Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.
Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.
A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).
Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.
Peptides that have the ability to enter cells by crossing the plasma membrane directly, or through uptake by the endocytotic pathway.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A 36-amino acid peptide produced by the L cells of the distal small intestine and colon. Peptide YY inhibits gastric and pancreatic secretion.
DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.
A PEPTIDE of 22 amino acids, derived mainly from cells of VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM. It is also found in the BRAIN, major endocrine glands, and other tissues. It shares structural homology with ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR. It has vasorelaxant activity thus is important in the regulation of vascular tone and blood flow. Several high molecular weight forms containing the 22 amino acids have been identified.
Peptides that regulate the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in the body, also known as natriuretic peptide hormones. Several have been sequenced (ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR; BRAIN NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE; C-TYPE NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE).
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Neuropeptide and gut hormone that helps regulate GASTRIC ACID secretion and motor function. Once released from nerves in the antrum of the STOMACH, the neuropeptide stimulates release of GASTRIN from the GASTRIN-SECRETING CELLS.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that was originally identified by its ability to bind N-formyl peptides such as N-FORMYLMETHIONINE LEUCYL-PHENYLALANINE. Since N-formyl peptides are found in MITOCHONDRIA and BACTERIA, this class of receptors is believed to play a role in mediating cellular responses to cellular damage and bacterial invasion. However, non-formylated peptide ligands have also been found for this receptor class.
A 27-amino acid peptide with histidine at the N-terminal and isoleucine amide at the C-terminal. The exact amino acid composition of the peptide is species dependent. The peptide is secreted in the intestine, but is found in the nervous system, many organs, and in the majority of peripheral tissues. It has a wide range of biological actions, affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and central nervous systems.
Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
Cell surface receptors that bind peptide messengers with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The endogenous peptides with opiate-like activity. The three major classes currently recognized are the ENKEPHALINS, the DYNORPHINS, and the ENDORPHINS. Each of these families derives from different precursors, proenkephalin, prodynorphin, and PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN, respectively. There are also at least three classes of OPIOID RECEPTORS, but the peptide families do not map to the receptors in a simple way.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
The structure of one molecule that imitates or simulates the structure of a different molecule.
A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Peptide sequences, generated by iterative rounds of SELEX APTAMER TECHNIQUE, that bind to a target molecule specifically and with high affinity.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Cell surface proteins that bind VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE; (VIP); with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Cell surface proteins that bind ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. They contain intrinsic guanylyl cyclase activity.
Proteins obtained from species in the class of AMPHIBIANS.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
Basic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It contains 26 amino acids, has cytolytic properties, causes contracture of muscle, releases histamine, and disrupts surface tension, probably due to lysis of cell and mitochondrial membranes.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
Peptides derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of pancreatic GLUCAGON. Despite expression of proglucagon in multiple tissues, the major production site of glucagon-like peptides (GLPs) is the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLPs include glucagon-like peptide 1, glucagon-like peptide 2, and the various truncated forms.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
Family of antimicrobial peptides that have been identified in humans, animals, and plants. They are thought to play a role in host defenses against infections, inflammation, wound repair, and acquired immunity.
Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.
Peptides composed of two amino acid units.
A class of antimicrobial peptides discovered in the skin of XENOPUS LAEVIS. They kill bacteria by permeabilizing cell membranes without exhibiting significant toxicity against mammalian cells.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
Cell surface proteins that bind CALCITONIN GENE-RELATED PEPTIDE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. CGRP receptors are present in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and the periphery. They are formed via the heterodimerization of the CALCITONIN RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN and RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEIN 1.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Antimicrobial cationic peptides with a highly conserved amino terminal cathelin-like domain and a more variable carboxy terminal domain. They are initially synthesized as preproproteins and then cleaved. They are expressed in many tissues of humans and localized to EPITHELIAL CELLS. They kill nonviral pathogens by forming pores in membranes.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
One of the three major groups of endogenous opioid peptides. They are large peptides derived from the PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN precursor. The known members of this group are alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin. The term endorphin is also sometimes used to refer to all opioid peptides, but the narrower sense is used here; OPIOID PEPTIDES is used for the broader group.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
A tetradecapeptide originally obtained from the skins of toads Bombina bombina and B. variegata. It is also an endogenous neurotransmitter in many animals including mammals. Bombesin affects vascular and other smooth muscle, gastric secretion, and renal circulation and function.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.
A 33-amino acid peptide derived from the C-terminal of PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. It stimulates intestinal mucosal growth and decreased apoptosis of ENTEROCYTES. GLP-2 enhances gastrointestinal function and plays an important role in nutrient homeostasis.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Cell surface proteins that bind bombesin or closely related peptides with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Gastrin- releasing peptide (GRP); GRP 18-27 (neuromedin C), and neuromedin B are endogenous ligands of bombesin receptors in mammals.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
DEFENSINS found mainly in epithelial cells.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The enzymatic synthesis of PEPTIDES without an RNA template by processes that do not use the ribosomal apparatus (RIBOSOMES).
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A cyclized derivative of L-GLUTAMIC ACID. Elevated blood levels may be associated with problems of GLUTAMINE or GLUTATHIONE metabolism.
N-(N-(N(2)-(N-(N-(N-(N-D-Alanyl L-seryl)-L-threonyl)-L-threonyl) L-threonyl)-L-asparaginyl)-L-tyrosyl) L-threonine. Octapeptide sharing sequence homology with HIV envelope protein gp120. It is potentially useful as antiviral agent in AIDS therapy. The core pentapeptide sequence, TTNYT, consisting of amino acids 4-8 in peptide T, is the HIV envelope sequence required for attachment to the CD4 receptor.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
DEFENSINS found in azurophilic granules of neutrophils and in the secretory granules of intestinal PANETH CELLS.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of AMYLOID PLAQUES are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
One of the three major families of endogenous opioid peptides. The enkephalins are pentapeptides that are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the adrenal medulla.
A 52-amino acid peptide with multi-functions. It was originally isolated from PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA and ADRENAL MEDULLA but is widely distributed throughout the body including lung and kidney tissues. Besides controlling fluid-electrolyte homeostasis, adrenomedullin is a potent vasodilator and can inhibit pituitary ACTH secretion.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).
A non-aqueous co-solvent that serves as tool to study protein folding. It is also used in various pharmaceutical, chemical and engineering applications.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.
A pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide receptor subtype found in LYMPHOCYTES. It binds both PACAP and VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE and regulates immune responses.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
A cyclic nonadecapeptide antibiotic that can act as an ionophore and is produced by strains of Trichoderma viride. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A molluscan neuroactive peptide which induces a fast excitatory depolarizing response due to direct activation of amiloride-sensitive SODIUM CHANNELS. (From Nature 1995; 378(6558): 730-3)
A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
Enzymes that act at a free C-terminus of a polypeptide to liberate a single amino acid residue.

The homeobox gene Pitx2: mediator of asymmetric left-right signaling in vertebrate heart and gut looping. (1/14921)

Left-right asymmetry in vertebrates is controlled by activities emanating from the left lateral plate. How these signals get transmitted to the forming organs is not known. A candidate mediator in mouse, frog and zebrafish embryos is the homeobox gene Pitx2. It is asymmetrically expressed in the left lateral plate mesoderm, tubular heart and early gut tube. Localized Pitx2 expression continues when these organs undergo asymmetric looping morphogenesis. Ectopic expression of Xnr1 in the right lateral plate induces Pitx2 transcription in Xenopus. Misexpression of Pitx2 affects situs and morphology of organs. These experiments suggest a role for Pitx2 in promoting looping of the linear heart and gut.  (+info)

Endocytosis: EH domains lend a hand. (2/14921)

A number of proteins that have been implicated in endocytosis feature a conserved protein-interaction module known as an EH domain. The three-dimensional structure of an EH domain has recently been solved, and is likely to presage significant advances in understanding molecular mechanisms of endocytosis.  (+info)

Sonic hedgehog signaling by the patched-smoothened receptor complex. (3/14921)

BACKGROUND: The Hedgehog (Hh) family of secreted proteins is involved in a number of developmental processes as well as in cancer. Genetic and biochemical data suggest that the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) receptor is composed of at least two proteins: the tumor suppressor protein Patched (Ptc) and the seven-transmembrane protein Smoothened (Smo). RESULTS: Using a biochemical assay for activation of the transcription factor Gli, a downstream component of the Hh pathway, we show here that Smo functions as the signaling component of the Shh receptor, and that this activity can be blocked by Ptc. The inhibition of Smo by Ptc can be relieved by the addition of Shh. Furthermore, oncogenic forms of Smo are insensitive to Ptc repression in this assay. Mapping of the Smo domains required for binding to Ptc and for signaling revealed that the Smo-Ptc interaction involves mainly the amino terminus of Smo, and that the third intracellular loop and the seventh transmembrane domain are required for signaling. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that Smo is the signaling component of a multicomponent Hh receptor complex and that Ptc is a ligand-regulated inhibitor of Smo. Different domains of Smo are involved in Ptc binding and activation of a Gli reporter construct. The latter requires the third intracellular loop and the seventh transmembrane domain of Smo, regions often involved in coupling to G proteins. No changes in the levels of cyclic AMP or calcium associated with such pathways could be detected following receptor activation, however.  (+info)

A Drosophila TNF-receptor-associated factor (TRAF) binds the ste20 kinase Misshapen and activates Jun kinase. (4/14921)

Two families of protein kinases that are closely related to Ste20 in their kinase domain have been identified - the p21-activated protein kinase (Pak) and SPS1 families [1-3]. In contrast to Pak family members, SPS1 family members do not bind and are not activated by GTP-bound p21Rac and Cdc42. We recently placed a member of the SPS1 family, called Misshapen (Msn), genetically upstream of the c-Jun amino-terminal (JNK) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase module in Drosophila [4]. The failure to activate JNK in Drosophila leads to embryonic lethality due to the failure of these embryos to stimulate dorsal closure [5-8]. Msn probably functions as a MAP kinase kinase kinase kinase in Drosophila, activating the JNK pathway via an, as yet, undefined MAP kinase kinase kinase. We have identified a Drosophila TNF-receptor-associated factor, DTRAF1, by screening for Msn-interacting proteins using the yeast two-hybrid system. In contrast to the mammalian TRAFs that have been shown to activate JNK, DTRAF1 lacks an amino-terminal 'Ring-finger' domain, and overexpression of a truncated DTRAF1, consisting of only its TRAF domain, activates JNK. We also identified another DTRAF, DTRAF2, that contains an amino-terminal Ring-finger domain. Msn specifically binds the TRAF domain of DTRAF1 but not that of DTRAF2. In Drosophila, DTRAF1 is thus a good candidate for an upstream molecule that regulates the JNK pathway by interacting with, and activating, Msn. Consistent with this idea, expression of a dominant-negative Msn mutant protein blocks the activation of JNK by DTRAF1. Furthermore, coexpression of Msn with DTRAF1 leads to the synergistic activation of JNK. We have extended some of these observations to the mammalian homolog of Msn, Nck-interacting kinase (NIK), suggesting that TRAFs also play a critical role in regulating Ste20 kinases in mammals.  (+info)

Transformation mediated by RhoA requires activity of ROCK kinases. (5/14921)

BACKGROUND: The Ras-related GTPase RhoA controls signalling processes required for cytoskeletal reorganisation, transcriptional regulation, and transformation. The ability of RhoA mutants to transform cells correlates not with transcription but with their ability to bind ROCK-I, an effector kinase involved in cytoskeletal reorganisation. We used a recently developed specific ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632, and ROCK truncation mutants to investigate the role of ROCK kinases in transcriptional activation and transformation. RESULTS: In NIH3T3 cells, Y-27632 did not prevent the activation of serum response factor, transcription of c-fos or cell cycle re-entry following serum stimulation. Repeated treatment of NIH3T3 cells with Y-27632, however, substantially disrupted their actin fibre network but did not affect their growth rate. Y-27632 blocked focus formation by RhoA and its guanine-nucleotide exchange factors Dbl and mNET1. It did not affect the growth rate of cells transformed by Dbl and mNET1, but restored normal growth control at confluence and prevented their growth in soft agar. Y-27632 also significantly inhibited focus formation by Ras, but had no effect on the establishment or maintenance of transformation by Src. Furthermore, it significantly inhibited anchorage-independent growth of two out of four colorectal tumour cell lines. Consistent with these data, a truncated ROCK derivative exhibited weak ability to cooperate with activated Raf in focus formation assays. CONCLUSIONS: ROCK signalling is required for both the establishment and maintenance of transformation by constitutive activation of RhoA, and contributes to the Ras-transformed phenotype. These observations provide a potential explanation for the requirement for Rho in Ras-mediated transformation. Moreover, the inhibition of ROCK kinases may be of therapeutic use.  (+info)

Decreased expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Par-4 in renal cell carcinoma. (6/14921)

Par-4 is a widely expressed leucine zipper protein that confers sensitization to apoptosis induced by exogenous insults. Because the expression of genes that promote apoptosis may be down-regulated during tumorigenesis, we sought to examine the expression of Par-4 in human tumors. We present here evidence that Par-4 protein levels were severely decreased in human renal cell carcinoma specimens relative to normal tubular cells. Replenishment of Par-4 protein levels in renal cell carcinoma cell lines conferred sensitivity to apoptosis. Because apoptosis may serve as a defense mechanism against malignant transformation or progression, decreased expression of Par-4 may contribute to the pathophysiology of renal cell carcinoma.  (+info)

Activation of Src in human breast tumor cell lines: elevated levels of phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity that preferentially recognizes the Src carboxy terminal negative regulatory tyrosine 530. (7/14921)

Elevated levels of Src kinase activity have been reported in a number of human cancers, including colon and breast cancer. We have analysed four human breast tumor cell lines that exhibit high levels of Src kinase activity, and have determined that these cell lines also exhibit a high level of a phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity that recognizes the Src carboxy-terminal P-Tyr530 negative regulatory site. Total Src kinase activity in these cell lines is elevated as much as 30-fold over activity in normal control cells and specific activity is elevated as much as 5.6-fold. When the breast tumor cells were grown in the presence of the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor vanadate, Src kinase activity was reduced in all four breast tumor cell lines, suggesting that Src was being activated by a phosphatase which could recognize the Tyr530 negative regulatory site. In fractionated cell extracts from the breast tumor cells, we found elevated levels of a membrane associated tyrosine phosphatase activity that preferentially dephosphorylated a Src family carboxy-terminal phosphopeptide containing the regulatory tyrosine 530 site. Src was hypophosphorylated in vivo at tyrosine 530 in at least two of the tumor cell lines, further suggesting that Src was being activated by a phosphatase in these cells. In preliminary immunoprecipitation and antibody depletion experiments, we were unable to correlate the major portion of this phosphatase activity with several known phosphatases.  (+info)

Gadd45, a p53-responsive stress protein, modifies DNA accessibility on damaged chromatin. (8/14921)

This report demonstrates that Gadd45, a p53-responsive stress protein, can facilitate topoisomerase relaxing and cleavage activity in the presence of core histones. A correlation between reduced expression of Gadd45 and increased resistance to topoisomerase I and topoisomerase II inhibitors in a variety of human cell lines was also found. Gadd45 could potentially mediate this effect by destabilizing histone-DNA interactions since it was found to interact directly with the four core histones. To evaluate this possibility, we investigated the effect of Gadd45 on preassembled mononucleosomes. Our data indicate that Gadd45 directly associates with mononucleosomes that have been altered by histone acetylation or UV radiation. This interaction resulted in increased DNase I accessibility on hyperacetylated mononucleosomes and substantial reduction of T4 endonuclease V accessibility to cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers on UV-irradiated mononucleosomes but not on naked DNA. Both histone acetylation and UV radiation are thought to destabilize the nucleosomal structure. Hence, these results imply that Gadd45 can recognize an altered chromatin state and modulate DNA accessibility to cellular proteins.  (+info)

There are two main types of hemolysis:

1. Intravascular hemolysis: This type occurs within the blood vessels and is caused by factors such as mechanical injury, oxidative stress, and certain infections.
2. Extravascular hemolysis: This type occurs outside the blood vessels and is caused by factors such as bone marrow disorders, splenic rupture, and certain medications.

Hemolytic anemia is a condition that occurs when there is excessive hemolysis of RBCs, leading to a decrease in the number of healthy red blood cells in the body. This can cause symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, pale skin, and shortness of breath.

Some common causes of hemolysis include:

1. Genetic disorders such as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia.
2. Autoimmune disorders such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA).
3. Infections such as malaria, babesiosis, and toxoplasmosis.
4. Medications such as antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and blood thinners.
5. Bone marrow disorders such as aplastic anemia and myelofibrosis.
6. Splenic rupture or surgical removal of the spleen.
7. Mechanical injury to the blood vessels.

Diagnosis of hemolysis is based on a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as complete blood count (CBC), blood smear examination, and direct Coombs test. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include supportive care, blood transfusions, and medications to suppress the immune system or prevent infection.

The symptoms of Alzheimer's disease can vary from person to person and may progress slowly over time. Early symptoms may include memory loss, confusion, and difficulty with problem-solving. As the disease progresses, individuals may experience language difficulties, visual hallucinations, and changes in mood and behavior.

There is currently no cure for Alzheimer's disease, but there are several medications and therapies that can help manage its symptoms and slow its progression. These include cholinesterase inhibitors, memantine, and non-pharmacological interventions such as cognitive training and behavioral therapy.

Alzheimer's disease is a significant public health concern, affecting an estimated 5.8 million Americans in 2020. It is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States, and its prevalence is expected to continue to increase as the population ages.

There is ongoing research into the causes and potential treatments for Alzheimer's disease, including studies into the role of inflammation, oxidative stress, and the immune system. Other areas of research include the development of biomarkers for early detection and the use of advanced imaging techniques to monitor progression of the disease.

Overall, Alzheimer's disease is a complex and multifactorial disorder that poses significant challenges for individuals, families, and healthcare systems. However, with ongoing research and advances in medical technology, there is hope for improving diagnosis and treatment options in the future.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

There are several types of melanoma, including:

1. Superficial spreading melanoma: This is the most common type of melanoma, accounting for about 70% of cases. It usually appears as a flat or slightly raised discolored patch on the skin.
2. Nodular melanoma: This type of melanoma is more aggressive and accounts for about 15% of cases. It typically appears as a raised bump on the skin, often with a darker color.
3. Acral lentiginous melanoma: This type of melanoma affects the palms of the hands, soles of the feet, or nail beds and accounts for about 5% of cases.
4. Lentigo maligna melanoma: This type of melanoma usually affects the face and is more common in older adults.

The risk factors for developing melanoma include:

1. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure from the sun or tanning beds
2. Fair skin, light hair, and light eyes
3. A history of sunburns
4. Weakened immune system
5. Family history of melanoma

The symptoms of melanoma can vary depending on the type and location of the cancer. Common symptoms include:

1. Changes in the size, shape, or color of a mole
2. A new mole or growth on the skin
3. A spot or sore that bleeds or crusts over
4. Itching or pain on the skin
5. Redness or swelling around a mole

If melanoma is suspected, a biopsy will be performed to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment options for melanoma depend on the stage and location of the cancer and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these. Early detection and treatment are key to successful outcomes in melanoma cases.

In conclusion, melanoma is a type of skin cancer that can be deadly if not detected early. It is important to practice sun safety, perform regular self-exams, and seek medical attention if any suspicious changes are noticed on the skin. By being aware of the risk factors, symptoms, and treatment options for melanoma, individuals can take steps to protect themselves from this potentially deadly disease.

There are two main types of heart failure:

1. Left-sided heart failure: This occurs when the left ventricle, which is the main pumping chamber of the heart, becomes weakened and is unable to pump blood effectively. This can lead to congestion in the lungs and other organs.
2. Right-sided heart failure: This occurs when the right ventricle, which pumps blood to the lungs, becomes weakened and is unable to pump blood effectively. This can lead to congestion in the body's tissues and organs.

Symptoms of heart failure may include:

* Shortness of breath
* Fatigue
* Swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet
* Swelling in the abdomen
* Weight gain
* Coughing up pink, frothy fluid
* Rapid or irregular heartbeat
* Dizziness or lightheadedness

Treatment for heart failure typically involves a combination of medications and lifestyle changes. Medications may include diuretics to remove excess fluid from the body, ACE inhibitors or beta blockers to reduce blood pressure and improve blood flow, and aldosterone antagonists to reduce the amount of fluid in the body. Lifestyle changes may include a healthy diet, regular exercise, and stress reduction techniques. In severe cases, heart failure may require hospitalization or implantation of a device such as an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) or a left ventricular assist device (LVAD).

It is important to note that heart failure is a chronic condition, and it requires ongoing management and monitoring to prevent complications and improve quality of life. With proper treatment and lifestyle changes, many people with heart failure are able to manage their symptoms and lead active lives.

Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.

Types of Neoplasms

There are many different types of neoplasms, including:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms

The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:

1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms

The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:

1. Unusual lumps or swelling
2. Pain
3. Fatigue
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.

Prevention of Neoplasms

While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:

1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.

It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.

This list covers intracellular signaling peptides and proteins. For other protein-related codes, see List of MeSH codes ( ... smad1 protein MeSH D12.776.476.024.417.500.200 - smad2 protein MeSH D12.776.476.024.417.500.300 - smad3 protein MeSH D12.776. ... smad proteins, inhibitory MeSH D12.776.476.024.417.249.600 - smad6 protein MeSH D12.776.476.024.417.249.700 - smad7 protein ... rhoa gtp-binding protein MeSH D12.776.476.525.700.300 - rhob gtp-binding protein The list continues at List of MeSH codes ( ...
Deficiencies of intracellular signaling peptides and proteins). ... p21-activated kinase signalling, Ras signalling, MEK-ERK ... The Schwannomin-peptide consists of 595 amino acids. Comparison of Schwannomin with other proteins shows similarities to ... Stamenkovic I, Yu Q (September 2010). "Merlin, a "magic" linker between extracellular cues and intracellular signaling pathways ... Merlin regulates multiple proliferative signalling cascades such as receptor tyrosine kinase signalling, ...
... and Signal Transduction Core, to assist research involving intracellular Ca2+ measurements and protein-protein interactions. ... for protein and peptide sequencing and mass spectrometry analysis; ... "Signal Transduction Core Facility". Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation. Archived from the original on April 6, 2005. ... a therapy for people suffering from a rare and life-threatening blood disorder known as protein C deficiency. Research at OMRF ...
"The glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue exendin-4 reverses impaired intracellular Ca2+ signalling in steatotic hepatocytes". ... Serine/threonine-specific protein kinase Signal transduction Yasutomi Nishizuka, discovered protein kinase C Ccdc60 Wilson CH, ... membrane-bound receptor for activated protein kinase C proteins). The protein kinase C enzymes are known for their long-term ... In cell biology, Protein kinase C, commonly abbreviated to PKC (EC, is a family of protein kinase enzymes that are ...
Vexin does not contain any transmembrane domains or signal peptides suggesting that it is an intracellular protein. VXN has ... Vexin is predicted to be a nuclear protein, given the classical nuclear localization signal found at amino acids Lys191 to ... The isoelectric point of the protein is 10.42 which indicates the pH of the protein is basic. Vexin does contain a domain of ... Vexin is a protein encoded by VXN gene. VXN is found to be highly expressed in regions of the brain and spinal cord. VXN is ...
... are cell-penetrating peptides that act as intracellular modulators of signal transference from receptors to G proteins. ... A pepducin molecule consists of a short peptide derived from a GPCR intracellular loop tethered to a hydrophobic moiety. This ... employ lipidated fragments of intracellular G protein-coupled receptor loops to modulate GPCR action in targeted cell-signaling ... December 2006). "Distinct activity of peptide mimetic intracellular ligands (pepducins) for proteinase-activated receptor-1 in ...
Intracellular signal transduction is primarily mediated by the reversible phosphorylation of various signalling molecules by ... and peptides are sequenced and analyzed. The analysis of the entire complement of phosphorylated proteins in a cell is ... Therefore, even though phosphorylation dependent protein-protein interactions are very important, it is important to remember ... degradation of proteins and therefore cell signaling networks. With all of these modification results, it is estimated that ...
It often contains signal peptide sequences, "intracellular postal codes" that direct delivery of the protein to the proper ... signal peptides target proteins to the thylakoids. The N-terminal mitochondrial targeting peptide (mtTP) allows the protein to ... The signal peptide is typically removed at the destination by a signal peptidase. The N-terminal amino acid of a protein is an ... The N-terminal signal peptide is recognized by the signal recognition particle (SRP) and results in the targeting of the ...
... formed as a complex of Orai and Stim proteins. The rise in intracellular calcium initiates a signaling cascade culminating in ... The circulating half-life of peptides can be prolonged by coupling them to larger proteins or protein domains. By screening a ... MMP-23's C-terminal IgCAM domain shares sequence similarity with IgCAM domains in proteins known to mediate protein-protein and ... Related peptides form a conserved family of protein domains known as the ShkT domain. Another well-studied toxin of the family ...
"The glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue exendin-4 reverses impaired intracellular Ca2+ signalling in steatotic hepatocytes". ... Not all protein kinases respond to cAMP. Several classes of protein kinases, including protein kinase C, are not cAMP-dependent ... cAMP receptor protein), a transcription activator protein. The protein assumes its active shape and binds to a specific site ... cAMP is a second messenger, used for intracellular signal transduction, such as transferring into cells the effects of hormones ...
The protein does not contain signal peptides or mitochondrial targeting signals indicating the protein is not predicted to be ... C9orf43 is predicted to be intracellular with a nuclear localization signal that is conserved across orthologs. ... "Protein BLAST: search protein databases using a protein query". Retrieved 2018-05-05. EMBL-EBI. "EBI ... Kozlowski, Lukasz P. "IPC - ISOELECTRIC POINT CALCULATION OF PROTEINS AND PEPTIDES". Retrieved 2018-05-06. " ...
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) networks are the pathways and signaling of MAPK, which is a protein kinase that ... These receptors induce intracellular signal pathways within the plant cells, while also resulting in PAMP-triggered immunity. ... The flagellin, a peptide of flg22, triggers a rapid and strong activation of MPK3, MPK4, and MPK6. MPK4 and MPK6 can be ... MPK3 and MPK6 are very similar proteins and have a function as regulators in abscission, stomatal development, signaling ...
Deficiencies of intracellular signaling peptides and proteins, Cerebrovascular diseases, Skin conditions resulting from errors ... a consensus significant loss of betasheet structure of the Notch3 protein has been predicted using in silico analysis. MRIs ...
Deficiencies of intracellular signaling peptides and proteins, Rare genetic syndromes, Syndromes affecting the heart). ... The RPS6KA3 gene makes a protein that is involved with signaling within cells. Researchers believe that this protein helps ... The protein is involved in cell signaling pathways that are required for learning, the formation of long-term memories, and the ... Mutations in the RPS6KA3 disturb the function of the protein, but it is unclear how a lack of this protein causes the signs and ...
Deficiencies of intracellular signaling peptides and proteins, Genodermatoses, Syndromes, All stub articles, Dermatology stubs) ...
Deficiencies of intracellular signaling peptides and proteins, Rare diseases, Central nervous system disorders, Genodermatoses) ... patients with Lhermitte-Duclos disease often have mutations in enzymes involved in the Akt/PKB signaling pathway, which plays a ...
Deficiencies of intracellular signaling peptides and proteins, Rare diseases). ... The SH3BP2 protein is involved with chemical signaling to immune system cells known as macrophages and B cells.[citation needed ... but researchers believe that the abnormal protein disrupts critical signaling pathways in cells associated with the maintenance ... The overactive protein likely causes inflammation in the jaw bones and triggers the production of osteoclasts, which are cells ...
Deficiencies of intracellular signaling peptides and proteins, Diseases of liver). ...
Deficiencies of intracellular signaling peptides and proteins, Hereditary cancers, Rare syndromes, Epidermal nevi, neoplasms, ... Thus, in the absence of this protein, cancerous cells are more likely to develop, survive, and proliferate. Recently, it was ... "Germline PTEN promoter mutations and deletions in Cowden/Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome result in aberrant PTEN protein and ... discovered that germline heterozygous mutations in SEC23B, a component of coat protein complex II vesicles secreted from the ...
Deficiencies of intracellular signaling peptides and proteins, Developmental neuroscience, Enzyme defects, Genodermatoses, ... in genes that alter the Ras subfamily and mitogen-activated protein kinases that control signal transduction,[citation needed] ...
Deficiencies of intracellular signaling peptides and proteins, Gynaecological neoplasia, Syndromes affecting the ... Universal protein resource accession number Q15831 for "Serine/threonine-protein kinase STK11" at UniProt. Riegert-Johnson, ...
Deficiencies of intracellular signaling peptides and proteins, Neurological disorders, Neuro-cardio-facial-cutaneous syndromes ... Additionally, being such a large protein, more active domains of the protein have been identified. One such domain interacts ... Homology studies have shown that neurofibromin is 30% similar to proteins in the GTPase activating protein (GAP) family. This ... which plays a role in cell signaling. The Neurofibromin 1 gene is a negative regulator of the Ras oncogene signal transduction ...
Deficiencies of intracellular signaling peptides and proteins, Soft tissue disorders, Melanocytic nevi and neoplasms, Syndromes ...
... and generate intracellular signals using a conserved family of proteins called SMADs. They play fundamental roles in the ... TGF-beta-1 is a peptide of 112 amino acid residues derived by proteolytic cleavage from the C-terminal of a precursor protein. ... These proteins interact with a conserved family of cell surface serine/threonine-specific protein kinase receptors, ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Developmental genes and proteins, TGFβ domain, Protein ...
... including a 23-amino acid signal peptide essential for secretion (this is cleaved off before the protein becomes functional), ... RS1 also plays a role in the regulation on intracellular MAP kinase signalling. The retinoschisin monomer is 224 amino acids ... the X-linked retinoschisis protein, is a secreted photoreceptor protein, and is expressed and released by Weri-Rb1 cells". ... It is a soluble, cell-surface protein that plays an important role in the maintenance of the retina where it is expressed and ...
... at nanomolar concentrations to a receptor that is likely G-protein-coupled. The signal activates Ca2+-dependent intracellular ... a C-peptide, a B-chain, and a signal sequence. The signal sequence is cleaved from the N-terminus of the peptide by a signal ... Hills CE, Brunskill NJ (2008). "Intracellular signalling by C-peptide". Experimental Diabetes Research. 2008: 635158. doi: ... "C-peptide - Creative Peptides -". AdisInsight. Retrieved 22 October 2016. "C-peptide - Eli Lilly". AdisInsight. Retrieved 22 ...
... of endosymbiosis by showing how protein addressing signals to intracellular organelles would derive from antimicrobial peptides ... Acta, (1999) 1411, p. 21-85 Vallon O., Wollman F.-A. & Olive J., « Lateral distribution of the main protein complexes of the ... of translation for certain photosynthesis proteins that are only produced if they can be assembled in a functional protein ... biochemical and structural biology approaches to establish an exhaustive mapping of the composition of photosynthesis proteins ...
... where it partakes in intracellular signaling, protein transport, and transcription regulation. In hemopoietic cells, ... PPIases catalyze the cis-trans isomerization of proline imidic peptide bonds in oligopeptides and accelerate protein folding. ... The protein can also interact with several HIV proteins, including p55 gag, Vpr, and capsid protein, and has been shown to be ... PPIA may also activate Akt and NF-κB signaling, resulting in the upregulation of Bcl-2, an antiapoptotic protein, and thus ...
The human CLIP4 protein is localized within the cellular nuclear membrane. CLIP4 does not have a signal peptide due to its ... intracellular localization. It also does not have N-linked glycosylation sites for that same reason. CLIP4 is not cleaved. ... Protein - NCBI". Retrieved 2020-05-03. "CLIP4 protein expression summary - The Human Protein Atlas". ... The CLIP4 protein is also predicted to interact with various microtubule-associated proteins. As a result, it is likely that ...
Signal peptides serve as targeting signals, enabling cellular transport machinery to direct proteins to specific intracellular ... Consequently, most mature proteins do not contain signal peptides. While most signal peptides are found at the N-terminal, in ... After a protein has reached its destination, the signal peptide is generally cleaved by a signal peptidase. ... Phobius predicts signal peptides based on a supplied primary sequence. SignalP predicts signal peptide cleavage sites. LOCtree ...
Thuveson M, Albrecht D, Zürcher G, Andres AC, Ziemiecki A (April 1995). "iyk, a novel intracellular protein tyrosine kinase ... Src (gene) has been shown to interact with the following signaling pathways: PI3K Akt IKK NFkB Caspase 9 STAT3 p38 MAPK VEGF IL ... Both the N-terminally attached myristic acid and the peptide sequences of the unique region are involved in the interaction. ... c-Src can be activated by many transmembrane proteins that include: adhesion receptors, receptor tyrosine kinases, G-protein ...
The proline-rich stretches are typical binding sites for SH3 proteins, which can regulate intracellular teneurin signalling ... The peptide cleaved from the C terminal of Ten-m3, TCAP-3, stimulates the production of cAMP and the proliferation of neurons. ... A conserved family of transmembrane proteins involved in intercellular signaling during development". Developmental Biology. ... The proteins were called Ten-ms in zebrafish, teneurins in chicken, Ten-m1-4, Odz1-4, Ten-m/Odz1-4, DOC4 in mouse, neurestin in ...
Proteins are made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain joined by peptide bonds. Many proteins are enzymes that catalyze ... Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell ... Wernegreen JJ (December 2005). "For better or worse: genomic consequences of intracellular mutualism and parasitism". Current ... Amino acids are made into proteins by being joined in a chain of peptide bonds. Each different protein has a unique sequence of ...
Granulysin (GNLY) is a protein expressed in most mammals which functions as an antimicrobial peptide released by killer ... which likely induce the signaling pathway necessary for the eventual translation of this protein, are unknown. Granulysin is ... June 2014). "Cytotoxic cells kill intracellular bacteria through granulysin-mediated delivery of granzymes". Cell. 157 (6): ... It exists in its own granule after translation, and release of the protein is triggered by Protein Kinase C (PKC). Its C- and N ...
... proteins are digested into peptides for MHC class I antigen presentation. To meet such complicated demands in biological ... Redox Signaling. 21 (17): 2322-43. doi:10.1089/ars.2013.5823. PMC 4241867. PMID 25133688. Wang ZV, Hill JA (Feb 2015). "Protein ... As the degradation machinery that is responsible for ~70% of intracellular proteolysis, proteasome complex (26S proteasome) ... To recognize protein as designated substrate, 19S complex has subunits that are capable to recognize proteins with a special ...
Genes involved in controlling cell death encode proteins with three distinct functions: "Killer" proteins are required for a ... This can lead to problems for a cell, or it may lead to a cell receiving a signal to undergo apoptosis. Below are a couple of ... "Identification of ICAD-derived Peptides Capable of Inhibiting Caspase-activated DNase." FEBS Journal 279.16 (2012): 2917-928. ... blood cell fragmentation A fragmented red blood cell is known as a schistocyte and is generally the result of an intracellular ...
... in different intracellular compartments. Protein-protein interactions play a very important role in Na⁺-K⁺ pump-mediated signal ... July 2009). "NaKtide, a Na/K-ATPase-derived peptide Src inhibitor, antagonizes ouabain-activated signal transduction in ... this membrane protein can also relay extracellular ouabain-binding signalling into the cell through regulation of protein ... The downstream signals through ouabain-triggered protein phosphorylation events include activation of the mitogen-activated ...
The protein has N- and C- terminal carbohydrate-binding domains connected by a link peptide. Multiple alternatively spliced ... This signaling cascade directly links Galectin-9 intracellular function with ubiqutin systems. Galectin-9, through its ... However, it can also interact with other proteins (CLEC7A, CD137, CD40). For example, an interaction with CD40 on T-cells ... Galectin-9 was first isolated from mouse embryonic kidney in 1997 as a 36 kDa beta-galactoside lectin protein. Human galectin-9 ...
McCarty N, Paust S, Ikizawa K, Dan I, Li X, Cantor H. Signaling by MINK plays an essential role in negative selection of ... J Exp Med 145: 1-9. Rao A, Ko WW, Faas SJ, Cantor H. Binding of antigen in the absence of histocompatibility proteins by ... central role of intracellular Osteopontin. Immunity 29: 68-78. † equal contributors Dana-Farber Cancer Institute profile [1] ... Resistance to herpes stromal keratitis conferred by an IgG2a-derived peptide. Nature 376: 431-434. Weber GF, Ashkar S, Glimcher ...
The low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) is a mosaic protein of 839 amino acids (after removal of 21-amino acid signal ... Synthesis of receptors in the cell is regulated by the level of free intracellular cholesterol; if it is in excess for the ... peptide) that mediates the endocytosis of cholesterol-rich low-density lipoprotein (LDL). It is a cell-surface receptor that ... This protein belongs to the LDLR family and is made up of a number of functionally distinct domains, including 3 EGF-like ...
2004). "Analysis of a high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system and its use to predict the function of intracellular proteins ... 2002). "Cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF)-derived peptides can induce HLA-A2-restricted and tumor-specific ... processing signal AAUAAA". EMBO J. 10 (13): 4241-9. doi:10.1002/j.1460-2075.1991.tb05002.x. PMC 453176. PMID 1756731. Thuresson ... Cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor subunit 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CPSF1 gene. In most ...
... these poisons also include peptides and proteins. An example of a toxic peptide is alpha-amanitin, which is found in relatives ... Since the drug decreases the activity of the enzyme that halts the signal, it makes this signal last for a longer period of ... "Intracellular Transport and Cytotoxicity of the Protein Toxin Ricin". Toxins. 11 (6): 350. doi:10.3390/toxins11060350. PMC ... "Peptide inhibitors of protein kinases-discovery, characterisation and use". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Proteins and ...
NOD2 proteins recognize intracellular MDP (muramyl dipeptide), which is a peptidoglycan constituent of both Gram positive and ... BDCA2 signaling via ITAM and signaling through ITIM belong among the TLR-dependent signaling. TLR-independent signaling such as ... bacterial peptides (flagellin, microtubule elongation factors), peptidoglycans and lipoteichoic acids (from Gram-positive ... NODs transduce signals in the pathway of NF-κB and MAP kinases via the serine-threonine kinase called RIP2. NODs signal via N- ...
In order to properly fold non-native proteins, Hsp70 chaperones interact with the hydrophobic peptide segments of proteins in ... Ultimately, its role in protein folding contributes to its function in signal transduction, apoptosis, protein homeostasis, and ... Effects on the intracellular distribution of heat-shock protein 70, intermediate filaments, and small nuclear ribonucleoprotein ... Heat shock 70 kDa protein 8 also known as heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein or Hsc70 or Hsp73 is a heat shock protein that in ...
The Metridia longa secreted luciferase gene encodes a 24 kDa protein containing an N-terminal secretory signal peptide of 17 ... intracellular pH and transparency of overlying tissue, in addition to the amount of luciferase. Luciferase is a heat-sensitive ... Massoud TF, Paulmurugan R, De A, Ray P, Gambhir SS (Feb 2007). "Reporter gene imaging of protein-protein interactions in living ... protein that is used in studies on protein denaturation, testing the protective capacities of heat shock proteins. The ...
... the intracellular domains of tight junctions interact with different scaffold proteins, adapter proteins and signaling ... Näslund, Erik; Hellström, Per M. (10 September 2007). "Appetite signaling: from gut peptides and enteric nerves to brain". ... They are formed by interactions between intracellular adapter proteins, transmembrane proteins and the actin cytoskeletons of ... These interactions include those between proteins in the same membrane ("cis") and proteins in adjacent cells ("trans"). In ...
Influences intracellular trafficking and subcellular distribution with a target peptide sequence. (E) Ligand binding domain ( ... Nuclear receptors are multifunctional proteins that transduce signals of their cognate ligands. Nuclear receptors (NRs) may be ... to nuclear receptors induces a conformation of the receptor that preferentially binds coactivator proteins. These proteins ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-1178. Bibcode: ...
The actions of the Na-K-ATPase enzyme relate with the creation of calcium-signaling microdomains. Na-K-ATPase is a protein that ... Francis, A. A.; Mehta, B.; Zenisek, D. (2011). "Development of new peptide-based tools for studying synaptic ribbon function". ... They are found immediately around the intracellular opening of calcium channels; when a calcium channel opens, the Ca2+ ... Calcium is also regulated using this Na-K-ATPase due to the enzyme's interactions with protein and non-protein molecules. The ...
Additionally, they have been known to interact with the cytoskeleton adaptor protein, CAP/ponsin, suggesting cell signalling ... The intracellular domains of Ten-a, Ten-m/Odz and C. elegans TEN-1 are significantly different, both in size and structure, ... A peptide derived from the terminus of the extracellular domain shares structural homology with certain neuropeptides. There ... a conserved family of transmembrane proteins involved in intercellular signaling during development". Dev. Biol. 290 (2): 237- ...
van der Geer P, Pawson T (1995). "The PTB domain: a new protein module implicated in signal transduction". Trends Biochem. Sci ... "The intracellular cytoplasmic domain of the Alzheimer's disease amyloid precursor protein interacts with phosphotyrosine- ... Sumioka A, Imoto S, Martins RN, Kirino Y, Suzuki T (2003). "XB51 isoforms mediate Alzheimer's beta-amyloid peptide production ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the X11 protein family. It is a neuronal adaptor protein that interacts with ...
Overall, the SNX8 protein is integrated by one unique peptide chain that has 465 amino acids with a molecular mass of 52.569 Da ... participating in endocytosis and endosomal sorting and signaling. It downregulates retrograde transport of intracellular ... are involved in protein-protein interactions. The SNX8 protein, even though is very similar to the other sorting nexins, ... The SNX8 is a sorting nexin protein involved in intracellular molecular traffic from the early endosomes to the TGN. It is ...
Agouti-related protein and Agouti-signaling protein are antagonist peptides to MC2R. ACTH receptor is primarily found in the ... In the third intracellular loop of the receptor a protein kinase A and protein kinase c phosphorylation motifs have been ... There are currently no available protein X-ray crystallography structures for the ACTH receptor available in the Protein Data ... receptor accessory protein necessary for dual topology and MC2 receptor trafficking and signaling". The Journal of Biological ...
... absence of a signal peptide, and a serine rather than an asparagine residue at the penultimate position. GRCh38: Ensembl ... Serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade B (ovalbumin), member 10 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SERPINB10 gene. The ... Evidence for the formation of intracellular high M(r) protease inhibitor 10-containing complexes". The Journal of Biological ... "Novel pancreatic beta cell-specific proteins: antibody-based proteomics for identification of new biomarker candidates". ...
"Multiple signal input and output domains of the 160-kilodalton nuclear receptor coactivator proteins". Mol. Cell. Biol. 19 (9 ... 3-3-dependent intracellular relocalization of the corepressor RIP140". Mol. Endocrinol. 15 (4): 501-11. doi:10.1210/mend.15.4. ... "Interaction of transcriptional intermediary factor 2 nuclear receptor box peptides with the coactivator binding site of ... The nuclear receptor coactivator 2 also known as NCoA-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NCOA2 gene. NCoA-2 is ...
... an adipokine protein; relative potencies in binding to and activating CMKLR1 are: resolvin E1>chemerin C-terminal peptide>18R- ... and thereby result in different changes in intracellular signaling (only the TP receptor α is expressed in mice). Activation of ... Most of the eicosanoid receptors are integral membrane protein G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that bind and respond to ... acting as an Autocrine signalling molecule) or on nearby cells (acting as a Paracrine signalling molecule) to trigger ...
Lee MO, Kang HJ, Cho H, Shin EC, Park JH, Kim SJ (November 2001). "Hepatitis B virus X protein induced expression of the Nur77 ... Philips A, Lesage S, Gingras R, Maira MH, Gauthier Y, Hugo P, Drouin J (October 1997). "Novel dimeric Nur77 signaling mechanism ... Nuclear receptor 4A1 (NR4A1) is a member of the NR4A nuclear receptor family of intracellular transcription factors. NR4A1 is ... peptide hormones, phorbol esters, and neurotransmitters" and physical stimuli including "magnetic fields, mechanical agitation ...
Glutamate binding to NMDA upregulates the production of N-cadherin's intracellular domain peptide, N-cad/CTF2, an effect ... By forming complexes with intracellular catenin proteins, neural cadherins (N-cadherins) serve as a link between synaptic ... Additionally, BDNF/TrkB signaling leads to the phosphorylation of β-catenin at its Y654 site, causing the β-catenin-cadherin ... A common binding partner for Cadherins are intracellular catenin proteins, specifically the three different subtypes, α- ...
... On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from ... Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins. proteins and peptides that are involved in signal transduction within the cell. ... Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and ... are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of transcription factors and cellular processes in response to signals ...
Carrier proteins. Intracellular signaling peptides and proteins QU 55 QU 55.3 Cytoskeletal proteins. Scleroproteins QU 55 ... The general class number for proteins, QU 55, was subdivided in order to parallel the arrangement of the MeSH thesaurus and ... NLM believes these new numbers for categories of proteins provide a more coherent shelf arrangement of works in this broad ... Proteins and bacteria were the major areas revised for the 2006 edition. ...
Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH ... Intracellular processing of vitamin B12 by MMACHC (CblC). Hannibal L, Jacobsen DW. Hannibal L, et al. Vitam Horm. 2022;119:275- ... Epimutations in both the TESK2 and MMACHC promoters in the Epi-cblC inherited disorder of intracellular metabolism of vitamin B ... Epimutations in both the TESK2 and MMACHC promoters in the Epi-cblC inherited disorder of intracellular metabolism of vitamin B ...
Phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein. *EDARADD. *PRKCSH. see also deficiencies of intracellular signaling peptides and ... It is often part of the G protein signaling cascade that is activated by low intracellular calcium levels and inhibited by high ... This causes less intracellular calcium, which stimulates guanylate cyclase-activating proteins (GCAPs). Studies have shown that ... "Differential calcium signaling by cone specific guanylate cyclase-activing proteins from the zebrafish retina". PLOS ONE. 6 (8 ...
Drosophila Proteins * Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins * Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases * hpo protein, ... and identified Hpo-dependent and Hpo-independent signalling requirements. Network analysis of known protein-protein ... Topology-driven protein-protein interaction network analysis detects genetic sub-networks regulating reproductive capacity ... We previously showed that Hippo signalling, a conserved regulator of animal organ size, regulates ovariole number in Drosophila ...
Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins. Models, Neurological. Orientation. Visual Cortex. Visual Fields ...
... response to peptide hormone stimulus; eye photoreceptor cell development; intracellular signal transduction; negative ... intracellular protein kinase cascade; enzyme linked receptor protein signaling pathway; protein phosphorylation. ... integrin-mediated signaling pathway; G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway; epidermal growth factor receptor signaling ... Ras protein signal transduction; cell-cell signaling; axon guidance; aging; insulin receptor signaling pathway; blood ...
Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH ... Secreted frizzled-related protein 3 was genetically and functionally associated with developmental dysplasia of the hip. Xu R, ... Age-dependent changes in protein incorporation into collagen-rich tissues of mice by in vivo pulsed SILAC labelling. Ariosa- ... Analyses for FRZB polymorphisms and haplotypes did not reveal any statistically significant signals, except for a borderline ...
Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH ...
Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors* Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH ... An alternative may be the use of everolimus, which inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin, a protein regulated by gene ...
... and Tel2 interacting protein 1 (TTI1) are the three components of the conserved Triple T (TTT) complex that modulates activity ... of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related protein kinases (PIKKs), including mTOR, ATM, and ATR, by regulat … ... Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH ... Telomere maintenance 2 (TELO2), Tel2 interacting protein 2 (TTI2), and Tel2 interacting protein 1 (TTI1) are the three ...
Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH ... Zhou TB, Zhao HL, Fang SL, Drummen GP. Zhou TB, et al. J Recept Signal Transduct Res. 2014 Dec;34(6):469-75. doi: 10.3109/ ... Epub 2014 May 19. J Recept Signal Transduct Res. 2014. PMID: 24840097 Review. ...
... is effective in vitro in preventing cell death induced by AD-causative genes and amyloid-β protein (Aβ) even at a low ... Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / therapeutic use* Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH ... The Role of Mitochondria-Derived Peptides in Cardiovascular Diseases and Their Potential as Therapeutic Targets. Dabravolski SA ... Cofilin 2 Acts as an Inflammatory Linker Between Chronic Periodontitis and Alzheimers Disease in Amyloid Precursor Protein/ ...
Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; Lead Poisoning, Nervous System/physiopathology*; Lead Poisoning, Nervous System/ ... therapy*; Membrane Proteins; Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics; Rats; Rats, Long-Evans; Receptors, AMPA/genetics; Receptors, N- ... MeSH Terms: Age Factors; Animals; Body Weight; Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/genetics; Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein ... Disks Large Homolog 4 Protein; Environment*; Female; Gene Expression; Hippocampus/physiology; ...
Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins. 1. 2010. 2977. 0.050. Why? Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing. 1. 2010. 2973. ...
Phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein. *EDARADD. *PRKCSH. see also deficiencies of intracellular signaling peptides and ... "Association of protein kinase A and protein phosphatase 2B with a common anchoring protein". Science. 267 (5194): 108-11. doi: ... Calcineurin (CaN) is a calcium and calmodulin dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase (also known as protein phosphatase ... Crabtree GR (1999). "Generic signals and specific outcomes: signaling through Ca2+, calcineurin, and NF-AT". Cell. 96 (5): 611- ...
... proteins are activated by C-peptide binding to a GPCR. Despite being ignored for many years it is now clear that C-peptide ... Proinsulin C-peptide : activation of intracellular signalling pathways and modulation of transcription factors in opossum ... The aim of this thesis was to study the intracellular signalling pathways and the transcription factors that C-peptide ... Using specific inhibitors and phospho-specific antibodies, intracellular signalling pathways activated by C-peptide were ...
CD2BP2-GYF domain in complex with proline-rich CD2 tail segment peptide ... Intracellular protein interaction domains are essential for eukaryotic signaling. In T cells, the CD2BP2 adaptor binds two ... Intracellular protein interaction domains are essential for eukaryotic signaling. In T cells, the CD2BP2 adaptor binds two ... CD2 ANTIGEN (CYTOPLASMIC TAIL)-BINDING PROTEIN 2. A. 62. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: CD2BP2 (amino acids 280-341) ...
Examples of responsive projects include, but are not limited to: o Studies of the intracellular signaling pathways activated ... Protein chips that can simultaneously identify large numbers of proteins, although more difficult to produce and to handle than ... peptide labeling, SELDI-TOF, multi- dimensional chromatographic technologies (such as coupling LC-LC with MS/MS), antibody ... o Studies characterizing protein-protein interactions and their consequences on inflammation in the gingiva. o Quantitative ...
By mass spectrometry, we determined that the intracellular concentration of VPTLK ranged from 20 nM to 6.0 mM when the cells ... To determine the protein-transduction activity of CPP5s, the Tex-LoxP EG cell line, which has a Cre-inducible green fluorescent ... VPTLK and KLPVM were added to the N-terminus of Cre, and these fusion proteins were added to the culture medium of Tex-LoxP EG ... Both VPTLK-Cre and KLPVM-Cre were able to turn on GFP expression in these cells, suggesting that CPP5s have protein- ...
Efforts have also been made to alter intracellular signaling by introducing active portions of Bcl-xL fused to carrier peptides ... Yersinia outer proteins: role in modulation of host cell signaling responses and pathogenesis.Annu Rev Microbiol. 2005;59:69-89 ... YopH protein inhibits T cell activation by blocking early phosphorylation events necessary for signal transduction through the ... A large number of cell-surface and cytoplasmic proteins participate in the detection and processing of signals that tip the ...
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins [D12.776.467] * Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins [D12.776.476] * 3, ... Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins [D12.644.276] * Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins [D12.644.360] * ... do not confuse with SIGNAL PEPTIDES see PROTEIN SORTING SIGNALS; INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS is also ... Intracellular Signaling Peptides Narrower Concept UI. M0461969. Registry Number. 0. Terms. Intracellular Signaling Peptides ...
... structure of importin-α bound to a peptide bearing the nuclear localisation signal from chloride intracellular channel protein ... Identification of a functional nuclear localization signal within the human USP22 protein.. Xiong J; Wang Y; Gong Z; Liu J; Li ... Nuclear localization signal and protein context both mediate importin alpha specificity of nuclear import substrates. ... A ligand-activated nuclear localization signal in cellular retinoic acid binding protein-II.. Sessler RJ; Noy N. Mol Cell; 2005 ...
Peptides [D12.644]. *Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins [D12.644.360]. *Monomeric GTP-Binding Proteins [D12.644. ... "rab1 GTP-Binding Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "rab1 GTP-Binding Proteins" by people in this website by year, ... TBC1D20 is a Rab1 GTPase-activating protein that mediates hepatitis C virus replication. J Biol Chem. 2007 Dec 14; 282(50): ...
cAMP acts as an intracellular signaling molecule by activating cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase. ... Collagenase -- An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the peptide bonds in triple helical regions of collagen molecules. ... G proteins -- A protein with GTPase activity that binds GTP, which activates the protein. The intrinsic GTPase activity ... Signal transduction -- Mechanisms by which a biochemical signal generated by a hormone or neurotransmitter causes a biological ...
Using the amide proton signals of intracellular proteins and peptides to detect pH effects in MRI. J Zhou, JF Payen, DA Wilson ... between glioma and radiation necrosis using molecular magnetic resonance imaging of endogenous proteins and peptides. J Zhou, E ...
cAMP acts as an intracellular signaling molecule by activating cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase. ... Collagenase -- An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the peptide bonds in triple helical regions of collagen molecules. ... G proteins -- A protein with GTPase activity that binds GTP, which activates the protein. The intrinsic GTPase activity ... Signal transduction -- Mechanisms by which a biochemical signal generated by a hormone or neurotransmitter causes a biological ...
Binds to a dimeric growth hormone receptor in the cell membrane of target cells, resulting in intracellular signal transduction ... it is based on a protein technology commonly used to formulate long-acting insulins and glucagonlike peptide-1 ... Metabolized via proteolytic cleavage of the linker sequence between the peptide backbone and albumin binder sidechain ...
Intracellular Signaling Peptides. Intracellular Signaling Proteins. Peptides, Intracellular Signaling. Proteins, Intracellular ... Peptides, Intracellular Signaling Signaling Peptides, Intracellular Intracellular Signaling Proteins - Narrower Concept UI. ... Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins - Preferred Concept UI. M0460178. Scope note. Proteins and peptides that are ... do not confuse with SIGNAL PEPTIDES see PROTEIN SORTING SIGNALS; INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS is also ...
  • All C-peptide effects were abolished by pretreatment with PTX implicating a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR), to either Goii or GOo, in the transduction of these events. (
  • In the present study, VPTLK and KLPVM, two representative CPP5s, were used to characterize the cell-penetration and protein-transduction activities of these small molecules. (
  • Signal transduction -- Mechanisms by which a biochemical signal generated by a hormone or neurotransmitter causes a biological effect inside a cell. (
  • It is an endogenous inhibitor of RAF KINASES and may play a role in regulating SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. (
  • sGC acts as an intracellular intermediary for regulating dopamine and glutamate. (
  • cAMP acts as an intracellular signaling molecule by activating cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase. (
  • To comprehensively determine how Hippo signalling interacts with other pathways in this regulation, we screened all known signalling pathway genes, and identified Hpo-dependent and Hpo-independent signalling requirements. (
  • The aim of this thesis was to study the intracellular signalling pathways and the transcription factors that C-peptide activates in proximal tubular cells using opossum kidney cells (OK) as a model. (
  • Using specific inhibitors and phospho-specific antibodies, intracellular signalling pathways activated by C-peptide were examined by kinase assay and Western blotting. (
  • It is an important component of some intracellular signaling pathways. (
  • These GTPases act as molecular switches in intracellular signaling pathways. (
  • ADP ribosylation factors (ARFs), which are members of the Ras superfamily of GTP-binding proteins, are critical components of vesicular trafficking pathways in eukaryotes. (
  • Amplifier -- One of several small intracellular mediators or enzymatic cascades that amplify extracellular signals. (
  • Of course, the docking site for neuregulin is also used by a variety of other molecules and is involved in the regulation of intracellular signalling cascades, primarily through the stimulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. (
  • The protective effects of C-peptide were associated with activation of nuclear factor kB (NFkB) and increased expression of TNF receptor-associated factor 2, the product of an NFkB-dependent survival gene. (
  • Cell Receptor, or discriminator point -- A chemical group or molecule, such as a protein, on a cell's surface or in the cell interior with an affinity for a specific chemical group, molecule, or virus. (
  • The primary mediator of Ca 2+ -dependent signaling in eukaryotic cells is calmodulin, which serves as a high affinity intracellular Ca 2+ receptor. (
  • PAPbeta, a protein that binds to and is phosphorylated by the non-receptor tyrosine kinase PYK2, contains several modular signaling domains including a pleckstrin homology domain, an SH3 domain, ankyrin repeats and an ARF-GAP domain. (
  • Neuregulin, or NRG1, is a group of protein ligands that act on the epidermal growth factor receptor family. (
  • Binding induces a conformational change in receptor intracellular domains and signaling involves Jak1, Jak2 and Stat1 (3). (
  • Mucin-4 may play a role in regulating cellular adhesion and in cell surface signaling from the ERBB-2 RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE. (
  • IFN-γ production by NK cells and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) promotes the cell-mediated adaptive immunity by inducing IFN-γ production by T lymphocytes, increasing expression of class I and class II MHC, and enhancing peptide antigen presentation (1). (
  • The results show that C-peptide is able to activate extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) and PKC-a. (
  • This unveils the mechanism of a switch of CD2 function due to an extracellular mitogenic signal. (
  • C-peptide stimulation of PPARy was attenuated by wortmannin pre-treatment, and by expression of a dominant negative PI 3-kinase p85 regulatory subunit (Ap85). (
  • C-peptide-induced PI 3-kinase dependent phosphorylation of PPARy. (
  • Neuregulin interacts with ErbB receptors, a subfamily of tyrosine kinase proteins found on the surface of cells. (
  • Most of the cell signalling happens through the stimulation of the Rar mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, the PI3K pathway and the PLC-gamma/PKC pathway. (
  • The p27(kip1) protein functions as an inhibitor of cyclin dependent kinase-2, and shows loss of expression in a large percentage of BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast cancer cases. (
  • The alpha and beta chains result from the proteolytic cleavage of a precursor protein. (
  • Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors. (
  • Membrane bound guanylate cyclases include an external ligand-binding domain (e.g., for peptide hormones such as BNP and ANP ), a transmembrane domain, and an internal catalytic domain homologous to adenylyl cyclases . (
  • C-peptide increased [35S]-GTPyS binding to Ga* in OK cell membranes. (
  • This study has now for the first time demonstrated specifically that Ga* proteins are activated by C-peptide binding to a GPCR. (
  • As the concentration of intracellular free Ca 2+ transiently rises, calmodulin undergoes a conformational change that allows it to bind to calmodulin-binding domains on a variety of proteins. (
  • Calmodulin-binding proteins typically contain either basic amphiphilic a-helices or IQ motifs. (
  • Moreover, we and others have demonstrated that transformed cells have altered levels of selected calmodulin-binding proteins. (
  • Phosphatidylethanolamine Binding Protein" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • Phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein is the precursor of hippocampal cholinergic neurostimulating peptide, which is cleaved from the N-terminal region of the protein. (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Phosphatidylethanolamine Binding Protein" by people in UAMS Profiles by year, and whether "Phosphatidylethanolamine Binding Protein" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Phosphatidylethanolamine Binding Protein" by people in Profiles over the past ten years. (
  • Intracellular protein interaction domains are essential for eukaryotic signaling. (
  • Network analysis of known protein-protein interactions among screen results identified independent gene regulatory sub-networks regulating one or both of ovariole number and egg laying. (
  • The anti-viral activity of IFN-γ is due to its induction of PKR and other regulatory proteins. (
  • Colivelin (CLN), a novel, strong humanin derivative, is effective in vitro in preventing cell death induced by AD-causative genes and amyloid-β protein (Aβ) even at a low concentration. (
  • It is estimated that the number of proteins to be examined is at least an order of magnitude greater than the number of genes, in part because proteins can undergo a variety of post- translational modifications. (
  • However, the precise molecular mechanisms of C-peptide action are not fully understood. (
  • Protein Engineering Group and Molecular Modeling Group, Forschungsinstitut für Molekulare Pharmakologie and Freie Universität Berlin, Robert-Rössle-Strasse 10, D-13125 Berlin, Germany. (
  • This FOA calls for adaptation of an ensemble of scalable technology platforms to characterize functions of proteins as a large group at molecular and cellular levels in medium- to high-throughput fashion, rather than repeating the "one at a time" approach that might otherwise be undertaken. (
  • Applications are invited to adapt well-established scalable technologies as well as innovative scalable approaches to enable swift, cost-effective, and robust interrogation of molecular and cellular functions of proteins. (
  • Calmodulin is a ubiquitous, highly conserved protein that plays a critical role in numerous essential cellular functions, including Ca 2+ transport, cell motility, cytoskeletal assembly, protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation, cell proliferation and cell cycle progression. (
  • In smooth muscle , cGMP is the signal for relaxation, and is coupled to many homeostatic mechanisms including regulation of vasodilation , vocal tone, insulin secretion , and peristalsis . (
  • Proteomics builds on and complements the knowledge gained from genomics by revealing the levels, activities, regulation and interactions of every protein in the cell. (
  • G proteins -- A protein with GTPase activity that binds GTP, which activates the protein. (
  • A ubiquitously found basic protein that binds to phosphatidylethanolamine and NUCLEOTIDES. (
  • Like cAMP , cGMP is an important second messenger that internalizes the message carried by intercellular messengers such as peptide hormones and nitric oxide and can also function as an autocrine signal . (
  • Calcineurin ( CaN ) is a calcium and calmodulin dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase (also known as protein phosphatase 3, and calcium-dependent serine-threonine phosphatase). (
  • The intrinsic GTPase activity eventually converts the GTP to GDP that activates the protein. (
  • To obtain more information of the functional domains of the NPC1 protein, the mutational spectrum and the level of immunoreactive protein were investigated in skin fibroblasts from 30 unrelated patients with Niemann-Pick C1 disease. (
  • Protein chips that can simultaneously identify large numbers of proteins, although more difficult to produce and to handle than DNA microarrays, offer insight into the patterns of proteins associated with health and disease. (
  • C-peptide induced concentration-dependent stimulation of PPARy activity. (
  • Stimulation with 300ng/ml TNF-a for 24 hours resulted in significant reduction of cell viability which was reversed by pretreatment with C-peptide. (
  • Western blot assay was used to measure the protein expression levels. (
  • The objective is to establish transformative scalable technology platforms and streamlined experimental workflows incorporated with multiple robust assay and physiological perturbation protocols for large-scale functional studies of poorly characterized and/or un-annotated proteins encoded by the Druggable Genome. (
  • Motivation: Phospholipid scramblases (PLSCRs) constitute a family of cytoplasmic membrane-associated proteins that were identified based upon their capacity to mediate a Ca2+-dependent bidirectional movement of phospholipids across membrane bilayers, thereby collapsing the normally asymmetric distribution of such lipids in cell membranes. (
  • The crystal structure of Ca 2+ -bound calmodulin has been solved both in the absence and presence of associated peptides. (
  • Because calmodulin is essential in normal cellular proliferation, abnormal cellular proliferation should exhibit alterations in levels of calmodulin, and/or its interactions with target proteins. (
  • Moreover, the composition of the proteome is dynamic and constantly changing in response to the environment and there are multiple possible interactions among proteins. (
  • Incubation of cells with 300ng/ml TNF-a for 24 hours induced apoptosis, but C-peptide pr-etreatment protected against TNF-a induced apoptosis. (
  • SNC 80 is a highly selective and potent non-peptide δ -opioid agonist, 2000-fold selective over μ -opioid receptors. (
  • Another potential signalling mechanism for the ErbB4 receptors is presenilin-dependant intramembrane proteolysis by gamma-secretase - a process that releases the C-terminal fragment, which signals to the nucleus of the target cells to regulate gene expression. (
  • Like Ras, ARFs are active in their GTP-bound form, and their duration of activity is controlled by GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs), which assist ARFs in hydrolyzing GTP to GDP. (
  • [1] Depending on cell type, it can drive adaptive/developmental changes requiring protein synthesis . (
  • GTP has a special role in microtubule assembly, protein synthesis, and cell signaling. (
  • The general class number for proteins, QU 55, was subdivided in order to parallel the arrangement of the MeSH thesaurus and better fit trends in the literature. (
  • Dr. Stephen Liggett from the University of Southern Florida and Dr. Deshpande made a curious and important discovery: muscle cells of the type that surround the airways (smooth muscle) express on their surface the same proteins that are used by the tongue to detect bitter foods. (
  • In recent years an increasingly substantial body of data, supports a role for C-peptide in several biological activities. (
  • Despite being ignored for many years it is now clear that C-peptide possesses important biological properties and may potentially protect against diabetic complications. (
  • Proteomics, the study of the proteome (i.e., the complete set of proteins expressed by the genome of an organism, cell or tissue type), seeks to unravel the biological complexity encoded by the genome. (
  • These transformative technology platforms should provide sensitivity, selectivity, scalability, spatiotemporal resolution and reproducibility in analyses of protein functions in complex biological tissues, living organisms, or another physiologically relevant system. (
  • C-peptide was found to be a functional mitogen in this cell type stimulating significantly increased cell proliferation. (
  • Previously, we developed cell-penetrating penta-peptides (CPP5s). (
  • ISGF3 is assembled in the CYTOPLASM and translocated to the CELL NUCLEUS in response to INTERFERON signaling. (
  • The protein, also sometimes called "glial growth factor," is required by organisms in the development of vertebrate eggs, the heart, Schwann cell differentiation, and neuronal development. (
  • Neuregulin, therefore, is a cell signalling protein which instructs cells to perform specific actions. (
  • It is a trophic factor which contains an epidermal growth factor: a chemical which signals to the body to create new cell growth in the dermal layer. (
  • Neuregulin is a type of protein which researchers believe plays a vital role in the development of the nervous system across a wide variety of species. (
  • Accepted 8 July 2019 able to crystallization, including intrinsically disordered proteins and weak complexes. (
  • This mechanism involves the relaying of a signal by conversion from one physical or chemical form to another. (
  • The overarching goals of this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) and the companion announcement ( RFA-RM-13-011 ) are to foster the development of technologies and information management to facilitate the unveiling of the functions of the poorly characterized and/or un-annotated members in four protein classes of the Druggable Genome. (
  • Increased intracellular cGMP has been shown to contribute to excessive neuron excitability and locomotor activity. (
  • High throughput structure determination using x-ray crystallography and identification using nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry are providing exciting insight into host and microbial proteins under different environmental conditions. (
  • It is often part of the G protein signaling cascade that is activated by low intracellular calcium levels and inhibited by high intracellular calcium levels. (
  • This causes less intracellular calcium, which stimulates guanylate cyclase-activating proteins (GCAPs). (
  • Collagenase -- An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the peptide bonds in triple helical regions of collagen molecules. (
  • The domains are frequently found as repeats in a single protein sequence and will then often bind both mono- and di-phosphorylated substrates. (
  • There are 58927 SH2 domains in 53279 proteins in SMART's nrdb database. (
  • C-peptide also substantially augmented ciglitazone-stimulated PPARy activity. (
  • GW9662, an irreversible PPARy antagonist, blocked PPARy activation by ciglitazone, but had no effect on C-peptide-stimulated PPARy activity. (
  • An alternative may be the use of everolimus, which inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin, a protein regulated by gene products involved in the tuberous sclerosis complex. (
  • high-resolution structural method of choice when a protein or pro- tein complex can be crystallized. (
  • Structural investigations are frequently hindered by difficulties in obtaining diffracting crystals of the target protein. (
  • C-peptide induced transient increase in [Ca2+]i but the response of cells was variable. (
  • C-peptide is able to protect against tumor necrosis factor-alpha- (TNF-a) induced proximal tubular cells toxicity. (
  • In particular, she is studying a protein in these cells called Miz1, which dampens the ability of epithelial cells to elicit inflammation. (
  • We previously showed that Hippo signalling, a conserved regulator of animal organ size, regulates ovariole number in Drosophila melanogaster . (

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