Iodates: Inorganic salts of iodic acid (HIO3).Bromates: Negative ions or salts derived from bromic acid, HBrO3.Iodine: A nonmetallic element of the halogen group that is represented by the atomic symbol I, atomic number 53, and atomic weight of 126.90. It is a nutritionally essential element, especially important in thyroid hormone synthesis. In solution, it has anti-infective properties and is used topically.Potassium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.Social Media: Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.Potassium Iodide: An inorganic compound that is used as a source of iodine in thyrotoxic crisis and in the preparation of thyrotoxic patients for thyroidectomy. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Videotape Recording: Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.Urinalysis: Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.United States Government Agencies: Agencies of the FEDERAL GOVERNMENT of the United States.Nisin: A 34-amino acid polypeptide antibiotic produced by Streptococcus lactis. It has been used as a food preservative in canned fruits and vegetables, and cheese.Judgment: The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Formularies as Topic: Works about lists of drugs or collections of recipes, formulas, and prescriptions for the compounding of medicinal preparations. Formularies differ from PHARMACOPOEIAS in that they are less complete, lacking full descriptions of the drugs, their formulations, analytic composition, chemical properties, etc. In hospitals, formularies list all drugs commonly stocked in the hospital pharmacy.Economics, Pharmaceutical: Economic aspects of the fields of pharmacy and pharmacology as they apply to the development and study of medical economics in rational drug therapy and the impact of pharmaceuticals on the cost of medical care. Pharmaceutical economics also includes the economic considerations of the pharmaceutical care delivery system and in drug prescribing, particularly of cost-benefit values. (From J Res Pharm Econ 1989;1(1); PharmacoEcon 1992;1(1))Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.Security Measures: Regulations to assure protection of property and equipment.Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Radiation-Protective Agents: Drugs used to protect against ionizing radiation. They are usually of interest for use in radiation therapy but have been considered for other, e.g. military, purposes.Amifostine: A phosphorothioate proposed as a radiation-protective agent. It causes splenic vasodilation and may block autonomic ganglia.Radiation Injuries, Experimental: Experimentally produced harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing RADIATION in CHORDATA animals.Molluginaceae: A plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. Some members contain triterpenoid saponins.Iodides: Inorganic binary compounds of iodine or the I- ion.Sporotrichosis: The commonest and least serious of the deep mycoses, characterized by nodular lesions of the cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues. It is caused by inhalation of contaminated dust or by infection of a wound.Guaifenesin: An expectorant that also has some muscle relaxing action. It is used in many cough preparations.Expectorants: Agents that increase mucous excretion. Mucolytic agents, that is drugs that liquefy mucous secretions, are also included here.Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Levorphanol: A narcotic analgesic that may be habit-forming. It is nearly as effective orally as by injection.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Macular Degeneration: Degenerative changes in the RETINA usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the MACULA LUTEA) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Glycyrrhiza uralensis: A plant species of the family FABACEAE.Retinal Drusen: Colloid or hyaline bodies lying beneath the retinal pigment epithelium. They may occur either secondary to changes in the choroid that affect the pigment epithelium or as an autosomal dominant disorder of the retinal pigment epithelium.Retinal Pigment Epithelium: The single layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA, situated closely to the tips (outer segments) of the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. These epithelial cells are macroglia that perform essential functions for the photoreceptor cells, such as in nutrient transport, phagocytosis of the shed photoreceptor membranes, and ensuring retinal attachment.Infant Food: Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.Infant Formula: Liquid formulations for the nutrition of infants that can substitute for BREAST MILK.Isoflavones: 3-Phenylchromones. Isomeric form of FLAVONOIDS in which the benzene group is attached to the 3 position of the benzopyran ring instead of the 2 position.Filtration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)ArchivesWingNuts: Botanically, a type of single-seeded fruit in which the pericarp enclosing the seed is a hard woody shell. In common usage the term is used loosely for any hard, oil-rich kernel. Of those commonly eaten, only hazel, filbert, and chestnut are strictly nuts. Walnuts, pecans, almonds, and coconuts are really drupes. Brazil nuts, pistachios, macadamias, and cashews are really seeds with a hard shell derived from the testa rather than the pericarp.Nuclear Power Plants: Facilities that convert NUCLEAR ENERGY into electrical energy.Radiation ProtectionPower Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Laboratory Chemicals: Chemicals necessary to perform experimental and/or investigative procedures and for the preparation of drugs and other chemicals.Thyroid Crisis: A dangerous life-threatening hypermetabolic condition characterized by high FEVER and dysfunction of the cardiovascular, the nervous, and the gastrointestinal systems.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nitrogen Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.

The role of glutathione in DNA damage by potassium bromate in vitro. (1/57)

We have investigated the role of reduced glutathione (GSH) in the genetic toxicity of the rodent renal carcinogen potassium bromate (KBrO(3)). A statistically significant increase in the concentration of 8-oxodeoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) relative to deoxyguanosine was measured following incubation of calf thymus DNA with KBrO(3) and GSH or N-acetylcysteine (NACys). This was dependent on these thiols and was associated with the loss of GSH and production of oxidized glutathione. A short-lived (<6 min) intermediate was apparent which did not react with the spin trap dimethylpyrroline N-oxide. DNA oxidation was not evident when potassium chlorate (KClO(3)) or potassium iodate (KIO(3)) were used instead of KBrO(3), though GSH depletion also occurred with KIO(3), but not with KClO(3). Other reductants and thiols in combination with KBrO(3) did not cause a significant increase in DNA oxidation. DNA strand breakage was also induced by KBrO(3) in human white blood cells (5 mM) and rat kidney epithelial cells (NRK-52E, 1.5 mM). This was associated with an apparent small depletion of thiols in NRK-52E cells at 15 min and with an elevation of 8-oxodG at a delayed time of 24 h. Depletion of intra-cellular GSH by diethylmaleate in human lymphocytes decreased the amount of strand breakage induced by KBrO(3). Extracellular GSH, however, protected against DNA strand breakage by KBrO(3), possibly due to the inability of the reactive product to enter the cell. In contrast, membrane-permeant NACys enhanced KBrO(3)-induced DNA strand breakage in these cells. DNA damage by KBrO(3) is therefore largely dependent on access to intracellular GSH.  (+info)

Chorioretinal diffusion processes following pigment epithelial degeneration. (2/57)

We studied the effect of sodium iodate-induced pigment epithelial degeneration on chorioretinal diffusion processes. Rabbits received two intravenous injections of sodium iodate at the retinotoxic dose of 22.5 mg. per kilogram over a six- to eight-hour period. Combined horseradish peroxidase tracing technique and electron microscopy were used to compare diffusion processes over a five-week period. Ultrastructural examination of retina twenty-four hours after iodate administration revealed pigment epithelial degeneration, accompanied by disruption of junctional complexes (zonulae occludentes). Peroxidase molecules were found in areas of greater cytoplasmic degeneration and in intercellular spaces up to the level of the external limiting membrane. Ultrastructural observations at later stages revealed similar findings except in the case of Muller cells, 20 per cent of which showed cytoplasmic degeneration and peroxidase uptake. The diffusion barrier was not re-established as the replacement cells did not rebuild zonulae occludentes.  (+info)

Evaluation of a scheme for the pre-distribution of stable iodine (potassium iodate) to the civilian population residing within the immediate countermeasures zone of a nuclear submarine construction facility. (3/57)

BACKGROUND: The Barrow-in-Furness stable iodine (potassium iodate) tablet pre-distribution scheme was the first of its kind to be introduced to protect the population living around a fixed site nuclear facility in the United Kingdom. Pre-distribution schemes have attracted critical comment principally because the certainty of availability of potassium iodate tablets was unknown. This study aimed to establish the reliability of such a scheme. METHOD: A structured interviewer-administered survey of a random sample of households served by the pre-distribution scheme was carried out using a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS: The ability of this scheme to provide stable iodine protection declined from 100 per cent to 60 per cent coverage over a period of two years for the designed worst-case demand (the ability to supply stable iodine tablets to all household residents normally living within the pre-distribution scheme zone). CONCLUSIONS: Pre-distribution has value in areas where evacuation to a centre where stable iodine tablets are available or post-accident distribution to sheltering households is difficult. The value of such a scheme must be calculated against a predictable decline in its effectiveness. In implementing such a scheme it should be noted that this decline in coverage can be reduced by calculating the frequency with which tablet packs are redistributed to take account of this factor.  (+info)

The effect of anions on azide binding to myoglobin: an unusual functional modulation. (4/57)

The effect of increasing concentrations of several anions on the azide (N(-)(3)) binding properties of sperm whale and horse ferric myoglobin has been studied. Surprisingly, a number of anions may act as heterotropic effectors, decreasing the affinity of myoglobins for N(-)(3), in the following order: ClO(-)(4)=I(-)>Br(-)>Cl(-) and SO(2-)(4), which mirrors the increase in their charge density. The largest effects were measured using ClO(-)(4) and I(-), which produce a 4-fold and 8-fold reduction of the N(-)(3) binding affinity in horse and sperm whale myoglobins, respectively. A dissociation equilibrium constant (K(d)) ranging from 150 to 250 mM was estimated for ClO(-)(4) and I(-) binding to myoglobins. In order to analyse the molecular mechanism producing the reduction of the N(-)(3) binding affinity to ferric myoglobin, the potential anionic binding sites within ferric myoglobin were investigated by a molecular modelling study using the program Grid. Analysis of the theoretical results suggests two particularly favourable binding sites: the first, next to the distal side of the haem, whose occupancy might alter the electrostatic potential surrounding the bound N(-)(3); the second, involving residues of helices B and G which are far from the haem iron atom, thus implying a long range effect on the bound N(-)(3). Based on the evidence that no significant conformational changes are found in the three-dimensional structures of N(-)(3)-free and N(-)(3)-bound myoglobin and on previous results on N(-)(3) binding to ferric myoglobin mutants in CD3 positions, we favour the first hypothesis, suggesting that the functional heterotropic modulation of monomeric myoglobin is mainly depending on a decrease of the positive charge density induced by the binding of anions to the haem distal side.  (+info)

Sensitive kinetic-spectrophotometric determination of iodate in iodized table salt based on its accelerating effect on the reaction of bromate with chloride ion in the presence of hydrazine. (5/57)

A simple, precise, sensitive and accurate method was developed for rapid determination of trace quantities of iodate. The method is based on the accelerating effect of iodate on the reaction of bromate and chloride acid in the presence of hydrazine in acidic media. The decolorization of Methyl Orange with the reaction products was used to monitor the reaction spectrophotometrically at 525 nm. Iodate could be determined in the concentration ranges of 0.03 - 1.2 microg ml(-1). The relative standard deviation for ten replicate determinations of 0.3 microg ml(-1) of iodate was 1.65%. The proposed method was applied to the determination of iodate in table salts with satisfactory results.  (+info)

Acidimetric titration of medicines being salts of weak acids and determining the end-point based on the iodate(V)-iodide reaction. (6/57)

A sample being a salt of weak acid in a solvent is determined with hydrochloric acid in the presence of iodate, iodide and starch. The excess acid colours the solution blue.  (+info)

Novel oxidative dimer from caffeic acid. (7/57)

The novel Diels-Alder adduct, dicaffeoyl quinone as its hydrate, was formed from the oxidation of 3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid (caffeic acid) with NaIO4. The structure of this hydrate was determined by spectroscopic methods.  (+info)

Transient increase of b-wave in the mouse retina after sodium iodate injection. (8/57)

Twenty C57 black mice received an injection of 40 mg/kg of sodium iodate through the caudal vein. The electroretinograms (ERGs) were recorded before and after injection. Flash stimuli with the maximum illuminance, 30,000 lux, were given at increasing levels of illuminance in 0.6 log U steps for 13 levels of intensity. The a- and b-wave amplitudes increased linearly with increased stimulus intensity for approximately 5.0 log U before being saturated. Twenty four hours after injection, the intensity-amplitude curve shifted toward the higher intensity region. It was calculated that the sensitivity loss of the b-wave after injection was 2.0 log U, although the maximum amplitude was larger and the peak latency was delayed. The same results were seen less obviously in the ERGs 48 hr after injection. After 96 hr, both waves were greatly attenuated and even abolished. At the time the increased ERGs were recorded, the histopathologic findings exhibited severe damage of the retina in the pigment epithelium and in the outer layer.  (+info)

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