lazu.co.nz)
  • 3 Synthetic Zinc Ionophores have Gained much Media Attention and have been Criticised for their Lack of Effect. (lazu.co.nz)
  • Certain " synthetic" versions of Zinc Ionophores have been widely criticised for lacking any significant effect in recent studies. (lazu.co.nz)
  • Many of these "synthetic" Zinc Ionophores tested had examined just the Zinc Ionophore alone, but all Zinc Ionophores need to have sufficient levels of zinc within the body to be effective. (lazu.co.nz)
  • Zinc-ionophores are zinc transporters in and out of the cell and can increase the effects of zinc in the cell. (prnewswire.com)
  • It's known for its antimicrobial , antiviral and anticancer properties and it's regarded as the safest zinc-ionophores compared to other ionophores like hydroxychloroquine, quercetin, epigallocatechin, pyrithione, zincophorin, etc. (prnewswire.com)
  • An example of a carrier ionophore is valinomycin, a molecule that transports a single potassium cation. (wikipedia.org)
  • N. Moins, P. Gachon, and P. Duchene-Marullaz, Effects of two monocarboxylic ionophores, grisorixin and alborixin, on cardiovascular functions and plasma cation concentrations in the anesthetized dog, J. Cardiovasc. (springer.com)
  • Effects of divalent cations, cation chelators and an ionophore on morphine analgesia and tolerance. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Calcimycin (A-23187) is an antibiotic and a unique divalent cation ionophore (like calcium and magnesium). (medchemexpress.com)
  • The effect of high dietary cation concentration on methanogenesis by steers fed diets with and without ionophores. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The cation specificity for ionophore complex transport (kapp), determined at low ionophore concentration for a series of divalent cations, was found to be proportional to the equilibrium constant for 1:1 complexation. (elsevier.com)
  • Ionophores catalyze ion transport across hydrophobic membranes, such as liquid polymeric membranes (carrier-based ion selective electrodes) or lipid bilayers found in the living cells or synthetic vesicles (liposomes). (wikipedia.org)
  • Ionophores are lipophilic complexing agents capable of reversibly binding ions and catalyze ion transport across hydrophobic membranes. (axonmedchem.com)
  • Since there are currently no compounds known to modulate the activity of zinc transporters, and the expression profiles and importance of these zinc transporters in different cell types and vascular beds have not been determined, we used ionophores and cell-permeable chelators, which bypass the complex zinc transport mechanisms, as probes to examine the role of zinc in vascular physiology. (nature.com)
  • An ionophore (from Greek ion and -phore, "ion carrier") is a chemical species that reversibly binds ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some ionophores are synthesized by microorganisms to import ions into their cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, these ionophores become unable to transport ions under very low temperatures. (wikipedia.org)
  • This type of ionophores can maintain their ability to transfer ions at low temperatures, unlike carrier ionophores. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ionophores are chemical compounds that reversibly bind and transport ions through biological membranes in the absence of a protein pore. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ionophores modify the permeability of biological membranes toward certain ions to which they show affinity and selectivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ions are bound to the hydrophilic center and form an ionophore-ion complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ionophores are lipophilic (fat/oil-soluble) species of chemicals that have the unique function of reversing the binding of ions. (agscientific.com)
  • This ionophore is highly selective for potassium ions over sodium ions. (agscientific.com)
  • The term ionophore (from Greek ion carrier or ion bearer) was proposed by Berton Pressman in 1967 when he and his colleagues were investigating the antibiotic mechanisms of valinomycin and nigericin. (wikipedia.org)
  • It comes from an antibiotic cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. (agscientific.com)
  • Further complicating the antibiotic landscape is how ionophores are classified around the world. (msucares.com)
  • Polyether skeletons of the pseudo-cyclic structure of polyether ionophores are able to form complexes with metal cations and facilitate their transport across cellular membranes, disrupting the Na + /K + ion balance across cell membranes, which finally leads to death of a cell. (pjmonline.org)
  • Ionophores increase efficiency by increasing propionate production and reducing acetate, butyrate, lactic acid, the acetate:propionate ratio, and methane production. (aces.edu)
  • The likelihood of heifers becoming ill with coccidiosis is greatly reduced due to the presence of the ionophore. (agweb.com)
  • This induction requires a continuous presence of the ionophore for over 2 h. (semanticscholar.org)
  • S. J. Suchard, F. A. Lattanzio Jr., R. W. Rubin, and B. C. Pressman, Stimulation of catecholamine secretion from cultured chromaffin cells by an ionophore - mediated rise in intracellular sodium, J. Cell. (springer.com)
  • Secretion still takes place when the increase in intracellular Ca(2+) occurs diffusely via the Ca(2+) ionophore, and at an average intracellular Ca(2)+ concentration that is no greater than that observed when Ca(2+) entry via CRAC channels triggers secretion. (nih.gov)
  • Effect of the Concentration of Ionophores During Supplementation on Growing Calf Gain Offered Different Diets. (aces.edu)
  • Given that permeabilisation leads to egress by the activation of motility upon a drop in host cell potassium concentration, we investigated whether the ionophore nigericin, which selectively causes efflux of potassium from the cell without the need for permeabilisation, would cause egress. (elsevier.com)
  • The monovalent ionophores efficiently killed both asexual parasites and gametocytes with a nanomolar 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50). (unimi.it)
  • 2 The Ionophore, which Transports Zinc and Improves its Concentration within the Cells, is itself, Poorly Absorbed in the Body. (lazu.co.nz)
  • Adult lenses treated with ionophore also developed thin cortical opacity, but no nuclear opacity was observed, even though a large increase in the concentration of insoluble protein occurred. (elsevier.com)
  • The activation rate of the oocytes increased as concentration of ionophore decreased, being at 27-33 and 68-77 % for the oocytes treated with 50 and 12.5 μM ionophore, respectively. (copernicus.org)
  • Ionophores selective for cations and anions have found many applications in analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Magnesium ionophore I is a neutral synthetic ionophore used for Mg2+-selective electrodes while Magnesium ionophore III is an effective receptor for Eu3+ and Am3+ cations. (agscientific.com)
  • The intrinsic fluorescence of the ionophore was used in equilibrium and rapid-mixing experiments as an indicator of ionophore environment and complexation with divalent cations. (elsevier.com)
  • Liposomes containing copper and the copper ionophore neocuproine were prepared and characterized for in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity. (mdpi.com)
  • We used calcium ionophore A-23187, another dilating agent known from in vitro studies of large arteries to be endothelium-dependent, which moves calcium into endothelial cells rather than interacting with surface receptors. (ahajournals.org)
  • AG Scientific is a leading supplier of high-quality ionophores, such as Valinomycin to the in vitro diagnostic (IVD) and medical device industries. (agscientific.com)
  • Gametocytogenesis of the P. falciparum strain 3D7 was induced in vitro, and gametocytes at stage II and III or stage IV and V of development were treated for different lengths of time with the ionophores and their viability measured with the parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) assay. (unimi.it)
  • This study was designated to clarify the influence of activation of porcine matured oocytes by calcium ionophore on in vitro development of the parthenotes. (copernicus.org)
  • The in vitro -matured oocytes were exposed to calcium ionophore at concentrations of 12.5, 25 or 50 μM for 3, 5, 7 or 9 min. (copernicus.org)
  • Zinc also supports proper cell division, and with the Super Quercetin serving to transport Zinc through the cell membranes (as a Zinc Ionophore), we believe it will it will help keep you as healthy as Zinc is intended to do. (revgenetics.com)
  • The immobilization of the ionophore and surface characterization studies revealed that the performance of CMCR-immobilized PVC was equivalent to that of mobile ionophores in supported liquid membranes (SLMs). (elsevier.com)
  • The strengths of the ion-ionophore (CMCR-Ti(OH)(OH 2 ) 5 2+ ) interactions and the role ofionophores on membranes were studied via UV-Vis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and and X-ray diffraction (XRD). (elsevier.com)
  • Magnesium ionophores are commonly used to measure magnesium concentrations in various applications. (agscientific.com)
  • however, higher concentrations of the ionophore (0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 μM) completely abolished PMA-stimulated PA activity. (elsevier.com)
  • Note, however, that this sensing scheme still has improvement potential as concentrations of fluorophore and ionophore were not optimized. (preprints.org)
  • The phenotype of the cells derived from patients having the hemorrhagic disease Scott syndrome, is associated with an abnormally high proportion of apoptotic cells, both in basal culture medium and upon addition of low ionophore concentrations in long-term cultures. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fruth, IA & Arrizabalaga, G 2007, ' Toxoplasma gondii: Induction of egress by the potassium ionophore nigericin ', International Journal for Parasitology , vol. 37, no. 14, pp. 1559-1567. (elsevier.com)
  • B. C. Pressman and N. T. deGuzman, Biological applications of ionophores: theory and practice, Ann. (springer.com)
  • B. C. Pressman, Biological applications of ionophores, Ann. (springer.com)
  • In the absence of a K+ specific ionophore like valinomycin, K+ solely seldom crosses a lipid bilayer. (agscientific.com)
  • Valinomycin is natural neutral ionophore obtained from Streptomyces tsusimaensis and Streptomyces fulvissimus. (letstalkacademy.com)
  • Carrier ionophores may be proteins or other molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Channel forming ionophores are usually large proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transactivation of the grp78 promoter by malfolded proteins, glycosylation block, and calcium ionophore is mediated through a proximal region containing a CCAAT motif which interacts with CTF/NF-I. (asm.org)
  • The Ca2+ ionophore may affect capping of microfilament-dependent caps by producing a systemic activation of contractile proteins while chlorpromazine may act by disrupting a Ca2+-dependent link between surface complexes and the contractile proteins. (rupress.org)
  • These systems include zinc ionophore and zinc binding-proteins. (prnewswire.com)
  • Ca ionophore-stimulated ion secretion in rabbit ileal mucosa: relation to actions of cyclic 3',5'-AMP and carbamylcholine. (nih.gov)
  • B. C. Pressman and M. Fahim, Pharmacology ana toxicology of the monovalent carboxylic ionophores, Ann. (springer.com)
  • Thus, ionophores will reduce the bloat potential by creating more efficient products from ruminants so that methane production is reduced and make the animal more efficient in feed utilization. (farmanddairy.com)
  • Ionophores can be selective to a particular ion but may not be exclusive to it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore ionophores are key components of sensors, like ion-selective electrodes (ISE) or optodes. (axonmedchem.com)
  • Novel neutral anion ionophores based on fluorinated (poly)ether compounds have been synthesized which were first obtained and applied as anion sensory molecules for an ion-selective electrode (ISE). (go.jp)
  • In their uncomplexed (or unassociated) form ionophores are either charged or electrically neutral. (axonmedchem.com)
  • Acute, stress-induced changes in the benzodiazepine/gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor complex are confined to the chloride ionophore. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Rapid and robust changes in the chloride ionophore component of the benzodiazepine/gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor complex ("supramolecular complex") were observed in the central nervous system of rats exposed to a brief, ambient temperature swim stress. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Stress-induced modification of the chloride ionophore was manifest as an increase in the efficacy of halides (Cl-, Br- and I-) to enhance [3H]flunitrazepam binding. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Novel ionophores comprising various hydroxide and amine structures were immobilized onto poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) matrices, and these were examined to determine Ti(III) selectivity. (elsevier.com)
  • Even though all ionophores are fermentation products, it is important that they should be viewed as discrete chemical entities with their own distinct properties, rather than as a uniform group with uniform effects, in order to obtain maximum benefits (Wessels, 1993). (scielo.org.za)
  • This Product Is Specifically Made For High Absorption Of Quercetin + Zinc (as a Zinc Ionophore). (revgenetics.com)
  • Quercetin is a natural Zinc Ionophore, which is capable of moving zinc into an infected cell to block further production of the virus. (lazu.co.nz)
  • As a result, to be an effective Zinc Ionophore, one would need to take about 5 grams of Quercetin per day. (lazu.co.nz)
  • The key in understanding the reason why ionophores are not in the VFD has to do with the statement, "medically important. (farmanddairy.com)
  • Eyes excised from Xenopus embryos at stages 24 to 25 were cultured for 4 to 6 hours in a medium containing the ionophore X537A or in a control medium. (sciencemag.org)
  • However, the ionophore X537A was found to increase greatly the narcotic antagonist effect of a low dose of Ca++ although the ionophore alone did not alter the effects of morphine. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Ionophore toxicosis in turkeys and chickens often results in rear limb weakness from acute myodegeneration (pale, blood-streaked muscles) of skeletal muscles of the femur and tibiotarsus. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Ionophores are feed additives used to improve animal body weight gain and feed efficiency in beef cattle diets. (aces.edu)
  • The aim of the present work was to investigate whether the class of monovalent ionophores, which includes drugs used in veterinary medicine and that were recently proposed as human anticancer agents, meets these requirements. (unimi.it)
  • Our data strongly support the downstream exploration of monovalent ionophores for repositioning as new antimalarial and transmission-blocking leads. (unimi.it)
  • In general, in cases of ionophore intoxication pigs are off feed, weak, depressed and don't have a fever. (nationalhogfarmer.com)
  • Ionophore intoxication causes a widespread degeneration and necrosis of the myocytes, the cells in the skeletal muscle (Figure 1). (nationalhogfarmer.com)
  • Therefore, when suspecting ionophore intoxication (weak and painful pigs which are off feed with no fever and no gross lesions at necropsy) it is critical to include samples of skeletal muscle in the set of samples submitted to the laboratory for diagnosis. (nationalhogfarmer.com)
  • There are three main causes of ionophore intoxication. (nationalhogfarmer.com)
  • An ionophore can be used to improved feed efficiency in beef cattle, and may reduce dry matter intake by 10 percent without a decrease in overall performance. (aces.edu)
  • The ionophore-binding site is usually connected with GABAA receptors through the entire mind, and significant Rabbit Polyclonal to LGR6 profession of the website produces serious convulsions. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Through increased ADG and potentially reduced DMI, ionophores may increase profitability of beef production systems. (aces.edu)
  • The process of egress is poorly understood and since it is asynchronous in tissue culture its study has been limited to those conditions that induce it, such as artificial permeabilisation of the host cell and induction of calcium fluxes with ionophores. (elsevier.com)