An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
A monosynaptic reflex elicited by stimulating a nerve, particularly the tibial nerve, with an electric shock.
A reflex in which the AFFERENT NEURONS synapse directly on the EFFERENT NEURONS, without any INTERCALATED NEURONS. (Lockard, Desk Reference for Neuroscience, 2nd ed.)
Reflex contraction of a muscle in response to stretching, which stimulates muscle proprioceptors.
An abnormal response to a stimulus applied to the sensory components of the nervous system. This may take the form of increased, decreased, or absent reflexes.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
The lateral of the two terminal branches of the sciatic nerve. The peroneal (or fibular) nerve provides motor and sensory innervation to parts of the leg and foot.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.
A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.
A condition characterized by abnormal posturing of the limbs that is associated with injury to the brainstem. This may occur as a clinical manifestation or induced experimentally in animals. The extensor reflexes are exaggerated leading to rigid extension of the limbs accompanied by hyperreflexia and opisthotonus. This condition is usually caused by lesions which occur in the region of the brainstem that lies between the red nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. In contrast, decorticate rigidity is characterized by flexion of the elbows and wrists with extension of the legs and feet. The causative lesion for this condition is located above the red nuclei and usually consists of diffuse cerebral damage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p358)
Voluntary activity without external compulsion.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.
Intra-aural contraction of tensor tympani and stapedius in response to sound.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A reflex wherein impulses are conveyed from the cupulas of the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS and from the OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE of the SACCULE AND UTRICLE via the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM and the median longitudinal fasciculus to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE nuclei. It functions to maintain a stable retinal image during head rotation by generating appropriate compensatory EYE MOVEMENTS.
Constriction of the pupil in response to light stimulation of the retina. It refers also to any reflex involving the iris, with resultant alteration of the diameter of the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
The region of the upper limb between the metacarpus and the FOREARM.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.
The region of the lower limb between the FOOT and the LEG.
Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)
The spread of response if stimulation is prolonged. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.
The electrical response evoked in a muscle or motor nerve by electrical or magnetic stimulation. Common methods of stimulation are by transcranial electrical and TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION. It is often used for monitoring during neurosurgery.
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.
A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.
The outer covering of the calvaria. It is composed of several layers: SKIN; subcutaneous connective tissue; the occipitofrontal muscle which includes the tendinous galea aponeurotica; loose connective tissue; and the pericranium (the PERIOSTEUM of the SKULL).
The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.
A fibrous cord that connects the muscles in the back of the calf to the HEEL BONE.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The instinctive tendency (or ability) to assume a normal position of the body in space when it has been displaced.
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
Change of heartbeat induced by pressure on the eyeball, manipulation of extraocular muscles, or pressure upon the tissue remaining in the orbital apex after enucleation.
Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.
A reflex found in normal infants consisting of dorsiflexion of the HALLUX and abduction of the other TOES in response to cutaneous stimulation of the plantar surface of the FOOT. In adults, it is used as a diagnostic criterion, and if present is a NEUROLOGIC MANIFESTATION of dysfunction in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Brief closing of the eyelids by involuntary normal periodic closing, as a protective measure, or by voluntary action.
The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
Contractions of the abdominal muscles upon stimulation of the skin (superficial abdominal reflex) or tapping neighboring bony structures (deep abdominal reflex). The superficial reflex may be weak or absent, for example, after a stroke, a sign of upper (suprasegmental) motor neuron lesions. (Stedman, 25th ed & Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p1073)
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)
Contraction of the muscle of the PHARYNX caused by stimulation of sensory receptors on the SOFT PALATE, by psychic stimuli, or systemically by drugs.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
A subtype of epilepsy characterized by seizures that are consistently provoked by a certain specific stimulus. Auditory, visual, and somatosensory stimuli as well as the acts of writing, reading, eating, and decision making are examples of events or activities that may induce seizure activity in affected individuals. (From Neurol Clin 1994 Feb;12(1):57-8)
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.
Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.
An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.
Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.
A syndrome characterized by severe burning pain in an extremity accompanied by sudomotor, vasomotor, and trophic changes in bone without an associated specific nerve injury. This condition is most often precipitated by trauma to soft tissue or nerve complexes. The skin over the affected region is usually erythematous and demonstrates hypersensitivity to tactile stimuli and erythema. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1360; Pain 1995 Oct;63(1):127-33)
An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.
A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
The dilated portion of the common carotid artery at its bifurcation into external and internal carotids. It contains baroreceptors which, when stimulated, cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation, and a fall in blood pressure.
The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
Discharge of URINE, liquid waste processed by the KIDNEY, from the body.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.
An oval, bony chamber of the inner ear, part of the bony labyrinth. It is continuous with bony COCHLEA anteriorly, and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS posteriorly. The vestibule contains two communicating sacs (utricle and saccule) of the balancing apparatus. The oval window on its lateral wall is occupied by the base of the STAPES of the MIDDLE EAR.
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.
Branches of the VAGUS NERVE. The superior laryngeal nerves originate near the nodose ganglion and separate into external branches, which supply motor fibers to the cricothyroid muscles, and internal branches, which carry sensory fibers. The RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE originates more caudally and carries efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid. The laryngeal nerves and their various branches also carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.
An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.
A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.
A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.
A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.
The position or attitude of the body.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A movement, caused by sequential muscle contraction, that pushes the contents of the intestines or other tubular organs in one direction.
Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)
Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.
Any operation on the spinal cord. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A gelatinous membrane overlying the acoustic maculae of SACCULE AND UTRICLE. It contains minute crystalline particles (otoliths) of CALCIUM CARBONATE and protein on its outer surface. In response to head movement, the otoliths shift causing distortion of the vestibular hair cells which transduce nerve signals to the BRAIN for interpretation of equilibrium.
GRAY MATTER located in the dorsomedial part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA associated with the solitary tract. The solitary nucleus receives inputs from most organ systems including the terminations of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves. It is a major coordinator of AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM regulation of cardiovascular, respiratory, gustatory, gastrointestinal, and chemoreceptive aspects of HOMEOSTASIS. The solitary nucleus is also notable for the large number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS which are found therein.
Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.
Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.
Involuntary rhythmical movements of the eyes in the normal person. These can be naturally occurring as in end-position (end-point, end-stage, or deviational) nystagmus or induced by the optokinetic drum (NYSTAGMUS, OPTOKINETIC), caloric test, or a rotating chair.
Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.
The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.
A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.
The act of taking solids and liquids into the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT through the mouth and throat.
Stretch receptors found in the bronchi and bronchioles. Pulmonary stretch receptors are sensors for a reflex which stops inspiration. In humans, the reflex is protective and is probably not activated during normal respiration.
Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.
The vestibular part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The vestibular nerve fibers arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project peripherally to vestibular hair cells and centrally to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM. These fibers mediate the sense of balance and head position.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
An involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles. Spasms may involve SKELETAL MUSCLE or SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The terminal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, beginning from the ampulla of the RECTUM and ending at the anus.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Three long canals (anterior, posterior, and lateral) of the bony labyrinth. They are set at right angles to each other and are situated posterosuperior to the vestibule of the bony labyrinth (VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH). The semicircular canals have five openings into the vestibule with one shared by the anterior and the posterior canals. Within the canals are the SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.
Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).
Each of the upper and lower folds of SKIN which cover the EYE when closed.
A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)
A tube that transports URINE from the URINARY BLADDER to the outside of the body in both the sexes. It also has a reproductive function in the male by providing a passage for SPERM.
A derivative of CHLORAL HYDRATE that was used as a sedative but has been replaced by safer and more effective drugs. Its most common use is as a general anesthetic in animal experiments.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.
Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Expulsion of milk from the mammary alveolar lumen, which is surrounded by a layer of milk-secreting EPITHELIAL CELLS and a network of myoepithelial cells. Contraction of the myoepithelial cells is regulated by neuroendocrine signals.
The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.
The aperture in the iris through which light passes.
Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.
The four cellular masses in the floor of the fourth ventricle giving rise to a widely dispersed special sensory system. Included is the superior, medial, inferior, and LATERAL VESTIBULAR NUCLEUS. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.
The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.
Nerves and plexuses of the autonomic nervous system. The central nervous system structures which regulate the autonomic nervous system are not included.
Sudden occurrence of BRADYCARDIA or HEART ARREST induced by manipulations of the MAXILLARY NERVE AND MANDIBULAR NERVE during a craniomaxillofacial or oral surgery. It is the maxillary and mandibular variants of OCULOCARDIAC REFLEX.
The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.
"Reflex Training" involves dodging from opposing punches. Reviews Self-Defense Training Camp was panned by critics. IGN gave the ... "Balance Practices" involves doing yoga-style stretches. In "Self Defense Rehearsal", there are five sessions consisting of six ... Self-Defense Training Camp involves teaching players how to perform martial arts-based techniques and various forms of tai chi ... activities for players to play, which simply involve performing a move such as kicking an opponent's crotch. " ...
Escape, playing dead, reflex bleeding. Many lizards attempt to escape from danger by running to a place of safety;[46][b] for ... The mating call of the male tokay gecko is heard as "tokay-tokay!".[32][31][35] Tactile communication involves individuals ... Some 326 genes are involved in regenerating lizard tails.[44] The fish-scale gecko Geckolepis megalepis sheds patches of skin ... Lizards make use of a variety of antipredator adaptations, including venom, camouflage, reflex bleeding, and the ability to ...
It is also involved in the acoustic startle reflex; the most likely region for this being the VNLL. The cells of the DNLL ... they have both phasic and tonic responses and are involved in temporal processing. In rat, the VNLL is composed of two ...
For example, orthodontic treatment involves application of a mechanical force on to the teeth to align them and this is done ... nociception and reflexes. Periodontal mechanoreceptors are present in pdl. They will transmit information about the stimulated ... The PDL also undergoes drastic changes with chronic periodontal disease that involves the deeper structures of the periodontium ... It acts as an effective support during the masticatory function.) PDL is heavily innervated; it involves mechanoreception, ...
Innervated muscle structure involved in reflex actions and proprioception. For the class of neurons characterized by a large ... Stretch reflex[edit]. When a muscle is stretched, primary type Ia sensory fibers of the muscle spindle respond to both changes ... After stroke or spinal cord injury in humans, spastic hypertonia (spastic paralysis) often develops, whereby the stretch reflex ... Pearson, Keir G; Gordon, James E (2013). "35 - Spinal Reflexes". In Kandel, Eric R; Schwartz, James H; Jessell, Thomas M; ...
The hiccup is an involuntary action involving a reflex arc. Once triggered, the reflex causes a strong contraction of the ... hiccup related to reflex in fish and amphibians. BBC News: Why we hiccup WIRED: The Best Cure for Hiccups: Remind Your Brain ... A simple treatment involves increasing the partial pressure of CO2 and inhibiting diaphragm activity by holding one's breath or ... The location of the sensory nerves that trigger the reflex suggest it is a response to a condition in the stomach. The ...
The corpora quadrigemina are reflex centers involving vision and hearing. It consists of groups of nerve cells-grey matter ... It has four corpora quadrigemina which are the reflex centres of eye movement and auditory responses. The superior part of ...
Automatic functions are performed by inducing involuntary reflexes, such as palatal, laryngeal, blink, and gag reflexes. Other ... Unilateral anterior syndrome involving the frontal operculum. Posterior syndrome involving the junction between the frontal and ... Treatment for FCMS depends on the onset, as well as on the severity of symptoms, and it involves a multidisciplinary approach. ... It is characterized by well-preserved automatic and reflex movements. It is caused by lesions in the cortical or subcortical ...
Other mammals also demonstrate this phenomenon (see mammalian diving reflex). The diving response involves apnea, reflex ... Swimming as a sport predominantly involves participants competing to be the fastest over a given distance in a certain period ... Efficient swimming by reducing water resistance involves a horizontal water position, rolling the body to reduce the breadth of ... Human babies demonstrate an innate swimming or diving reflex from newborn until the age of approximately 6 months. ...
The withdrawal reflex involves both the nervous and immune systems. When the action potential travels back down the spinal ... The withdrawal reflex is a reflex that protects an organism from harmful stimuli. This reflex occurs when noxious stimuli ... The neuroimmune system is involved in reflexes associated with parasitic invasions of hosts. Nociceptors are also associated ... These reflexes are all designed to eject pathogens from the body. For example, scratching is induced by pruritogens that ...
The reflex involves consensual blinking of both eyes in response to stimulation of one eye. This is due to the facial nerves' ... Thus, the corneal reflex effectively tests the proper functioning of both cranial nerves V and VII. Inferior view of the human ... The facial nerve also functions as the efferent limb of the corneal reflex. The facial nerve carries axons of type GSA, general ... Corneal reflex. The afferent arc is mediated by the general sensory afferents of the trigeminal nerve. The efferent arc occurs ...
It is one of the muscles involved in the acoustic reflex. Contracting muscles produce vibration and sound. Slow twitch fibers ... The reflex has a response time of 40 milliseconds, not fast enough to protect the ear from sudden loud noises such as an ... Thus, the reflex most likely developed to protect early humans from loud thunder claps which do not happen in a split second. ... The reflex works by contracting the muscles of the middle ear, the tensor tympani and the stapedius. This pulls the manubrium ...
These reflexes which include the pharyngeal reflex, the swallowing reflex (also known as the palatal reflex), and the masseter ... The ventral respiratory group and the dorsal respiratory group are neurons involved in this regulation. The pre-Bötzinger ... reflex can be termed, bulbar reflexes.[2]. Clinical significance[edit]. A blood vessel blockage (such as in a stroke) will ... Reflex centers of vomiting, coughing, sneezing, and swallowing. ... complex is a cluster of interneurons involved in the ...
Complete homonymous hemianopia is produced when total fibres of optic radiations are involved. Pupillary reflexes are normal. ... Pupillary reflexes are normal, as fibers for pupillary reflexes from the optic tract are diverted to pretectal nucleus and do ... Optic neuritis involving external fibers of the optic nerve causes tunnel vision. Optic neuritis involving internal fibers of ... A lesion involving complete optic chiasm, which disrupts the axons from the nasal field of both eyes, causes loss of vision of ...
Further work on reflex actions involved involuntary reactions to stress and pain. Pavlov was always interested in biomarkers of ... Most of his work involved research in temperament, conditioning and involuntary reflex actions. Pavlov performed and directed ... The concept for which Pavlov is famous is the "conditioned reflex" (or in his own words the conditional reflex), which he ... Tolochinov, whose own term for the phenomenon had been "reflex at a distance", communicated the results at the Congress of ...
Bezold-Jarisch reflex "Types of Arrhythmia". 1 July 2011. Archived from the original on 7 June 2015. Retrieved 19 March 2015. ... Non-cardiac causes are usually secondary, and can involve recreational drug use or abuse; metabolic or endocrine issues, ... Michael Panneton, W. (2013). "The Mammalian Diving Response: An Enigmatic Reflex to Preserve Life?". Physiology. 28 (5): 284- ... Bradycardia is also part of the mammalian diving reflex. A diagnosis of bradycardia in adults is based on a heart rate less ...
Recovery happens without specific treatment.[2] Prevention involves avoiding the triggers.[2] Drinking sufficient fluids, salt ... Reflex syncope is a brief loss of consciousness due to a neurologically induced drop in blood pressure.[2] Before the person ... Reflex syncope occurs in response to a trigger due to dysfunction of the heart rate and blood pressure regulating mechanism. ... Reflex syncope is divided into three types: vasovagal, situational, and carotid sinus.[2] Vasovagal syncope is typically ...
Additional assessments involved body dimensions, x-rays, and tests of emotion and personality. Variations in intelligence ... Initial measurements focused on reflexes and bodily measurements, such as blood pressure and breathing rates. Additionally, ... Motor assessments examined speed, dexterity, and reflexes, amongst other things. Participants completed the California Infant ... Physiological tests assessed exercise and exertion abilities, the galvanic skin reflex, and metabolism. ...
Most of his work involved research in temperament, conditioning and involuntary reflex actions. In 1891, Pavlov was invited to ... Charles Scott Sherrington's work focused strongly on reflexes and his experiments led up to the discovery of motor units. His ... During the same period, Vladimir Bekhterev discovered 15 new reflexes and is known for his competition with Pavlov regarding ... Sherrington received the Nobel prize for showing that reflexes require integrated activation and demonstrated reciprocal ...
Involved in circadian rhythms, pupillary reflex, and color correction in high-brightness situations. Phylogenetically a member ... Another opsin found in the mammalian retina, melanopsin, is involved in circadian rhythms and pupillary reflex but not in ... Ayers T, Tsukamoto H, Gühmann M, Veedin Rajan VB, Tessmar-Raible K (April 2018). "o-type opsin mediates the shadow reflex in ... Five classical groups of opsins are involved in vision, mediating the conversion of a photon of light into an electrochemical ...
Study typically involves a reduced preparation of the gill and siphon withdrawal reflex. The sequencing of the whole genome was ... Chemical deterrence involves the release of toxic chemicals that are noxious to predators and rapidly dissuades them from ...
Sucking reflex: Baby sucks breast / bottle / teat to get milk. Snout reflex: Involved in suckling. Glabellar reflex: May ... One reflex thought to have good localizing value is the palmar grasp reflex which usually signifies damage to the frontal lobe ... Palmomental reflex: stroking on the thenar eminence of the hand causes contraction of sub mental muscles . Rooting reflex: Baby ... These reflexes are believed to be "hard-wired" before birth, and are therefore able to be elicited in the newborn. As the brain ...
Unlike other torsions, however, the cremasteric reflex is still active. Typical treatment involves the use of over-the-counter ... There is often an absent or decreased cremasteric reflex. The absence of the cremasteric reflex in an acutely painful testicle ... Similarly, the presence of a mass or malignancy involving the spermatic cord can also predispose to torsion. Age is also an ... The cremasteric reflex in epididymitis is usually present. Testicular torsion, or more probably impending testicular infarction ...
Sedation can hinder the patient's gag reflex. Therefore, patients can find it difficult to remove a foreign body lost in the ... Management of this patient involves lying patient supine, maintaining the airway and administering oxygen through a face mask. ... command Carry a margin of safety wide enough to render the unintended loss of consciousness and loss of protective reflexes ...
Study typically involves a reduced preparation of the gill and siphon withdrawal reflex. ... Chemical deterrence involves the release of toxic chemicals that are noxious to predators and rapidly dissuades them from ...
Polyneuropathy indicates that multiple nerves are involved, unlike mononeuropathy. Polyneuropathy usually involves motor nerve ... Signs include rear leg weakness progressing rapidly to paralysis, and decreased reflexes. Tick paralysis* is a disease in dogs ... Upper lid entropion involves the eyelashes rubbing on the eye, but the lower lid usually has no eyelashes, so hair rubs on the ... Treatment involves insulin replacement therapy, and use of a diet high in fiber and complex carbohydrates. Oral diabetes ...
The Russians have also displayed a similar if more advanced system in the Reflex. The system involves an automatic targeting of ... which would enhance their effectiveness due to the close ranges involved. However, the aging RPG-7 has evolved to the even more ...
It is unclear what factors are involved in triggering one reflex versus the other. The o-stem nominative plural (Old Church ...
"Evolution of the hypoxia-sensitive cells involved in amniote respiratory reflexes". eLife. 6: e21231. doi:10.7554/eLife.21231. ...
Nerve cells in the brain still get feedback that the reflex action occurred. And, of course, reflex actions involving sight and ... A true reflex is a behaviour done by the reflex arc. This is the path the signal of a reflex takes. That path is from the ... However, this is not the usual use of the term "reflex". It is studied in ethology because it usually involves two animals of ... A reflex or reflex action is an automatic and fast movement in response to a stimulus.[1] ...
physical dependence - dependence that involves persistent physical-somatic withdrawal symptoms (e.g., fatigue and delirium ... Kandel and his colleagues first habituated the reflex, weakening the response by repeatedly touching the animal's siphon. They ... psychological dependence - dependence that involves emotional-motivational withdrawal symptoms (e.g., dysphoria and anhedonia) ... Despite the importance of numerous psychosocial factors, at its core, drug addiction involves a biological process: the ability ...
"What Scandal Involving Prince Andrew Says - Al Jazeera America". Retrieved 19 April 2016.. ... with a coronet Or composed of crosses patée and fleurs de lis a chain affixed thereto passing between the forelegs and reflexed ... involved representing and promoting the UK at various trade fairs and conferences around the world.[5] His suitability for the ...
Symptoms and signs: Speech and voice / Symptoms involving head and neck (R47-R49, 784) ...
When this boost occurs, an acoustic reflex mechanism triggers and acts as a defense against these sounds. This mechanism seeks ... After a series of tests involving physical therapy exercises while songs with different tempos played, subjects were asked to ... As a result, the reflex mechanism is activated again, and the cycle continues on. This ultimately leads to fatigue. ...
... -induced vasodilatation is dependent on nitric oxide release.[17] Substance P is involved in the axon reflex- ... In turn, a fairly complex reflex is triggered involving cranial nerves sub-serving respiration, retroperistalsis, and general ... It is proposed that this release is involved in neurogenic inflammation, which is a local inflammatory response to certain ... It is proposed that this release is involved in neurogenic inflammation, which is a local inflammatory response to certain ...
Respiration involves drawing water into the mantle cavity through an aperture, passing it through the gills, and expelling it ... which show a variety of complex reflex actions that persist even when they have no input from the brain.[45] Unlike vertebrates ... Octopuses and other coleoid cephalopods are capable of greater RNA editing (which involves changes to the nucleic acid sequence ... Editing is concentrated in the nervous system and affects proteins involved in neural excitability and neuronal morphology. ...
These cells are involved in various reflexive responses of the brain and body to the presence of (day)light, such as the ... These cells do not contribute to sight directly, but are thought to support circadian rhythms and pupillary reflex. ... Beside circadian / behavioral functions, ipRGCs have a role in initiating the pupillary light reflex.[26] ... which are involved mainly in the regulation of circadian rhythms, melatonin, and pupil dilation. ...
One hypothesis is that they are a learned physical reaction or habit the body develops, similar to a reflex. The individual ... The differential diagnosis of PNES firstly involves ruling out epilepsy as the cause of the seizure episodes, along with other ... similar to a reflex. ReACT aims to retrain the learned reaction (PNES episodes) by targeting symptom catastrophizing and ...
Other muscles that can be involved in inhalation include:[2] *External intercostal muscles ...
Their background as duck dogs means centuries of instinctive attraction to water and thus they can go on any trip involving ... Hunting poodles typically are dogs with lightning quick reflexes, sprinting like a demon after the downed bird and having a ...
In the whites family (Pieridae), one counter mechanisme involves glucosinolate sulphatase, which changes the glucosinolate, so ... may be reflexed, spreading, ascending, or erect, together forming a tube-, bell- or urn-shaped calyx. Each flower has four ...
The second level involves mental content as such. That is, it involves concepts and schemes about the physical, the biological ... First is the tier of reflexes, which structures the basic reflexes constructed during the first month of life. ... Hypercognition involves two central functions, namely working hypercognition and long-term hypercognition.[citation needed] ... The other two of levels involve knowing processes, one oriented to the environment and another oriented to the self.[5][15][16] ...
... provoking a mild mass reflex. In some instances, the voiding reflex becomes hyperactive. Bladder capacity is reduced and the ... The main organs involved in urination are the urinary bladder and the urethra. The smooth muscle of the bladder, known as the ... The state of the reflex system is dependent on both a conscious signal from the brain and the firing rate of sensory fibers ... Physiologically, urination involves coordination between the central, autonomic, and somatic nervous systems. Brain centers ...
Receptive music therapy involves listening to recorded or live music selected by a therapist.[6] It can improve mood, decrease ... Promotion of healthy sucking reflex: By using a pacifier-activated lullaby device, music therapists can help promote stronger ... Involving the parents in this type of interaction by having them participate directly or observe the therapist's techniques ... Another practice involving music is called "Igbeuku", a religious practice performed by faith healers. In the practice of ...
... reflex speeds, and to the deep instincts of the masses, which are more far-seeing in hours of crisis than the reasonings of the ... the first involved a drift towards the party; the second saw a move towards the idea of complete proletarian spontaneity.... ...
This sequence on one end which depicts Life is already involved in Matter (or Matter a form of veiled life, i.e. life being ... is a much lower action of the mental physical which when left to itself can only repeat the same ideas and record the reflexes ... Integral Yoga involves going beyond this surface consciousness to the larger life of the Inner Being, which is more open to ...
Reflexes of the Proto-Malayo-Polynesian word *laqia are still found in Austronesian languages all the way to Hawaii.[11] They ... Dry ginger is most popularly traded between Asian countries through a unique distribution system involving a network of small ...
Tests, surgery and other procedures involving the respiratory system (ICD-9-CM V3 21-22, 30-34, ICD-10-PCS 0B) ...
Rarer symptoms include brisk deep tendon reflexes, retinal hemorrhages, blurred vision, extension plantar reflexes, and ocular ... It generally appears in patients who have acute mountain sickness and involves disorientation, lethargy, and nausea among other ... Descriptions of fatal cases often involve climbers who continue ascending while suffering from the condition's symptoms.[4] ...
... is a form of hypoxia (reduced supply of oxygen), specifically involving the brain; when the brain is ... A deep coma will interfere with body's breathing reflexes even after the initial cause of hypoxia has been dealt with; ... In severe cases treatment may also involve life support and damage control measures. ... Treatment decision often involve complex ethical choices and can strain family dynamics.[36] ...
Thomas Sutton, inventor of the single-lens reflex camera, took the picture. He photographed a tartan ribbon three times, ... In the kinetic theory, temperatures and heat involve only molecular movement. This approach generalised the previously ...
righting reflex. · positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation involved in lung morphogenesis. ... Enard W, Przeworski M, Fisher SE, et al.: Molecular evolution of FOXP2, a gene involved in speech and language. Nature 2002, ...
Adverse effects include headache, flushing, nausea, hypotension, reflex tachycardia, and increased intraocular pressure.[4][10] ... The renal effect of fenoldopam and dopamine may involve physiological antagonism of the renin-angiotensin system in the kidney. ... as unexpected hypotension can result from beta-blocker inhibition of sympathetic-mediated reflex tachycardia in response to ...
Superficial ulcers involve a loss of part of the epithelium. Deep ulcers extend into or through the stroma and can result in ... An axon reflex may be responsible for uveitis formation-stimulation of pain receptors in the cornea results in release ... Corneal ulcer is an inflammatory or more seriously, infective condition of the cornea involving disruption of its epithelial ... Melting ulcers are a type of corneal ulcer involving progressive loss of stroma in a dissolving fashion. This is most commonly ...
Problems involving speech[edit]. See also: Speech-language pathology. There are several organic and psychological factors that ... Production involves the selection of appropriate words and the appropriate form of those words from the lexicon and morphology ... 14] Instead, multiple streams are involved in speech production and comprehension. Damage to the left lateral sulcus has been ... Symptoms and signs: Speech and voice / Symptoms involving head and neck (R47-R49, 784) ...
"It can hardly have been due to any reluctance on Newton's part to becoming too closely involved with Halley, the well-known ... the Golgi tendon organ and the Golgi tendon reflex. He is recognized as the greatest neuroscientist and biologist of his time.[ ... "Although in her youth she had shared her father's Zionist sympathies, she was not otherwise involved in Jewish affairs and was ...
... and exaggerated reflexes (hyperreflexia), including an overactive gag reflex. An abnormal reflex commonly called Babinski's ... involves only upper motor neurons, and progressive muscular atrophy (PMA) involves only lower motor neurons. There is debate ... The cause is not known in 90% to 95% of cases,[4] but is believed to involve both genetic and environmental factors.[13] The ... This involves asking the person with ALS if they have any respiratory symptoms and measuring their respiratory function.[5] The ...
The inflammatory reflex is a prototypical neural circuit that controls cytokine production in the spleen.[13] Action potentials ... Gómez-Gómez L, Boller T (June 2000). "FLS2: an LRR receptor-like kinase involved in the perception of the bacterial elicitor ... Most plant immune responses involve systemic chemical signals sent throughout a plant. Plants use pattern-recognition receptors ... There are various different proteins and mechanisms that are involved in invertebrate clotting. In crustaceans, ...
... from ACCESS 85 at University of South Asia, Lahore - ... 43) The simplest version of a withdrawal reflex involves a A) pain receptor synapsing onto a motor neuron in the spinal cord. B ... The simplest version of a withdrawal reflex involves a pain receptor synapsing onto a motor neuron in the spinal cord. Page Ref ...
Interstitial cells of Cajal are involved in the afferent limb of the rectoanal inhibitory reflex ... Interstitial cells of Cajal are involved in the afferent limb of the rectoanal inhibitory reflex ... also called the rectoanal inhibitory reflex (RAIR). Abnormalities in the RAIR have been shown to be involved in defecation ... Duration of the reflex was measured from the onset of the relaxation until the pressure returned to its basal level. ...
... ... tissue we could make the in vitro system more in vivo like in the sense that it focuses on the stretch reflex involving limb ... It is therefore necessary to find novel ways to analyze the mechanisms involved in well-defined neural circuits. We present an ... in the cultures showing that this system has the potential to contain the complete reflex circuits. ...
According to Reflex. A reflex, or reflex action, is an involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus ... A reflex is made possible by neural pathways called reflex arcs which can act on an impulse before that impulse reaches the ... Why is the Patellar reflex not triggered when the tendon is extended slowly? ...
Get Involved. Want to participate in updating this standard?. Join Committee Learn More ... Plastic Material or Materials for Use in Optical Parts Such as Lenses and Reflex Reflectors of Motor Vehicle Lighting Devices ... Plastic Material or Materials for Use in Optical Parts Such as Lenses and Reflex Reflectors of Motor Vehicle Lighting Devices ...
Peripheral reflex pathways involving abdominal viscera: transmission of impulses through prevertebral ganglia.: In ... Peripheral reflex pathways involving abdominal viscera: transmission of impulses through prevertebral ganglia.. Authors * King ...
Afferent pathways involved in reflex regulation of airway smooth muscle. / Coleridge, H. M.; Coleridge, J. C.G.; Schultz, H. D. ... Afferent pathways involved in reflex regulation of airway smooth muscle. Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 1989;42(1):1-63. https ... Coleridge, H. M. ; Coleridge, J. C.G. ; Schultz, H. D. / Afferent pathways involved in reflex regulation of airway smooth ... title = "Afferent pathways involved in reflex regulation of airway smooth muscle",. author = "Coleridge, {H. M.} and Coleridge ...
23 postpartum hacks for dads (that dont involve a gas mask) Natural Family Planning , Fertility Awareness , NFP Classes Couple ... 8. Hum to calm your gag reflex.. Speaking of diaper-changing damage control, vomiting all over your precious child while you ... Before removing your little mans diaper, wipe a cool cloth across his lower abdomen and wait a few moments for the reflex to ... There are a few methods out there for outsmarting your gag reflex, but humming is probably best in this circumstance. Its ...
Reticular reflex myoclonus This type of epilepsy involves the brain stem. It causes muscle jerks that can affect the whole body ... Cortical reflex myoclonus This type of epilepsy starts in the outer layer of the brain and usually affects specific muscles in ... These involve the muscles jerking repeatedly, in quick succession, for a few seconds. The most commonly affected areas are the ... Palatal myoclonus involves the muscles in the roof of the mouth contracting very quickly in a regular rhythm. ...
Another approximation involves the radiation impedance, Z. R. A. D. {\displaystyle {\it {Z_{RAD}}}}. . It can be shown [1] that ... Bass-reflex enclosures are also called "vented-box design" or "ported-cabinet design". A bass-reflex enclosure includes a vent ... Figure 2. Bass-reflex enclosure acoustic circuit. In this figure, Z. R. A. D. {\displaystyle Z_{RAD}}. represents the radiation ... If little or no filling (acceptable assumption in a bass-reflex system but not for sealed enclosures), ρ. e. f. f. ≈. ρ. 0. {\ ...
Recovery happens without specific treatment.[2] Prevention involves avoiding the triggers.[2] Drinking sufficient fluids, salt ... Reflex syncope is a brief loss of consciousness due to a neurologically induced drop in blood pressure.[2] Before the person ... Reflex syncope occurs in response to a trigger due to dysfunction of the heart rate and blood pressure regulating mechanism. ... Reflex syncope is divided into three types: vasovagal, situational, and carotid sinus.[2] Vasovagal syncope is typically ...
Unlearning the Gag Reflex (Desensitisation)*Desensitisation exercise for swallowing or anything involving water ... A sensitive gag reflex: Some people have a very active gag reflex. There are many tips on this page which can help, but for ... The gag reflex may kick in as a protective mechanism. It can also be related to past sexual or physical abuse or torture ... The gag reflex can be triggered by a denture that extends too far into the palate - often its possible to trim it enough to ...
Further, these neurons may be activated by reflexes ot mediators originating in the airway ... Electrical-stimulation; Methacholines; Neuropathy; Cholinergic-receptors; Reflexes; Airway-obstruction; Airway-resistance; In- ...
Publication:Self-Organization of Spinal Reflexes Involving Homonymous, Antagonist and Synergistic Interactions. Publication: ... These reflexes are: the Myotatic, the Reciprocal Inibition and the Reverse Myotatic reflexes. In this paper we apply our ... Self-Organization of Spinal Reflexes Involving Homonymous, Antagonist and Synergistic Interactions. *Authors: Marques, H. G.; ... In previous work we have shown that three of the simplest spinal reflexes could be self-organised in an agonist-antagonist pair ...
The contralateral direct reflex is intact. (Example: Direct light reflex of right pupil involves the right optic nerve and ... The ipsilateral consensual reflex is intact. (Example: Consensual light reflex of right pupil involves the right optic nerve ... The pupillary light reflex (PLR) or photopupillary reflex is a reflex that controls the diameter of the pupil, in response to ... Left direct light reflex involves neural segments 1, 5, and 7. Segment 1 is the afferent limb, which includes the retina and ...
... reflex was first used to describe an automatic, almost immediate movement in response to a stimulus, involving a nerve circuit ... See conditioned reflex, Moro reflex, patellar reflex, plantar (reflex), pupillary reflex, rooting reflex. r. arc the nervous ... Such reflexes are known as monosynaptic spinal reflexes; an example is the stretch reflex. Other spinal reflexes involve more ... Reflexes are often assessed during. KEY TERMS. Reflex arc- The path of sensory and motor transmission involved in a reflex ...
A sparsely connected network to model the relay stations of the sheep milk ejection reflex ... Milk ejection reflex involves an ascending neuronal pathway from the nipples to the hypothalamus and a descending vascular limb ... This milk-ejection reflex involves a positive feedback affecting the excitability of the oxytocin cells, and a negative ... An Artificial Neural Network Model of the Milk-Ejection Reflex in the Sheep by Anastasia S. Tsingotjidou, Lazaros Iliadis, ...
See what other people say about teaching with ExploreLearning Reflex. Find out how you might use this tool with your students ... Teacher Review for ExploreLearning Reflex Best way to involve students in math fact fluency!. ... Reflex Math became the best way to have students practice fact fluency in the classroom. They were hooked on the product and ... Teachers can track growth from day 1 to the final day of Reflex. ... Other Teacher Reviews For ExploreLearning Reflex. Write your ...
Reflexes that involve sucking and turning toward stimuli are intended to maintain sustenance, while those involving eye-closing ... Other articles where Grasp reflex is discussed: human behaviour: The newborn infant: He will grasp a finger or other object ... Reflexes that involve sucking and turning toward stimuli are intended to maintain sustenance, while those involving eye-closing ... Some reflexes involving the limbs or digits… ... inherited reflex. Palmar grasp reflex in a newborn.. © Tony ...
... although the central integrating circuits of the reflex in humans are still poorly defined. Emerging evidence reports that the ... brain nuclei during exercise tasks designed to elicit the muscle pressor reflex. The patients studied had undergone ... data provide direct evidence for a role of the PAG in the integrating neurocircuitry of the exercise pressor reflex in humans. ... Groups III and IV afferents carry sensory information regarding the muscle exercise pressor reflex, ...
The meaning of international behavior involves understanding it as an act, action, practice, or reflex.. 7. 4.2. THEORETICAL ... ACTS, ACTIONS, PRACTICES, AND REFLEXES International society involves a multitude of actors and their diverse behavior. This ... Both involved new decisions; neither involved following a rule, norm, or custom. 7. What about the outcomes of bureaucratic ... which shows familistic behavior to involve a pattern of transaction; contractual to involve patterns of relative exports, ...
state that "the exact nature of the central dysfunction that is produced in migraines is still not clear and may involve ... The NTS sends fibers bilaterally to the reticular formation and hypothalamus, which are important in the reflex control of ... Thalamic relay neurons are essential in generating 3 Hz absence seizures and are believed to be involved in other types of ... Febrile illness of any kind, whether or not it involves the brain, can trigger seizures in vulnerable young children, which ...
Innate immunity involves barriers that keep harmful materials from entering your body. These barriers form the first line of ... Cough reflex. *Enzymes in tears and skin oils. *Mucus, which traps bacteria and small particles ... Allergies involve an immune response to a substance that most peoples bodies perceive as harmless. ...
Even in cases involving an injury only to a finger or toe, pain can spread to include the entire arm or leg. In some cases, ... Skin changes; CRPS can involve changes in skin temperature -- skin on one extremity can feel warmer or cooler compared to the ... Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), also called reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome, is a chronic pain condition in which ... One kind of block involves placing an anesthetic next to the spine to directly block the sympathetic nerves. ...
5. Involving or relating to movements of the muscles: motor coordination; a motor reflex. ... Involving the muscles or the nerves that are connected to them: motor control; a motor nerve. Compare sensory. ...
... reflexes Best Plays of reflexes in Scrabble® and Words With Friends, Length tables of words in reflexes, Word growth of ... Word Growth involving reflexes. Shorter words in reflexes. ex exes flexes. ex flex flexes ... "reflexes" in the noun sense. 1. reflex, reflex response, reflex action, instinctive reflex, innate reflex, inborn reflex, ... reflexes. in Words With Friends™. The word reflexes is playable in Words With Friends™, no blanks required. Because it is ...
Lee, J. K., Johnson, C. S., & Wrathall, J. R. (2007). Up-regulation of 5-HT2 receptors is involved in the increased H-reflex ... Up-regulation of 5-HT2 receptors is involved in the increased H-reflex amplitude after contusive spinal cord injury. / Lee, Jae ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Up-regulation of 5-HT,sub,2,/sub, receptors is involved in the increased H-reflex ... Lee, JK, Johnson, CS & Wrathall, JR 2007, Up-regulation of 5-HT2 receptors is involved in the increased H-reflex amplitude ...
... reflex: …an idealized mechanism called the reflex arc. The primary components of the reflex arc are the sensory-nerve cells (or ... which perform the reflex action. In most cases, however, the basic physiological mechanism behind… ... Three types of neurons are involved in this reflex arc, but a two-neuron arc,… ... In reflex. …an idealized mechanism called the reflex arc. The primary components of the reflex arc are the sensory-nerve cells ...
Locomotion is a good example of this type of compounding reflex. It involves flexion reflexes, crossed extension reflexes, ... An innate behavior involves a combination of reflexes and compound movements. For example, food intake involves locomotion to ... A shows how reflexes are combined by mutual interactions (Reflexes 1 and 2). In B, the compounding of reflexes 1, 3, and 4 is ... Second, several individual reflexes may have different controllers (Figure 9B, Reflex 1, 2, 3 controllers), but they may share ...
Saccade preparation and the control of midbrain visuomotor reflexes ... med that these areas are involved in inhibition of saccades. Evidence supporting this idea comes from lesion studies that have ... Looking forward to looking: Saccade preparation and the control of midbrain visuomotor reflexes (2000) by R D Rafal, L Machado ... of contralesional reflexes, see also =-=Rafal, Machado, Ro, & Ingle, 2000-=-; Guitton, Buchtel, & Douglas, 1985). One aspect of ...
  • A reflex, or reflex action, is an involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus. (
  • reflexes The term 'reflex' was first used to describe an automatic, almost immediate movement in response to a stimulus, involving a nerve circuit that traverses the spinal cord . (
  • It is now applied also to other types of automatic response to a stimulus, including those involving the brain . (
  • A reflex requires sensory receptors that detect the stimulus, sensory nerve fibres that conduct the information to the central nervous system (CNS), neurons in the CNS itself, nerve fibres conducting the command away from the CNS, and the effector . (
  • In animal experiments, Sherrington showed that the adequate stimulus for this reflex was a mere 0.01 mm elongation of the quadriceps muscle. (
  • a conditioned reflex, to a specific stimulus. (
  • A reflex is a relatively quick and predictable motor response to a stimulus. (
  • An example is the escape reflex (e.g., the sudden withdrawal of a hand in response to a pain stimulus), or the patellar reflex (the jerking of a leg when the kneecap is tapped). (
  • If we denote excitation as an end-effect by the sign plus (+), and inhibition as end-effect by the sign minus (-), such a reflex as the scratch-reflex can be termed a reflex of double-sign, for it develops excitatory end-effect and then inhibitory end-effect even during the duration of the exciting stimulus. (
  • Spinal reflexes - Spinal reflexes The reflex arc The reflex arc An automatic, rapid response to an adverse stimulus. (
  • Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of ASR is the normal suppression of the startle reflex when an intense stimulus is preceded by a weak non-starting pre-stimulus. (
  • By using limb tissue as a source of muscle fibers instead of circumspinal tissue we could make the in vitro system more in vivo like in the sense that it focuses on the stretch reflex involving limb muscles. (
  • In previous work we have shown that three of the simplest spinal reflexes could be self-organised in an agonist-antagonist pair of muscles. (
  • Palatal myoclonus involves the muscles in the roof of the mouth contracting very quickly in a regular rhythm. (
  • These involve the muscles jerking repeatedly, in quick succession, for a few seconds. (
  • My tip to avoid the gag reflex is to lift your toes in the air, point your toes forward and flex your abdominal muscles. (
  • a tap to the patellar tendon (just below the front of the knee) causes a reflex twitch in the quadriceps muscles (the muscle mass on the front of the thigh). (
  • At 4 weeks after surgery, H-reflex recordings from the hindpaw plantar muscles of contused rats showed twice the amplitude of that in laminectomy controls or transected rats. (
  • In examining any reflex movement, one must look for the sensory input-i.e., the way in which messages in sensory nerves bring about discharges in the motor nerves to the muscles. (
  • Visceral reflex arcs and somatic reflex arcs differ in the end point of the arc: Visceral reflex arcs end at involuntary muscles and glands, and somatic reflex arcs end at voluntary skeletal muscles. (
  • They still rely on reflex arcs, with stimuli being transmitted to the central nervous system where they are processed, after which motor signals are automatically sent to the muscles. (
  • During the reflex arc, sensory neurons carry signals from receptors to interneurons in the spinal cord, which send signals to activate muscles via motor ne. (
  • Different combinations of muscles enervated by cranial nerves III-VII and X were involved. (
  • tense all of their muscles by doing this and the reflex is improved thereby. (
  • a reflex characterized by contraction of the sacrospinalis and other back muscles when the overlying skin is stimulated. (
  • Reflexes by definition are involuntary reactions that don't even pass through the human mind. (
  • The involuntary nervous system, peripheral nerves, and brain seem to be involved. (
  • The palmomental reflex, an involuntary contraction of the mentalis muscle of the chin caused by stimulation of the thenar eminence, can be tested easily and rapidly. (
  • Ozone-enhanced airway hyperrespomsiveness involves intrinsic airway neurons in ferret trachea. (
  • In a simple reflex this includes a sensory receptor, afferent or sensory neuron, reflex center in the brain or spinal cord, one or more efferent neurons, and an effector organ. (
  • Most reflexes, however, are more complicated and include internuncial or associative neurons intercalated between afferent and efferent neurons. (
  • Sir Charles Sherrington (1857-1952) was the first to introduce the word 'reflex', taking the view that sensory information going into the cord was reflected out again along the motor nerve fibres, analogous to a beam of light being reflected by a mirror. (
  • We now know that this reflex response is initiated from the class of sensory receptors called muscle spindle receptors . (
  • The study of spinal reflexes allowed early workers to deduce properties of transmission of information from the sensory nerve fibres to the motor nerve cells within the spinal cord. (
  • In the reflex arc, information entered the cord along sensory nerve fibres to elicit activity leaving the cord in motor nerve fibres but, because of the special properties of the synapse, information could not flow in the opposite direction. (
  • Groups III and IV afferents carry sensory information regarding the muscle exercise pressor reflex, although the central integrating circuits of the reflex in humans are still poorly defined. (
  • The primary components of the reflex arc are the sensory-nerve cells (or receptors) that receive stimulation, in turn connecting to other nerve cells that activate muscle cells (or effectors), which perform the reflex action. (
  • Both reflex arcs go from sensory nerves to their endpoints through the central nervous system. (
  • There are many aspects of this exam, including an assessment of motor and sensory skills, balance and coordination, mental status (the patient's level of awareness and interaction with the environment), reflexes, and functioning of the nerves. (
  • Lack of motor and sensory function after the reflex has returned indicates complete SCI. (
  • REFLEXES - Sensory(Afferent)-carry messages to brain and spinal cord. (
  • Hoffman HS, Ison JR (1980) Reflex modification in the domain of startle: I. Some empirical findings and their implications for how the nervous system processes sensory input. (
  • Reflexes that involve sucking and turning toward stimuli are intended to maintain sustenance, while those involving eye-closing or muscle withdrawal are intended to ward off danger. (
  • For example, three types of relatively slow ocular reflexes are driven individually by vestibular or visual stimuli, as will be seen later in Chapter 10, "Ocular Reflexes. (
  • Both the triggering stimuli and the response can be far more complex than those of the visceral reflexes. (
  • Since an animal's life can hinge on how quickly it can sense and respond to stimuli, the team set out to quantify the speed of the fastest reflex involved in the locomotion of terrestrial mammals ranging in size from minuscule shrews to massive elephants. (
  • A reaction to negative pain stimuli involve the spinal cord and the brain. (
  • Any of the reflexes initiated by several stimuli originating in widely separated receptors whose impulses follow the final common path to the effector organ and reinforce one another. (
  • Do reflex movements involve information processing? (
  • For example, a slow ocular reflex can be integrated with a brisk saccade only in the form of half-fused control because these eye movements require controllers having substantially different properties for generating slow and brisk eye movements, respectively (Chapter 10). (
  • Third, reflexes may also be combined with a voluntary motor control system in a hybrid way ( Figure 9C ) because of the similarity of control system structures for reflexes and voluntary movements (see Section 6). (
  • The spinal cord and brainstem contain a collation of reflexes to elaborate compound movements such as when assuming a posture, or when walking, swimming, and flying. (
  • Sinusoidal extension-flexion movements imposed on the J3 joint induced intra-segmental reflexes (on the J3 muscle innervations) and inter-segmental reflexes (on the J2 muscle innervations) which exclusively involved the tonic excitatory motoneurones and the common inhibitory motoneurone. (
  • 4. Resistance reflexes (activation of the muscle stretched by the imposed movements) occurred whatever the excitability level of the animal and involved both flexor and extensor motoneurones. (
  • Sometimes assistance reflexes could be induced by increasing the velocity of the movements imposed on J3. (
  • A bilateral pair of cerebral interneurons, called CC5, contribute to the generation of a number of different behaviors involving head movements. (
  • For example, feeding involves a coordination of relatively nonstereotyped appetitive behaviors involving head movements and more stereotyped regular rhythmic consummatory responses, such as biting and swallowing, that are executed by the buccal mass. (
  • Reflex Movements are generated in the. (
  • Swedish body massage is the original massage technique involving a sequence of movements working superficially and deeper into the tissue layers. (
  • Among the reasons that the system is not a miracle fix for paralysis is that it relays only impulses to extend and bend the leg at the right time to fit into a four-legged gait, not other, more subtle movements involving change in direction or navigating obstacles. (
  • In newborns and infants, reflexes called infant reflexes (or primitive reflexes ) are evaluated. (
  • Factors that may indicate neurological dysfunction: Primitive Reflexes. (
  • What is a reflex pathway? (
  • The pupillary light reflex neural pathway on the each side has an afferent limb and two efferent limbs. (
  • Retina: The pupillary reflex pathway begins with the photosensitive retinal ganglion cells , which convey information via the optic nerve , the most peripheral, distal, portion of which is the optic disc . (
  • Milk ejection reflex involves an ascending neuronal pathway from the nipples to the hypothalamus and a descending vascular limb. (
  • The BBC describes a reflex arc as the nerve pathway through which neural impulses travel to cause a quick autonomic response known as a reflex. (
  • B-fibers send signals to the brain (the afferent pathway of the neural portion of the Bainbridge reflex), which then modulates both sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways to the SA node of the heart (the efferent pathway of the neural portion of the Bainbridge reflex), causing an increase in heart rate. (
  • Another is the dopamine pathway involving D1 and D2 receptors in the brain. (
  • This pathway is called the reflex arc. (
  • The rectoanal inhibitory reflex, rectal compliance, and relaxation of the isolated IAS to electrical stimulation were measured in controls, KIT W /KIT Wv mice, and neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) deficient mice. (
  • Pupillary reflex is conceptually linked to the side (left or right) of the reacting pupil, and not to the side from which light stimulation originates. (
  • The goal was to determine if these individuals could gain mobility by learning to suppress a spinal H-reflex, which is elicited by electrical stimulation rather than by a tendon stretch. (
  • A control group of four participants received the stimulation but no feedback about their reflexes. (
  • The brain recording and the stimulation of the spinal cord involve devices that are already in use in humans for other purposes. (
  • The brain recording device was combined with electrical stimulation to an area just outside the spinal cord that conveyed signals to the reflex system. (
  • There is an association between hyperexcitable bulbocavernosus reflex resulting from stimulation of the prostatic urethra and premature ejaculation. (
  • The voluntary and vegetative nervous systems are intimately connected and brought into reflex connection so that visceral stimulation has skeletal and somatic expression and skeletal muscle messages are expressed in visceral tissues: The body is a whole. (
  • Others have elicited the reflex by stimulation of the hypothenar eminence, palmar aspect of the thumb, forearm, chest, abdomen, or even the sole. (
  • Any reflex produced by stimulation of the auditory nerve, esp. (
  • Perform a knee-jerk reflex test on someone. (
  • used as a conventional analogy in thinking about reflexes, is the knee-jerk reflex. (
  • The knee-jerk reflex can also be conditioned. (
  • Reflecting on Reflexes - Reflecting on Reflexes How to test the knee jerk reflex: Have a partner sit with his/her legs crossed so that his leg can swing freely. (
  • Deep tendon reflexes were decreased or absent in most patients, although cases of hyperreflexia has sometimes been seen. (
  • Although the mechanism for this increased H-reflex is not clear, previous studies have shown that pharmacological activation of the 5-HT 2 receptors (5-HT 2 R) can potentiate the monosynaptic reflex. (
  • Lee, JK , Johnson, CS & Wrathall, JR 2007, ' Up-regulation of 5-HT 2 receptors is involved in the increased H-reflex amplitude after contusive spinal cord injury ', Experimental neurology , vol. 203, no. 2, pp. 502-511. (
  • Peripheral 5-H[T.sub.3] receptors are intimately involved. (
  • It triggers increased venous return which is registered by stretch receptors, which via Bainbridge Reflex increases the heart rate momentarily during inspiration. (
  • Reflexes - Olfactory receptors. (
  • Two or more reflexes initiated simultaneously in different receptors that involve the same motor center but produce opposite effects. (
  • 43) The simplest version of a withdrawal reflex involves a A) pain receptor synapsing onto a motor neuron in the spinal cord. (
  • The simplest version of a withdrawal reflex involves a pain receptor synapsing onto a motor neuron in the spinal cord. (
  • Sherrington referred to the chain of structures - receptor, conductor, and effector - as a reflex arc . (
  • Varubi blocks a receptor that is known to be particularly involved in the delayed phase of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. (
  • The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) say that Varubi, a "human substance P/neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonist," was evaluated in three phase 3 clinical trials involving 2,800 adults. (
  • It receives input from the afferent limbs of the reflex and the area postrema. (
  • The reflex was first believed to signify damage to the pyramidal tract but it was later shown in many normal people. (
  • Absence of this reflex indicates damage to the pyramidal tract. (
  • How Do Visceral Reflex Arcs Differ From Somatic Reflex Arcs? (
  • These are relatively simple reflexes, and occur in both the visceral and somatic reflex arcs. (
  • They generally involve somatic reflexes, not visceral reflexes. (
  • The testing of these reflexes, together with a knowledge of the different levels of the spinal cord responsible for each of them, provides a clinical method of examining the integrity of a reflex arc involving particular peripheral nerves and segments of the spinal cord. (
  • One kind of block involves placing an anesthetic next to the spine to directly block the sympathetic nerves. (
  • This controversial technique destroys the nerves involved in CRPS. (
  • This reflex is lost if the second to fourth sacral nerves are injured. (
  • Peripheral reflex pathways involving abdominal viscera: transm. (
  • Peripheral reflex pathways involving abdominal viscera: transmission of impulses through prevertebral ganglia. (
  • Peripheral Nervous Pathways Involved in Nausea and Vomiting. (
  • The inhibitory innervation of the IAS and the rectoanal inhibitory reflex are mediated by NO and the rectoanal inhibitory reflex requires an intact network of ICC in the IAS. (
  • When stool arrives in the rectum, filling of the rectum leads to stretch of the rectal wall with subsequent triggering of a transient relaxation of the internal anal sphincter (IAS), also called the rectoanal inhibitory reflex (RAIR). (
  • This eye-head coordination involves an inhibitory cross talk between the independent eye and head controllers (Kardamakis and Moschovakis, 2009). (
  • 6. The role of the tonic, phasic and inhibitory innervations and the functional significance of resistance and assistance reflexes are discussed in relation to the behavioural role of the rock lobster antenna. (
  • Abnormal reflexes are detected. (
  • These hyperactive reflexes can cause spasticity (muscle stiffness) and abnormal patterns of muscle use during movement. (
  • Abnormal gastric or intestinal distention, increased smooth muscle contraction and abnormal or toxic gastrointestinal contents can trigger the vomiting reflex. (
  • It is considered abnormal for this reflex to remain present after 2 years. (
  • Can low temperatures induce a withdrawal reflex? (
  • A variety of experimental results indicates that during a local withdrawal reflex of the tentacle, CC5 is necessary and sufficient for the unilateral PA-shortening component of the response and therefore functions as a command neuron for a component of the behavior. (
  • The withdrawal reflex. (
  • It involves flexion reflexes, crossed extension reflexes, interlimb coordination, and, in addition, a central pattern generator (CPG) mechanism for rhythm generation (Grillner et al. (
  • Neurological examination involves assessing sensation and function. (
  • The ipsilateral efferent limb transmits nerve signals for direct light reflex of the ipsilateral pupil. (
  • Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), also called reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome , is a chronic pain condition in which high levels of nerve impulses are sent to an affected site. (
  • Foot reflexology is based on the premise that our nerve zones or reflex points go from the bottom of our feet to the top of our head, encompassing all vital organs on the way. (
  • Spinal reflexes - controlled by local circuits of nerve cells in the spinal cord - provide a way for the body to react and move quickly without a conscious decision from the brain. (
  • H-reflexes are routinely measured for diagnosing nerve disorders and injuries, but this is the first study to examine whether consciously modifying an H-reflex can help people with spinal cord injuries. (
  • Afferent limb of vomiting reflex from mechano- and chemoreceptors in the gastrointestinal tract is relayed via vagus nerve to the nucleus tractus solitarius in the brainstem. (
  • [2] Bainbridge reflex can be blocked by atropine and can be abolished by cutting the vagus nerve . (
  • Absence of this reflex in instances where spinal shock is not suspected could indicate a lesion or injury of the conus medullaris or sacral nerve roots. (
  • Particularly interesting was the finding of slow tonic myosin heavy chain expressing muscle fibers, a developmental marker for muscle spindles, in the cultures showing that this system has the potential to contain the complete reflex circuits. (
  • Our results show that the framework is successful in learning most of the spinal reflex circuitry as well as the corresponding behaviour in the more complicated muscle arrangement. (
  • Here we recorded local field potentials (LFPs) from various "deep" brain nuclei during exercise tasks designed to elicit the muscle pressor reflex. (
  • Muscle reflexes are tested. (
  • Static - this involves applying a stretch to the muscle and holding it. (
  • PNF and CRAC - various techniques which involve alternating muscle contraction and relaxing to increase the stretch. (
  • Ballistic - this involves 'bouncing' and forcing the muscle to go further than is comfortable and will damage it. (
  • The contralateral efferent limb causes consensual light reflex of the contralateral pupil. (
  • 13,14,15] Vomiting centre represents several nuclei in the brainstem (e.g. nucleus tractus solitarius, area postrema), which are responsible for the co-ordination of the efferent limb of the vomiting reflex. (
  • The test involves monitoring internal/external anal sphincter contraction in response to squeezing the glans penis or clitoris, or tugging on an indwelling Foley catheter. (
  • citation needed] The autonomic nervous system's physiological state (see below) leading to loss of consciousness may persist for several minutes, so If sufferers try to sit or stand when they wake up, they may pass out again The person may be nauseated, pale, and sweaty for several minutes or hours Reflex syncope occurs in response to a trigger due to dysfunction of the heart rate and blood pressure regulating mechanism. (
  • Reflex syncope occurs in response to a trigger due to dysfunction of the heart rate and blood pressure regulating mechanism. (
  • Each of these behaviors involves a head movement component that occurs together with other behavioral components specific to the particular response. (
  • Neonatal reflexes : Moro reflex - occurs from birth until about 3 months of age. (
  • Moro's reflex (or startle reflex). (
  • Davis M (2006) Neural systems involved in fear and anxiety measured with fear-potentiated startle. (
  • Depoortere R et al (1997) Potentiation of prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex in rats: pharmacological evaluation of the procedure as a model for detecting antipsychotic activity. (
  • Fendt M et al (2001) Brain stem circuits mediating prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex. (
  • Grillon C et al (1997) Darkness facilitates the acoustic startle reflex in humans. (
  • What Is Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Syndrome (RSD)? (
  • Reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) is characterized by a group of symptoms including pain (often 'burning' type), tenderness, and swelling of an extremity associated with varying degrees of sweating , warmth and/or coolness, flushing, discoloration, and shiny skin. (
  • What are the symptoms of reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD)? (
  • How is reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) diagnosed? (
  • It is therefore necessary to find novel ways to analyze the mechanisms involved in well-defined neural circuits. (
  • A reflex is made possible by neural pathways called reflex arcs which can act on an impulse before that impulse reaches the brain. (
  • The study by Sherrington and colleagues of the spinal reflex provided an understanding of the basis of the simplest neural circuits in the central nervous system , an understanding on which subsequent advances in neuroscience relied. (
  • What is the mechanism of reflex arcs? (
  • [2] The underlying mechanism involves the nervous system slowing the heart rate and dilating blood vessels resulting in low blood pressure and therefore not enough blood flow to the brain. (
  • an idealized mechanism called the reflex arc. (
  • Bass-reflex enclosures improve the low-frequency response of loudspeaker systems. (
  • The pupillary light reflex ( PLR ) or photopupillary reflex is a reflex that controls the diameter of the pupil , in response to the intensity ( luminance ) of light that falls on the retinal ganglion cells of the retina in the back of the eye , thereby assisting in adaptation to various levels of lightness/darkness. (
  • Pupillary reflex is synonymous with pupillary response, which may be pupillary constriction or dilation. (
  • Left pupillary reflex refers to the response of the left pupil to light, regardless of which eye is exposed to a light source. (
  • A direct pupillary reflex is pupillary response to light that enters the ipsilateral (same) eye. (
  • A consensual pupillary reflex is response of a pupil to light that enters the contralateral (opposite) eye. (
  • Left direct pupillary reflex is the left pupil's response to light entering the left eye, the ipsilateral eye. (
  • The experimental results prompted Sherrington to define the term 'reflex' and, with this, the implicit assumption that a reflex response is independent of consciousness. (
  • Allergies involve an immune response to a substance that most people's bodies perceive as harmless. (
  • involving or denoting a response, esp. (
  • Photo-transduction involves a chemical cascade that intrinsically limits the rate of response. (
  • The reflex is the rapid and unconscious response. (
  • The reflex could also be elicited by stimulating other areas of the skin or by urethral catheterisation, though the response was less pronounced. (
  • The drugs were intrathecally infused into the lumbar cord while recording the H-reflex. (
  • Lumbar puncture involves insertion of a long thin needle between the vertebrae. (
  • Also called dorsal reflex, lumbar reflex . (
  • Right pupillary reflex means reaction of the right pupil, whether light is shone into the left eye, right eye, or both eyes. (
  • Most accounts agree Gibson's reaction was just a reflex or automatic reaction. (
  • Buy Reflex Nutrition and Training from Chain Reaction Cycles, the World's Largest Online Bike Store. (
  • Catching a dropped object includes an element of reflex reaction. (
  • 2006) Suppression of the human spinal H-reflex by propofol: a quantitative analysis. (
  • Intrinsic reflexes are untrained and are developed along with the development of an organism's nervous system. (
  • A simple reflex is entirely automatic and involves no learning. (
  • International society involves a multitude of actors and their diverse behavior. (
  • it is behavior intentionally directed at, through, or involving the psychological field of other international actors. (
  • C shows how reflexes are modulated by aminergic and/or peptidergic innervation (represented by m and n) to exhibit a specific pattern of combination for behavior (m to reflexes 1, 2, and 4 and n to reflexes 1, 3, and 4). (
  • This type of epilepsy involves the brain stem. (
  • Or is the Brain an Engine of Reflex Associations? (
  • People tend to think of reflexes as fixed, but in reality, normal movement requires constant fine-tuning of reflexes by the brain. (
  • The brain can gradually enhance or suppress reflexes as needed," he said. (
  • Brain not involved. (
  • it can be completed without the brain being involved. (
  • And even if we could locate an orgasm center in the brain, we'd still need to determine the relationship between this area and what otherwise seems to be a reflex. (
  • Operation of segmental spinal circuits sometimes involves a type of function generator (FG in Figure 10B , b ). (
  • He deduced that it was synaptic transmission that conferred the reflex with the property of directionality. (
  • Identifying cardiovascular neurocircuitry involved in the exercise pressor reflex in humans using functional neurosurgery. (
  • These electrophysiological data provide direct evidence for a role of the PAG in the integrating neurocircuitry of the exercise pressor reflex in humans. (
  • There are many very tense and scary sequences, some of which involve brutal destruction of zombies or the deaths of humans, often with dark blood gushing from wounds. (
  • There is evidence, however, that the Bainbridge reflex does occur in humans, as in after delivery of an infant when a large volume (up to 800 mL) of uteroplacental blood is put back into the mother's circulation, resulting in tachycardia (citation needed). (
  • We present an improved in vitro model of the monosynaptic stretch reflex circuit, based on primary organotypic cell cultures. (
  • The present invention is concerned with an improved type of this class of reflex reflectors, and aims to provide a reflex reflector of high brilliancy especially adapted to the making of highway signs, markers, and advertising displays, which will be visible at night at great distances to the occupants of approaching vehicles, but without undue sacrifice of other necessary characteristics. (
  • This reflex can also be tested electrophysiologically, by stimulating the penis or vulva and recording from the anal sphincter. (
  • Although simple manifestations of activity of the central nervous system , spinal reflexes are meaningful, in that each reflex subserves an obvious function. (
  • One of the major ideas that Sherrington outlined in his 1906 book "The Integrative Action of the Nervous System" was that complex actions of the nervous system could be composed of a collation of reflexes, somewhat like building a house by piling up bricks. (
  • The Central Nervous Connections Involved in the Vomiting Reflex. (
  • The absence of the reflex in a person with acute paralysis from trauma indicates spinal shock whereas the presence of the reflex would indicate spinal cord severance. (
  • Testing merely for the presence or absence of the reflex therefore lacks both specificity and sensitivity. (
  • The researchers say this means small and large animals likely compensate for their relatively slow reflexes in different ways. (
  • Browse other questions tagged neuroscience reflexes or ask your own question . (
  • Then, we move on to tips for specific situations which can trigger the gag reflex and ideas for desensitisation. (
  • Local anaesthetic injections can be used to make the areas which trigger your gag reflex a bit numb. (
  • Third, a series of experiments with a balloon catheter suggest that the small volume of semen in the ordinary ejaculation would not be enough to trigger such a reflex. (
  • A fifth way is for reflexes to be compounded when signals in a descending tract activate some combinations of reflexes to express behaviorally meaningful compound reflexes ( Figure 10B , for review, see Lemon, 2008). (
  • The findings offer hope that reflex conditioning can produce meaningful improvements for some patients with incomplete spinal cord injuries. (
  • C) Hybrid control of a reflex and a voluntary movement. (
  • Why do some reflex actions involve interneurons, but some don't? (
  • 2007). Through excitation or inhibition of relevant interneurons in this system, signals of each descending tract could produce compound reflexes to provide desired movement patterns, such as target reaching by the hand (Chapter 13). (