The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)
A sulfamyl diuretic.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A subclass of symporters that specifically transport SODIUM CHLORIDE and/or POTASSIUM CHLORIDE across cellular membranes in a tightly coupled process.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
A general class of integral membrane proteins that transport ions across a membrane against an electrochemical gradient.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
Slender tubular or hairlike excretory structures found in insects. They emerge from the alimentary canal between the mesenteron (midgut) and the proctodeum (hindgut).
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An element that is an alkali metal. It has an atomic symbol Rb, atomic number 37, and atomic weight 85.47. It is used as a chemical reagent and in the manufacture of photoelectric cells.
A chloride channel that regulates secretion in many exocrine tissues. Abnormalities in the CFTR gene have been shown to cause cystic fibrosis. (Hum Genet 1994;93(4):364-8)
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Sodium channels found on salt-reabsorbing EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the distal NEPHRON; the distal COLON; SALIVARY DUCTS; SWEAT GLANDS; and the LUNG. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and play a critical role in the control of sodium balance, BLOOD VOLUME, and BLOOD PRESSURE.
A plasma membrane exchange glycoprotein transporter that functions in intracellular pH regulation, cell volume regulation, and cellular response to many different hormones and mitogens.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
An inhibitor of anion conductance including band 3-mediated anion transport.
Reversible chemical reaction between a solid, often one of the ION EXCHANGE RESINS, and a fluid whereby ions may be exchanged from one substance to another. This technique is used in water purification, in research, and in industry.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Agents that inhibit SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS which are concentrated in the thick ascending limb at the junction of the LOOP OF HENLE and KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL. They act as DIURETICS. Excess use is associated with HYPOKALEMIA and HYPERGLYCEMIA.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
A group of peptide antibiotics from BACILLUS brevis. Gramicidin C or S is a cyclic, ten-amino acid polypeptide and gramicidins A, B, D are linear. Gramicidin is one of the two principal components of TYROTHRICIN.
Devices used in a technique by which cells or tissues are grown in vitro or, by implantation, in vivo within chambers permeable to diffusion of solutes across the chamber walls. The chambers are used for studies of drug effects, osmotic responses, cytogenic and immunologic phenomena, metabolism, etc., and include tissue cages.
Positively-charged atomic nuclei that have been stripped of their electrons. These particles have one or more units of electric charge and a mass exceeding that of the Helium-4 nucleus (alpha particle).
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.
An anionic compound that is used as a reagent for determination of potassium, ammonium, rubidium, and cesium ions. It also uncouples oxidative phosphorylation and forms complexes with biological materials, and is used in biological assays.
The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or group of atoms with a valence of plus 1, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
Stable sodium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sodium, but differ in atomic weight. Na-23 is a stable sodium isotope.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Electrodes which can be used to measure the concentration of particular ions in cells, tissues, or solutions.
A genus of SHARKS in the family SQUALIDAE, comprised of many different species. They travel in large groups and are bottom dwellers that feed mostly on bony fishes.
Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.
Na-K-Cl transporter ubiquitously expressed. It plays a key role in salt secretion in epithelial cells and cell volume regulation in nonepithelial cells.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
Unstable isotopes of rubidium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Rb atoms with atomic weights 79-84, and 86-95 are radioactive rubidium isotopes.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
A benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.
A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.
Fluids originating from the epithelial lining of the intestines, adjoining exocrine glands and from organs such as the liver, which empty into the cavity of the intestines.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Liquid components of living organisms.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
A subclass of sodium channel blockers that are specific for EPITHELIAL SODIUM CHANNELS.
Straight tubes commencing in the radiate part of the kidney cortex where they receive the curved ends of the distal convoluted tubules. In the medulla the collecting tubules of each pyramid converge to join a central tube (duct of Bellini) which opens on the summit of the papilla.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
Proteins that cotransport sodium ions and bicarbonate ions across cellular membranes.
Electroneutral chloride bicarbonate exchangers that allow the exchange of BICARBONATE IONS exchange for CHLORIDE IONS across the cellular membrane. The action of specific antiporters in this class serve important functions such as allowing the efficient exchange of bicarbonate across red blood cell membranes as they passage through capillaries and the reabsorption of bicarbonate ions by the kidney.
Transport of the OVUM or fertilized ovum (ZYGOTE) from the mammalian oviduct (FALLOPIAN TUBES) to the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION in the UTERUS.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A genus of small tapeworms of birds and mammals.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
Stable cesium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cesium, but differ in atomic weight. Cs-133 is a naturally occurring isotope.
Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
Stable potassium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element potassium, but differ in atomic weight. K-41 is a stable potassium isotope.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).
A non-specific host defense mechanism that removes MUCUS and other material from the LUNGS by ciliary and secretory activity of the tracheobronchial submucosal glands. It is measured in vivo as mucus transfer, ciliary beat frequency, and clearance of radioactive tracers.
One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The mucous lining of the LARYNX, consisting of various types of epithelial cells ranging from stratified squamous EPITHELIUM in the upper larynx to ciliated columnar epithelium in the rest of the larynx, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Uridine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A uracil nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
Benzoic acid or benzoic acid esters substituted with one or more nitro groups.
Unstable isotopes of sodium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Na atoms with atomic weights 20-22 and 24-26 are radioactive sodium isotopes.
A proton ionophore. It is commonly used as an uncoupling agent and inhibitor of photosynthesis because of its effects on mitochondrial and chloroplast membranes.
Benzoic acids, salts, or esters that contain an amino group attached to carbon number 2 or 6 of the benzene ring structure.
A family of proteins involved in the transport of organic cations. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics, and their metabolites from the body.
The process of moving specific RNA molecules from one cellular compartment or region to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms.
A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor used as diuretic and in glaucoma. It may cause hypokalemia.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A non-penetrating amino reagent (commonly called SITS) which acts as an inhibitor of anion transport in erythrocytes and other cells.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
A subclass of purinergic P2Y receptors that have a preference for ATP and UTP. The activated P2Y2 receptor acts through a G-PROTEIN-coupled PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL and intracellular CALCIUM SIGNALING pathway.
The portion of renal tubule that begins from the enlarged segment of the ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. It reenters the KIDNEY CORTEX and forms the convoluted segments of the distal tubule.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.
Na-K-Cl transporter in the ASCENDING LIMB OF LOOP OF HENLE. It mediates active reabsorption of sodium chloride and is inhibited by LOOP DIURETICS such as FUROSEMIDE; and BUMETANIDE. Mutations in the gene encoding SLC12A1 are associated with a BARTTER SYNDROME.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
A family of monosaccharide transport proteins characterized by 12 membrane spanning helices. They facilitate passive diffusion of GLUCOSE across the CELL MEMBRANE.
The U-shaped portion of the renal tubule in the KIDNEY MEDULLA, consisting of a descending limb and an ascending limb. It is situated between the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE and the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Integral membrane proteins that transport protons across a membrane. This transport can be linked to the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. What is referred to as proton pump inhibitors frequently is about POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE.
Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.
Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments.
The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.
Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.

Cu(II) inhibition of the proton translocation machinery of the influenza A virus M2 protein. (1/3605)

The homotetrameric M2 integral membrane protein of influenza virus forms a proton-selective ion channel. An essential histidine residue (His-37) in the M2 transmembrane domain is believed to play an important role in the conduction mechanism of this channel. Also, this residue is believed to form hydrogen-bonded interactions with the ammonium group of the anti-viral compound, amantadine. A molecular model of this channel suggests that the imidazole side chains of His-37 from symmetry-related monomers of the homotetrameric pore converge to form a coordination site for transition metals. Thus, membrane currents of oocytes of Xenopus laevis expressing the M2 protein were recorded when the solution bathing the oocytes contained various transition metals. Membrane currents were strongly and reversibly inhibited by Cu2+ with biphasic reaction kinetics. The biphasic inhibition curves may be explained by a two-site model involving a fast-binding peripheral site with low specificity for divalent metal ions, as well as a high affinity site (Kdiss approximately 2 microM) that lies deep within the pore and shows rather slow-binding kinetics (kon = 18.6 +/- 0.9 M-1 s-1). The pH dependence of the interaction with the high affinity Cu2+-binding site parallels the pH dependence of inhibition by amantadine, which has previously been ascribed to protonation of His-37. The voltage dependence of the inhibition at the high affinity site indicates that the binding site lies within the transmembrane region of the pore. Furthermore, the inhibition by Cu2+ could be prevented by prior application of the reversible blocker of M2 channel activity, BL-1743, providing further support for the location of the site within the pore region of M2. Finally, substitutions of His-37 by alanine or glycine eliminated the high affinity site and resulted in membrane currents that were only partially inhibited at millimolar concentrations of Cu2+. Binding of Cu2+ to the high affinity site resulted in an approximately equal inhibition of both inward and outward currents. The wild-type protein showed very high specificity for Cu2+ and was only partially inhibited by 1 mM Ni2+, Pt2+, and Zn2+. These data are discussed in terms of the functional role of His-37 in the mechanism of proton translocation through the channel.  (+info)

In vivo NGF deprivation reduces SNS expression and TTX-R sodium currents in IB4-negative DRG neurons. (2/3605)

Recent evidence suggests that changes in sodium channel expression and localization may be involved in some pathological pain syndromes. SNS, a tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) sodium channel, is preferentially expressed in small dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, many of which are nociceptive. TTX-R sodium currents and SNS mRNA expression have been shown to be modulated by nerve growth factor (NGF) in vitro and in vivo. To determine whether SNS expression and TTX-R currents in DRG neurons are affected by reduced levels of systemic NGF, we immunized adult rats with NGF, which causes thermal hypoalgesia in rats with high antibody titers to NGF. DRG neurons cultured from rats with high antibody titers to NGF, which do not bind the isolectin IB4 (IB4(-)) but do express TrkA, were studied with whole cell patch-clamp and in situ hybridization. Mean TTX-R sodium current density was decreased from 504 +/- 77 pA/pF to 307 +/- 61 pA/pF in control versus NGF-deprived neurons, respectively. In comparison, the mean TTX-sensitive sodium current density was not significantly different between control and NGF-deprived neurons. Quantification of SNS mRNA hybridization signal showed a significant decrease in the signal in NGF-deprived neurons compared with the control neurons. The data suggest that NGF has a major role in the maintenance of steady-state levels of TTX-R sodium currents and SNS mRNA in IB4(-) DRG neurons in adult rats in vivo.  (+info)

Sodium ion uptake into isolated plasma membrane vesicles: indirect effects of other ions. (3/3605)

Vesicles derived from plasma membrane of corneal endothelium were agitated to their minimum size distribution. When isotonic salt solutions surrounding the vesicles were changed there were alterations to the vesicle size distribution: the modal point of the logarithmic distribution did not change but the log variance did, indicating that substantial fission and fusion of vesicles occurred depending upon the nature of the surrounding solute. Orientation and total membrane area was conserved in the transformed population of vesicles. Although the ions added to the external isotonic salt solutions in the present series of experiments have no direct effect upon sodium membrane transporters in these membranes, kinetics of sodium accumulation into the vesicles were affected in a way that correlated with changes to the vesicle size distribution. Early-saturating (<1 min) intravesicular concentrations of sodium corresponded with apparently stable populations. Late-saturating (>1 min) intravesicular concentrations of sodium corresponded with significant vesicle distribution shifts and included a few seconds of delay. During the linear accumulation phase, both populations showed similar magnitudes of sodium transport. The significance of these data is discussed.  (+info)

Evidence for an anion exchange mechanism for uptake of conjugated bile acid from the rat jejunum. (4/3605)

Absorption of conjugated bile acids from the small intestine is very efficient. The mechanisms of jejunal absorption are not very well understood. The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanism of absorption of conjugated bile acid at the apical membrane of jejunal epithelial cells. Brush-border membrane vesicles from intestinal epithelial cells of the rat were prepared. Absorption of two taurine-conjugated bile acids that are representative of endogenous bile acids in many variate vertebrate species were studied. In ileal, but not jejunal brush-border membrane vesicles, transport of conjugated bile acids was cis-stimulated by sodium. Transport of conjugated bile acids was trans-stimulated by bicarbonate in the jejunum. Absorption of conjugated dihydroxy-bile acids was almost twice as fast as of trihydroxy-bile acids. Coincubation with other conjugated bile acids, bromosulfophthalein, and DIDS, as well as by incubation in the cold inhibited the transport rate effectively. Absorption of conjugated bile acids in the jejunum from the rat is driven by anion exchange and is most likely an antiport transport.  (+info)

The polar flagellar motor of Vibrio cholerae is driven by an Na+ motive force. (5/3605)

Vibrio cholerae is a highly motile bacterium which possesses a single polar flagellum as a locomotion organelle. Motility is thought to be an important factor for the virulence of V. cholerae. The genome sequencing project of this organism is in progress, and the genes that are highly homologous to the essential genes of the Na+-driven polar flagellar motor of Vibrio alginolyticus were found in the genome database of V. cholerae. The energy source of its flagellar motor was investigated. We examined the Na+ dependence and the sensitivity to the Na+ motor-specific inhibitor of the motility of the V. cholerae strains and present the evidence that the polar flagellar motor of V. cholerae is driven by an Na+ motive force.  (+info)

Homozygous deletion in KVLQT1 associated with Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome. (6/3605)

BACKGROUND: Long-QT (LQT) syndrome is a cardiac disorder that causes syncope, seizures, and sudden death from ventricular arrhythmias, specifically torsade de pointes. Both autosomal dominant LQT (Romano-Ward syndrome) and autosomal recessive LQT (Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome, JLNS) have been reported. Heterozygous mutations in 3 potassium channel genes, KVLQT1, KCNE1 (minK), and HERG, and the cardiac sodium channel gene SCN5A cause autosomal dominant LQT. Autosomal recessive LQT, which is associated with deafness, has been found to occur with homozygous mutations in KVLQT1 and KCNE1 in JLNS families in which QTc prolongation was inherited as a dominant trait. METHODS AND RESULTS: An Amish family with clinical evidence of JLNS was analyzed for mutations by use of single-strand conformation polymorphism and DNA sequencing analyses for mutations in all known LQT genes. A novel homozygous 2-bp deletion in the S2 transmembrane segment of KVLQT1 was identified in affected members of this Amish family in which both QTc prolongation and deafness were inherited as recessive traits. This deletion represents a new JLNS-associated mutation in KVLQT1 and has deleterious effects on the KVLQT1 potassium channel, causing a frameshift and the truncation of the KVLQT1 protein. In contrast to previous reports in which LQT was inherited as a clear dominant trait, 2 parents in the JLNS family described here have normal QTc intervals (0.43 and 0.44 seconds, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: A novel homozygous KVLQT1 mutation causes JLNS in an Amish family with deafness that is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait.  (+info)

Effects of changes in membrane sodium flux on virulence gene expression in Vibrio cholerae. (7/3605)

The expression of several virulence factors of Vibrio cholerae is coordinately regulated by the ToxT molecule and the membrane proteins TcpP/H and ToxR/S, which are required for toxT transcription. To identify proteins that negatively affect toxT transcription, we screened transposon mutants of V. cholerae carrying a chromosomally integrated toxT::lacZ reporter construct for darker blue colonies on media containing 5-bromo-4-chlor-3-indolyl beta-D galactoside (X-gal). Two mutants had transposon insertions in a region homologous to the nqr gene cluster of Vibrio alginolyticus, encoding a sodium-translocating NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (NQR). In V. alginolyticus, NQR is a respiration-linked Na+ extrusion pump generating a sodium motive force that can be used for solute import, ATP synthesis, and flagella rotation. Inhibition of NQR enzyme function in V. cholerae by the specific inhibitor 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide (HQNO) resulted in elevated toxT::lacZ activity. Increased toxT::lacZ expression in an nqr mutant strain compared with the parental strain was observed when the TcpP/H molecules alone were strongly expressed, suggesting that the negative effect of the NQR complex on toxT transcription is mediated through TcpP/H. However, the ability of the TcpP/H proteins to activate the toxT::lacZ reporter construct was greatly diminished in the presence of high NaCl concentrations in the growth medium. The flagellar motor of V. cholerae appears to be driven by a sodium motive force, and modulation of flagella rotation by inhibitory drugs, high media viscosity, or specific mutations resulted in increases of toxT::lacZ expression. Thus, the regulation of the main virulence factors of V. cholerae appears to be modulated by endogenous and exogenous sodium levels in a complex way.  (+info)

Stimulus-secretion coupling in neurohypophysial nerve endings: a role for intravesicular sodium? (8/3605)

It is generally accepted that Ca is essentially involved in regulated secretion, but the role of this cation, as well as others such as Na, is not well understood. An illustrative example occurs in neurohypophysial secretion, where an experimentally induced increase in the cytosolic concentration of Na+ can induce continuous neuropeptide release. In contrast, an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ will have only a transient stimulatory effect. The secretion-promoting targets for Ca2+ are not known; they may be cytosolic, as is usually assumed, but they may also be intravesicular, especially in view of evidence that Ca-rich secretory vesicles are preferentially secreted. In the present work, we have investigated the movements of these cations into and out of secretory vesicles during stimulus-secretion coupling. Isolated rat neurohypophysial nerve endings were stimulated by potassium (55 mM) depolarization, and at 6 min (peak secretion) and 20 min after the onset of stimulation, the elemental content of individual secretory vesicles was measured by quantitative x-ray microanalysis. A depolarization-induced transient increase in intravesicular Na+ concentration was found to coincide with the onset of secretion. Moreover, only a predicted small fraction of peripheral vesicles-presumably the docked ones-were Na+-loaded. The low sulfur concentration of Na+-rich vesicles most likely resulted from vesicle swelling. The results suggest that high intravesicular Na+ concentrations in docked vesicles, occurring by Na+/Ca2+ exchange or by transient fusion pore opening, is a proximal event in exocytosis.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Na+-H+ and Na+-Li+ exchange are mediated by the same membrane transport protein in human red blood cells. T2 - An NMR investigation. AU - Chi, Yuling. AU - Mo, Suilan. AU - De Freitas, Duarte Mota. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - Na+-H+ exchange is a transport system present in erythrocytes which plays an important role in the regulation of intracellular pH, cellular volume, and transmembrane ion transport. Na+-Li+ exchange has received much attention and has been investigated in more detail than have any of the other ion transport systems, because of its high reproducibility. Both red blood cell (RBC) Na+-H+ and Na+-Li+ exchange are elevated in essential hypertensive patients relative to normotensive individuals. RBC Na+-Li+ exchange may be a mode of operation of Na+-H+ exchange. Amiloride and its analogue, 5-(N,N-hexamethylene)amiloride (HMA), are well-known inhibitors of Na+- H+ exchange, whereas phloretin strongly inhibits Na+-Li+ exchange. In this study, we tested the effects of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A new approach to the study of ion transport processes by an in situ radiotracer method based on measuring intensity changes and energy spectrum alterations of β-radiation. AU - Németh, Z.. AU - Erdei, L.. AU - Kolics, A.. PY - 1995/3. Y1 - 1995/3. N2 - A new approach for the study of ion transport by an in situ radiotracer method is presented. The method is based upon the measurement of the intensity and energy spectrum change of β-radiation during the penetration of labeled species. The applicability of the radiotracer technique is detailed through the measurement of the transport of labeled chloride ions into a PERMAPLEX-A20 anion exchanger membrane. The proposed method is applicable to in situ monitoring of the motion of ions in the membrane (or adsorbent).. AB - A new approach for the study of ion transport by an in situ radiotracer method is presented. The method is based upon the measurement of the intensity and energy spectrum change of β-radiation during the ...
I am conducting my research project and currently stuck at a point where I need to find out about the proteins role in active transport of ion (Na & K) in molecular level detail. Need to know everything about this Na-K ion transport mechanism, Contribution of protein in transport, Why NA & K, How does protein allows certain molecules to pass through and stops others etc....abt proteins ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Ion transport across biological membranes and its control. Workshop organized by the Sonderforschungsbereich 160--Eigenschaften biologischer Membranen--September 25-27 1983, Maria Laach, FRG. by B. Deuticke et al.
Solid polymeric electrolytes have the potential to greatly improve battery efficiency and stability, but ions like Li simply diffuse too slowly in current materials for them to be viable. The challenge for computationally designing new polymers lies in accurately modeling both the long- timescale of ion transport and the chem. specific ion- polymer couplings that govern ion motion. In this talk, I will show how short atomistic simulations can be combined with a generalizable mesoscopic ion transport model to reliably predict ion diffusivity across many chem. classes of polymers. This model has now been used to characterize several hundred new materials and the talk will cover results for several new classes of polymer electrolytes exhibiting high Li diffusivity and interesting new mechanistic ion transport features. ...
An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel. The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.
Measurements of extracellular pH (pHe) in vivo have shown that the microenvironment in tumours is more acidic than in normal tissue. However, both human and animal tumour cells have been shown to have an intracellular pH (pHi) on the alkaline side of neutrality (pH 7.1-7.2). This gives rise to a reversed pH gradient between tumours and normal tissue- which implies that cells within solid tumours are capable of maintaining their level of pHi at physiological levels, despite lower than normal levels of pHe. In this paper the authors describe a mathematical model that provides a possible explanation for the altered pH gradient observed in tumours. The authors examine the infuence of changes in the microenvironment on the activity of several membrane based ion transport systems Using qualitative analysis the authors show that the pHi of tumour cells is less sensitive to external pH than for normal cells, because of their increased reliance on the inefficient glycolytic pathway for energy production. ...
Our primary focus is on real time monitoring of ion transport mechanisms in epithelia, using high-resolution microscopy. One of the crucial problems facing all epithelial cells is the control of the intracellular milieu. In an effort to maintain ionic homeostasis, epithelial cells have devised a variety of ion channels, transport proteins, and carriers to regulate and maintain the intracellular ionic concentrations. To further understand how ions are transported in epithelial cells, we have developed a variety of optical techniques to continuously monitor intracellular ionic concentrations in real time. Using high-resolution video or confocal microscopy we are presently able to monitor intracellular Ca2+, Na+, K+, Cl-, pH, and membrane potential. We are currently investigating various aspects of renal tubule and gastric tissue ion transport in intact renal tubules and gastric glands. We also are characterizing the secretory and reabsorptive properties of the colonic crypt, with a special focus ...
One intriguing finding from theoretical calculations was the electrostatic contribution of K131 in stabilizing the Cl− binding to all three binding sites in ClC-ec1 (Faraldo-Gomez and Roux, 2004) despite the fact that the side chain of K131 does not directly line the ion transport pathway. Faraldo-Gomez and Rouxs calculations pointed out that the single most important favorable ion-side chain electrostatic interaction in ClC-ec1 originates not from the ion-contacting residues such as S107 or Y445 but from K131 (Faraldo-Gomez and Roux, 2004). A lysine residue at this position is conserved from the bacterial to the mammalian ClC proteins. To examine the functional role of the corresponding lysine residue (K149) in ClC-0, we constructed several K149 mutants, including K149E, K149D, K149A, K149L, and K149R. We have so far been unable to functionally express K149E in Xenopus oocytes. Two runs of expression of K149E and K149D mutants in HEK293 cells did not result in functional current within 5 d ...
Kleyman, T.R., Cragoe, E.J. Amiloride and its analogs as tools in the study of ion transport. J. Membrain Biol. 105, 1-21 (1988). Download ...
View Notes - fields_lec9 from BIO 2.797j at MIT. Key Concepts for this section 1: Lorentz force law, Field, Maxwells equation 2: Ion Transport, Nernst-Planck equation 3: (Quasi)electrostatics,
Studies on water and ion transport in homopteran insects: Ultrastructure and cytochemistry of the cicadoid and cercopoid midgut Academic Article ...
In this study, the effect on thin film growth due to an anomalous electron transport, found in high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS), has been investigated for the case of a planar circular magnetron. An important consequence of this type of transport is that it affects the way ions are being transported in the plasma. It was found that a significant fraction of ions are transported radially outwards in the vicinity of the cathode, across the magnetic field lines, leading to increased deposition rates directly at the side of the cathode ( perpendicular to the target surface). Furthermore, this mass transport parallel to the target surface leads to that the fraction of sputtered material reaching a substrate placed directly in front of the target is substantially lower in HiPIMS compared with conventional direct current magnetron sputtering (dcMS). This would help to explain the lower deposition rates generally observed for HiPIMS compared with dcMS. Moreover, time-averaged mass ...
The transport of mineral ions into and out of tissues and cells is central to the life of plants. Ion transport and the plasma membrane transporters themselves have been studied using a variety of techniques. In the last 15 years, measurement of specific ion fluxes has contributed to the characteriz …
The teleost gill has a key position in the history of the study of epithelial ion transport - the first unequivocal demonstration of ion transport in vitro was the experiments on chloride excretion...
Recent research has shown that nitric oxide (NO) produced by nitric oxide synthases (Nos) is an inhibitor of ion transporter activity and a modulator of epithelial ion transport in fish but little is known on changes in the Nos/NO system during osmotic stress. We hypothesized that the Nos/NO system responds to salinity changes as an integrated part of the acclimation process. Expression and localization of nos1/Nos1 and nos2/Nos2 were investigated in gill, kidney and intestine of FW- and SW-transferred trout using qPCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, along with expressional changes of major ion transporters in the gill ...
Human (Homo sapiens) のFXYD3 (FXYD domain containing ion transport regulator 3)遺伝子を含むベクター、レンチウイルス、アデノウイルス、 (AAV) アデノ随伴、アデノ随伴ウイルス、MMLV レトロウイルス,、piggyBac, shRNA、gRNA、 ガイドRNA、 CRISPR-Cas9 、クリスパー、プラスミド
Fast Ion Transport in Solids - Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop, Belgirate, Italy, September 20-26, 1992 (Hardcover, 1993 ed.) / Editor: Bruno Scrosati / Editor: A. Magistris / Editor: C.M. Mari / Editor: G. Mariotto ; 9780792325147 ; Physical chemistry, Chemistry, Science & Mathematics, Books
The long-term and central goal of the Cystic Fibrosis Research Center at the University of Pittsburgh is to provide improved treatments, and ultimately a cure, for cystic fibrosis (CF). A collaborative effort by investigators in the Departments of Cell Biology and Physiology, Medicine, and Pediatrics, our strategy is to implement this goal using our strengths in the basic science of CFTR and epithelial ion transport and to translate our increasingly applied basic science knowledge to clinical investigations.. In order to achieve these goals we have established centers of excellence in three broad categories: Cell and Molecular Biology of CF, Infection and Inflammation in CF, and Clinical Studies in CF. These centers are summarized below:. Cell and Molecular Biology: The bulk of our research is conducted using primary human airway cell cultures established from CF and non-CF tissues that are made available by the more than 100 lung transplants that are performed annually at the University of ...
Dynamic amphiphiles provide access to transmembrane ion transport, differential sensing and cellular uptake. In this report, we introduce dynamic amphiphiles with fluorescent tails. Core-substituted naphthalenediimides (cNDIs) and perylenediimides (cPDIs) are tested. Whereas the latter suffer from poor partitioning, dynamic cNDI amphiphiles are found to be purifiable by RP-HPLC, to partition selectively into liquid-disordered (Ld) microdomains of mixed lipid bilayers and to activate DNA as transporters. Importantly, fluorescence properties, partitioning and activity can be modulated by changes in the structure of mixed amphiphiles. These results confirm the potential of dynamic fluorescent amphiphiles to selectively label extra- and intracellular membrane domains and visualize biological function.. [open archive unige:21885 • pdf ...
Excepto si se señala otra cosa, la licencia del ítem se describe como: This work, unless the contrary is indicated in the text, the photographs or in other illustrations, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. You are free to share, copy, distribute and transmit the work provided that the author is credited and reuse of the material is restricted to non-commercial purposes only and that no derivative works are created from the original material. ...
Oxygen can be recovered from air at high temperatures by passing hot compressed oxygen-containing gas, preferably air, at temperatures above 500oC over ...
What happens with ion transport when the dimensions of the pore become very, very small? How the pores structure influences its transport properties?Motivation
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The effects of extracellular ATP on ion fluxes and the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) were examined using a suspension of rat parotid acinar cells and were contrasted with the effects of the muscarinic agonist carbachol. Although ATP and carbachol both rapidly increased [Ca2+]i about threefold above the resting level (200-250 nM), the effect of ATP was due primarily to an influx of Ca2+ across the plasma membrane, while the initial response to carbachol was due to a release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Within 10 s, ATP (1 mM) and carbachol (20 microM) reduced the cellular Cl- content by 39-50% and cell volume by 15-25%. Both stimuli reduced the cytosolic K+ content by 57-65%, but there were marked differences in the rate and pattern of net K+ movement as well as the effects of K+ channel inhibitors on the effluxes initiated by the two stimuli. The maximum rate of the ATP-stimulated K+ efflux (approximately 2,200 nmol K+/mg protein per min) was about two-thirds that of the ...
The pHi (intracellular pH) is an important physiological parameter which is altered during hypoxia and ischaemia, pathological conditions accompanied by a dramatic decrease in pHi. Sensors of pHi include ion transport systems which control intracellular Ca2+ gradients and link changes in pHi to functions as diverse as proliferation and apoptosis. The annexins are a protein family characterized by Ca2+-dependent interactions with cellular membranes. Additionally, in vitro evidence points to the existence of pH-dependent, Ca2+-independent membrane association of several annexins. We show that hypoxia promotes the interaction of the recombinant annexin A2-S100A10 (p11) and annexin A6 with the plasma membrane. We have investigated in vivo the influence of the pHi on the membrane association of human annexins A1, A2, A4, A5 and A6 tagged with fluorescent proteins, and characterized this interaction for endogenous annexins present in smooth muscle and HEK (human embryonic kidney)-293 cells ...
An interesting and perplexing feature of the mosquito larval midgut is that the luminal compartments exhibit one of the highest pH values generated by a biological system. The pH of the luminal contents in mosquito larvae increases from near neutrality in the foregut to a value that exceeds 10 in the anterior midgut then drops to 7.5 in the posterior midgut (Dadd, 1975; Ramsay, 1950). These results are consistent with a vigorous active cycling of base between the gut contents and hemolymph during the digestive cycle, similar to that suggested for lepidopteran larvae (Moffett, 1994). The alkaline environment optimal for mosquito digestive enzymes sterilizes food and dissociates the tannin-protein complexes that are ingested in the plant detritus diet of the larvae (see Clements, 1992).. The generation of large pH gradients along short distances in the absence of morphological barriers is almost certainly the result of region-specific ion transport systems energized by ion-motive ATPases. The ...
The ion transport systems used to regulate acid-base balance are not equally effective in all marine animal groups. Marine organisms are apparently highly tolerant of CO2 when they can accumulate large amounts of bicarbonate ions, which stabilize the pH value. These organisms are usually also able to very effectively excrete protons. Mobile and active species such as fish, certain crustaceans, and cephalopods - cuttlefish, for instance - are therefore especially CO2-tolerant. The metabolic rates of these animals can strongly fluctuate and reach very high levels during exercise (hunting & escape behaviour). The oxygen-consumption rate (a measure of metabolic rate) of these active animal groups can reach levels that are orders of magnitude above those of sea urchins, starfish or mussels. Because large amounts of CO2 and protons accumulate during excessive muscle activity, active animals often possess an efficient system for proton excretion and acid-base regulation. Consequently, these animals can ...
exchange, and K+absorption/H+ secretion mediated by H+-K+-ATPase (3, 40). These transport systems are believed to be nonelectrogenic and thus cannot be assessed fromI sc measurements.. The vasopressin receptor is of two different subtypes, the V1 and V2 receptors (20, 31, 42). The present study has demonstrated that the regulation of three kinds of electrogenic ion transport in the colon by AVP was probably all mediated by the V1 receptor, because they were each inhibited more potently by the V1 than by the V2 receptor antagonist (Table 3) (29, 30). The dissociation constant of AVP for the V1 receptor has been reported to be 0.6-3 nM (42). The ED50value for inhibiting electrogenic Na+ absorption (0.8 nM) was within this range (Fig. 2). The ED50value for activating K+ secretion may also be within this range (0.1-1 nM; Figs. 3 and 5), whereas that for activating Cl−secretion seems to be at a slightly higher value (,10 nM; Fig. 3). It cannot be excluded, however, that there is also the V2 ...
Dr. Pearce Wilcox: Advances in technology have made it feasible for many laboratories to test compounds that might facilitate CFTR function. These referenced studies in cell systems and animal models illustrate the potential in F508del for a class of medications with already established clinical roles - PDE-5 inhibitors. Given that cAMP-dependent chloride conductance in CF epithelial cells is impaired, there is reason to believe that modulating intracellular levels of cAMP could have beneficial therapeutic effects for patients with CF. While an understanding of the mechanisms are limited, there is work to show a partial correction of the basic transepithelial ion transport abnormalities, and mitigation of the exaggerated inflammatory responses related to the F508del-CFTR protein. A wide dose safety margin of these compounds, based especially on work in pulmonary hypertension, has been shown. However, the study of Leier et al suggests that supraphysiologic levels may be needed to potentiate CFTR ...
Click to launch & play an online audio visual presentation by Prof. Martha ODonnell on Blood-brain barrier ion transport, part of a collection of multimedia lectures.
The bottom line is that, if a true relationship between ion transport (as measured by nasal PD) and the severity of respiratory disease exists, it is likely to be weak. These data are consistent with the notion of a point of no return-that is, the ion transport abnormality provides the setting for CF lung disease early in life but, once established, other factors such as non-CFTR gene modifiers, the response of the innate immune system, mucus secretory control mechanisms, or environmental factors are more important in determining disease severity.23. Is this concept important? Certainly; nasal PD has frequently been employed as a surrogate outcome measure for proof of principle trials of new treatments.24 If fundamental treatments are to work, these data suggest that early intervention is necessary as other factors may have a more profound influence on the eventual severity of lung disease. If ion transport is to be used as a surrogate outcome for fundamental treatments, then the data from ...
Ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) are a group of transmembrane ion channel proteins which open to allow ions such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, or Cl- t ...
Ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) are a group of transmembrane ion channel proteins which open to allow ions such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, or Cl- t ...
A method and apparatus is disclosed for selectively identifying, and targeting with an energy beam, specific cells within a mixed cell population, for the purpose of inducing a response in the targeted cells. Two or more fluorescent labels can be attached to the targeted cells, and distinguished from one another by a color camera. By use of this system, one can monitor and affect cells having a desired phenotype. For example, targeted cells can not only be inactivated by an energy beam, but can also be monitored through fluorescent labeling for changes in cell morphology, ion transport or other cellular functions.
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Control of the volume of surface liquid which covers the pulmonary epithelium is critical for normal mucociliary clearance and for efficient gas exchange. The role that active transepithelial ion transport plays as a driving force for liquid movement across the pulmonary airways is currently under study. We measure the bioelectric properties of isolated bronchi and bronchioles as correlates of active ion transport activity. We then use selective transport inhibitors and stimulators to determine which transport pathways are present and how these processes are regulated. In persons afflicted with cystic fibrosis (CF), a molecular defect in an epithelial chloride channel is present that leads to a myriad of pathological problems, the most critical of which involves secretion of thickened, dehydrated mucus into the airways. A major focus of our research is to determine how such defects in chloride ion transport are mechanistically related to the development of the symptoms observed in cystic ...
This research project examines the transport of ions through porous alumina membranes with channels of ̃200 nanometers in diameter. The test molecule is the permeate anion 1,5-naphthalene disulfonate (NDS2-), which as absorbance in the ultraviolet range and also exhibits fluorescence. This allows direct examination of transport by utilizing ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy as well as fluorescence spectroscopy. Adding substituents through strong alumina-silane linkages further modifies all the surfaces of the alumina nanotube membranes. Membranes are soaked in solutions containing either octadecyl trimethoxysilane (ODTMS) or isobutyl trimethoxysilane (IBTMS). Ion transport across the membrane treated with the hydrophobic octadecyl trimethoxysilane was hindered significantly, while the membranes exposed to a short alkyl chain isobutyl trimethoxysilane demonstrated only a slight blockage of ion transport. In both cases, addition of an ionic surfactant dodecyl benzenesulfonate (DBS) and also cationic drug
TY - JOUR. T1 - The extracellular loop of pendrin and prestin modulates their voltage-sensing property. AU - Kuwabara, Makoto F.. AU - Wasano, Koichiro. AU - Takahashi, Satoe. AU - Bodner, Justin. AU - Komori, Tomotaka. AU - Uemura, Sotaro. AU - Zheng, Jing. AU - Shima, Tomohiro. AU - Homma, Kazuaki. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Pendrin and prestin belong to the solute carrier 26 (SLC26) family of anion transporters. Prestin is unique among the SLC26 family members in that it displays voltage-driven motor activity (electromotility) and concurrent gating currents that manifest as nonlinear cell membrane electrical capacitance (nonlinear capacitance (NLC)). Although the anion transport mechanism of the SLC26 proteins has begun to be elucidated, the molecular mechanism of electromotility, which is thought to have evolved from an ancestral ion transport mechanism, still remains largely elusive. Here, we demonstrate that pendrin also exhibits large NLC and that charged residues present in one ...
Disorders of epithelial ion transport play an important role in the development of many diseases such as cystic fibrosis or diarrhea. Recent research has shown that altered ion transport may also be responsible for the pathomechanism of pancreatic inflammatory diseases and for the abnormal, metaplastic changes of the esophagus (Barretts esophagus). The incidence of these diseases is increasing worldwide, placing a huge and costly burden on health-care system. At present, the pathomechanism of pancreatitis or Barretts esophagus is not completely understood, which makes it difficult to develop effective therapies. The aim of our research work is to examine the role of ion transport processes in the development and progression of these gastrointestinal diseases and to identify therapeutic targets that can be a promising starting point for treating of these diseases ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - P2Y2 receptor-mediated inhibition of ion transport in distal lung epithelial cells. AU - Ramminger, S. J.. AU - Collett, A.. AU - Baines, D. L.. AU - Murphie, H.. AU - McAlroy, H. L.. AU - Olver, R. E.. AU - Inglis, S. K.. AU - Wilson, S. M.. PY - 1999/9. Y1 - 1999/9. N2 - 1. Rat foetal distal lung epithelial cells were plated onto permeable supports where they became integrated into epithelial sheets that spontaneously generated short circuit current (I(SC)) 2. Apical ATP (100 μM) evoked a transient fall in I(SC) that was followed by a rise to a clear peak which, in turn, was succeeded by a slowly developing decline to a value below control. Apical UTP evoked an essentially identical response. 3. UDP and ADP were ineffective whilst ATP had no effect when added to the basolateral solution. These effects thus appear to be mediated by apical P2Y2 receptors. 4. The rising phase of the responses to ATP/UTP was selectively inhibited by anion transport inhibitors but persisted in the ...
1. O2 uptake was determined for periods of 23-46 h in salt-depleted crayfish held in deionized water (DW) or Na-free media at 10 degrees C. These media were replaced by artificial lakewater media (ALW) containing 0-2-0-6 mM Na and O2 uptake was again determined for periods of 24-66 h. 2. During net ion uptake in ALW the metabolic rate was either elevated or depressed. Standard metabolism in ALW altered by amounts equivalent to 0-1 - 15-5% (mean 6-4 (15) +/− 4-4% S. D.) of the metabolic rate measured during salt-depletion. On three occasions the metabolic rate was elevated by 22-0 - 66-7%, but some of this increase may have been due to locomotor activity. 3. The calculated values for thermodynamic work involved in ion transport were 0-056 - 0-268 J/10 g. h at 10 degrees C, or 1-5 - 7-2% of the mean standard metabolic rate. Most of the observed changes in metabolic rate lie within the limits of experimental error (ca. +/− 7%). Hence the energetic cost of ion transport is too small for direct ...
1. van der Merwe, J. Q., Moreau, F., and MacNaughton, W. K. Protease-activated receptor-2 stimulates intestinal SCBN epithelial chloride transport through activation of PLC and selective PKC isoforms. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol, 296: G1258-1266, 2009. 2. van der Merwe, J. Q., Ohland, C. L., Hirota, C. L., and MacNaughton, W. K. Prostaglandin E2 derived from cyclooxygenases 1 and 2 mediates intestinal SCBN epithelial ion transport stimulated by the activation of protease-activated receptor 2. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 329: 747-752, 2009. 3. Dong, X., Smoll, E. J., Ko, K. H., Lee, J., Chow, J. Y., Kim, H. D., Insel, P. A., and Dong, H. P2Y receptors mediate Ca2+ signaling in duodenocytes and contribute to duodenal mucosal SCBN bicarbonate secretion. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol, 296: G424-432, 2009. 4. Buret, A. and Lin, Y. C. Genotypic characterization of an epithelial cell line SCBN for the study of parasite-epithelial interactions. J Parasitol, 94: 545-548, 2008. 5. Smith, ...
Liquid state of low-density pressure-amorphized ice above its Tg. Ion transport in a chemically prepared polypyrrole/poly(styrene-4-sulfonate) composite
1.D.148. The Synthetic Ion Channel Formed by Multiblock Amphiphile with Anisotropic Dual-Stimuli-Responsiveness (ChMAAR) Family. Inspired by the structures and functions of natural ion channels that can respond to multiple stimuli in an anisotropic manner, Sasaki et al. 2021 developed multiblock amphiphile VF. When VF was incorporated into lipid bilayer membranes, VF formed a supramolecular ion channel whose ion transport properties were controllable by the polarity and amplitude of the applied voltage. Microscopic emission spectroscopy revealed that VF changed its molecular conformation in response to the applied voltage. Furthermore, the ion transport property of VF could be reversibly switched by the addition of (R)-propranolol, an aromatic amine known as an antiarrhythmic agent, followed by the addition of beta-cyclodextrin for its removal. The highly regulated orientation of VF allowed for an anisotropic dual-stimuli-responsiveness as a synthetic ion channel (Sasaki et al. 2021). ...
Physiologic Instruments designs and manufactures instrumentation, Ussing Chamber Systems and Data Acquisition products for studying transport across epithelial barriers. Transepithelial voltage, short-circuit current and resistance are measured using single and multi-channel voltage/current clamps that may be directly connected to Acquire & Analyze for automating data collection and analysis.
As the third-generation rigid macrocycles evolved from progenitor 1, cyclic aromatic oligoamides 3, with a backbone of reduced constraint, exhibit extremely strong stacking with an astoundingly high affinity (estimated lower limit of K dimer , 10 13 M -1 in CHCl 3), which leads to dispersed tubular stacks that undergo further assembly in solution. Computational study reveals a very large binding energy (-49.77 kcal mol -1) and indicates highly cooperative local dipole interactions that account for the observed strength and directionality for the stacking of 3. In the solid-state, X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms that the aggregation of 3 results in well-aligned tubular stacks. The persistent tubular assemblies of 3, with their non-deformable sub-nm pore, are expected to possess many interesting functions. One such function, transmembrane ion transport, is observed for 3. ...
Epithelial cells have an apical-basolateral axis of polarity, which is required for epithelial functions including barrier formation, vectorial ion transport and sensory perception. Here we review what is known about the sorting signals, machineries
Compounds composed of metals and nonmetals contain charged species. The charged species are known as ions. An ion is a charged particle and can be negatively or positively charged. A negatively charged ion is called an anion and the positively charged ion, a cation. Take, for example, sodium chloride (NaCl). Its constituent particles are positively charged sodium ions (Na+) and negatively charged chloride ions (Cl- ). Ions may consist of a single charged atom or a group of atoms that have a net charge on them. A group of atoms carrying a charge is known as a polyatomic ion.. (i) Cation: It is positively charged ion and is formed by the loss of electron from an atom e.g. H+, Na+, Ca2+, Al3+, NH4+ etc ...
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Ions remain in solution (meaning, dissolved in water) because the attraction forces between the ions and the water is greater than the attraction forces between the ions and other ions. Conversely, ions will come out of solution (forming a precipitate) if the attraction forces are greater between the ions and other ions. This is like a situation where your family (mum, dad, brothers and sisters) may dissociate from each other and mingle when at a family barbecue - whether you choose to stick together or not depends on how much you like to hang out with the other people there ...
Odvisno katerega želiš, cel kup jih je na voljo po cenah, kot so na je pa kup modelov, za katere se čaka oziroma trenutno vlada stanje, kjer jih dobijo samo boljši kupci. Jaz sem kupil že več kosov, pa sem vseeno dobil namig, naj kupim kup nakita, potem pa dobim željeni rolex. Ne hvala, bom počakal recesijo ...
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... chloride ions have higher mobility than sodium ions. The sum of the transport numbers for all of the ions in solution always ... Liquid junction potential can arise from ions in a solution having different ion transport numbers. At zero concentration, the ... without or with ionic transport. The EMF of transport concentration cell involves both the transport number of the cation and ... In chemistry, ion transport number, also called the transference number, is the fraction of the total electric current carried ...
Active transport Ion transport number Ion transporter superfamily Membrane transport protein Transport protein Maffeo C, ... Ion channels and ion transporters accomplish this via facilitated diffusion which is a type of passive transport. However, only ... Ion transporters differ significantly from ion channels. Channels are pores that run through the membrane, whereas transports ... Symporters such as the sodium-glucose symporter transport an ion with its concentration gradient, and they couple the transport ...
... the ability of a compound to act as an ion transporter can be measured. Observing ion transport, however, does not pin down ion ... Zojaji Biomimetic ion transport: a functional model of a unimolecular ion channel J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1989, 111, 767-769. A. ... Passive transport of ions across a membrane can take place by three main mechanisms: by ferrying, through defects in a ... As an ion transporter allows ions on the outside to diffuse in, its addition will affect the color/fluorescence property of the ...
Alexandre A. Shvartsburg (2008). Differential Ion Mobility Spectrometry: Nonlinear Ion Transport and Fundamentals of FAIMS (2nd ... make use of the dependence of the ion mobility K on the electric field strength E at high electric fields. Ions are transported ... "Enhanced Ion Utilization Efficiency Using an Electrodynamic Ion Funnel Trap as an Injection Mechanism for Ion Mobility ... Ions are deflected towards the walls of the analyzer based on the change of their mobility. Thereby only ions with a certain ...
An ion-exchange membrane is a semi-permeable membrane that transports certain dissolved ions, while blocking other ions or ... The selectivity to the transport of ions of opposite charges is called its permselectivity. Ion-exchange membranes are ... that transport H+ cations, and the anion exchange membranes used in certain alkaline fuel cells to transport OH− anions. An ion ... and divalent ions. The selectivity of an ion-exchange membrane is due to Donnan equilibrium and not due to physically blocking ...
... the core of SRIM is a program called Transport of Ions in Matter (TRIM). SRIM is popular in the ion implantation research and ... Biersack, J. P.; Haggmark, L. G. (1980). "A Monte Carlo computer program for the transport of energetic ions in amorphous ... Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) is a group of computer programs which calculate interactions between ions and ... As the input parameters, it needs the ion type and energy (in the range 10 eV - 2 GeV) and the material of one or several ...
Booth, I.R.; Jones, M.A.; McLaggan, D; Nikolaev, Y (1996). Konings, W.N. (ed.). Bacterial Ion Channels. Transport Processes in ... Transport Processes in Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Organisms. Transport Processes in Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Organisms. Vol. ... The generalized transport reaction catalyzed by members of the CPA2 family is: M+ (in) + nH+ (out) ⇌ M+ (out) + nH+ (in). (The ... Its transport function is not known. The GerN and GrmA proteins of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus megaterium, respectively, are ...
In a lithium-ion cell, the lithium ions are transported to and from the positive or negative electrodes by oxidizing the ... A lithium-ion or Li-ion battery is a type of rechargeable battery which uses the reversible reduction of lithium ions to store ... The charging procedures for single Li-ion cells, and complete Li-ion batteries, are slightly different: A single Li-ion cell is ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lithium-ion batteries. Scholia has a topic profile for Lithium-ion battery. Lithium-ion ...
On the other hand, ion rectification can be improved by having a dilute solution. To analyze the transport of ions in the ... In other words, the velocity of an ion in the nano-channel is related not only to its ion mobility but also its ion valence. ... Transport of ions in the electrolyte can be adjusted by tuning the pH value in a dilute ionic solution, or by introducing an ... In nanofluidics, the active control of ion transport is realized using nano-scale channels or pores. Research efforts on micro- ...
The ion transport system moves potassium across the cell membrane using two mechanisms. One is active and pumps sodium out of, ... K+ ions are larger than Na+ ions, and ion channels and pumps in cell membranes can differentiate between the two ions, actively ... Ion channel have only one gate, and there only one kind of ion can stream through, at 10 million to 100 million ions per second ... This ion pump uses ATP to pump three sodium ions out of the cell and two potassium ions into the cell, creating an ...
Ramirez, P.; Mafe, S.; Alcaraz, A.; Cervera, J. (2003). "Modeling of pH-Switchable Ion Transport and Selectivity in Nanopore ... Daiguji, H.; Yang, P.D.; Majumdar, A. (2004). "Ion transport in nanofluidic channels". Nano Letters. 4 (1): 137-142. Bibcode: ... For example, the drastically enhanced surface-to-volume ratio of the pore results in a preponderance of counter-ions (i.e. ions ... Karnik, R.; Fan, R.; Yue, M.; Li, D.Y.; Yang, P.D.; Majumdar, A. (2005). "Electrostatic control of ions and molecules in ...
"Ion Transport in Acidophiles" (PDF). Thorne, S. H.; Barak, Y.; Liang, W.; Bachmann, M. H.; Rao, J.; Contag, C. H.; Matin, A. ( ...
Microchannel Reformer Ion transport membrane reforming. The capital cost of methane reformer plants is prohibitive for small to ... methane to syngas Low cost microchannel reformer for hydrogen production from natural gas Numerical simulation of ion transport ... membrane reactors: oxygen permeation and transport and fuel conversion AIA: Software Analyzes Cost of Hydrogen Production - ...
Yeo, Richard S. (1983). "Ion Clustering and Proton Transport in Nafion Membranes and Its Applications as Solid Polymer ... A Guide to Advanced Level Physics (published in Singapore). Ion Exchange: Transport and Interfacial Properties. Battery ... "Transport Properties of Nafion Membranes in Electrochemically Regenerative Hydrogen/halogen Cells," J. of Electrochem. Soc.,126 ... "Sorption and transport behavior of perfluorinated ionomer membranes in concentrated NaOH solution Electrochimica Acta (December ...
Ion transport through nerve membranes (Thesis). OCLC 19767248. "Atmospheric Circulation - newsletter of the University of ...
Konishi T, Hamrick PE, Walsh PJ (1978). "Ion transport in guinea pig cochlea. I. Potassium and sodium transport". Acta ...
This is through the active transport of sodium and chloride ions across the epithelium of the gallbladder, which creates an ... "Ion transport across the gallbladder epithelium". Current Drug Targets. Immune, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders. 5 (2): 143- ...
"Ion transport in guinea pig cochlea. I. Potassium and sodium transport". Acta Otolaryngol. 86 (1-2): 22-34. doi:10.3109/ ... It is mainly this electrical potential difference that allows potassium ions to flow into the hair cells during mechanical ... due to its high concentration of positively charged ions. ...
Ferrier, J.; Lucas, W.J. (1986). "Ion transport and the vibrating probe". Biophysical Journal. 49 (4): 803-807. Bibcode:1986BpJ ... Penny, M. G.; Kelday, L. S.; Bowling, D. J. F. (1976). "Active chloride transport in the leaf epidermis of Commelina communis ... It is related to scanning ion-selective electrode technique (SIET), which can be used with SVET in corrosion studies, and ... Meyer, A. J.; Weisenseel, M. H. (1997-07-01). "Wound-Induced Changes of Membrane Voltage, Endogenous Currents, and Ion Fluxes ...
Ion transport peptide (ITP) from locust. ITP stimulates salt and water reabsorption and inhibits acid secretion in the ileum of ...
Fluoride selective electrode Ion transport number Solvated electron Electrochemical hydrogen compressor A. J. Bard and L. ... An ion-selective electrode (ISE), also known as a specific ion electrode (SIE), is a transducer (or sensor) that converts the ... Ion-exchange resins are based on special organic polymer membranes which contain a specific ion-exchange substance (resin). ... There are four main types of ion-selective membrane used in ion-selective electrodes (ISEs): glass, solid state, liquid based, ...
Chloride ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins that allow the passive transport of chloride ions across biological ... Chloride ion channels involve both voltage-gated and ligand-gated mechanisms to transport the ions across cellular membranes. ... Inorganic ions in animals and plants are ions necessary for vital cellular activity. In body tissues, ions are also known as ... Chloride ion channels vary from many other ion channels due to being controlled by the anionic chloride ions. ...
Quinton, P. M. (1989). "Defective epithelial ion transport in cystic fibrosis". Clinical Chemistry. 35 (5): 726-730. doi: ... This induces ion fluxes across the gland wall, depending on the electrochemical gradient of the ions. Because the current ... then modulate ion channels, creating an ion flux through the membrane; This polarizes the gland to voltages around 10 mV and ... and the active measure extracts electro-active ions (i. e., chloride near the anode, proton near the cathode) and pulls them ...
In contrast to ENaC, CFTR that regulates chloride ion transport is not found on cilia. These findings contradict a previous ... Studies show that the ENaC channel is permeable to Na+ and Li+ ions, but has very little permeability to K+, Cs+ or Rb+ ions. ... Toczyłowska-Mamińska R, Dołowy K (February 2012). "Ion transporting proteins of human bronchial epithelium". Journal of ... is a membrane-bound ion channel that is selectively permeable to sodium ions (Na+). It is assembled as a heterotrimer composed ...
Ion transport in a model gramicidin channel. Structure and thermodynamics. B. Roux and M. Karplus Biophys. J. 1991;59(5):961- ... Theoretical and computational models of ion channels. B. Roux Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2002;12(2):182-189. Merz, Kenneth M.; Roux ... His research has investigated structure, dynamics, and the function of biological macromolecular systems such as ion channels, ...
Arsenite Antimonite Ion transporter Ion transporter superfamily ARC3 family Arsenite-Antimonite efflux Arsenite-transporting ... "Families of soft-metal-ion-transporting ATPases". Journal of Bacteriology. 181 (19): 5891-7. doi:10.1128/JB.181.19.5891- ... Prakash S, Cooper G, Singhi S, Saier MH (December 2003). "The ion transporter superfamily". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA ... transport energizing subunit, as for the chromosomally-encoded E. coli system), or of one protein (just the ArsB integral ...
Kimizuka, Hideo; Kaibara, Kozue (September 1975). "Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of ion transport through membranes". Journal ... Non-equilibrium thermodynamics is concerned with transport processes and with the rates of chemical reactions. Almost all ... "Non-equilibrium thermodynamics as applied to membrane transport". Journal of Membrane Science. 57 (2-3): 119-159. doi:10.1016/ ... thermodynamics has been successfully applied to describe biological processes such as protein folding/unfolding and transport ...
"Hydroxamates and Polycarboxylates as Ion Transport Agents (Siderophores)". In Winkelmann, G., Winge, D. (eds.). Metal ions in ...
Montal, Maurice; Chance, Britton; Lee, Chuan-pu (December 1970). "Ion transport and energy conservation in submitochondrial ... Ion transport and energy conservation in submitochondrial particles" (1970, with Britton Chance and Maurice Montal) "Oxidation- ...
Field, Michael (2003). "Intestinal ion transport and the pathophysiology of diarrhea". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 111 ( ... Field, Michael (2003). "Intestinal ion transport and the pathophysiology of diarrhea". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 111 ( ... cAMP opens chloride and potassium ion channels to drive colonic electrolyte secretion and promote intestinal motility. ... receptor activation reduces neuronal firing by facilitating membrane hyperpolarization through the efflux of potassium ions. ...
The sulfide ion, S2−, does not exist in aqueous alkaline solutions of Na2S. Instead sulfide converts to hydrosulfide: S2− + H2O ... pipelines transporting soured oil, Kraft paper factories. Microbially-induced corrosion (MIC) or biogenic sulfide corrosion are ... Examples of such naming include selenium disulfide and titanium sulfide, which contain no sulfide ions. "sulfide(2−) (CHEBI: ... ferrous ion: Fe2+). Dimethyldisulfide has the chemical binding CH3-S-S-CH3, whereas carbon disulfide has no S-S bond, being S=C ...
Grove, T. L.; Till, C. B.; Lev, E.; Chatterjee, N.; Médard, E. (4 June 2009). "Kinematic variables and water transport control ... 143-146 and by its high content of large-ion lithophile elements, such as potassium, rubidium, caesium, strontium, or barium, ...
The Nd3+ ion is similar in size to the early lanthanides of the cerium group (those from lanthanum up to samarium and europium ... Kang, L., Shen, Z. & Jin, C. Neodymium cations Nd3+ were transported to the interior of Euglena gracilis 277. Chin.Sci.Bull. 45 ... Trivalent neodymium ion Nd3+ was the first lanthanide from rare-earth elements used for the generation of laser radiation. The ... The color of neodymium compounds comes from the Nd3+ ion and is often a reddish-purple. However, this changes with the type of ...
Pérez-Fillol, M; Rodríguez-Valera, F (1986). "Potassium ion accumulation in cells of different halobacteria". Microbiología. 2 ... which drives proton transport. The proton gradient formed thereby can then be used to generate chemical energy via ATP synthase ...
The most important ions are sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, phosphate and the organic ion bicarbonate. The ... This is done in eukaryotes by a series of proteins in the membranes of mitochondria called the electron transport chain. In ... Ions are also critical for nerve and muscle function, as action potentials in these tissues are produced by the exchange of ... This proton motive force then drives ATP synthesis The electrons needed to drive this electron transport chain come from light- ...
The Na+ ion has an octahedral geometry. Each azide is linked to six Na+ centers, with three Na-N bonds to each terminal ... This should be considered for choosing a non-metallic transport container for sodium azide solutions in the laboratory. This ... The Na+ and NH−2 ions are produced by this reaction. The sodium amide is subsequently combined with nitrous oxide: 2 NaNH2 + ... Sodium azide solutions react with metallic ions to precipitate metal azides, which can be shock sensitive and explosive. ...
Rebadged versions of the i-MiEV are sold in Europe by PSA Peugeot Citroën (PSA) as the Peugeot iOn and Citroën C-Zero. 2010- ... Steam-powered self-propelled vehicles large enough to transport people and cargo were first devised in the late 18th century. ... 1997 saw the Toyota RAV4 EV and the Nissan Altra, the first production battery electric cars to use NiMH and Li-ion batteries ( ... Transport Evolved. Retrieved 16 February 2015. "Mitsubishi Motors unveils cheaper i-MiEV electric car". Automotive News. ...
... is taken into intracellular organelles and is transported by the endogenous neuronal transport system including kinesin-1, ... The Mn2+ ion gives a hyperintense signal in T1-weighted MRI and thus serves as a contrast agent. Mn2+ enters through voltage ... Transport of the viral particles along the axon was shown to depend on the microtubular cytoskeleton. There is also a group of ... Norgren RB, McLean JH, Bubel HC, Wander A, Bernstein DI, Lehman MN (March 1992). "Anterograde transport of HSV-1 and HSV-2 in ...
2004). "Phylogeny as a guide to structure and function of membrane transport proteins". Mol Membr Biol. 21 (3): 171-181. doi: ... Voltage-gated ion channels are a class of transmembrane proteins that form ion channels that are activated by changes in the ... Voltage-gated ion-channels are usually ion-specific, and channels specific to sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), calcium (Ca2+), and ... The channels tend to be ion-specific, although similarly sized and charged ions may sometimes travel through them. The ...
... divided by the volume of water transported. The amount of work that must be done in order to transport reversibly and ... Osmotic pressure: inhomogeneous aggregation of ion concentrations, which causes a force in water particles as they attract by ... The amount of work that must be done in order to transport reversibly and isothermally an infinitesimal quantity of water, ... divided by the volume of water transported. Frost weathering Geotechnical engineering Water potential Well engineering Mitchell ...
With pressure for manufacturers to develop innovative transport solutions which benefit the environment I hope that legislators ... The C1-E uses components supplied by electric scooter manufacturer Vectrix and is powered by a lithium-ion battery. The BMW C ... environmentally sound and safe solution to urban personal transport. ...
There in 2001 he founded the Laboratory of Ion Transport Pathology and Intracellular Signaling. Khodorov published over 175 ... After Soviet science was liberalized in the 1960s, he moved to ion channels, developing as a leader in the actions of local ... At the Vishnevsky Institute of Surgery, the Khodorov laboratory carried out pioneering studies in the field of ion channel ... focusing on the mechanisms of gating and ion channel block. At the same time, in collaboration with the laboratories of Dr. ...
ION Services), 9 variants of existing vehicles, 9 weapons, new equipment (including a ballistic shield and a usable ZU-23-2 ... a Facebook post claiming to show the Taliban shooting down an American military transport plane received millions of views; ... the DLC's Extraction campaign follows Team Sword and Team Shield of the private military company ION Services, who are hired to ... and informs Raider that he believes China transported the Eastwind Device to the South Pacific, deliberately causing the ...
In 1997, he received one-half of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na⁺,K⁺- ... Within the last decade[when?], many independent labs have demonstrated that, in addition to the classical ion transporting, ... Looking at the process starting from the interior of the cell: The pump has a higher affinity for Na⁺ ions than K⁺ ions, thus ... Blaustein MP (May 1977). "Sodium ions, calcium ions, blood pressure regulation, and hypertension: a reassessment and a ...
Cambodia shot down an American C-123 cargo plane that was part of a convoy of three U.S. Air Force transports flying over the ... Voskhod 1 was the first manned spacecraft to use an ion thruster rather than a conventional rocket engine. Nikita Khrushchev, ... All 80 people on board a Union de Transports Aériens flight were killed when the plane crashed into a mountain peak after ... Cambodia protested to the United Nations, then shot down a U.S. transport plane four days later. Born: Kamala Harris, 49th Vice ...
Sigel, Astrid; Sigel, Helmut; Sigel, Roland K. O. (27 January 2014). Interrelations between Essential Metal Ions and Human ... then transporting the acquired nutrients to local ecosystems. Food portal Food composition Mineral deficiency Micronutrient ...
Metal Ions in Life Sciences. Vol. 12. Springer. pp. 479-501. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-5561-1_14. ISBN 978-94-007-5560-4. ISSN ... A basic knowledge of the dynamics of zinc in soils, understanding of the uptake and transport of zinc in crops and ...
Ion attachment mass spectrometry (IAMS) can be used to measure BFR concentrations in plastics. The BFR ban has significantly ... means of transport for persons or goods, excluding electric two-wheel vehicles which are not type-approved; non-road mobile ... REACH Battery Directive Electronic waste Green computing Ion attachment mass spectrometry - used to enforce RoHS limits on ...
"A high-density association screen of 155 ion transport genes for involvement with common migraine". Human Molecular Genetics. ... Ion channels, Electrophysiology, Integral membrane proteins, Calcium channels). ...
... 's public transport system is run by Regia Autonomă de Transport în Comun Constanța (RATC), and consists of 23 year- ... all designed by Ion Mincu and manufactured in Paris. Built in 1910 by King Carol I, the Grand Mosque of Constanța (originally ... "Regia Autonomă de Transport în Comun Constanța , Home". Retrieved 2016-06-27. "Internet gratuit în autobuzele RATC ... Wireless în toate mijloacele de transport din Constanţa". "Anadolu Isuzu signs 18 mln euro bus supply deal with ...
The program LISE++ is designed to predict the intensity and purity of radioactive ion beams (RIB) produced by In-flight ... MOCADI Beam TRANSPORT code COSY INFINITY "LISE++: Radioactive beam production with in-flight separators", O. B. Tarasov and D. ... Large progress has recently been done in ion-beam optics with the introduction of "elemental" blocks, that allows optical ... "Charge states of relativistic heavy ions in matter", C. Scheidenberger et al., Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics ...
He issued a magazine (Basarabia) of which he was editor (together with Ion Inculeț, Teodor Inculeț, Ion Pelivan, Alexei ... Briefly kept in Tyumen prison awaiting transport further east, he was sent to Kurgan in the custody of two gendarmes (October ... founded and led by Pan Halippa and Ion Inculeț). In late 1918, most of it merged into Ion Mihalache's Peasants' Party (PȚ), of ... At the time, he relied on what he interpreted as Ion I. C. Brătianu's promise that a PNL cabinet was going to enforce both ...
It appears that the medication works by causing depletion of important substrates such as amino acids and/or ions within fungal ... Upon binding to the fungal cell membrane and forming pores, membrane permeability and transport in fungus are altered. As a ... Yeast Membrane Transport, Cham: Springer International Publishing, vol. 892, pp. 327-349, doi:10.1007/978-3-319-25304-6_14, ... cells, resulting in the inhibition of transport of these substances across fungal cell membranes. Finally, it disrupts the ...
... 's work showing how a dysregulation of chloride ion transport is involved in chronic pain and other brain ... Lavertu G, Côté SL, De Koninck Y. Enhancing K-Cl co-transport restores normal spinothalamic sensory coding in a neuropathic ... "Enhancing K-Cl co-transport restores normal spinothalamic sensory coding in a neuropathic pain model - Fonds de recherche du ...
Because of the ion-exchange nature of the glass membrane, it is possible for some other ions to concurrently interact with ion- ... The hydrated gel membrane is connected by Na+ transport and thus the concentration of H+ on the outside of the membrane is ' ... Potassium ions usually cause less error than sodium ions. Acidic error range - at a very high concentration of hydrogen ions ( ... A glass electrode is a type of ion-selective electrode made of a doped glass membrane that is sensitive to a specific ion. The ...
In addition, the B. suis gene for nickel transport, nikA, is activated by metal ion deficiency and is expressed once in the ...
Much of the ion transport taking place in the distal convoluted tubule is regulated by the endocrine system. In the presence of ... Cells lining the tubule have numerous mitochondria to produce enough energy (ATP) for active transport to take place. ... Aquaporins are membrane proteins that selectively conduct water molecules while preventing the passage of ions and other ...
A cavity forms inside the morula, by the active transport of sodium ions from trophoblast cells and osmosis of water. This ...
The MerC Mercuric Ion (Hg²⁺) Permease (MerC) Family 1.A.72.5: The MerE Mercuric Ion (Hg²⁺) Permease (MerE) Family The transport ... Morby, A. P.; Hobman, J. L.; Brown, N. L. (1995-07-01). "The role of cysteine residues in the transport of mercuric ions by the ... 1.A.72.1: The MerF Mercuric Ion (Hg²⁺) Uptake (MerF) Family 1.A.72.2: The MerH Mercuric Ion (Hg²⁺) Permease (MerH) Family 1.A. ... and binds a single Hg2+ ion. Hg2+ is bound to a sequence GMTCXXC found in metallochaperones as well as metal-transporting ...
Ion also has a monk fish-like appendage that ends in a lantern-like lure. Ion was later captured by Krona and joined the rogue ... the ring transports Simon and Jessica away from the First Lantern. Jessica and Simon find themselves transported to Earth 10 ... Ion was revealed to be actually the emotional entity for the Green Lantern Corps. Representing the stability of willpower, Ion ... Ion was eventually free from Krona's control when the rogue Guardian was killed by Hal Jordan and is once again at large in the ...
FXYD domain containing ion transport regulator 6 pseudogene 3provided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:31124 See related. ... FXYD6P3 FXYD domain containing ion transport regulator 6 pseudogene 3 [ Homo sapiens (human) ] Gene ID: 406875, updated on 22- ... involved_in regulation of ion transport IEA Inferred from Electronic Annotation. more info ... enables ion channel regulator activity IEA Inferred from Electronic Annotation. more info ...
Does this mean that efforts to correct ion transport are doomed to be fruitless, and that the use of ion transport as an end- ... Cystic fibrosis: to ion transport and beyond. A. Bush, J. Davies. European Respiratory Journal 2010 36: 991-992; DOI: 10.1183/ ... Cystic fibrosis: to ion transport and beyond Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from European Respiratory ... Correction of ion transport defects is likely to bring substantial benefits. But before we assume that death from CF lung ...
This proposal builds upon mounting evidence that ion channels and transporters underlie many of the hallmarks of c... ... as well as therapeutic and diagnostic potential of proteins involved in ion transport (the ""transportome"") in cancer. This ... methodological platform for supra-disciplinary training of early stage researchers in and beyond the fields of ion transport ... This proposal builds upon mounting evidence that ion channels and transporters underlie many of the hallmarks of cancer. Thus, ...
In this article, numerical models of the diffusion process and chemical reactions of chloride ions in concrete are used to ... The physical models describe the diffusion of chloride ions in concrete and chemical reactions while the statistical models, ... The main process of deterioration of concrete bridges is corrosion of the reinforcing steel due to chloride ions and models for ... The transport modules include thermal and vapor transfers, liquid water transport with and without chloride ions, capillary ...
The process in which a magnesium ion (Mg2+) is transported across a mitochondrial membrane, into or out of the mitochondrion. ... magnesium ion transport. 17. magnesium ion transmembrane transport. 16. mitochondrial magnesium ion transmembrane transport. 2 ... mitochondrial transmembrane transport. 105. mitochondrial magnesium ion transmembrane transport. 2. magnesium ion export from ...
First Principles Design of Ionomers for Facile Ion Transport. *Colby, Ralph H. (PI) ... All ion-conducting membranes suffer from the fact that only a tiny fraction of counter-ions participate in conduction, and the ... 1) The understanding of how to design ionomers for improved ion-conduction will not only impact advanced lithium batteries and ... The obvious choice for a replacement membrane is a single-ion conducting polymer (ionomer) that has all anions covalently ...
Ion transport through these gel was studied using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. We show that for certain parametric ... Abstract: H59.00004 : Effect of morphology on ion transport in presence of surface conduction pathways, and rheology of model ... conditions, some gel structures exhibit simultaneously optimal ion diffusivity and storage modulus. These results suggest that ...
Grefen, C., Honsbein, A. and Blatt, M.R. (2011) Ion transport, membrane traffic and cellular volume control. Current Opinion in ... Throughout their development, plants balance cell surface area and volume with ion transport and turgor. This balance lies at ... Remarkably, very little is known of its mechanics, notably how membrane traffic is coupled with osmotic solute transport and ... Finally, we suggest a framework of alternative models coupling transport and traffic, and approachable through direct, ...
For solid-state devices in particular, ion transport can be heavily influenced by interfaces between different phases or grains ... With this INCITE project, the researchers aim to integrate a validated multiscale modeling framework to study ion transport ... which appear unavoidably from processing or cycling and influence transport in often-problematic ways. ... Ion transport kinetics critically define the performance of a wide variety of emerging energy storage solutions. ...
Dive into the research topics of Somatostatin alters intestinal ion transport. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Author(s): Lund, S.M.; Chawla, S.R.
... ... In contrast the transport literature is quite sparse. In the present study we extend well established mathematical techniques ... Transport behavior in groundwater systems is dominated by chemical interactions between aqueous species and the materials that ... from chromatography to investigate the role of surface chemistry on the transport of ions in reactive porous media. Of ...
The YRC PDR provides for the searching of millions of protein descriptions from many databases to find proteins and public experimental data describing those proteins produced by the YRC. The experimental data is in the form of mass spectrometry, yeast two-hybrid, protein structure prediction, light microscopy and protein complex predictions.
... although not sodium transport) in slices of kidney cortex. The effects on both the adenosine triphosphatase and ion transport ... Inhibition of Sodium-Potassium-activated Adenosine 5′-Triphosphatase and Ion Transport by Adriamycin1 Mario Gosálvez; Mario ... Triphosphatase and Ion Transport by Adriamycin1. Cancer Res 1 January 1979; 39 (1): 257-261. ...
ICAO Adopts Strictest Rules Ever for Air Transport of Lithium Ion Batteries Including 30% State of Charge Limit, Rejects ... Lithium ion cells and batteries require protection from both high and low voltages. For example, prolonged low SOC and low ... The International Air Transport Association (IATA) has released a summary of these changes, which can be downloaded here. ... The DGPs SOC limit does not apply to lithium ion cells or batteries packed with or contained in products such as cell phones, ...
... and Brookes Bell have issued a whitepaper highlighting the continuing safety threat created by transportation of lithium-ion ... Home News & resources News Transport of lithium-ion batteries - a continuous threat ... For businesses transporting goods around the world, TT Club provides the transport and logistics cover you need. ... We are leading transport specialists with experience underwriting ship operator, port and terminal and transport operator cover ...
Effects of Benzodiazepines on the Transport of Sugars and Ions in Rat Skeletal Muscle in Vitro. I. BIHLER and P. C. SAWH ... Effects of Benzodiazepines on the Transport of Sugars and Ions in Rat Skeletal Muscle in Vitro. I. BIHLER and P. C. SAWH ... Effects of Benzodiazepines on the Transport of Sugars and Ions in Rat Skeletal Muscle in Vitro. I. BIHLER and P. C. SAWH ... The benzodiazepine drugs, diazepam and chlordiazepoxide, have a dual effect on sugar and ion transport in intact rat ...
Thus, the present study investigated in vitro the putative role of AVT in intestinal ion transport in the sea bream (Sparus ... AVT is involved in the regulation of ion transport in the intestine of the sea bream (Sparus aurata).. ... Although arginine vasotocin (AVT) is suggested to play a role in ion regulation in fish, its action in the intestine has not ... The intestine of marine fish plays a crucial role in ion homeostasis by selective processing of ingested fluid. ...
... Orbit ... molecular dynamics simulations have become the method of choice for elucidating the transport mechanisms of ions through ... The recent advancements in the Drude polarizable FF lead to a complete set of parameters for water, ions, protein, and lipids, ... Escherichia coli has been employed to examine the ability of the polarizable and nonpolarizable FFs to reproduce ion transport- ...
Electrically driven chloride ion transport in blended binder concretes: Insights from experiments and numerical simulations. ... Dive into the research topics of Electrically driven chloride ion transport in blended binder concretes: Insights from ...
LabHEART: an interactive computer model of rabbit ventricular myocyte ion channels and Ca transport ... an interactive computer model of rabbit ventricular myocyte ion channels and Ca transport ...
Sodium ions are transported from the anolyte compartment to the catholyte compartment across the sodium ion conductive ceramic ... Sodium ions are transported from the anolyte compartment to the catholyte compartment across the sodium ion conductive ceramic ... Fast Na+-ion transport in skeleton structures journal, February 1976 * Goodenough, J. B.; Hong, H. Y-P.; Kafalas, J. A. ... In the process, water is reduced at a cathode to form hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. Chloride ions from a sodium chloride ...
Ion heat transport dynamics during edge localized mode cycles at ASDEX Upgrade ... Ion heat transport dynamics during edge localized mode cycles at ASDEX Upgrade Viezzer, E., Cavedon, M., Fable, E., Laggner, F ... 2018). Ion heat transport dynamics during edge localized mode cycles at ASDEX Upgrade. Nuclear Fusion, 58: 026031. doi:10.1088/ ...
... ... Therefore, due to its ability to suppress polysulphide dissolution and enhance Li transport properties, while minimizing the ...
Unsteady nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic micropolar transport phenomena with hall and ion-slip current effects : numerical study ... Unsteady nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic micropolar transport phenomena with hall and ion-slip current effects : numerical study ... Ion slip effect induces a weak modification in primary and secondary shear stress distributions. The present study is relevant ... heat and mass transfer from an infinite vertical surface with Hall and Ion-slip currents is investigated theoretically and ...
Lithium-ion batteries with nickel-rich layered oxide cathodes and graphite anodes have reached specific energies of 250-300 Wh ... Enabling fast charging of high energy density Li-ion cells with high lithium ion transport electrolytes. Electrochem. Comm. 103 ... d, EIS results and fitting curve for cell with enhanced ion-transport under ATM cycling with 4C charging to 70% SOC. e, EIS ... a, Lithium plating detection with voltage relaxation method for 3.4 mAh cm−2 LiBs with enhanced ion transport. b, Coulombic ...
Government priority is to make Li-ion batteries in India: Transport minister The government is acquiring lithium mines abroad ... Indias lithium-ion battery imports more than tripled to $1.23 billion (Rs8,777 crore) in 2018-19 from $384 million two years ... Our priority is particularly for Li-ion batteries. We have already given two mines of Lithium to private companies and expect ... "One of the most important solutions is public transport running on electricity. For diesel buses, the cost of fuel is INR150/km ...
Ionic conductors transport electric current. One simple application of this process is the common battery which uses a salt ... A spatial and temporal comprehension of ion transport. "It is important to gain a better understanding of ion transport in ... Spatial resolutions of ion transport in an electrochemical system: Scientists break new ground in ion research. ... "We understand the basic ion transport mechanism, but until now it has been unclear what takes place at a microscopic level", ...
  • In many cases, the diffusion of ions in the organic semiconducting layer is slower than the movement of electrons in the semiconductor and the movement of ions in the electrolyte. (
  • The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. (
  • Ion transport by cell membranes serves two important purposes in pluricellular organisms, the maintenance of the volume and composition of the intracellular fluid, and the preservation and regulation of the volume and composition of the extracellular fluid. (
  • Thus, proteins involved in membrane transport, long known as important drug targets in other pathologies (channelopathies), are a new class of therapeutic and/or diagnostic targets in oncology. (
  • IonTraC is first to propose a systematic analysis of the expression, function, as well as therapeutic and diagnostic potential of proteins involved in ion transport (the ""transportome"") in cancer. (
  • to provide validated therapeutic and diagnostic concepts and tools that are based on transport proteins serving as novel drug targets and/or biomarkers. (
  • The recent advancements in the Drude polarizable FF lead to a complete set of parameters for water, ions, protein, and lipids, allowing for a more realistic modeling of membrane proteins. (
  • Certain ions can permeate the membrane via proteins, but because of their electrical charge do not permeate the bilayer. (
  • Ion transport proteins (pores, channels, carriers, and pumps) are treated from both structural and functional viewpoints, with some of them covered in more detail because of their importance in body fluid homeostasis and renal function. (
  • For most ions, the lipid bilayer is the barrier and membrane transport proteins are the pathway for these fluxes. (
  • This domain is found in sodium, potassium, and calcium ion channels proteins. (
  • The proteins have 6 transmembrane helices in which the last two helices flank a loop which determines ion selectivity. (
  • Upon analysis of differential expression for the sets of phosphonull and phosphomimetic mutants, they showed the proteins most affected by histone methylation clustered into GO categories consistent with cellular response to stress, e.g. ion membrane transport, lipid biosynthesis, ergosterol biosynthesis, and protein mannosylation. (
  • When proteins such as ION PUMPS couple transport directly to a chemical or photochemical reaction such as ATP hydrolysis the process is considered primary active transport pumps. (
  • These genes encode proteins associated with ABA biosynthesis, transport, reception, transcription, signaling, and ion and sugar transport, which fit the general ABA signaling pathway constructed from Arabidopsis and Hordeum vulgare. (
  • Electrode scale and electrolyte transport effects on extreme fast charging of lithium-ion cells. (
  • Therefore, due to its ability to suppress polysulphide dissolution and enhance Li transport properties, while minimizing the volatile organic solvent component, the hybrid electrolyte system is an excellent candidate to further explore for future Li-S systems. (
  • Conductors are also used in other forms of electrochemical energy storage for example when ions pass from one electrode to another through an electrolyte, usually in the form of a liquid, as is the case in fuel cells. (
  • The Paderborn Chemist and his team hope to pave the way for environmentally-friendly energy storage: "Knowledge of transport mechanisms is vitally important because this information enables us to develop new electrolyte and electrode materials. (
  • The practical applications of Li-ion batteries and emerging alternatives may not be limited to portable electronic devices, and circumventing hurdles to their widespread adoption in electrical vehicle applications, such as range anxiety and safety among others, requires new electrode materials and a fuller understanding of how the materials and the electrolyte chemistries behave. (
  • The nano-structural organization at electrolyte/electrode interface and wherein the transport properties and desolvation/solvation kinetics of charge carriers will be examined with advanced computational methodologies focused on exploring hierarchical length/time scales phenomena and the free energy landscape along with the desolvation/solvation process at electrode interface. (
  • Therefore, we designed a protein-free dispersion media containing phospholipids and amino acids in an isotonic balanced electrolyte solution, a solution for nasal and olfactory transport (SNOT). (
  • 1) The understanding of how to design ionomers for improved ion-conduction will not only impact advanced lithium batteries and actuators, but is also vital for other battery membranes (such as commercial ones transporting F-) and the membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells. (
  • India has a huge opportunity to develop indigenous e-mobility solutions as surplus electricity generation and availability of cheap renewable power make a strong case for the transition to e-mobility-said transport minister Nitin Jairam Gadkari addressing India e-Mobility Conclave 2020 organized by India Energy Storage Alliance (IESA). (
  • In 2020, Malaysia had an estimated population of increase the risk of COVID-19 among participants and 32.7 mil ion. (
  • The measurement of sweat electrolytes successfully diagnoses all but a tiny minority of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The discovery of a gene for CF, encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), has led to the understanding that CFTR is a chloride channel (hence the utility of the measurement of sweat electrolytes) and also regulates other ion channels, in particular the sodium transporter, ENaC. (
  • Du, Z., Wood Iii, D. L. & Belharouak, I. Enabling fast charging of high energy density Li-ion cells with high lithium ion transport electrolytes. (
  • Cation transport numbers for four of these electrolytes were measured in Franz cells by the electromotive force method. (
  • Computational prediction of ideal compounds is the focus of several large consortia and is a leading methodology in designing materials and electrolytes optimized for function, including those for Li-ion batteries. (
  • The high-throughput capability will allow use of characterization approaches from simulation studies to link solution correlations with influences on lithium ion-transport behavior in electrolytes and enable the ability to seek multiscale structural attributes that allow facile and selective incorporation of the charge carrier while prohibiting the dissolution of cathodic transition-metal components. (
  • Overall, this research will enable enhanced, fundamental understanding of how the charge carriers transport in hierarchical structuring of electrolytes and how simulation knowledge can be transferred to chemical synthesis and industrial environments. (
  • For applying molecular beam techniques to study chemically reactive collisions, helping to lay the foundation for the present field of chemical dynamics, and for pioneering studies in accelerator-based atomic physics, ion-solid interactions, and the channeling of ions, electrons and positrons in crystalline solids. (
  • Simulate and calculate complex electrochemical processes in batteries, such as the transport of electrons and ions, and much more - all through digital prototypes. (
  • In this article, numerical models of the diffusion process and chemical reactions of chloride ions in concrete are used to estimate the time to initiation of corrosion and for the progression of corrosion. (
  • To achieve their goal, this team addresses three main objectives: 1) use large-scale quantum simulations to assemble training data for the development of machine-learning force fields based on local ion environments within solids, 2) apply the machine-learning force fields and advanced sampling techniques to compute ion diffusion across a wider variety of configurations, and 3) evaluate the dependence of ion transport on microstructures using mesoscale models. (
  • Kaake, L. G., Mixed Ion-Carrier Diffusion in Poly(3-hexyl thiophene)/Perchlorate Electrochemical Systems. (
  • Generalized Nernst layer model for convective-diffusion transport. (
  • For this system, the numerical algorithm is developed for solving the system diffusion- kinetic equations for the case of excessive content of protons in solution and one-dimensional transport (corresponding to RDE) under stationary conditions. (
  • Transport of ions down a concentration gradient at greater rates than would occur through passive diffusion through a pore. (
  • Importance of Ion Diffusion Study= Ion diffusion and mobility data in a gas theoretically and experimentally are important. (
  • Also it is used to calculate the ion-ion recmbination coefficients and the rate of dispersion in the gas due to the ion mutual repulsion.Finally, diffusion and mobility data give information to understand the electrical discharges in gases. (
  • In case of using GEM detector as gaseous chambers, there are some assumptions to reach an analytical solution for the ions' diffusion in the gas. (
  • Return to Ion Diffusion . (
  • The pumps move ions from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration and so reverse the spontaneous process of diffusion. (
  • Peters searched the typical download The Principles of Ion Selective Electrodes and of Membrane Transport by sharing to London, where he sent himself in wishes for being identities of Rhodesia and Portuguese East Africa. (
  • This chapter provides an introduction to ion transport processes in the cell membrane. (
  • Silicate weathering and ion exchange are probably the main processes through which major ions enter the groundwater system. (
  • An overabundance of calcium ions activates processes that generate heat (leading to increased body temperature) and produce excess acid (leading to acidosis). (
  • By slowing the formation of bicarbonate ions with subsequent reduction in sodium and fluid transport, it may inhibit the enzyme carbonic anhydrase in the ciliary processes of the eye. (
  • In the past two decades, molecular dynamics simulations have become the method of choice for elucidating the transport mechanisms of ions through various membrane channels. (
  • Our main focus in this chapter will be on the molecular mechanisms of ion transport by the plasma membranes of cells. (
  • The reason these ideas are false is that our bodies have mechanisms for controlling our chemical composition, including the concentration of hydrogen (H + ) and hydroxide (OH - ) ions that make our body fluids acidic or alkaline. (
  • For these mechanisms to work, we need cells in our bodies to sense HCO 3 - and H + ion concentrations and for there to be mechanisms to convey the information to the lungs and kidneys. (
  • Upon PKA R subunit binding to the second messenger cAMP, active PKA C subunits are released, initiating a phosphorylation cascade that regulates such cellular functions as metabolism, ion transport, and gene transcription. (
  • Microbial bioluminescence is a branch of the electron transport chain [ 7 ] and as electron transport is involved in cell metabolism, any disruption to this system e.g. by the presence of toxins, will have an effect on light output. (
  • Thus, the present study investigated in vitro the putative role of AVT in intestinal ion transport in the sea bream (Sparus aurata). (
  • In addition, ion transport across intracellular membranes, which surround the nucleus and cytoplasmic organelles, is essential to generate and maintain ion concentration gradients between those organelles and the cytosol. (
  • The resulting increase in calcium ion concentration within muscle cells stimulates muscles to contract, allowing the body to move. (
  • An increase in calcium ion concentration also causes skeletal muscles to contract abnormally, which leads to muscle rigidity. (
  • Ion transport that derives its energy from the concentration gradient of the ion itself. (
  • Predicted to be involved in regulation of sodium ion transmembrane transporter activity. (
  • Lots of efforts have been devoted to developing sodium-ion batteries because sodium is cheaper than lithium," said Tu. (
  • Adriamycin also inhibits potassium transport (although not sodium transport) in slices of kidney cortex. (
  • New research results from Aarhus University and New York University show how active transport of potassium can be achieved by a membrane protein complex that has roots in both ion pump and ion channel super-families. (
  • However, in environments with very little potassium present, this potential cannot maintain inward flux, and active transport through potassium pump systems rapidly takes over to directly drive the uptake of potassium. (
  • For the first time, a joint research collaboration between Aarhus University and New York University have visualized a potassium transporting structure where members from channel and pump super-families come together in a large complex to create active transport. (
  • One 'pump-like' subunit creates the energy input (similar to a motor), while a 'channel-like' subunit has been re-purposed to function as an active carrier mediating transport of potassium against a 10,000 fold gradient. (
  • There are no analyses that consider the relationship between the temporal and spatial dispersion of ions at a microscopic level. (
  • Unfortunately, protein and some elements in existing dispersion media are suboptimal for potential nose-to-brain transport of nanomaterials because olfactory transport has size- and ion-composition requirements. (
  • Recent studies have placed a canonical SNARE complex associated with the plasma membrane in pathogen defense, and the discovery of the first SNARE as a binding partner with ion channels has demonstrated a fundamental link to inorganic osmotic solute uptake. (
  • Essential metal ion homeostasis is based on regulated uptake of metal ions, both during its scarcity and abundance. (
  • The most significant of these is a 30% state of charge (SOC) limit on lithium ion cells and batteries shipped by air in accordance with Packing Instruction 965 of the ICAO Technical Instructions. (
  • The DGP's SOC limit does not apply to lithium ion cells or batteries packed with or contained in products such as cell phones, power tools, tablets, medical devices, electric vehicles and military equipment. (
  • Lithium ion cells and batteries require protection from both high and low voltages. (
  • The DGP agreed to a prohibition on overpacking small lithium ion and lithium metal cells and batteries shipped in accordance with Section II of Packing Instructions 965 and 968 of the ICAO Technical Instructions. (
  • Given the scarcity of EV battery (lithium-ion battery) raw materials in the country, the government is looking to acquire lithium mines abroad in a push for 'made in India' Li-ion cells while also promoting other viable technology options that cut dependence on imports. (
  • Steinrueck is confident that this method can be implemented in the future development of new ion batteries and fuel cells and thus contribute to achieving the goal of carbon neutrality. (
  • It functions by binding K^+ ions and transporting them across the membrane into cells to offset the ionic balance. (
  • Signals transmitted by CACNA1S-containing channels turn on (activate) RYR1 channels, which then release calcium ions inside the cells. (
  • As a result, large amounts of calcium ions are released from storage within muscle cells. (
  • The altered channels open more slowly than usual, reducing the flow of calcium ions into these cells. (
  • Medical imaging often requires getting unnatural materials such as metal ions into cells, a process which is a major challenge across a range of biomedical disciplines. (
  • The first example of its kind, this is delivery system resolves some of the current difficulties involved in transporting metal ions into cells. (
  • It is not itself taken up by cells so does not interfere with natural functions until it is 'woken' by the addition of the metal ions. (
  • The study A 'Sleeping Trojan Horse' which transports metal ions into cells, localises in nucleoli, and has potential for bimodal fluorescence/PET imaging is published in the advanced article section of Chemical Communications . (
  • In addition, the modified vaccinia virus also expresses a protein called human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS), which transports iodide ions into the cells. (
  • Work localising the channel binding site has now identified a new and previously uncharacterised motif, yielding important clues to a plausible mechanism coupling traffic and transport. (
  • We propose a role for AVT in the regulation of ion absorption in the intestine of the sea bream mediated by an absorptive bumetanide-sensitive mechanism, likely NKCC2. (
  • We understand the basic ion transport mechanism, but until now it has been unclear what takes place at a microscopic level", explains Junior Professor Hans-Georg Steinrueck from Paderborn University. (
  • Similarly, the molecular mechanism behind ion pump function is well described. (
  • All ion-conducting membranes suffer from the fact that only a tiny fraction of counter-ions participate in conduction, and the proposed research directly addresses boosting the conducting ion content. (
  • The individual and collective behavior of ions near electrically charged interfaces is foundational to a variety of electrochemical phenomena encountered in biology, energy, and the environment. (
  • Biopolymer transport protein ExbD [Ensembl]. (
  • Biopolymer transport protein ExbD/TolR [Interproscan]. (
  • Once Ca 2+ ions are bound to the three Ca 2+ -binding sites in aequorin, the protein is converted into an oxygenase. (
  • A dysfunction of the protein bestrophin results in abnormal fluid and ion transport by the RPE. (
  • This proposal builds upon mounting evidence that ion channels and transporters underlie many of the hallmarks of cancer. (
  • SYMPORTERS may use secondary active transporters to transport ions in the same direction (symport). (
  • 2) Ab initio calculations can be rapidly applied to a wide variety of anions and cations in different polar media, enabling a detailed understanding of ion interactions and solvation by polar groups, which should propel our modeling efforts with Sanat Kumar at Columbia. (
  • Transport behavior in groundwater systems is dominated by chemical interactions between aqueous species and the materials that compose the subsurface. (
  • Molar conductance and cation transport values at infinite dilution were extrapolated from these data and used to estimate ionic conductances at infinite dilution. (
  • Spatial resolutions of ion transport in an electrochemical system: Scientists break new ground in ion research. (
  • The power and safety of an electrochemical cell, such as the ion battery or fuel cell can thereby be predicted with much greater accuracy", Steinrueck continues. (
  • To our knowledge, we have produced the first spatial resolutions of ion movement in an electrochemical system. (
  • Ion channels mediate fast and passive 'downhill' transport, while ion pumps mediate slow and active 'uphill' transport against an electrochemical gradient. (
  • Quantitative imaging of ion transport through single nanopores by high-resolution scanning electrochemical microscopy. (
  • Organic electronic materials are pi-conjugated polymers and oligomers that have the ability to transport electronic charge carriers. (
  • They are also capable of transporting both ions and electronic charge carriers. (
  • The work consists of both experimental and theoretical analyses of the acidity-salinity transport system through quartz sand. (
  • Experimental results on ion-induced leakage current increase in 4H-SiC Schottky power diodes are presented. (
  • Frazier, LW & Yorio, T 1992, ' Eicosanoids: Their Function in Renal Epithelia Ion Transport ', Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine , vol. 201, no. 3, pp. 229-243. (
  • For the present and future performance of the FRS Ion Catcher new experimental developments for the efficient transport and diagnosis of the ions between the Cryogenic Stopping Cell (CSC) and the Multiple-Reflection-Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (MR-TOF-MS) have been constructed and successfully commissioned. (
  • Another powerful experimental method, the spatial separation of pure isomeric and pure isobaric beams with an MR-TOF-MS, was pioneered in measurements with 211g,mPo ions. (
  • Se llevó a cabo un estudio experimental in vitro en una muestra de 18 premolares humanos, los cuales fueron tratados con una de las tres pastas dentales evaluadas y una fluorada. (
  • This disruption in calcium ion transport prevents muscles from contracting normally. (
  • The intestine of marine fish plays a crucial role in ion homeostasis by selective processing of ingested fluid. (
  • download The Principles of Ion Selective Electrodes and, quickly, necessarily there sets greater feedback. (
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  • The conditions for leaching of metal contents in solid materials of the batteries were optimized.The effect of parameters influencing the process for achieving to an efficient and selective extraction of Cd, Co and Ni ions from synthetic samples and leach liquor of spent Ni-Cd batteries was investigated. (
  • When we add an acid to the carbon dioxide/hydrogen carbonate system, the equilibrium moves to the left to remove excess H + ions and so maintain a constant K a . (
  • So excess H + ions are converted into H 2 CO 3 molecules. (
  • Their paper notes that 'When a lithium-ion battery fails, the speed of failure (seconds), production of significant quantities of toxic, corrosive and flammable gases (000's of litres) as well as the rapid development of intense heat and explosive situations (+450°C) continue to be underestimated. (
  • abstract = "Ion-conducting chalcogenide glasses have been chosen to illustrate three specific electrical effects in glasses and their relationship with the glassy structure. (
  • Secondary active transport utilizes the voltage and ion gradients produced by the primary transport to drive the cotransport of other ions or molecules. (
  • When we add an alkali to the system, we are adding OH - ions ( post 17.50 ) that combine with H + ions to form water (H 2 O) molecules. (
  • But the equilibrium is restored, maintaining K a at its constant value, by H 2 CO 3 molecules dissociating into H + and HCO 3 - ions. (
  • Ion transport across the cell membrane is essential to maintain the composition of the intracellular milieu . (
  • Using two techniques of characterization, neutron reflectometry (for deuterated polyelectrolytes) and absorbance spectroscopy (for ion-sensitive dyes), it is demonstrated that the mineral layer acts as a barrier for the transport of ions along the film normal. (
  • Active and passive transport are defined based on their respective energy sources and explained at the mechanistic level, and includes basic mathematical treatments. (
  • Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. (
  • The obvious choice for a replacement membrane is a single-ion conducting polymer (ionomer) that has all anions covalently bonded to the polymer, has no solvent to leak out of the battery and can easily be made into a thin film. (
  • Finally, by an 11-7 vote, the DGP rejected a proposal to ban the shipment of lithium ion batteries as cargo on passenger aircraft. (
  • Insurers TT Club and UK P&I Club have teamed up with scientific consultants, Brookes Bell, and issued a whitepaper highlighting the continuing safety threat created by the transportation of lithium-ion batteries. (
  • The publishing of a whitepaper by insurance providers TT Club along with its fellow Thomas Miller managed business, UK P&I Club, and technical and scientific consultancy, Brookes Bell brings greater awareness of the dangers inherent in the transport of lithium-ion batteries, particularly by sea. (
  • The increased demand for 'green power' for a wide range of portable devices such as mobile phones, mobility aids and recreation, manufacturing and power storage, through to larger products, such as electric vehicles will undoubtedly result in the production and transport of these batteries rising exponentially in the coming years. (
  • Commenting on the need for rapid recognition of the risks, Peregrine Storrs-Fox, TT's Risk Management Director said, "Recently, serious and sometimes catastrophic incidents involving lithium-ion batteries have become more commonplace, with fires reported in all modes of transport - ocean, air and land -- as well as in warehouses and where such consignments are at rest. (
  • Lithium-ion batteries with nickel-rich layered oxide cathodes and graphite anodes have reached specific energies of 250-300 Wh kg −1 (refs. (
  • Efficient fast-charging of lithium-ion batteries enabled by laser-patterned three-dimensional graphite anode architectures. (
  • Asymmetric temperature modulation for extreme fast charging of lithium-ion batteries. (
  • Our priority is particularly for Li-ion batteries. (
  • Though the production of lithium metal and ion batteries has been in constant growth and thus their transport worldwide, most people are not aware that lithium batteries can pose a considerable safety risk if not transported in accordance with the transport regulations. (
  • The increase in incidents involving lithium batteries and the fact that current measures seem to be insufficient has driven ICAO to even approve a ban for lithium metal and ion batteries to be transported as cargo in passenger aircraft until proper solutions are implemented. (
  • The different results from the different tasks were used to develop a guideline to support air transport operators to make a safety risk assessment when transporting lithium ion and lithium metal batteries. (
  • The main impediments to the wide-spread acceptance of electric drive vehicles are the cost, energy storage capacity, and durability of Li-ion batteries. (
  • 2D-dynamic phenomenological modelling of vanadium redox flow batteries - Analysis of the mass transport related overpotentials. (
  • Keep in mind the importance of cadmium, cobalt and nickel ions as environmentally and economically strategic heavy metals, the application of two acidic extractants, named bis(2-diethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (DEHPA) and 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (HTTA), was assessed for the extraction-recovery of these ions from leached solution of spent rechargeable Ni-Cd batteries. (
  • In October we hosted three world class speakers for a webinar on the risks associated with Lithium Ion batteries, particularly risk of fire. (
  • As with any potentially dangerous goods, it is possible to transport Li-Ion batteries successfully providing the risks are understood and managed. (
  • Lithium-ion batteries, like those used in cellphones and electric vehicles, are limited in their electric-charge capacity because of their graphite anodes. (
  • Hydrogen has been used safely in buses and other vehicles in more than 20 countries for many years and has a higher energy density than lithium-ion batteries or even diesel. (
  • With this INCITE project, the researchers aim to integrate a validated multiscale modeling framework to study ion transport kinetics at complex interfaces in solid-state battery and hydrogen storage systems. (
  • This project renewal builds upon the team's previous efforts in simulating thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of hydrogen transport in composite structures for hydrogen storage, as well as lithium transport in a variety of polycrystalline solid-state battery materials. (
  • The Tilbury-headquartered scale-up, which has so far raised $140m in funding, will unveil its hydrogen electric vehicle alongside its latest full-battery electric HGV at the Road Transport Expo in Warwickshire. (
  • We calculate that even during rapid cell expansion only a minute fraction of SNAREs present at the membrane need be engaged in vesicle traffic at any one time, a number surprisingly close to the known density of ion channels at the plant plasma membrane. (
  • The concept of gated channels has been known and studied for a long time, and indeed most ion channels have one or more gates as an essential part of their physiological function. (
  • RYR1 channels are located in the membrane of a structure inside the cell that stores calcium ions. (
  • The syndrome is caused by changes in the structure and function of certain cardiac ion channels and reduced expression of Connexin 43 (Cx43) in the Right Ventricle (RV), predominantly in the Right Ventricular Outflow Tract (VSVD), causing electromechanical abnormalities. (
  • A novel method of unambiguous isotope identification via atomic range and high-resolution mass measurement (R-m method) has been successfully applied with the combination of the FRS Ion Catcher and the in-flight separator FRS. (
  • In the present experiments, the MR-TOF-MS has reached a maximum accuracy of 6E-8 in the measurement with 213Fr ions. (
  • It is suggested that the changes in sugar transport are a consequence of alterations in Ca ++ fluxes and distribution caused directly or indirectly by these drugs. (
  • The polar groups $(\mathrm{C}=\mathrm{O})$ can bind the $\mathrm{K}^{+}$ ions. (
  • Ferrous ions bind more rapidly than ferric ions. (
  • The solution treats a single type of ions in a uniform density N, moving in an area of a uniform electric field. (
  • The ion number density is low enough so the space-charge field is negligible. (
  • As of 31 March, in support of the health and humanitarian community's response to the pandemic, WFP has transported 29,070 passengers through 1,550 flights and dispatched for free a total of 131,579 m3 of critical COVID-19 cargo to 162 countries on behalf of WHO and 47 organizations. (
  • Ion slip effect induces a weak modification in primary and secondary shear stress distributions. (
  • Ion transport kinetics critically define the performance of a wide variety of emerging energy storage solutions. (
  • The multiscale simulations are being used to probe the relationship between physicochemical interface properties and ion transport kinetics, guiding rational engineering strategies for improving performance of advanced materials for grid and vehicular energy storage. (
  • For solid-state devices in particular, ion transport can be heavily influenced by interfaces between different phases or grains, which appear unavoidably from processing or cycling and influence transport in often-problematic ways. (
  • Our work reveals the roles of ionic size, valency, and confinement in determining the structures of liquid-solid interfaces and opens up new opportunities to study such systems at the single-ion level. (
  • The research is detailed in the paper " Fast ion transport at solid-solid interfaces in hybrid battery anodes " published March 5 in Nature Energy. (
  • The foreground image shows an atomic-scale representation of a disordered boundary region where lithium ions tend to congregate and limit battery performance. (
  • The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel (DGP) agreed to sweeping changes to the lithium ion and lithium metal battery Packing Instructions in the ICAO Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air during its October 19 - 30 meeting in Montreal. (
  • PRBA supported DGP efforts to address battery transport safety concerns through more stringent packaging and shipping regulations under Section II of Packing Instructions 965 and 968 of the ICAO Technical Instructions. (
  • The whitepaper outlines many of the numerous challenges facing the transport industry and raises awareness of the potentially catastrophic situation that can be caused by battery failure, thus in part correcting the widely held perception in the maritime community that risks in the supply chain of such products are relatively small. (
  • Safe and fast-charging Li-ion battery with long shelf life for power applications. (
  • India's lithium-ion battery imports more than tripled to $1.23 billion (Rs8,777 crore) in 2018-19 from $384 million two years earlier. (
  • The 2-year project, Sabatair, aimed at supporting the air transport supply chain in defining the appropriate requirements for a safe transport of lithium battery consignments. (
  • Thermo King, a leader in transport temperature control solutions and a brand of Trane Technologies, announced the launch of its new battery pack designed specifically for the E-200 fully-electric refrigeration units. (
  • Manufactured by Thermo King, the new lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery is available in 1.8kWh and 3.6KWh versions. (
  • Combined with the E-200 units,the battery pack creates a zero emissions transport refrigeration solution that ensures an unbroken cold chain even while the driver stops for delivery, break or needs to turn off the vehicle for longer. (
  • We developed our own Li-ion battery pack to fully integrate it with the unit's system and allow our customers to maximise the benefits of its smart and sustainable power management. (
  • The exploration of new Li-ion battery materials is an important focus of materials scientists and computational physicists and chemists throughout the world. (
  • We start with a whitepaper on Li-Ion battery Risk from TT Club , UK P&I Club and scientific consultants , Brookes Bell. (
  • The authors contend that 'despite significant fire incidents (…) the broad maritime community and logistics supply chain remain predominantly unaware of the hazards and potential consequences when a lithium-ion battery fails and goes into thermal runaway. (
  • The paper seeks to raise awareness and addresses lithium ion battery science, hazards, consequences of mechanical, electrical and thermal abuse, current dangerous goods regulatory provisions including recommendations for IMDG Code changes and further work, classification and declaration, Special Provisions, packaging, emergency response and risk prevention. (
  • The white paper points out that what might appear as 'smoke' from a li-ion battery fire is in fact a cocktail of toxic and explosive gasses. (
  • Lithium-Ion Battery Cargoes Fire Risks and Emergency Response video now available! (
  • We were delighted to host three world class speakers at our ICHCA Coffee Break Webinar on 6 October, addressing Lithium-Ion Battery Cargoes Fire Risks and Emergency Response. (
  • The effects on both the adenosine triphosphatase and ion transport are markedly reduced by Ca 2+ , probably by chelation of this metal by Adriamycin. (
  • Finally, together with the complete O 2 impermeability of a 2 nm ALD-grown SiO 2 layer, the high flux for proton transport across multi-stack metal oxide layers opens up the integration of incompatible catalytic environments to form functional nanoscale assemblies such as artificial photosystems for CO 2 reduction by H 2 O. (