Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Caspase 9: A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 9 is activated during cell stress by mitochondria-derived proapoptotic factors and by CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1. It activates APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES.Cytochromes c: Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.Caspase 3: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.bcl-2-Associated X Protein: A member of the Bcl-2 protein family and homologous partner of C-BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It regulates the release of CYTOCHROME C and APOPTOSIS INDUCING FACTOR from the MITOCHONDRIA. Several isoforms of BCL2-associated X protein occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA for this protein.Apoptotic Protease-Activating Factor 1: A CARD signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in the mitochondria-stimulated apoptosis (APOPTOSIS, INTRINSIC PATHWAY). It binds to CYTOCHROME C in the CYTOSOL to form an APOPTOSOMAL PROTEIN COMPLEX and activates INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9.Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins: A large group of proteins that control APOPTOSIS. This family of proteins includes many ONCOGENE PROTEINS as well as a wide variety of classes of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS such as CASPASES.Caspases: A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.bcl-X Protein: A member of the bcl-2 protein family that plays a role in the regulation of APOPTOSIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the BCL2L1 mRNA and are referred to as Bcl-XS and Bcl-XL.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein: A multi-domain mitochondrial membrane protein and member of the bcl-2 Protein family. Bak protein interacts with TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and promotes APOPTOSIS.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Mitochondrial Membranes: The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).Caspase 8: A long pro-domain caspase that contains a death effector domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 8 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its N-terminal death effector domain with DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand: A transmembrane-protein belonging to the TNF family of intercellular signaling proteins. It is a widely expressed ligand that activates APOPTOSIS by binding to TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND RECEPTORS. The membrane-bound form of the protein can be cleaved by specific CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES to form a soluble ligand form.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins: A conserved class of proteins that control APOPTOSIS in both VERTEBRATES and INVERTEBRATES. IAP proteins interact with and inhibit CASPASES, and they function as ANTI-APOPTOTIC PROTEINS. The protein class is defined by an approximately 80-amino acid motif called the baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.DNA Fragmentation: Splitting the DNA into shorter pieces by endonucleolytic DNA CLEAVAGE at multiple sites. It includes the internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, which along with chromatin condensation, are considered to be the hallmarks of APOPTOSIS.In Situ Nick-End Labeling: An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein: An inhibitor of apoptosis protein that is translated by a rare cap-independent mechanism. It blocks caspase-mediated cellular destruction by inhibiting CASPASE 3; CASPASE 7; and CASPASE 9.Apoptosis Inducing Factor: A flavoprotein that functions as a powerful antioxidant in the MITOCHONDRIA and promotes APOPTOSIS when released from the mitochondria. In mammalian cells AIF is released in response to pro-apoptotic protein members of the bcl-2 protein family. It translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and binds DNA to stimulate CASPASE-independent CHROMATIN condensation.CASP8 and FADD-Like Apoptosis Regulating Protein: An APOPTOSIS-regulating protein that is structurally related to CASPASE 8 and competes with CASPASE 8 for binding to FAS ASSOCIATED DEATH DOMAIN PROTEIN. Two forms of CASP8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulating protein exist, a long form containing a caspase-like enzymatically inactive domain and a short form which lacks the caspase-like domain.Caspase Inhibitors: Endogenous and exogenous compounds and that either inhibit CASPASES or prevent their activation.Fas Ligand Protein: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that was originally discovered on cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage, including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It plays an important role in immune homeostasis and cell-mediated toxicity by binding to the FAS RECEPTOR and triggering APOPTOSIS.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Annexin A5: A protein of the annexin family isolated from human PLACENTA and other tissues. It inhibits cytosolic PHOSPHOLIPASE A2, and displays anticoagulant activity.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Amino Acid Chloromethyl Ketones: Inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES and sulfhydryl group-containing enzymes. They act as alkylating agents and are known to interfere in the translation process.Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors: Exogenous and endogenous compounds which inhibit CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Caspase 7: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 3 and CASPASE 10. Several isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial: The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Genes, bcl-2: The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 genes, responsible for blocking apoptosis in normal cells, and associated with follicular lymphoma when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(14;18) translocation. The human c-bcl-2 gene is located at 18q24 on the long arm of chromosome 18.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Cytochrome c Group: A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Myeloid Cell Leukemia Sequence 1 Protein: A member of the myeloid leukemia factor (MLF) protein family with multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different protein isoforms. In hematopoietic cells, it is located mainly in the nucleus, and in non-hematopoietic cells, primarily in the cytoplasm with a punctate nuclear localization. MLF1 plays a role in cell cycle differentiation.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.BH3 Interacting Domain Death Agonist Protein: A member of the Bcl-2 protein family that reversibly binds MEMBRANES. It is a pro-apoptotic protein that is activated by caspase cleavage.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Staurosporine: An indolocarbazole that is a potent PROTEIN KINASE C inhibitor which enhances cAMP-mediated responses in human neuroblastoma cells. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995;214(3):1114-20)Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Mice, Inbred C57BLbcl-Associated Death Protein: A pro-apoptotic protein and member of the Bcl-2 protein family that is regulated by PHOSPHORYLATION. Unphosphorylated Bad protein inhibits the activity of BCL-XL PROTEIN.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Ceramides: Members of the class of neutral glycosphingolipids. They are the basic units of SPHINGOLIPIDS. They are sphingoids attached via their amino groups to a long chain fatty acyl group. They abnormally accumulate in FABRY DISEASE.Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand: Tumor necrosis factor receptor family members that are widely expressed and play a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. The receptors are specific for TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND and signal via conserved death domains that associate with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Caspase 2: A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its caspase recruitment domain with CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. Caspase 2 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating effector pro-caspases. Several isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Fas-Associated Death Domain Protein: A signal-transducing adaptor protein that associates with TNF RECEPTOR complexes. It contains a death effector domain that can interact with death effector domains found on INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 8 and CASPASE 10. Activation of CASPASES via interaction with this protein plays a role in the signaling cascade that leads to APOPTOSIS.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cysteine Endopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Caspase 1: A long pro-domain caspase that has specificity for the precursor form of INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. It plays a role in INFLAMMATION by catalytically converting the inactive forms of CYTOKINES such as interleukin-1beta to their active, secreted form. Caspase 1 is referred as interleukin-1beta converting enzyme and is frequently abbreviated ICE.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)U937 Cells: A human cell line established from a diffuse histiocytic lymphoma (HISTIOCYTIC LYMPHOMA, DIFFUSE) and displaying many monocytic characteristics. It serves as an in vitro model for MONOCYTE and MACROPHAGE differentiation.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Etoposide: A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase 5: A 150-kDa MAP kinase kinase kinase that may play a role in the induction of APOPTOSIS. It has specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 3; MAP KINASE KINASE 4; and MAP KINASE KINASE 6.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Propidium: Quaternary ammonium analog of ethidium; an intercalating dye with a specific affinity to certain forms of DNA and, used as diiodide, to separate them in density gradients; also forms fluorescent complexes with cholinesterase which it inhibits.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Culture Media, Serum-Free: CULTURE MEDIA free of serum proteins but including the minimal essential substances required for cell growth. This type of medium avoids the presence of extraneous substances that may affect cell proliferation or unwanted activation of cells.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Receptors, Death Domain: A family of cell surface receptors that signal via a conserved domain that extends into the cell CYTOPLASM. The conserved domain is referred to as a death domain due to the fact that many of these receptors are involved in signaling APOPTOSIS. Several DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS can bind to the death domains of the activated receptors and through a complex series of interactions activate apoptotic mediators such as CASPASES.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cytoprotection: The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Genes, p53: Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.Autophagy: The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Transcription Factor CHOP: A CCAAT-enhancer binding protein that is induced by DNA DAMAGE and growth arrest. It serves as a dominant negative inhibitor of other CCAAT-enhancer binding proteins.Phosphatidylserines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Cycloheximide: Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Mice, Inbred BALB CCell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Gamma Rays: Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Protein Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.MAP Kinase Kinase 4: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and the RETINOID X RECEPTORS. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to cellular stress.K562 Cells: An ERYTHROLEUKEMIA cell line derived from a CHRONIC MYELOID LEUKEMIA patient in BLAST CRISIS.Acetylcysteine: The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.HCT116 Cells: Human COLORECTAL CARCINOMA cell line.Cell Cycle Checkpoints: Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Oligonucleotides, Antisense: Short fragments of DNA or RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesNeurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress: Various physiological or molecular disturbances that impair ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM function. It triggers many responses, including UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE, which may lead to APOPTOSIS; and AUTOPHAGY.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Tetrazolium Salts: Quaternary salts derived from tetrazoles. They are used in tests to distinguish between reducing sugars and simple aldehydes, for detection of dehydrogenase in tissues, cells, and bacteria, for determination of corticosteroids, and in color photography. (From Mall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed, p455)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Antibiotics, Antineoplastic: Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.G1 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Cyclins: A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.Flavonoids: A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.G2 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 8: A c-jun amino-terminal kinase that is activated by environmental stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Several isoforms of the protein with molecular sizes of 43 and 48 KD exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.HT29 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells such as the GOBLET CELLS.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype that has specificity for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR ALPHA and LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA. It is constitutively expressed in most tissues and is a key mediator of tumor necrosis factor signaling in the vast majority of cells. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit cell production of DNA or RNA.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Caspase 10: A long pro-domain caspase that contains a death effector domain in its pro-domain region. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its N-terminal death effector domain with DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. Caspase 10 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES. Several isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Oxides: Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.ChromonesMorpholinesProteasome Endopeptidase Complex: A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.E2F1 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Immunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Sphingomyelin Phosphodiesterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin to ceramide (N-acylsphingosine) plus choline phosphate. A defect in this enzyme leads to NIEMANN-PICK DISEASE. EC 3.1.4.12.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Oxidants: Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Cell Growth Processes: Processes required for CELL ENLARGEMENT and CELL PROLIFERATION.Pyrazines
Apoptosis (type I)[edit]. Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death in multicellular organisms. It is one of the main types ... Intrinsic apoptotic pathways: Result from mitochondrial release of cytochrome c or endoplasmic reticulum malfunctions, each ... It is still unclear exactly what combination of apoptosis, non-apoptosis, and necrosis causes different kinds of aponecrosis.[3 ... The most common form of cell death in neurodegeneration is through the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. This pathway ...
Central (intrinsic)[edit]. In contrast to the peripheral response, the axotomy response in central neurons (neurons in the ... 1994) Apoptosis in adult retinal ganglion cells after axotomy. J Neurobiol 25: 431-438. PMID 8077968 DOI: 10.1002/neu.480250408 ... and is a term used to characterize apoptosis of neuronal cells. During chromatolysis, the soma and nucleus round and enlarge, ... Central Nervous System) almost always leads to cell death.[5] The mode of cell death is often apoptosis.[6] Central neurons, ...
Examples of caspase cascade during apoptosis:. *Intrinsic apoptopic pathway: During times of cellular stress, mitochondrial ... Apoptosis[edit]. Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death where the cell undergoes morphological changes, to minimize its ... The Mechanisms of Apoptosis Kimball's Biology Pages. Simple explanation of the mechanisms of apoptosis triggered by internal ... "Death fold domain interaction in apoptosis". doi:10.1038/sj.cdd.4401203.. *^ "Caspase function in programmed cell death". doi: ...
Apoptosis[edit]. Initiator caspases are activated by intrinsic and extrinsic apoptopic pathways. This leads to the activation ... Examples of caspase cascade during apoptosis: *Intrinsic apoptopic pathway: During times of cellular stress, mitochondrial ... In animals apoptosis is induced by caspases and in fungi and plants, apoptosis is induced by arginine and lysine-specific ... The Mechanisms of Apoptosis Kimball's Biology Pages. Simple explanation of the mechanisms of apoptosis triggered by internal ...
... see also intrinsic and extrinsic inducers of the apoptosis). This molecule suppressed growth of human leukemia in a mouse ... Apoptosis Beta-peptide Cancer Clicked peptide polymer Expanded genetic code Foldamers Non-proteinogenic amino acids Pelay ... September 2004). "Activation of apoptosis in vivo by a hydrocarbon-stapled BH3 helix". Science. 305 (5689): 1466-70. Bibcode: ... by inducing programmed cell death by a process called apoptosis. The following two examples mimic proteins involved in key ...
... can be initiated through one of two pathways. In the intrinsic pathway the cell kills itself because it senses cell ... Apoptosis MiniCOPE Dictionary-list of apoptosis terms and acronyms. *Apoptosis (Programmed Cell Death) - The Virtual Library of ... Hyperactive apoptosis[edit]. On the other hand, loss of control of cell death (resulting in excess apoptosis) can lead to ... Apoptosis Interest Group (1999). "About apoptosis". Archived from the original on 28 December 2006. Retrieved 2006-12-15.. ...
P53's normal function is to regulate genes that control apoptosis. As survivin is a known inhibitor of apoptosis, it can be ... 2. Intrinsic Pathway: This pathway is initiated by intracellular or environmental stimuli. It is focused on detecting the ... Apoptosis, the process of programmed cell death, involves complex signaling pathways and cascades of molecular events. This ... In adult organisms, apoptosis is needed to maintain differentiated tissue by striking the balance between proliferation and ...
The induction of apoptosis results in necrotizing fasciitis. Todar's Online Textbook of Bacteriology Streptococcal Pyrogenic ... Evidence suggests that this may take place through extrinsic and intrinsic caspase pathways. The receptor-binding pathway and ... Streptococcal cysteine proteinase has roles in immune evasion and apoptosis, as well as potential influence on bacterial ... The toxin also induces apoptosis in host cells after GAS internalization. ...
Human growth and transformation-dependent protein (HGTD-P) is involved in intrinsic apoptosis. Apoptosis, an ancient Greek word ... This protein promotes intrinsic apoptosis in response to hypoxia via interactions with hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). As ... During apoptosis the cell decrease in size, loose contact with neighboring cells, and loose specialized surface elements such ... Apoptosis occurs in many physiological and pathological processes. It plays an important role during embryonal development as ...
Yee C, Yang W, Hekimi S (2014). "The Intrinsic Apoptosis Pathway Mediates the Pro-Longevity Response to Mitochondrial ROS in C ... recently observed increased longevity mediated by mtROS signaling in an apoptosis pathway. This serves to support the ... mediated apoptosis. In addition, they suggest mitochondrial superoxide anion plays an essential part in aging. Lund et al. ... free radicals and some reactive nitrogen species trigger and increase cell death mechanisms within the body such as apoptosis ...
The family plays a key role in apoptosis regulation in the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. ASPP1 and ASPP2 promote ... Apoptosis-stimulating of p53 protein 2 (ASPP2) also known as Bcl2-binding protein (Bbp) and tumor suppressor p53-binding ... ASPP2 induces apoptosis but no cell cycle arrest. ASPP2 contains several structural and functional domains. Its N-terminus ( ... ASPP2 plays a central role in regulation of apoptosis and cell growth via its interactions. ASPP2 regulates TP53 by enhancing ...
de 2009). «Identification of a novel cyclin required for the intrinsic apoptosis pathway in lymphoid cells». Cell Death Differ. ... Esquema de las rutas de transducción de señales implicadas en el proceso de apoptosis. ... Cleavage of p21Cip1/Waf1 and p27Kip1 mediates apoptosis in endothelial cells through activation of Cdk2: role of a caspase ...
Sulfhydryl modification of PLSCR3 in mitochondria during apoptosis may be a key regulator initiating the intrinsic apoptotic ... Apoptotic cell death is characterized by a proteolytic caspase cascade that emanates from either an extrinsic or an intrinsic ... An early morphological event in both the extrinsic and the intrinsic apoptotic pathways is the surface exposure of the ... hPLSCR1 and its mitochondrial counterpart hPLSCR3 are phosphorylated by PKCδ during PKC-δ-induced apoptosis. While the ...
The two types of apoptosis, extrinsic and intrinsic, are tightly regulated by the interplay of activating and inhibitory ... The interactions between the four different death fold motifs are a unifying mechanism in both types of apoptosis. There is a ... DD proteins function in apoptosis and NF-κB signaling in mammals, but only NF-κB signaling Drosophila. Death effector domain ( ... DED-containing caspases function in death receptor-induced apoptosis in mammals, but differ in insects where they are involved ...
"Therapeutic Small Molecules Target Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins in Cancers with Deregulation of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Cell ... Park HH, Lo YC, Lin SC, Wang L, Yang JK, Wu H (2007). "The death domain superfamily in intracellular signaling of apoptosis and ... The DD mediates self-association of these receptors, thus giving the signal to downstream events that lead to apoptosis. Other ... Reed JC, Doctor KS, Godzik A (June 2004). "The domains of apoptosis: a genomics perspective". Sci. STKE. 2004 (239): re9. doi: ...
DNA damage may trigger signalling pathways, such as apoptosis, that contribute to depletion of stem cell stocks. This has been ... undergo intrinsic aging. They speculated that stem cells grow old, in part, as a result of DNA damage. ... Mandavilli BS, Rao KS (1996). "Accumulation of DNA damage in aging neurons occurs through a mechanism other than apoptosis". J ... Nuclear DNA damage can contribute to aging either indirectly (by increasing apoptosis or cellular senescence) or directly (by ...
"Proline oxidase activates both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways for apoptosis: the role of ROS/superoxides, NFAT and MEK/ERK ... Polyak K, Xia Y, Zweier JL, Kinzler KW, Vogelstein B (Sep 1997). "A model for p53-induced apoptosis". Nature. 389 (6648): 300-5 ... Maxwell SA, Rivera A (Mar 2003). "Proline oxidase induces apoptosis in tumor cells, and its expression is frequently absent or ... Rivera A, Maxwell SA (Aug 2005). "The p53-induced gene-6 (proline oxidase) mediates apoptosis through a calcineurin-dependent ...
... S function in apoptosis has been proposed but the mechanisms remain elusive and results are hard to reconcile. According ... Single study describing JADE1S intrinsic ubiquitin-ligase activity and ubiquitination of beta-catenin has been reported in year ... JADE3 is identical to E9 protein identified in an earlier independent study which suggested role in apoptosis for PHF16/JADE3/ ... A small family of proteins named Gene for Apoptosis and Differentiation (JADE) includes three members encoded by individual ...
G. Ambrosini u. a.: A novel anti-apoptosis gene, survivin, expressed in cancer and lymphoma. In: Nature Medicine. Bd. 8, 1997, ... M. Guha und D. C. Altieri: Survivin as a global target of intrinsic tumor suppression networks. In: Cell Cycle 8, 2009, S. 2708 ... H. Marusawa u. a.: HBXIP functions as a cofactor of survivin in apoptosis suppression. In: Embo J. 22, 2003, S. 2729-2740, PMID ... A. C. Mita u. a.: Survivin: key regulator of mitosis and apoptosis and novel target for cancer therapeutics. In: Clin Cancer ...
"The role of the intrinsic FAS pathway in Titanocene Y apoptosis: The mechanism of overcoming multiple drug resistance in ... "Novel titanocene anti-cancer drugs and their effect on apoptosis and the apoptotic pathway in prostate cancer cells". Apoptosis ... Additionally, Titanocene Y is able to induce apoptosis via the FAS receptor pathway. Very encouraging is the fact that ... Titanocene Y is a cytotoxic apoptosis-inducing and anti-angiogenic drug candidate targeting renal-cell cancer and other solid ...
TRADD Intrinsic apoptosis GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000168040 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... Binding of TRAIL to death receptors four and five (DR4 and DR5) can lead to apoptosis by the same mechanism. Apoptosis can also ... As FADD has such an important role in apoptosis, loss of FADD can give cancer cells a proliferative advantage as apoptosis ... during apoptosis. As well as its most well known role in apoptosis, FADD has also been seen to play a role in other processes ...
In apoptosis, extrinsic signaling via cell surface receptors or intrinsic signaling by release of cytochrome c from ... Unlike in apoptosis, necrosis and necroptosis do not involve caspase activation. Necrotic cell death culminates in leakage of ... The discovery of necroptosis showed that cells can execute necrosis in a programmed fashion and that apoptosis is not always ... Necroptosis also acts as an alternative "fail-safe" cell death pathway in cases where cells are unable to undergo apoptosis, ...
The apoptosome triggers the activation of caspases in the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. The wheel-shaped heptameric complex ... And secondly, to raise the threshold for apoptosis, therefore nonspecific leakage of cytochrome c would not result in apoptosis ... while the intrinsic pathway take place in the mitochondria. This intrinsic pathway involves the release of cytochrome C from ... The inhibition of apoptosis is one of the key features of cancer so finding ways to manipulate and overcome this inhibition to ...
Socolovsky M, Fallon AE, Wang S, Brugnara C, Lodish HF (Jul 1999). "Fetal anemia and apoptosis of red cell progenitors in ... EpoR does not possess intrinsic kinase activity and depends on Jak2 activity). At present, the most well-established function ... of EpoR is to promote proliferation and rescue of erythroid (red blood cell) progenitors from apoptosis. The cytoplasmic ...
... is another important finding and is in line with its apoptosis-inducing properties. Indeed, if apoptosis is an intrinsic ...
Cell-intrinsic transforming growth factor-beta signaling mediates virus-specific CD8+ T cell deletion and viral persistence in ... Alpha-lactose reverses liver injury via blockade of Tim-3-mediated CD8 apoptosis in sepsis. Clinical Immunology. July 2018, 192 ...
Apoptosis is a programmed form of cell death involving the degradation of cellular constituents by a group of cysteine ... The intrinsic apoptotic pathway is characterized by permeabilisation of the mitochondria and release of cytochrome c into the ... Taylor, R.C., Cullen, S.P., and Martin, S.J. (2008). Apoptosis: controlled demolition at the cellular level. Nat Rev Mol Cell ... The caspases can be activated through either the intrinsic (mitochondrial mediated) or extrinsic (death receptor mediated) ...
... Hoda Hassan ... The role of apoptosis-associated speck-Like protein (ASC) in the assembly of the inflammasome complex within macrophages has ...
... Hoda Hassan ... The role of apoptosis-associated speck-Like protein (ASC) in the assembly of the inflammasome complex within macrophages has ... The apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain ASC is an adaptor molecule consisting of an ... Specifically, it was found that caspase-3, which is involved in apoptosis, was activated in WT macrophages but not in ASC−/− ...
We investigated the impact of survivin expression on tumor cell apoptosis in three colorectal cell lines of different intrinsic ... Spontaneous and radiation-induced apoptosis in colorectal carcinoma cells with different intrinsic radiosensitivities: survivin ... Spontaneous apoptosis has been shown to predict tumor response to radiochemotherapy in rectal cancer in vivo. It remains to be ... The expression profile was then correlated to spontaneous and radiation-induced apoptosis (Tunel-Assay, DAPI-staining) in three ...
... which involved the activation of both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways. Remarkably, immunostaining of spleen ... Overall, our results suggested that the unusual capacity of MERS-CoV to infect T cells and induce apoptosis might partly ... Discovery of T-Cell Infection and Apoptosis by Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus. [J Infect Dis. 2016] ... Syndrome Coronavirus Efficiently Infects Human Primary T Lymphocytes and Activates the Extrinsic and Intrinsic Apoptosis ...
There are two distinct apoptosis signaling pathways: Intrinsic and extrinsic pathways (35). For the intrinsic apoptosis ... Chrysin induces cell apoptosis in human uveal melanoma cells via intrinsic apoptosis. *Authors: *Chunyan Xue ... Chrysin induces cell apoptosis in human uveal melanoma cells via intrinsic apoptosis. Oncology Letters 12, no. 6 (2016): 4813- ... Chrysin induces cell apoptosis in human uveal melanoma cells via intrinsic apoptosis. Oncology Letters 12.6 (2016): 4813-4820. ...
... with Western blot indicating that MSP-4 induced this apoptosis through an intrinsic pathway and an extrinsic pathway. Thus, a ... The goal of this study is to determine the workings of the mechanism associated with apoptosis resulting from MSP-4 in ... These observations indicate that low concentrations of MSP-4 can help induce the apoptosis of MG63 through a Fas/FasL- and ... The study showed that MSP-4 significantly induced apoptosis in MG63 cells, ...
BPB-mediated apoptosis was assessed by the MTT assay and flow cytometry analysis. The in vivo efficacy was examined in a JJ012 ... Here we found that BPB induced apoptosis in human chondrosarcoma cell lines (JJ012 and SW1353) but not in primary chondrocytes ... Induces Cell Apoptosis in Human Chondrosarcoma through Intrinsic and Extrinsic Pathways. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 16472- ... Induces Cell Apoptosis in Human Chondrosarcoma through Intrinsic and Extrinsic Pathways. International Journal of Molecular ...
HCT116 cell proliferation through suppressing the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway and activating the mitochondrial apoptosis ... Artesunate Activates the Intrinsic Apoptosis of HCT116 Cells through the Suppression of Fatty Acid Synthesis and the NF-κB ... Dietrich, J.B. Apoptosis and anti-apoptosis genes in the Bcl-2 family. Arch. Physiol. Biochem. 1997, 105, 125-135. [Google ... named apoptosis inducing factor, is involved in initiating a caspase-independent pathway of apoptosis [51]; and cleaved PARP ...
Cell-Intrinsic Determinants of Ibrutinib-Induced Apoptosis in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia. Nisar A. Amin, Sriram ... Cell-Intrinsic Determinants of Ibrutinib-Induced Apoptosis in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia. Nisar A. Amin, Sriram ... Cell-Intrinsic Determinants of Ibrutinib-Induced Apoptosis in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia. Nisar A. Amin, Sriram ... Cell-Intrinsic Determinants of Ibrutinib-Induced Apoptosis in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Message Subject (Your Name) has ...
Inhibition of neurotensin receptor 1 induces intrinsic apoptosis via let-7a-3p/Bcl-w axis in glioblastoma.. [Zhen Dong, Qian ... NTSR1 had an important role in protecting glioblastoma from intrinsic apoptosis via c-Myc/LIN28/let-7a-3p/Bcl-w axis. ... SR48692 induced massive apoptosis, which was related to mitochondrial cytochrome c release and MMP loss. Knockdown of NTSR1 ... Apoptosis antibody array and microRNA microarray were performed to seek the potential regulators of NTSR1 inhibition-induced ...
Citrinin-generated reactive oxygen species cause cell cycle arrest leading to apoptosis via the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway ... and apoptosis. These data confirm the involvement of ROS in apoptosis and suggest that these bio-antioxidants may be useful in ... and apoptosis in mouse skin. A single topical application of CTN caused significant change in oxidative stress markers, such as ... along with the induction of apoptosis (3.6-27%); (3) expression of p53, p21/waf1; (4) Bax/Bcl₂ ratio and cytochome c release; ...
... while it induces apoptosis of CEM-C1 cells through the intrinsic, as well as through caspase-independent death pathways. Our ... In studying mediators of apoptosis we found that the TRAIL receptor DR5 is constitutively expressed in glucocorticoid-sensitive ... Importantly, SAHA-induced apoptosis of CEM-C7 cells operates through initiator caspase 10, ... cells which showed a similar activity of MS275 and SAHA in growth inhibition and apoptosis induction, both B and T-ALL cells ...
... ... These results suggest that muscle cells enters apoptosis via the intrinsic pathway rapidly when available oxygen in the muscle ... In this study, we used primary bovine skeletal muscle cells, cultured in monolayers in vitro, to investigate if apoptosis is ... Recent reports have suggested programmed cell death (apoptosis) to be important in the very early period of converting muscle ...
Primary bovine skeletal muscle cells enters apoptosis rapidly via the intrinsic pathway when available oxygen is removed. ... Primary bovine skeletal muscle cells enters apoptosis rapidly via the intrinsic pathway when available oxygen is removed ... Primary bovine skeletal muscle cells enters apoptosis rapidly via the intrinsic pathway when available oxygen is removed ... In this study, we used primary bovine skeletal muscle cells, cultured in monolayers in vitro, to investigate if apoptosis is ...
Folate acid-Cyclodextrin/Docetaxel induces apoptosis in KB cellsviathe intrinsic mitochondrial pathway and displays antitumor ... We concluded that the DTX/FA-DTX inclusion complex induced the intrinsic mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis to cause cell death. ... DTX/FA-CD induced reactive oxygen species-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis in KB cells. DTX/FA-CD led to apoptosis accompanied ... folate receptors of tumor cells and showed that these complexes inhibited cancer cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis. Here ...
Purpose: To assess the role of Apollon in melanoma resistance to intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis and to identify ... Role of Apollon in Human Melanoma Resistance to Antitumor Agents That Activate the Intrinsic or the Extrinsic Apoptosis ... Role of Apollon in Human Melanoma Resistance to Antitumor Agents That Activate the Intrinsic or the Extrinsic Apoptosis ... Role of Apollon in Human Melanoma Resistance to Antitumor Agents That Activate the Intrinsic or the Extrinsic Apoptosis ...
We show that BAP1 inactivation causes apoptosis in mouse embryonic stem cells, fibroblasts, liver, and pancreatic tissue but ... Ubiquitin ligase RNF2, which silences genes by monoubiquitinating H2A, promoted apoptosis in BAP1-deficient cells by ... Intrinsic apoptosis shapes the tumor spectrum linked to inactivation of the deubiquitinase BAP1. Abstract. Malignancies arising ... Intrinsic apoptosis shapes the tumor spectrum linked to inactivation of the deubiquitinase BAP1 ...
The apoptosis was characterized by cell staining with Annexin V/FITC and propidium iodide and the apoptosis-associated gene ... intrinsic pathway). The T lymphocytes apoptosis could reflect a strategy of immune evasion triggered by the parasite, enabling ... The results of the present study suggest that P. vivax infection induces apoptosis of CD4+ T cells mediated by two types of ... In the present study, the occurrence of apoptosis and its pathways in CD4+ T cells was investigated in naturally Plasmodium ...
... l-cysteine induces lipid peroxidation-associated apoptosis via the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways in a first- ... DCVC activated both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways via tBID cross talk.DCVC stimulated differential intrinsic and ... We exposed the cells in vitro to 10-100 μM DCVC for various time points up to 24 h. Following exposure, we measured apoptosis ... Because elevated apoptosis and lipid peroxidation in placenta have been observed in pregnancy morbidities involving poor ...
... is physically associated with mitochondria to drive cell apoptosis. ... The intrinsic apoptosis pathway, which involves conserved signaling proteins, ... Process and Regulation of Intrinsic Apoptosis Pathway The intrinsic apoptosis pathway induces apoptosis by directly activating ... Overview of Intrinsic Apoptosis Pathway The intrinsic apoptosis pathway is initiated by, for example, chemotherapy and/or ...
Angelica polymorpha Maxim Induces Apoptosis of Human SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells by Regulating an Intrinsic Caspase Pathway - ... Angelica polymorpha;apoptosis;Bax/Bcl-2 ratio;caspase;neuroblastoma; ... So we predicted that with APRE, the intrinsic pathway was solely responsible for inducing apoptosis as we also showed that the ... Angelica polymorpha Maxim Induces Apoptosis of Human SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells by Regulating an Intrinsic Caspase Pathway. ...
The bacterial exotoxin AIP56 induces fish macrophage and neutrophil apoptosis using mechanisms of the extrinsic and intrinsic ... The focus of the present study was to further characterize the AIP56-induced apoptosis of sea bass professional phagocytes by ... laboratory suggest that both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic athways are involved in the AIP56-induced hagocyte apoptosis ... piscicida is a key pathogenicity factor and is responsible for the extensive systemic apoptosis of macrophages and neutrophils ...
N2 - Intrinsic apoptosis involves BH3-only protein activation of Bax/Bak-mediated mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization ... AB - Intrinsic apoptosis involves BH3-only protein activation of Bax/Bak-mediated mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization ... Intrinsic apoptosis involves BH3-only protein activation of Bax/Bak-mediated mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization ( ... abstract = "Intrinsic apoptosis involves BH3-only protein activation of Bax/Bak-mediated mitochondrial outer membrane ...
The intrinsic (Bcl-2 inhibitable or mitochondrial) pathway of apoptosis functions in response to various types of intracellular ... The key players in the Intrinsic pathway are the Bcl-2 family of proteins that are critical death regulators residing ... Intrinsic Pathway for Apoptosis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Intrinsic Pathway for Apoptosis (Bos taurus) ... Intrinsic Pathway for Apoptosis (Caenorhabditis elegans) Intrinsic Pathway for Apoptosis (Canis familiaris) ...
  • In vitro analysis revealed higher spontaneous and higher radiation-induced apoptosis rates in the radiosensitive line (SW 48), as compared with the more resistant line (SW 480). (nih.gov)
  • Consistent with this assumption, expression of a dominant negative form of Nur77 with no DNA binding activity delays TCR-induced apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo ( 2 , 4 , 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Overexpression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 inhibited HDACi-induced apoptosis in vitro , indicating an important role for the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in the tumoricidal action of HDACi ( 4 , 7 , 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • The aim of the present study was to understand the mechanism of apoptosis in an elastase-induced aneurysm model in rabbits. (elsevier.com)
  • however, the mechanisms of apoptosis during malaria, particularly during P. vivax infection, is not fully elucidated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Because the balance of prosurvival and proapoptosis signals determines the fate of neutrophils, we investigated the impact of RvE1 on neutrophil apoptosis and the outcome of neutrophil-mediated pulmonary inflammation in mice. (pnas.org)
  • In mice, RvE1 treatment enhanced the resolution of established neutrophil-mediated pulmonary injury evoked by intratracheal instillation or i.p. administration of live E. coli or intratracheal instillation of carrageenan plus myeloperoxidase via facilitating neutrophil apoptosis and their removal by macrophages. (pnas.org)
  • These results identify a mechanism, promotion of phagocytosis-induced neutrophil apoptosis and mitigation of potent anti-apoptosis signals, by which RvE1 could enhance resolution of acute lung inflammation. (pnas.org)
  • Neutrophil apoptosis has emerged as a critical control point in resolving inflammation. (pnas.org)
  • Recent studies using a variety of gene knockout, transgenic, and pharmacological strategies in diverse models of inflammation, including acute lung injury (ALI) and sepsis showed that modulating neutrophil apoptosis can profoundly affect the outcome of inflammation. (pnas.org)
  • For instance, delaying neutrophil apoptosis by myeloperoxidase (MPO) prolonged lung injury ( 6 ), whereas cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor drugs ( 7 , 8 ) or aspirin-triggered 15-epi-LXA 4 ( 9 ) augmented neutrophil apoptosis parallel with enhancing resolution. (pnas.org)
  • Suppressed neutrophil apoptosis appears to be a component of the pathophysiology in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome ( 10 ) and sepsis ( 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • Apoptosis: controlled demolition at the cellular level. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to necrosis , which is a form of traumatic cell death that results from acute cellular injury, apoptosis is a highly regulated and controlled process that confers advantages during an organism's lifecycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is an important physiological process for the development and the maintenance of tissue homeostasis, ensuring a balance between cellular proliferation and turnover in nearly all tissue types. (ersjournals.com)
  • Numerous death stimuli can trigger apoptosis, and even several species of microbial pathogens were shown in recent years to activate and modulate components of the cellular death machinery ( Gao and Kwaik, 2000 ). (rupress.org)
  • As such, control or modulation of apoptotic processes is favorable to picornaviruses, and this minireview will specifically focus on the modifications of cellular processes by picornaviruses that lead to downregulation of apoptosis. (asm.org)
  • Spontaneous apoptosis has been shown to predict tumor response to radiochemotherapy in rectal cancer in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • We exposed these samples to 0.25 to 5 μmol/L of ibrutinib ex vivo and measured apoptosis fractions as well as BCR signaling by immunoblotting. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our findings suggest that DCVC-induced apoptosis and lipid peroxidation in extravillous trophoblasts could contribute to poor placentation if similar effects occur in vivo in response to TCE exposure, indicating that further studies into this mechanism are warranted. (ovid.com)
  • In vivo detection of drug-induced apoptosis in tumors using Raman spectroscopy. (harvard.edu)
  • Consistently, NTSR1 inhibition-induced mitochondrial apoptosis was accompanied by downregulation of Bcl-w and Bcl-2. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Here we found that serum deprivation increased caspase-dependent apoptosis through miRNA-101-3p downregulation, without altering expression of its host gene RNA 3′-terminal phosphate cyclase-like 1, which was highly correlated with suppressed expression levels of Dicer and Argonaute 2 (Ago2), indicating that miR-101-3p is post-transcriptionally elevated in serum-deprived conditions. (nature.com)
  • The focus of this commentary is to consider the role of the mitochondrion in cell death processes, to highlight fundamental similarities and differences in the regulation of cell death that exist across phylogenetically diverse groups, and to evaluate recent information that indicates `putting the brakes' on apoptosis is a critical event for cell survival during energy-limited states. (biologists.org)
  • Estrogen regulation of apoptosis: how can one hormone stimulate and inhibit? (biomedcentral.com)
  • 27098698 ). In addition to its role in apoptosis, may regulate trophoblast cell proliferation during the early stages of placental development, by acting on G1/S transition through regulation of CCNE1 expression.May also play a role as an inducer of autophagy by disrupting interaction between MCL1 and BECN1 (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
  • LincRNA-p21 participates in TP53-dependent transcriptional repression leading to apoptosis and seem to have to effect on cell-cycle regulation. (uniprot.org)
  • The expression profile was then correlated to spontaneous and radiation-induced apoptosis (Tunel-Assay, DAPI-staining) in three colorectal cell lines of low (SW 480), intermediate (HCT-15), and high radiosensitivity (SW 48), as determined by the colony-forming assay. (nih.gov)
  • Cell apoptosis was determined by using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end‑labeling assay. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Taken together, linc-UFC1 might have a critical role in pro-proliferation and anti-apoptosis in CRC by regulating the cell cycle, intrinsic apoptosis, and β -catenin and P38 signaling. (nature.com)
  • Eμ-myc lymphomas overexpressing Bcl-2 or Bcl-X L were resistant to vorinostat-induced apoptosis but still underwent a block in cell cycle progression at the G 1 /S transition. (pnas.org)