Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Peptides, Cyclic: Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Natriuretic Peptide, Brain: A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide: A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide: Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.Cell-Penetrating Peptides: Peptides that have the ability to enter cells by crossing the plasma membrane directly, or through uptake by the endocytotic pathway.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Peptide Biosynthesis: The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Peptide YY: A 36-amino acid peptide produced by the L cells of the distal small intestine and colon. Peptide YY inhibits gastric and pancreatic secretion.Peptide Nucleic Acids: DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.Natriuretic Peptide, C-Type: A PEPTIDE of 22 amino acids, derived mainly from cells of VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM. It is also found in the BRAIN, major endocrine glands, and other tissues. It shares structural homology with ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR. It has vasorelaxant activity thus is important in the regulation of vascular tone and blood flow. Several high molecular weight forms containing the 22 amino acids have been identified.Natriuretic Peptides: Peptides that regulate the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in the body, also known as natriuretic peptide hormones. Several have been sequenced (ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR; BRAIN NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE; C-TYPE NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE).Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Gastrin-Releasing Peptide: Neuropeptide and gut hormone that helps regulate GASTRIC ACID secretion and motor function. Once released from nerves in the antrum of the STOMACH, the neuropeptide stimulates release of GASTRIN from the GASTRIN-SECRETING CELLS.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Receptors, Formyl Peptide: A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that was originally identified by its ability to bind N-formyl peptides such as N-FORMYLMETHIONINE LEUCYL-PHENYLALANINE. Since N-formyl peptides are found in MITOCHONDRIA and BACTERIA, this class of receptors is believed to play a role in mediating cellular responses to cellular damage and bacterial invasion. However, non-formylated peptide ligands have also been found for this receptor class.Peptide PHI: A 27-amino acid peptide with histidine at the N-terminal and isoleucine amide at the C-terminal. The exact amino acid composition of the peptide is species dependent. The peptide is secreted in the intestine, but is found in the nervous system, many organs, and in the majority of peripheral tissues. It has a wide range of biological actions, affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and central nervous systems.Peptide Synthases: Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.Peptide Hydrolases: Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.Receptors, Peptide: Cell surface receptors that bind peptide messengers with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Atrial Natriuretic Factor: A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Protein PrecursorsTrypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 126.96.36.199.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Opioid Peptides: The endogenous peptides with opiate-like activity. The three major classes currently recognized are the ENKEPHALINS, the DYNORPHINS, and the ENDORPHINS. Each of these families derives from different precursors, proenkephalin, prodynorphin, and PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN, respectively. There are also at least three classes of OPIOID RECEPTORS, but the peptide families do not map to the receptors in a simple way.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Peptide Hormones: Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Molecular Mimicry: The structure of one molecule that imitates or simulates the structure of a different molecule.Glucagon-Like Peptide 1: A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Aptamers, Peptide: Peptide sequences, generated by iterative rounds of SELEX APTAMER TECHNIQUE, that bind to a target molecule specifically and with high affinity.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Receptors, Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide: Cell surface proteins that bind VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE; (VIP); with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Receptors, Atrial Natriuretic Factor: Cell surface proteins that bind ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. They contain intrinsic guanylyl cyclase activity.Amphibian Proteins: Proteins obtained from species in the class of AMPHIBIANS.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Salivary Proteins and Peptides: Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.Amyloid beta-Peptides: Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Melitten: Basic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It contains 26 amino acids, has cytolytic properties, causes contracture of muscle, releases histamine, and disrupts surface tension, probably due to lysis of cell and mitochondrial membranes.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Glucagon-Like Peptides: Peptides derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of pancreatic GLUCAGON. Despite expression of proglucagon in multiple tissues, the major production site of glucagon-like peptides (GLPs) is the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLPs include glucagon-like peptide 1, glucagon-like peptide 2, and the various truncated forms.Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Defensins: Family of antimicrobial peptides that have been identified in humans, animals, and plants. They are thought to play a role in host defenses against infections, inflammation, wound repair, and acquired immunity.Cyanogen Bromide: Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.Dipeptides: Peptides composed of two amino acid units.Magainins: A class of antimicrobial peptides discovered in the skin of XENOPUS LAEVIS. They kill bacteria by permeabilizing cell membranes without exhibiting significant toxicity against mammalian cells.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Receptors, Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide: Cell surface proteins that bind CALCITONIN GENE-RELATED PEPTIDE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. CGRP receptors are present in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and the periphery. They are formed via the heterodimerization of the CALCITONIN RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN and RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEIN 1.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Cathelicidins: Antimicrobial cationic peptides with a highly conserved amino terminal cathelin-like domain and a more variable carboxy terminal domain. They are initially synthesized as preproproteins and then cleaved. They are expressed in many tissues of humans and localized to EPITHELIAL CELLS. They kill nonviral pathogens by forming pores in membranes.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Mice, Inbred C57BLCarrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Mice, Inbred BALB CImmunodominant Epitopes: Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Endorphins: One of the three major groups of endogenous opioid peptides. They are large peptides derived from the PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN precursor. The known members of this group are alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin. The term endorphin is also sometimes used to refer to all opioid peptides, but the narrower sense is used here; OPIOID PEPTIDES is used for the broader group.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Bombesin: A tetradecapeptide originally obtained from the skins of toads Bombina bombina and B. variegata. It is also an endogenous neurotransmitter in many animals including mammals. Bombesin affects vascular and other smooth muscle, gastric secretion, and renal circulation and function.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Glucagon-Like Peptide 2: A 33-amino acid peptide derived from the C-terminal of PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. It stimulates intestinal mucosal growth and decreased apoptosis of ENTEROCYTES. GLP-2 enhances gastrointestinal function and plays an important role in nutrient homeostasis.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Receptors, Bombesin: Cell surface proteins that bind bombesin or closely related peptides with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Gastrin- releasing peptide (GRP); GRP 18-27 (neuromedin C), and neuromedin B are endogenous ligands of bombesin receptors in mammals.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Gastrointestinal Hormones: HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Disulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)beta-Defensins: DEFENSINS found mainly in epithelial cells.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Peptide Biosynthesis, Nucleic Acid-Independent: The enzymatic synthesis of PEPTIDES without an RNA template by processes that do not use the ribosomal apparatus (RIBOSOMES).Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Pyrrolidonecarboxylic Acid: A cyclized derivative of L-GLUTAMIC ACID. Elevated blood levels may be associated with problems of GLUTAMINE or GLUTATHIONE metabolism.Peptide T: N-(N-(N(2)-(N-(N-(N-(N-D-Alanyl L-seryl)-L-threonyl)-L-threonyl) L-threonyl)-L-asparaginyl)-L-tyrosyl) L-threonine. Octapeptide sharing sequence homology with HIV envelope protein gp120. It is potentially useful as antiviral agent in AIDS therapy. The core pentapeptide sequence, TTNYT, consisting of amino acids 4-8 in peptide T, is the HIV envelope sequence required for attachment to the CD4 receptor.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Invertebrate Hormones: Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.alpha-Defensins: DEFENSINS found in azurophilic granules of neutrophils and in the secretory granules of intestinal PANETH CELLS.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Bacteriocins: Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Amyloid: A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of AMYLOID PLAQUES are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Enkephalins: One of the three major families of endogenous opioid peptides. The enkephalins are pentapeptides that are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the adrenal medulla.Adrenomedullin: A 52-amino acid peptide with multi-functions. It was originally isolated from PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA and ADRENAL MEDULLA but is widely distributed throughout the body including lung and kidney tissues. Besides controlling fluid-electrolyte homeostasis, adrenomedullin is a potent vasodilator and can inhibit pituitary ACTH secretion.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Glycopeptides: Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.Substance P: An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.Isotope Labeling: Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.Protease Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).Trifluoroethanol: A non-aqueous co-solvent that serves as tool to study protein folding. It is also used in various pharmaceutical, chemical and engineering applications.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Surface Plasmon Resonance: A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.Receptors, Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide, Type II: A pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide receptor subtype found in LYMPHOCYTES. It binds both PACAP and VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE and regulates immune responses.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.PhosphopeptidesAlamethicin: A cyclic nonadecapeptide antibiotic that can act as an ionophore and is produced by strains of Trichoderma viride. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Phosphatidylglycerols: A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Neuropeptide Y: A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.FMRFamide: A molluscan neuroactive peptide which induces a fast excitatory depolarizing response due to direct activation of amiloride-sensitive SODIUM CHANNELS. (From Nature 1995; 378(6558): 730-3)Combinatorial Chemistry Techniques: A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Nerve Tissue ProteinsProtein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
The homeobox gene Pitx2: mediator of asymmetric left-right signaling in vertebrate heart and gut looping. (1/14921)Left-right asymmetry in vertebrates is controlled by activities emanating from the left lateral plate. How these signals get transmitted to the forming organs is not known. A candidate mediator in mouse, frog and zebrafish embryos is the homeobox gene Pitx2. It is asymmetrically expressed in the left lateral plate mesoderm, tubular heart and early gut tube. Localized Pitx2 expression continues when these organs undergo asymmetric looping morphogenesis. Ectopic expression of Xnr1 in the right lateral plate induces Pitx2 transcription in Xenopus. Misexpression of Pitx2 affects situs and morphology of organs. These experiments suggest a role for Pitx2 in promoting looping of the linear heart and gut. (+info)
Endocytosis: EH domains lend a hand. (2/14921)A number of proteins that have been implicated in endocytosis feature a conserved protein-interaction module known as an EH domain. The three-dimensional structure of an EH domain has recently been solved, and is likely to presage significant advances in understanding molecular mechanisms of endocytosis. (+info)
Sonic hedgehog signaling by the patched-smoothened receptor complex. (3/14921)BACKGROUND: The Hedgehog (Hh) family of secreted proteins is involved in a number of developmental processes as well as in cancer. Genetic and biochemical data suggest that the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) receptor is composed of at least two proteins: the tumor suppressor protein Patched (Ptc) and the seven-transmembrane protein Smoothened (Smo). RESULTS: Using a biochemical assay for activation of the transcription factor Gli, a downstream component of the Hh pathway, we show here that Smo functions as the signaling component of the Shh receptor, and that this activity can be blocked by Ptc. The inhibition of Smo by Ptc can be relieved by the addition of Shh. Furthermore, oncogenic forms of Smo are insensitive to Ptc repression in this assay. Mapping of the Smo domains required for binding to Ptc and for signaling revealed that the Smo-Ptc interaction involves mainly the amino terminus of Smo, and that the third intracellular loop and the seventh transmembrane domain are required for signaling. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that Smo is the signaling component of a multicomponent Hh receptor complex and that Ptc is a ligand-regulated inhibitor of Smo. Different domains of Smo are involved in Ptc binding and activation of a Gli reporter construct. The latter requires the third intracellular loop and the seventh transmembrane domain of Smo, regions often involved in coupling to G proteins. No changes in the levels of cyclic AMP or calcium associated with such pathways could be detected following receptor activation, however. (+info)
A Drosophila TNF-receptor-associated factor (TRAF) binds the ste20 kinase Misshapen and activates Jun kinase. (4/14921)Two families of protein kinases that are closely related to Ste20 in their kinase domain have been identified - the p21-activated protein kinase (Pak) and SPS1 families [1-3]. In contrast to Pak family members, SPS1 family members do not bind and are not activated by GTP-bound p21Rac and Cdc42. We recently placed a member of the SPS1 family, called Misshapen (Msn), genetically upstream of the c-Jun amino-terminal (JNK) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase module in Drosophila . The failure to activate JNK in Drosophila leads to embryonic lethality due to the failure of these embryos to stimulate dorsal closure [5-8]. Msn probably functions as a MAP kinase kinase kinase kinase in Drosophila, activating the JNK pathway via an, as yet, undefined MAP kinase kinase kinase. We have identified a Drosophila TNF-receptor-associated factor, DTRAF1, by screening for Msn-interacting proteins using the yeast two-hybrid system. In contrast to the mammalian TRAFs that have been shown to activate JNK, DTRAF1 lacks an amino-terminal 'Ring-finger' domain, and overexpression of a truncated DTRAF1, consisting of only its TRAF domain, activates JNK. We also identified another DTRAF, DTRAF2, that contains an amino-terminal Ring-finger domain. Msn specifically binds the TRAF domain of DTRAF1 but not that of DTRAF2. In Drosophila, DTRAF1 is thus a good candidate for an upstream molecule that regulates the JNK pathway by interacting with, and activating, Msn. Consistent with this idea, expression of a dominant-negative Msn mutant protein blocks the activation of JNK by DTRAF1. Furthermore, coexpression of Msn with DTRAF1 leads to the synergistic activation of JNK. We have extended some of these observations to the mammalian homolog of Msn, Nck-interacting kinase (NIK), suggesting that TRAFs also play a critical role in regulating Ste20 kinases in mammals. (+info)
Transformation mediated by RhoA requires activity of ROCK kinases. (5/14921)BACKGROUND: The Ras-related GTPase RhoA controls signalling processes required for cytoskeletal reorganisation, transcriptional regulation, and transformation. The ability of RhoA mutants to transform cells correlates not with transcription but with their ability to bind ROCK-I, an effector kinase involved in cytoskeletal reorganisation. We used a recently developed specific ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632, and ROCK truncation mutants to investigate the role of ROCK kinases in transcriptional activation and transformation. RESULTS: In NIH3T3 cells, Y-27632 did not prevent the activation of serum response factor, transcription of c-fos or cell cycle re-entry following serum stimulation. Repeated treatment of NIH3T3 cells with Y-27632, however, substantially disrupted their actin fibre network but did not affect their growth rate. Y-27632 blocked focus formation by RhoA and its guanine-nucleotide exchange factors Dbl and mNET1. It did not affect the growth rate of cells transformed by Dbl and mNET1, but restored normal growth control at confluence and prevented their growth in soft agar. Y-27632 also significantly inhibited focus formation by Ras, but had no effect on the establishment or maintenance of transformation by Src. Furthermore, it significantly inhibited anchorage-independent growth of two out of four colorectal tumour cell lines. Consistent with these data, a truncated ROCK derivative exhibited weak ability to cooperate with activated Raf in focus formation assays. CONCLUSIONS: ROCK signalling is required for both the establishment and maintenance of transformation by constitutive activation of RhoA, and contributes to the Ras-transformed phenotype. These observations provide a potential explanation for the requirement for Rho in Ras-mediated transformation. Moreover, the inhibition of ROCK kinases may be of therapeutic use. (+info)
Decreased expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Par-4 in renal cell carcinoma. (6/14921)Par-4 is a widely expressed leucine zipper protein that confers sensitization to apoptosis induced by exogenous insults. Because the expression of genes that promote apoptosis may be down-regulated during tumorigenesis, we sought to examine the expression of Par-4 in human tumors. We present here evidence that Par-4 protein levels were severely decreased in human renal cell carcinoma specimens relative to normal tubular cells. Replenishment of Par-4 protein levels in renal cell carcinoma cell lines conferred sensitivity to apoptosis. Because apoptosis may serve as a defense mechanism against malignant transformation or progression, decreased expression of Par-4 may contribute to the pathophysiology of renal cell carcinoma. (+info)
Activation of Src in human breast tumor cell lines: elevated levels of phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity that preferentially recognizes the Src carboxy terminal negative regulatory tyrosine 530. (7/14921)Elevated levels of Src kinase activity have been reported in a number of human cancers, including colon and breast cancer. We have analysed four human breast tumor cell lines that exhibit high levels of Src kinase activity, and have determined that these cell lines also exhibit a high level of a phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity that recognizes the Src carboxy-terminal P-Tyr530 negative regulatory site. Total Src kinase activity in these cell lines is elevated as much as 30-fold over activity in normal control cells and specific activity is elevated as much as 5.6-fold. When the breast tumor cells were grown in the presence of the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor vanadate, Src kinase activity was reduced in all four breast tumor cell lines, suggesting that Src was being activated by a phosphatase which could recognize the Tyr530 negative regulatory site. In fractionated cell extracts from the breast tumor cells, we found elevated levels of a membrane associated tyrosine phosphatase activity that preferentially dephosphorylated a Src family carboxy-terminal phosphopeptide containing the regulatory tyrosine 530 site. Src was hypophosphorylated in vivo at tyrosine 530 in at least two of the tumor cell lines, further suggesting that Src was being activated by a phosphatase in these cells. In preliminary immunoprecipitation and antibody depletion experiments, we were unable to correlate the major portion of this phosphatase activity with several known phosphatases. (+info)
Gadd45, a p53-responsive stress protein, modifies DNA accessibility on damaged chromatin. (8/14921)This report demonstrates that Gadd45, a p53-responsive stress protein, can facilitate topoisomerase relaxing and cleavage activity in the presence of core histones. A correlation between reduced expression of Gadd45 and increased resistance to topoisomerase I and topoisomerase II inhibitors in a variety of human cell lines was also found. Gadd45 could potentially mediate this effect by destabilizing histone-DNA interactions since it was found to interact directly with the four core histones. To evaluate this possibility, we investigated the effect of Gadd45 on preassembled mononucleosomes. Our data indicate that Gadd45 directly associates with mononucleosomes that have been altered by histone acetylation or UV radiation. This interaction resulted in increased DNase I accessibility on hyperacetylated mononucleosomes and substantial reduction of T4 endonuclease V accessibility to cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers on UV-irradiated mononucleosomes but not on naked DNA. Both histone acetylation and UV radiation are thought to destabilize the nucleosomal structure. Hence, these results imply that Gadd45 can recognize an altered chromatin state and modulate DNA accessibility to cellular proteins. (+info)
MARCKS (myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase C substrate)
IJMS | Free Full-Text | Comparative Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-Activated Protein...
The mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase MK5 is a substrate of the mitogen-activated protein kinases p38, ERK3 and ERK4. Cell culture and animal studies have demonstrated that MK5 is involved in tumour suppression and promotion, embryogenesis, anxiety, cell motility and cell cycle regulation. In the present study, homology models of MK5 were used for molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of: (1) MK5 alone; (2) MK5 in complex with an inhibitor; and (3) MK5 in complex with the interaction partner p38α. The calculations showed that the inhibitor occupied the active site and disrupted the intramolecular network of amino acids. However, intramolecular interactions consistent with an inactive protein kinase fold were not formed. MD with p38α showed that not only the p38 docking region, but also amino acids in the activation segment, αH helix, P-loop, regulatory phosphorylation region and the C-terminal of MK5 may be involved in forming a very stable MK5-p38α complex, and that p38α
J Clin Psychiatry/Expression of the Myristoylated Alanine-Rich C Kinase Substrate (MARCKS) and MARCKS-Related Protein (MRP) in...
Background: Although suicide is a leading cause of death in the United States and represents a significant public health threat, little is known about the neurobiological or molecular factors that contribute to its pathophysiology. A number of studies now indicate that lithium has considerable efficacy in the prevention of suicide in patients with affective disorders, and accumulating evidence indicates that protein kinase C (PKC) and its substrates, in particular the myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS), are primary targets of chronic lithium treatment. We therefore hypothesized that a dysregulation in MARCKS expression in key brain regions could contribute to the pathophysiology associated with suicide. To address this, we examined MARCKS, as well as the closely related MARCKS-related protein (MRP), mRNA expression in the hippocampus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of suicide victims and normal controls. Method: MARCKS and MRP mRNA expression was assessed by quantitative ...
Myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS) is involved in myoblast fusion through its regulation by protein kinase...
MARCKS (myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate) is a major cytoskeletal protein substrate of PKC (protein kinase C) whose cellular functions are still unclear. However numerous studies have implicated MARCKS in the stabilization of cytoskeletal structures during cell differentiation. The present study was performed to investigate the potential role of Ca2+-dependent proteinases (calpains) during myogenesis via proteolysis of MARCKS. It was first demonstrated that MARCKS is a calpain substrate in vitro. Then, the subcellular expression of MARCKS was examined during the myogenesis process. Under such conditions, there was a significant decrease in MARCKS expression associated with the appearance of a 55 kDa proteolytic fragment at the time of intense fusion. The addition of calpastatin peptide, a specific calpain inhibitor, induced a significant decrease in the appearance of this fragment. Interestingly, MARCKS proteolysis was dependent of its phosphorylation by the conventional PKCα. ...
Munin: Mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 5 - Structure, function and inhibition
Protein kinases have become central in the efforts to understand the nature of various diseases, and a lot is invested into creating effective therapeutic strategies and finding effective and selective protein kinase inhibitors. In order to succeed it is also important to focus on the structure of the kinases, their exact biological role, and how they interact and cooperate in the signaling. The exact structure of MAPKAPK5 is still unknown, and selective inhibitors are yet to be identified. Even though some of its biological roles are starting to emerge more work is required, including searching for selective inhibitors, analyzing its structure and interactions with its interaction partners. In order to analyze the structure of MAPKAPK5, homology models were generated and their ability to discriminate between binders and non-binders were analyzed. Based on the results, one model was found satisfactory and may be used as a working tool for further experimental studies and possibly structure aided ...
Mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2) in skeletal muscle atrophy and hypertrophy
Following denervation skeletal muscles change their functional and structural properties. Some changes resemble conditions in developing muscles and may be important for reinnervation. Due to inactivity following denervation most skeletal muscles loose muscle mass and become atrophic. The hemidiaphragm muscle, however, undergoes a phase of transient hypertrophy following denervation, gaining weight during the first 6-10 days followed by a decrease in weight. In this thesis the expression (mRNA, protein and protein phosphorylations) of potential factors involved in the regulation of muscle mass were examined in denervated hind-limb and hemidiaphragm muscles.. NIFK is a protein that associates with Ki67, a protein expressed predominantly in proliferating cells. The mRNA expression of NIFK was upregulated in denervated atrophic muscles but unaltered in denervated hypertrophic muscles, suggesting a potential role in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass (Paper I). p38 MAPK has previously been ...
Involvement of myristoylated alanine-rich c kinase substrate (MARCKS) protein in prostaglandin F2α- induced secretion of...
Effect of reduced myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate expression on hippocampal mossy fiber development and spatial...
The contribution of linked background genes to the phenotype of mutant mice has been documented (7) as have the significant behavioral differences between inbred mouse strains (6). The 129Sv strain used in the generation of our mutant mice exhibit IP-MF hypoplasia (2) and impaired spatial learning in the Morris water maze (6). In our study, comparison of 129B6(N3) mice, which posses on average 12.5% residual 129Sv-linked genes; 129B6(N9) mice, which posses on average 0.2% residual 129Sv-linked genes; and inbred C57BL/6J mice, which possess no 129Sv-linked genes, revealed the significant contribution of 129Sv background genes to the phenotype. First, mutant 129B6(N3) mice, but not mutant 129B6(N9) mice, exhibited a significant elevation in hippocampal PKCɛ expression relative to wild-type controls. Second, wild-type 129B6(N3) mice exhibited significant IP-MF hypoplasia relative to both inbred C57BL/6J and wild-type 129B6(N9) mice, which is consistent with the 129Sv phenotype (2), and likely ...
Propagating Differential Gene Expression in Protein Interaction Networks
In a differential gene experiment, a cell perturbation can be measured on a microarray before and after the perturbation. The information from these microarrays can then be used to inference genetic pathways and protein-protein interaction networks. In this paper we reverse this idea somewhat and measure a cell perturbation through microarrays and then rely on a protein interaction map to assess which proteins are most likely influenced by the specific perturbation. This in turn helps to elucidate the functional effect the perturbation has on the cell system. The first part of the paper focuses on the propagation model we developed to obtain this information. The second part of the paper reports on a specific experiment that was driven by the interpretation we obtained through such a gene influence network. We applied a PC12 cell line that allows doxocyclin-dependent expression of constitutive active mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase (MAPKAPK5 or MK5) to compare the
Materials. CEP-1347, also known as KT7515, is a semisynthetic derivative of K-252a provided by Kyowa-Hakko Kogyo (Tokyo, Japan) (Kaneko et al., 1997). CEP-1347 was dissolved in cell culture grade dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and stored in the dark at 4°C. All dilutions of CEP-1347 were made in DMEM containing 1% bovine serum albumin. c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) antibody (catalog #sc-474-G) was purchased from Santa Cruz Biotechnology (Santa Cruz, CA). ERK1 antibody (catalog #06-182), mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MAPKAP2) antibody (catalog #06-534), and MAPKAP2 peptide substrate (catalog #12-240) were purchased from Upstate Biotechnology (Lake Placid, NY). HA antibody was purchased from Babco (Richmond, CA). AP-1 (c-jun) substrate was purchased from Promega (Madison, WI). Myelin basic protein substrate, Hoechst dye, and tunicamycin were purchased from Sigma (St. Louis, MO). SB203580 was custom-synthesized by RIT International Technology (Snellville, GA). ...
anti-PRAK antibody [N3C3] | GeneTex
Mapkapk5 MGI Mouse Gene Detail - MGI:1333110 - MAP kinase-activated protein kinase 5
MAPKAPK2 (MK2) | 抑制剂 激动剂 拮抗剂 调节剂 | MCE
MAP kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MAPKAPK2) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAPKAPK2 gene. MAPKAP kinase-2 (MK2) is originally identified by its phosphorylation of glycogen synthase at serine-7 and the corresponding serine in a peptide (GS peptide-1) modelled after the N-terminus of glycogen synthase.. MAPKAP kinase-2 is a novel protein kinase activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase. This MAP kinase activated protein kinase, termed MAPKAP kinase-2, is distinguished from S6 kinase-II (MAPKAP kinase-1) by its response to inhibitors, lack of phosphorylation of S6 peptides and amino acid sequence.. ...
MAPKAPK2 - Wikipedia
MAP kinase-activated protein kinase 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAPKAPK2 gene. This gene encodes a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. This kinase is regulated through direct phosphorylation by p38 MAP kinase. In conjunction with p38 MAP kinase, this kinase is known to be involved in many cellular processes including stress and inflammatory responses, nuclear export, gene expression regulation and cell proliferation. Heat shock protein HSP27 was shown to be one of the substrates of this kinase in vivo. Two transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. SB 203580, suppresses the activation of MAPKAPK2 MAPKAPK2 has been shown to interact with: AKT1, MAPK14, PHC2, and SHC1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000162889 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000016528 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Zu YL, Wu F, Gilchrist A, Ai Y, Labadia ME, Huang CK (Jun 1994). "The primary ...
Anti-DLL4 Has Broad Spectrum Activity in Pancreatic Cancer Dependent on Targeting DLL4-Notch Signaling in Both Tumor and...
In this report, we have found that anti-DLL4 has broad spectrum activity in pancreatic xenografts based on testing a panel of patient-derived tumor models. In vivo studies showed that anti-DLL4 was efficacious, alone and in combination with gemcitabine, in reducing tumor growth in all pancreatic tumors tested, including both low- and high-grade tumors. Anti-DLL4 treatment had a potent effect in delaying tumor recurrence after gemcitabine treatment. Furthermore, anti-DLL4 was found to reduce tumor initiating cell frequency as a single agent and in combination with gemcitabine. Agents that reduce CSC frequency have the potential to provide significant clinical benefit by reducing tumor recurrence after therapy and by inhibiting the metastatic spread of the disease. In contrast to anti-DLL4, treatment with gemcitabine alone was ineffective at reducing CSC frequency. While gemcitabine is a standard agent for treatment of pancreatic cancer, the effect of gemcitabine on survival has been disappointing ...
RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View - MAP kinase-activated protein kinase 5 - Q8IW41 (MAPK5 HUMAN)
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Anti-Rsk 2 / MAPKAP Kinase 1b 抗体 [Y83] (ab32133)
OriGene - MAPKAPK5-AS1 (BC007973) cDNA Clone
OriGene - Ciapin1 (NM 001007689) cDNA Clone
Gentaur Molecular :Sceti K.K. \ Humanin \ 4384-v
P73502312 Blu/Citron/Pink Saucony Endorphin-Donna Scarpe Il Più Economico
MARCKS (phospho S162)抗体(ab51070)| Abcam中国
'Man Seeking Woman' finds magic, emotion, humor and...
The activation of protein kinase B by H2O2 or heat shock is mediated by phosphoinositide 3-kinase and not by mitogen-activated...
Protein kinase B (PKB) isoforms became activated [and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) became inhibited] when mouse Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts were exposed to oxidative stress (H2O2) or heat shock, but not when they were exposed to osmotic shock (0.5 M sorbitol or 0.7 M NaCl), chemical stress (sodium arsenite), the protein-synthesis inhibitor anisomycin, or UV radiation. In contrast, all seven stimuli activated mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase-2 (MAPKAP-K2). The activation of MAPKAP-K2 was suppressed by the drug SB 203580, but not by inhibitors of phosphoinositide (phosphatidylinositide, PI) 3-kinase. In contrast, the activation of PKB isoforms and the inhibition of GSK3 by oxidative stress or heat shock were prevented by inhibitors of PI 3-kinase, but not by SB 203580. Thus the activation of PKB by oxidative stress or heat shock is mediated by PI 3-kinase and not by MAPKAP-K2. PKBα and PKBγ were also activated by heat shock and oxidative stress in human embryonic kidney ...
90 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1; HU-1; MAP kinase-activated protein kinase 1a; MAPK-activated protein kinase 1a; MAPKAP kinase 1a; MAPKAPK-1a; MAPKAPK1A; RSK; RSK-1; RSK1; S6K-alpha 1; S6K-alpha-1; dJ590P13.1 (ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 90kD, polypeptide 1); p90-RSK 1; p90RSK1; p90S6K; ribosomal S6 kinase 1; ribosomal protein S6 kinase alpha 1; ribosomal protein S6 kinase alpha-1; ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 90kD, polypeptide 1; ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 90kDa, polypeptide ...
The Keap1-Nrf2 system and diabetes mellitus
Nrf2 (NF-E2-related factor 2) plays a key role in the protection of vertebrates against environmental stress by contributing to the inducible expression of detoxification and antioxidant enzymes. Keap1 (Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1) is a sensor for oxidative and electrophilic stresses. Keap1 …
"A Putative Dual Role for Yorkie in Hippo pathway Signaling" by Caroline Hall
The Hippo pathway inactivates genes involved in organ size and when aberrant, can lead to cancer. To control organ size, the Hippo pathway inhibits Yorkie (Yki), a transcriptional coactivator that works with Scalloped (Sd), a DNA binding protein. When active, Yki translocates into the nucleus and initiates transcription. Conversely, when inactive, Yki remains in the cytoplasm. However, my work shows that cytoplasmic, inactive Yki interacts with other proteins in the Hippo pathway by recruiting them to the plasma membrane. Accordingly, this study challenges the notion that cytoplasmic Yki is inactive and instead, may play a dual role in the Hippo pathway.
The spleen tyrosine kinase Syk was mainly studied in immunoreceptor-activated signaling in hematopoietic cells. We first demonstrated that Syk is also present in mammary epithelial cells and that its expression is lost in malignant breast cancer cells. Using mouse xenograft models injected with Syk-transfected cells we and others established that Syk acts as a tumor and metastasis suppressor. Moreover, clinical studies reveal a correlation between reduced Syk expression and a decreased survival and increased metastasis risk in breast cancer and other carcinomas. The main objective of our investigations is to unravel the mechanisms of the anti-oncogenic activity of Syk. For this, identification of its substrates and signaling pathways is crucial. A quantitative phospho-proteomic approach allowed to identify novel potential Syk substrates involved in intercellular adhesion and epithelial polarity, both characteristics of cell differentiation that are lost during tumor invasion and ...
Hippo (MST) (Inhibitors Agonists Modulators Antagonists)-MedChemExpress.com
Hippo signaling pathway, also known as the Salvador/Warts/Hippo (SWH) pathway, controls organ size in animals through the regulation of cell proliferationand apoptosis. The Hippo pathway consists of a core kinase cascade in which Hpo phosphorylates the protein kinase Warts (Wts) Hpo (MST1/2 in mammals) is a member of the Ste-20 family of protein kinases. This highly conserved group of serine/threonine kinases regulates several cellular processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, and various stress responses.. ...
The Wnt-5a protein has been implicated in breast cancer metastasis by affecting DDR1-dependent adhesion and motility of breast tumor cells (6, 8). The activation of DDR1 requires Wnt-5a-mediated stimulation of Src non-receptor tyrosine kinases (8), and a well-known downstream signaling target of Src kinases is the tyrosine kinase Syk (9). This is intriguing, because Syk expression is associated with an increased risk of metastatic spread in human breast carcinomas (11, 12). In the present study, we found a covariation between Syk and Wnt-5a protein expressions in mammary cell lines. It is hard to directly correlate the presence of Wnt-5a and Syk with the reported tumorigenic and metastatic potential of the presently used cell lines due to variations in the properties of a distinct cell lines between different laboratories and the use of different animals models. However, it is interesting to note that the two cell lines that exhibit no or a low expression of Wnt-5a and lack of Syk expression ...
Syk-dependent actin dynamics regulate endocytic trafficking an...
Juxtamembrane domain-associated catenin elisa and antibody
anti-MAPKAP Kinase 2 Primary Antibodies
SYK Inhibitors May Be a New Class of Senolytics | Lifespan.io
Dr Sarah Shammas Page - Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford
Aviva Sarah Mattingly's Profile | Stanford Profiles
Sarah Haan on Flipboard
50 Added | 1 Magazine | 3 Likes | 2 Following | 13 Followers | @705speed | Keep up with Sarah Haan on Flipboard, a place to see the stories, photos, and updates that matter to you. Flipboard creates a personalized magazine full of everything, from world news to lifes great moments. Download Flipboard for free and search for
Dr Sarah Myhill and that 'witch-hunt'
Dr Sarah Myhill and that 'witch-hunt'
Fundraiser by Sarah Savickas : Help Oakley Fight
Send us your dreams about Sarah Palin.
Sarah T. | Depere, WI | Rover.com
Sarah, Female, 20 - Looking in North Ward, West End,... | Flatmates.com.au
Smoking With Sarah Leavitt | SmokeLong Quarterly
Single Universal Jab to Give Lifelong Protection Against All Flu Strains
MBTI General] S descriptions of Ns? - Page 15
MARCKS (Ser 159/163) - Creative Enzymes
Rational design of highly selective spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
Therapeutic Effect of MK2 Inhibitor on Experimental Murine Dry Eye | IOVS | ARVO Journals
Purpose: To investigate the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase-2 (MK2) in ocular surface damage of dry eye. Methods: MK2 inhibition was performed in mice subjected to desiccating stress (DS) by topical application of MK2 inhibitor (MK2i) or vehicle eye drops. The total and phosphorylated MK2 in conjunctiva were detected by Western blot. The phenol red cotton test was used to measure tear production, and Oregon green dextran staining was performed to assess corneal epithelial barrier function. PAS staining was used to quantify conjunctival goblet cells. Immunofluorescent staining and quantitative RT-PCR were used to assess the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 and -9 in corneal epithelium. Apoptosis in ocular surface was assessed by TUNEL and immunofluorescent staining for activated caspase-3 and -8. Inflammation was evaluated by CD4+ T-cell infiltration and production of T helper (Th) cytokines, including IFN-γ, IL-13, and IL-17A in conjunctiva. ...
Activity-Independent Regulation of Dendrite Patterning by Postsynaptic Density Protein PSD-95 | Journal of Neuroscience
The idea that PSD-95 acts as a brake for dendrite branching is quite interesting because the majority of studies have focused on the role of PSD-95 as a scaffolding protein at postsynaptic sites (Kim and Sheng, 2004). Our present study analyzes the role of nonsynaptic PSD-95 in immature neurons. Based on our data, we hypothesize that the clustering of PSD-95 serves to inhibit branching at precise locations. Furthermore, we hypothesize that a decrease in PSD-95 clustering at a potential branch point serves as a signal for dendrite branch formation. Indeed, we find that the majority of branch points (66.7 ± 4.7%) lack PSD-95 clusters. Thus, PSD-95 functions as a maturation protein because mature neurons branch less frequently while beginning to form dendritic spines (Dotti et al., 1988). This model is in agreement with previous data demonstrating that PSD-95 is involved in the morphological maturation of excitatory synapses (El-Husseini et al., 2000). Furthermore, the idea that PSD-95 mediates ...
"Novel Roles of the Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase SHP2 in Non-small Cell" by Valentina Schneeberger
The gene PTPN11 was identified in the early 1990s, and encodes the non-transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2. SHP2 is expressed ubiquitously in cells, and plays an important role in cancer. Unlike most phosphatases, SHP2 positively regulates several signaling pathways including the Ras/MAPK and Src signaling pathways and acts as a proto-oncogene. SHP2 is also a cancer essential gene in certain types of carcinomas, and promotes growth, survival, and epithelial to mesenchymal transformation. Gain of function (GOF) SHP2 mutations are known leukemic oncogenes, and have been identified to a smaller extent in solid tumors as well. Currently, the roles of SHP2 in lung carcinoma are not fully understood. While GOF SHP2 mutations have been detected in lung cancer, their contributions to cellular transformation had not been established. In addition, SHP2 is known to promote EGF growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. Since GOF EGFR mutations induce transformation of lung epithelial cells, it is
Spleen tyrosine kinase as an ultra violet damage marker in the conjunctiva and choroid of normal human eyes and eyes harboring...
Purpose : The association between uveal melanoma (UM) and ultraviolet light (UV) damage has yet to be conclusively demonstrated. Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), a non-receptor tyrosine kinase with anti-tumorigenic properties, has been shown to be upregulated under stressed conditions, such as following UV exposure. In the present study, we used Syk as a UV exposure marker and compared its expression in the conjunctiva and choroid of normal human eyes (NHE) and eyes containing UM to investigate the link between UV damage and UM. We also investigated basal Syk levels in conjunctival fibroblasts to assess their sensitivity to UV damage. Methods : Automated immunohistochemical staining against Syk was performed in 23 UM enucleated eyes and 34 NHE age-matched Eyebank eyes. A score was established by evaluating staining intensity (0-2) and extension (0-2); both values were added to generate an immunoreactive score (IRS; 0-4). Syk expression was evaluated in choroidal fibroblasts in all eyes. In order to ...
Abstract 912: Spleen Tyrosine Kinase Regulates TLR4 dependent Macropinocytosis And Lipid Accumulation In Macrophages |...
Toll-like receptors play a key role in the signaling pathways of innate immune response and have been recently shown to contribute to vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis. Oxidation of LDL is considered a leading mechanism of atherogenesis, and in our previous studies, we demonstrated that minimally modified LDL (mmLDL) induced TLR4-dependent chemokine secretion as well as robust actin polymerization and spreading of macrophages. We noticed that these mmLDL-induced cytoskeletal rearrangements led to extensive vacuolization, characteristic of macropinocytosis. In this study, we examined the mechanisms of TLR4-induced actin polymerization and macropinocytosis. It has been reported that spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) regulates actin cytoskeleton and that it may interact with TLR4. We found in the immunoprecipitation experiments that mmLDL induced Syk association with TLR4 as well as Syk phosphorylation. Next we developed a J774 macrophage cell line, which stably expressed Syk shRNA and had the ...
Anti-Schwein Spleen tyrosine Kinase Antikörper für Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin-embedded Sections) (IHC (p))
INSIG2 - Insulin-induced gene 2 protein - Homo sapiens (Human) - INSIG2 gene & protein
Mediates feedback control of cholesterol synthesis by controlling SCAP and HMGCR. Functions by blocking the processing of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs). Capable of retaining the SCAP-SREBF2 complex in the ER thus preventing it from escorting SREBPs to the Golgi. Seems to regulate the ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation of HMGCR.
Low expression of the tumor suppressor Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) often results in higher malignant biological behavior and poor prognosis; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The present study demonstrates that overexpression of Keap1 significantly suppresses migration and invasion of three different lung cancer cells (A549, H460, and H1299). Highly expressed Keap1, compared with the control, promotes formation of multiple stress fibers with larger mature focal adhesion complexes in the cytoplasm where only fine focal adhesions were observed in the membrane under control conditions. RhoA activity significantly increased when Keap1 was overexpressed, whereas Myosin 9b expression was reduced but could be rescued by proteasome inhibition. Noticeably, mouse tumor xenografts with Keap1 overexpression were smaller in size and less metastatic relative to the control group. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Keap1 ...
Rabbit Polyclonal to MLK1/2 phospho-Thr312/266) | Novel small molecule EGFR inhibitors as candidate drugs
The Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1)/nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response elements pathway enables cells to survive oxidative stress conditions through regulating the expression of cytoprotective enzymes such as for example NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). in the binding pocket (Arg483, Tyr525, and Phe478) set alongside the indigenous ligand or any additional compound with this series. (%): 319 (M+) (3.23), 204 (100). Calculated for C21H25N3 (319): C, 78.96; H, 7.89; N, 13.15. Found out: C, 78.59; H, 8.13; N, 12.81. (%): 333 (M+) (12.7), 255 (100). Calculated for C22H27N3 (333.47): C, 79.24; H, 8.16; N, 12.60. Found out: C, 79.50; H, 7.84; N, 12.25. 2-Phenyl-(%): 318 (M+) (22.5), 247 (100). Calculated for C20H22N4 (318): C, 75.44; H, 6.96; N, 17.60. Found out: C, 75.09; H, 6.63; U-69593 IC50 N, 17.92. (%): 332 (M+) (21.6), 316 (100). Calculated for C21H24N4 (332): C, 75.87; H, 7.28; N, 16.85. Found out: C, 76.11; H, 7.57; N, 17.20. (%): 328 ...
IUCr) Structural basis of the heterodimerization of the MST and RASSF SARAH domains in the Hippo signalling pathway
Comparison of the dimeric interactions of SARAH domains based on computational alanine scanning. (a, b, c) Ribbon representations depicting the side chains of residues having dimeric interactions derived from the computational alanine scanning of SARAH dimeric interfaces are shown for the MST1-RASSF5 SARAH heterodimer (a), the MST2 SARAH homodimer (b) and the MST1 SARAH homodimer (c). Residues with ΔΔGbind > 1.0 kcal mol−1 in computational alanine scanning are represented as stick models. Among the residues, Trp369, Ile374 and Glu387 of RASSF5 and Phe437 and Leu440 of MST2 are not seen in the figure and are not labelled for clarity. Residues that have polar interactions in the dimeric interface are shown in green. Red balls represent the water molecules mediating the hydrogen bonds between the two protomers. For the MST1-RASSF5 SARAH heterodimer (a), the light blue ribbon represents the backbone structure of the MST1 SARAH domain and the light pink ribbon represents that of the RASSF5 SARAH ...
Sarah's Story - The Sarah Grace Foundation for Children with Cancer - Sarah's Angel
Your daughters white blood count is over one million. We have triple checked the results and after reviewing the slides, the cells we see are consistent with leukemia." On February 7, 2002 with those words we began a journey that is any parents worst nightmare - childhood cancer.. Our beautiful, fun loving 11-year-old daughter, Sarah, was later confirmed to have Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL). Although Sarah was considered high risk due to her age, gender, and the extraordinary high white blood count, statistics were in her favor that after a two (2) to five (5) year treatment and recovery period she would be cured. Over the next several months Sarah underwent intense rounds of chemotherapy but never went into remission.. Continuing to fight her battle, Sarah required more high dose chemotherapy, cranial and full body irradiation, and a bone marrow transplant. Sarahs brother James, then 10, was a perfect match and donated a liter of marrow to help his sister. Sarah rallied after the ...
Dual kinase inhibitor performs well in its first safety, efficacy study for atopic dermatitis - PM360
REPORTING FROM AAD 2018. SAN DIEGO (FRONTLINE MEDICAL NEWS) - A novel molecule that inhibits two major inflammatory pathways acquitted itself well in its first safety and efficacy clinical trial in patients with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis.. After 29 days, 100% of those taking the highest dose of the molecule, ASN002, achieved a 50% improvement in skin involvement.. ASN002 ( Asana BioSciences ) is a dual inhibitor of Janus kinase (JAK) and spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK). "This is an interesting molecule," Robert Bissonnette, MD, said at the annual meeting of the American Academy of Dermatology. "By targeting the entire JAK family, it inhibits cytokine signaling through IL-4 [interleukin-4], IL-13, IL-23, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin," which plays a role in maturing T cells. The SYK inhibition targets IL-17, increases the terminal differentiation of keratinocytes, and inhibits B-cell signaling. Dr. Bissonnette , president of Innovaderm Research presented the results in a late-breaking ...
CD319 (CRACC) antibodies, human - Primary antibodies - Antibodies - MACS Flow Cytometry - Products - Miltenyi Biotec - Italia
Clone REA150 recognizes CD319, which is a single-pass type I transmembrane protein. CD319 belongs to the SLAM-related receptors (SRRs) family, a subgroup of the CD2 family of Ig-like receptors. Expression of CD319 is found on activated B lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, CD8+ T lymphocytes, and mature dendritic cells. The cytoplasmic domain of CD319 contains immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motifs (ITSMs), which provide the docking sites for recruitment of small SH2-containing adapter proteins, such as SH2D1A/SLAM-associated protein (SAP) and EWS activated transcript 2 (EAT-2). CD319 displays homophilic interaction and is involved in mediating NK cell cytotoxicity, in the absence of an inhibitory receptor engagement. Additional information: Clone REA150 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Italia
Citron Explains Change Of Heart On Jumia Technologies, $100 Price Target
Citron Research has gone from bearish to bullish on Jumia Technologies, a Berlin-based e-commerce company operating in Africa. The Citron Bullish Case: Citron Research flagged problems at Jumia Technologies (NYSE: JMIA) in May 2019 that it said included financial discrepancies, fraudulent orders and company inefficiencies.Jumia has changed its business and seen higher adoption due to the pandemic, which is helping the e-commerce company head for profitability in an emerging market, according to Citron.Their positioning in Africa alone (e.g., logistics, technology, employees, brand) should be worth minimum $7 billion or $100 per share, Citron said in a new report. Jumia is shipping 20 million packages a year to cities and rural areas across 11 countries.Jumia is at the epicenter of this movement and the only scaled e-commerce player in Africa, the report said. Related Link: Jumias Stock Surges To Close The Week After Citron TurnE-Commerce in Emerging Markets: The Citron report highlights
Graduate Program in Immunology
Li, W., M.G. Kim, T.S. Gourley, D. SantAngelo, and C-H Chang. An Alternate Pathway for CD4 T cell Development: Thymocyte-Expressed MHC Class II Selects a Distinct T cell Population. 2005. Immunity. 23:375.. Yao, Y., W. Li, M. Kaplan and C-H Chang. IL-4 inhibits IL-10 to promote IL-12 production by dendritic cells. 2005. J. Exp. Med. 201:1899-1903. Highlighted in the same issue of JEM.. Li, W., H. Sofi, N. Yeh, D. Patel, R. Brutkiewicz, M. Kaplan, and C-H Chang. Thymic selection pathway regulates cytokine production potential of CD4 T cells. 2007. J. Exp Med. 204:2145 (Highlighted in J. Exp. Med. and Nat. Immunol. Rev) PMCID: PMC2118694. Li, W., H. Sofi, S. Rietdijk, N. Wanag, C. Terhorst and C-H Chang. The SLAM-associated protein signaling pathway is required for development of CD4 T cells selected by homotypic thymocyte interaction. 2007. Immunity. 27:763-774. (Highlighted by Nat. Immunol Rev.) PMCID: PMC2757291. Qiao, T., L. Zhu, H. Sofi, P.E. Lapinski, R. Horai, K. Mueller, G.L. Stritesky, ...
MAPKAPK2 monoclonal antibody (M02), clone 2A10 - (H00009261-M02) - Products - Abnova
MAPKAPK5 monoclonal antibody, clone 7H10B4 - (MAB10404) - Products - Abnova
anti-Syk antibody [4D10.1] | GeneTex
CriticalDance Forum • View topic - Sarah Wildor interview
Sarah Wildor is interviewed about life as a dancer, to some extent, in the shadow of Sylvie and Darcey. Some long term RB viewers believe that Sarah is the best exponent of the English style. She has also danced with her partner Adam Cooper in AMPs Cinderella.,P, ,A HREF="http://www.telegraph.co.uk:80/et?ac=000148269364269&rtmo=fao0v0Vs&atmo=KKKKKKYM&pg=/et/00/4/12/tlanna12.html" TARGET=_blank,http://www.telegraph.co.uk:80/et?ac=000148269364269&rtmo=fao0v0Vs& ,BR,atmo=KKKKKKYM&pg=/et/00/4/12/tlanna12.html,/A, ,p,[This message has been edited by Stuart Sweeney (edited April 12, 2000 ...
Sarah Boyd - IMDb
Sarah Boyd, Editor: Bates Motel. Sarah is a long-time editor and long-ago actor who has segued into directing. She is known for her work with producer Carlton Cuse (Bates Motel, Colony, Lost), as well as many films and TV shows edited for Rod Lurie (Straw Dogs, Commander-In-Chief, Nothing But The Truth). She attended Yale University and got her masters at USC School of Cinematic ...
Was Sarah Herron Really Born With Only One Arm? | Living One-HandedWas Sarah Herron Really Born With Only One Arm?
Sarah Garner MD - Des Moines, IA | Groupon
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Sarah Palin: 'America's Enduring Strength'
DAXX Antibody - AFG Scientific
RO9021 | Syk Inhibitor | MedChemExpress
Kronos Bio and Gilead Sciences Enter Into Asset Purchase Agreement for Gilead's SYK Inhibitor Portfolio | Business Wire
Sarah Groff breaks through - Slowtwitch.com
Sarah Lewington - MRCPHRU
Sarah Burke's Injury: Hard To Prevent, But Not Always Fatal | MomsTeam
Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Sarah Power
Dr. Sarah Pass, MMSC - The Woodlands, TX - Genetic Counseling | Healthgrades.com
Sarah Mehrotra '14 Awarded Fulbright ETA to Malaysia - News - Hamilton College
Oneupweb | Every Day is a Gift with Account Manager Sarah Lantz
Sarah Cornett, Doctor in HAZARD, KY, 41701 | FindATopDoc.com
Sarah Harding flashes smile before she enters CBB | Daily Mail Online
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Barbarian - Diablo Wiki
One of the first two classes introduced with Diablo 3, the Barbarian is a powerful melee class that uses fury as a resource. The Barbarian is the only one of the first five characters to use strength for a mainstat and has consistently ranked as one of (or the) most popular class during the first year of Diablo 3.
1999 Lamborghini Diablo GT | Uncrate
Concert news: The Black Keys, Rob Zombie, Sarah McLachlan, Yo Gotti, Javier Colon - The Morning Call
patients kept coming. and patients kept dying. - Sarah Thebarge
Rihanna and Cara Delevingne Valerian Looks, Sarah Snyder in a Turtleneck | GumBumper
Would Sarah Palin have made this mistake?
To flu jab or not to flu jab... | Mumsnet Discussion
We want to hear from you! - Susan Ware - Rockland - Camden - Knox - Courier-Gazette - Camden Herald
It's Thursday, Which Makes It Day Four of the New Paradigm
Is Biolustre a bogus buy?
Items where contributor is "Léchenne, Monique" - edoc
1 year jabs and side effects? ?? | Netmums
... does not contain any transmembrane domains or signal peptides suggesting that it is an intracellular protein. C8orf46 ... The isoelectric point of the protein is 10.42 which indicates the pH of the protein is basic. The protein of C8orf46 does ... C8orf46 is predicted to be a nuclear protein, given the classical nuclear localization signal found at amino acids Lys191 to ... The secondary and tertiary structure of this protein is not well known. The protein derived from C8orf46 is considered rich in ...
Phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein. *EDARADD. *PRKCSH. see also deficiencies of intracellular signaling peptides and ... protein complex binding. • signal transducer activity. • protein binding. • GTPase activity. • GTPase binding. • G-protein ... protein heterotrimerization. • Wnt signaling pathway, calcium modulating pathway. • protein folding. • G-protein coupled ... Ras protein signal transduction. • cell proliferation. • cellular response to hypoxia. • sensory perception of taste. • signal ...
Phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein. *EDARADD. *PRKCSH. see also deficiencies of intracellular signaling peptides and ... Guanylate cyclase is often part of the G protein signaling cascade that is activated by low intracellular calcium levels and ... This causes less intracellular calcium, which stimulates guanylate cyclase-activating proteins (GCAPs). Studies have shown that ... "Differential calcium signaling by cone specific guanylate cyclase-activing proteins from the zebrafish retina". PLoS ONE. 6 (8 ...
Phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein. *EDARADD. *PRKCSH. see also deficiencies of intracellular signaling peptides and ... G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a large family of integral membrane proteins that respond to a variety of extracellular ... Main article: function of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. In humans, cAMP works by activating protein kinase A (PKA, cAMP- ... Gi protein, which is a G protein that inhibits adenylyl cyclase, reducing cAMP levels. ...
Phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein. *EDARADD. *PRKCSH. see also deficiencies of intracellular signaling peptides and ... MPFs activate other proteins through phosphorylation. These phosphorylated proteins, in turn, are responsible for specific ... Protein cyclin A governs this process by keeping the process going until the errors are eliminated. In normal cells, persistent ... Cyclins, when bound with the dependent kinases, such as the p34/cdc2/cdk1 protein, form the maturation-promoting factor. ...
Neurofibromatosis type II
The Schwannomin-peptide consists of 595 amino acids. Comparison of Schwannomin with other proteins shows similarities to ... Stamenkovic, I; Yu, Q (2010). "Merlin, a "magic" linker between extracellular cues and intracellular signaling pathways that ... This peptide is thought to have a tumor-suppressive function. In a normal cell, the concentrations of active (dephosphorylated ... Mutations of NF II is presumed to result in either a failure to synthesize Merlin or the production of a defective peptide that ...
Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation
... and Signal Transduction Core, to assist research involving intracellular Ca2+ measurements and protein-protein interactions. " ... for protein and peptide sequencing and mass spectrometry analysis; ... a therapy for people suffering from a rare and life-threatening blood disorder known as protein C deficiency. Research at OMRF ...
Deficiencies of intracellular signaling peptides and proteins. GTP-binding protein regulators. GTPase-activating protein. * ... Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is caused by genetic mutations that cause defects in neuronal proteins. Nerve signals are conducted ... The mutation can appear in GJB1 coding for connexin 32, a gap junction protein expressed in Schwann cells. Because this protein ... The myelin sheath allows nerve cells to conduct signals faster. When the myelin sheath is damaged, nerve signals are slower, ...
Deficiencies of intracellular signaling peptides and proteins. GTP-binding protein regulators. GTPase-activating protein. * ... Mutated p53 proteins are typically more stable than wild-type, and can inhibit the activity of the wild-type protein in ... The tetramerization domain plays a major role in the oligomerization of the p53 protein, which exists as a tetramer. This ... With pH in the low to normal physiological range (up to 7.5), the mutant protein forms normal oligomers and retains its ...
"The glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue exendin-4 reverses impaired intracellular Ca2+ signalling in steatotic hepatocytes". BBA ... Protein malnutrition, such as that seen in kwashiorkor, results in a lack of precursor apoproteins within the cell, therefore ... or a signal proportional to the water minus the fat contingent. These signal intensities are then algebraically combined into a ... Other intracellular accumulations, such as water or glycogen, can also appear as clear vacuoles, therefore it becomes necessary ...
... are cell-penetrating peptides that act as intracellular modulators of signal transference from receptors to G proteins. ... A pepducin molecule consists of a short peptide derived from a GPCR intracellular loop tethered to a hydrophobic moiety. This ... employ lipidated fragments of intracellular G protein-coupled receptor loops to modulate GPCR action in targeted cell-signaling ... December 2006). "Distinct activity of peptide mimetic intracellular ligands (pepducins) for proteinase-activated receptor-1 in ...
Intracellular signal transduction is primarily mediated by the reversible phosphorylation of various signalling molecules by ... Peptides are sequenced and analyzed. The analysis of the entire complement of phosphorylated proteins in a cell is certainly a ... Therefore, even though phosphorylation dependent protein-protein interactions are very important, it is important to remember ... degradation of proteins and therefore cell signalling networks. With all of these modification results, it is estimated that ...
It often contains signal peptide sequences, "intracellular postal codes" that direct delivery of the protein to the proper ... signal peptides target proteins to the thylakoids. The N-terminal mitochondrial targeting peptide (mtTP) allows the protein to ... The signal peptide is typically removed at the destination by a signal peptidase. The N-terminal amino acid of a protein is an ... The N-terminal signal peptide is recognized by the signal recognition particle (SRP) and results in the targeting of the ...
... is a member of the endothelin protein family of secretory vasoconstrictive peptides. The preproprotein is ... processed to a short mature form which functions as a ligand for the endothelin receptors that initiate intracellular signaling ... Endothelin 2, also known as ET-2, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EDN2 gene. ... "Gene-centric association signals for lipids and apolipoproteins identified via the HumanCVD BeadChip". American Journal of ...
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate
"The glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue exendin-4 reverses impaired intracellular Ca2+ signalling in steatotic hepatocytes". BBA ... Not all protein kinases respond to cAMP. Several classes of protein kinases, including protein kinase C, are not cAMP-dependent ... cAMP receptor protein), a transcription activator protein. The protein assumes its active shape and binds to a specific site ... GeneGlobe -> GHRH Signaling[permanent dead link] Retrieved on May 31, 2009 Bos, Johannes L. (December 2006). "Epac proteins: ...
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) networks are the pathways and signaling of MAPK, which is a protein kinase that ... These receptors induce intracellular signal pathways within the plant cells, while also resulting in PAMP-triggered immunity. ... The flagellin, a peptide of flg22, triggers a rapid and strong activation of MPK3, MPK4, and MPK6. MPK4 and MPK6 can be ... MPK3 and MPK6 are very similar proteins and have a function as regulators in abscission, stomatal development, signaling ...
... conserved protein domain contained within the Src oncoprotein and in many other intracellular signal-transducing proteins. SH2 ... Modular domains, which are the subunits of a protein, moderate these protein interactions by identifying short peptide ... These peptide sequences determine the binding partners of each protein. One of the more prominent domains is the SH2 domain. ... SH2 domains typically bind a phosphorylated tyrosine residue in the context of a longer peptide motif within a target protein, ...
List of MeSH codes (D12.776.476)
This is a sub-part (intracellular signaling peptides and proteins only) of List of MeSH codes (D12.776), itself a part of the ... smad1 protein MeSH D12.776.476.024.417.500.200 -- smad2 protein MeSH D12.776.476.024.417.500.300 -- smad3 protein MeSH D12.776. ... smad proteins, inhibitory MeSH D12.776.476.024.417.249.600 -- smad6 protein MeSH D12.776.476.024.417.249.700 -- smad7 protein ... gtp-binding protein alpha subunits, g12-g13 MeSH D12.776.476.375.100.200 -- gtp-binding protein alpha subunits, gi-go MeSH ...
These signaling molecules include hormones and growth factors in turn are composed of peptides, biogenic amines, steroid ... Dang L, Van Damme EJ (September 2015). "Toxic proteins in plants". Phytochemistry. 117: 51-64. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2015.05. ... Cellular receptors in turn activate second messengers are used to relay the extracellular message to intracellular targets. ... A more recent example is the N-type calcium channel blocker ziconotide analgesic which is based on a cyclic peptide cone snail ...
Transforming growth factor beta superfamily
... and generate intracellular signals using a conserved family of proteins called SMADs. They play fundamental roles in the ... TGF-beta-1 is a peptide of 112 amino acid residues derived by proteolytic cleavage from the C-terminal of a precursor protein. ... These proteins interact with a conserved family of cell surface serine/threonine-specific protein kinase receptors, ... Proteins from the TGF-beta family are only active as homo- or heterodimer; the two chains being linked by a single disulfide ...
Casey PJ (1995). "Protein lipidation in cell signaling". Science. 268 (5208): 221-5. doi:10.1126/science.7716512. PMID 7716512 ... and Intracellular Signaling Molecules". Science STKE. 2006 (359): 14. doi:10.1126/stke.3592006re14. PMID 17077383. Draper JM, ... Xia Z, Smith CD (Aug 2007). "Cellular palmitoylation and trafficking of lipated peptides". NIH Public Access. 48 (8): 1873-1884 ... C22orf25 is also xenologous to T10 like proteins in the Fowlpox Virus and Canarypox Virus. The gene coding for C22orf25 is ...
... is an intracellular protein. This is known by the lack of transmembrane domains or signal peptides. This suggests that ... Phosphorylation affects proteins-protein interaction and the stability of the protein. Acetylation promotes protein folding and ... The protein released by this gene is known as uncharacterized protein C12orf42. There are three isoforms for this protein ... C12orf42 protein is a soluble. Proteins that are soluble have a hydrophilic outside and hydrophobic interior . Proteins with ...
Peptidylprolyl isomerase A
... where it partakes in intracellular signaling, protein transport, and transcription regulation. In hemopoietic cells, ... PPIases catalyze the cis-trans isomerization of proline imidic peptide bonds in oligopeptides and accelerate protein folding. ... The protein can also interact with several HIV proteins, including p55 gag, Vpr, and capsid protein, and has been shown to be ... PPIA may also activate Akt and NF-κB signaling, resulting in the upregulation of Bcl-2, an antiapoptotic protein, and thus ...
... both necrotic and apoptotic processes utilize a similar intracellular signaling cascade which uses caspase proteins to induce ... In fact, Senile plaques are dense, protein deposits composed of amyloid β peptide. The two types of senile plaques are diffuse ... In addition to the amyloid, the microtubule-associated Tau protein has also been in involved with Alzheimer's Disease and a ... In some rare forms, protein aggregation of alpha-synuclein and parkin can elicit symptoms of Parkinson's Disease. For a variety ...
Protein kinase C
"The glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue exendin-4 reverses impaired intracellular Ca2+ signalling in steatotic hepatocytes". BBA ... Serine/threonine-specific protein kinase Signal transduction Yasutomi Nishizuka, discovered protein kinase C Wilson CH, Ali ES ... membrane-bound receptor for activated protein kinase C proteins). The protein kinase C enzymes are known for their long-term ... Protein kinase C, commonly abbreviated to PKC (EC 188.8.131.52), is a family of protein kinase enzymes that are involved in ...
... authoritative information about signaling pathways in human cells. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins at the US ... In intracrine signaling, once inside the cell, a signaling molecule can bind to intracellular receptors, other elements, or ... Bu Z, Callaway DJ (2011). "Proteins MOVE! Protein dynamics and long-range allostery in cell signaling". Advances in Protein ... signaling pathway cAMP-dependent pathway Protein dynamics Signal transduction Systems biology Lipid signaling Redox signaling ...
Serine/threonine-specific protein kinase
Receptor protein serine/threonine kinase) and Intracellular signaling peptides and proteins. Of the latter, types include: ... which was a general EC number for any enzyme that phosphorylates proteins while converting ATP to ADP (i.e., ATP:protein ... A serine/threonine protein kinase (EC 184.108.40.206) is a kinase enzyme that phosphorylates the OH group of serine or threonine ( ... Protein phosphorylation in particular plays a significant role in a wide range of cellular processes and is a very important ...
They have also been shown to bind to other PDZ domain proteins and could possibly be involved in intracellular signalling. The ... encoded protein localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and is thought to be cleaved by a caspase to produce a secreted peptide ... PDZ domain-containing protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PDZD2 gene. Proteins containing PDZ domains have ... Nakayama M, Kikuno R, Ohara O (2002). "Protein-protein interactions between large proteins: two-hybrid screening using a ...
cellular protein metabolic process. • neurogenesis. • intracellular signal transduction. • protein processing. • protein ... A 5-fold drop of amyloid peptide was observed, suggesting that deficiency of presenilin-1 can down regulate amyloid and ... membrane protein intracellular domain proteolysis. • positive regulation of protein import into nucleus. • ephrin receptor ... intracellular. • protein complex. • axon. • nuclear outer membrane. • endoplasmic reticulum membrane. • Golgi membrane. • ...
CD2, a enciclopedia libre
1990). "Immunoregulatory effect of a synthetic peptide corresponding to a region of protein p24 of HIV.". Folia Biol. (Praha) ... protein GP41 of HIV-1 inhibits distinct lymphocyte activation pathways dependent on protein kinase C and intracellular calcium ... "The OX-44 molecule couples to signaling pathways and is associated with CD2 on rat T lymphocytes and a natural killer cell ... Wilkins A, Yang W, Yang J (2003). "Structural biology of the cell adhesion protein CD2: from molecular recognition to protein ...
... a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell. When such chemical signals bind to a ... The loops connecting the alpha helices form extracellular and intracellular domains. The binding-site for larger peptide ... and can be a protein or peptide (short protein), or another small molecule such as a neurotransmitter, hormone, pharmaceutical ... Ligands connect to specific receptor proteins based on the shape of the active site of the protein. ...
NPM1 - Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre
Interaction of nucleolar protein B23 with peptides related to nuclear localization signals.». Biochemistry. 34 (25): 8037-42. ... intracellular protein transport. • reparo de ADN. • transdução de sinal. • negative regulation of cell proliferation. • ... protein stabilization. • protein homooligomerization. • regulation of cell cycle. • positive regulation of protein localization ... protein oligomerization. • negative regulation of protein kinase activity by regulation of protein phosphorylation. • ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor
Receptor/signaling modulators. Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. Cytokine receptor modulators. Retrieved from " ... BDNF signaling leads to the autophosphorylation of the intracellular domain of the TrkB receptor (ICD-TrkB). Upon ... Through a protein signaling cascade requiring Erk, CaM KII/IV, PI3K, and PLC, NMDA receptor activation is capable of triggering ... transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase signaling pathway. • peripheral nervous system development. • memory. • nerve ...
... proteins on the surface of antigen-presenting cells. These peptides are products of proteasomal degradation of proteins ... Once a protein is tagged with a single ubiquitin molecule, this is a signal to other ligases to attach additional ubiquitin ... have one of the shortest life spans of all intracellular proteins. After a CDK-cyclin complex has performed its function, ... The protein degradation processEdit. Ribbon diagram of ubiquitin, the highly conserved protein that serves as a molecular tag ...
Innate immune system
For example, the Influenza A virus produces NS1 protein, which can bind to host and viral RNA, interact with immune signaling ... Antimicrobial peptides are an evolutionarily conserved component of the innate immune response found among all classes of life ... One strategy is intracellular replication, as practised by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, or wearing a protective capsule, which ... This leads to antiviral protein production, such as protein kinase R, which inhibits viral protein synthesis, or the 2′,5′- ...
Beta-amiloide, a enciclopedia libre
"The Alzheimer's Disease-Associated Amyloid β-Protein Is an Antimicrobial Peptide". PLoS ONE 5 (3): e9505. Bibcode:2010PLoSO... ... "Distinct sites of intracellular production for Alzheimer's disease A beta40/42 amyloid peptides". Nat. Med. 3 (9): 1016-20. ... "Signaling Effect of Amyloid-β42 on the Processing of AβPP". Exp. Neurol. 221 (1): 18-25. PMC 2812589. PMID 19747481. doi ... Hiltunen M, van Groen T, Jolkkonen J (2009). "Functional roles of amyloid-beta protein precursor and amyloid-beta peptides: ...
This increases peptide hormone stability and activity.. Pharmacokinetics. Absorption. From the U.S. ... "Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. 19 (17): 2141-56. doi:10.1089/ars.2013.5372. PMC 3869468. PMID 23621620.. ... Savini I, Rossi A, Pierro C, Avigliano L, Catani MV (April 2008). "SVCT1 and SVCT2: key proteins for vitamin C uptake". Amino ... Emadi-Konjin P, Verjee Z, Levin AV, Adeli K (May 2005). "Measurement of intracellular vitamin C levels in human lymphocytes by ...
In mice models, for all novel protein sequences, potential MHC-binding peptides were predicted. The resulting set of potential ... Some antigens start out as exogenous, and later become endogenous (for example, intracellular viruses). Intracellular antigens ... "Adjuvant-enhanced antibody responses in the absence of toll-like receptor signaling". Science. 314 (5807): 1936-8. Bibcode ... Immunoglobulin-binding protein - Proteins such as protein A, protein G, and protein L that are capable of binding to antibodies ...
Platelet-derived growth factor
Receptor/signaling modulators. Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. Cytokine receptor modulators. Retrieved from " ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... a b Proto-Oncogene+Proteins+c-sis at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... This leads to specificity of downstream signaling. It has been shown that the sis oncogene is derived from the PDGF B-chain ...
Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. Adiponectin. AdipoR1. *Agonists: Peptide: Adiponectin. *ADP-355 ... Bradykinin is a physiologically and pharmacologically active peptide of the kinin group of proteins, consisting of nine amino ... Bradykinin is a 9-amino acid peptide chain. The amino acid sequence of bradykinin is: Arg-Pro-Pro-Gly-Phe-Ser-Pro-Phe-Arg ( ... It is a peptide that causes blood vessels to dilate (enlarge), and therefore causes blood pressure to fall. A class of drugs ...
Tumor necrosis factor alpha
Receptor/signaling modulators. Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. Cytokine receptor modulators. *. Biology portal ... thus excluding direct interactions with intracellular adaptor proteins. *^ Theiss. A. L. et al. 2005. Tumor necrosis factor ( ... positive regulation of protein complex assembly. • protein kinase B signaling. • positive regulation of cytokine production. • ... Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNFα, cachexin, or cachectin) is a cell signaling protein (cytokine) ...
Coagulation factor II receptor
... receptor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the F2R gene. PAR1 is a G protein-coupled receptor involved in the ... Hein L, Ishii K, Coughlin SR, Kobilka BK (Nov 1994). "Intracellular targeting and trafficking of thrombin receptors. A novel ... Hoffman M, Church FC (Aug 1993). "Response of blood leukocytes to thrombin receptor peptides". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 54 ... Traynelis SF, Trejo J (May 2007). "Protease-activated receptor signaling: new roles and regulatory mechanisms". Current Opinion ...
When the TCR engages with antigenic peptide and MHC (peptide/MHC), the T lymphocyte is activated through signal transduction, ... CD45 - a transmembrane protein whose intracellular tail functions as a tyrosine phosphatase that activates Src family kinases ... making it unlikely to participate in signaling, these signaling molecules are vital in propagating the signal from the ... UMich Orientation of Proteins in Membranes protein/pdbid-2hac - Zeta-zeta dimer of T cell receptor ...
... it reduces neuron firing rate and triggers protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling, resulting in DAT ... would support intracellular activation of signal transduction pathways (Miller, 2011). Such a co-localization would not require ... In addition to the various beneficial effects for brain function mainly attributed to an upregulation of peptide growth factors ... supports intracellular activation of signal transduction pathways, as suggested previously (Miller, 2011). ... Additionally, ...
calcium-mediated signaling using intracellular calcium source. • positive regulation of platelet activation. • leukocyte ... protein binding. • calcium ion binding. • metal ion binding. Cellular component. • integral component of membrane. • membrane. ... an EGF-like domain and a complement-binding protein-like domains (same as complement regulatory proteins: CRP) having short ... calcium-dependent protein binding. • glycosphingolipid binding. • fucose binding. • carbohydrate binding. • sialic acid binding ...
Proteiinkinaasid - Vikipeedia
"Peptide inhibitors of protein kinases-discovery, characterisation and use". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Proteins and ... Vlahopoulos, S, Zoumpourlis, VC (August 2004). "JNK: a key modulator of intracellular signaling.". Biochemistry. Biokhimiia 69 ... Hunter T (1991). "Protein kinase classification". Meth. Enzymol. 200: 3-37. PMID 1835513. doi:10.1016/0076-6879(91)00125-G. ... Dan R Robinson, Yi-Mi Wu ja Su-Fang Lin, The protein tyrosine kinase family of the human genome, 20 November 2000, Volume 19, ...
positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling. • positive regulation of cell migration. • blood coagulation. • proteolysis ... Inoue K, Morita T (November 1993). "Identification of O-linked oligosaccharide chains in the activation peptides of blood ... "Complementary DNA cloning and kinetic characterization of a novel intracellular serine proteinase inhibitor: mechanism of ... Contributions of protein-protein and protein-membrane interactions toward complex formation". The Journal of Biological ...
Many proteins are involved in the process of cell signaling and signal transduction. Some proteins, such as insulin, are ... Ritchie DW (February 2008). "Recent progress and future directions in protein-protein docking". Current Protein & Peptide ... Although many intracellular proteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm and membrane-bound or secreted proteins in the ... Main article: Protein domain. Many proteins are composed of several protein domains, i.e. segments of a protein that fold into ...
The removal of the signal peptide during translation produces the 241-amino acid polypeptide POMC, which undergoes a series of ... which leads to an increase in intracellular cAMP and subsequent activation of protein kinase A. ... The ACTH receptor is a seven-membrane-spanning G protein-coupled receptor. Upon ligand binding, the receptor undergoes ... Glucocorticoids may also inhibit the rates of POMC gene transcription and peptide synthesis. The latter is an example of a slow ...
... has a short signal peptide of 21 amino acids encoded by exons 4A and 5. Both isoforms shared 11 amino acids between signal ... tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein. • positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein. • regulation of ... of interleukin-15 expression and the role of this cytokine in NK cell differentiation and host response to intracellular ... has a short signal peptide of 21 amino acids encoded by exons 4A and 5. Both isoforms shared 11 amino acids between signal ...
GTP-binding protein regulators
Phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein. *EDARADD. *PRKCSH. see also deficiencies of intracellular signaling peptides and ... Small GTPases act as molecular switches in signaling pathways, which act to regulate functions of other proteins. They are ... GTP-binding protein regulators regulate G proteins in several different ways. ... and thus requires another class of regulatory proteins to accelerate this activity, the GTPase activating proteins (GAPs). ...
Hepatocyte growth factor
positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling. • positive regulation of protein phosphorylation. • cytokine-mediated ... heparan sulfate allows hepatocyte growth factor to form a complex with c-Met that is able to transduce intracellular signals ... "The procognitive and synaptogenic effects of angiotensin IV-derived peptides are dependent on activation of the hepatocyte ... protein binding. • identical protein binding. • chemoattractant activity. • protein heterodimerization activity. • growth ...
The intracellular granules of the human neutrophil have long been recognized for their protein-destroying and bactericidal ... Once neutrophils have received the appropriate signals, it takes them about thirty minutes to leave the blood and reach the ... vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), TNF, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and ... toxic basic protein and cationic protein (e.g., cathepsin); receptors that bind to IgE are used to help with this task. ...
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia
The result is the combination of two usually separate proteins into a new fusion protein. This protein can have a new function ... the intracellular region of a costimulatory molecule such as CD28, and the intracellular domain of CD3-zeta containing ITAM ... Signals in the body control the number of lymphocytes so neither too few nor too many are made. In ALL, both the normal ... sequence encoding the variable heavy and variable light chains of these antibodies are cloned together using a small peptide ...
Typical chemokine proteins are produced as pro-peptides, beginning with a signal peptide of approximately 20 amino acids that ... G proteins are coupled to the C-terminal end of the chemokine receptor to allow intracellular signaling after receptor ... Signal transductionEdit. Chemokine receptors associate with G-proteins to transmit cell signals following ligand binding. ... that trigger intracellular signaling events; DAG activates another enzyme called protein kinase C (PKC), and IP3 triggers the ...
Interleukin 8 receptor, alpha
Receptor/signaling modulators. Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. Cytokine receptor modulators. *v ... "Identification of G-protein binding sites of the human interleukin-8 receptors by functional mapping of the intracellular loops ... G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • cell surface receptor signaling pathway. • receptor internalization. • ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the G-protein-coupled receptor family. This protein is a receptor for ...
... which requires the presence of an N-terminal signal peptide on the secreted protein. Others are translocated across the ... Protein members of this family are components of the type IV secretion system. They mediate intracellular transfer of ... There are many proteins like FGF1 (aFGF), FGF2 (bFGF), interleukin-1 (IL1) etc. which do not have a signal sequence. They do ... In addition to the secretin protein, 10-15 other inner and outer membrane proteins compose the full secretion apparatus, many ...
Signal Protein-Derived Peptides as Functional Probes and Regulators of Intracellular Signaling
... Alexander O. Shpakov ... J. M. Taylor and R. R. Neubig, "Peptides as probes for G protein signal transduction," Cellular Signalling, vol. 6, no. 8, pp. ... "The peptide strategy as a novel approach to the study of G protein-coupled signaling systems," in Signal Transduction Research ... "Different role of intracellular loops of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor in G-protein coupling," Regulatory Peptides, vol. 111 ...
Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst
Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and ... Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins*Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins. Intracellular Signaling Proteins* ... Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that ... Intracellular Signaling Peptides*Intracellular Signaling Peptides. *Peptides, Intracellular Signaling. *Signaling Peptides, ...
GTP-binding protein regulators - Wikipedia
Phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein. *EDARADD. *PRKCSH. see also deficiencies of intracellular signaling peptides and ... Small GTPases act as molecular switches in signaling pathways, which act to regulate functions of other proteins. They are ... GTP-binding protein regulators regulate G proteins in several different ways. ... and thus requires another class of regulatory proteins to accelerate this activity, the GTPase activating proteins (GAPs). ...
GNB1 - Wikipedia
Phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein. *EDARADD. *PRKCSH. see also deficiencies of intracellular signaling peptides and ... protein complex binding. • signal transducer activity. • protein binding. • GTPase activity. • GTPase binding. • G-protein ... protein heterotrimerization. • Wnt signaling pathway, calcium modulating pathway. • protein folding. • G-protein coupled ... Ras protein signal transduction. • cell proliferation. • cellular response to hypoxia. • sensory perception of taste. • signal ...
Guanine Nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitors < GTP-Binding Protein Regulators << Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins ...
Intracellular protein transport in plants: signal peptides, molecular chaperones and proteolysis - Stockholm University -...
Intracellular protein transport in plants: signal peptides, molecular chaperones and proteolysis. Project leader. Prof Elzbieta ... List of projects » Intracellular protein transport in plants: signal peptides, molecular chaperones and proteolysis ... and dual targeting of proteins to both organelles mapping import determinants and interaction of signal peptides with ... Newly synthesized organellar proteins contain targeting signals that are recognized by organellar receptors and mediate import ...
High-Resolution Mapping of a Repeat Protein Folding Free Energy Landscape. - PubMed - NCBI
Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins. Grant support. *R01 GM068462/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/United States ... High-Resolution Mapping of a Repeat Protein Folding Free Energy Landscape.. Fossat MJ1, Dao TP2, Jenkins K1, Dellarole M3, Yang ... Ribbon diagram of the crystal structure of the leucine-rich repeat protein pp32 (PDB: 2JE0) (). The N-terminal cap is shown in ... Simulations can provide this level of insight for small proteins. In contrast, with the exception of hydrogen exchange, which ...
Cell signalling (1). * Health sciences (1). * Intracellular signalling peptides and proteins (1). ... WNK1: analysis of protein kinase structure, downstream targets, and potential roles in hypertension *Bing-e XU ... Signal control through Raf: in sickness and in health *Jihan K Osborne ... Rights & permissionsfor article Signal control through Raf: in sickness and in health . Opens in a new window. ...
Intracellular signalling peptides and proteins (1). * Liver fibrosis (1). Date Choose a date option to show results from ... Helicobacter pylori accelerates hepatic fibrosis by sensitizing transforming growth factor-β1-induced inflammatory signaling * ... 1-induced inflammatory signaling . Opens in a new window. ...
IQ-ArfGEF/BRAG1 is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Arf6 that interacts with PSD-95 at postsynaptic density of...
Dlg4 protein, mouse * Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors * Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins ... Immunoprecipitation and in vitro binding experiments revealed that IQ-ArfGEF/BRAG1 formed a protein complex with N-methyl-d- ... Taken together, IQ-ArfGEF/BRAG1 forms a postsynaptic protein complex containing PSD-95 and NMDA receptors at excitatory ... aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptors through the interaction with a postsynaptic density (PSD) scaffold protein, PSD-95. ...
A novel protein Depp, which is induced by progesterone in human endometrial stromal cells activates Elk-1 transcription factor
In this study, we isolated a novel clone encoding decidual protein induced by progesterone (Depp) from a human ESC cDNA library ... Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins * Progesterone / physiology* * Proteins / genetics* * Proteins / physiology * RNA ... A novel protein Depp, which is induced by progesterone in human endometrial stromal cells activates Elk-1 transcription factor ... In this study, we isolated a novel clone encoding decidual protein induced by progesterone (Depp) from a human ESC cDNA library ...
Importance of the GH/IGF-1 Axis for Human Substrate and Energy Metabolism During Calorie Restriction - Full Text View -...
Category:Proteins - Wikimedia Commons
Intermediate filament proteins (7 В). *. ► Intracellular signaling peptides and proteins (5 К, 104 В) ... Protein (lb); protein (nb); Protéin (su); Protein (hif); 朊 (lzh); بروتين (ar); Protein (br); ပရိုတိန်း (my); 蛋白質 (yue); Белок ( ... प्रोटिन (dty); Prótín (is); Protein (ms); protein (tr); لحمیات (ur); Bielkovina (sk); білок (uk); 蛋白质 (zh-cn); Protein (gsw); ... protein (sco); Уураг (mn); protein (nn); ಪ್ರೋಟೀನ್ (kn); پرۆتین (ckb); protein (en); fehérje (hu); પ્રોટિન (gu); प्रोटिन (new); ...
Nitro-linoleic acid inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation via the Keap1/Nrf2 signaling pathway.
0/10-nitro-9,12-octadecadienoic acid; 0/Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0/KEAP1 protein, rat; 0/Linoleic Acids; ... Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins. Linoleic Acids / administration & dosage*. Male. Muscle, Smooth, Vascular / ... LNO(2) upregulated the expression of Nrf2 protein levels, but not mRNA levels, in VSMCs. A forced activation of Nrf2 led to an ... 12201056 - Alterations in the cell cycle and in the protein level of cyclin d1, p21cip1, and p16in.... 10501206 - Molecular ...
FHL2 | Cancer Genetics Web
Protein Binding. *Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins. *Promoter Regions. *Colorectal Cancer. *Cytoplasm ... and its protein functions as an important adaptor and modifier in protein-protein interactions. Both of their structures are ... LIM-only protein FHL2 activates NF-κB signaling in the control of liver regeneration and hepatocarcinogenesis.. Mol Cell Biol. ... Four-and-a-half LIM-only protein 2 (FHL2) is an important mediator in many signaling pathways. In this study, we analyzed the ...
SKIL | Cancer Genetics Web
Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins. *Tumor Markers. Tag cloud generated 25 June, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH ... protein binding - protein complex binding - protein domain specific binding - protein heterotrimerization - protein ... What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?. Show (1). SKIL is involved in:. - TGF beta signaling pathway BIOCARTA. Data ... TGFB signaling causes SMAD3 to enter the nucleus and degrade this protein, allowing these genes to be activated. Four ...
Genetic analysis of iron citrate toxicity in yeast: implications for mammalian iron homeostasis.
0/Fungal Proteins; 0/Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0/RTG2 protein, S cerevisiae; 0/Saccharomyces cerevisiae ... Fungal Proteins / physiology. Homeostasis. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins. Iron / metabolism*, toxicity*. ... Proteins; 7439-89-6/Iron; 77-92-9/Citric Acid; EC 220.127.116.11/Citrate (si)-Synthase ...
MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1
Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins); 0 (Lipopolysaccharides); 0 (PPP1R13L protein, human); 0 (Ppp1r13l protein, ... 0 (CDC73 protein, human); 0 (Tumor Suppressor Proteins); EC 18.104.22.168 (Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 11). ... mTOR protein, mouse); EC 22.214.171.124 (Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt); EC 126.96.36.199 (Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type ... EC 188.8.131.52 (PTPN11 protein, human); EC 184.108.40.206 (Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 11). ...
MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1
Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins); 0 (Marcks protein, mouse); 0 (Membrane Proteins); 0 (Phosphatidylinositol 4,5- ... Calpains are a family of ubiquitously expressed intracellular Ca -dependent cysteine proteases involved in signal transduction ... intercellular and intracellular signaling, gene expression, and membrane ion channel activity. Primary afferent neurons ... ENaC activity is regulated by calpain-2 proteolysis of MARCKS proteins.. [So] Source:. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol;313(1):C42-C53 ...
G-Protein Antagonist peptide Supplier | CAS 143675-79-0 | GPAnt-2 | Tocris Bioscience
Inhibits G protein activation by GPCRs. Cited in 2 publications. ... View and buy high quality G-Protein Antagonist peptide from ... Nogueras-Ortiz (2017) Retromer stops beta-arrestin 1 mediated signaling from internalized cannabinoid 2 receptors. Mol Biol ... Keywords: G-Protein Antagonist peptide, G-Protein Antagonist peptide supplier, inhibitors, inhibits, G, protein, activation, by ... Reviews for G-Protein antagonist peptide. There are currently no reviews for this product. Be the first to review G-Protein ...
SPAK/OSR1 regulate NKCC1 and WNK activity: analysis of WNK isoform interactions and activation by T-loop trans...
Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins Molecular Sequence Data Mutation Phosphorylation Protein Isoforms Protein ... Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins OSR1 protein, human Protein Isoforms Sodium-Potassium-Chloride Symporters ... WNK2 protein, human Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases STK39 protein, human WNK1 protein, human WNK3 protein, human ... MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, MSI/WTB Complex, University of Dundee, Dow Street, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland, U.K. ...
Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst
Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins [D12.644.360.075.437]. *Proteins [D12.776]. *Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins [ ... IAP proteins interact with and inhibit CASPASES, and they function as ANTI-APOPTOTIC PROTEINS. The protein class is defined by ... "Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins" by people in Harvard Catalyst ...
Crystal structure of mouse coronavirus receptor-binding domain complexed with its murine receptor. - PubMed - NCBI
... intracellular tail. The signal peptide corresponds to residues 1-14 and is cleaved during molecular maturation (). Structures ... Despite its galectin fold, MHV NTD does not bind sugars, but instead binds mCEACAM1a through exclusive protein-protein ... The orientation of the structure is the same as in . (B) Human galectin-3 [Protein Data Bank (PDB) 1A3K]. The β-sandwich core ... A) Domain structure of MHV spike protein. NTD: N-terminal domain; RBD: receptor-binding domain; HR-N: heptad-repeat N; HR-C: ...
cGMP-dependent protein kinase - wikidoc
Phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein. *EDARADD. *PRKCSH. see also deficiencies of intracellular signaling peptides and ... cGMP-dependent protein kinase or Protein Kinase G (PKG) is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that is activated by cGMP ... Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases and the Cardiovascular System. *cGMP-Dependent+Protein+Kinases at the US National Library ... Receptor protein serine/threonine kinase (EC 220.127.116.11). *Bone morphogenetic protein receptors *BMPR1 ...
Programmed cell death of embryonic motoneurons triggered through the Fas death receptor - Infoscience
Motoneurons resistant to Fas activation expressed high levels of FLICE-inhibitory protein (FLIP), an endogenous inhibitor of ... Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins. DOI:. 10.1083/jcb.147.5.1049. Laboratories: LEN ... Motoneurons resistant to Fas activation expressed high levels of FLICE-inhibitory protein (FLIP), an endogenous inhibitor of ...
GNG3 - wikidoc
see also deficiencies of intracellular signaling peptides and proteins. This article on a gene on human chromosome 11 is a stub ... Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GNG3 gene.[2 ... Gamma subunits, such as GNG3, contribute to the specificity of the hundreds of receptor signaling pathways involving G proteins ... 1999). "KSR-1 binds to G-protein betagamma subunits and inhibits beta gamma-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase activation ...
Csk - Tyrosine-protein kinase CSK - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Csk gene & protein
Suppresses signaling by various surface receptors, including T-cell receptor (TCR) and B-cell receptor (BCR) by phosphorylating ... To inhibit SFKs, CSK is recruited to the plasma membrane via binding to transmembrane proteins or adapter proteins located near ... Non-receptor tyrosine-protein kinase that plays an important role in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, migration ... intracellular signal transduction Source: HGNC ,p>Traceable Author Statement,/p> ,p>Used for information from review articles ...
Anti-phospho-GluR1 (Ser831) phosphorylated blocking peptide | Tocris Bioscience
... phosphorylated blocking peptide (Cat. No. 2106) has been withdrawn from sale for commercial reasons. ... G-Protein-Coupled Receptors. *Intracellular Signaling. * Request copy *Download PDF. *View all Product Guides & Listings ... phosphorylated blocking peptide supplier, Blocking, peptides, phosphorylated, anti-phospho-GluR1, Ser831, Glutamate, AMPA, ... Have you used Anti-phospho-GluR1 (Ser831) phosphorylated blocking peptide?. Submit a review and receive an Amazon gift card.. $ ...
Rho- and Rho-kinase-dependent phosphorylation of MBS | Open-i
Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins. *Membrane Proteins/metabolism. *Molecular Sequence Data. *Myosin Light Chains/ ... 3 A), whereas it induced the phosphorylation of cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) at Ser-133 (data not shown). These ... 3 A), whereas it induced the phosphorylation of cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) at Ser-133 (data not shown). These ... Affiliation: Division of Signal Transduction, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma 630-0101, Japan. ...
BCAP31 - B-cell receptor-associated protein 31 - Homo sapiens (Human) - BCAP31 gene & protein
Is one of the most abundant endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteins. Plays a role in the export of secreted proteins in the ER, the ... Also serves as a cargo receptor for the export of transmembrane proteins. May be involved in CASP8-mediated apoptosis. ... recognition of abnormally folded protein and their targeting to the ER associated-degradation (ERAD). ... calcium-mediated signaling using intracellular calcium source Source: UniProtKB ,p>Inferred from Mutant Phenotype,/p> ,p> ...
TRANSDUCTIONMetabolismKinasesCalciumMechanismsHumansCascadesTyrosineCytosolicNeuronsAdaptor proteinsPlasma membraneMembraneTumorEndogenousMiceGPCRActinSerineCanonicalHomologyAssociated-degradationInteractsTransmembrane proteinPrecursorChanges in intracellularScaffold for the developmentSecretionSubunitNuclearActivationInteractionMass spectrometryRegulatoryCellMeSHIsoformsBindsTarget peptidesInducesTranscriptionMitochondria and chloroplastsAdaptors
- Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. (harvard.edu)
- Beta subunits are important regulators of alpha subunits, as well as of certain signal transduction receptors and effectors. (wikipedia.org)
- Calpains are a family of ubiquitously expressed intracellular Ca -dependent cysteine proteases involved in signal transduction. (bireme.br)
- However, detailed events that contribute to shear stress-induced protection in EPCs, particularly the mechanisms of signal transduction, remain poorly understood. (bireme.br)
- The possible role of this ABA-induced Ca(i) decrease in ABA signal transduction and in counteracting the effects of gibberellic acid are discussed. (tudelft.nl)
- These results suggest that distinct signal transduction cascades can participate in the transition of T cells to IL-2 independence. (cnrs.fr)
- All C-peptide effects were abolished by pretreatment with PTX implicating a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR), to either Goii or GOo, in the transduction of these events. (le.ac.uk)
- advantages of protein phosphorylation for signal transduction. (booktopia.com.au)
- The results suggest that the exaggerated renal vascular reactivity to AVP challenge in SHR is probably not due to a strain difference in postreceptor calcium signal transduction. (ahajournals.org)
- Signal transduction- the interaction of ligand and receptor proteins initiates this process, which converts the information in the signal into a cellular response. (majortests.com)
- Several highly conserved p62 homologs have recently been isolated, e.g. the rat atypical protein kinase C-interacting protein (ZIP), the murine A170/signal transduction and adapter protein, and the human p62, a protein that binds the Src homology 2 domain of p56(lck). (embl-heidelberg.de)
- 5-8 Importantly, recent accumulating evidence highlighted the significance of these small G proteins as essential molecular switches that trigger many of the signal transduction and functions of Ang II. (ahajournals.org)
- Being a G-protein coupled receptor, its activation leads to changes in intracellular signal transduction mediated by adenylyl cyclase, Ca(2+) and K(+) ion channels, mitogen-activated kinase and phospholipase C. Based on preclinical studies, NOP receptor is implicated in regulation of pain, anxiety and depression, drug abuse, feeding, learning/memory, and motor activity. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- We propose that peptide aptamers can provide a very useful and new alternative for interfering with protein-protein interactions in intracellular signal transduction cascades, including those emanating from activated receptors for growth factors. (mdpi.com)
- Immunomodulatory signals have long been implicated as key regulators of bone metabolism. (jimmunol.org)
- Numerous immunomodulatory signals are concurrently involved in the regulation of bone metabolism and vice versa bone-derived proteins, such as osteopontin, may have immunomodulatory effects ( 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Agilent cell metabolism assays detect discrete changes in cell bioenergetics in real time, providing a window into the critical functions that provide ATP, the energy that cells need for activation, signaling, proliferation, and biosynthesis. (biotek.com)
- The IL-2 independence of an HVS-transformed cell line correlated with constitutive activation of protein tyrosine kinases known to be induced following TCR engagement. (cnrs.fr)
- The role of signaling by MAP kinases (ERK and p38) was explored using Western blot analysis. (hindawi.com)
- Of note, the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) is important in the production of inflammatory cytokines by LPS stimulation [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Notch signaling mediates G1/S cell-cycle progression in T cells via cyclin D3 and its dependent kinases. (umassmed.edu)
- 1. Protein kinases- enzyme that adds phosphate groups from ATP to proteins. (majortests.com)
- We categorize protein kinases as either serine-threonine or tyrosine kinases based on the amino acids they modify. (majortests.com)
- A protein activated by kinases will be deactivated by a phosphatase, and a protein deactivated by kinases will be activated by a phosphatase. (majortests.com)
- It's well known that the protein calmodulin specifically targets and steers the activities of hundreds of other proteins - mostly kinases - in our cells, thus playing a role in physiologically important processes ranging from gene transcription to nerve growth and muscle contraction But just how it distinguishes between target proteins is not well understood. (innovations-report.com)
- Multiple downstream effectors of small G proteins, some of them being protein kinases, have been identified. (ahajournals.org)
- It also activates various intracellular tyrosine and serine/threonine kinases. (ahajournals.org)
- To evaluate intracellular calcium mobilization, 8-( N,N -diethylamino)octyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate (TMB-8) or heparin was coadministered with AVP. (ahajournals.org)
- Approximately two thirds of the change in vascular tone is due to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-mediated calcium mobilization from intracellular sources sensitive to TMB-8 and heparin. (ahajournals.org)
- It is also a major storage site for calcium, phosphorus, and proteins, which are released upon osteoclastic resorption. (jimmunol.org)
- A so-called signaling protein and "calcium sensor," calmodulin gives start and stop signals for a great number of intracellular activities by binding and releasing other proteins. (innovations-report.com)
- Professor Matthias Rief and colleagues at the Technische Universitaet Muenchen had previously shown that they could fix a single calmodulin molecule between a surface and the cantilever tip of a specially built atomic-force microscope, expose it to calcium ions in solution, induce peptide binding and unbinding, and measure changes in the molecule's mechanical properties as it did its work. (innovations-report.com)
- We combine biochemical and molecular biological approaches with bioinformatics to study intracellular protein transport in plants with emphasis on sorting mechanisms and proteolysis. (su.se)
- and constrained structure-based simulations yield unparalleled insight into protein folding mechanisms. (nih.gov)
- The present study aimed to determine whether ghrelin directly activates NPY neurons and, if so, to explore its signaling mechanisms. (diabetesjournals.org)
- These results demonstrate that ghrelin directly interacts with NPY neurons in the ARC to induce Ca 2+ signaling via PKA and N-type Ca 2+ channel-dependent mechanisms. (diabetesjournals.org)
- We are using a combination of biochemical, molecular biological, biophysical and bioinformatic approaches to investigate different aspects of intracellular protein transport, such as sorting mechanisms, dual protein targeting, interaction of signal peptides with molecular chaperones and degradation of signal peptides by the PreP peptidasome. (su.se)
- Gm SubPep is a unique plant defense peptide signal, cryptically embedded within a plant protein with an independent metabolic role, providing insights into plant defense mechanisms. (pnas.org)
- However, the precise molecular mechanisms of C-peptide action are not fully understood. (le.ac.uk)
- In general terms, mechanisms based on microbial products - such as peptides or superantigens - need to be distinguished from mechanisms based on the inflammatory setting that results from an infection. (jci.org)
- In contrast, the role of intracellular trafficking mechanisms in controlling BK channel function, especially in live cells, has been less studied. (frontiersin.org)
- Lectures cover physiologic to molecular actions of peptide, protein and steroid hormones and the intracellular signaling as well as the transcriptional gene regulatory mechanisms that drive reproductive biology. (mbl.edu)
- Unconventional autophagic mechanisms involved in intracellular trafficking control and cell signalling. (cicancer.org)
- Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) subunit beta-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GNB1 gene . (wikipedia.org)
- Chromosome 8 open reading frame 46 (C8orf46) is a protein coding gene, which in humans is located along the forward strand of chromosome 8. (wikipedia.org)
- 100 small G proteins have been identified in eukaryotes from yeast to humans. (ahajournals.org)
- FLNs also bind to various other cellular proteins including cytosolic signalling and adaptor proteins, e.g. migfilin [ 3 - 8 ]. (portlandpress.com)
- The antigens presented by class II peptides are derived from extracellular proteins while class I peptides are derived from cytosolic proteins. (genecards.org)
- Ghrelin is a newly discovered peptide that is released from the stomach and from neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) and potently stimulates growth hormone release and food intake. (diabetesjournals.org)
- However, the intracellular signaling for ghrelin's orexigenic action in the effector neurons is not well understood. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Key to this regulatory function is the melanocortin system, which consists of two functionally antagonistic neuronal populations - one subset of neurons expresses the orexigenic neuropeptides agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY), the second subset expresses the anorexigenic peptides proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART). (jci.org)
- To inhibit SFKs, CSK is recruited to the plasma membrane via binding to transmembrane proteins or adapter proteins located near the plasma membrane. (uniprot.org)
- During development in human erythrocytes, Plasmodium falciparum parasites display a remarkable number of adhesive proteins on their plasma membrane. (biomedcentral.com)
- In gametocytes, sexual precursor cells mediating parasite transmission to the mosquito vector, plasma membrane-associated proteins primarily belong to the Pf CCp and 6-cys families with roles in fertilization. (biomedcentral.com)
- In mature schizonts, the protein localizes underneath the merozoite micronemes and interacts with Pf AMA1, while in gametocytes Pf WLP1 primarily accumulates underneath the plasma membrane and associates with Pf CCp1 and Pf s230. (biomedcentral.com)
- It was shown that AMA1, a transmembrane protein of the micronemal membrane, upon merozoite attachment to the RBC relocates to the plasma membrane and then interacts with RON proteins that have been secreted and inserted into the RBC membrane. (biomedcentral.com)
- A remarkable feature of gametocytes is the expression of numerous adhesive proteins, which are associated with the plasma membrane within the parasitophorous vacuole. (biomedcentral.com)
- Yeast two-hybrid screening of a rabbit parietal cell cDNA library with dominant active Rab11a (Rab11aS20V) identified myosin Vb as an interacting protein for Rab11a, a marker for plasma membrane recycling systems. (psu.edu)
- Membrane regulatory proteins, such as CD46, CD55, and CD59, prevent excess complement activation and to protect cells from damage. (bireme.br)
- Comparison of Schwannomin with other proteins shows similarities to proteins that connect the cytoskeleton to the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
- In contrast, precursors with YSIRK-G/S signal peptides are secreted into the cross-wall, a membrane enclosed compartment for the de novo synthesis of peptidoglycan that separates daughter cells during division ( 14 ). (pnas.org)
- Ectopic expression of the protein disrupts the structure of the Golgi, suggesting that N4WBP5 forms part of a family of integral Golgi membrane proteins. (embl-heidelberg.de)
- C-peptide is able to protect against tumor necrosis factor-alpha- (TNF-a) induced proximal tubular cells toxicity. (le.ac.uk)
- These proteins are frequently altered in neoplastic cells and have traditionally been considered as tumor suppressors. (frontiersin.org)
- This peptide is thought to have a tumor-suppressive function. (wikipedia.org)
- Mutations of NF II is presumed to result in either a failure to synthesize Merlin or the production of a defective peptide that lacks the normal tumor-suppressive effect. (wikipedia.org)
- Deletions, too, in the NH2-terminal domain of merlin proteins have been associated with early tumor onset and poor prognosis in affected patients. (wikipedia.org)
- On the other hand, heat shock protein 70 has been found to be largely associated with the establishment of anti-tumor activities offered by hyperthermia treated tumor cells. (medsci.org)
- During tumor metastasis, integrin-mediated cell adhesion to and migration on the ECM proteins are required for cancer cell survival and adaptation to the new microenvironment. (aacrjournals.org)
- Hippo signaling is not solely involved in regulating "classic" tumor characteristics such as cell proliferation, survival and growth, but is also diversely involved in cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous differentiation, migration and organ size control. (worldcat.org)
- The SET protein is a promising drug target in cancer therapy, because of its ability to inhibit the function of the tumor suppressor gene protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). (edu.au)
- Motoneurons resistant to Fas activation expressed high levels of FLICE-inhibitory protein (FLIP), an endogenous inhibitor of caspase-8 activation. (epfl.ch)
- Here, we have isolated a 12-aa peptide from soybean ( Glycine max ) leaves that causes a pH increase of soybean suspension-cultured cell media within 10 min at low nanomolar concentrations, a response that is typical of other endogenous peptide elicitors and pathogen-derived elicitors. (pnas.org)
- These elicitors can be of a heterogeneous nature, such as cutin monomers or cell wall fragments of various sizes ( 2 - 4 ), which exist in all plant species, or they can be a more specific, fine-tuned signal, such as endogenous peptide signals, which may be limited to a single phylogenetic family, coevolving with a specific predator ( 5 - 7 ). (pnas.org)
- Relatively few endogenous peptide defense signals have been isolated thus far. (pnas.org)
- These peptides are used as an internal calibration curve to accurately quantify endogenous peptides and corresponding proteins in a pooled platelet reference sample by nanoLC-MS/MS with parallel reaction monitoring. (mdpi.com)
- Biosynthesis of lanthionine-constrained peptides exploiting engineered Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria that contain lanthionine-introducing enzymes constitutes a convenient method for discovery of lanthionine-stabilized GPCR agonists. (portlandpress.com)
- This study has now for the first time demonstrated specifically that Ga* proteins are activated by C-peptide binding to a GPCR. (le.ac.uk)
- Filamins are large proteins that cross-link actin filaments and connect to other cellular components. (portlandpress.com)
- A variety of protein complexes have previously been described for the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum , like the actin-myosin motor complex enabling gliding motility of the invasive stages. (biomedcentral.com)
- The binding site of GrbS for VavS partially overlaps with the canonical binding site for proline-rich peptides, but is definitely different. (nii.ac.jp)
- Surface proteins with canonical signal peptides are secreted and immobilized to peptidoglycan near the cell poles of dividing staphylococci ( 14 ). (pnas.org)
- Rim1, which is structurally related to Piccolo/Aczonin, is a 180-kDa protein that interacts with Rab3 ( 9 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- AT 1 interacts with multiple heterotrimetric G proteins, including G q/11 , G i , G 12 , and G 13 , and produces second messengers, such as inositol triphosphate, diacylglycerol, and reactive oxygen species (ROS). (ahajournals.org)
- The leader peptide also guides the export of the formed lanthionine-containing precursor peptide out of Gram-positive bacteria via a lanthipeptide transporter. (portlandpress.com)
- Most of the mitochondrial and chloroplast proteins are nuclear encoded and synthesized as precursor proteins containing an N-terminal targeting peptide. (su.se)
Changes in intracellular1
Scaffold for the development2
- The contents of the epididymal lumen are constantly changing due to ion transport across the epithelium and protein secretion into the epididymal lumen. (biomedcentral.com)
- The insect host defense involves synthesis of antimicrobial peptides by the fat body and secretion into the hemolymph ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
- W. J. Phillips and R. A. Cerione, "A C-terminal peptide of bovine rhodopsin binds to the transducin α -subunit and facilitates its activation," Biochemical Journal , vol. 299, no. 2, pp. 351-357, 1994. (hindawi.com)
- Fragment containing α 1 1.2-subunit (745-892) was subcloned in pGBKT7 vector (Clontech Laboratories, Palo Alto, CA) as a Myc-tagged protein. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Furthermore, LNO(2) triggered nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) nuclear translocation and activation of the antioxidant-responsive element-driven transcriptional activity via impairing Kelch-like ECH-associating protein 1 (Keap1)-mediated negative control of Nrf2 activity in VSMCs. (biomedsearch.com)
- Tumorigenesis is frequently associated with activating mutations in β-catenin gene inducing nuclear expression of β-catenin protein. (cancerindex.org)
- C8orf46 is predicted to be a nuclear protein, given the classical nuclear localization signal found at amino acids Lys191 to Lys193. (wikipedia.org)
- Activation and deactivation of small GTPases can be regarded as occurring in a cycle, between the GTP-bound and GDP-bound form, regulated by other regulatory proteins. (wikipedia.org)
- Intracellular events in platelet activation induced by antiphospholipid antibodies in the presence of low doses of thrombin. (docme.ru)
- The intracellular events involved in aPL-mediated platelet activation are not fully understood and are therefore the subject of this study. (docme.ru)
- GW9662, an irreversible PPARy antagonist, blocked PPARy activation by ciglitazone, but had no effect on C-peptide-stimulated PPARy activity. (le.ac.uk)
- The initial expansion of naive autoreactive T cells requires activation of the TCR by MHC-bound peptides or CD1-bound lipids/glycolipids. (jci.org)
- The protein functions to initiate or augment the early phase of T-cell activation, and may function as an important mediator of indirect neuronal damage in infectious and immune-mediated diseases of the central nervous system. (genecards.org)
- The most potent grafted MCoTI-II peptide inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated activation of NF-B in murine macrophages. (edu.au)
- The activation of Ras is induced by a number of peptide growth factors. (ahajournals.org)
- Abatacept binds CD80 and CD86 on antigen presenting cells (APCs), blocking interaction with CD28 on T lymphocytes, which initiates a co-stimulatory signal required for full activation of T lymphocytes. (cancer.gov)
- In addition, fragmentation of doubly charged and singly charged peptides in electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry is compromised. (mcponline.org)
- A putative GRA9 protein had been identified in the lysates of N. caninum bradyzoites and in the secreted fraction of tachyzoites using mass spectrometry (MS), respectively. (thefreelibrary.com)
- The WD40-repeat protein-like protein Pf WLP1 was identified via co-immunoprecipitation assays followed by mass spectrometry and characterized using biochemical and immunohistochemistry methods. (biomedcentral.com)
- The rate of GTP hydrolysis for small GTPases is generally too slow to create physiologically relevant transient signals, and thus requires another class of regulatory proteins to accelerate this activity, the GTPase activating proteins (GAPs). (wikipedia.org)
- Shear stress was observed to promote the expression of complement regulatory protein CD59, but not CD46 or CD55, on EPCs. (bireme.br)
- Using recombinant fusion proteins, we show that MARCKS, but not the ENaC subunits, are a substrate of calpain-2 in the presence of Ca Pharmacological inhibition of calpain-2 alters MARCKS protein expression in light-density sucrose gradient fractions from cell lysates of mouse cortical collecting duct cells. (bireme.br)
- Plant Cell Wall Proteins: A Large Body of Data, but What about Runaways? (mdpi.com)
- Plant cell wall proteomics is a tricky field of research, since proteins are not only minor components of plant cell walls, but are also trapped in complex networks of polysaccharides with which they can interact. (mdpi.com)
- Cell wall proteins (CWPs) are the "blue collar workers," modifying cell wall components and customizing them to confer appropriate properties to cell walls [ 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
- Thus, a large variety of proteins are present in cell walls [ 10 ]. (mdpi.com)
- Ab fragments expressed in the appropriate cell compartment may also help to elucidate the functions of a protein of interest. (cnrs.fr)
- Members of this family share a common protein fold and have diverse functions, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell signalling, glycoprotein turnover, and roles in inflammation and immune response. (genecards.org)
- In dividing Drosophila neural progenitors the apical-basal orientation of the mitotic spindle, the basal cortical localization of the cell fate determinants Numb and/or Prospero as well as the coordination of these events are mediated by several proteins which include Bazooka (Baz), Inscuteable (Insc) and Partner of Inscuteable (Pins) which localize as an apical cortical complex starting at interphase. (mendeley.com)
- Also, these findings provide mechanistic insight into how GV1001 peptide causes anti-inflammatory actions in LPS-stimulated pulpitis without significantly affecting cell viability. (hindawi.com)
- Dense granule (GRA) proteins are secreted, at high levels shortly after host cell invasion and then constitutively at a lower level thereafter. (thefreelibrary.com)
- These signals include bacterial peptide fragments, such as flg22 and elf18 ( 8 , 9 ), fungal peptide elicitors, such as Pep13, AVR9, and elicitins ( 10 - 12 ), chitin fragments from fungal cell walls ( 13 ), and the heptaglucoside elicitor from the oomycete Phytophtora megasperma ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
- C-peptide was found to be a functional mitogen in this cell type stimulating significantly increased cell proliferation. (le.ac.uk)
- Stimulation with 300ng/ml TNF-a for 24 hours resulted in significant reduction of cell viability which was reversed by pretreatment with C-peptide. (le.ac.uk)
- C-peptide increased [35S]-GTPyS binding to Ga* in OK cell membranes. (le.ac.uk)
- The main argument of this book is that cell signalling via nerves, hormones, local mediators and growth factors are not distinct phenomena, but branches of one general mechanism and should therefore be studied in an integrated manner. (booktopia.com.au)
- Introduction - cell-to-cell signalling by bridges: why do cells need to communicate? (booktopia.com.au)
- This is the first report on a plasmodial WD40-repeat protein associating with cell adhesion proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
- Protein complexes are formed by two or more non-covalently bound proteins mutually supportive in distinct cell functions. (biomedcentral.com)
- Protein complexes are crucial for most cell biological processes and among others function in establishing cell-cell contacts. (biomedcentral.com)
- Integrins interact with extracellular matrix (ECM) and deliver intracellular signaling for cell proliferation, survival, and motility. (aacrjournals.org)
- Each cell within plants, animals, and fungi, contains a protein skeleton that helps to stabilize it. (elifesciences.org)
- We demonstrate that protein A of Staphylococcus aureus , a B cell superantigen, is released with peptidoglycan linked to its C terminus. (pnas.org)
- Staphylococcal protein A (SpA) is anchored to the cell wall envelope of Staphylococcus aureus by sortase A, which links the threonyl (T) of its C-terminal LPXTG motif to peptidoglycan cross-bridges (i.e. (pnas.org)
- Cell wall-anchored surface proteins are synthesized as precursors with N-terminal signal peptides and C-terminal LPXTG motif sorting signals ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
- Events within the cell that occur in response to a signal, different cell types can respond differently to the same signal. (majortests.com)
- Signals released from a cell have an effect on neighboring cells. (majortests.com)
- The pancreatic β-cell is a typical endocrine cell in which exocytosis of insulin-containing vesicles is regulated by a variety of intracellular signals. (diabetesjournals.org)
- In an attempt to bridge this gap and to reach into the concentration range of the desirable tissue-derived proteins in plasma, we have developed methods for high throughput and in depth analysis of cell surface proteins, secreted proteins, and plasma proteins. (mcponline.org)
- These approaches are based on the observation that most cell surface and secreted proteins are glycosylated and that disease-associated glycoproteins, either secreted by cells, shed from their surfaces, or otherwise released, are likely to enter into the blood stream and thus represent a rich source of potential disease markers. (mcponline.org)
- The grafted MCoTI-II peptides were cytotoxic to a cancer cell line and showed high stability in human serum. (edu.au)
- Thus, Ras proteins are critical in stimulating cell growth and division. (ahajournals.org)
- The results reveal new details of how calmodulin binds and regulates its target proteins. (innovations-report.com)
- Here, we have characterized a family of proteins that preferentially binds ubiquitylated substrates and multi-Ub chains through a motif termed the ubiquitin-associated domain (UBA). (embl-heidelberg.de)
- N4WBP5 binds Nedd4 WW domains via the two PPXY motifs present in the amino terminus of the protein. (embl-heidelberg.de)
- Rief and Junker used mechanical force - actually pulling on complexes of calmodulin and the target peptides at rates of 1 nanometer per second or less - to slow down the processes to observable time scales and to clearly separate the individual unbinding steps. (innovations-report.com)
- They recognize their target peptides in extended β -sheet conformations with very regular binding topologies. (iucr.org)
- The replicase polyprotein of coronaviruses is a multifunctional protein: it contains the activities necessary for the transcription of negative stranded RNA, leader RNA, subgenomic mRNAs and progeny virion RNA as well as proteinases responsible for the cleavage of the polyprotein into functional products. (rcsb.org)