Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.
Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.
A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).
Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.
Peptides that have the ability to enter cells by crossing the plasma membrane directly, or through uptake by the endocytotic pathway.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A 36-amino acid peptide produced by the L cells of the distal small intestine and colon. Peptide YY inhibits gastric and pancreatic secretion.
DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.
A PEPTIDE of 22 amino acids, derived mainly from cells of VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM. It is also found in the BRAIN, major endocrine glands, and other tissues. It shares structural homology with ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR. It has vasorelaxant activity thus is important in the regulation of vascular tone and blood flow. Several high molecular weight forms containing the 22 amino acids have been identified.
Peptides that regulate the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in the body, also known as natriuretic peptide hormones. Several have been sequenced (ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR; BRAIN NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE; C-TYPE NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE).
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Neuropeptide and gut hormone that helps regulate GASTRIC ACID secretion and motor function. Once released from nerves in the antrum of the STOMACH, the neuropeptide stimulates release of GASTRIN from the GASTRIN-SECRETING CELLS.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that was originally identified by its ability to bind N-formyl peptides such as N-FORMYLMETHIONINE LEUCYL-PHENYLALANINE. Since N-formyl peptides are found in MITOCHONDRIA and BACTERIA, this class of receptors is believed to play a role in mediating cellular responses to cellular damage and bacterial invasion. However, non-formylated peptide ligands have also been found for this receptor class.
A 27-amino acid peptide with histidine at the N-terminal and isoleucine amide at the C-terminal. The exact amino acid composition of the peptide is species dependent. The peptide is secreted in the intestine, but is found in the nervous system, many organs, and in the majority of peripheral tissues. It has a wide range of biological actions, affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and central nervous systems.
Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
Cell surface receptors that bind peptide messengers with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The endogenous peptides with opiate-like activity. The three major classes currently recognized are the ENKEPHALINS, the DYNORPHINS, and the ENDORPHINS. Each of these families derives from different precursors, proenkephalin, prodynorphin, and PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN, respectively. There are also at least three classes of OPIOID RECEPTORS, but the peptide families do not map to the receptors in a simple way.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
The structure of one molecule that imitates or simulates the structure of a different molecule.
A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Peptide sequences, generated by iterative rounds of SELEX APTAMER TECHNIQUE, that bind to a target molecule specifically and with high affinity.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Cell surface proteins that bind VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE; (VIP); with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Cell surface proteins that bind ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. They contain intrinsic guanylyl cyclase activity.
Proteins obtained from species in the class of AMPHIBIANS.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
Basic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It contains 26 amino acids, has cytolytic properties, causes contracture of muscle, releases histamine, and disrupts surface tension, probably due to lysis of cell and mitochondrial membranes.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
Peptides derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of pancreatic GLUCAGON. Despite expression of proglucagon in multiple tissues, the major production site of glucagon-like peptides (GLPs) is the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLPs include glucagon-like peptide 1, glucagon-like peptide 2, and the various truncated forms.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
Family of antimicrobial peptides that have been identified in humans, animals, and plants. They are thought to play a role in host defenses against infections, inflammation, wound repair, and acquired immunity.
Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.
Peptides composed of two amino acid units.
A class of antimicrobial peptides discovered in the skin of XENOPUS LAEVIS. They kill bacteria by permeabilizing cell membranes without exhibiting significant toxicity against mammalian cells.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
Cell surface proteins that bind CALCITONIN GENE-RELATED PEPTIDE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. CGRP receptors are present in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and the periphery. They are formed via the heterodimerization of the CALCITONIN RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN and RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEIN 1.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Antimicrobial cationic peptides with a highly conserved amino terminal cathelin-like domain and a more variable carboxy terminal domain. They are initially synthesized as preproproteins and then cleaved. They are expressed in many tissues of humans and localized to EPITHELIAL CELLS. They kill nonviral pathogens by forming pores in membranes.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
One of the three major groups of endogenous opioid peptides. They are large peptides derived from the PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN precursor. The known members of this group are alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin. The term endorphin is also sometimes used to refer to all opioid peptides, but the narrower sense is used here; OPIOID PEPTIDES is used for the broader group.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
A tetradecapeptide originally obtained from the skins of toads Bombina bombina and B. variegata. It is also an endogenous neurotransmitter in many animals including mammals. Bombesin affects vascular and other smooth muscle, gastric secretion, and renal circulation and function.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.
A 33-amino acid peptide derived from the C-terminal of PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. It stimulates intestinal mucosal growth and decreased apoptosis of ENTEROCYTES. GLP-2 enhances gastrointestinal function and plays an important role in nutrient homeostasis.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Cell surface proteins that bind bombesin or closely related peptides with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Gastrin- releasing peptide (GRP); GRP 18-27 (neuromedin C), and neuromedin B are endogenous ligands of bombesin receptors in mammals.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
DEFENSINS found mainly in epithelial cells.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The enzymatic synthesis of PEPTIDES without an RNA template by processes that do not use the ribosomal apparatus (RIBOSOMES).
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A cyclized derivative of L-GLUTAMIC ACID. Elevated blood levels may be associated with problems of GLUTAMINE or GLUTATHIONE metabolism.
N-(N-(N(2)-(N-(N-(N-(N-D-Alanyl L-seryl)-L-threonyl)-L-threonyl) L-threonyl)-L-asparaginyl)-L-tyrosyl) L-threonine. Octapeptide sharing sequence homology with HIV envelope protein gp120. It is potentially useful as antiviral agent in AIDS therapy. The core pentapeptide sequence, TTNYT, consisting of amino acids 4-8 in peptide T, is the HIV envelope sequence required for attachment to the CD4 receptor.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
DEFENSINS found in azurophilic granules of neutrophils and in the secretory granules of intestinal PANETH CELLS.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of AMYLOID PLAQUES are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
One of the three major families of endogenous opioid peptides. The enkephalins are pentapeptides that are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the adrenal medulla.
A 52-amino acid peptide with multi-functions. It was originally isolated from PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA and ADRENAL MEDULLA but is widely distributed throughout the body including lung and kidney tissues. Besides controlling fluid-electrolyte homeostasis, adrenomedullin is a potent vasodilator and can inhibit pituitary ACTH secretion.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).
A non-aqueous co-solvent that serves as tool to study protein folding. It is also used in various pharmaceutical, chemical and engineering applications.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.
A pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide receptor subtype found in LYMPHOCYTES. It binds both PACAP and VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE and regulates immune responses.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
A cyclic nonadecapeptide antibiotic that can act as an ionophore and is produced by strains of Trichoderma viride. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A molluscan neuroactive peptide which induces a fast excitatory depolarizing response due to direct activation of amiloride-sensitive SODIUM CHANNELS. (From Nature 1995; 378(6558): 730-3)
A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
Enzymes that act at a free C-terminus of a polypeptide to liberate a single amino acid residue.

The homeobox gene Pitx2: mediator of asymmetric left-right signaling in vertebrate heart and gut looping. (1/14921)

Left-right asymmetry in vertebrates is controlled by activities emanating from the left lateral plate. How these signals get transmitted to the forming organs is not known. A candidate mediator in mouse, frog and zebrafish embryos is the homeobox gene Pitx2. It is asymmetrically expressed in the left lateral plate mesoderm, tubular heart and early gut tube. Localized Pitx2 expression continues when these organs undergo asymmetric looping morphogenesis. Ectopic expression of Xnr1 in the right lateral plate induces Pitx2 transcription in Xenopus. Misexpression of Pitx2 affects situs and morphology of organs. These experiments suggest a role for Pitx2 in promoting looping of the linear heart and gut.  (+info)

Endocytosis: EH domains lend a hand. (2/14921)

A number of proteins that have been implicated in endocytosis feature a conserved protein-interaction module known as an EH domain. The three-dimensional structure of an EH domain has recently been solved, and is likely to presage significant advances in understanding molecular mechanisms of endocytosis.  (+info)

Sonic hedgehog signaling by the patched-smoothened receptor complex. (3/14921)

BACKGROUND: The Hedgehog (Hh) family of secreted proteins is involved in a number of developmental processes as well as in cancer. Genetic and biochemical data suggest that the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) receptor is composed of at least two proteins: the tumor suppressor protein Patched (Ptc) and the seven-transmembrane protein Smoothened (Smo). RESULTS: Using a biochemical assay for activation of the transcription factor Gli, a downstream component of the Hh pathway, we show here that Smo functions as the signaling component of the Shh receptor, and that this activity can be blocked by Ptc. The inhibition of Smo by Ptc can be relieved by the addition of Shh. Furthermore, oncogenic forms of Smo are insensitive to Ptc repression in this assay. Mapping of the Smo domains required for binding to Ptc and for signaling revealed that the Smo-Ptc interaction involves mainly the amino terminus of Smo, and that the third intracellular loop and the seventh transmembrane domain are required for signaling. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that Smo is the signaling component of a multicomponent Hh receptor complex and that Ptc is a ligand-regulated inhibitor of Smo. Different domains of Smo are involved in Ptc binding and activation of a Gli reporter construct. The latter requires the third intracellular loop and the seventh transmembrane domain of Smo, regions often involved in coupling to G proteins. No changes in the levels of cyclic AMP or calcium associated with such pathways could be detected following receptor activation, however.  (+info)

A Drosophila TNF-receptor-associated factor (TRAF) binds the ste20 kinase Misshapen and activates Jun kinase. (4/14921)

Two families of protein kinases that are closely related to Ste20 in their kinase domain have been identified - the p21-activated protein kinase (Pak) and SPS1 families [1-3]. In contrast to Pak family members, SPS1 family members do not bind and are not activated by GTP-bound p21Rac and Cdc42. We recently placed a member of the SPS1 family, called Misshapen (Msn), genetically upstream of the c-Jun amino-terminal (JNK) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase module in Drosophila [4]. The failure to activate JNK in Drosophila leads to embryonic lethality due to the failure of these embryos to stimulate dorsal closure [5-8]. Msn probably functions as a MAP kinase kinase kinase kinase in Drosophila, activating the JNK pathway via an, as yet, undefined MAP kinase kinase kinase. We have identified a Drosophila TNF-receptor-associated factor, DTRAF1, by screening for Msn-interacting proteins using the yeast two-hybrid system. In contrast to the mammalian TRAFs that have been shown to activate JNK, DTRAF1 lacks an amino-terminal 'Ring-finger' domain, and overexpression of a truncated DTRAF1, consisting of only its TRAF domain, activates JNK. We also identified another DTRAF, DTRAF2, that contains an amino-terminal Ring-finger domain. Msn specifically binds the TRAF domain of DTRAF1 but not that of DTRAF2. In Drosophila, DTRAF1 is thus a good candidate for an upstream molecule that regulates the JNK pathway by interacting with, and activating, Msn. Consistent with this idea, expression of a dominant-negative Msn mutant protein blocks the activation of JNK by DTRAF1. Furthermore, coexpression of Msn with DTRAF1 leads to the synergistic activation of JNK. We have extended some of these observations to the mammalian homolog of Msn, Nck-interacting kinase (NIK), suggesting that TRAFs also play a critical role in regulating Ste20 kinases in mammals.  (+info)

Transformation mediated by RhoA requires activity of ROCK kinases. (5/14921)

BACKGROUND: The Ras-related GTPase RhoA controls signalling processes required for cytoskeletal reorganisation, transcriptional regulation, and transformation. The ability of RhoA mutants to transform cells correlates not with transcription but with their ability to bind ROCK-I, an effector kinase involved in cytoskeletal reorganisation. We used a recently developed specific ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632, and ROCK truncation mutants to investigate the role of ROCK kinases in transcriptional activation and transformation. RESULTS: In NIH3T3 cells, Y-27632 did not prevent the activation of serum response factor, transcription of c-fos or cell cycle re-entry following serum stimulation. Repeated treatment of NIH3T3 cells with Y-27632, however, substantially disrupted their actin fibre network but did not affect their growth rate. Y-27632 blocked focus formation by RhoA and its guanine-nucleotide exchange factors Dbl and mNET1. It did not affect the growth rate of cells transformed by Dbl and mNET1, but restored normal growth control at confluence and prevented their growth in soft agar. Y-27632 also significantly inhibited focus formation by Ras, but had no effect on the establishment or maintenance of transformation by Src. Furthermore, it significantly inhibited anchorage-independent growth of two out of four colorectal tumour cell lines. Consistent with these data, a truncated ROCK derivative exhibited weak ability to cooperate with activated Raf in focus formation assays. CONCLUSIONS: ROCK signalling is required for both the establishment and maintenance of transformation by constitutive activation of RhoA, and contributes to the Ras-transformed phenotype. These observations provide a potential explanation for the requirement for Rho in Ras-mediated transformation. Moreover, the inhibition of ROCK kinases may be of therapeutic use.  (+info)

Decreased expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Par-4 in renal cell carcinoma. (6/14921)

Par-4 is a widely expressed leucine zipper protein that confers sensitization to apoptosis induced by exogenous insults. Because the expression of genes that promote apoptosis may be down-regulated during tumorigenesis, we sought to examine the expression of Par-4 in human tumors. We present here evidence that Par-4 protein levels were severely decreased in human renal cell carcinoma specimens relative to normal tubular cells. Replenishment of Par-4 protein levels in renal cell carcinoma cell lines conferred sensitivity to apoptosis. Because apoptosis may serve as a defense mechanism against malignant transformation or progression, decreased expression of Par-4 may contribute to the pathophysiology of renal cell carcinoma.  (+info)

Activation of Src in human breast tumor cell lines: elevated levels of phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity that preferentially recognizes the Src carboxy terminal negative regulatory tyrosine 530. (7/14921)

Elevated levels of Src kinase activity have been reported in a number of human cancers, including colon and breast cancer. We have analysed four human breast tumor cell lines that exhibit high levels of Src kinase activity, and have determined that these cell lines also exhibit a high level of a phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity that recognizes the Src carboxy-terminal P-Tyr530 negative regulatory site. Total Src kinase activity in these cell lines is elevated as much as 30-fold over activity in normal control cells and specific activity is elevated as much as 5.6-fold. When the breast tumor cells were grown in the presence of the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor vanadate, Src kinase activity was reduced in all four breast tumor cell lines, suggesting that Src was being activated by a phosphatase which could recognize the Tyr530 negative regulatory site. In fractionated cell extracts from the breast tumor cells, we found elevated levels of a membrane associated tyrosine phosphatase activity that preferentially dephosphorylated a Src family carboxy-terminal phosphopeptide containing the regulatory tyrosine 530 site. Src was hypophosphorylated in vivo at tyrosine 530 in at least two of the tumor cell lines, further suggesting that Src was being activated by a phosphatase in these cells. In preliminary immunoprecipitation and antibody depletion experiments, we were unable to correlate the major portion of this phosphatase activity with several known phosphatases.  (+info)

Gadd45, a p53-responsive stress protein, modifies DNA accessibility on damaged chromatin. (8/14921)

This report demonstrates that Gadd45, a p53-responsive stress protein, can facilitate topoisomerase relaxing and cleavage activity in the presence of core histones. A correlation between reduced expression of Gadd45 and increased resistance to topoisomerase I and topoisomerase II inhibitors in a variety of human cell lines was also found. Gadd45 could potentially mediate this effect by destabilizing histone-DNA interactions since it was found to interact directly with the four core histones. To evaluate this possibility, we investigated the effect of Gadd45 on preassembled mononucleosomes. Our data indicate that Gadd45 directly associates with mononucleosomes that have been altered by histone acetylation or UV radiation. This interaction resulted in increased DNase I accessibility on hyperacetylated mononucleosomes and substantial reduction of T4 endonuclease V accessibility to cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers on UV-irradiated mononucleosomes but not on naked DNA. Both histone acetylation and UV radiation are thought to destabilize the nucleosomal structure. Hence, these results imply that Gadd45 can recognize an altered chromatin state and modulate DNA accessibility to cellular proteins.  (+info)

MARCKS (myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase C substrate), Authors: Atsuhiro Tanabe, Maho Saito. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
The mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase MK5 is a substrate of the mitogen-activated protein kinases p38, ERK3 and ERK4. Cell culture and animal studies have demonstrated that MK5 is involved in tumour suppression and promotion, embryogenesis, anxiety, cell motility and cell cycle regulation. In the present study, homology models of MK5 were used for molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of: (1) MK5 alone; (2) MK5 in complex with an inhibitor; and (3) MK5 in complex with the interaction partner p38α. The calculations showed that the inhibitor occupied the active site and disrupted the intramolecular network of amino acids. However, intramolecular interactions consistent with an inactive protein kinase fold were not formed. MD with p38α showed that not only the p38 docking region, but also amino acids in the activation segment, αH helix, P-loop, regulatory phosphorylation region and the C-terminal of MK5 may be involved in forming a very stable MK5-p38α complex, and that p38α
Background: Although suicide is a leading cause of death in the United States and represents a significant public health threat, little is known about the neurobiological or molecular factors that contribute to its pathophysiology. A number of studies now indicate that lithium has considerable efficacy in the prevention of suicide in patients with affective disorders, and accumulating evidence indicates that protein kinase C (PKC) and its substrates, in particular the myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS), are primary targets of chronic lithium treatment. We therefore hypothesized that a dysregulation in MARCKS expression in key brain regions could contribute to the pathophysiology associated with suicide. To address this, we examined MARCKS, as well as the closely related MARCKS-related protein (MRP), mRNA expression in the hippocampus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of suicide victims and normal controls. Method: MARCKS and MRP mRNA expression was assessed by quantitative ...
MARCKS (myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate) is a major cytoskeletal protein substrate of PKC (protein kinase C) whose cellular functions are still unclear. However numerous studies have implicated MARCKS in the stabilization of cytoskeletal structures during cell differentiation. The present study was performed to investigate the potential role of Ca2+-dependent proteinases (calpains) during myogenesis via proteolysis of MARCKS. It was first demonstrated that MARCKS is a calpain substrate in vitro. Then, the subcellular expression of MARCKS was examined during the myogenesis process. Under such conditions, there was a significant decrease in MARCKS expression associated with the appearance of a 55 kDa proteolytic fragment at the time of intense fusion. The addition of calpastatin peptide, a specific calpain inhibitor, induced a significant decrease in the appearance of this fragment. Interestingly, MARCKS proteolysis was dependent of its phosphorylation by the conventional PKCα. ...
Protein kinases have become central in the efforts to understand the nature of various diseases, and a lot is invested into creating effective therapeutic strategies and finding effective and selective protein kinase inhibitors. In order to succeed it is also important to focus on the structure of the kinases, their exact biological role, and how they interact and cooperate in the signaling. The exact structure of MAPKAPK5 is still unknown, and selective inhibitors are yet to be identified. Even though some of its biological roles are starting to emerge more work is required, including searching for selective inhibitors, analyzing its structure and interactions with its interaction partners. In order to analyze the structure of MAPKAPK5, homology models were generated and their ability to discriminate between binders and non-binders were analyzed. Based on the results, one model was found satisfactory and may be used as a working tool for further experimental studies and possibly structure aided ...
Following denervation skeletal muscles change their functional and structural properties. Some changes resemble conditions in developing muscles and may be important for reinnervation. Due to inactivity following denervation most skeletal muscles loose muscle mass and become atrophic. The hemidiaphragm muscle, however, undergoes a phase of transient hypertrophy following denervation, gaining weight during the first 6-10 days followed by a decrease in weight. In this thesis the expression (mRNA, protein and protein phosphorylations) of potential factors involved in the regulation of muscle mass were examined in denervated hind-limb and hemidiaphragm muscles.. NIFK is a protein that associates with Ki67, a protein expressed predominantly in proliferating cells. The mRNA expression of NIFK was upregulated in denervated atrophic muscles but unaltered in denervated hypertrophic muscles, suggesting a potential role in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass (Paper I). p38 MAPK has previously been ...
File scanned at 300 ppi (Monochrome, 24-bit Color) using Capture Perfect 3.0.82 on a Canon DR-9080C in PDF format. CVista PdfCompressor 4.0 was used for pdf compression and textual OCR ...
The contribution of linked background genes to the phenotype of mutant mice has been documented (7) as have the significant behavioral differences between inbred mouse strains (6). The 129Sv strain used in the generation of our mutant mice exhibit IP-MF hypoplasia (2) and impaired spatial learning in the Morris water maze (6). In our study, comparison of 129B6(N3) mice, which posses on average 12.5% residual 129Sv-linked genes; 129B6(N9) mice, which posses on average 0.2% residual 129Sv-linked genes; and inbred C57BL/6J mice, which possess no 129Sv-linked genes, revealed the significant contribution of 129Sv background genes to the phenotype. First, mutant 129B6(N3) mice, but not mutant 129B6(N9) mice, exhibited a significant elevation in hippocampal PKCɛ expression relative to wild-type controls. Second, wild-type 129B6(N3) mice exhibited significant IP-MF hypoplasia relative to both inbred C57BL/6J and wild-type 129B6(N9) mice, which is consistent with the 129Sv phenotype (2), and likely ...
In a differential gene experiment, a cell perturbation can be measured on a microarray before and after the perturbation. The information from these microarrays can then be used to inference genetic pathways and protein-protein interaction networks. In this paper we reverse this idea somewhat and measure a cell perturbation through microarrays and then rely on a protein interaction map to assess which proteins are most likely influenced by the specific perturbation. This in turn helps to elucidate the functional effect the perturbation has on the cell system. The first part of the paper focuses on the propagation model we developed to obtain this information. The second part of the paper reports on a specific experiment that was driven by the interpretation we obtained through such a gene influence network. We applied a PC12 cell line that allows doxocyclin-dependent expression of constitutive active mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase (MAPKAPK5 or MK5) to compare the
Materials. CEP-1347, also known as KT7515, is a semisynthetic derivative of K-252a provided by Kyowa-Hakko Kogyo (Tokyo, Japan) (Kaneko et al., 1997). CEP-1347 was dissolved in cell culture grade dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and stored in the dark at 4°C. All dilutions of CEP-1347 were made in DMEM containing 1% bovine serum albumin. c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) antibody (catalog #sc-474-G) was purchased from Santa Cruz Biotechnology (Santa Cruz, CA). ERK1 antibody (catalog #06-182), mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MAPKAP2) antibody (catalog #06-534), and MAPKAP2 peptide substrate (catalog #12-240) were purchased from Upstate Biotechnology (Lake Placid, NY). HA antibody was purchased from Babco (Richmond, CA). AP-1 (c-jun) substrate was purchased from Promega (Madison, WI). Myelin basic protein substrate, Hoechst dye, and tunicamycin were purchased from Sigma (St. Louis, MO). SB203580 was custom-synthesized by RIT International Technology (Snellville, GA). ...
PRAK antibody [N3C3] (mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 5) for ICC/IF, WB. Anti-PRAK pAb (GTX107938) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
View mouse Mapkapk5 Chr5:121525038-121545905 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
MAP kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MAPKAPK2) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAPKAPK2 gene. MAPKAP kinase-2 (MK2) is originally identified by its phosphorylation of glycogen synthase at serine-7 and the corresponding serine in a peptide (GS peptide-1) modelled after the N-terminus of glycogen synthase.. MAPKAP kinase-2 is a novel protein kinase activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase. This MAP kinase activated protein kinase, termed MAPKAP kinase-2, is distinguished from S6 kinase-II (MAPKAP kinase-1) by its response to inhibitors, lack of phosphorylation of S6 peptides and amino acid sequence.. ...
Spleen Tyrosine Kinase (SYK) was recently recognized as a fresh target in acute myeloid leukemia (AML); however, its mechanistic part in this disease is definitely poorly recognized. of a fusion of to in a patient with MDS with capital t(9;12)(q22;p12).12 Importantly, this TEL-SYK fusion transforms the interleukin-3 (IL-3) dependent murine hematopoietic cell collection Ba/F3 to growth element independence.12 We recognized AML as another hematologic malignancy in which SYK takes on an important part.3 While we have established that targeting SYK reduces viability and promotes differentiation in AML, little is known about the downstream signaling effectors of SYK in AML. There is definitely a significant body of materials documenting the part of SYK in non-Hodgkins lymphoma, which offers served as a useful construction for checking out SYK in AML.8, 9, 11, 13C16 In B-cell lymphoma, SYK has been demonstrated to be a critical regulator of mTOR activity.14, Agnuside manufacture 17 mTOR positively ...
MAP kinase-activated protein kinase 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAPKAPK2 gene. This gene encodes a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. This kinase is regulated through direct phosphorylation by p38 MAP kinase. In conjunction with p38 MAP kinase, this kinase is known to be involved in many cellular processes including stress and inflammatory responses, nuclear export, gene expression regulation and cell proliferation. Heat shock protein HSP27 was shown to be one of the substrates of this kinase in vivo. Two transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. SB 203580, suppresses the activation of MAPKAPK2 MAPKAPK2 has been shown to interact with: AKT1, MAPK14, PHC2, and SHC1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000162889 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000016528 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Mouse PubMed Reference:. Zu YL, Wu F, Gilchrist A, Ai Y, Labadia ME, Huang CK (Jun 1994). The primary ...
1. Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2019. CA Cancer J Clin. 2019;69:7-34 2. Chen H, Li N, Ren J, Feng X, Lyu Z, Wei L. et al. Participation and yield of a population-based colorectal cancer screening programme in China. Gut. 2019;68:1450-7 3. Pollard TD, Cooper JA. Actin, a central player in cell shape and movement. Science. 2009;326:1208-12 4. Bae DH, Jansson PJ, Huang ML, Kovacevic Z, Kalinowski D, Lee CS. et al. The role of NDRG1 in the pathology and potential treatment of human cancers. J Clin Pathol. 2013;66:911-7 5. Chen ZQ, Zhang DH, Yue F, Zheng MH, Kovacevic Z, Richardson DR. The Iron Chelators Dp44mT and DFO Inhibit TGF-beta-induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition via Up-Regulation of N-Myc Downstream-regulated Gene 1 (NDRG1). Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2012;287:17016-28 6. Sahni S, Bae DH, Lane DJR, Kovacevic Z, Kalinowski DS, Jansson PJ. et al. The Metastasis Suppressor, N-myc Downstream-regulated Gene 1 (NDRG1), Inhibits Stress-induced Autophagy in Cancer ...
In this report, we have found that anti-DLL4 has broad spectrum activity in pancreatic xenografts based on testing a panel of patient-derived tumor models. In vivo studies showed that anti-DLL4 was efficacious, alone and in combination with gemcitabine, in reducing tumor growth in all pancreatic tumors tested, including both low- and high-grade tumors. Anti-DLL4 treatment had a potent effect in delaying tumor recurrence after gemcitabine treatment. Furthermore, anti-DLL4 was found to reduce tumor initiating cell frequency as a single agent and in combination with gemcitabine. Agents that reduce CSC frequency have the potential to provide significant clinical benefit by reducing tumor recurrence after therapy and by inhibiting the metastatic spread of the disease. In contrast to anti-DLL4, treatment with gemcitabine alone was ineffective at reducing CSC frequency. While gemcitabine is a standard agent for treatment of pancreatic cancer, the effect of gemcitabine on survival has been disappointing ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
DLL1兔多克隆抗体(ab84620)可与人样本反应并经WB, IHC实验严格验证,被2篇文献引用。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
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MAPKAPK5-AS1 - (untagged)-Homo sapiens, clone MGC:15178 IMAGE:4122851, complete cds available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
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The FXX comedy Man Seeking Woman drifts into fantasy and strangeness, maintaining an emotional integrity not too far from the real world.
Protein kinase B (PKB) isoforms became activated [and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) became inhibited] when mouse Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts were exposed to oxidative stress (H2O2) or heat shock, but not when they were exposed to osmotic shock (0.5 M sorbitol or 0.7 M NaCl), chemical stress (sodium arsenite), the protein-synthesis inhibitor anisomycin, or UV radiation. In contrast, all seven stimuli activated mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase-2 (MAPKAP-K2). The activation of MAPKAP-K2 was suppressed by the drug SB 203580, but not by inhibitors of phosphoinositide (phosphatidylinositide, PI) 3-kinase. In contrast, the activation of PKB isoforms and the inhibition of GSK3 by oxidative stress or heat shock were prevented by inhibitors of PI 3-kinase, but not by SB 203580. Thus the activation of PKB by oxidative stress or heat shock is mediated by PI 3-kinase and not by MAPKAP-K2. PKBα and PKBγ were also activated by heat shock and oxidative stress in human embryonic kidney ...
90 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1; HU-1; MAP kinase-activated protein kinase 1a; MAPK-activated protein kinase 1a; MAPKAP kinase 1a; MAPKAPK-1a; MAPKAPK1A; RSK; RSK-1; RSK1; S6K-alpha 1; S6K-alpha-1; dJ590P13.1 (ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 90kD, polypeptide 1); p90-RSK 1; p90RSK1; p90S6K; ribosomal S6 kinase 1; ribosomal protein S6 kinase alpha 1; ribosomal protein S6 kinase alpha-1; ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 90kD, polypeptide 1; ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 90kDa, polypeptide ...
Nrf2 (NF-E2-related factor 2) plays a key role in the protection of vertebrates against environmental stress by contributing to the inducible expression of detoxification and antioxidant enzymes. Keap1 (Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1) is a sensor for oxidative and electrophilic stresses. Keap1 …
The Hippo pathway inactivates genes involved in organ size and when aberrant, can lead to cancer. To control organ size, the Hippo pathway inhibits Yorkie (Yki), a transcriptional coactivator that works with Scalloped (Sd), a DNA binding protein. When active, Yki translocates into the nucleus and initiates transcription. Conversely, when inactive, Yki remains in the cytoplasm. However, my work shows that cytoplasmic, inactive Yki interacts with other proteins in the Hippo pathway by recruiting them to the plasma membrane. Accordingly, this study challenges the notion that cytoplasmic Yki is inactive and instead, may play a dual role in the Hippo pathway.
The spleen tyrosine kinase Syk was mainly studied in immunoreceptor-activated signaling in hematopoietic cells. We first demonstrated that Syk is also present in mammary epithelial cells and that its expression is lost in malignant breast cancer cells. Using mouse xenograft models injected with Syk-transfected cells we and others established that Syk acts as a tumor and metastasis suppressor. Moreover, clinical studies reveal a correlation between reduced Syk expression and a decreased survival and increased metastasis risk in breast cancer and other carcinomas. The main objective of our investigations is to unravel the mechanisms of the anti-oncogenic activity of Syk. For this, identification of its substrates and signaling pathways is crucial. A quantitative phospho-proteomic approach allowed to identify novel potential Syk substrates involved in intercellular adhesion and epithelial polarity, both characteristics of cell differentiation that are lost during tumor invasion and ...
Hippo signaling pathway, also known as the Salvador/Warts/Hippo (SWH) pathway, controls organ size in animals through the regulation of cell proliferationand apoptosis. The Hippo pathway consists of a core kinase cascade in which Hpo phosphorylates the protein kinase Warts (Wts) Hpo (MST1/2 in mammals) is a member of the Ste-20 family of protein kinases. This highly conserved group of serine/threonine kinases regulates several cellular processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, and various stress responses.. ...
The Wnt-5a protein has been implicated in breast cancer metastasis by affecting DDR1-dependent adhesion and motility of breast tumor cells (6, 8). The activation of DDR1 requires Wnt-5a-mediated stimulation of Src non-receptor tyrosine kinases (8), and a well-known downstream signaling target of Src kinases is the tyrosine kinase Syk (9). This is intriguing, because Syk expression is associated with an increased risk of metastatic spread in human breast carcinomas (11, 12). In the present study, we found a covariation between Syk and Wnt-5a protein expressions in mammary cell lines. It is hard to directly correlate the presence of Wnt-5a and Syk with the reported tumorigenic and metastatic potential of the presently used cell lines due to variations in the properties of a distinct cell lines between different laboratories and the use of different animals models. However, it is interesting to note that the two cell lines that exhibit no or a low expression of Wnt-5a and lack of Syk expression ...
Syk-dependent actin dynamics regulate endocytic trafficking and processing of antigens internalized through the B-cell receptor.: Antigen binding to the B-cell
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Sarah Bedwell is, amongst many things, a teacher and unashamed geek when it comes to learning and technology. She is dedicated to improving profe...
Sarah Bedwell is, amongst many things, a teacher and unashamed geek when it comes to learning and technology. She is dedicated to improving profe...
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Welcome! For price inquiries, please feel free to contact us through the form below through the form on the left side. We will get back to you as soon as possible.. ...
Phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein. *EDARADD. *PRKCSH. see also deficiencies of intracellular signaling peptides and ... protein complex binding. • signal transducer activity. • protein binding. • GTPase activity. • GTPase binding. • G-protein ... protein heterotrimerization. • Wnt signaling pathway, calcium modulating pathway. • protein folding. • G-protein coupled ... Ras protein signal transduction. • cell proliferation. • cellular response to hypoxia. • sensory perception of taste. • signal ...
Phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein. *EDARADD. *PRKCSH. see also deficiencies of intracellular signaling peptides and ... Guanylate cyclase is often part of the G protein signaling cascade that is activated by low intracellular calcium levels and ... This causes less intracellular calcium, which stimulates guanylate cyclase-activating proteins (GCAPs). Studies have shown that ... "Differential calcium signaling by cone specific guanylate cyclase-activing proteins from the zebrafish retina". PLoS ONE. 6 (8 ...
Phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein. *EDARADD. *PRKCSH. see also deficiencies of intracellular signaling peptides and ... G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a large family of integral membrane proteins that respond to a variety of extracellular ... Main article: function of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. In humans, cAMP works by activating protein kinase A (PKA, cAMP- ... Gi protein, which is a G protein that inhibits adenylyl cyclase, reducing cAMP levels. ...
Phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein. *EDARADD. *PRKCSH. see also deficiencies of intracellular signaling peptides and ... MPFs activate other proteins through phosphorylation. These phosphorylated proteins, in turn, are responsible for specific ... Protein cyclin A governs this process by keeping the process going until the errors are eliminated. In normal cells, persistent ... Cyclins, when bound with the dependent kinases, such as the p34/cdc2/cdk1 protein, form the maturation-promoting factor. ...
Deficiencies of intracellular signaling peptides and proteins. GTP-binding protein regulators. GTPase-activating protein. * ... The RPS6KA3 gene makes a protein that is involved with signaling within cells. Researchers believe that this protein helps ... The protein is involved in cell signaling pathways that are required for learning, the formation of long-term memories, and the ... Mutations in the RPS6KA3 disturb the function of the protein, but it is unclear how a lack of this protein causes the signs and ...
Deficiencies of intracellular signaling peptides and proteins. GTP-binding protein regulators. GTPase-activating protein. * ... Like cowden syndrome, patients with Lhermitte-Duclos disease often have mutations in enzymes involved in the Akt/PKB signaling ...
Deficiencies of intracellular signaling peptides and proteins. GTP-binding protein regulators. GTPase-activating protein. * ... Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is caused by genetic mutations that cause defects in neuronal proteins. Nerve signals are conducted ... The mutation can appear in GJB1 coding for connexin 32, a gap junction protein expressed in Schwann cells. Because this protein ... The myelin sheath allows nerve cells to conduct signals faster. When the myelin sheath is damaged, nerve signals are slower, ...
Deficiencies of intracellular signaling peptides and proteins. GTP-binding protein regulators. GTPase-activating protein. * ... Mutated p53 proteins are typically more stable than wild-type, and can inhibit the activity of the wild-type protein in ... The tetramerization domain plays a major role in the oligomerization of the p53 protein, which exists as a tetramer.[6] This ... With pH in the low to normal physiological range (up to 7.5), the mutant protein forms normal oligomers and retains its ...
This list covers intracellular signaling peptides and proteins. For other protein-related codes, see List of MeSH codes ( ... smad1 protein MeSH D12.776.476.024.417.500.200 - smad2 protein MeSH D12.776.476.024.417.500.300 - smad3 protein MeSH D12.776. ... smad proteins, inhibitory MeSH D12.776.476.024.417.249.600 - smad6 protein MeSH D12.776.476.024.417.249.700 - smad7 protein ... rhoa gtp-binding protein MeSH D12.776.476.525.700.300 - rhob gtp-binding protein The list continues at List of MeSH codes ( ...
These signaling molecules include hormones and growth factors in turn are composed of peptides, biogenic amines, steroid ... Dang L, Van Damme EJ (September 2015). "Toxic proteins in plants". Phytochemistry. 117: 51-64. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2015.05. ... Cellular receptors in turn activate second messengers are used to relay the extracellular message to intracellular targets. ... A more recent example is the N-type calcium channel blocker ziconotide analgesic which is based on a cyclic peptide cone snail ...
"The glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue exendin-4 reverses impaired intracellular Ca2+ signalling in steatotic hepatocytes". BBA ... 1993). "Liver changes in protein malnutrition. An experimental study in rats". Nutr Hosp. 8 (6): 358-363. PMID 8373879.. ... In the healthy liver, the signal does not vary much in the different echoes. In the steatotic liver, the signal varies greatly ... or a signal proportional to the water minus the fat contingent. These signal intensities are then algebraically combined into a ...
The Schwannomin-peptide consists of 595 amino acids. Comparison of Schwannomin with other proteins shows similarities to ... Stamenkovic, I; Yu, Q (2010). "Merlin, a "magic" linker between extracellular cues and intracellular signaling pathways that ... Merlin regulates multiple proliferative signalling cascades such as receptor tyrosine kinase signalling, p21-activated kinase ... Protein truncating mutations correlate with more severe phenotype. There is a broad clinical spectrum known, but all people ...
... and Signal Transduction Core, to assist research involving intracellular Ca2+ measurements and protein-protein interactions. ... for protein and peptide sequencing and mass spectrometry analysis; ... "Signal Transduction Core Facility". Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation. Archived from the original on April 6, 2005. ... a therapy for people suffering from a rare and life-threatening blood disorder known as protein C deficiency. Research at OMRF ...
Vexin does not contain any transmembrane domains or signal peptides suggesting that it is an intracellular protein. VXN has ... Vexin is predicted to be a nuclear protein, given the classical nuclear localization signal found at amino acids Lys191 to ... The isoelectric point of the protein is 10.42 which indicates the pH of the protein is basic. Vexin does contain a domain of ... Vexin is a protein encoded by VXN gene. VXN is found to be highly expressed in regions of the brain and spinal cord. VXN is ...
... are cell-penetrating peptides that act as intracellular modulators of signal transference from receptors to G proteins. ... A pepducin molecule consists of a short peptide derived from a GPCR intracellular loop tethered to a hydrophobic moiety. This ... employ lipidated fragments of intracellular G protein-coupled receptor loops to modulate GPCR action in targeted cell-signaling ... December 2006). "Distinct activity of peptide mimetic intracellular ligands (pepducins) for proteinase-activated receptor-1 in ...
Intracellular signal transduction is primarily mediated by the reversible phosphorylation of various signalling molecules by ... and peptides are sequenced and analyzed. The analysis of the entire complement of phosphorylated proteins in a cell is ... Therefore, even though phosphorylation dependent protein-protein interactions are very important, it is important to remember ... degradation of proteins and therefore cell signaling networks. With all of these modification results, it is estimated that ...
It often contains signal peptide sequences, "intracellular postal codes" that direct delivery of the protein to the proper ... signal peptides target proteins to the thylakoids. The N-terminal mitochondrial targeting peptide (mtTP) allows the protein to ... The signal peptide is typically removed at the destination by a signal peptidase. The N-terminal amino acid of a protein is an ... The N-terminal signal peptide is recognized by the signal recognition particle (SRP) and results in the targeting of the ...
The protein does not contain signal peptides or mitochondrial targeting signals indicating the protein is not predicted to be ... C9orf43 is predicted to be intracellular with a nuclear localization signal that is conserved across orthologs. ... "Protein BLAST: search protein databases using a protein query". Retrieved 2018-05-05. EMBL-EBI. "EBI ... Kozlowski, Lukasz P. "IPC - ISOELECTRIC POINT CALCULATION OF PROTEINS AND PEPTIDES". Retrieved 2018-05-06. " ...
... formed as a complex of Orai and Stim proteins. The rise in intracellular calcium initiates a signaling cascade culminating in ... The circulating half-life of peptides can be prolonged by coupling them to larger proteins or protein domains. By screening a ... MMP-23's C-terminal IgCAM domain shares sequence similarity with IgCAM domains in proteins known to mediate protein-protein and ... Related peptides form a conserved family of protein domains known as the ShkT domain. Another well-studied toxin of the family ...
Phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein. *EDARADD. *PRKCSH. see also deficiencies of intracellular signaling peptides and ... Types of G protein signaling[edit]. G protein can refer to two distinct families of proteins. Heterotrimeric G proteins, ... A group of proteins called Regulator of G protein signalling (RGSs), act as GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs), are specific for ... G proteins are important signal transducing molecules in cells. "Malfunction of GPCR [G Protein-Coupled Receptor] signaling ...
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) networks are the pathways and signaling of MAPK, which is a protein kinase that ... These receptors induce intracellular signal pathways within the plant cells, while also resulting in PAMP-triggered immunity. ... The flagellin, a peptide of flg22, triggers a rapid and strong activation of MPK3, MPK4, and MPK6. MPK4 and MPK6 can be ... MPK3 and MPK6 are very similar proteins and have a function as regulators in abscission, stomatal development, signaling ...
The human CLIP4 protein is localized within the cellular nuclear membrane. CLIP4 does not have a signal peptide due to its ... intracellular localization. It also does not have N-linked glycosylation sites for that same reason. CLIP4 is not cleaved. ... Protein - NCBI". Retrieved 2020-05-03. "CLIP4 protein expression summary - The Human Protein Atlas". ... The CLIP4 protein is also predicted to interact with various microtubule-associated proteins. As a result, it is likely that ...
... including a 23-amino acid signal peptide essential for secretion (this is cleaved off before the protein becomes functional), ... RS1 also plays a role in the regulation on intracellular MAP kinase signalling. The retinoschisin monomer is 224 amino acids ... the X-linked retinoschisis protein, is a secreted photoreceptor protein, and is expressed and released by Weri-Rb1 cells". ... It is a soluble, cell-surface protein that plays an important role in the maintenance of the retina where it is expressed and ...
... and generate intracellular signals using a conserved family of proteins called SMADs. They play fundamental roles in the ... TGF-beta-1 is a peptide of 112 amino acid residues derived by proteolytic cleavage from the C-terminal of a precursor protein. ... These proteins interact with a conserved family of cell surface serine/threonine-specific protein kinase receptors, ... Proteins from the TGF-beta family are only active as homo- or heterodimer; the two chains being linked by a single disulfide ...
The peptide sequence lacks a signal sequence either at the N-terminus or internally. No transmembrane domains have been ... FAM208b is predicted to be an intracellular protein, indicating that it is not glycosylated. FAM208b is predicted to be ... Protein FAM208B (family with sequence similarity 208 member b) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FAM208B gene. The ... An above-average proportion of serine residues are observed (11.1%). This indicates a potential role in intracellular signaling ...
Phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein. *EDARADD. *PRKCSH. see also deficiencies of intracellular signaling peptides and ... Ser/Thr-specific protein phosphatases are regulated partly by their location within the cell and by specific inhibitor proteins ... Protein serine/threonine phosphatase (PSP)[1] is a form of phosphoprotein phosphatase that acts upon phosphorylated serine/ ... so a phosphatase enzyme has to remove the phosphate to reverse the regulation signal. ...
Phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein. *EDARADD. *PRKCSH. see also deficiencies of intracellular signaling peptides and ... Small GTPases act as molecular switches in signaling pathways, which act to regulate functions of other proteins. They are ... GTP-binding protein regulators regulate G proteins in several different ways. ... and thus requires another class of regulatory proteins to accelerate this activity, the GTPase activating proteins (GAPs). ...
... of endosymbiosis by showing how protein addressing signals to intracellular organelles would derive from antimicrobial peptides ... Acta, (1999) 1411, p. 21-85 Vallon O., Wollman F.-A. & Olive J., « Lateral distribution of the main protein complexes of the ... of translation for certain photosynthesis proteins that are only produced if they can be assembled in a functional protein ... biochemical and structural biology approaches to establish an exhaustive mapping of the composition of photosynthesis proteins ...
... where it partakes in intracellular signaling, protein transport, and transcription regulation. In hemopoietic cells, ... PPIases catalyze the cis-trans isomerization of proline imidic peptide bonds in oligopeptides and accelerate protein folding. ... The protein can also interact with several HIV proteins, including p55 gag, Vpr, and capsid protein, and has been shown to be ... PPIA may also activate Akt and NF-κB signaling, resulting in the upregulation of Bcl-2, an antiapoptotic protein, and thus ...
Casey PJ (1995). "Protein lipidation in cell signaling". Science. 268 (5208): 221-5. Bibcode:1995Sci...268..221C. doi:10.1126/ ... and Intracellular Signaling Molecules". Science's STKE. 2006 (359): 14. doi:10.1126/stke.3592006re14. PMID 17077383. Draper JM ... Xia Z, Smith CD (Aug 2007). "Cellular palmitoylation and trafficking of lipated peptides". Journal of Lipid Research. 48 (8): ... C22orf25 is also xenologous to T10 like proteins in the Fowlpox Virus and Canarypox Virus. The gene coding for C22orf25 is ...
The nascent protein contains a N-terminal signal peptide sequence, a conserved "ZP domain" module, a consensus furin cleavage ... intracellular anatomical structure. • collagen-containing extracellular matrix. Biological process. • positive regulation of ... GO:0001948 protein binding. • carbohydrate binding. • identical protein binding. • receptor ligand activity. • extracellular ... phosphatidylinositol-mediated signaling. • single fertilization. • egg coat formation. • regulation of signaling receptor ...
cellular protein metabolic process. • neurogenesis. • intracellular signal transduction. • protein processing. • protein ... A 5-fold drop of amyloid peptide was observed, suggesting that deficiency of presenilin-1 can down regulate amyloid and ... membrane protein intracellular domain proteolysis. • positive regulation of protein import into nucleus. • ephrin receptor ... intracellular. • protein complex. • axon. • nuclear outer membrane. • endoplasmic reticulum membrane. • Golgi membrane. • ...
1990). "Immunoregulatory effect of a synthetic peptide corresponding to a region of protein p24 of HIV.". Folia Biol. (Praha) ... protein GP41 of HIV-1 inhibits distinct lymphocyte activation pathways dependent on protein kinase C and intracellular calcium ... "The OX-44 molecule couples to signaling pathways and is associated with CD2 on rat T lymphocytes and a natural killer cell ... Wilkins A, Yang W, Yang J (2003). "Structural biology of the cell adhesion protein CD2: from molecular recognition to protein ...
... a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.[1] When such chemical signals bind to a ... The loops connecting the alpha helices form extracellular and intracellular domains. The binding-site for larger peptide ... and can be a protein or peptide (short protein), or another small molecule such as a neurotransmitter, hormone, pharmaceutical ... Ligands connect to specific receptor proteins based on the shape of the active site of the protein. ...
Interaction of nucleolar protein B23 with peptides related to nuclear localization signals.». Biochemistry. 34 (25): 8037-42. ... intracellular protein transport. • reparo de ADN. • transdução de sinal. • negative regulation of cell proliferation. • ... protein stabilization. • protein homooligomerization. • regulation of cell cycle. • positive regulation of protein localization ... protein oligomerization. • negative regulation of protein kinase activity by regulation of protein phosphorylation. • ...
Receptor/signaling modulators. Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. Cytokine receptor modulators. Retrieved from " ... BDNF signaling leads to the autophosphorylation of the intracellular domain of the TrkB receptor (ICD-TrkB). Upon ... Through a protein signaling cascade requiring Erk, CaM KII/IV, PI3K, and PLC, NMDA receptor activation is capable of triggering ... transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase signaling pathway. • peripheral nervous system development. • memory. • nerve ...
O'Connor EM, Shand RF (2002). "Halocins and sulfolobicins: the emerging story of archaeal protein and peptide antibiotics". J. ... "A congruent phylogenomic signal places eukaryotes within the Archaea". Proc. R. Soc. (B rspb20121795). ... "The ultrastructure of Ignicoccus: evidence for a novel outer membrane and for intracellular vesicle budding in an archaeon" ... 2002). "Introns in protein-coding genes in Archaea". FEBS Lett. 510 (1-2): 27-30. PMID 11755525. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(01) ...
... proteins on the surface of antigen-presenting cells. These peptides are products of proteasomal degradation of proteins ... Once a protein is tagged with a single ubiquitin molecule, this is a signal to other ligases to attach additional ubiquitin ... have one of the shortest life spans of all intracellular proteins.[1] After a CDK-cyclin complex has performed its function, ... The protein degradation processEdit. Ribbon diagram of ubiquitin, the highly conserved protein that serves as a molecular tag ...
For example, the Influenza A virus produces NS1 protein, which can bind to host and viral RNA, interact with immune signaling ... Antimicrobial peptides are an evolutionarily conserved component of the innate immune response found among all classes of life ... One strategy is intracellular replication, as practised by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, or wearing a protective capsule, which ... This leads to antiviral protein production, such as protein kinase R, which inhibits viral protein synthesis, or the 2′,5′- ...
"The Alzheimer's Disease-Associated Amyloid β-Protein Is an Antimicrobial Peptide". PLoS ONE 5 (3): e9505. Bibcode:2010PLoSO... ... "Distinct sites of intracellular production for Alzheimer's disease A beta40/42 amyloid peptides". Nat. Med. 3 (9): 1016-20. ... "Signaling Effect of Amyloid-β42 on the Processing of AβPP". Exp. Neurol. 221 (1): 18-25. PMC 2812589. PMID 19747481. doi ... Hiltunen M, van Groen T, Jolkkonen J (2009). "Functional roles of amyloid-beta protein precursor and amyloid-beta peptides: ...
This increases peptide hormone stability and activity.[99][100]. Pharmacokinetics[edit]. Absorption[edit]. From the U.S. ... "Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. 19 (17): 2141-56. doi:10.1089/ars.2013.5372. PMC 3869468. PMID 23621620.. ... Savini I, Rossi A, Pierro C, Avigliano L, Catani MV (April 2008). "SVCT1 and SVCT2: key proteins for vitamin C uptake". Amino ... Emadi-Konjin P, Verjee Z, Levin AV, Adeli K (May 2005). "Measurement of intracellular vitamin C levels in human lymphocytes by ...
G protein. A family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside cells, and are implicated in transmitting signals from a ... An anabolic peptide hormone produced in the pancreas which helps to regulate the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and protein ... Contrast intracellular.. extranuclear inheritance. A transmission of genes that takes place outside the nucleus.. Contents: ... A group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of several pathogens, such as viruses ...
In mice models, for all novel protein sequences, potential MHC-binding peptides were predicted. The resulting set of potential ... Some antigens start out as exogenous, and later become endogenous (for example, intracellular viruses). Intracellular antigens ... "Adjuvant-enhanced antibody responses in the absence of toll-like receptor signaling". Science. 314 (5807): 1936-8. Bibcode ... Immunoglobulin-binding protein - Proteins such as protein A, protein G, and protein L that are capable of binding to antibodies ...
Receptor/signaling modulators. Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. Cytokine receptor modulators. Retrieved from " ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... a b Proto-Oncogene+Proteins+c-sis at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... This leads to specificity of downstream signaling. It has been shown that the sis oncogene is derived from the PDGF B-chain ...
Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. Adiponectin. AdipoR1. *Agonists: Peptide: Adiponectin. *ADP-355 ... Bradykinin is a physiologically and pharmacologically active peptide of the kinin group of proteins, consisting of nine amino ... Bradykinin is a 9-amino acid peptide chain. The amino acid sequence of bradykinin is: Arg-Pro-Pro-Gly-Phe-Ser-Pro-Phe-Arg ( ... It is a peptide that causes blood vessels to dilate (enlarge), and therefore causes blood pressure to fall. A class of drugs ...
Receptor/signaling modulators. Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. Cytokine receptor modulators. *. Biology portal ... thus excluding direct interactions with intracellular adaptor proteins. *^ Theiss. A. L. et al. 2005. Tumor necrosis factor ( ... positive regulation of protein complex assembly. • protein kinase B signaling. • positive regulation of cytokine production. • ... Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNFα, cachexin, or cachectin) is a cell signaling protein (cytokine) ...
... receptor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the F2R gene. PAR1 is a G protein-coupled receptor involved in the ... Hein L, Ishii K, Coughlin SR, Kobilka BK (Nov 1994). "Intracellular targeting and trafficking of thrombin receptors. A novel ... Hoffman M, Church FC (Aug 1993). "Response of blood leukocytes to thrombin receptor peptides". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 54 ... Traynelis SF, Trejo J (May 2007). "Protease-activated receptor signaling: new roles and regulatory mechanisms". Current Opinion ...
When the TCR engages with antigenic peptide and MHC (peptide/MHC), the T lymphocyte is activated through signal transduction, ... CD45 - a transmembrane protein whose intracellular tail functions as a tyrosine phosphatase that activates Src family kinases ... making it unlikely to participate in signaling, these signaling molecules are vital in propagating the signal from the ... UMich Orientation of Proteins in Membranes protein/pdbid-2hac - Zeta-zeta dimer of T cell receptor ...
... it reduces neuron firing rate and triggers protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling, resulting in DAT ... would support intracellular activation of signal transduction pathways (Miller, 2011). Such a co-localization would not require ... In addition to the various beneficial effects for brain function mainly attributed to an upregulation of peptide growth factors ... supports intracellular activation of signal transduction pathways, as suggested previously (Miller, 2011). ... Additionally, ...
calcium-mediated signaling using intracellular calcium source. • positive regulation of platelet activation. • leukocyte ... protein binding. • calcium ion binding. • metal ion binding. Cellular component. • integral component of membrane. • membrane. ... an EGF-like domain and a complement-binding protein-like domains (same as complement regulatory proteins: CRP) having short ... calcium-dependent protein binding. • glycosphingolipid binding. • fucose binding. • carbohydrate binding. • sialic acid binding ...
"Peptide inhibitors of protein kinases-discovery, characterisation and use". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Proteins and ... Vlahopoulos, S, Zoumpourlis, VC (August 2004). "JNK: a key modulator of intracellular signaling.". Biochemistry. Biokhimiia 69 ... Hunter T (1991). "Protein kinase classification". Meth. Enzymol. 200: 3-37. PMID 1835513. doi:10.1016/0076-6879(91)00125-G. ... Dan R Robinson, Yi-Mi Wu ja Su-Fang Lin, The protein tyrosine kinase family of the human genome, 20 November 2000, Volume 19, ...
positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling. • positive regulation of cell migration. • blood coagulation. • proteolysis ... Inoue K, Morita T (November 1993). "Identification of O-linked oligosaccharide chains in the activation peptides of blood ... "Complementary DNA cloning and kinetic characterization of a novel intracellular serine proteinase inhibitor: mechanism of ... Contributions of protein-protein and protein-membrane interactions toward complex formation". The Journal of Biological ...
Many proteins are involved in the process of cell signaling and signal transduction. Some proteins, such as insulin, are ... Ritchie DW (February 2008). "Recent progress and future directions in protein-protein docking". Current Protein & Peptide ... Although many intracellular proteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm and membrane-bound or secreted proteins in the ... Main article: Protein domain. Many proteins are composed of several protein domains, i.e. segments of a protein that fold into ...
The removal of the signal peptide during translation produces the 241-amino acid polypeptide POMC, which undergoes a series of ... which leads to an increase in intracellular cAMP[8] and subsequent activation of protein kinase A. ... The ACTH receptor is a seven-membrane-spanning G protein-coupled receptor.[7] Upon ligand binding, the receptor undergoes ... Glucocorticoids may also inhibit the rates of POMC gene transcription and peptide synthesis. The latter is an example of a slow ...
... has a short signal peptide of 21 amino acids encoded by exons 4A and 5.[5] Both isoforms shared 11 amino acids between signal ... tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein. • positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein. • regulation of ... of interleukin-15 expression and the role of this cytokine in NK cell differentiation and host response to intracellular ... has a short signal peptide of 21 amino acids encoded by exons 4A and 5. Both isoforms shared 11 amino acids between signal ...
positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling. • positive regulation of protein phosphorylation. • cytokine-mediated ... heparan sulfate allows hepatocyte growth factor to form a complex with c-Met that is able to transduce intracellular signals ... "The procognitive and synaptogenic effects of angiotensin IV-derived peptides are dependent on activation of the hepatocyte ... protein binding. • identical protein binding. • chemoattractant activity. • protein heterodimerization activity. • growth ...
The intracellular granules of the human neutrophil have long been recognized for their protein-destroying and bactericidal ... Once neutrophils have received the appropriate signals, it takes them about thirty minutes to leave the blood and reach the ... vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), TNF, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and ... toxic basic protein and cationic protein (e.g., cathepsin[13]);[17] receptors that bind to IgE are used to help with this task. ...
The result is the combination of two usually separate proteins into a new fusion protein. This protein can have a new function ... the intracellular region of a costimulatory molecule such as CD28, and the intracellular domain of CD3-zeta containing ITAM ... Signals in the body control the number of lymphocytes so neither too few nor too many are made. In ALL, both the normal ... sequence encoding the variable heavy and variable light chains of these antibodies are cloned together using a small peptide ...
... Alexander O. Shpakov ... J. M. Taylor and R. R. Neubig, "Peptides as probes for G protein signal transduction," Cellular Signalling, vol. 6, no. 8, pp. ... "The peptide strategy as a novel approach to the study of G protein-coupled signaling systems," in Signal Transduction Research ... "Different role of intracellular loops of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor in G-protein coupling," Regulatory Peptides, vol. 111 ...
Functional Interaction between Epstein-Barr Virus Replication Protein Zta and Host DNA Damage Response Protein 53BP1 Sarah G. ... Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 3 Suppresses Hepatitis C Virus Replication in an mTOR-Dependent Manner Run-Xuan Shao, Leiliang ... Effects of Inner Nuclear Membrane Proteins SUN1/UNC-84A and SUN2/UNC-84B on the Early Steps of HIV-1 Infection Torsten Schaller ... Endoplasmic Reticulum Protein SCAP Inhibits Dengue Virus NS2B3 Protease by Suppressing Its K27-Linked Polyubiquitylation Heng ...
Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and ... Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins*Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins. Intracellular Signaling Proteins* ... Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that ... Intracellular Signaling Peptides*Intracellular Signaling Peptides. *Peptides, Intracellular Signaling. *Signaling Peptides, ...
Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and ... Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that ... regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. ... Intracellular Signaling Peptides; Intracellular Signaling Proteins; Peptides, Intracellular Signaling; Proteins, Intracellular ...
Intracellular protein transport in plants: signal peptides, molecular chaperones and proteolysis. Project leader. Prof Elzbieta ... List of projects » Intracellular protein transport in plants: signal peptides, molecular chaperones and proteolysis ... and dual targeting of proteins to both organelles mapping import determinants and interaction of signal peptides with ... Newly synthesized organellar proteins contain targeting signals that are recognized by organellar receptors and mediate import ...
Phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein. *EDARADD. *PRKCSH. see also deficiencies of intracellular signaling peptides and ... Small GTPases act as molecular switches in signaling pathways, which act to regulate functions of other proteins. They are ... GTP-binding protein regulators regulate G proteins in several different ways. ... and thus requires another class of regulatory proteins to accelerate this activity, the GTPase activating proteins (GAPs). ...
Phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein. *EDARADD. *PRKCSH. see also deficiencies of intracellular signaling peptides and ... protein complex binding. • signal transducer activity. • protein binding. • GTPase activity. • GTPase binding. • G-protein ... protein heterotrimerization. • Wnt signaling pathway, calcium modulating pathway. • protein folding. • G-protein coupled ... Ras protein signal transduction. • cell proliferation. • cellular response to hypoxia. • sensory perception of taste. • signal ...
Proteins (Protein Science). ⌊Peptides. ⌊Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins. ⌊GTP-Binding Protein Regulators. ⌊ ...
Cell signalling (1). * Health sciences (1). * Intracellular signalling peptides and proteins (1). ... WNK1: analysis of protein kinase structure, downstream targets, and potential roles in hypertension *Bing-e XU ... Signal control through Raf: in sickness and in health *Jihan K Osborne ... Rights & permissionsfor article Signal control through Raf: in sickness and in health . Opens in a new window. ...
Intracellular signalling peptides and proteins (1). * Liver fibrosis (1). Date ​ Choose a date option to show results from ... Helicobacter pylori accelerates hepatic fibrosis by sensitizing transforming growth factor-β1-induced inflammatory signaling * ... 1-induced inflammatory signaling . Opens in a new window. ...
Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins. Grant support. *R01 GM068462/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/United States ... High-Resolution Mapping of a Repeat Protein Folding Free Energy Landscape.. Fossat MJ1, Dao TP2, Jenkins K1, Dellarole M3, Yang ... Ribbon diagram of the crystal structure of the leucine-rich repeat protein pp32 (PDB: 2JE0) (). The N-terminal cap is shown in ... Simulations can provide this level of insight for small proteins. In contrast, with the exception of hydrogen exchange, which ...
Dlg4 protein, mouse * Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors * Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins ... Immunoprecipitation and in vitro binding experiments revealed that IQ-ArfGEF/BRAG1 formed a protein complex with N-methyl-d- ... Taken together, IQ-ArfGEF/BRAG1 forms a postsynaptic protein complex containing PSD-95 and NMDA receptors at excitatory ... aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptors through the interaction with a postsynaptic density (PSD) scaffold protein, PSD-95. ...
In this study, we isolated a novel clone encoding decidual protein induced by progesterone (Depp) from a human ESC cDNA library ... Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins * Progesterone / physiology* * Proteins / genetics* * Proteins / physiology * RNA ... A novel protein Depp, which is induced by progesterone in human endometrial stromal cells activates Elk-1 transcription factor ... In this study, we isolated a novel clone encoding decidual protein induced by progesterone (Depp) from a human ESC cDNA library ...
Intracellular signaling peptides and proteins. Fasting. Growth hormone. IGF-1. Additional relevant MeSH terms:. Layout table ... Description of intracellular pathways to clarify the interplay between calorie restriction, SIRT1, STATb5, and the GH/IGF-I ...
Intermediate filament proteins‎ (7 В). *. ► Intracellular signaling peptides and proteins‎ (5 К, 104 В) ... Protein (lb); protein (nb); Protéin (su); Protein (hif); 朊 (lzh); بروتين (ar); Protein (br); ပရိုတိန်း (my); 蛋白質 (yue); Белок ( ... प्रोटिन (dty); Prótín (is); Protein (ms); protein (tr); لحمیات (ur); Bielkovina (sk); білок (uk); 蛋白质 (zh-cn); Protein (gsw); ... protein (sco); Уураг (mn); protein (nn); ಪ್ರೋಟೀನ್ (kn); پرۆتین (ckb); protein (en); fehérje (hu); પ્રોટિન (gu); प्रोटिन (new); ...
0/10-nitro-9,12-octadecadienoic acid; 0/Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0/KEAP1 protein, rat; 0/Linoleic Acids; ... Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins. Linoleic Acids / administration & dosage*. Male. Muscle, Smooth, Vascular / ... LNO(2) upregulated the expression of Nrf2 protein levels, but not mRNA levels, in VSMCs. A forced activation of Nrf2 led to an ... 12201056 - Alterations in the cell cycle and in the protein level of cyclin d1, p21cip1, and p16in.... 10501206 - Molecular ...
Protein Binding. *Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins. *Promoter Regions. *Colorectal Cancer. *Cytoplasm ... and its protein functions as an important adaptor and modifier in protein-protein interactions. Both of their structures are ... LIM-only protein FHL2 activates NF-κB signaling in the control of liver regeneration and hepatocarcinogenesis.. Mol Cell Biol. ... Four-and-a-half LIM-only protein 2 (FHL2) is an important mediator in many signaling pathways. In this study, we analyzed the ...
Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins. *Tumor Markers. Tag cloud generated 25 June, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH ... protein binding - protein complex binding - protein domain specific binding - protein heterotrimerization - protein ... What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?. Show (1). SKIL is involved in:. - TGF beta signaling pathway BIOCARTA. Data ... TGFB signaling causes SMAD3 to enter the nucleus and degrade this protein, allowing these genes to be activated. Four ...
0/Fungal Proteins; 0/Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0/RTG2 protein, S cerevisiae; 0/Saccharomyces cerevisiae ... Fungal Proteins / physiology. Homeostasis. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins. Iron / metabolism*, toxicity*. ... Proteins; 7439-89-6/Iron; 77-92-9/Citric Acid; EC (si)-Synthase ...
0 (Biomarkers); 0 (FABP7 protein, human); 0 (Fatty Acid-Binding Protein 7); 0 (Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins); ... The antibodies detected the native protein in parasite lysates as a 38 kDa protein and immunofluorescence verified a parasite ... MMP9 protein, human); EC (Matrix Metalloproteinase 9); EC (ALDOA protein, human); EC (Fructose- ... Protozoan Proteins); 0 (Recombinant Proteins); EC (L-Lactate Dehydrogenase); EC (Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate ...
Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins); 0 (Lipopolysaccharides); 0 (PPP1R13L protein, human); 0 (Ppp1r13l protein, ... 0 (CDC73 protein, human); 0 (Tumor Suppressor Proteins); EC (Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 11). ... mTOR protein, mouse); EC (Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt); EC (Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type ... EC (PTPN11 protein, human); EC (Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 11). ...
Suppresses signaling by various surface receptors, including T-cell receptor (TCR) and B-cell receptor (BCR) by phosphorylating ... To inhibit SFKs, CSK is recruited to the plasma membrane via binding to transmembrane proteins or adapter proteins located near ... Non-receptor tyrosine-protein kinase that plays an important role in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, migration ... intracellular signal transduction Source: HGNC ,p>Traceable Author Statement,/p> ,p>Used for information from review articles ...
Inhibits G protein activation by GPCRs. Cited in 2 publications. ... View and buy high quality G-Protein Antagonist peptide from ... Nogueras-Ortiz (2017) Retromer stops beta-arrestin 1 mediated signaling from internalized cannabinoid 2 receptors. Mol Biol ... Keywords: G-Protein Antagonist peptide, G-Protein Antagonist peptide supplier, inhibitors, inhibits, G, protein, activation, by ... Reviews for G-Protein antagonist peptide. There are currently no reviews for this product. Be the first to review G-Protein ...
Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins. 2. 2012. 2966. 0.100. Why? Mitochondria. 2. 2020. 3344. 0.100. Why? ...
... intracellular tail. The signal peptide corresponds to residues 1-14 and is cleaved during molecular maturation (). Structures ... Despite its galectin fold, MHV NTD does not bind sugars, but instead binds mCEACAM1a through exclusive protein-protein ... The orientation of the structure is the same as in . (B) Human galectin-3 [Protein Data Bank (PDB) 1A3K]. The β-sandwich core ... A) Domain structure of MHV spike protein. NTD: N-terminal domain; RBD: receptor-binding domain; HR-N: heptad-repeat N; HR-C: ...
... phosphorylated blocking peptide (Cat. No. 2106) has been withdrawn from sale for commercial reasons. ... G-Protein-Coupled Receptors. *Intracellular Signaling. * Request copy *Download PDF. *View all Product Guides & Listings ... phosphorylated blocking peptide supplier, Blocking, peptides, phosphorylated, anti-phospho-GluR1, Ser831, Glutamate, AMPA, ... Have you used Anti-phospho-GluR1 (Ser831) phosphorylated blocking peptide?. Submit a review and receive an Amazon gift card.. $ ...
Proteins [D12.776]. *Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins [D12.776.476]. *Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing [ ... A family of proteins that bind to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and alter their specificity, signaling mechanism, or mode of ... Calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR), receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1), and calcitonin gene-related peptide ( ... decreased expression of calcitonin receptor-like receptor and receptor-activity modifying protein-3. Peptides. 2001 Nov; 22(11 ...
Is one of the most abundant endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteins. Plays a role in the export of secreted proteins in the ER, the ... Also serves as a cargo receptor for the export of transmembrane proteins. May be involved in CASP8-mediated apoptosis. ... recognition of abnormally folded protein and their targeting to the ER associated-degradation (ERAD). ... calcium-mediated signaling using intracellular calcium source Source: UniProtKB ,p>Inferred from Mutant Phenotype,/p> ,p> ...
Phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein. *EDARADD. *PRKCSH. see also deficiencies of intracellular signaling peptides and ... The HRAS protein is a GTPase and is an early player in many signal transduction pathways and is usually associated with cell ... This overactive protein directs the cell to grow and divide in the absence of outside signals, leading to uncontrolled cell ... McCormick F (Dec 1995). "Ras-related proteins in signal transduction and growth control". Molecular Reproduction and ...
Phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein. *EDARADD. *PRKCSH. see also deficiencies of intracellular signaling peptides and ... cGMP-dependent protein kinase or Protein Kinase G (PKG) is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that is activated by cGMP ... Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases and the Cardiovascular System. *cGMP-Dependent+Protein+Kinases at the US National Library ... Receptor protein serine/threonine kinase (EC *Bone morphogenetic protein receptors *BMPR1 ...
  • Small GTPases act as molecular switches in signaling pathways, which act to regulate functions of other proteins. (
  • A complete description of the pathways and mechanisms of protein folding requires a detailed structural and energetic characterization of the conformational ensemble along the entire folding reaction coordinate. (
  • What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in? (
  • The HRAS protein is a GTPase and is an early player in many signal transduction pathways and is usually associated with cell membranes due to the presence of an isoprenyl group on its C-terminus . (
  • Gamma subunits, such as GNG3, contribute to the specificity of the hundreds of receptor signaling pathways involving G proteins (Schwindinger et al. (
  • Among its related pathways are Diseases associated with the TLR signaling cascade and Activated TLR4 signalling . (
  • Involved in the TLR and IL-1 signaling pathways via interaction with the complex containing IRAK kinases and TRAF6. (
  • UII activates a G protein-coupled receptor called UT to modulate a number of signalling pathways including intracellular Calcium. (
  • TLR signal transduction involves activation of a few well-known pathways, of which nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are possibly the best characterized. (
  • Frederick Arce, Grazyna Kochan, Karine Breckpot, Holly Stephenson and David Escors, " Selective Activation of Intracellular Signalling Pathways in Dendritic Cells for Cancer Immunotherapy", Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (2012) 12: 29. (
  • Signaling pathways for artificial GHS that act through GHSR in pituitary cells have been investigated. (
  • Merlin is a multifunctional protein and involved in integrating and regulating the extracellular cues and intracellular signaling pathways that control cell fate, shape, proliferation, survival, and motility. (
  • Together, these recent advances have improved our basic understanding about merlin function, its regulation, and the major signaling pathways regulated by merlin and provided the foundation for future translation of these findings into the clinic for patients bearing the cancers in which merlin function and/or its downstream signaling pathways are impaired or altered. (
  • Salvianolate lyophilized injection (SLI) strengthens blood-brain barrier function related to ERK1/2 and Akt signaling pathways. (
  • Among its related pathways are Defective C1GALT1C1 causes Tn polyagglutination syndrome (TNPS) and Toll-Like receptor Signaling Pathways . (
  • Our previous results indicated that postsynaptic Ca 2+ /calmodulin (CaM) signaling pathways play an important role in setting synaptic strength, and calcineurin (CaN) activity limits synaptic responses during basal synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation expression. (
  • To elucidate mechanisms underlying CaN-inhibited synaptic potentiation, we co-injected certain agents affecting Ca 2+ signaling pathways with CaN inhibitors into CA1 neurons. (
  • We have shown that calcium/calmodulin (Ca 2+ /CaM) signaling pathways are important in regulating the output of synaptic transmission by shifting the balance between postsynaptic Ca 2+ /CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaM-KII)/protein kinase C (PKC) and calcineurin (CaN) activities. (
  • The aim of this thesis was to study the intracellular signalling pathways and the transcription factors that C-peptide activates in proximal tubular cells using opossum kidney cells (OK) as a model. (
  • Using specific inhibitors and phospho-specific antibodies, intracellular signalling pathways activated by C-peptide were examined by kinase assay and Western blotting. (
  • Signaling pathways initiated by engagement of toll-like receptors (TLRs), such as TLR2 and TLR4, by bacterial products lead to enhanced transcription of genes responsible for the expression of cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules, and other mediators of the inflammatory response associated with bacterial infection. (
  • Infection can also result in lymphocyte activation when intracellular signaling pathways are manipulated by lymphotropic viruses (Table 1 ). (
  • These include a family of glycopeptides from the Solanaceae that are functionally related to systemin, hydroxyproline-rich glycopeptide systemins (HypSys) ( 15 ), and a family of signaling peptides from Arabidopsis ( At Peps) that amplify the innate immune responses through the jasmonate/ethylene and salicylate signaling pathways ( 16 , 17 ). (
  • Journal Article] CLE peptides and their signaling pathways in plant development. (
  • Modulation of BK channel gating is well characterized, regulated by accessory subunit interactions, intracellular signaling pathways, and membrane potential. (
  • Cell-excluded MG dyes enable the selective tagging of surface protein and tracking through endocytic pathways. (
  • Integrin loss, overexpression, or mutations have been indicated in the pathogenesis and development of benign and malignant tumors ( 14 , 15 ) and integrin-regulated signaling pathways significantly influence the survival, morphology, and migratory properties of tumor cells ( 3 , 8 ). (
  • This paper presents preliminary findings of improved overall survival (OS) using a combination of sodium phenylbutyrate (PB) with various chemotherapeutic and targeted agents in advanced MM. The data suggest using a strategy of simultaneous interruption of signal transduction involving RAS-MEK-ERK, PI3K-AKT, mTOR, Merlin, and angiogenesis pathways and interference in cell cycle and epigenetic processes. (
  • The purpose of the present study was to determine the role of postreceptor calcium signaling pathways in AVP-induced renal vasoconstriction in vivo. (
  • After AVP receptor stimulation, calcium mobilization and calcium entry signaling pathways participate to similar degrees in WKY and SHR. (
  • I am particularly interested in determine the molecular principles of ligand selectivity (i.e. how specific ligands recognize certain receptors), efficacy (i.e. how ligands activate GPCRs) and biased signaling (i.e. how specific ligands preferentially trigger certain signaling pathways). (
  • Within the bone/bone marrow microenvironment, T and B lymphocytes as well as mast cells and macrophages provide important signals that affect the coordinated activity of osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts through various pathways ( 7 ). (
  • Therefore, identification of additional motif-containing WDD-binding proteins will likely unravel the signalling pathways whose dysfunction is required to trigger the onset of Crohn disease. (
  • A. O. Shpakov, "The molecular determinants in the serpentine type receptors, responsible for its functional coupling with the heterotrimeric G-protein," Tsitologiia , vol. 44, pp. 242-258, 2002 (Russian). (
  • E. Morou and Z. Georgoussi, "Expression of the third intracellular loop of the δ -opioid receptor inhibits signaling by opioid receptors and other G protein-coupled receptors," Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics , vol. 315, no. 3, pp. 1368-1379, 2005. (
  • Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. (
  • Newly synthesized organellar proteins contain targeting signals that are recognized by organellar receptors and mediate import into the organelle. (
  • Our studies comprise 1) Molecular mechanisms of sorting of the nuclear encoded precursor proteins between mitochondria and chloroplasts, and dual targeting of proteins to both organelles mapping import determinants and interaction of signal peptides with organellar receptors. (
  • Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), which integrate signals between receptors and effector proteins, are composed of an alpha, a beta, and a gamma subunit. (
  • Beta subunits are important regulators of alpha subunits, as well as of certain signal transduction receptors and effectors. (
  • Immunoprecipitation and in vitro binding experiments revealed that IQ-ArfGEF/BRAG1 formed a protein complex with N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptors through the interaction with a postsynaptic density (PSD) scaffold protein, PSD-95. (
  • Taken together, IQ-ArfGEF/BRAG1 forms a postsynaptic protein complex containing PSD-95 and NMDA receptors at excitatory synapses, where it may function as a GEF for Arf6. (
  • Suppresses signaling by various surface receptors, including T-cell receptor (TCR) and B-cell receptor (BCR) by phosphorylating and maintaining inactive several positive effectors such as FYN or LCK (By similarity). (
  • Substance P-related peptide that inhibits binding of G proteins to their receptors. (
  • A family of proteins that bind to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and alter their specificity, signaling mechanism, or mode of intracellular transport. (
  • Once activated, receptors stimulate signal transduction events in the cytoplasm , a process by which proteins and second messengers relay signals from outside the cell to the cell nucleus and instructs the cell to grow or divide. (
  • They also contribute to signaling by interacting with plasma membrane receptors or by releasing signal molecules such as peptides or oligosaccharides [ 7 , 8 , 9 ]. (
  • In fact, their effectiveness relies on signalling by pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs). (
  • Recent studies showed that merlin regulates the cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions and functions of the cell surface adhesion/extracellular matrix receptors including CD44 and that merlin and CD44 antagonize each others function and work upstream of the mammalian Hippo signaling pathway. (
  • These peptides target a wide variety of membrane receptors, ion channels and transporters, and have enormous potential for a range of pharmaceutical applications. (
  • Galanin triggers cellular responses by binding to specific galanin receptors, and then the signals are transduced into intracellular effectors via G proteins. (
  • 2000 ), and all of them are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). (
  • The three receptors have substantial difference in their functional coupling and subsequent signaling activities, which contributes to the diversity of possible physiological effects of galanin. (
  • Damaged-self recognition occurs when signaling molecules are released from damaged cells and perceived by plant receptors to elicit a defense response ( 1 ). (
  • MAMPs and DAMPs are perceived on the plant cell surface by receptors that transduce a signal intracellularly, initiating a defense pathway. (
  • The C-terminal rod 2 region of FLNa (filamin A) mediates dimerization and interacts with several transmembrane receptors and intracellular signalling adaptors. (
  • Peptides derived from transmembrane receptors and intracellular signalling proteins induced a more open structure of the six domain fragment. (
  • This often requires connections between transmembrane adhesion receptors and the intracellular cytoskeleton. (
  • One of many proteins that connect F-actin (filamentous actin) to transmembrane receptors is FLN (filamin). (
  • FLNs are well positioned in cells to influence signal transmission as they have binding sites both for F-actin and the cytoplasmic tails or loops of membrane receptors, such as the β chains of integrins, the major transmembrane adhesion receptors and G-protein-coupled receptors including DRs (dopamine receptors). (
  • In addition to a myriad of membrane receptors, channels and transporters, mammalian cells are equipped with relatively large, low-resistance proteinaceous conduits to transmit signaling molecules such as ions (e.g. (
  • Eighteen α chains and 8 β chains have been identified and different pairing of α and β chains can yield more than 20 receptors that bind to different ECM proteins, including collagen, fibronectin, and laminin ( 1 , 2 , 4 ). (
  • By using chimeric constructs, we have tested the capacity of the signaling Toll/IL-1R homology domains of these receptors to activate antimicrobial peptide promoters and found that only Toll and Toll-5 can activate the drosomycin promoter in transfected cells, thus demonstrating specificity at the level of the Toll/IL-1R homology domain. (
  • In contrast, none of these constructs activated antibacterial peptide promoters, suggesting that Toll-related receptors are not involved in the regulation of antibacterial peptide expression. (
  • AMPA receptor-binding protein (ABP) and glutamate receptor-interacting protein (GRIP) are two similar PDZ (postsynaptic density 95/Discs large/zona occludens 1) proteins that interact with glutamate receptors 2 and 3 (GluR2 and GluR3) subunits. (
  • Both proteins have proposed roles during long-term potentiation and long-term depression in the delivery and anchorage of AMPA receptors at synapses. (
  • We suggest that pABP-L and ABP-L provide, respectively, synaptic and intracellular sites for the anchorage of AMPA receptors during receptor trafficking to and from the synapse. (
  • This suggests that anchoring proteins stabilize receptors at both the synapse and intracellular, subsynaptic locations. (
  • 4 Subsequent studies implicate weak coupling of the prostanoid receptors to stimulatory G s proteins and the cAMP pathway in young SHR. (
  • G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a family of seven transmembrane helix proteins found in almost all eukaryotic organisms, with approximately 800 genes in the human genome. (
  • Activated receptors can then trigger cellular signaling cascades through interaction with intracellular heterotrimeric G proteins and arrestins. (
  • Danger signals activate Toll-like receptors (TLRs), thereby initiating inflammatory responses. (
  • Nerve cells release the signal (neurotransmitter) which binds to receptors on nearby cells. (
  • Chapter 9, Figure 9.5 is a description of how intracellular steroid receptors regulate gene transcription. (
  • Non-receptor tyrosine-protein kinase that plays an important role in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, migration and immune response. (
  • HRAS acts as a molecular on/off switch, once it is turned on it recruits and activates proteins necessary for the propagation of the receptor's signal, such as c-Raf and PI 3-kinase . (
  • Crystallographic structure of the leucine zipper domain of human cGMP dependent protein kinase I beta. (
  • cGMP-dependent protein kinase or Protein Kinase G (PKG) is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that is activated by cGMP . (
  • 2003). "Activation of heterotrimeric G proteins by a high energy phosphate transfer via nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) B and Gbeta subunits. (
  • We report in this study the successful targeting of the protein tyrosine kinase Syk in the RBL-2H3 rat basophilic leukemia cell line. (
  • Interestingly, FcepsilonRI-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation is not altered, suggesting that intracellular G4G11 and G4E4 do not prevent the coupling of Syk to the Ras pathway, but they selectively inhibit the pathway involving phospholipase C-gamma2 activation. (
  • Rho-kinase is thought to regulate the phosphorylation state of the substrates including myosin light chain (MLC), ERM (ezrin/radixin/moesin) family proteins and adducin by their direct phosphorylation and by the inactivation of myosin phosphatase. (
  • Taken together, these results indicate that MBS is phosphorylated by Rho-kinase downstream of Rho in vivo, and suggest that myosin phosphatase and Rho-kinase spatiotemporally regulate the phosphorylation state of Rho-kinase substrates including MLC and ERM family proteins in vivo in a cooperative manner. (
  • The [Ca 2+ ] i responses to ghrelin were markedly attenuated by inhibitors of protein kinase A (PKA) but not protein kinase C and by a blocker of N-type but not L-type Ca 2+ channels. (
  • GHRP-6 stimulates GH release from rat pituitary cells by activating protein kinase C (PKC) ( 17 , 18 ). (
  • We have previously found that connexin43 is phosphorylated by extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 in rats of cerebral ischemia. (
  • These results indicate that postsynaptic CaN activity can downregulate evoked synaptic transmission by weakening intracellular Ca 2+ signals and downstream protein kinase activities. (
  • The results show that C-peptide is able to activate extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) and PKC-a. (
  • C-peptide stimulation of PPARy was attenuated by wortmannin pre-treatment, and by expression of a dominant negative PI 3-kinase p85 regulatory subunit (Ap85). (
  • C-peptide-induced PI 3-kinase dependent phosphorylation of PPARy. (
  • The MAPK family includes extracellular-signal-related protein kinase (ERK), c-JUN N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinases (JNK/SAP) and p38MAPK [ 4 ]. (
  • Merlin regulates multiple proliferative signalling cascades such as receptor tyrosine kinase signalling, p21-activated kinase signalling, Ras signalling, MEK-ERK cascade, MST-YAP cascade. (
  • Among these proteins, 33 key signaling mediators with kinase or phosphatase activity were subjected to small interfering RNA-based functional screening. (
  • This result was independently confirmed by the demonstration that a dominant-negative version of the kinase Pelle can block induction of drosomycin by the cytokine Spaetzle, but does not affect induction of the antibacterial peptide attacin by lipopolysaccharide. (
  • VEGFR-2 is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) which transduces biochemical signals via lateral dimerization in the plasma membrane. (
  • Like most RTKs, VEGFR-2 is composed of an extracellular (EC) domain, a transmembrane (TM) domain, and an intracellular (IC) domain consisting of a kinase domain and sequences required for downstream signaling. (
  • KDR signaling responses include (i) mitogenic signaling via activation of a phospholipase C-γ/protein kinase C/Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway ( 20 ), (ii) motogenic signaling through phosphorylation of FAK and paxillin ( 21 ), and (iii) survival signaling, in a complex with VE-cadherin, β-catenin, and phosphoinositide 3′-kinase ( 22 ). (
  • Most cytoplasmic protein kinases fall into serine-threonine kinase class. (
  • For instance, K63-linked chains have nondegradative roles in intracellular trafficking, lysosomal degradation, kinase signaling, and the DNA damage response 4 , 5 . (
  • Several highly conserved p62 homologs have recently been isolated, e.g. the rat atypical protein kinase C-interacting protein (ZIP), the murine A170/signal transduction and adapter protein, and the human p62, a protein that binds the Src homology 2 domain of p56(lck). (
  • We also found that cAMP-GEFII mediates cAMP-dependent, protein kinase A (PKA)-independent insulin secretion, and that this requires interaction with both Rim2 and Piccolo ( 16 - 18 ). (
  • Moreover, how defective mediolateral cell polarity impacts CE is not understood.RESULTS: Here, we show that overexpression of zebrafish dominant-negative Rho kinase 2 (dnRok2) disrupts CE without altering cell fates, phenocopying noncanonical Wnt signaling mutants. (
  • Moreover, Rho kinase 2 (Rok2) overexpression partially suppresses the slb/wnt11 gastrulation phenotype , and ectopic expression of noncanonical Wnts modulates Rok2 intracellular distribution. (
  • Nitro-linoleic acid inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation via the Keap1/Nrf2 signaling pathway. (
  • These studies provide the first evidence that nitroalkene LNO(2) inhibits VSMC proliferation through activation of the Keap1/Nrf2 signaling pathway, suggesting an important role of nitroalkenes in vascular biology. (
  • Also, this gene is down-regulated during transformation of normal myoblasts to rhabdomyosarcoma cells and the encoded protein may function as a link between presenilin-2 and an intracellular signaling pathway. (
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the SMAD pathway, which regulates cell growth and differentiation through transforming growth factor-beta (TGFB). (
  • Genistein suppressed epithelial-mesenchymal transition and migration efficacies of BG-1 ovarian cancer cells activated by estrogenic chemicals via estrogen receptor pathway and downregulation of TGF-β signaling pathway. (
  • The availability of a relatively low energy fragmentation pathway via β-elimination of the phosphate moiety limits fragmentation at peptide bonds that would be informative for identifying the sequence and site(s) of phosphorylation of the peptide. (
  • Thus, the post-GHSR pathway could involve Gs and/or Gq proteins. (
  • Organellar oligopeptidase (OOP) provides a complementary pathway for targeting peptide degradation in mitochondria and chloroplasts. (
  • Neuroprotective effects of DAAO are mediated via the ERK1/2 signaling pathway in a glaucomatous animal model. (
  • VCP/p97 controls signals of the ERK1/2 pathway transmitted via the Shoc2 scaffolding complex: novel insights into IBMPFD pathology. (
  • The MAPK signaling pathway is involved in various kinds of cellular processes including differentiation, development, proliferation, and survival, as well as cell death, depending on cell type and stimulus [ 5 , 6 ]. (
  • For example, upon wounding of tomato plants, the plant peptide signal systemin is released from its precursor and, through receptor-mediated events, initiates the jasmonate signaling pathway, producing protease inhibitors and other defense compounds that protect the plant from further attack ( 14 ). (
  • This suggests that Mlx-8 inhibits the intracellular signaling pathway linked to activation of mAChRs in hippocampus. (
  • they induce cytotoxicity in cancer cells upon binding to intracellular SET and modulate the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-B) signaling pathway. (
  • We show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking two of these UBA proteins, Dsk2 and Rad23, are deficient in protein degradation mediated by the UFD pathway and that the intact UBA motif of Dsk2 is essential for its function in proteolysis. (
  • Autophagy is an intracellular degradation pathway that helps maintain the metabolic homeostasis of the cell. (
  • PTH1R activates the cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling pathway and the bone anabolic signaling pathway, leading to bone growth, increased bone mineral density (BMD) and volume. (
  • The Hippo signaling pathway is rapidly gaining recognition as an important player in organ size control and tumorgenesis. (
  • With the multitude of signaling events mediated by the Hippo pathway and the vastly different functions that it plays, it is evident that these tumor suppressors are unique governors of cellular homeostasis. (
  • This timely volume gathers wide-ranging and burgeoning information on the Hippo pathway and its role in cancer into an accessible format of a single book.With the multitude of signaling events mediated by the Hippo pathway and the vastly different functions that it plays, it is evident that these tumor suppressors are unique governors of cellular homeostasis. (
  • In Xenopus and zebrafish, a noncanonical Wnt signaling pathway constitutes the vertebrate counterpart to the Drosophila planar cell polarity pathway and regulates mediolateral cell polarization underlying CE. (
  • Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. (
  • The possible role of this ABA-induced Ca(i) decrease in ABA signal transduction and in counteracting the effects of gibberellic acid are discussed. (
  • Lck-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of signaling motifs (ITAMs) in the CD3-zeta subunits of the TCR is an initial step in the transduction of signaling cascades. (
  • All C-peptide effects were abolished by pretreatment with PTX implicating a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR), to either Goii or GOo, in the transduction of these events. (
  • advantages of protein phosphorylation for signal transduction. (
  • The results suggest that the exaggerated renal vascular reactivity to AVP challenge in SHR is probably not due to a strain difference in postreceptor calcium signal transduction. (
  • In my research I aim to understand how extracellular ligands trigger the process of signal transduction in GPCRs. (
  • Signal transduction- the interaction of ligand and receptor proteins initiates this process, which converts the information in the signal into a cellular response. (
  • Binding of cGMP to the regulatory domain induces a conformational change which stops the inhibition of the catalytic core by the N-terminus and allows the phosphorylation of substrate proteins. (
  • IMAC in combination with mass spectrometry is a promising approach for global analysis of protein phosphorylation. (
  • Here we report optimization of the IMAC procedure using 32 P-labeled tryptic peptides and development of MS/MS/MS (MS3) for identifying phosphopeptide sequences and phosphorylation sites. (
  • Proteomics of mitochondrial phosphoproteins using the resulting IMAC protocol and MS3 revealed 84 phosphorylation sites in 62 proteins, most of which have not been reported before. (
  • Integration of the optimized batchwise IMAC protocol with MS3 offers a relatively simple and more efficient approach for proteomics of protein phosphorylation. (
  • Global analysis of protein phosphorylation will provide insight into mechanisms by which this dynamic post-translational modification modulates diverse cellular processes. (
  • Mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomics is a potentially powerful approach for global profiling and quantification of protein phosphorylation. (
  • Such studies usually involve selective isolation of phosphorylated peptides and their subsequent fragmentation in a mass spectrometer to assign the sequence and localize phosphorylation sites. (
  • The method has been used for several global analyses of protein phosphorylation in model organisms and cellular organelles ( 5 - 9 ). (
  • In summary, despite extensive effort in the past several years, efficient proteomics of protein phosphorylation remains a daunting challenge. (
  • Analysis of mitochondrial phosphorylation revealed 84 phosphorylation sites from 62 proteins. (
  • During cytokinesis, phosphorylated MBS, MLC and ERM family proteins accumulated at the cleavage furrow, and the phosphorylation level of MBS at Ser-854 was increased. (
  • ERK1/2 Phosphorylation of FHOD Connects Signaling and Nuclear Positioning Alternations in Cardiac Laminopathy. (
  • These results show that phosphorylation of FHOD proteins by ERK1/2 is a critical switch for nuclear positioning and may play a role in the pathogenesis of cardiomyopathy caused by LMNA mutations. (
  • Elevated expression of miR-302 cluster improves traumatic brain injury by inhibiting phosphorylation of connexin43 via ERK signaling. (
  • Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are believed to functionally couple neuronal activity and synaptic plasticity. (
  • Wang and Kelly, 1996a ), in which protein phosphorylation is believed to upregulate synaptic strength. (
  • SH2 domains function as regulatory modules of intracellular signalling cascades by interacting with high affinity to phosphotyrosine-containing target peptides in a sequence-specific, SH2 domains recognise between 3-6 residues C-terminal to the phosphorylated tyrosine in a fashion that differs from one SH2 domain to another, and strictly phosphorylation-dependent manner [ PMID: 7883800 , PMID: 15335710 , PMID: 14731533 , PMID: 7531822 ]. (
  • how does phosphorylation modulate protein function? (
  • Integrin-ECM interactions modulate phosphorylation of 517 serine, threonine, or tyrosine residues in 513 peptides, corresponding to 357 proteins. (
  • Altogether, we not only depict an integrin-modulated phosphorylation network during cell-ECM protein interactions but also reveal novel regulators for cell adhesion and migration. (
  • Integrins play indispensable roles in delivering extracellular signals across the cell membrane into the cell interior through various kinases and phosphatases, which modulate the phosphorylation status of their targets ( 4 - 6 ). (
  • Example neurons, phosphorylation of protein kinases, peptide hormones, and rod cells in the eyes. (
  • An additional layer of complexity is presented by posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of proteins (e.g., phosphorylation, methylation, acetylation, and ubiquitination) which can modulate protein activity. (
  • May act as a signaling receptor that activates protein-tyrosine kinases and mobilizes intracellular calcium (PubMed:11748283). (
  • The role of signaling by MAP kinases (ERK and p38) was explored using Western blot analysis. (
  • Of note, the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) is important in the production of inflammatory cytokines by LPS stimulation [ 3 ]. (
  • Notch signaling mediates G1/S cell-cycle progression in T cells via cyclin D3 and its dependent kinases. (
  • VEGFR-2 belongs to a family of proteins called receptor tyrosine kinases. (
  • 1. Protein kinases- enzyme that adds phosphate groups from ATP to proteins. (
  • We categorize protein kinases as either serine-threonine or tyrosine kinases based on the amino acids they modify. (
  • A protein activated by kinases will be deactivated by a phosphatase, and a protein deactivated by kinases will be activated by a phosphatase. (
  • It's well known that the protein calmodulin specifically targets and steers the activities of hundreds of other proteins - mostly kinases - in our cells, thus playing a role in physiologically important processes ranging from gene transcription to nerve growth and muscle contraction But just how it distinguishes between target proteins is not well understood. (
  • Immunomodulatory signals have long been implicated as key regulators of bone metabolism. (
  • Numerous immunomodulatory signals are concurrently involved in the regulation of bone metabolism and vice versa bone-derived proteins, such as osteopontin, may have immunomodulatory effects ( 5 ). (
  • Agilent cell metabolism assays detect discrete changes in cell bioenergetics in real time, providing a window into the critical functions that provide ATP, the energy that cells need for activation, signaling, proliferation, and biosynthesis. (
  • The structure reveals how GrbS discriminates VavS specifically from other signaling molecules without binding to the proline-rich motif. (
  • GV1001 peptide has anticancer and anti-inflammation activity due to inhibiting activation of signaling molecules after penetration into the various types of cells. (
  • Activated hemichannels mediate the diffusional membrane transport of ions and small signaling molecules. (
  • Conversely, intracellular signals can also regulate the affinity of integrins for ECM molecules ( 16 ). (
  • Therefore, blocking the key molecules in the integrin-modulated signaling cascades represents a potential means to inhibit tumor cell migration and adhesion to the new site, which could ultimately reduce metastasis ( 17 ). (
  • The most conserved region between these molecules and Drosophila Toll consists of a 150-aa intracytoplasmic domain that is also shared by members of the IL-1R family and the signal transducer MyD88 ( 11 ), and which is named the Toll/IL-1R homology (TIR) domain. (
  • Signal molecules released by cells can diffuse through extracellular fluid to other cells. (
  • 3. Endocrine signaling- are longer-lived signal molecules, which may affect cells very distant from the releasing cells are called hormones, and this type of intracellular communication is known as endocrine signaling. (
  • Receives signals from lipid-soluble or non-charged, nonpolar small molecules. (
  • Recent work from our laboratory showed that the WDD is specifically recognized by a novel 19-amino acid element found in the intracellular domain of the transmembrane protein TMEM59, as well as other molecules. (
  • Cells in which regulated exocytosis occurs share several molecules that constitute the exocytotic machinery, including SNARE proteins (VAMP/synaptobrevin, SNAP, and syntaxin), synaptotagmins, and Rab proteins ( 2 , 3 ). (
  • Despite the identification of several signaling molecules required for normal CE, the downstream transducers regulating individual cell behaviors driving CE are only beginning to be elucidated. (
  • A genetic analysis further revealed that the expression of the antifungal and antibacterial peptides was controlled by distinct intracellular signaling cascades, albeit with some crosstalk between these cascades. (
  • S. R. Sprang, Z. Chen, and X. Du, "Structural basis of effector regulation and signal termination in heterotrimeric G α proteins," Advances in Protein Chemistry , vol. 74, pp. 1-65, 2007. (
  • Transmission of biochemical signals and mechanical forces across the plasma membrane is essential for the regulation of cell differentiation and proliferation [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • A genetic analysis of the regulation of the antifungal peptide drosomycin has demonstrated a key role for the transmembrane receptor Toll, which prompted the search for mammalian homologs. (
  • Such regulation requires an intracellular system for controlling receptor trafficking and targeting. (
  • and, regulation of biological processes such as chromosomal folding, protein secretion and intracellular signaling. (
  • ENTH domain containing proteins have additional roles in signaling and actin regulation and may have yet other actions in the nucleus. (
  • Intracellular ATP, cAMP, and Ca 2+ are major signals involved in the regulation of insulin secretion in the pancreatic β-cell. (
  • We combine biochemical and molecular biological approaches with bioinformatics to study intracellular protein transport in plants with emphasis on sorting mechanisms and proteolysis. (
  • and constrained structure-based simulations yield unparalleled insight into protein folding mechanisms. (
  • The present study aimed to determine whether ghrelin directly activates NPY neurons and, if so, to explore its signaling mechanisms. (
  • These results demonstrate that ghrelin directly interacts with NPY neurons in the ARC to induce Ca 2+ signaling via PKA and N-type Ca 2+ channel-dependent mechanisms. (
  • We are using a combination of biochemical, molecular biological, biophysical and bioinformatic approaches to investigate different aspects of intracellular protein transport, such as sorting mechanisms, dual protein targeting, interaction of signal peptides with molecular chaperones and degradation of signal peptides by the PreP peptidasome. (
  • However, the precise molecular mechanisms of C-peptide action are not fully understood. (
  • In general terms, mechanisms based on microbial products - such as peptides or superantigens - need to be distinguished from mechanisms based on the inflammatory setting that results from an infection. (
  • Gm SubPep is a unique plant defense peptide signal, cryptically embedded within a plant protein with an independent metabolic role, providing insights into plant defense mechanisms. (
  • In contrast, the role of intracellular trafficking mechanisms in controlling BK channel function, especially in live cells, has been less studied. (
  • Lectures cover physiologic to molecular actions of peptide, protein and steroid hormones and the intracellular signaling as well as the transcriptional gene regulatory mechanisms that drive reproductive biology. (
  • Unconventional autophagic mechanisms involved in intracellular trafficking control and cell signalling. (
  • M. Kubota and K. Wakamatsu, "Peptide fragment of the m3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor activates G q but not G i2 ," Journal of Peptide Science , vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 998-1002, 2008. (
  • This binding activates signaling events within the cells that line the blood vessels to promote the growth of new vessels. (
  • Upon subcutaneous administration, abaloparatide acts similar to PTHrP and targets, binds to and activates parathyroid hormone 1 (PTH1) receptor (PTH1R), a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) expressed in osteoblasts and bone stromal cells. (
  • To evaluate intracellular calcium mobilization, 8-( N,N -diethylamino)octyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate (TMB-8) or heparin was coadministered with AVP. (
  • Approximately two thirds of the change in vascular tone is due to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-mediated calcium mobilization from intracellular sources sensitive to TMB-8 and heparin. (
  • It is also a major storage site for calcium, phosphorus, and proteins, which are released upon osteoclastic resorption. (
  • A so-called signaling protein and "calcium sensor," calmodulin gives start and stop signals for a great number of intracellular activities by binding and releasing other proteins. (
  • Professor Matthias Rief and colleagues at the Technische Universitaet Muenchen had previously shown that they could fix a single calmodulin molecule between a surface and the cantilever tip of a specially built atomic-force microscope, expose it to calcium ions in solution, induce peptide binding and unbinding, and measure changes in the molecule's mechanical properties as it did its work. (
  • Another class of regulatory proteins, the Guanosine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors (GDIs), bind to the GDP-bound form of Rho and Rab small GTPases and not only prevent exchange (maintaining the small GTPase in an off-state), but also prevent the small GTPase from localizing at the membrane, which is their place of action. (
  • The major bovine seminal plasma protein, PDC-109, binds to choline phospholipids of the sperm plasma membrane and induces an efflux of cholesterol and choline phospholipids (cholesterol efflux), which is crucial for sperm capacitation. (
  • Interestingly, spermine/spermidine alone did not perturb membrane structure but exhibited chaperone-like activity by protecting target proteins against thermal and oxidative stress. (
  • To inhibit SFKs, CSK is recruited to the plasma membrane via binding to transmembrane proteins or adapter proteins located near the plasma membrane. (
  • Growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2) has been proposed to play important roles in the membrane localization and activation of Vav through dimerization of its C-terminal Srchomology 3 (SH3) domain (GrbS) and the N-terminal SH3 domain of Vav (VavS). (
  • Comparison of Schwannomin with other proteins shows similarities to proteins that connect the cytoskeleton to the cell membrane. (
  • Yeast two-hybrid screening of a rabbit parietal cell cDNA library with dominant active Rab11a (Rab11aS20V) identified myosin Vb as an interacting protein for Rab11a, a marker for plasma membrane recycling systems. (
  • During development in human erythrocytes, Plasmodium falciparum parasites display a remarkable number of adhesive proteins on their plasma membrane. (
  • In gametocytes, sexual precursor cells mediating parasite transmission to the mosquito vector, plasma membrane-associated proteins primarily belong to the Pf CCp and 6-cys families with roles in fertilization. (
  • In mature schizonts, the protein localizes underneath the merozoite micronemes and interacts with Pf AMA1, while in gametocytes Pf WLP1 primarily accumulates underneath the plasma membrane and associates with Pf CCp1 and Pf s230. (
  • It was shown that AMA1, a transmembrane protein of the micronemal membrane, upon merozoite attachment to the RBC relocates to the plasma membrane and then interacts with RON proteins that have been secreted and inserted into the RBC membrane. (
  • A remarkable feature of gametocytes is the expression of numerous adhesive proteins, which are associated with the plasma membrane within the parasitophorous vacuole. (
  • The current model of VEGFR-2 activation is that VEGF binds to individual VEGFR-2 receptor proteins on the membrane, and brings two of them close enough to form a complex called a dimer. (
  • These membrane proteins are essential in cell physiology, as they can be activated by an extraordinary diversity of extracellular signals, such as photons, odorants, protonated amines, peptides or glycoprotein hormones. (
  • In contrast, precursors with YSIRK-G/S signal peptides are secreted into the cross-wall, a membrane enclosed compartment for the de novo synthesis of peptidoglycan that separates daughter cells during division ( 14 ). (
  • These domains define two families of adaptor proteins which function in membrane traffic and whose interaction with membranes is regulated, in part, by phosphoinositides. (
  • Ectopic expression of the protein disrupts the structure of the Golgi, suggesting that N4WBP5 forms part of a family of integral Golgi membrane proteins. (
  • Plays a role in the export of secreted proteins in the ER, the recognition of abnormally folded protein and their targeting to the ER associated-degradation (ERAD). (
  • Despite its galectin fold, MHV NTD does not bind sugars, but instead binds mCEACAM1a through exclusive protein-protein interactions. (
  • The conformation with which natural agonistic peptides interact with G protein-coupled receptor(s) (GPCR(s)) partly results from intramolecular interactions such as hydrogen bridges or is induced by ligand-receptor interactions. (
  • Because of the variety of cell wall structures and of the diversity of protein/polysaccharide and protein/protein interactions in cell walls, some CWPs can be missing either because they are washed out during the purification of cell walls or because they are covalently linked to cell wall components. (
  • Accordingly, through these interactions, FLNs are thought to bring together various proteins to enhance signal transmission [ 9 ]. (
  • Such interactions are multidimensional (e.g., they occur between different types of cells, in diverse spatial orientation/direction, environmental conditions and time frames) and create signaling circuits within tissues, ultimately allowing for a more efficient use of resources and coordination of responses. (
  • Since WD40 domains are known to mediate protein-protein contact by serving as a rigid scaffold for protein interactions, the presented data suggest that Pf WLP1 supports the stability of adhesion protein complexes of the plasmodial blood stages. (
  • For intracellular pathogens, such as malaria parasites, recognition, adhesion and invasion of host cells are essential steps during infection and are often mediated by protein-protein interactions. (
  • Carbohydrate-Protein Interactions, etc. (
  • These data suggest that the interactions of the K ATP channel, cAMP-GEFII, Piccolo, and l -type VDCC are regulated by intracellular signals such as cAMP and Ca 2+ and that the ATP, cAMP, and Ca 2+ signals are integrated at a specialized region of pancreatic β-cells. (
  • p>Describes annotations that are concluded from looking at variations or changes in a gene product such as mutations or abnormal levels and includes techniques such as knockouts, overexpression, anti-sense experiments and use of specific protein inhibitors. (
  • Synaptic potentiation induced by FK-506 was significantly attenuated by co-injecting BAPTA, heparin/dantrolene (inhibitors of intracellular Ca 2+ release), a CaM-binding peptide, or CaM-KII/PKC pseudosubstrate peptides. (
  • This overactive protein directs the cell to grow and divide in the absence of outside signals, leading to uncontrolled cell division and the formation of a tumor. (
  • C-peptide is able to protect against tumor necrosis factor-alpha- (TNF-a) induced proximal tubular cells toxicity. (
  • These proteins are frequently altered in neoplastic cells and have traditionally been considered as tumor suppressors. (
  • Deletions, too, in the NH2-terminal domain of merlin proteins have been associated with early tumor onset and poor prognosis in people with NF2. (
  • Mutations of NF2 is presumed to result in either a failure to synthesize Merlin or the production of a defective peptide that lacks the normal tumor-suppressive effect. (
  • During tumor metastasis, integrin-mediated cell adhesion to and migration on the ECM proteins are required for cancer cell survival and adaptation to the new microenvironment. (
  • On the other hand, heat shock protein 70 has been found to be largely associated with the establishment of anti-tumor activities offered by hyperthermia treated tumor cells. (
  • Inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF) signaling is a promising therapeutic approach that aims to stabilize the progression of solid malignancies by abrogating tumor-induced angiogenesis. (
  • Collectively, the data obtained with AZD2171 are consistent with potent inhibition of VEGF signaling, angiogenesis, neovascular survival, and tumor growth. (
  • The SET protein is a promising drug target in cancer therapy, because of its ability to inhibit the function of the tumor suppressor gene protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). (
  • Hippo signaling is not solely involved in regulating "classic" tumor characteristics such as cell proliferation, survival and growth, but is also diversely involved in cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous differentiation, migration and organ size control. (
  • Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles. (
  • In this study, we isolated a novel clone encoding decidual protein induced by progesterone (Depp) from a human ESC cDNA library enriched with progesterone-inducible genes. (
  • In the absence of ligand, the encoded protein binds to the promoter region of TGFB-responsive genes and recruits a nuclear repressor complex. (
  • TGFB signaling causes SMAD3 to enter the nucleus and degrade this protein, allowing these genes to be activated. (
  • The FLN protein family is encoded by three homologous genes [ FLNA , FLNB and FLNC ]. (
  • Conversely, a challenge with Gram-negative bacteria strongly induces the antibacterial peptide genes, but has a less marked effect on drosomycin expression ( 2 ). (
  • The genomes of S . aureus isolates harbor 17 to 22 genes encoding LPXTG motif surface proteins, which can be further classified as precursors with canonical or YSIRK-G/S signal peptides ( 13 ). (
  • The Src homology 2 (SH2) domain is a protein domain of about 100 amino-acid residues first identified as a conserved sequence region between the oncoproteins Src and Fps [ PMID: 3025655 ]. (
  • Release of protein A involves murein hydrolases that remove immunostimulatory N -acetylmuramic acid and GlcNAc residues and liberate the polypeptide from the envelope. (
  • The second-generation C-cap improves the packing of buried residues and thereby the stability of the protein. (
  • There were no significant changes in intracellular [Ca2ⴙ] when platelets were treated with aPL and low doses of thrombin. (
  • Most cases of NSML are caused by catalytically inactivating mutations in the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP), non-receptor type 11 (PTPN11), encoding the SH2 domain-containing PTP-2 (SHP2) protein. (
  • ATP + a [protein]-L-tyrosine = ADP + a [protein]-L-tyrosine phosphate. (
  • Merlin shares significant sequence homology with the ERM (Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin) family proteins and serves as a linker between transmembrane proteins and the actin- cytoskeleton. (
  • In N. caninum, several GRA proteins were described, which exhibit homology to respective T. gondii proteins. (
  • NcGRA9 exhibits a high sequence homology to TgGRA9 and contains a typical N-terminal signal peptide and an intracellular localization pattern. (
  • These phosphorylated peptide sequences serve as recognition sites for Src homology 2 domain-binding proteins that subsequently propagate intracellular signaling. (
  • Filamins are large proteins that cross-link actin filaments and connect to other cellular components. (
  • Merlin was first discovered as a structural protein functioning as an actin cytoskeleton regulator. (
  • A variety of protein complexes have previously been described for the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum , like the actin-myosin motor complex enabling gliding motility of the invasive stages. (
  • These experiments showed that a protein known to regulate actin, called Formin 2, positions itself at the plasmodesmata where it caps off actin threads and anchors them to the channels. (
  • In addition, fragmentation of doubly charged and singly charged peptides in electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry is compromised. (
  • A putative GRA9 protein had been identified in the lysates of N. caninum bradyzoites and in the secreted fraction of tachyzoites using mass spectrometry (MS), respectively. (
  • This quantification of platelet activation and proteins by targeted mass spectrometry may enable novel diagnostic strategies in the detection and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. (
  • The WD40-repeat protein-like protein Pf WLP1 was identified via co-immunoprecipitation assays followed by mass spectrometry and characterized using biochemical and immunohistochemistry methods. (
  • Efficient immunopurification of diGly peptides combined with sensitive detection by mass spectrometry has resulted in a huge increase in the number of ubiquitination sites identified up to date. (
  • Mass spectrometry has become an indispensable tool for proteome analyses and nowadays thousands of different proteins from virtually any biological source can be identified in a single experiment. (
  • Large-scale identification of PTM-bearing proteins has also been made possible by developments in the mass spectrometry field. (
  • The relatively low stoichiometry of peptides bearing PTMs compared to their unmodified counterparts presents a technical challenge and biochemical enrichment steps are generally necessary prior to the mass spectrometry analysis. (
  • In contrast, wild-type cells are able to elongate their cell bodies in dnRok2 hosts, even though they fail to orient their axes.CONCLUSIONS: During zebrafish gastrulation, Rok2 acts downstream of noncanonical Wnt11 signaling to mediate mediolateral cell elongation required for dorsal cell movement along straight paths. (
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • Receptor Activity-Modifying Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • For other protein-related codes, see List of MeSH codes (D12.776). (
  • Ghrelin is a newly discovered peptide that is released from the stomach and from neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) and potently stimulates growth hormone release and food intake. (
  • However, the intracellular signaling for ghrelin's orexigenic action in the effector neurons is not well understood. (
  • Immunoprecipitation experiments showed that intracellular G4G11 and G4E4 bind to Syk, but do not inhibit the activation of Syk following FcepsilonRI aggregation, suggesting that the scFv do not affect the recruitment of Syk to the receptor. (
  • Biosynthesis of lanthionine-constrained peptides exploiting engineered Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria that contain lanthionine-introducing enzymes constitutes a convenient method for discovery of lanthionine-stabilized GPCR agonists. (
  • Today nearly 50 G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) peptide drugs have been approved, and the pipeline is filled with an increasing number [ 1 ]. (
  • This study has now for the first time demonstrated specifically that Ga* proteins are activated by C-peptide binding to a GPCR. (
  • In turn HRAS can bind to proteins of the Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor (GEF) class, for example SOS1 , which forces the release of bound nucleotide. (
  • FLNs also bind to various other cellular proteins including cytosolic signalling and adaptor proteins, e.g. migfilin [ 3 - 8 ]. (
  • The domains are frequently found as repeats in a single protein sequence and will then often bind both mono- and di-phosphorylated substrates. (
  • Processed Spaetzle is thought to bind to and activate the transmembrane receptor Toll, although direct interaction between the two proteins has not been reported to date. (
  • This structure in turn helps to determine which amino acid chains - peptides and proteins - the calmodulin will bind. (
  • The interplay between Syk and ZAP-70 in thymocytes, certain T cells, and B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells, in which they are coexpressed, will therefore modulate the amplitude of antigen-mediated receptor signaling. (
  • Also, more efficient cleanup of the sample using a filter-based plug in order to retain the antibody beads results in a greater specificity for diGly peptides. (
  • Among the arsenal of plant-derived compounds activated upon attack by herbivores and pathogens are small peptides that initiate and amplify defense responses. (
  • Surface proteins are linked to the cell wall of Gram-positive bacterial pathogens by a mechanism requiring LPXTG motif sorting signals and sortase. (
  • A. V. Smrcka, "G protein βγ subunits: central mediators of G protein-coupled receptor signaling," Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences , vol. 65, no. 14, pp. 2191-2214, 2008. (
  • The posttranslational modification of proteins by the small protein ubiquitin is involved in many cellular events. (
  • This study presents an original addition to the toolbox for protein ubiquitination analysis to uncover the deep cellular ubiquitinome. (
  • Transmembrane protein in contact with both cytoplasm and the extracellular environment. (
  • A2AR, a G protein-coupled receptor, is highly expressed on the cell surfaces of T-cells and, upon activation by adenosine, inhibits their proliferation and activation. (
  • Also serves as a cargo receptor for the export of transmembrane proteins. (
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (
  • MS3 led to efficient fragmentation of the peptide backbone in phosphopeptides for sequence assignment. (
  • The sequence of the peptide was located within a region of the protein that is unique to subtilases in legume plants and not found within any other plant subtilases thus far identified. (
  • Non-palmitoylated GRIP is primarily intracellular, but a chimera with the pABP-L N-terminal palmitoylation sequence linked to the body of the GRIP protein is targeted to spines. (
  • Using a combination of structural bioinformatics, molecular dynamics and data-mining of structure and sequence databases, I extract as much information as possible from experimentally determined protein structures. (
  • Facilities include those for protein-sequence analysis, peptide and oligonucleotide synthesis, access to the synchrotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab for X-ray crystallography, and NMR spectrometry. (
  • These proteins share striking similarity in amino acid sequence and structural motifs, thereby suggesting conserved functional properties. (
  • Overall, this study demonstrates the application of the MCoTI-II scaffold for the development of stable peptide drugs for cancer therapy. (
  • The armadillo repeat serves as a scaffold for the development of modular peptide-recognition modules. (
  • GTP-binding protein regulators regulate G proteins in several different ways. (
  • W. J. Phillips and R. A. Cerione, "A C-terminal peptide of bovine rhodopsin binds to the transducin α -subunit and facilitates its activation," Biochemical Journal , vol. 299, no. 2, pp. 351-357, 1994. (
  • A signaling molecule called VEGF is crucial for this process and binds to a receptor protein known as VEGFR-2. (
  • The results reveal new details of how calmodulin binds and regulates its target proteins. (
  • Here, we have characterized a family of proteins that preferentially binds ubiquitylated substrates and multi-Ub chains through a motif termed the ubiquitin-associated domain (UBA). (
  • N4WBP5 binds Nedd4 WW domains via the two PPXY motifs present in the amino terminus of the protein. (
  • Abatacept binds CD80 and CD86 on antigen presenting cells (APCs), blocking interaction with CD28 on T lymphocytes, which initiates a co-stimulatory signal required for full activation of T lymphocytes. (
  • Purification of recombinant G proteins from Sf9 cells by hexahistidine tagging of associated subunits. (
  • G protein beta gamma subunits. (
  • G proteins are heterotrimers of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. (
  • Such structures correspond to aqueous pores formed by hexamerization of subunits of two topologically related vertebrate protein families commonly referred to as "gap junction-type proteins": connexins (Cxs) and pannexins (Panxs). (
  • Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) subunit beta-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GNB1 gene . (
  • Fragment containing α 1 1.2-subunit (745-892) was subcloned in pGBKT7 vector (Clontech Laboratories, Palo Alto, CA) as a Myc-tagged protein. (
  • These proteins all are regulated in the same manner and appear to differ largely in their sites of action within the cell. (
  • Instead of triggering cell growth in response to particular signals from outside the cell, the overactive protein directs cells to grow and divide constantly. (
  • The altered HRAS protein is permanently activated within the cell. (
  • Ab fragments expressed in the appropriate cell compartment may also help to elucidate the functions of a protein of interest. (
  • Plant Cell Wall Proteins: A Large Body of Data, but What about Runaways? (
  • Plant cell wall proteomics is a tricky field of research, since proteins are not only minor components of plant cell walls, but are also trapped in complex networks of polysaccharides with which they can interact. (
  • Cell wall proteins (CWPs) are the "blue collar workers," modifying cell wall components and customizing them to confer appropriate properties to cell walls [ 6 ]. (
  • Thus, a large variety of proteins are present in cell walls [ 10 ]. (
  • In dividing Drosophila neural progenitors the apical-basal orientation of the mitotic spindle, the basal cortical localization of the cell fate determinants Numb and/or Prospero as well as the coordination of these events are mediated by several proteins which include Bazooka (Baz), Inscuteable (Insc) and Partner of Inscuteable (Pins) which localize as an apical cortical complex starting at interphase. (
  • Members of this family share a common protein fold and have diverse functions, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell signalling, glycoprotein turnover, and roles in inflammation and immune response. (
  • The encoded type 2 transmembrane protein may play a role in dendritic cell function. (
  • C-peptide was found to be a functional mitogen in this cell type stimulating significantly increased cell proliferation. (
  • Stimulation with 300ng/ml TNF-a for 24 hours resulted in significant reduction of cell viability which was reversed by pretreatment with C-peptide. (
  • C-peptide increased [35S]-GTPyS binding to Ga* in OK cell membranes. (
  • Also, these findings provide mechanistic insight into how GV1001 peptide causes anti-inflammatory actions in LPS-stimulated pulpitis without significantly affecting cell viability. (
  • Dense granule (GRA) proteins are secreted, at high levels shortly after host cell invasion and then constitutively at a lower level thereafter. (
  • Here, we have isolated a 12-aa peptide from soybean ( Glycine max ) leaves that causes a pH increase of soybean suspension-cultured cell media within 10 min at low nanomolar concentrations, a response that is typical of other endogenous peptide elicitors and pathogen-derived elicitors. (
  • These elicitors can be of a heterogeneous nature, such as cutin monomers or cell wall fragments of various sizes ( 2 - 4 ), which exist in all plant species, or they can be a more specific, fine-tuned signal, such as endogenous peptide signals, which may be limited to a single phylogenetic family, coevolving with a specific predator ( 5 - 7 ). (
  • These signals include bacterial peptide fragments, such as flg22 and elf18 ( 8 , 9 ), fungal peptide elicitors, such as Pep13, AVR9, and elicitins ( 10 - 12 ), chitin fragments from fungal cell walls ( 13 ), and the heptaglucoside elicitor from the oomycete Phytophtora megasperma ( 3 ). (
  • The main argument of this book is that cell signalling via nerves, hormones, local mediators and growth factors are not distinct phenomena, but branches of one general mechanism and should therefore be studied in an integrated manner. (
  • The first two chapters introduce the general concepts of intracellular signalling and also cover the topic of direct cell-to-cell communication by cytoplasmic bridges (gap junctions). (
  • Introduction - cell-to-cell signalling by bridges: why do cells need to communicate? (
  • This is the first report on a plasmodial WD40-repeat protein associating with cell adhesion proteins. (
  • Protein complexes are formed by two or more non-covalently bound proteins mutually supportive in distinct cell functions. (
  • Protein complexes are crucial for most cell biological processes and among others function in establishing cell-cell contacts. (
  • Integrins interact with extracellular matrix (ECM) and deliver intracellular signaling for cell proliferation, survival, and motility. (
  • The T-cell receptor (TCR)-CD3 complex, which is expressed on T-cell membranes, is capable of integrating and transducing signals engaged by peptide-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) complexes expressed on antigen-presenting cells (APCs) [2]. (
  • The receptor dimer is activated and initiates signaling within the cell. (
  • A major hurdle for success of efforts to discover tissue- and/or cell-derived changes in the blood plasma protein profile has been the fact that blood plasma is extremely complex, consisting of minimally tens of thousands of different molecular species that span a concentration range of at least 10 orders of magnitude ( 5 ). (
  • In an attempt to bridge this gap and to reach into the concentration range of the desirable tissue-derived proteins in plasma, we have developed methods for high throughput and in depth analysis of cell surface proteins, secreted proteins, and plasma proteins. (
  • These approaches are based on the observation that most cell surface and secreted proteins are glycosylated and that disease-associated glycoproteins, either secreted by cells, shed from their surfaces, or otherwise released, are likely to enter into the blood stream and thus represent a rich source of potential disease markers. (
  • Each cell within plants, animals, and fungi, contains a protein skeleton that helps to stabilize it. (
  • The grafted MCoTI-II peptides were cytotoxic to a cancer cell line and showed high stability in human serum. (
  • We demonstrate that protein A of Staphylococcus aureus , a B cell superantigen, is released with peptidoglycan linked to its C terminus. (
  • Staphylococcal protein A (SpA) is anchored to the cell wall envelope of Staphylococcus aureus by sortase A, which links the threonyl (T) of its C-terminal LPXTG motif to peptidoglycan cross-bridges (i.e. (
  • Cell wall-anchored surface proteins are synthesized as precursors with N-terminal signal peptides and C-terminal LPXTG motif sorting signals ( 9 ). (
  • Surface proteins with canonical signal peptides are secreted and immobilized to peptidoglycan near the cell poles of dividing staphylococci ( 14 ). (
  • Events within the cell that occur in response to a signal, different cell types can respond differently to the same signal. (
  • Signals released from a cell have an effect on neighboring cells. (
  • These improvements result in the routine detection of more than 23,000 diGly peptides from human cervical cancer cells (HeLa) cell lysates upon proteasome inhibition in the cell. (
  • Because of the multifaceted roles of protein ubiquitination in the cell, there is a great demand for the development of analytical methods for the detection of ubiquitination sites on proteins 8 . (
  • The pancreatic β-cell is a typical endocrine cell in which exocytosis of insulin-containing vesicles is regulated by a variety of intracellular signals. (
  • The leader peptide also guides the export of the formed lanthionine-containing precursor peptide out of Gram-positive bacteria via a lanthipeptide transporter. (
  • Most of the mitochondrial and chloroplast proteins are nuclear encoded and synthesized as precursor proteins containing an N-terminal targeting peptide. (
  • IL-1α is produced as a biologically active 31 kDa precursor, which undergoes proteolytic cleavage yielding a 17 kDa protein of 159 amino acids. (
  • [1] Activation and deactivation of small GTPases can be regarded as occurring in a cycle, between the GTP-bound and GDP-bound form, regulated by other regulatory proteins. (
  • Furthermore, LNO(2) triggered nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) nuclear translocation and activation of the antioxidant-responsive element-driven transcriptional activity via impairing Kelch-like ECH-associating protein 1 (Keap1)-mediated negative control of Nrf2 activity in VSMCs. (
  • Motoneurons resistant to Fas activation expressed high levels of FLICE-inhibitory protein (FLIP), an endogenous inhibitor of caspase-8 activation. (
  • Intracellular events in platelet activation induced by antiphospholipid antibodies in the presence of low doses of thrombin. (
  • The intracellular events involved in aPL-mediated platelet activation are not fully understood and are therefore the subject of this study. (
  • GW9662, an irreversible PPARy antagonist, blocked PPARy activation by ciglitazone, but had no effect on C-peptide-stimulated PPARy activity. (
  • The protective effects of C-peptide were associated with activation of nuclear factor kB (NFkB) and increased expression of TNF receptor-associated factor 2, the product of an NFkB-dependent survival gene. (
  • The initial expansion of naive autoreactive T cells requires activation of the TCR by MHC-bound peptides or CD1-bound lipids/glycolipids. (
  • The most potent grafted MCoTI-II peptide inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated activation of NF-B in murine macrophages. (
  • GTPase HRas also known as transforming protein p21 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the HRAS gene . (
  • Each of these mutations changes an amino acid in a critical region of the HRAS protein. (
  • this mutation substitutes one protein building block (amino acid) for another amino acid in the HRAS protein. (
  • A 34 amino acid synthetic analog of human parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) (PTHrP(1-34) analog), with bone-growing and bone density conserving activities. (
  • The contents of the epididymal lumen are constantly changing due to ion transport across the epithelium and protein secretion into the epididymal lumen. (
  • The insect host defense involves synthesis of antimicrobial peptides by the fat body and secretion into the hemolymph ( 1 ). (
  • Here we show that SCIMP, an immune-restricted, transmembrane adaptor protein (TRAP), promotes selective proinflammatory cytokine responses by direct modulation of TLR4. (
  • Based on previous observations in yeast, we propose that N4WBP5 may act as an adaptor for Nedd4-like proteins and their putative targets to control ubiquitin-dependent protein sorting and trafficking. (
  • Molecular chaperones assist protein import. (
  • Intracellular protein transport: signal peptides, molecular chaperones, proteolysis - connection to Alzheimer's disease. (
  • These mutations lead to an HRAS protein that is always active and can direct cells to grow and divide without control. (
  • Taken together, GEN suppressed EMT and migration capacities of BG-1 ovarian cancer cells enhanced by E2, BPA, and NP via ER signaling and the downregulation of TGF-β signal. (
  • Efficiently targets ligand into antigen-processing and peptide-loading compartments for presentation to T-cells (PubMed:11748283). (
  • C-peptide induced transient increase in [Ca2+]i but the response of cells was variable. (
  • Incubation of cells with 300ng/ml TNF-a for 24 hours induced apoptosis, but C-peptide pr-etreatment protected against TNF-a induced apoptosis. (
  • Loss of function mutations occurring in chromosome 22q, where Merlin proteins are coded, can promote tumorigenesis, or the creation of new tumorous cells. (
  • Sekido, Y. (2011) Inactivation of Merlin in Malignant Mesothelioma Cells and the Hippo Signaling Cascade Dysregulation. (
  • Cells also signal through gap junctions. (
  • The immune response in vertebrates also involves paracrine signaling between immune cells. (
  • 4. Synaptic signaling- In animals, the cells of the nervous system provide rapid communication with distant cells. (
  • Where paracrine signals move through the fluid between cells, neuro-transmitters cross the synaptic gap and persist only briefly. (
  • An increase in the intracellular Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ) is the primary signal in most secretory cells. (
  • They recognize their target peptides in extended β -sheet conformations with very regular binding topologies. (
  • Rief and Junker used mechanical force - actually pulling on complexes of calmodulin and the target peptides at rates of 1 nanometer per second or less - to slow down the processes to observable time scales and to clearly separate the individual unbinding steps. (
  • Amyloid-β peptide induces mitochondrial dysfunction by inhibition of preprotein maturation. (
  • Shredding the signal: targeting peptide degradation in mitochondria and chloroplasts. (
  • Import determinants of organelle-specific and dual targeting peptides of mitochondria and chloroplasts in Arabidopsis thaliana. (
  • This gene uses alternative polyadenylation signals. (
  • This gene encodes a member of the four-and-a-half-LIM-only protein family. (
  • What does this gene/protein do? (
  • Tumorigenesis is frequently associated with activating mutations in β-catenin gene inducing nuclear expression of β-catenin protein. (
  • Calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR), receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1), and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) immunoreactivity in the rat trigeminovascular system: differences between peripheral and central CGRP receptor distribution. (
  • PELI1 (Pellino E3 Ubiquitin Protein Ligase 1) is a Protein Coding gene. (
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include ligase activity and ubiquitin-protein transferase activity . (
  • The product of NF2 gene is merlin (moesinezrin- radixin-like protein), a member of the Band 4.1 superfamily proteins. (
  • CLEC4C (C-Type Lectin Domain Family 4 Member C) is a Protein Coding gene. (
  • NF2 is caused by inactivating mutations in the NF2 gene located at 22q12.2 of chromosome 22, type of mutations vary and include protein-truncating alterations (frameshift deletions/insertions and nonsense mutations), splice-site mutations, missense mutations and others. (
  • Indeed, the spaetzle/Toll/tube/pelle/cactus gene cassette controls the expression of the antifungal peptide drosomycin ( 3 ). (
  • Professor David Lambert from the University of Leicester's Department of Cardiovascular Sciences contributed to the review, which has been largely written by the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (IUPHAR) subcommittee, to pull together the vast literature on Urotensin II (UII), a peptide first isolated from teleost fish. (
  • Lang R, Gundlach AL, Kofler B. The galanin peptide family: receptor pharmacology, pleiotropic biological actions, and implications in health and disease. (
  • In the last decade, advances in protein engineering, crystallization methods and X-ray crystallography techniques have allowed the determination of more than 150 crystal structures of 40 different GPCRs in complex with ligands of varied pharmacology, peptides and with other proteins. (
  • It is present at the NH2-terminus of proteins that often contain consensus sequences for binding to clathrin coat components and their accessory factors, and therefore function as endocytic adaptors. (
  • Relatively few endogenous peptide defense signals have been isolated thus far. (
  • These peptides are used as an internal calibration curve to accurately quantify endogenous peptides and corresponding proteins in a pooled platelet reference sample by nanoLC-MS/MS with parallel reaction monitoring. (
  • Subsequently, a mix of stable isotope-labeled peptides of interesting biomarker proteins in concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 100 fmol is added to 3 μg digest. (
  • Here we provide evidence that such tissue-derived proteins are both present and detectable in plasma via direct mass spectrometric analysis of captured glycopeptides and thus provide a conceptual basis for plasma protein biomarker discovery and analysis. (
  • A released signal molecule that remains in the extracellular fluid may enter the organism's circulatory system and travel widely throughout the body. (