Pituitary Neoplasms: Neoplasms which arise from or metastasize to the PITUITARY GLAND. The majority of pituitary neoplasms are adenomas, which are divided into non-secreting and secreting forms. Hormone producing forms are further classified by the type of hormone they secrete. Pituitary adenomas may also be characterized by their staining properties (see ADENOMA, BASOPHIL; ADENOMA, ACIDOPHIL; and ADENOMA, CHROMOPHOBE). Pituitary tumors may compress adjacent structures, including the HYPOTHALAMUS, several CRANIAL NERVES, and the OPTIC CHIASM. Chiasmal compression may result in bitemporal HEMIANOPSIA.Meningioma: A relatively common neoplasm of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that arises from arachnoidal cells. The majority are well differentiated vascular tumors which grow slowly and have a low potential to be invasive, although malignant subtypes occur. Meningiomas have a predilection to arise from the parasagittal region, cerebral convexity, sphenoidal ridge, olfactory groove, and SPINAL CANAL. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2056-7)Meningeal Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Pituitary Gland, Anterior: The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.Pituitary Diseases: Disorders involving either the ADENOHYPOPHYSIS or the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. These diseases usually manifest as hypersecretion or hyposecretion of PITUITARY HORMONES. Neoplastic pituitary masses can also cause compression of the OPTIC CHIASM and other adjacent structures.Pituitary Hormones: Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.Pituitary Apoplexy: The sudden loss of blood supply to the PITUITARY GLAND, leading to tissue NECROSIS and loss of function (PANHYPOPITUITARISM). The most common cause is hemorrhage or INFARCTION of a PITUITARY ADENOMA. It can also result from acute hemorrhage into SELLA TURCICA due to HEAD TRAUMA; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; or other acute effects of central nervous system hemorrhage. Clinical signs include severe HEADACHE; HYPOTENSION; bilateral visual disturbances; UNCONSCIOUSNESS; and COMA.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Pituitary Hormones, Anterior: Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Structurally, they include polypeptide, protein, and glycoprotein molecules.Neoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous: Neoplasms containing cyst-like formations or producing mucin or serum.Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide: A multi-function neuropeptide that acts throughout the body by elevating intracellular cyclic AMP level via its interaction with PACAP RECEPTORS. Although first isolated from hypothalamic extracts and named for its action on the pituitary, it is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. PACAP is important in the control of endocrine and homeostatic processes, such as secretion of pituitary and gut hormones and food intake.Pituitary Gland, Posterior: Neural tissue of the pituitary gland, also known as the neurohypophysis. It consists of the distal AXONS of neurons that produce VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN in the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS and the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS. These axons travel down through the MEDIAN EMINENCE, the hypothalamic infundibulum of the PITUITARY STALK, to the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland.Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Acromegaly: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excessive HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE in adults. It is characterized by bony enlargement of the FACE; lower jaw (PROGNATHISM); hands; FEET; HEAD; and THORAX. The most common etiology is a GROWTH HORMONE-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp79-80)Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma: A pituitary tumor that secretes GROWTH HORMONE. In humans, excess HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE leads to ACROMEGALY.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Frameshifting, Ribosomal: A directed change in translational READING FRAMES that allows the production of a single protein from two or more OVERLAPPING GENES. The process is programmed by the nucleotide sequence of the MRNA and is sometimes also affected by the secondary or tertiary mRNA structure. It has been described mainly in VIRUSES (especially RETROVIRUSES); RETROTRANSPOSONS; and bacterial insertion elements but also in some cellular genes.Stillbirth: The event that a FETUS is born dead or stillborn.SEER Program: A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Radiosurgery: A radiological stereotactic technique developed for cutting or destroying tissue by high doses of radiation in place of surgical incisions. It was originally developed for neurosurgery on structures in the brain and its use gradually spread to radiation surgery on extracranial structures as well. The usual rigid needles or probes of stereotactic surgery are replaced with beams of ionizing radiation directed toward a target so as to achieve local tissue destruction.Sarcoma: A connective tissue neoplasm formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells; it is usually highly malignant.Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced: Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Empty Sella Syndrome: A condition when the SELLA TURCICA is not filled with pituitary tissue. The pituitary gland is either compressed, atrophied, or removed. There are two types: (1) primary empty sella is due a defect in the sella diaphragm leading to arachnoid herniation into the sellar space; (2) secondary empty sella is associated with the removal or treatment of PITUITARY NEOPLASMS.Prolactinoma: A pituitary adenoma which secretes PROLACTIN, leading to HYPERPROLACTINEMIA. Clinical manifestations include AMENORRHEA; GALACTORRHEA; IMPOTENCE; HEADACHE; visual disturbances; and CEREBROSPINAL FLUID RHINORRHEA.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma: A pituitary adenoma which secretes ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN, leading to CUSHING DISEASE.Skull Base: The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.Endoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Skull Base Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the base of the skull specifically, differentiated from neoplasms of unspecified sites or bones of the skull (SKULL NEOPLASMS).Sphenoid Sinus: One of the paired air spaces located in the body of the SPHENOID BONE behind the ETHMOID BONE in the middle of the skull. Sphenoid sinus communicates with the posterosuperior part of NASAL CAVITY on the same side.Neuroendoscopy: PROCEDURES that use NEUROENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Neuroendoscopy, generally an integration of the neuroendoscope with a computer-assisted NEURONAVIGATION system, provides guidance in NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES.Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.Sphenoid Bone: An irregular unpaired bone situated at the SKULL BASE and wedged between the frontal, temporal, and occipital bones (FRONTAL BONE; TEMPORAL BONE; OCCIPITAL BONE). Sphenoid bone consists of a median body and three pairs of processes resembling a bat with spread wings. The body is hollowed out in its inferior to form two large cavities (SPHENOID SINUS).Paraneoplastic Syndromes: In patients with neoplastic diseases a wide variety of clinical pictures which are indirect and usually remote effects produced by tumor cell metabolites or other products.Medical Records, Problem-Oriented: A system of record keeping in which a list of the patient's problems is made and all history, physical findings, laboratory data, etc. pertinent to each problem are placed under that heading.International Classification of Diseases: A system of categories to which morbid entries are assigned according to established criteria. Included is the entire range of conditions in a manageable number of categories, grouped to facilitate mortality reporting. It is produced by the World Health Organization (From ICD-10, p1). The Clinical Modifications, produced by the UNITED STATES DEPT. OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, are larger extensions used for morbidity and general epidemiological purposes, primarily in the U.S.Paraneoplastic Syndromes, Nervous System: Degenerative or inflammatory conditions affecting the central or peripheral nervous system that develop in association with a systemic neoplasm without direct invasion by tumor. They may be associated with circulating antibodies that react with the affected neural tissue. (Intern Med 1996 Dec;35(12):925-9)Paraneoplastic Polyneuropathy: A diffuse or multifocal peripheral neuropathy related to the remote effects of a neoplasm, most often carcinoma or lymphoma. Pathologically, there are inflammatory changes in peripheral nerves. The most common clinical presentation is a symmetric distal mixed sensorimotor polyneuropathy. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1334)Life Tables: Summarizing techniques used to describe the pattern of mortality and survival in populations. These methods can be applied to the study not only of death, but also of any defined endpoint such as the onset of disease or the occurrence of disease complications.Craniopharyngioma: A benign pituitary-region neoplasm that originates from Rathke's pouch. The two major histologic and clinical subtypes are adamantinous (or classical) craniopharyngioma and papillary craniopharyngioma. The adamantinous form presents in children and adolescents as an expanding cystic lesion in the pituitary region. The cystic cavity is filled with a black viscous substance and histologically the tumor is composed of adamantinomatous epithelium and areas of calcification and necrosis. Papillary craniopharyngiomas occur in adults, and histologically feature a squamous epithelium with papillations. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch14, p50)Information Centers: Facilities for collecting and organizing information. They may be specialized by subject field, type of source material, persons served, location, or type of services.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Rare Diseases: A large group of diseases which are characterized by a low prevalence in the population. They frequently are associated with problems in diagnosis and treatment.National Health Planning Information Center (U.S.): A center in the HEALTH RESOURCES ADMINISTRATION Division of Planning Methods and Technology which provides access to current information on health planning and resources development.Poison Control Centers: Facilities which provide information concerning poisons and treatment of poisoning in emergencies.Drug Information Services: Services providing pharmaceutic and therapeutic drug information and consultation.
Pituitary adenomas are tumors that occur in the pituitary gland, and account for about 15% of intracranial neoplasms. They ...
... attributed to intracranial neoplasm Headache attributed to increased intracranial pressure or hydrocephalus caused by neoplasm ... directly to neoplasm Headache attributed to carcinomatous meningitis Headache attributed to hypothalamic or pituitary hyper- or ... Headache attributed to intracranial hypertension secondary to metabolic, toxic or hormonal causes Headache attributed to ... Headache attributed to intracranial infection Headache attributed to bacterial meningitis Headache attributed to lymphocytic ...
... s represent from 10% to 25% of all intracranial neoplasms and the estimated prevalence rate in the general ... Pituitary adenomas are tumors that occur in the pituitary gland. Pituitary adenomas are generally divided into three categories ... Also, a pituitary adenoma can cause symptoms of increased intracranial pressure. Prolactinomas often start to give symptoms ... Unlike tumors of the posterior Pituitary, Pituitary adenomas are classified as endocrine tumors (not brain tumors). Pituitary ...
Central precocious puberty can be caused by intracranial neoplasm, infection (most commonly central nervous system tuberculosis ... If the cause can be traced to the hypothalamus or pituitary, the cause is considered central. Other names for this type are ... MKRN3 appears to act as a "brake" on the central hypothalamic-pituitary access. Thus, loss of function mutations of the protein ... Central precocious puberty can be treated by suppressing the pituitary hormones that induce sex steroid production. The ...
The skull bone structure can also be subject to a neoplasm that by its very nature reduces the volume of the intracranial ... This is perhaps because the pituitary gland is in the skull, however it is not part of the brain. Pituitary adenomas are rarely ... Brain tumors or intracranial neoplasms can be cancerous (malignant) or non-cancerous (benign). However, the definitions of ... "CNS and Miscellaneous Intracranial and Intraspinal Neoplasms" (PDF). SEER Pediatric Monograph. National Cancer Institute. pp. ...
... pituitary neoplasms MeSH C10.228.140.617.500 --- laurence-moon syndrome MeSH C10.228.140.617.738 --- pituitary diseases MeSH ... intracranial MeSH C10.228.140.300.535.450.650 --- subarachnoid hemorrhage, traumatic MeSH C10.228.140.300.535.625 --- pituitary ... pituitary neoplasms MeSH C10.228.140.617.738.675.149 --- acth-secreting pituitary adenoma MeSH C10.228.140.617.738.675.149.500 ... hypothalamic neoplasms MeSH C10.551.240.250.700.500.500 --- pituitary neoplasms MeSH C10.551.240.375 --- central nervous system ...
"CNS and Miscellaneous Intracranial and Intraspinal Neoplasms" (PDF). SEER Pediatric Monograph. National Cancer Institute. pp. ... Pituitary adenomas ("pituitary tumours") are sometimes incorrectly referred to as a brain tumours.[75][76] This is perhaps ... The skull bone structure can also be subject to a neoplasm that by its very nature reduces the volume of the intracranial ... Brain tumors or intracranial neoplasms can be cancerous (malignant) or non-cancerous (benign). However, the definitions of ...
5. Pituitary Region Tumors A wide variety of tumors can occur in and around the sella turcica. The most common tumors in this ... Neuro-oncology is the study of brain and spinal cord neoplasms, many of which are (at least eventually) very dangerous and life ... CS treatment often is required to control symptoms related to increased intracranial pressure (ICP) or peritumoral edema. ... There are three types of intracranial metastasis: brain metastasis, dural metastasis, and leptomeningeal metastasis. Brain ...
Alternatively, 1p/19q loss might be an early oncogenic lesion promoting the formation of glial neoplasms, which retain high ... Headaches combined with increased intracranial pressure are also a common symptom of oligodendroglioma. Depending on the ... A single case report has linked oligodendroglioma to irradiation of pituitary adenoma. Oligodendrogliomas cannot currently be ... "Oligodendroglioma occurring after radiation therapy for pituitary adenoma". J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 50 (12): 1619-24. ...
Hamilton AJ: Medical Simulations in the Diagnosis and Management of Intracranial Neoplasms, Darien, CT: InterMed Interactive ... ACTH may be transported directly from the pituitary to the vulva. Science 217: 541-543, 1980 Jalife J, Hamilton AJ, Moe GK: ... J. Radiosurgery 1:75,1998 Fritsch MJ, Leber MJ, Gossett L, Lulu BA, Hamilton AJ: Stereotactic Biopsy of Intracranial Brain ... anchoring sheets for securing multiple percutaneous catheters for stereotactic interstitial brachytherapy for intracranial ...
Abdominal neoplasms Aberrant subclavian artery Ablepharon macrostomia syndrome Abnormal systemic venous return Abruzzo-Erickson ... intracranial berry Aneurysm Angel shaped phalangoep Anger irritation syndrome Angiofollicular lymph hyperplasia ... Anosmia Anotia facial palsy cardiac defect Anotia Ansell-Bywaters-Elderking syndrome Anterior horn disease Anterior pituitary ... X-linked Adrenal hypoplasia Adrenal incidentaloma Adrenal insufficiency Adrenal macropolyadenomatosis Adrenal medulla neoplasm ...
Hypopituitarism commonly develops after radiation therapy for sellar and parasellar neoplasms, extrasellar brain tumours, head ... and pituitary axis dysfunction. Modern radiation therapy aims to reduce side effects to a minimum and to help the patient ... especially where there is pre-existing raised intracranial pressure or where the tumor is causing near-total obstruction of a ...
... lip palate mental retardation corneal opacity Cleft lip palate oligodontia syndactyly pili torti Cleft lip palate pituitary ... Carrington syndrome Cartilage-hair hypoplasia Cartilage hair hypoplasia like syndrome Cartilaginous neoplasms Cartwright-Nelson ... maternal hyperthyroiditis Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation Congenital cystic eye multiple ocular and intracranial ... hypoxia Cerebral malformations hypertrichosis claw hands Cerebral palsy Cerebral thrombosis Cerebral ventricle neoplasms ...
Effects on pituitary system[edit]. Hypopituitarism commonly develops after radiation therapy for sellar and parasellar ... genetics and prevention of secondary neoplasms in adult cancer survivors". Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology. 10 (5): 289-301. ... for intracranial lesions. The rationale of hypofractionation is to reduce the probability of local recurrence by denying ... and pituitary axis dysfunction.[8] Modern radiation therapy aims to reduce side effects to a minimum and to help the patient ...
... intracranial neoplasm, epileptic seizure or other types of disorders or diseases that are intracranial but that are not ... Pituitary apoplexy (bleeding or impaired blood supply to the pituitary gland at the base of the brain) is often accompanied by ... Brain mass, benign intracranial hypertension (pseudotumor cerebri), meningitis. Increased intracranial pressure pushes on the ... A mass lesion already increases intracranial pressure, so an additional increase in intracranial pressure from coughing etc. ...
Pituitary apoplexy (T, good article since 10 October 2011), Pleural empyema (T), Pneumonia (T), Pneumothorax (T / good article ... Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (T / good article since 18 November 2008), Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (T), Imerslund- ... Myeloproliferative neoplasm, Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, Pericarditis, Paraneoplastic syndrome, Paroxysmal nocturnal ... Intracranial pressure, Lupus anticoagulant, Mast cell, Muscle, Norovirus (T), Parvovirus B19 (T), Platelet, Porphyrin, ...
... s are tumors that occur in the pituitary gland. Pituitary adenomas are generally divided into three categories dependent upon their biological functioning: benign adenoma, invasive adenoma, and carcinomas. Most adenomas are benign, approximately 35% are invasive and just 0.1% to 0.2 are carcinomas. Pituitary adenomas represent from 10% to 25% of all intracranial neoplasms and the estimated prevalence rate in the general population is approximately 17%. Non-invasive and non-secreting pituitary adenomas are considered to be benign in the literal as well as the clinical sense; however a recent meta-analysis (Fernández-Balsells, et al. 2011) of available research has shown there are to date scant studies - of poor quality - to either support or refute this assumption. Adenomas which exceed 10 millimetres (0.39 in) in size are defined as macroadenomas, with those smaller than 10 mm referred ...
A Rathke's cleft cyst is a benign growth found on the pituitary gland in the brain, specifically a fluid-filled cyst in the posterior portion of the anterior pituitary gland. It occurs when the Rathke's pouch does not develop properly and ranges in size from 2 to 40mm in diameter. Asymptomatic cysts are commonly detected during autopsies in 2 to 26 percent of individuals who have died of unrelated causes. Females are twice as likely as males to develop a cyst. If a cyst adds pressure to the optic chiasm, it may cause visual disturbances, pituitary dysfunction, and headaches. The majority of pituitary patients with chronic headaches have Rathke's Cleft Cysts. This is believed to be caused by the constant change in volume and the drastic changes in vasopressure from fluctuations in gonadotrophs and ADH. The treatment of choice for symptomatic cysts is drainage and taking a biopsy. Radical excision is more dangerous because of the potential of ...
In 2010, scientists published an article about Pio Pico asserting that he showed signs of acromegaly, a disease not characterized until later in the nineteenth century. They say that images of Pico from 1847 through 1858 show a characteristic pattern of progressive acromegaly, a disease caused by excessive and unregulated release of growth hormone from a growth hormone-secreting adenoma of the anterior pituitary gland.[4] He demonstrates progressive coarsening of his facial features with a large bulbous nose, broad forehead, protuberant lips and forward-jutting jaw (prognathism). His hands reveal the diagnostic massive enlargement so typical of this illness. With a height of 67 inches in his forties, his acromegaly must have begun after puberty, or he would have manifested gigantism. Images of his younger brother Andrés Pico and elder brother, Jose Antonio Pico,[5] show normal body features, suggesting Governor Pico's condition was a disease and not a benign familial trait. Pio Pico had ...
A lactotropic cell (also known as prolactin cell, epsilon acidophil, lactotrope, lactotroph, mammatroph, mammotroph) is a cell in the anterior pituitary which produces prolactin in response to hormonal signals including dopamine which is inhibitory and thyrotropin-releasing hormone which is stimulatory. Other regulators include oxytocin, estrogen and progesterone. Prolactin is involved in the maturation of mammary glands and their secretion of milk in association with oxytocin, estrogen, progesterone, glucocorticoids, and others. Prolactin has numerous other effects in both sexes. Prolactin cells are acidophilic by hematoxylin & eosin stains and comprise about 20% of all cells in the anterior pituitary gland. If these cells undergo neoplastic transformation, they will give rise to a prolactinoma, a prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma. ...
The type of visual field loss will depend on which portions of the optic nerve were damaged. In general, the location of the damage in relation to the optic chiasm (see diagram above) will affect the areas of vision loss. Damage to the optic nerve that is anterior, or in front of the optic chiasm (toward the face) causes loss of vision in the eye on the same side as the damage. Damage at the optic chiasm itself typically causes loss of vision laterally in both visual fields or bitemporal hemianopsia (see image to the right). Such damage may occur with large pituitary tumors, such as pituitary adenoma. Finally, damage to the optic tract, which is posterior to, or behind the chiasm, causes loss of the entire visual field from the side opposite the damage, e.g. if the left optic tract were cut, there would be a loss of vision from the entire right visual field. Injury to the optic nerve can be the result of congenital or inheritable problems like Leber's hereditary optic ...
In embryogenesis, Rathke's pouch is an evagination at the roof of the developing mouth in front of the buccopharyngeal membrane. It gives rise to the anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis), a part of the endocrine system. Rathke's pouch, and therefore the anterior pituitary, is derived from ectoderm. The pouch eventually loses its connection with the pharynx giving rise to the anterior pituitary. The anterior wall of Rathke's pouch proliferates, filling most of the pouch to form pars distalis and pars tuberalis. The posterior wall forms pars intermedia. In some organisms, the proliferating anterior wall does not fully occupy Rathke's pouch, leaving a remnant (Rathke's cleft) between the pars distalis and pars intermedia. Rathke's pouch may develop benign cysts. Craniopharyngioma is a neoplasm which can arise from the epithelium within the cleft. It is named for Martin Rathke. Rathke's cleft cyst synd/3564 at Who Named It? M. H. Rathke. Entwicklungsgeschichte ...
... is increased blood prolactin levels associated with galactorrhea (abnormal milk secretion). It may be caused by such things as certain medications, pituitary disorders and thyroid disorders. The condition can occur in males as well as females. Relatively common etiologies include prolactinoma, medication effect, kidney failure, granulomatous diseases of the pituitary gland, and disorders which interfere with the hypothalamic inhibition of prolactin release. Ectopic (non-pituitary) production of prolactin may also occur. Galactorrhea hyperprolactinemia is listed as a "rare disease" by the Office of Rare Diseases of the National Institutes of Health. This means that it affects less than 200,000 people in the United States population. Symptoms of galactorrhea hyperprolactinemia include a high blood prolactin level, abnormal milk production in the breast, galactorrhea, menstrual abnormalities, reduced libido, reduced fertility, puberty problems, and ...
... or hyperprolactinemia is the presence of abnormally high levels of prolactin in the blood. Normal levels are less than 500 mIU/L [20 ng/mL or µg/L] for women, and less than 450 mIU/L for men. Prolactin is a peptide hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland that is primarily associated with lactation and plays a vital role in breast development during pregnancy. Hyperprolactinaemia may cause galactorrhea (production and spontaneous flow of breast milk) and disruptions in the normal menstrual period in women and hypogonadism, infertility and erectile dysfunction in men. Hyperprolactinaemia can also be a part of normal body changes during pregnancy and breastfeeding. It can also be caused by diseases affecting the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. It can also be caused by disruption of the normal regulation of prolactin levels by drugs, medicinal herbs and heavy metals inside the body. Hyperprolactinaemia may also be the result of disease of other organs such as the ...
... (also spelled galactorrhoea) (galacto- + -rrhea) or lactorrhea (lacto- + -rrhea) is the spontaneous flow of milk from the breast, unassociated with childbirth or nursing. Galactorrhea is reported to occur in 5-32% of women. Much of the difference in reported incidence can be attributed to different definitions of galactorrhea. Although frequently benign, it may be caused by serious underlying conditions and should be properly investigated. Galactorrhea also occurs in males, newborn infants and adolescents of both sexes. Galactorrhea can take place as a result of dysregulation of certain hormones. Hormonal causes most frequently associated with galactorrhea are hyperprolactinemia and thyroid conditions with elevated levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) or thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). No obvious cause is found in about 50% of cases. Lactation requires the presence of prolactin, and the evaluation of galactorrhea includes eliciting a history for various medications or ...
A doctor will test for prolactin blood levels in women with unexplained milk secretion (galactorrhea) or irregular menses or infertility, and in men with impaired sexual function and milk secretion. If prolactin is high, a doctor will test thyroid function and ask first about other conditions and medications known to raise prolactin secretion. While a plain X-ray of the bones surrounding the pituitary may reveal the presence of a large macro-adenoma, the small micro-adenoma will not be apparent. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most sensitive test for detecting pituitary tumours and determining their size. MRI scans may be repeated periodically to assess tumour progression and the effects of therapy. Computed Tomography (CT scan) also gives an image of the pituitary, but it is less sensitive than the MRI. In addition to assessing the size of the pituitary tumour, doctors also look for damage to surrounding tissues, and perform tests ...
The first priority in suspected or confirmed pituitary apoplexy is stabilization of the circulatory system. Cortisol deficiency can cause severe low blood pressure.[1][6] Depending on the severity of the illness, admission to a high dependency unit (HDU) may be required.[1] Treatment for acute adrenal insufficiency requires the administration of intravenous saline or dextrose solution; volumes of over two liters may be required in an adult.[6] This is followed by the administration of hydrocortisone, which is pharmaceutical grade cortisol, intravenously or into a muscle.[4][6] The drug dexamethasone has similar properties,[6] but its use is not recommended unless it is required to reduce swelling in the brain around the area of hemorrhage.[1] Some are well enough not to require immediate cortisol replacement; in this case, blood levels of cortisol are determined at 9:00 AM (as cortisol levels vary over the day). A level below 550 nmol/l indicates a need for replacement.[1] The decision on ...
In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland aboot the size o a pea an weighin 0.5 grams (0.018 oz) in humans. It is a protrusion off the bottom o the hypothalamus at the base o the brain. The hypophysis rests upon the hypophysial fossa o the sphenoid bane in the centre o the middle cranial fossa an is surroondit bi a smaa bany cavity (sella turcica) covered bi a dural fold (diaphragma sellae).[2] The anterior pituitary (or adenohypophysis) is a lobe o the gland that regulates several pheesiological processes (includin stress, growthe, reproduction, an lactation). ...
Sa anatomiya ng bertebrado, ang glandulang pituitaryo o hipopisis (Ingles: pituitary gland o hypophysis) ay isang glandulang endokrina na kasinglaki ng isang gisantes (pea) at tumitimbang na 0.5 gramo (0.02 oz.) sa mga tao. Ito ay isang protrusiyon sa ilalim ng hipotalamus sa ilalim(base) ng utak at nakahimlay sa isang maliit mabutong kabidad (cavity) na tinatawag na sella turcica at natatakpan ng tiklop na dural na diaphragma sellae. Ang glandulang pituitaryo ay nakadugtong sa tungkulin sa hipotalamus ng eminensiyang medyano sa pamamagitan ng maliit na tubong tinatawag na sangang inpundibular (pituitary stalk). Ang pituitaryong posa kung saan ang glandulang pituitaryo ay nakaupo ay matatagpuan sa butong spenoid sa gitnang kranial posa sa ilalim (base) ng utak. Ang glandulang pituitaryo ay naglalabas ng siyam na mga hormona na nagreregula ng homeostasis. ...
Intracranial lesions mimicking neoplasms.(Review Article, Report) by Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine; Health, ... ring-enhancing cystic neoplasm suprasellar lesion separate from pituitary and stalk, near anterior communicating artery (Figure ... neoplasms.-a0230416955. *APA style: Intracranial lesions mimicking neoplasms.. (n.d.) >The Free Library. (2014). Retrieved Sep ... neoplasms.-a0230416955. *Chicago style: The Free Library. S.v. Intracranial lesions mimicking neoplasms.." Retrieved Sep 18 ...
... intracranial meningioma and cerebral aneurysm has never been described. We report on a patient with GH-secreting pituitary ... Goldberg MB, Sheline GE, Malamud N (1963) Malignant intracranial neoplasm following radiation therapy for acromegaly. Radiology ... Coexistence of pituitary adenoma and intracranial meningioma is a rare event, but also for this association it has been ... Coexistence of pituitary adenoma, intracranial meningioma and cerebral aneurysm has never been described. We report on a ...
Intracranial Pressure / physiology. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications*, physiopathology, surgery. Pressure ... Previous Document: Peritumoral brain edema in intracranial meningiomas.. Next Document: Inhibitory action of antioxidants ( ...
OPTIC NERVE COMPRESSION: Caused by an intracranial neoplasm, or pituitary adenoma.. *OPTIC NEUROPATHY (Optic Neuritis): ... Sheehan Syndrome = post-partum hemorrhage causing pituitary infarct from lack of blood-flow and increased pituitary demand. ... Projectile Vomiting: Special vomiting that can signify increased intracranial pressure (ICP).. *Regurgitation: Vomiting without ... Projectile Vomiting: Headache with projectile vomiting, occurring in morning, usually means increased intracranial pressure. ...
Hardy JVezina JL: Transsphenoidal neurosurgery of intracranial neoplasm. Adv Neurol 15:261-2731976 ... Guiot JRougerie JFourestier MFournier AComoy CVulmiere J: [Intracranial endoscopic explorations]. Presse Med 71:1225-12281963. ... Guiot JRougerie JFourestier MFournier AComoy CVulmiere J: [Intracranial endoscopic explorations]. Presse Med 71:1225-12281963. ... Hardy JVezina JL: Transsphenoidal neurosurgery of intracranial neoplasm. Adv Neurol 15:261-2731976 ...
Pituitary adenomas, monoclonal in origin, are the most common intracranial neoplasms. Altered gene expression as well as ... We performed an integrated analysis of publicly available GEO datasets of pituitary adenomas to identify DEGs between pituitary ... Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes in Pituitary Adenomas by Integrating Analysis of Microarray Data. Peng Zhao,1 ... Gene function analysis revealed that the functions of those DEGs were highly correlated with the development of pituitary ...
an adenoma arising in the anterior lobe (pituitary adenoma) 2 ________ accounts for about 15% of all intracranial neoplasms ... necrosis of the pituitary gland due to hemorrhage and hypovolemic shock during peri-partum period is termed ... What are the two most common sources of cancer that METS to the pituitary? ...
... of all intracranial neoplasms. Depending on the study cited, pituitary tumors can be classified into three groups according to ... Adenomas comprise the largest portion of pituitary neoplasms with an... ... Pituitary tumors represent from 10% to 25% of all intracranial neoplasms. Depending on the study cited, pituitary tumors can be ... Pituitary Carcinomas Treatment. Standard Treatment Options for Pituitary Carcinomas Standard treatment options for pituitary ...
Pituitary adenomas are tumors that occur in the pituitary gland, and account for about 15% of intracranial neoplasms. They ...
Pituitary adenomas represent one of the most common intracranial neoplasms. Found in 10-15% of the population, these benign ... The UAB Neurosurgical Pituitary Disorders Clinic offers comprehensive evaluation and care for patients with pituitary tumors. ... Patients with pituitary adenomas are followed postoperatively with yearly imaging. The majority of tumor recurrence is seen in ... Pituitary adenomas are classified according to size and endocrine profile. Microadenomas, defined as smaller than 10mm in size ...
... pituitary, or neurohypophyseal) DI, characterized by decreased secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH; also referred to as ... It is the most frequent pediatric intracranial neoplasm, accounting for nearly 54% of cases. Central DI insipidus and multiple ... Pituitary studies, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and measurement of circulating pituitary hormones other than ADH ... Postoperative assessment of the patient after transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. Pituitary. 2008. 11(4):391-401. [Medline]. ...
e) Other specified intracranial and intraspinal neoplasms. (e.1) Pituitary adenomas and carcinomas. C000-C809. 8270-8281, 8300 ... a) Intracranial and intraspinal germ cell tumors. (a.1) Intracranial and intraspinal germinomas. C700-C729, C751-C753. 9060- ... f) Unspecified intracranial and intraspinal neoplasms. C700-C729, C751-C753. 8000-8005. 0,1,3. 032. 036. ... XI Other malignant epithelial neoplasms and malignant melanomas. (a) Adrenocortical carcinomas. C000-C809. 8370-8375. 3. 092. ...
Pituitary adenomas are one of the most common intracranial neoplasms. Questions regarding their prevalence in the general ... Pituitary adenomas represent a group of functionally diverse neoplasms with relatively high prevalence in the general ... of familial isolated pituitary adenoma kindreds. Pituitary adenomas with mutations of the aryl-hydrocarbon interacting protein ... of all pituitary tumors (6). Traditionally, familial pituitary adenomas have been associated with some multiple neoplasia ...
Acute hemorrhage or infarction of the pituitary tumor known as pituitary apoplexy causes diplopia, loss of vision, and visual ... Pituitary tumors may compress surrounding structures such as optic chiasm leading to visual field defects including bitemporal ... Pituitary adenomas are the most common cause of chiasmal compression. Patients with nonsecreting tumors present initially with ... Thus, the ophthalmologists role is crucial in diagnosis and treatment of pituitary tumors. As visual loss may be the first ...
Secondary malignancies are infrequent sequelae of pituitary radiotherapy. The goal of the present case study is to analyze ... Goldberg MB, Sheline GE, Malamud N (1963) Malignant intracranial neoplasms, following radiation therapy for acromegaly. ... Gerlach H, Janisch W (1979) Intracranial sarcoma after radiotherapy of a pituitary adenoma. Zentralbl Neurochir 40:131-136 ... Kojima G (1979) Pituitary tumour developing subsequent to radiation therapy of pituitary. Igaku No Ayumi 108:601-602Google ...
Pituitary adenomas represent from 10% to 25% of all intracranial neoplasms and the estimated prevalence rate in the general ... Pituitary adenomas are tumors that occur in the pituitary gland. Pituitary adenomas are generally divided into three categories ... Also, a pituitary adenoma can cause symptoms of increased intracranial pressure. Prolactinomas often start to give symptoms ... Unlike tumors of the posterior Pituitary, Pituitary adenomas are classified as endocrine tumors (not brain tumors). Pituitary ...
Pituitary tumours are the most frequent intracranial neoplasms, affecting 1/1000 of the worldwide population ... Pituitary tumours are the most frequent intracranial neoplasms, affecting 1/1000 of the worldwide population. Growth hormone ( ... Pituitary 7 (2): 73-82.. Stratakis CA, Schussheim DH, Freedman SM, et al. (2000) Pituitary macroadenoma in a 5‐year‐Old: an ... Beckers A, Aaltonen LA, Daly AF and Karhu A (2013) Familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) and the pituitary adenoma ...
Pituitary Adenoma. Pituitary adenomas account for about 10% of intracranial neoplasms [32]. They often remain undiagnosed and ... Pituitary adenomas can be differentiated by measuring the size of the tumour. The radiological classification of pituitary ... The mortality rate related to pituitary tumours is low. Morbidity related to pituitary macroadenomas is associated with ... For pituitary microadenomas the cure rate is greater than 50% on complete excision [35]. Tumour larger than 1 cm has higher ...
Sixty-three adult patients with intracranial neoplasms were studied prospectively over a 2 year period. The various factors ... Pituitary tumours (18%), High-grade gliomas (14%) and craniopharyngiomas (8%) were the most common brain tumours. The median ... Sixty-three adult patients with intracranial neoplasms were studied prospectively over a 2 year period. The various factors ... Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology*. Neoplasm Staging. Nigeria. Pilot Projects. Prospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Survival ...
Benign neoplasm of pituitary gland, pineal body, and other intracranial endocrine-related structures. ... Neoplasms of unspecified nature, brain. 239.7. Neoplasms of unspecified nature; endocrine glands and other parts of nervous ... Malignant pleural effusion (code first malignant neoplasm if known). 789.51. Malignant ascites (code first malignant neoplasm ... Benign neoplasm of brain and spinal cord neoplasm. 227.3 - 227.4. ...
... , Pituitary Neoplasm, Functionless Pituitary Adenoma, Non-Functioning Pituitary Adenoma, Secretory Pituitary ... Adenoma, Pituitary Macroadenoma, Pituitary Microadenoma, Pituitary Incidentaloma, Prolactinoma, Prolactin-Secreting Pituitary ... ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma, Thyrotroph Adenoma, TSH-Secreting Adenoma, Pituiatry Apoplexy, Pituitary Lesion. ... Pituitary Adenomas account for 10-15% of all Intracranial Masses. * Prevalence: 77 per 100,000 persons. *Prevalence suspected ...
Management of associated primary cerebral neoplasms and vascular malformations: 2. Intracranial arterio-venous malformations ... The tumour was a glioma in 2 cases, a pituitary adenoma in 1 case. The AVM was located in the right hemisphere in 2 patients, ... Management of associated primary cerebral neoplasms and vascular malformations: 1. Intracranial aneurysms. Acta Neurochirurgica ... Management of associated primary cerebral neoplasms and vascular malformations: 2. Intracranial arterio-venous malformations. ...
Pituitary adenomas arise within the pituitary fossa. By compressing the underside of the optic chiasm, these tumours cause ... Benign intracranial hypertension is a condition in which there is increased intracranial pressure caused by various metabolic ... Neoplasms. Both benign and primary and secondary malignant tumours can attack the meninges, the brain, and the spinal cord, its ... An increase in intracranial pressure can result from any mass lesion in the head (a blood clot, tumour, or abscess, for example ...
The Pituitary Network Association is an international non-profit organization for patients with pituitary tumors and disorders ... Lovaste MG, Ferrari G, Rossi G: Epidemiology of primary intracranial neoplasms. Experiment in the Province of Trento, (Italy), ... Chapter One: Types of Pituitary Disorders and their Manifestations. Introduction to Pituitary Disorders: Pituitary Tumors and ... Pathological analysis of intracranial space-occupying lesions in 1000 cases including children. Pituitary adenomas, ...
Enlarged pituitary gland. 0012505 Intracranial cystic lesion. 0010576 Neoplasm of the anterior pituitary. 0011750 ... These tumors are closely related to another cystic mass occasionally seen in the pituitary called Rathkes cleft cyst.[3][4][8] ... which controls the release of hormones by the pituitary gland).[1][2][3] This tumor most commonly affects children between 5 ... to replace various pituitary and hypothalamic hormone deficiencies.[5] Early studies suggest that oxytocin (a less understood ...
  • New Neoplasm During GH Replacement in Adults With Pituitary Deficiency Following Malignancy: A... Krzyzanowska-Mittermayer, Katarzyna;Mattsson, Anders F;Maiter, Dominique;Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla;Camacho-Hübner, Cecilia;Luger, Anton;Abs, Roger 2018-02-01 00:00:00 Abstract Context Data on the association between growth hormone (GH) replacement in patients with GH deficiency (GHD) after malignancies and new neoplasms show conflicting results. (deepdyve.com)
  • Regarding CDKN1B, so far point mutations have been reported only in few subjects with clinical features of MEN1, including pituitary adenomas, but without MEN1 mutations, suggesting that they rarely cause a MEN-like phenotype in both sporadic and familial MEN1 patients. (unipd.it)
  • Pituitary adenomas are classified as typical or atypical, invasive or noninvasive, and aggressive or nonaggressive based on pathological features, radiological findings, and clinical behavior. (oncotarget.com)
  • Aggressive" adenomas, which are intermediate in phenotype between typical pituitary adenomas and pituitary carcinomas, exhibit distinct clinical characteristics, frequently recur, and are often resistant to conventional treatments [ 6 ]. (oncotarget.com)
  • This review aims to highlight the advantages and limitations of revision endoscopic pituitary surgery, identify 'at risk' patients who may require multiple interventions or multimodal therapy and review current guidelines on management, in order to provide an evidence base to guide clinical practice in the multidisciplinary setting. (medscape.com)
  • MRI showed persistence of a homogeneously enhancing intra- and suprasellar lesion, compressing the visual pathways, with bilateral intracavernous invasion and simultaneous coexistence of a right intracavernous internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm in direct contact with the pituitary tumour. (springer.com)
  • Moreover, as a consequence of the primary lesion and its treatment, the prevalence of secondary hormonal pituitary dysfunction is very high (3). (deepdyve.com)
  • Objective To clarify the incidence of new malignant neoplasm in childhood-onset (CO) and adult-onset (AO) adult cancer survivors (CSs). (deepdyve.com)
  • Melanoma and testicular and renal carcinoma have the greatest propensity to metastasize to the brain, but their relative rarity explains the low incidence of these neoplasms in large series of patients with brain metastases. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Recurrent Rathke's Cleft Cysts: Incidence and Surgical Management in a Tertiary Pituitary Center over 2 Decades Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown). (usc.edu)
  • e) One of the best and most reliable histopathologic features is the lack of reticulin network within tumour and compression of reticulin fibres around the tumour in hyperplastic and/or normal pituitary tissue. (els.net)
  • it is approximately 5 cm long and is divided into four portions: intraocular or optic disk (1 mm), intraorbital (25 mm), intracanalicular within the optic canal (9 mm), and intracranial which terminates in the optic chiasm (12-16 mm) [ 3 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • 1 The most common sites of involvement of intracranial germinomas are the pineal and suprasellar regions, 2 but they can also involve other locations, such as the thalamus and basal ganglia. (ajnr.org)
  • MR imaging of the pituitary revealed a large, solid mass with its epicenter in the sella turcica, extension into the suprasellar cistern and hypothalamus superiorly, sphenoid sinus inferiorly, and cavernous sinuses bilaterally. (ajnr.org)
  • Despite being generally benign, pituitary adenomas still exert significant influence as they combine symptoms of hormonal dysfunction with signs of local compression, and may require complex and costly management and long-term follow-up. (scielo.br)
  • Symptoms are present due to hormonal disturbances, hypersecretion or lack of pituitary hormones, and compression symptoms that are secondary to local invasion and lead to hypopituitarism and visual field defects. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Factors hypothesized to contribute to pituitary neoplasia initiation and proliferation include altered growth factors and cell-cycle regulators that are the result of epigenetic changes ( 6 ), abnormal hormonal milieu, abnormal intrapituitary microenvironment ( 7 ), and inherited or somatic mutations ( Fig. 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • After prednisolone withdrawal, her pituitary function remained normal despite the absence of any hormonal replacement. (bioscientifica.com)
  • In addition, we update our website on a regular basis with the latest breaking news related to pituitary and hormonal disorders by gathering stories we think you'll be interested in from MD Linx, Medscape, MedPage Today, PubMed, Touch Endocrinology, News-Medical.net and WebMD. (pituitary.org)