Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic: Techniques for standardizing and expediting taxonomic identification or classification of organisms that are based on deciphering the sequence of one or a few regions of DNA known as the "DNA barcode".Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Ericaceae: The heath plant family of the order Ericales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida that are generally shrubs or small trees. Leaves are alternate, simple, and leathery; flowers are symmetrical with a 4- or 5-parted corolla of partly fused petals.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Agonistic Behavior: Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.Genetic Speciation: The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Animal Communication: Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique: Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Feathers: Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.Atlantic Islands: Widely scattered islands in the Atlantic Ocean as far north as the AZORES and as far south as the South Sandwich Islands, with the greatest concentration found in the CARIBBEAN REGION. They include Annobon Island, Ascension, Canary Islands, Falkland Islands, Fernando Po (also called Isla de Bioko and Bioko), Gough Island, Madeira, Sao Tome and Principe, Saint Helena, and Tristan da Cunha.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Reproductive Isolation: Mechanisms that prevent different populations from exchanging genes (GENE FLOW), resulting in or maintaining GENETIC SPECIATION. It can either prevent mating to take place or ensure that any offspring produced is either inviable or sterile, thereby preventing further REPRODUCTION.Butterflies: Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Cannibalism: Eating other individuals of one's own species.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Potentilla: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE. Members contain procyanidins and TANNINS.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Viola: A plant genus of the family VIOLACEAE. Some species in this genus are called bouncing bet which is a common name more often used with SAPONARIA OFFICINALIS. Members contain macrocyclic peptides.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Tetranychidae: Family of spider MITES, in the superfamily Tetranychoidea, suborder Trombidiformes.Dinosaurs: General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.Cytochromes b: Cytochromes of the b group that have alpha-band absorption of 563-564 nm. They occur as subunits in MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Wasps: Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Apiaceae: A large plant family in the order Apiales, also known as Umbelliferae. Most are aromatic herbs with alternate, feather-divided leaves that are sheathed at the base. The flowers often form a conspicuous flat-topped umbel. Each small individual flower is usually bisexual, with five sepals, five petals, and an enlarged disk at the base of the style. The fruits are ridged and are composed of two parts that split open at maturity.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Desert Climate: A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.DNA, Chloroplast: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Pigmentation: Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.Fundulidae: Family of small, surface-dwelling fish that inhabit fresh and brackish waters, and coastal marine areas.Asclepias: A plant genus of the family ASCLEPIADACEAE. This is the true milkweed; APOCYNUM & EUPHORBIA hirta are rarely called milkweed. Asclepias asthmatica has been changed to TYLOPHORA.Ferns: Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).Animal Distribution: A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.Amaranthaceae: A family of flowering plants in the order Caryophyllales, with about 60 genera and more than 800 species of plants, with a few shrubs, trees, and vines. The leaves usually have nonindented edges.Population Growth: Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Electron Transport Complex IV: A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.Cedrela: A plant genus of the family MELIACEAE. Members contain cedrelanolide.DNA, Intergenic: Any of the DNA in between gene-coding DNA, including untranslated regions, 5' and 3' flanking regions, INTRONS, non-functional pseudogenes, and non-functional repetitive sequences. This DNA may or may not encode regulatory functions.South AmericaAmplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis: The detection of RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS by selective PCR amplification of restriction fragments derived from genomic DNA followed by electrophoretic analysis of the amplified restriction fragments.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Elymus: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The common name of wild rye is used with some other grasses.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Smegmamorpha: Group of fish under the superorder Acanthopterygii, separate from the PERCIFORMES, which includes swamp eels, mullets, sticklebacks, seahorses, spiny eels, rainbowfishes, and KILLIFISHES. The name is derived from the six taxa which comprise the group. (From http://www.nanfa.org/articles/Elassoma/elassoma.htm, 8/4/2000)Zooplankton: Minute free-floating animal organisms which live in practically all natural waters.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Gastropoda: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SNAILS and slugs. The former have coiled external shells and the latter usually lack shells.PanamaAdaptation, Biological: Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.Primulaceae: A plant family of the order Primulales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. The flowers have both stamens and pistil, and the fruits are capsules.Hominidae: Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).Rumex: A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE that contains patientosides and other naphthalene glycosides.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Gentianaceae: A plant family of the order Gentianales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Brassicaceae: A plant family of the order Capparales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are mostly herbaceous plants with peppery-flavored leaves, due to gluconapin (GLUCOSINOLATES) and its hydrolysis product butenylisotrhiocyanate. The family includes many plants of economic importance that have been extensively altered and domesticated by humans. Flowers have 4 petals. Podlike fruits contain a number of seeds. Cress is a general term used for many in the Brassicacea family. Rockcress is usually ARABIS; Bittercress is usually CARDAMINE; Yellowcress is usually RORIPPA; Pennycress is usually THLASPI; Watercress refers to NASTURTIUM; or RORIPPA or TROPAEOLUM; Gardencress refers to LEPIDIUM; Indiancress refers to TROPAEOLUM.Germ Cells, Plant: The reproductive cells of plants.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Raptors: BIRDS that hunt and kill other animals, especially higher vertebrates, for food. They include the FALCONIFORMES order, or diurnal birds of prey, comprised of EAGLES, falcons, HAWKS, and others, as well as the STRIGIFORMES order, or nocturnal birds of prey, which includes OWLS.Territoriality: Behavior in defense of an area against another individual or individuals primarily of the same species.Felidae: The cat family in the order CARNIVORA comprised of muscular, deep-chested terrestrial carnivores with a highly predatory lifestyle.Passeriformes: A widely distributed order of perching BIRDS, including more than half of all bird species.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.RNA, Ribosomal, 5.8S: Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5.8S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Courtship: Activities designed to attract the attention or favors of another.Perciformes: The most diversified of all fish orders and the largest vertebrate order. It includes many of the commonly known fish such as porgies, croakers, sunfishes, dolphin fish, mackerels, TUNA, etc.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Rosaceae: The rose plant family in the order ROSALES and class Magnoliopsida. They are generally woody plants. A number of the species of this family contain cyanogenic compounds.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Inheritance Patterns: The different ways GENES and their ALLELES interact during the transmission of genetic traits that effect the outcome of GENE EXPRESSION.DNA, Concatenated: Head to tail array of covalently joined DNA sequences generated by concatenation. Concatenated DNA is attached end to end in contrast to CATENATED DNA which is attached loop to loop.Mentha: Mentha is a genus of the mint family (LAMIACEAE). It is known for species having characteristic flavor and aroma.Nesting Behavior: Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.Cicer: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE known for the edible beans.Muridae: A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Genetic Drift: The fluctuation of the ALLELE FREQUENCY from one generation to the next.Receptors, Pheromone: Cell surface receptors that respond to PHEROMONES.Spiders: Arthropods of the class ARACHNIDA, order Araneae. Except for mites and ticks, spiders constitute the largest order of arachnids, with approximately 37,000 species having been described. The majority of spiders are harmless, although some species can be regarded as moderately harmful since their bites can lead to quite severe local symptoms. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p508; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, pp424-430)Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.LizardsBayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Oligohymenophorea: A class of ciliate protozoa. Characteristics include the presence of a well developed oral apparatus and oral cilia being clearly distinct from somatic cilia.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Islands: Tracts of land completely surrounded by water.Festuca: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The common name of fescue is also used with some other grasses.Trinidad and Tobago: An independent state in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies, north of Venezuela, comprising the islands of Trinidad and Tobago. Its capital is Port of Spain. Both islands were discovered by Columbus in 1498. The Spanish, English, Dutch, and French figure in their history over four centuries. Trinidad and Tobago united in 1898 and were made part of the British colony of Trinidad and Tobago in 1899. The colony became an independent state in 1962. Trinidad was so named by Columbus either because he arrived on Trinity Sunday or because three mountain peaks suggested the Holy Trinity. Tobago was given the name by Columbus from the Haitian tambaku, pipe, from the natives' habit of smoking tobacco leaves. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1228, 1216 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p555, 547)DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Sex Attractants: Pheromones that elicit sexual attraction or mating behavior usually in members of the opposite sex in the same species.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Pongo pygmaeus: A species of orangutan, family HOMINIDAE, found in the forests on the island of Borneo.Microbial Interactions: The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Central AmericaBiota: The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.Gryllidae: The family Gryllidae consists of the common house cricket, Acheta domesticus, which is used in neurological and physiological studies. Other genera include Gryllotalpa (mole cricket); Gryllus (field cricket); and Oecanthus (tree cricket).Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Basidiomycota: A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.RNA, Ribosomal, 28S: Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 28S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Hierarchy, Social: Social rank-order established by certain behavioral patterns.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Pollination: The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).Aphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Arvicolinae: A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Body Weights and Measures: Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.RNA, Ribosomal, 23S: Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Genes, Mitochondrial: Genes that are located on the MITOCHONDRIAL DNA. Mitochondrial inheritance is often referred to as maternal inheritance but should be differentiated from maternal inheritance that is transmitted chromosomally.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Pheromones: Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Basal Metabolism: Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Daphnia: A diverse genus of minute freshwater CRUSTACEA, of the suborder CLADOCERA. They are a major food source for both young and adult freshwater fish.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Genetic Loci: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.North AmericaAggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Vocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.Endangered Species: An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.Pan troglodytes: The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.Electrophoresis, Starch Gel: Electrophoresis in which a starch gel (a mixture of amylose and amylopectin) is used as the diffusion medium.Hymenoptera: An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.Ploidies: The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.Social Dominance: Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Likelihood Functions: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.DNA, Helminth: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of helminths.Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Anura: An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)EuropeDiploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Mycelium: The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.Nematoda: A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.Aquatic Organisms: Organisms that live in water.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Songbirds: PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Chiroptera: Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.Ostreidae: A family of marine mollusks in the class BIVALVIA, commonly known as oysters. They have a rough irregular shell closed by a single adductor muscle.ArgentinaSex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
Berryman, Alan (1997). "Intraspecific Competition". classes.entom.wsu.edu. Retrieved February 22, 2011. Rank, N. E.; Yturralde ... doi:10.1007/s10905-006-9051-2. Sharov, Alexei (1997). "11.1 Intra-specific Competition". ma.utexas.edu. Retrieved February 22, ... Some researchers have noted parallels between intraspecific behaviors of competition and cooperation. These two processes can ... "Intraspecific Competition and Social Systems". loki.stockton.edu. Retrieved February 22, 2011. ...
Intraspecific competition 6. Dispersal, dormancy and metapopulations 7. Ecological applications at the level of organisms and ...
IntraspecificEdit. Intraspecificity (literally within species), or being intraspecific, describes behaviors, biochemical ... Intraspecific mimicry. ConspecificEdit. Two or more individual organisms, populations, or taxa are conspecific if they belong ... Characteristics may further be described as being interspecific, intraspecific, and conspecific. InterspecificEdit. ... Intraspecific competition, when individuals or groups of individuals from the same species compete for the same resource in an ...
Intraspecific variation is clinal. Range, iris colour, wing markings and the female plumage assist in separating it from other ...
Defence and intraspecific combat. A few species are able to use chemical defences against predators; some Procellariiformes can ... A lack of field observations limit our knowledge, but intraspecific conflicts are known to sometimes result in injury or death. ... Signals can be interspecific (between species) and intraspecific (within species).. Birds sometimes use plumage to assess and ...
No intraspecific variation is evident. Though habitat degradation occurs locally, the species as a whole is not threatened. ...
Šrogl, M. (5 March 1965). "Intraspecific transformation in Bacillus subtilis". Folia Microbiologica. 11 (1): 39-42. Retrieved 6 ...
Rejmanek, M. (2002). "Intraspecific aggregation and species coexistence". Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 17: 209-210. doi: ... Rejmanek (2002) suggested that only 10 empirical studies examining intraspecific aggregation had been published by 2002. The ...
Van Arsdale, A. and Meyer, M.R. (2005). "Intraspecific variation in sexual dimorphism." American Journal of Physical ... Intraspecific_variation_in_sexual_dimorphism http://repository.upenn.edu/dissertations/AAI3165730/ https://www.researchgate.net ...
Variation, intraspecific Taxonomy and Selection. Israel Program for Scientific Translations (originally published 1964 in ...
Intraspecific competition accounts for the competition between individuals of a same species. When the population density is ... Intraspecific competition increases with density. One could expect that a population decrease (due to harvesting, for example) ... The host population is reduced at the moment of harvesting, and simultaneously, the intraspecific density effect is weakened. ... reduction of intraspecific density effect for the prey and reduction of the reproductive rate for the predator. The former ...
ISBN 978-1-4214-0135-5. (Trimeresurus stejnegeri chenbihuii, p. 53). Zhao, Er-mi (1995). "Intraspecific classification of some ... "Intraspecific Classification of Some Chinese Snakes". Asiatic Herpetological Research 7: 170-172.. ...
However, there is much intraspecific variation. An extraordinary example of external sperm transfer is given by the great grey ...
An isolated event of intraspecific predation in juvenile American white ibis has been observed, where a juvenile attacked and ... Frederick, P. C. (1985). "Intraspecific Food Piracy in White Ibis". Journal of Field Ornithology. 56 (4): 413-414. doi:10.2307/ ... Herring, Garth; Johnston, Mark D.; Call, Erynn M. (2005). "Intraspecific Predation in Juvenile White Ibis". Waterbirds. 28 (4 ...
"Intra-specific variation of Kudoa spp.(Myxosporea: Multivalvulida) from apogonid fishes (Perciformes), including the ...
"Intraspecific Competition in Petella cochlear Born". Journal of Animal Ecology. 44 (1): 263-281. doi:10.2307/3862. JSTOR 3862. ...
While not rare among large predators in general, intraspecific aggression is uncommon among otter species; Ribas and Mourão ... Aggression within the species ("intraspecific" conflict) has been documented. Defence against intruding animals appears to be ... Ribas, Carolina; Mourão, Guilherme (January 2005). "Intraspecific Agonism between Giant Otter Groups". IUCN Otter Specialist ...
Intraspecific Relations in Sable and Ermine. Pp. 45-54 in C. King, ed. Mustelids: Some Soviet research. Boston Spa: British ...
Intraspecific differentiation of Nepenthes vieillardii Hook.f. (Nepenthaceae) in New Caledonia. Ph.D. thesis, Kyoto University ... Intraspecific differentiation of Nepenthes vieillardii Hook. f. in New Caledonia. The relationship between floral morphology ...
When intraspecific competition is not at work disruptive selection can still lead to sympatric speciation and it does this ... In both situations, one where intraspecific competition is at work and the other where it is not, if all these factors are in ... It is important to keep in mind that disruptive selection does not always have to be based on intraspecific competition, so in ... Bolnick, D.I. (2004). "Can Intraspecific competition drive disruptive Selection? An experimental test in natural population of ...
doi:10.1007/s00436-013-3332-4. Heiniger; Cribb; Adlard (2013). "Intra-specific variation of Kudoa spp. (Myxosporea: ...
... this was probably used in intraspecific behaviour. In Doliosauriscus and Anteosaurus, not only was this boss very prominent, ...
Biofluorescence may assist intraspecific communication and camouflage. A. maculatus lives in the tropical waters of the Indo- ...
Moli, F.; Parmigiani (1982). "Intraspecific combat in the red wood ant". Aggressive Behavior. 8: 145-148. doi:10.1002/1098-2337 ...
Biofluorescence potentially assists intraspecific communication and camouflage. Like other stingrays, the yellow stingray is ...
Intraspecific antagonism is one of the expressions of a phenomenon known as vegetative or somatic incompatibility. Zone lines ... Intraspecific antagonism means a disharmonious or antagonistic interaction between two individuals of the same species. As such ... Although the attribution of individual status to the mycelia confined by intraspecific zone lines is a comparatively new idea, ... Rayner, A D M; Todd, N K (1977). "Intraspecific antagonism in natural populations of wood-decaying basidiomycetes". J. Gen. ...
Intraspecific breeding is sexual reproduction within a species. It can refer to: Selective breeding of plants or animals by ...
In this paper we first consider a two consumer-one resource model with one of the consumer species exhibits intraspecific ... Intraspecific interference and consumer-resource dynamics. Robert Stephen Cantrell 1, , Chris Cosner 1, and Shigui Ruan 2, ... Intraspecific interference and consumer-resource dynamics. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - B, 2004, 4 (3) : 527-546. ... In this paper we first consider a two consumer-one resource model with one of the consumer species exhibits intraspecific ...
AN ANALYSIS OF CERTAIN CASES OF INTRA-SPECIFIC STERILITY. Clara J. Lynch. Genetics November 1, 1919 vol. 4 no. 6 501-533 ...
The intraspecific diversification of montane species of South China is related to the uplift of the QTP since the Pliocene and ... Intraspecific phylogeny and geographical variation of six species of northeastern asiatic Sorex shrews based on the ... To evaluate the intraspecific phylogenetic relationships among the samples, individual gene trees were reconstructed based on ... Bandelt H-J, Forster P, Röhl A. Median-joining networks for inferring intraspecific phylogenies. Mol Biol Evol. 1999;16:37-48. ...
Patterns of Intraspecific DNA Variation in the Daphnia Nuclear Genome Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... Levels of synonymous intraspecific variation, πs, averaged 0.0136 for species in the Daphnia genus, and are slightly lower than ... Patterns of Intraspecific DNA Variation in the Daphnia Nuclear Genome. Angela R. Omilian and Michael Lynch ... Patterns of Intraspecific DNA Variation in the Daphnia Nuclear Genome. Angela R. Omilian and Michael Lynch ...
We characterized intraspecific variation in the skin microbiome of the salamander Ensatina eschscholtzii xanthoptica, a ...
intra-specific hybridization it is hybridization between different sub-species within a species. An example is mating a bengal ... Retrieved from "https://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/index.php?title=Intraspecific_hybridization&oldid=70656" ...
Intraspecific variation in population gene diversity and effective population size correlates with the mating system in plants. ... Intraspecific variation in population gene diversity and effective population size correlates with the mating system in plants. ... Intraspecific variation in population gene diversity and effective population size correlates with the mating system in plants. ... Intraspecific variation in population gene diversity and effective population size correlates with the mating system in plants. ...
Intraspecific kleptoparasitism improves chick growth and reproductive output in Common Terns Sterna hirundo. ... García, G. O., Becker, P. H., Favero, M. (2013), Intraspecific kleptoparasitism improves chick growth and reproductive output ...
Recognizing this intraspecific variability is important for biodiversity studies as failing to do so might artificially inflate ... More information: De Baets, K. et al., Intraspecific variability through ontogeny in early ammonoids. Paleobiology. www.bioone. ... Despite this large intraspecific variability, different species could still be separated using their entire ontogeny. ... Dr De Baetss study, published in Paleobiology, could quantitatively demonstrate a large intraspecific variability in ribbing ...
Dunlap, J.M.; Braatne, J.H.; Hinckley, T.M.; Stettler, R.F., 1993: Intraspecific variation in photosynthetic traits of Populus ...
Strong intraspecific variation in genetic diversity and genetic differentiation in Daphnia magna: the effects of population ... WALSER, B. and HAAG, C. R. (2012), Strong intraspecific variation in genetic diversity and genetic differentiation in Daphnia ...
dna barcoding low identification success high intraspecific variability systematic biology dna taxonomy pairwise distance ... DNA barcoding and taxonomy in Diptera: a tale of high intraspecific variability and low identification success. Systematic ... title = {DNA barcoding and taxonomy in Diptera: a tale of high intraspecific variability and low identification success. ...
P. HERNÁNDEZ3043 Intraspecific scaling of feeding mechanics performance in the African desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria). J ... Intraspecific scaling of feeding mechanics in an ontogenetic series of zebrafish, Danio rerio ... Intraspecific scaling of feeding mechanics in an ontogenetic series of zebrafish, Danio rerio ... Intraspecific scaling of feeding mechanics in an ontogenetic series of zebrafish, Danio rerio ...
High Intraspecific Genetic Diversity of Nocardia brasiliensis, a Pathogen Responsible for Cutaneous Nocardiosis Found in France ...
Interspecific and intraspecific views of color signals in the strawberry poison frog Dendrobates pumilio ... Interspecific and intraspecific views of color signals in the strawberry poison frog Dendrobates pumilio ... Interspecific and intraspecific views of color signals in the strawberry poison frog Dendrobates pumilio ... Interspecific and intraspecific views of color signals in the strawberry poison frog Dendrobates pumilio ...
The amount of intraspecific variation differs among the species sampled being high among xenarthran species and low among ... Timing of cranial suture closure in placental mammals: phylogenetic patterns, intraspecific variation, and comparison with ...
... female parasitoids foraging for hosts might experience intraspecific competition. We investigated the effects of host and ... We investigated the effects of host and parasitoid developmental stage and intraspecific competition among foraging females on ... female parasitoids foraging for hosts might experience intraspecific competition. ...
Intraspecific Phylogeny and Lineage Group Identification Based on the prfA Virulence Gene Cluster of Listeria monocytogenes†. ... Intraspecific Phylogeny and Lineage Group Identification Based on the prfA Virulence Gene Cluster of Listeria monocytogenes† ... Intraspecific Phylogeny and Lineage Group Identification Based on the prfA Virulence Gene Cluster of Listeria monocytogenes† ... Intraspecific Phylogeny and Lineage Group Identification Based on the prfA Virulence Gene Cluster of Listeria monocytogenes† ...
They found intraspecific variation in imprinting associated with variation in DNA methylation. The most interesting observation ... Intraspecific variation in this trait could potentially be linked to differences in the set of genes subject to imprinting in ... We investigated intraspecific variation in imprinting, coupled with analysis of DNA methylation and small RNAs, among three ... They found intraspecific variation in imprinting associated with variation in DNA methylation. The most interesting observation ...
Finally, we investigated intraspecific variations between urban and rural conspecifics of an urban tolerant species: Lasius ... Patterns of distribution, human-mediated dispersal and intraspecific variations in urbanized landscapes : how ants respond to ... Patterns of distribution, human-mediated dispersal and intraspecific variations in urbanized landscapes : how ants respond to ...
... and Intraspecific Relationships ofEnterobacter cloacae Strains. Maysa M. Clementino, Ivano de Filippis, Carlos R. Nascimento, ... and Intraspecific Relationships ofEnterobacter cloacae Strains ... and Intraspecific Relationships ofEnterobacter cloacae Strains ...
DEFENDASH - Implications of intraspecific genetic variation and drought stress for the interaction of European ash with two ... The objective of this project is to investigate how intraspecific genetic variation in F. excelsior as well as drought stress ... test how intraspecific genetic variation and EAB and ADB-caused stress as well as drought stress affect potential direct ... resistance traits in ash, and (iii) test how intraspecific genetic variability in ash and biotic and abiotic stressors, can ...
  • Here we assess whether plant-soil feedback effects differ between intraspecific plant populations and between generations within the same plant population. (uzh.ch)
  • Both populations were colonized by distinct microbial communities and performed better with their own home soil communities than with the soil community from the other intraspecific population, demonstrating intraspecific positive feedback effects of home soil. (uzh.ch)
  • Our results highlight that intraspecific differences in both plant and associated soil communities shape plant-soil feedback effects, and consequently indicate that plant-soil feedback can influence the direction of selection between intraspecific plant populations. (uzh.ch)
  • In this chapter, we explore the strength of selection imposed on insect populations by intraspecific variation in the host plant. (springer.com)
  • Pukhalskiy, V. 2004-10-29 00:00:00 Intraspecific divergence of hexaploid wheat Triticum spelta was studied by C-banding method in 41 accessions of different geographic origins. (deepdyve.com)
  • In order to test hypotheses regarding L . monocytogenes lineage composition, evolution, ecology, and taxonomy, a robust intraspecific phylogeny was developed based on prfA virulence gene cluster sequences from 113 L . monocytogenes isolates. (asm.org)
  • Nonetheless, we observed that the detection of environmental filtering did not improve soon after accounting for intraspecific trait variation. (hatinhibitor.com)
  • This may possibly reflect the truth that biotic factors, this sort of as competitiveness, which may possibly have an impact on leaf chemical trait variation, are far more important than climatic variables in group assembly.The relative importance of different environmental axes to intraspecific variation diverse amid features. (hatinhibitor.com)
  • Three different primers showed DNA polymorphisms (intraspecific) for samples originating from Mexico, Costa Rica, Panama, Jamaica, and Brazil. (unl.edu)
  • We observe, for example, that in our system the Red Queen offers opportunities for the increase of biodiversity by facilitating challenging conditions for intraspecific dominance, whereas stasis tends to homogenize the system. (nature.com)
  • In the existing analyze, the intraspecific variation in plant peak was far more delicate to climatic variables and soil water articles alterations than soil nutrition together elevational gradient in subalpine forest. (hatinhibitor.com)
  • Application of our method to the pan-genome of L. monocytogenes sheds new insights into the intraspecific niche expansion and evolution of this important foodborne pathogen. (biomedcentral.com)