Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides
Amino Acid Sequence
Natriuretic Peptide, Brain
Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide
Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide
Molecular Sequence Data
Peptide Nucleic Acids
Natriuretic Peptide, C-Type
Protein Structure, Secondary
Receptors, Formyl Peptide
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Atrial Natriuretic Factor
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
Protein Structure, Tertiary
Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Receptors, Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide
Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
Receptors, Atrial Natriuretic Factor
Salivary Proteins and Peptides
Recombinant Fusion Proteins
Protein Processing, Post-Translational
Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions
Amino Acid Motifs
Receptors, Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide
Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Sequence Analysis, Protein
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
Glucagon-Like Peptide 2
Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization
Amino Acid Substitution
Peptide Biosynthesis, Nucleic Acid-Independent
Tumor Cells, Cultured
Receptors, Cell Surface
Chromatography, Ion Exchange
Surface Plasmon Resonance
Receptors, Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide, Type II
Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared
Combinatorial Chemistry Techniques
The homeobox gene Pitx2: mediator of asymmetric left-right signaling in vertebrate heart and gut looping. (1/14921)Left-right asymmetry in vertebrates is controlled by activities emanating from the left lateral plate. How these signals get transmitted to the forming organs is not known. A candidate mediator in mouse, frog and zebrafish embryos is the homeobox gene Pitx2. It is asymmetrically expressed in the left lateral plate mesoderm, tubular heart and early gut tube. Localized Pitx2 expression continues when these organs undergo asymmetric looping morphogenesis. Ectopic expression of Xnr1 in the right lateral plate induces Pitx2 transcription in Xenopus. Misexpression of Pitx2 affects situs and morphology of organs. These experiments suggest a role for Pitx2 in promoting looping of the linear heart and gut. (+info)
Endocytosis: EH domains lend a hand. (2/14921)A number of proteins that have been implicated in endocytosis feature a conserved protein-interaction module known as an EH domain. The three-dimensional structure of an EH domain has recently been solved, and is likely to presage significant advances in understanding molecular mechanisms of endocytosis. (+info)
Sonic hedgehog signaling by the patched-smoothened receptor complex. (3/14921)BACKGROUND: The Hedgehog (Hh) family of secreted proteins is involved in a number of developmental processes as well as in cancer. Genetic and biochemical data suggest that the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) receptor is composed of at least two proteins: the tumor suppressor protein Patched (Ptc) and the seven-transmembrane protein Smoothened (Smo). RESULTS: Using a biochemical assay for activation of the transcription factor Gli, a downstream component of the Hh pathway, we show here that Smo functions as the signaling component of the Shh receptor, and that this activity can be blocked by Ptc. The inhibition of Smo by Ptc can be relieved by the addition of Shh. Furthermore, oncogenic forms of Smo are insensitive to Ptc repression in this assay. Mapping of the Smo domains required for binding to Ptc and for signaling revealed that the Smo-Ptc interaction involves mainly the amino terminus of Smo, and that the third intracellular loop and the seventh transmembrane domain are required for signaling. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that Smo is the signaling component of a multicomponent Hh receptor complex and that Ptc is a ligand-regulated inhibitor of Smo. Different domains of Smo are involved in Ptc binding and activation of a Gli reporter construct. The latter requires the third intracellular loop and the seventh transmembrane domain of Smo, regions often involved in coupling to G proteins. No changes in the levels of cyclic AMP or calcium associated with such pathways could be detected following receptor activation, however. (+info)
A Drosophila TNF-receptor-associated factor (TRAF) binds the ste20 kinase Misshapen and activates Jun kinase. (4/14921)Two families of protein kinases that are closely related to Ste20 in their kinase domain have been identified - the p21-activated protein kinase (Pak) and SPS1 families [1-3]. In contrast to Pak family members, SPS1 family members do not bind and are not activated by GTP-bound p21Rac and Cdc42. We recently placed a member of the SPS1 family, called Misshapen (Msn), genetically upstream of the c-Jun amino-terminal (JNK) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase module in Drosophila . The failure to activate JNK in Drosophila leads to embryonic lethality due to the failure of these embryos to stimulate dorsal closure [5-8]. Msn probably functions as a MAP kinase kinase kinase kinase in Drosophila, activating the JNK pathway via an, as yet, undefined MAP kinase kinase kinase. We have identified a Drosophila TNF-receptor-associated factor, DTRAF1, by screening for Msn-interacting proteins using the yeast two-hybrid system. In contrast to the mammalian TRAFs that have been shown to activate JNK, DTRAF1 lacks an amino-terminal 'Ring-finger' domain, and overexpression of a truncated DTRAF1, consisting of only its TRAF domain, activates JNK. We also identified another DTRAF, DTRAF2, that contains an amino-terminal Ring-finger domain. Msn specifically binds the TRAF domain of DTRAF1 but not that of DTRAF2. In Drosophila, DTRAF1 is thus a good candidate for an upstream molecule that regulates the JNK pathway by interacting with, and activating, Msn. Consistent with this idea, expression of a dominant-negative Msn mutant protein blocks the activation of JNK by DTRAF1. Furthermore, coexpression of Msn with DTRAF1 leads to the synergistic activation of JNK. We have extended some of these observations to the mammalian homolog of Msn, Nck-interacting kinase (NIK), suggesting that TRAFs also play a critical role in regulating Ste20 kinases in mammals. (+info)
Transformation mediated by RhoA requires activity of ROCK kinases. (5/14921)BACKGROUND: The Ras-related GTPase RhoA controls signalling processes required for cytoskeletal reorganisation, transcriptional regulation, and transformation. The ability of RhoA mutants to transform cells correlates not with transcription but with their ability to bind ROCK-I, an effector kinase involved in cytoskeletal reorganisation. We used a recently developed specific ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632, and ROCK truncation mutants to investigate the role of ROCK kinases in transcriptional activation and transformation. RESULTS: In NIH3T3 cells, Y-27632 did not prevent the activation of serum response factor, transcription of c-fos or cell cycle re-entry following serum stimulation. Repeated treatment of NIH3T3 cells with Y-27632, however, substantially disrupted their actin fibre network but did not affect their growth rate. Y-27632 blocked focus formation by RhoA and its guanine-nucleotide exchange factors Dbl and mNET1. It did not affect the growth rate of cells transformed by Dbl and mNET1, but restored normal growth control at confluence and prevented their growth in soft agar. Y-27632 also significantly inhibited focus formation by Ras, but had no effect on the establishment or maintenance of transformation by Src. Furthermore, it significantly inhibited anchorage-independent growth of two out of four colorectal tumour cell lines. Consistent with these data, a truncated ROCK derivative exhibited weak ability to cooperate with activated Raf in focus formation assays. CONCLUSIONS: ROCK signalling is required for both the establishment and maintenance of transformation by constitutive activation of RhoA, and contributes to the Ras-transformed phenotype. These observations provide a potential explanation for the requirement for Rho in Ras-mediated transformation. Moreover, the inhibition of ROCK kinases may be of therapeutic use. (+info)
Decreased expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Par-4 in renal cell carcinoma. (6/14921)Par-4 is a widely expressed leucine zipper protein that confers sensitization to apoptosis induced by exogenous insults. Because the expression of genes that promote apoptosis may be down-regulated during tumorigenesis, we sought to examine the expression of Par-4 in human tumors. We present here evidence that Par-4 protein levels were severely decreased in human renal cell carcinoma specimens relative to normal tubular cells. Replenishment of Par-4 protein levels in renal cell carcinoma cell lines conferred sensitivity to apoptosis. Because apoptosis may serve as a defense mechanism against malignant transformation or progression, decreased expression of Par-4 may contribute to the pathophysiology of renal cell carcinoma. (+info)
Activation of Src in human breast tumor cell lines: elevated levels of phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity that preferentially recognizes the Src carboxy terminal negative regulatory tyrosine 530. (7/14921)Elevated levels of Src kinase activity have been reported in a number of human cancers, including colon and breast cancer. We have analysed four human breast tumor cell lines that exhibit high levels of Src kinase activity, and have determined that these cell lines also exhibit a high level of a phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity that recognizes the Src carboxy-terminal P-Tyr530 negative regulatory site. Total Src kinase activity in these cell lines is elevated as much as 30-fold over activity in normal control cells and specific activity is elevated as much as 5.6-fold. When the breast tumor cells were grown in the presence of the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor vanadate, Src kinase activity was reduced in all four breast tumor cell lines, suggesting that Src was being activated by a phosphatase which could recognize the Tyr530 negative regulatory site. In fractionated cell extracts from the breast tumor cells, we found elevated levels of a membrane associated tyrosine phosphatase activity that preferentially dephosphorylated a Src family carboxy-terminal phosphopeptide containing the regulatory tyrosine 530 site. Src was hypophosphorylated in vivo at tyrosine 530 in at least two of the tumor cell lines, further suggesting that Src was being activated by a phosphatase in these cells. In preliminary immunoprecipitation and antibody depletion experiments, we were unable to correlate the major portion of this phosphatase activity with several known phosphatases. (+info)
Gadd45, a p53-responsive stress protein, modifies DNA accessibility on damaged chromatin. (8/14921)This report demonstrates that Gadd45, a p53-responsive stress protein, can facilitate topoisomerase relaxing and cleavage activity in the presence of core histones. A correlation between reduced expression of Gadd45 and increased resistance to topoisomerase I and topoisomerase II inhibitors in a variety of human cell lines was also found. Gadd45 could potentially mediate this effect by destabilizing histone-DNA interactions since it was found to interact directly with the four core histones. To evaluate this possibility, we investigated the effect of Gadd45 on preassembled mononucleosomes. Our data indicate that Gadd45 directly associates with mononucleosomes that have been altered by histone acetylation or UV radiation. This interaction resulted in increased DNase I accessibility on hyperacetylated mononucleosomes and substantial reduction of T4 endonuclease V accessibility to cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers on UV-irradiated mononucleosomes but not on naked DNA. Both histone acetylation and UV radiation are thought to destabilize the nucleosomal structure. Hence, these results imply that Gadd45 can recognize an altered chromatin state and modulate DNA accessibility to cellular proteins. (+info)
There are two main types of hemolysis:
1. Intravascular hemolysis: This type occurs within the blood vessels and is caused by factors such as mechanical injury, oxidative stress, and certain infections.
2. Extravascular hemolysis: This type occurs outside the blood vessels and is caused by factors such as bone marrow disorders, splenic rupture, and certain medications.
Hemolytic anemia is a condition that occurs when there is excessive hemolysis of RBCs, leading to a decrease in the number of healthy red blood cells in the body. This can cause symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, pale skin, and shortness of breath.
Some common causes of hemolysis include:
1. Genetic disorders such as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia.
2. Autoimmune disorders such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA).
3. Infections such as malaria, babesiosis, and toxoplasmosis.
4. Medications such as antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and blood thinners.
5. Bone marrow disorders such as aplastic anemia and myelofibrosis.
6. Splenic rupture or surgical removal of the spleen.
7. Mechanical injury to the blood vessels.
Diagnosis of hemolysis is based on a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as complete blood count (CBC), blood smear examination, and direct Coombs test. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include supportive care, blood transfusions, and medications to suppress the immune system or prevent infection.
The symptoms of Alzheimer's disease can vary from person to person and may progress slowly over time. Early symptoms may include memory loss, confusion, and difficulty with problem-solving. As the disease progresses, individuals may experience language difficulties, visual hallucinations, and changes in mood and behavior.
There is currently no cure for Alzheimer's disease, but there are several medications and therapies that can help manage its symptoms and slow its progression. These include cholinesterase inhibitors, memantine, and non-pharmacological interventions such as cognitive training and behavioral therapy.
Alzheimer's disease is a significant public health concern, affecting an estimated 5.8 million Americans in 2020. It is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States, and its prevalence is expected to continue to increase as the population ages.
There is ongoing research into the causes and potential treatments for Alzheimer's disease, including studies into the role of inflammation, oxidative stress, and the immune system. Other areas of research include the development of biomarkers for early detection and the use of advanced imaging techniques to monitor progression of the disease.
Overall, Alzheimer's disease is a complex and multifactorial disorder that poses significant challenges for individuals, families, and healthcare systems. However, with ongoing research and advances in medical technology, there is hope for improving diagnosis and treatment options in the future.
1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.
2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.
3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.
4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.
5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.
6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.
7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.
8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.
9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.
10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.
There are several types of melanoma, including:
1. Superficial spreading melanoma: This is the most common type of melanoma, accounting for about 70% of cases. It usually appears as a flat or slightly raised discolored patch on the skin.
2. Nodular melanoma: This type of melanoma is more aggressive and accounts for about 15% of cases. It typically appears as a raised bump on the skin, often with a darker color.
3. Acral lentiginous melanoma: This type of melanoma affects the palms of the hands, soles of the feet, or nail beds and accounts for about 5% of cases.
4. Lentigo maligna melanoma: This type of melanoma usually affects the face and is more common in older adults.
The risk factors for developing melanoma include:
1. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure from the sun or tanning beds
2. Fair skin, light hair, and light eyes
3. A history of sunburns
4. Weakened immune system
5. Family history of melanoma
The symptoms of melanoma can vary depending on the type and location of the cancer. Common symptoms include:
1. Changes in the size, shape, or color of a mole
2. A new mole or growth on the skin
3. A spot or sore that bleeds or crusts over
4. Itching or pain on the skin
5. Redness or swelling around a mole
If melanoma is suspected, a biopsy will be performed to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment options for melanoma depend on the stage and location of the cancer and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these. Early detection and treatment are key to successful outcomes in melanoma cases.
In conclusion, melanoma is a type of skin cancer that can be deadly if not detected early. It is important to practice sun safety, perform regular self-exams, and seek medical attention if any suspicious changes are noticed on the skin. By being aware of the risk factors, symptoms, and treatment options for melanoma, individuals can take steps to protect themselves from this potentially deadly disease.
There are two main types of heart failure:
1. Left-sided heart failure: This occurs when the left ventricle, which is the main pumping chamber of the heart, becomes weakened and is unable to pump blood effectively. This can lead to congestion in the lungs and other organs.
2. Right-sided heart failure: This occurs when the right ventricle, which pumps blood to the lungs, becomes weakened and is unable to pump blood effectively. This can lead to congestion in the body's tissues and organs.
Symptoms of heart failure may include:
* Shortness of breath
* Swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet
* Swelling in the abdomen
* Weight gain
* Coughing up pink, frothy fluid
* Rapid or irregular heartbeat
* Dizziness or lightheadedness
Treatment for heart failure typically involves a combination of medications and lifestyle changes. Medications may include diuretics to remove excess fluid from the body, ACE inhibitors or beta blockers to reduce blood pressure and improve blood flow, and aldosterone antagonists to reduce the amount of fluid in the body. Lifestyle changes may include a healthy diet, regular exercise, and stress reduction techniques. In severe cases, heart failure may require hospitalization or implantation of a device such as an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) or a left ventricular assist device (LVAD).
It is important to note that heart failure is a chronic condition, and it requires ongoing management and monitoring to prevent complications and improve quality of life. With proper treatment and lifestyle changes, many people with heart failure are able to manage their symptoms and lead active lives.
Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.
Types of Neoplasms
There are many different types of neoplasms, including:
1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.
Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms
The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:
1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.
Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms
The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:
1. Unusual lumps or swelling
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms
The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.
The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:
1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
Prevention of Neoplasms
While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:
1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.
It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.
List of MeSH codes (D12.776.476)
Neurofibromatosis type II
Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation
Protein kinase C
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate
Chromosome 9 open reading frame 43
Polycystic liver disease
Neurofibromatosis type I
Transforming growth factor beta superfamily
Peptidylprolyl isomerase A
Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src
Fragmentation (cell biology)
Pattern recognition receptor
Calcium concentration microdomains
Nuclear receptor coactivator 2
Nuclear receptor 4A1
Cadherin-catenin complex in learning and memory
Intracellular signaling peptides and proteins
NLM Classification 2006 Edition Now Available. NLM Technical Bulletin. 2006 Mar-Apr
Epimutations in both the TESK2 and MMACHC promoters in the Epi-cblC inherited disorder of intracellular metabolism of vitamin...
Guanylate cyclase - Wikipedia
Topology-driven protein-protein interaction network analysis detects genetic sub-networks regulating reproductive capacity
NIH VideoCast - A Different View of the Primary Visual Cortex
PROTEIN RPPA LIST
Large-scale analysis of association between GDF5 and FRZB variants and osteoarthritis of the hip, knee, and hand - PubMed
Genetic research progress in branchio - oto syndrome/ branchio - oto - renal syndrome - PubMed
Everolimus for subependymal giant-cell astrocytomas in tuberous sclerosis - PubMed
Bi-allelic TTI1 variants cause an autosomal-recessive neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly - PubMed
TGF beta1 polymorphisms are candidate predictors of the clinical response to rituximab in rheumatoid arthritis - PubMed
Colivelin Ameliorates Impairments in Cognitive Behaviors and Synaptic Plasticity in APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice - PubMed
Katherine Helen Schiavoni, M.D. | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst
Calcineurin - wikidoc
British Library EThOS: Proinsulin C-peptide : activation of intracellular signalling pathways and modulation of transcription...
RCSB PDB - 1L2Z: CD2BP2-GYF domain in complex with proline-rich CD2 tail segment peptide
RFA-DE-04-001: PERIODONTAL DISEASES: MICROBIAL AND HOST GENOMICS/PROTEOMICS
Pharmaceuticals | Free Full-Text | Cell-Penetrating Penta-Peptides (CPP5s): Measurement of Cell Entry and Protein-Transduction...
Immune Cell Apoptosis Prevention as Potential Therapy for Severe Infections - Volume 13, Number 2-February 2007 - Emerging...
rab1 GTP-Binding Proteins | Profiles RNS
Glossary | Martin Rodbell - Profiles in Science
Peter van Zijl - Google Scholar
Glossary | Martin Rodbell - Profiles in Science
Sogroya (somapacitan) dosing, indications, interactions, adverse effects, and more
- All C-peptide effects were abolished by pretreatment with PTX implicating a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR), to either Goii or GOo, in the transduction of these events. (bl.uk)
- In the present study, VPTLK and KLPVM, two representative CPP5s, were used to characterize the cell-penetration and protein-transduction activities of these small molecules. (mdpi.com)
- Signal transduction -- Mechanisms by which a biochemical signal generated by a hormone or neurotransmitter causes a biological effect inside a cell. (nih.gov)
- It is an endogenous inhibitor of RAF KINASES and may play a role in regulating SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. (uams.edu)
Acts as an intracellular2
- To comprehensively determine how Hippo signalling interacts with other pathways in this regulation, we screened all known signalling pathway genes, and identified Hpo-dependent and Hpo-independent signalling requirements. (nih.gov)
- The aim of this thesis was to study the intracellular signalling pathways and the transcription factors that C-peptide activates in proximal tubular cells using opossum kidney cells (OK) as a model. (bl.uk)
- Using specific inhibitors and phospho-specific antibodies, intracellular signalling pathways activated by C-peptide were examined by kinase assay and Western blotting. (bl.uk)
- It is an important component of some intracellular signaling pathways. (nih.gov)
- These GTPases act as molecular switches in intracellular signaling pathways. (nih.gov)
- ADP ribosylation factors (ARFs), which are members of the Ras superfamily of GTP-binding proteins, are critical components of vesicular trafficking pathways in eukaryotes. (embl.de)
- Cytoskeletal proteins. (nih.gov)
- Amplifier -- One of several small intracellular mediators or enzymatic cascades that amplify extracellular signals. (nih.gov)
- Of course, the docking site for neuregulin is also used by a variety of other molecules and is involved in the regulation of intracellular signalling cascades, primarily through the stimulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. (prospecbio.com)
- The protective effects of C-peptide were associated with activation of nuclear factor kB (NFkB) and increased expression of TNF receptor-associated factor 2, the product of an NFkB-dependent survival gene. (bl.uk)
- Cell Receptor, or discriminator point -- A chemical group or molecule, such as a protein, on a cell's surface or in the cell interior with an affinity for a specific chemical group, molecule, or virus. (nih.gov)
- The primary mediator of Ca 2+ -dependent signaling in eukaryotic cells is calmodulin, which serves as a high affinity intracellular Ca 2+ receptor. (nih.gov)
- PAPbeta, a protein that binds to and is phosphorylated by the non-receptor tyrosine kinase PYK2, contains several modular signaling domains including a pleckstrin homology domain, an SH3 domain, ankyrin repeats and an ARF-GAP domain. (embl.de)
- Neuregulin, or NRG1, is a group of protein ligands that act on the epidermal growth factor receptor family. (prospecbio.com)
- Binding induces a conformational change in receptor intracellular domains and signaling involves Jak1, Jak2 and Stat1 (3). (cellsignal.com)
- Mucin-4 may play a role in regulating cellular adhesion and in cell surface signaling from the ERBB-2 RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE. (wakehealth.edu)
- IFN-γ production by NK cells and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) promotes the cell-mediated adaptive immunity by inducing IFN-γ production by T lymphocytes, increasing expression of class I and class II MHC, and enhancing peptide antigen presentation (1). (cellsignal.com)
- C-peptide stimulation of PPARy was attenuated by wortmannin pre-treatment, and by expression of a dominant negative PI 3-kinase p85 regulatory subunit (Ap85). (bl.uk)
- C-peptide-induced PI 3-kinase dependent phosphorylation of PPARy. (bl.uk)
- Neuregulin interacts with ErbB receptors, a subfamily of tyrosine kinase proteins found on the surface of cells. (prospecbio.com)
- Most of the cell signalling happens through the stimulation of the Rar mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, the PI3K pathway and the PLC-gamma/PKC pathway. (prospecbio.com)
- The p27(kip1) protein functions as an inhibitor of cyclin dependent kinase-2, and shows loss of expression in a large percentage of BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast cancer cases. (ox.ac.uk)
- The alpha and beta chains result from the proteolytic cleavage of a precursor protein. (wakehealth.edu)
- Carrier proteins. (nih.gov)
- Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors. (lookfordiagnosis.com)
- Membrane bound guanylate cyclases include an external ligand-binding domain (e.g., for peptide hormones such as BNP and ANP ), a transmembrane domain, and an internal catalytic domain homologous to adenylyl cyclases . (wikipedia.org)
- C-peptide increased [35S]-GTPyS binding to Ga* in OK cell membranes. (bl.uk)
- This study has now for the first time demonstrated specifically that Ga* proteins are activated by C-peptide binding to a GPCR. (bl.uk)
- As the concentration of intracellular free Ca 2+ transiently rises, calmodulin undergoes a conformational change that allows it to bind to calmodulin-binding domains on a variety of proteins. (nih.gov)
- Calmodulin-binding proteins typically contain either basic amphiphilic a-helices or IQ motifs. (nih.gov)
- Moreover, we and others have demonstrated that transformed cells have altered levels of selected calmodulin-binding proteins. (nih.gov)
- Phosphatidylethanolamine Binding Protein" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (uams.edu)
- Phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein is the precursor of hippocampal cholinergic neurostimulating peptide, which is cleaved from the N-terminal region of the protein. (uams.edu)
- This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Phosphatidylethanolamine Binding Protein" by people in UAMS Profiles by year, and whether "Phosphatidylethanolamine Binding Protein" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (uams.edu)
- Below are the most recent publications written about "Phosphatidylethanolamine Binding Protein" by people in Profiles over the past ten years. (uams.edu)
- Intracellular protein interaction domains are essential for eukaryotic signaling. (rcsb.org)
- Network analysis of known protein-protein interactions among screen results identified independent gene regulatory sub-networks regulating one or both of ovariole number and egg laying. (nih.gov)
- The anti-viral activity of IFN-γ is due to its induction of PKR and other regulatory proteins. (cellsignal.com)
- Colivelin (CLN), a novel, strong humanin derivative, is effective in vitro in preventing cell death induced by AD-causative genes and amyloid-β protein (Aβ) even at a low concentration. (nih.gov)
- It is estimated that the number of proteins to be examined is at least an order of magnitude greater than the number of genes, in part because proteins can undergo a variety of post- translational modifications. (nih.gov)
- However, the precise molecular mechanisms of C-peptide action are not fully understood. (bl.uk)
- Protein Engineering Group and Molecular Modeling Group, Forschungsinstitut für Molekulare Pharmakologie and Freie Universität Berlin, Robert-Rössle-Strasse 10, D-13125 Berlin, Germany. (rcsb.org)
- This FOA calls for adaptation of an ensemble of scalable technology platforms to characterize functions of proteins as a large group at molecular and cellular levels in medium- to high-throughput fashion, rather than repeating the "one at a time" approach that might otherwise be undertaken. (nih.gov)
- Applications are invited to adapt well-established scalable technologies as well as innovative scalable approaches to enable swift, cost-effective, and robust interrogation of molecular and cellular functions of proteins. (nih.gov)
- Calmodulin is a ubiquitous, highly conserved protein that plays a critical role in numerous essential cellular functions, including Ca 2+ transport, cell motility, cytoskeletal assembly, protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation, cell proliferation and cell cycle progression. (nih.gov)
- In smooth muscle , cGMP is the signal for relaxation, and is coupled to many homeostatic mechanisms including regulation of vasodilation , vocal tone, insulin secretion , and peristalsis . (wikipedia.org)
- Proteomics builds on and complements the knowledge gained from genomics by revealing the levels, activities, regulation and interactions of every protein in the cell. (nih.gov)
- Like cAMP , cGMP is an important second messenger that internalizes the message carried by intercellular messengers such as peptide hormones and nitric oxide and can also function as an autocrine signal . (wikipedia.org)
- Calcineurin ( CaN ) is a calcium and calmodulin dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase (also known as protein phosphatase 3, and calcium-dependent serine-threonine phosphatase). (wikidoc.org)
- The intrinsic GTPase activity eventually converts the GTP to GDP that activates the protein. (nih.gov)
- To obtain more information of the functional domains of the NPC1 protein, the mutational spectrum and the level of immunoreactive protein were investigated in skin fibroblasts from 30 unrelated patients with Niemann-Pick C1 disease. (nih.gov)
- Protein chips that can simultaneously identify large numbers of proteins, although more difficult to produce and to handle than DNA microarrays, offer insight into the patterns of proteins associated with health and disease. (nih.gov)
- Western blot assay was used to measure the protein expression levels. (medscimonit.com)
- The objective is to establish transformative scalable technology platforms and streamlined experimental workflows incorporated with multiple robust assay and physiological perturbation protocols for large-scale functional studies of poorly characterized and/or un-annotated proteins encoded by the Druggable Genome. (nih.gov)
- Motivation: Phospholipid scramblases (PLSCRs) constitute a family of cytoplasmic membrane-associated proteins that were identified based upon their capacity to mediate a Ca2+-dependent bidirectional movement of phospholipids across membrane bilayers, thereby collapsing the normally asymmetric distribution of such lipids in cell membranes. (cipsm.de)
- The crystal structure of Ca 2+ -bound calmodulin has been solved both in the absence and presence of associated peptides. (nih.gov)
- Because calmodulin is essential in normal cellular proliferation, abnormal cellular proliferation should exhibit alterations in levels of calmodulin, and/or its interactions with target proteins. (nih.gov)
- Moreover, the composition of the proteome is dynamic and constantly changing in response to the environment and there are multiple possible interactions among proteins. (nih.gov)
- Incubation of cells with 300ng/ml TNF-a for 24 hours induced apoptosis, but C-peptide pr-etreatment protected against TNF-a induced apoptosis. (bl.uk)
- SNC 80 is a highly selective and potent non-peptide δ -opioid agonist, 2000-fold selective over μ -opioid receptors. (tocris.com)
- Another potential signalling mechanism for the ErbB4 receptors is presenilin-dependant intramembrane proteolysis by gamma-secretase - a process that releases the C-terminal fragment, which signals to the nucleus of the target cells to regulate gene expression. (prospecbio.com)
- Like Ras, ARFs are active in their GTP-bound form, and their duration of activity is controlled by GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs), which assist ARFs in hydrolyzing GTP to GDP. (embl.de)
- Membrane proteins. (nih.gov)
- The general class number for proteins, QU 55, was subdivided in order to parallel the arrangement of the MeSH thesaurus and better fit trends in the literature. (nih.gov)
- Dr. Stephen Liggett from the University of Southern Florida and Dr. Deshpande made a curious and important discovery: muscle cells of the type that surround the airways (smooth muscle) express on their surface the same proteins that are used by the tongue to detect bitter foods. (americanasthmafoundation.org)
- In recent years an increasingly substantial body of data, supports a role for C-peptide in several biological activities. (bl.uk)
- Despite being ignored for many years it is now clear that C-peptide possesses important biological properties and may potentially protect against diabetic complications. (bl.uk)
- Proteomics, the study of the proteome (i.e., the complete set of proteins expressed by the genome of an organism, cell or tissue type), seeks to unravel the biological complexity encoded by the genome. (nih.gov)
- These transformative technology platforms should provide sensitivity, selectivity, scalability, spatiotemporal resolution and reproducibility in analyses of protein functions in complex biological tissues, living organisms, or another physiologically relevant system. (nih.gov)
- C-peptide was found to be a functional mitogen in this cell type stimulating significantly increased cell proliferation. (bl.uk)
- Previously, we developed cell-penetrating penta-peptides (CPP5s). (mdpi.com)
- ISGF3 is assembled in the CYTOPLASM and translocated to the CELL NUCLEUS in response to INTERFERON signaling. (umassmed.edu)
- The protein, also sometimes called "glial growth factor," is required by organisms in the development of vertebrate eggs, the heart, Schwann cell differentiation, and neuronal development. (prospecbio.com)
- Neuregulin, therefore, is a cell signalling protein which instructs cells to perform specific actions. (prospecbio.com)
- It is a trophic factor which contains an epidermal growth factor: a chemical which signals to the body to create new cell growth in the dermal layer. (prospecbio.com)
- Neuregulin is a type of protein which researchers believe plays a vital role in the development of the nervous system across a wide variety of species. (prospecbio.com)
- Accepted 8 July 2019 able to crystallization, including intrinsically disordered proteins and weak complexes. (nih.gov)
- This mechanism involves the relaying of a signal by conversion from one physical or chemical form to another. (nih.gov)
- The overarching goals of this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) and the companion announcement ( RFA-RM-13-011 ) are to foster the development of technologies and information management to facilitate the unveiling of the functions of the poorly characterized and/or un-annotated members in four protein classes of the Druggable Genome. (nih.gov)
- Increased intracellular cGMP has been shown to contribute to excessive neuron excitability and locomotor activity. (wikipedia.org)
- High throughput structure determination using x-ray crystallography and identification using nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry are providing exciting insight into host and microbial proteins under different environmental conditions. (nih.gov)
- Collagenase -- An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the peptide bonds in triple helical regions of collagen molecules. (nih.gov)
- An alternative may be the use of everolimus, which inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin, a protein regulated by gene products involved in the tuberous sclerosis complex. (nih.gov)
- C-peptide induced transient increase in [Ca2+]i but the response of cells was variable. (bl.uk)
- C-peptide is able to protect against tumor necrosis factor-alpha- (TNF-a) induced proximal tubular cells toxicity. (bl.uk)
- In particular, she is studying a protein in these cells called Miz1, which dampens the ability of epithelial cells to elicit inflammation. (americanasthmafoundation.org)
- We previously showed that Hippo signalling, a conserved regulator of animal organ size, regulates ovariole number in Drosophila melanogaster . (nih.gov)