Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A subfamily of Q-SNARE PROTEINS which occupy the same position as syntaxin 1A in the SNARE complex and which also are most similar to syntaxin 1A in their AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. This subfamily is also known as the syntaxins, although a few so called syntaxins are Qc-SNARES.
A superfamily of small proteins which are involved in the MEMBRANE FUSION events, intracellular protein trafficking and secretory processes. They share a homologous SNARE motif. The SNARE proteins are divided into subfamilies: QA-SNARES; QB-SNARES; QC-SNARES; and R-SNARES. The formation of a SNARE complex (composed of one each of the four different types SNARE domains (Qa, Qb, Qc, and R)) mediates MEMBRANE FUSION. Following membrane fusion SNARE complexes are dissociated by the NSFs (N-ETHYLMALEIMIDE-SENSITIVE FACTORS), in conjunction with SOLUBLE NSF ATTACHMENT PROTEIN, i.e., SNAPs (no relation to SNAP 25.)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that play a key role in cellular secretory and endocytic pathways. EC 3.6.1.-.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A family of proteins involved in intracellular membrane trafficking. They interact with SYNTAXINS and play important roles in vesicular docking and fusion during EXOCYTOSIS. Their name derives from the fact that they are related to Unc-18 protein, C elegans.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
SNARE proteins where the central amino acid residue of the SNARE motif is an ARGININE. They are classified separately from the Q-SNARE PROTEINS where the central amino acid residue of the SNARE motif is a GLUTAMINE. This subfamily contains the vesicle associated membrane proteins (VAMPs) based on similarity to the prototype for the R-SNAREs, VAMP2 (synaptobrevin 2).
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A family of RNA viruses infecting insects and fish. There are two genera: Alphanodavirus and Betanodavirus.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Membrane-limited structures derived from the plasma membrane or various intracellular membranes which function in storage, transport or metabolism.
A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A neuronal cell membrane protein that combines with SNAP-25 and SYNAPTOBREVIN 2 to form a SNARE complex that leads to EXOCYTOSIS.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A subfamily of Q-SNARE PROTEINS which occupy the same position in the SNARE complex as the C-terminal SNARE domain of SNAP-25 and which also are most similar to the C-terminal region of SNAP-25 in their AMINO ACID SEQUENCE.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
ATPases that are members of the AAA protein superfamily (ATPase family Associated with various cellular Activities). The NSFs functions, acting in conjunction with SOLUBLE NSF ATTACHMENT PROTEINS (i.e. SNAPs, which have no relation to SNAP 25), are to dissociate SNARE complexes.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that were initially recognized as allosteric activators of the MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE of the CHOLERA TOXIN catalytic subunit. They are involved in vesicle trafficking and activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE D. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A ubiquitous target SNARE protein that interacts with SYNTAXIN and SYNAPTOBREVIN. It is a core component of the machinery for intracellular MEMBRANE FUSION. The sequence contains 2 SNARE domains, one is the prototype for the Qb-SNARES, and the other is the prototype for the Qc-SNARES.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A subfamily of Q-SNARE PROTEINS which occupy the same position in the SNARE complex as the N-terminal SNARE domain of SNAP-25 and which also are most similar to the N-terminal region of SNAP-25 in their AMINO ACID SEQUENCE.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A saturated 14-carbon fatty acid occurring in most animal and vegetable fats, particularly butterfat and coconut, palm, and nutmeg oils. It is used to synthesize flavor and as an ingredient in soaps and cosmetics. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in transport from the cell membrane to early endosomes. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 is involved in regulating intracellular transport by modulating the interaction of coat proteins with organelle membranes in the early secretory pathway. It is a component of COAT PROTEIN COMPLEX I. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments.
A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.
A carboxypeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal amino acid with a broad specificity. It also plays a role in the LYSOSOMES by protecting BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and NEURAMINIDASE from degradation. It was formerly classified as EC 3.4.12.1 and EC 3.4.21.13.
An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
A member of the vesicle associated membrane protein family. It has a broad tissue distribution and is involved in MEMBRANE FUSION events of the endocytic pathways.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
The main structural coat protein of COATED VESICLES which play a key role in the intracellular transport between membranous organelles. Each molecule of clathrin consists of three light chains (CLATHRIN LIGHT CHAINS) and three heavy chains (CLATHRIN HEAVY CHAINS) that form a structure called a triskelion. Clathrin also interacts with cytoskeletal proteins.
A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are sorted for transport to various locations in the cell or cell membrane.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
SNARE binding proteins that facilitate the ATP hydrolysis-driven dissociation of the SNARE complex. They are required for the binding of N-ETHYLMALEIMIDE-SENSITIVE PROTEIN (NSF) to the SNARE complex which also stimulates the ATPASE activity of NSF. They are unrelated structurally to SNAP-25 PROTEIN.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Cation-transporting proteins that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis for the transport of CALCIUM. They differ from CALCIUM CHANNELS which allow calcium to pass through a membrane without the use of energy.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Phosphatidylinositols in which one or more alcohol group of the inositol has been substituted with a phosphate group.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Structures which are part of the CELL MEMBRANE or have cell membrane as a major part of their structure.
14-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A ubiquitously expressed glucose transporter that is important for constitutive, basal GLUCOSE transport. It is predominately expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and ERYTHROCYTES at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and is responsible for GLUCOSE entry into the BRAIN.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
A cytosolic phospholipase A2 group that plays an important role in the release of free ARACHIDONIC ACID, which in turn is metabolized to PROSTAGLANDINS by the CYCLOOXYGENASE pathway and to LEUKOTRIENES by the 5-LIPOXYGENASE pathway.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.
Functionally and structurally differentiated, purple-pigmented regions of the cytoplasmic membrane of some strains of Halobacterium halobium. The membrane develops under anaerobic conditions and is made almost entirely of the purple pigment BACTERIORHODOPSINS. (From Singleton & Sainsbury Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the oxidation of NADH to NAD. In eukaryotes the enzyme can be found as a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex I. Under experimental conditions the enzyme can use CYTOCHROME C GROUP as the reducing cofactor. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 1.6.2.1.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.
Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.

Polarized distribution of Bcr-Abl in migrating myeloid cells and co-localization of Bcr-Abl and its target proteins. (1/8077)

Bcr-Abl plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemia. Although a large number of substrates and interacting proteins of Bcr-Abl have been identified, it remains unclear whether Bcr-Abl assembles multi-protein complexes and if it does where these complexes are within cells. We have investigated the localization of Bcr-Abl in 32D myeloid cells attached to the extracellular matrix. We have found that Bcr-Abl displays a polarized distribution, colocalizing with a subset of filamentous actin at trailing portions of migrating 32D cells, and localizes on the cortical F-actin and on vesicle-like structures in resting 32D cells. Deletion of the actin binding domain of Bcr-Abl (Bcr-AbI-AD) dramatically enhances the localization of Bcr-Abl on the vesicle-like structures. These distinct localization patterns of Bcr-Abl and Bcr-Abl-AD enabled us to examine the localization of Bcr-Abl substrate and interacting proteins in relation to Bcr-Abl. We found that a subset of biochemically defined target proteins of Bcr-Abl redistributed and co-localized with Bcr-Abl on F-actin and on vesicle-like structures. The co-localization of signaling proteins with Bcr-Abl at its sites of localization supports the idea that Bcr-Abl forms a multi-protein signaling complex, while the polarized distribution and vesicle-like localization of Bcr-Abl may play a role in leukemogenesis.  (+info)

Augmentation is a potentiation of the exocytotic process. (2/8077)

Short-term synaptic enhancement is caused by an increase in the probability with which synaptic terminals release transmitter in response to presynaptic action potentials. Since exocytosed vesicles are drawn from a readily releasable pool of packaged transmitter, enhancement must result either from an increase in the size of the pool or an elevation in the fraction of releasable vesicles that undergoes exocytosis with each action potential. We show here that at least one major component of enhancement, augmentation, is not caused by an increase in the size of the readily releasable pool but is instead associated with an increase in the efficiency with which action potentials induce the exocytosis of readily releasable vesicles.  (+info)

Nitric oxide modulates endothelin 1-induced Ca2+ mobilization and cytoskeletal F-actin filaments in human cerebromicrovascular endothelial cells. (3/8077)

A functional interrelation between nitric oxide (NO), the endothelial-derived vasodilating factor, and endothelin 1 (ET-1), the potent vasoconstrictive peptide, was investigated in microvascular endothelium of human brain. Nor-1 dose-dependently decreased the ET-1-stimulated mobilization of Ca2+. This response was mimicked with cGMP and abrogated by inhibitors of guanylyl cyclase or cGMP-dependent protein kinase G. These findings indicate that NO and ET-1 interactions involved in modulation of intracellular Ca2+ are mediated by cGMP/protein kinase G. In addition, Nor-1-mediated effects were associated with rearrangements of cytoskeleton F-actin filaments. The results suggest mechanisms by which NO-ET-1 interactions may contribute to regulation of microvascular function.  (+info)

Suppression of atherosclerotic development in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits treated with an oral antiallergic drug, tranilast. (4/8077)

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory and immunological responses of vascular cells have been shown to play a significant role in the progression of atheromatous formation. Tranilast [N-(3,4-dimethoxycinnamoyl) anthranillic acid] inhibits release of cytokines and chemical mediators from various cells, including macrophages, leading to suppression of inflammatory and immunological responses. This study tested whether tranilast may suppress atheromatous formation in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits. METHODS AND RESULTS: WHHL rabbits (2 months old) were given either 300 mg x kg-1 x d-1 of tranilast (Tranilast, n=12) or vehicle (Control, n=13) PO for 6 months. Tranilast treatment was found to suppress the aortic area covered with plaque. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that there was no difference in the percentage of the RAM11-positive macrophage area and the frequency of CD5-positive cells (T cells) in intimal plaques between Tranilast and Control. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression in macrophages and interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor expression in T cells, as markers of the immunological activation in these cells, was suppressed in atheromatous plaque by tranilast treatment. Flow cytometry analysis of isolated human and rabbit peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed that an increase in expression both of MHC class II antigen on monocytes by incubation with interferon-gamma and of IL-2 receptor on T cells by IL-2 was suppressed by the combined incubation with tranilast. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that tranilast suppresses atherosclerotic development partly through direct inhibition of immunological activation of monocytes/macrophages and T cells in the atheromatous plaque.  (+info)

Adenoviral gene transfer of the human V2 vasopressin receptor improves contractile force of rat cardiomyocytes. (5/8077)

BACKGROUND: In congestive heart failure, high systemic levels of the hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP) result in vasoconstriction and reduced cardiac contractility. These effects are mediated by the V1 vasopressin receptor (V1R) coupled to phospholipase C beta-isoforms. The V2 vasopressin receptor (V2R), which promotes activation of the Gs/adenylyl cyclase system, is physiologically expressed in the kidney but not in the myocardium. Expression of a recombinant V2R (rV2R) in the myocardium could result in a positive inotropic effect via the endogenous high concentrations of AVP in heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: A recombinant adenovirus encoding the human V2R (Ad-V2R) was tested for its ability to modulate the cardiac Gs/adenylyl cyclase system and to potentiate contractile force in rat ventricular cardiomyocytes and in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. Ad-V2R infection resulted in a virus concentration-dependent expression of the transgene and led to a marked increase in cAMP formation in rV2R-expressing cardiomyocytes after exposure to AVP. Single-cell shortening measurements showed a significant agonist-induced contraction amplitude enhancement, which was blocked by the V2R antagonist, SR 121463A. Pretreatment of Ad-V2R-infected cardiomyocytes with AVP led to desensitization of the rV2R after short-term agonist exposure but did not lead to further loss of receptor function or density after long-term agonist incubation, thus demonstrating resistance of the rV2R to downregulation. CONCLUSIONS: Adenoviral gene transfer of the V2R in cardiomyocytes can modulate the endogenous adenylyl cyclase-signal transduction cascade and can potentiate contraction amplitude in cardiomyocytes. Heterologous expression of cAMP-forming receptors in the myocardium could lead to novel strategies in congestive heart failure by bypassing the desensitized beta-adrenergic receptor signaling.  (+info)

Role of hypoxia-induced Bax translocation and cytochrome c release in reoxygenation injury. (6/8077)

We investigated mechanisms of cell death during hypoxia/reoxygenation of cultured kidney cells. During glucose-free hypoxia, cell ATP levels declined steeply resulting in the translocation of Bax from cytosol to mitochondria. Concurrently, there was cytochrome c release and caspase activation. Cells that leaked cytochrome c underwent apoptosis after reoxygenation. ATP depletion induced by a mitochondrial uncoupler resulted in similar alterations even in the presence of oxygen. Moreover, inclusion of glucose during hypoxia prevented protein translocations and reoxygenation injury by maintaining intracellular ATP. Thus, ATP depletion, rather than hypoxia per se, was the cause of protein translocations. Overexpression of Bcl-2 prevented cytochrome c release and reoxygenation injury without ameliorating ATP depletion or Bax translocation. On the other hand, caspase inhibitors did not prevent protein translocations, but inhibited apoptosis during reoxygenation. Nevertheless, they could not confer long-term viability, since mitochondria had been damaged. Omission of glucose during reoxygenation resulted in continued failure of ATP production, and cell death with necrotic morphology. In contrast, cells expressing Bcl-2 had functional mitochondria and remained viable during reoxygenation even without glucose. Therefore, Bax translocation during hypoxia is a molecular trigger for cell death during reoxygenation. If ATP is available during reoxygenation, apoptosis develops; otherwise, death occurs by necrosis. By preserving mitochondrial integrity, BCL-2 prevents both forms of cell death and ensures cell viability.  (+info)

Syntaxin 11 is associated with SNAP-23 on late endosomes and the trans-Golgi network. (7/8077)

SNARE proteins are known to play a role in regulating intracellular protein transport between donor and target membranes. This docking and fusion process involves the interaction of specific vesicle-SNAREs (e.g. VAMP) with specific cognate target-SNAREs (e.g. syntaxin and SNAP-23). Using human SNAP-23 as the bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen of a human B-lymphocyte cDNA library, we have identified the 287-amino-acid SNARE protein syntaxin 11. Like other syntaxin family members, syntaxin 11 binds to the SNARE proteins VAMP and SNAP-23 in vitro and also exists in a complex with SNAP-23 in transfected HeLa cells and in native human B lymphocytes. Unlike other syntaxin family members, no obvious transmembrane domain is present in syntaxin 11. Nevertheless, syntaxin 11 is predominantly membrane-associated and colocalizes with the mannose 6-phosphate receptor on late endosomes and the trans-Golgi network. These data suggest that syntaxin 11 is a SNARE that acts to regulate protein transport between late endosomes and the trans-Golgi network in mammalian cells.  (+info)

The yeast dynamin-like protein, Mgm1p, functions on the mitochondrial outer membrane to mediate mitochondrial inheritance. (8/8077)

The mdm17 mutation causes temperature-dependent defects in mitochondrial inheritance, mitochondrial morphology, and the maintenance of mitochondrial DNA in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Defects in mitochondrial transmission to daughter buds and changes in mitochondrial morphology were apparent within 30 min after shifting cells to 37 degrees C, while loss of the mitochondrial genome occurred after 4-24 h at the elevated temperature. The mdm17 lesion mapped to MGM1, a gene encoding a dynamin-like GTPase previously implicated in mitochondrial genome maintenance, and the cloned MGM1 gene complements all of the mdm17 mutant phenotypes. Cells with an mgm1-null mutation displayed aberrant mitochondrial inheritance and morphology. A version of mgm1 mutated in a conserved residue in the putative GTP-binding site was unable to complement any of the mutant defects. It also caused aberrant mitochondrial distribution and morphology when expressed at high levels in cells that also contained a wild-type copy of the gene. Mgm1p was localized to the mitochondrial outer membrane and fractionated as a component of a high molecular weight complex. These results indicate that Mgm1p is a mitochondrial inheritance and morphology component that functions on the mitochondrial surface.  (+info)

TY - CHAP. T1 - Introduction: Regulatory processes, an emerging feature in intracellular membrane traffic. AU - Keränen, Sirkka. AU - Jäntti, Jussi. PY - 2004. Y1 - 2004. N2 - The subject of this volume is the molecular mechanism of the intracellular membrane trafficking, a central eukaryotic cell biological process. In the post genomic era, essential molecules involved in intracellular membrane/protein transport are emerging with increasing pace. The present challenge is to compile the molecular networks that govern these processes. Understanding of regulatory processes and participating molecules are likely to reveal global cellular regulatory circuits that couple membrane trafficking with other cellular functions. The part of the membrane transport machinery, which forms stabile protein complexes is rather well known already. However, the regulatory mechanisms that link these more stabile complexes to other cellular functions are only starting to emerge. This book focuses on the regulatory ...
We have developed a simple method for synchronizing L929 mouse fibroblasts. Cultured as monolayers, these cells stop growing at confluency and arrest at the end of the G1 phase. Upon seeding at low density, they enter the S phase simultaneously. Using these cells we then looked at the evolution of the surface membrane area during the cell cycle using the fluorescence membrane probe TMA-DPH. In contact with cells, this probe partitions between the membrane (probe fluorescent) and the external medium (non-fluorescent), delivering a signal proportional to the membrane area. This area was constant until just before mitosis, when it increased at once. With the same probe as an endocytic marker, we examined how this membrane homeostasis could be consistent with intracellular membrane trafficking. The study was limited to one selected period of the cell cycle (6-9 hours). We observed that 14% of the membrane endocytosed was not recycled, but was replaced at the cell surface by newly formed membrane ...
As shown in figure 1, the inner membrane behaves like a closed elastic sheet that deforms as a two-dimensional object. This sheet fits within the outer membrane and has three-dimensional aspects, but it is expected that the mechanics should be described well with a two-dimensional model. In this study, we develop a two-dimensional Cartesian model of a mitochondrion where we hold the outer membrane as a rigid confining surface and focus on the shape of the inner membrane. The inner membrane is characterized by a tension β that encloses a volume of fluid V (intermembrane space) with pressure p. The interactions between the inner membrane and outer membrane are modelled using a general confining pressure that prevents the inner membrane from penetrating the outer surface. Our idealized model for the observed confinement (outer membrane) geometry should reproduce the essential feature of the interaction, especially in the limiting case having a large number of folds.. Biological ...
Author: Gebert, N. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2011-12-09; Open Access; Title: Dual function of Sdh3 in the respiratory chain and TIM22 protein translocase of the mitochondrial inner membrane.
This gene encodes a member of the evolutionarily conserved TIMM (translocase of inner mitochondrial membrane) family of proteins that function as chaperones in the import of proteins from the cytoplasm into the mitochondrial inner membrane. Proteins of this family play a role in collecting substrate proteins from the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM) complex and delivering them to either the sorting and assembly machinery in the outer mitochondrial membrane (SAM) complex or the TIMM22 complex in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The encoded protein and the translocase of mitochondrial inner membrane 8a protein form a 70 kDa complex in the intermembrane space. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013 ...
Whilst investigating whether GTP hydrolysis may be required for the import of preproteins into mitochondria we have found that a GTP-binding protein is located at the contact sites between mitochondrial inner and outer membranes. When mitochondrial outer membranes purified from rat liver were UV-irradiated in the presence of [alpha-32P]GTP, a 52 kDa protein was radiolabelled, whereas [alpha-32P]ATP did not label this protein. GTP-binding proteins were also labelled in the cytosolic and microsomal fractions, but the 52 kDa protein was concentrated in mitochondrial membranes and was the only protein specifically labelled by GTP in these membranes. Fractionation of mitochondrial membrane vesicles into outer membranes, inner membranes and contact sites between outer and inner membranes showed that the GTP-binding activity was highly enriched in contact sites, the location at which preprotein import is believed to occur. A protein of almost identical size was also found to be labelled in mitochondria ...
Physical fixation by rapid freezing followed by freeze-fracture and deep-etching has provided the means for potentially seeing the three-dimensional arrangement in the native state of particles on mitochondrial inner membranes. We have used these techniques to study the tubular cristae of Paramecium in the hope of determining the arrangement of F1 complexes, their abundance, and location in the membranes. We also sought information regarding other respiratory complexes in these membranes. Our results, supported by stereo pairs, show that F1 complexes are arranged as a double row of particles spaced at 12 nm along each row as a zipper following the full length of the outer curve of the helically shaped tubular cristae. There are an average of 1,500 highly ordered F1 complexes per micrometer squared of 50-nm tubular cristae surface. The F1 complexes definitely lie outside the membranes in their native state. Other particle subsets, also nonrandomly arrayed, were seen. One such population located ...
Physiology and structure of cell membrane depend on the proportion of lipids, proteins and carbohydrates. They change according to the cell type and membrane location. For example, plasma membrane of erythrocytes contain 50 % of lipids, 40 % of proteins and 10 % of carbohydrates. A similar composition is found in most of the plasma membranes of other cell types, with some exceptions. Myelin, cell membrane of glial cells that wraps axons, is composed of 80 % of lipids and 20 % of proteins, and almost no carbohydrates. Intracellular membranes usually show a higher proportion of proteins than plasma membrane. A remarkable example is the inner mitochondrial membrane, where proteins are up to 80 %. Furthermore, lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates are diverse, and membranes do not only differ in the proportion of these three molecular groups, but also in the different types of lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates that are present. Moreover, as mentioned above, membranes are continuously recycled, and ...
Simply waiting for 25% of a plastic cannula to be curative, but days rather complex and behavioural disturbances of the crease! It is not a general preventative, but a drug used to address specific bouts and disturbances of a cardiovascular nature? There is a lot less documentation with non-prescription products and this one is relatively new, regretfully clindamycin topical gel cost so we didnt find much on it. IP3 binds to specific receptors on intracellular membranes, resulting in the release of intracellular calcium, which is rapidly augmented by an influx of extracellular calcium! During the past year, arava border human and animal studies conducted in Egypt and Canada by 2 different groups of investigators have suggested a possible role for the intra-cavernosal injection of BoNT-A in the treatment of ED. 1 - 3 One important mechanism is the production of beta-lactamases, soon cost of aygestin which are enzymes that cleave the beta-lactam ring. Clavulanate binds to bacterial beta-lactamase ...
Recombinant Translocase of Outer Mitochondrial Membrane 22 Homolog (Yeast) (TOMM22) Protein (rho-1D4 tag). Species: Human. Source: Insect Cells. Order product ABIN3074708.
Catalyzes the removal of transit peptides required for the targeting of proteins from the mitochondrial matrix, across the inner membrane, into the inter-membrane space. Known to process the nuclear encoded protein DIABLO.
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Eva Wagner is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Analysis of Tubular Membrane Networks in Cardiac Myocytes from Atria and Ventricles
GO Component. integral component of lumenal side of endoplasmic reticulum membrane onclick=removeFacet(GO Component/integral component of lumenal side of endoplasmic reticulum membrane)> GO Component integral component of lumenal side of endoplasmic reticulum membrane ...
Gebert N, Gebert M, Oeljeklaus S, von der Malsburg K, Stroud DA, Kulawiak B, Wirth C, Zahedi RP, Dolezal P, Wiese S, Simon O, Schulze-Specking A, Truscott KN, Sickmann A, Rehling P, Guiard B, Hunte C, Warscheid B, van der Laan M, Pfanner N, Wiedemann N: Dual function of Sdh3 in the respiratory chain and TIM22 protein translocase of the mitochondrial inner membrane. Mol Cell, 2011; 44 (5) : 811-818 ...
CLIC1 is an intracellular membrane protein that has an unusual property distinct from typical membrane proteins. It is able to exist in both a soluble and membrane-bound form in cells. The membrane-insertion mechanism ...
The plasmids pcDNA3-PMP34myc and pcDNA3-PEX13myc have been described (Liu et al. 1999; Sacksteder et al. 2000). All PMP34 and PEX13 truncation mutants were generated by amplifying the desired fragment using primers that append the sequence 5′-GGTACCATG-3′ (encoding an Asp718 site and a start codon) at the 5′ end of the fragment, and the sequence 5′-GGATCC-3′ (encoding a BamHI site) at the 3′ end of the fragment, using the published sequences as a guide (Bjorkman et al. 1998; Wylin et al. 1999). PCR products were then digested with Asp718 and BamHI and cloned upstream of, and in frame with, either 3 sequential c-myc epitopes in the plasmid pcDNA3/3xmyc (Geisbrecht et al. 1998) or 13 sequential c-myc epitopes in the plasmid pcDNA3/13xmyc. The plasmid pNHA is designed to append a 17-amino acid hemagglutinin (HA) epitope tag, NH3-MAYPYDVPDYAGGSGSS-COOH, to the NH2 terminus of a protein. The expression vector pNHA-PTE1 was constructed by inserting a BamHI/XbaI fragment of pNmyc-PTE1 ...
Plastids are plant cell organelles that each form an enclosed compartment containing ∼3000 different protein species, depending on the developmental stage and tissue-specific differentiation (Sun et al., 2004; Leister, 2016). While a small fraction of plastid proteins are encoded on the plastid genome, most are encoded on the nuclear genome as preproteins with an N-terminal transit peptide and imported posttranslationally through the translocons at the outer (TOC) and inner (TIC) chloroplast envelope membranes (Jarvis, 2008; Li and Chiu, 2010; Shi and Theg, 2013; Demarsy et al., 2014; Paila et al., 2015). Plastid targeting specificity is conferred by the Toc34 and Toc159 families of TOC receptors in the outer plastid membrane, which can specifically interact with the transit peptides of preproteins. Each preprotein is then threaded through adjacent TOC and TIC channels in the outer and inner envelope membranes. The transit peptide is cleaved off by the stromal processing peptidase when the ...
Most mitochondrial proteins are coded in the nucleus, synthesized in the cytosol as precursors with a cleavable NH2-terminal presequence, and imported into the mitochondria via the general import pathway (Schatz and Dobberstein, 1996; Paschen and Neupert, 2001; Pfanner et al., 2001). This pathway consists of chaperones in the cytosol and two translocons in the inner and outer membrane of mitochondria. The heterooligomeric translocase of outer membrane (TOM)* complex transports the precursor across the outer membrane. In the mitochondrial inner membrane, the translocase of inner membrane (TIM)23 complex facilitates import into the matrix. Tim23p and Tim17p form the pore, and the ATP-dependent import motor consisting of Tim44p, mHsp70, and GrpE provides the driving force for import. After translocation across both membranes, the presequence is generally cleaved and a number of chaperones mediate folding of the mature form of the precursor protein.. Proteins targeted to the mitochondrial inner ...
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Bacterial OMPs are synthesized in the cytosol as precursor proteins with an amino‐terminal signal sequence that guides the proteins to the Sec machinery for crossing the inner membrane and is cleaved off in the periplasm. Periplasmic chaperones then escort OMPs through the aqueous periplasmic space in a partly unfolded state. On reaching the outer membrane, OMPs assemble into a β‐barrel structure and insert into the outer membrane with the help of the BAM complex. The bacterial OMP insertion pathway can be compared to the assembly pathway of MBOMPs from the mitochondrial intermembrane space into the outer membrane. MBOMPs are synthesized in the cytosol and imported into the intermembrane space by the outer membrane translocator TOM40. The subsequent chaperone‐mediated escort across the intermembrane space and insertion into the outer membrane by the TOB complex is similar to the OMP assembly process. Notably, the BAM and TOB complexes share the homologous β‐barrel proteins BamA and ...
The present invention relates to a medical device and method of forming the medical device. In particular, the present invention relates to a medical device having a tubular membrane structure over a radially expandable structural frame, and to a method of forming the tubular membrane on the radially expandable structural frame. In one aspect, a structural frame is placed over a spinning mandrel and a fiber is electro-statically spun over at least a portion of the structural frame forming a membrane. A transfer sheath may be used between the mandrel and structural frame to prevent the electro-statically spun fiber from adhering to the mandrel. In another aspect, a first membrane is spun over the mandrel before the structural frame is placed over the mandrel. In this aspect, at least a portion of the structural frame is sandwiched between the membranes. The membrane or membranes and structural frame form a fiber spun frame assembly. The fiber spun frame assembly may be coated with an elastic polymer. In
Completely surrounding the nucleus, the nuclear envelope sequesters the genomic information of the cell, probably protecting it from the various enzymes and processes that occur within the cytoplasm. It is composed of two concentric membranes, each of which has a distinct protein composition: the outer membrane, which faces the cytoplasm; and the inner membrane, facing the nuclear interior. The inner and outer membranes are separated by the perinuclear space. Both the outer membrane and the perinuclear space are continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum and studded with ribosomes. Any proteins made on the nuclear outer membrane-bound ribosomes drop into the perinuclear space and are transported through the inner membrane into the nucleus. The major transport pathway in and out of the nucleus, however, is thought to be through nuclear pores.. The inner membrane is coated with a mesh-like network of intermediate filaments called the nuclear lamina. Various nuclear structures, including the ...
Protein VP2: Virion. Cytoplasm (Potential). Protein VP3: Virion. Cytoplasm (Potential). Protein VP1: Virion. Cytoplasm (Potential). Protein VP1-2A: Virion. Cytoplasm (Potential). Protein 2B: Cytoplasmic vesicle membrane, Peripheral membrane protein, Cytoplasmic side (Potential). Note=Probably localizes to the surface of intracellular membrane vesicles that are induced after virus infection as the site for viral RNA replication. These vesicles are derived from the endoplasmic reticulum. Protein 2C: Cytoplasmic vesicle membrane, Peripheral membrane protein, Cytoplasmic side (Potential). Note=Probably localizes to the surface of intracellular membrane vesicles that are induced after virus infection as the site for viral RNA replication. These vesicles are derived from the endoplasmic reticulum. May associate with membranes through a N- terminal amphipathic helix. Protein 3ABC: Cytoplasmic vesicle membrane, Peripheral membrane protein, Cytoplasmic side (Potential). Mitochondrion outer membrane, ...
In this study, we showed that LETM1 is a mitochondrial inner-membrane protein with a pre-sequence, which is consistent with recent reports (Dimmer et al., 2007; Hasegawa and van der Bliek, 2007). LETM1 downregulation caused mitochondrial swelling and the loss of tubular networks. The simultaneous knockdown of LETM1 and OPA1 showed that membrane fission is a dominant event, rather than swelling, even when most LETM1 protein had disappeared. Moreover, elongated mitochondria were maintained upon the downregulation of both LETM1 and Drp1, indicating that membrane fusion occurs independently of the loss of LETM1 function. These results strongly suggest that LETM1 is not involved directly in mitochondrial membrane fusion and fission, and imply that the disappearance of the tubular networks in LETM1-knockdown cells is caused by the expansion of the tubular structures. Recent study reported that the silencing together of Drp1 and LETM1 caused the loss of tubular networks, similar to the phenocopy caused ...
Human (Homo sapiens) のGOLM1 (golgi membrane protein 1)遺伝子を含むベクター、レンチウイルス、アデノウイルス、 (AAV) アデノ随伴、アデノ随伴ウイルス、MMLV レトロウイルス,、piggyBac, shRNA、gRNA、 ガイドRNA、 CRISPR-Cas9 、クリスパー、プラスミド
Protein that is physically associated with a membrane, via interactions with lipid headgroups at the membrane surface or with another membrane protein. Peripheral membrane proteins are typically bound to the membrane surface, but may dip slightly into the lipid bilayer. Peripheral membrane protein ...
The recruitment of many cytosolic factors is regulated by the lipid composition but also by the shape of organelles membrane. Ten years ago, we identified in ArfGAP1 a motif of 30 amino-acids termed ALPS that allows this protein to detect the positive curvature of the COPI vesicles at the end of their biogenesis and to trigger the depolymerisation of coat proteins wrapping these vesicles. We found that the ALPS motif folds into a peculiar amphipathic helix whose insertion into membrane depends on defects in lipid-packing induced by curvature. ALPS motifs were next identified in various proteins such as GMAP-210, a membrane tethering factor, or Osh4p, a sterol/PI(4)P exchanger. Different studies illustrated how membrane curvature regulates the activity of these proteins. At a more atomistic level, we gained results that explain why the ALPS motif is so sensitive to lipid-packing defects and membrane curvature. We first indicated that the lack of basic residues in the polar face of the ALPS motif explains
MULAN is a mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) protein with a cytosolic-facing C-terminal RING-finger.A) MULAN colocalizes with MT-RFP/MT-GFP. NIH3T3 cells were
Through innovation, research and development, Koch Membrane Systems has more than 50 years of filtration experience in improving membrane formulations and installing and maintaining membranes for long-term performance, including spiral membranes, hollow-fiber membranes and tubular membranes.
Harsman, A.; Schock, A.; Hemmis, B.; Wahl, V.; Jeshen, I.; Bartsch, P.; Schlereth, A.; Pertl-Obermeyer, H.; Goetze, T.A.; Soll, J. et al.; Philippar, K.; Wagner, R.: OEP40, a regulated glucose-permeable β-barrel solute channel in the chloroplast outer envelope membrane. Journal of Biological Chemistry 291 (34), S. 17848 - 17860 (2016 ...
Timm17a (untagged) - Mouse translocase of inner mitochondrial membrane 17a (Timm17a), nuclear gene encoding mitochondrial protein, (10ug), 10 µg.
Cellular metabolism provides various sources of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in different organelles and compartments. The suitability of H2O2 as an intracellular signaling molecule therefore also depends on its ability to pass cellular membranes. The propensity of the membranous boundary of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to let pass H2O2 has been discussed controversially. In this essay, we challenge the recent proposal that the ER membrane constitutes a simple barrier for H2O2 diffusion and support earlier data showing that (i) ample H2O2 permeability of the ER membrane is a prerequisite for signal transduction, (ii) aquaporin channels are crucially involved in the facilitation of H2O2 permeation, and (iii) a proper experimental framework not prone to artifacts is necessary to further unravel the role of H2O2 permeation in signal transduction and organelle biology ...
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The internal structure of a mitochondrion is not dissimilar to a chloroplast in that both organelles have two membranes. In mitochondria the outer membrane is thought, in effect to be derived from that part of the cell membrane of the eucaryotic cell that formed the vesicle containing the engulfed the visiting bacterium. The inner membrane, now much folded, is thought to be the cell membrane of the engulfed bacteria.. The very folded inner membrane provides a very large surface area on which reactions can take place (a lot of laboratory bench space).. The folds called christae are produced when the membrane folds in from the side. The space bounded by the inner membrane is called the matrix. This contains chemicals and structures including mitochondrial DNA and small ribosomes.. The matrix side of the folded membrane is dotted with structures that resemble ordinary electric light (lamp) bulbs in lamp holders. It is in these protein structures, sometimes called stalked particles, that a flow of ...
C3orf1 localizes to the inner mitochondrial membrane of 95D cells and C3orf1 knockdown affects mitochondria-related functions; (A) Representative images of immu
PCI Membranes - specialists for tubular membrane s - specialises in custom-built crossflow membrane filtration systems for liquid separation in the process industries and is one of the world leading tubular membrane producers
GO:0042775. The transfer of electrons through a series of electron donors and acceptors, generating energy that is ultimately used for synthesis of ATP, as it occurs in the mitochondrial inner membrane or chloroplast thylakoid membrane. ...
Endomembrane System. By Mariah Ghant , Saori Ishizuka, and Monica Lin. Definition. The set of membranes found in eukaryotic cells that carry out a variety of tasks in the cell Tasks include: Synthesis of proteins Protein transport into membranes and organelles out of the cell Slideshow 2030723...
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
VMP1 (vacuole membrane protein 1), Authors: Alejandro Ropolo, Andrea Lo Ré, María Inés Vaccaro. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
The vacuolar membrane is a flexible membrane that encloses the vacuolar, a fluid-filled organelle within plant cells. This sacs are large organelles that are noted to take up 30 to 90 percent of the...
There will be an overview of the endomembrane system and membrane trafficking pathways. The lectures will describe the molecular machinery that is required for formation of membrane carriers, their movement within the cell, and how they fuse with target compartments to deliver their contents. Emphasis will be given to the mechanisms underlying these processes. The secretory and endocytic pathways and their role in health and disease will be covered.. Signalling From Membranes ...
Contact us today for a free consultation with the scientific team and discover how Creative Biogene can be a valuable resource and partner for your organization.. ...
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Krüger, V*, Becker, T*, Becker, L, Montilla-Martinez, M, Ellenrieder, L, Vögtle, FN, Meyer, H, Ryan, M, Wiedemann, N, Warscheid, B, Pfanner, N, Wagner, R and Meisinger, C (2017) Identification of new channels by systematic analysis of the mitochondrial outer membrane. J. Cell Biol. doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201706043 (*equal contribution ...
ATP is synthesized by ATP Synthase, which is an enzyme complex made of a proton-conducting F--0 unit and a catalyst F1 unit. The mitochondrial inner membrane contains the ATP synthesizing enzyme complex called ATP synthase(or) F0 F1-ATPase. (F for factor). F1 component is like a door-knob protruding into the matrix from the inner membrane. It […] ...
Category:Integral membrane proteins The main article for this category is Integral membrane protein. Subcategories Additional recommended knowledge How to
A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of a mitochondrial membrane, either of the lipid bilayer surrounding a mitochondrion. [GOC:ai, GOC:dph, GOC:jl, GOC:mah ...
Cellular processesCellular processesSporulation and germinationsporulation integral membrane protein YlbJ (TIGR02871; HMM-score: 28.4) ...
Transmembrane receptor:E=extracellular space; I=intracellular space; P=plasma membrane. The structures of receptors are very ... Membrane receptors may be isolated from cell membranes by complex extraction procedures using solvents, detergents, and/or ... Intracellular[edit]. Receptor. Ligand. Ion current. cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels. cGMP (vision), cAMP and cGTP ( ... Human plasma membrane receptome. *Cell surface receptors at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
The virus replicates on intracellular lipid membranes.[33] The endoplasmic reticulum in particular is deformed into uniquely ... has been shown to block the assembly of intracellular infectious viral particles without affecting intracellular levels of the ... The hepatitis C virus particle consists of a lipid membrane envelope that is 55 to 65 nm in diameter.[9][10] Two viral envelope ... HCV takes over portions of the intracellular machinery to replicate.[31] The HCV genome is translated to produce a single ...
It locates to intracellular membranes. HGNC:23376 TCDB: 2.A.1.2.30 MFSD14B cluster to AMTF1, together with MFSD9, MFSD10 and ... "Putative Membrane-Bound Transporters MFSD14A and MFSD14B Are Neuronal and Affected by Nutrient Availability". Frontiers in ...
Starting from the intracellular N-terminus there are varying lengths of ankryin repeats (except in TRPM) that aid with membrane ... Most TRP channels are composed of 6 membrane-spanning helices with intracellular N- and C-termini. Mammalian TRP channels are ... TRP channels are composed of 6 membrane-spanning helices (S1-S6) with intracellular N- and C-termini. Mammalian TRP channels ... Dong, Xian-Ping; Wang, Xiang; Xu, Haoxing (April 2010). "TRP channels of intracellular membranes". Journal of Neurochemistry. ...
ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct ... membrane. • mitochondrion. • nucleus. • plasma membrane. • integral component of membrane. • apical plasma membrane. • receptor ... and the membranes of hematopoietic progenitor and other stem cells. At the apical membranes of the liver and kidney, it ... The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is included in the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ...
ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct ... endoplasmic reticulum membrane. • membrane. • Golgi membrane. • plasma membrane. • integral component of plasma membrane. • ... This membrane protein-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... integral component of membrane. • recycling endosome. • endosome. • Golgi apparatus. • ...
ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct ... This membrane-associated protein is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a type IV membrane protein. It is present in the plasma membrane and intracellular vesicles ... Vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the VAPA gene. Together with ... Weir ML, Klip A, Trimble WS (Sep 1998). "Identification of a human homologue of the vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP)- ... 1999). "VAP-33 localizes to both an intracellular vesicle population and with occludin at the tight junction". J. Cell Sci. 112 ...
Intracellular membranes are also found in bacteria belonging to the poorly studied Planctomycetes group, although these ... While not typical of all bacteria some microbes contain intracellular membranes in addition to (or as extensions of) their ... Chromatophores are intracellular membranes found in phototrophic bacteria. Used primarily for photosynthesis, they contain ... The plasma membrane or bacterial cytoplasmic membrane is composed of a phospholipid bilayer and thus has all of the general ...
Waters MG, Pfeffer SR (Nov 1999). "Membrane tethering in intracellular transport". Curr Opin Cell Biol. 11 (4): 453-9. doi: ... This gene encodes a golgi-associated membrane protein that participates in vesicular transport from the endoplasmic reticulum ( ... factor attachment protein receptor and may be involved in the docking of ER-derived vesicles with the cis-Golgi membrane. ...
Transmembrane receptor:E=extracellular space; I=intracellular space; P=plasma membrane. The structures of receptors are very ... Membrane receptors may be isolated from cell membranes by complex extraction procedures using solvents, detergents, and/or ... IntracellularEdit. Receptor. Ligand. Ion current cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels. cGMP (vision), cAMP and cGTP (olfaction) ... An example of membrane receptors. *Ligands, located outside the cell. *Ligands connect to specific receptor proteins based on ...
However, the SK2 immunoparticles were observed within intracellular membranes. The activation of protein kinase A (PKA) ... by an increasing in the concentration of intracellular calcium and as a result of allowing K+ cation to cross the cell membrane ... Transmitters are released from pre-synaptic terminals through fusion of vesicles to the membrane, that are filled with ...
Intracellular membrane traffic: getting proteins sorted". Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 354 (1388): 1471-8. doi: ... The pH of the intracellular fluid is 7.4. while human cytosolic pH ranges between 7.0-7.4, and is usually higher if a cell is ... In the eukaryotic cell, the cytosol is surrounded by the cell membrane and is part of the cytoplasm, which also comprises the ... In prokaryotes, most of the chemical reactions of metabolism take place in the cytosol, while a few take place in membranes or ...
Check date values in: ,access-date= (help) Pelham, H. R. B. (1999). "Intracellular membrane traffic: Getting proteins sorted. ... Intracellular membrane traffic: getting proteins sorted 1998 Michael J. G. Farthing, Bugs and guts: it's good to talk? 1997 ... Intracellular membrane traffic: getting proteins sorted. 1998 Philip Cohen, Discovery of a protein kinase cascade of major ... with the Uses of its Muscles and Membranes. 1741 James Douglas, Description of the several Muscles, Membranes and parts ...
TC1 is transported to the cell membrane by intracellular vesicles via microtubules. Mutations in the SLC19A2 gene can cause ... In the encoded protein (TC1), a multi-pass membrane protein located in the cell membrane, the N-terminus and C-terminus face ... Intracellular trafficking and membrane targeting mechanisms". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (6): 3976-84. doi: ... Subramanian VS, Marchant JS, Said HM (July 2007). "Targeting and intracellular trafficking of clinically relevant hTHTR1 ...
ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intracellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct ... The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ...
ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intracellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct ... The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ... It also mediates the transport of lipids between Golgi and cell membrane. Since this protein is needed throughout the body it ... "ABCA1 mediates high-affinity uptake of 25-hydroxycholesterol by membrane vesicles and rapid efflux of oxysterol by intact cells ...
ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intracellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct ...
ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intracellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct ... a new human mitochondrial ATP-binding cassette membrane protein". FEBS Letters. 478 (1-2): 89-94. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(00) ... "Identification and characterization of a mammalian mitochondrial ATP-binding cassette membrane protein". Journal of Molecular ...
Cellular membranes separate these two cellular environments - intracellular and extracellular. Each T cell can only recognize ... Peptide-MHC-II complexes (pMHC-II) are transported to the plasma membrane and the processed antigen is presented to the helper ... Whenever they encounter signs of disease, caused for example by the presence of viruses or intracellular bacteria or a ...
ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intracellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct ... The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ... 2001). "ABCA3 is a lamellar body membrane protein in human lung alveolar type II cells". FEBS Lett. 508 (2): 221-5. doi:10.1016 ... 2002). "Identification of LBM180, a lamellar body limiting membrane protein of alveolar type II cells, as the ABC transporter ...
Reporting intracellular and plasma membrane calcium environments". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (3): 1719-26. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.3.1719 ... and the connexon in one plasma membrane docks end-to-end with a connexon in the membrane of a closely opposed cell. The ... The density map showed the two membrane-spanning hemichannels and the arrangement of the four TMSs of the six protomers forming ... As they are being translated by ribosomes, connexins are inserted into the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). It is in ...
... s are often associated with the intracellular membranes that make up the rough endoplasmic reticulum. ... Membrane-bound ribosomes[edit]. When a ribosome begins to synthesize proteins that are needed in some organelles, the ribosome ... Bound ribosomes usually produce proteins that are used within the plasma membrane or are expelled from the cell via exocytosis. ... Whether the ribosome exists in a free or membrane-bound state depends on the presence of an ER-targeting signal sequence on the ...
Even the intracellular granules can be covered by extra-membranes structure. Beside the sulfur granules, the cells often show ... Sometimes are present further membranes that cover the peptidoglycan layer and the number of this addictional membranes is very ... The filaments move by gliding and this movement is likely connected to string-like structures in the outer membrane and trans- ... Although they are Gram-negative bacteria, Beggiatoa show unusual cell-wall and membrane organization. ...
ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct ...
ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct ... Abcc6 gene encodes an intracellular transporter associated with mitochondrial function, located in the mitochondrial-associated ... Membrane Topology Model of Human ABCC6 protein Human ABCC6 genome location and ABCC6 gene details page in the UCSC Genome ... "ABCC6 localizes to the mitochondria-associated membrane". Circulation Research. 111 (5): 516-20. doi:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA. ...
ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct ... The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ... This protein may also play a role in the transport of phospholipids into mitochondrial membranes. ATP-binding cassette ... "Identification and characterization of a mammalian mitochondrial ATP-binding cassette membrane protein". J. Mol. Biol. 285 (1 ...
ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct ... "ApoA-I facilitates ABCA1 recycle/accumulation to cell surface by inhibiting its intracellular degradation and increases HDL ...
... from membrane currents, proteins, and chemical coupling to network oscillations, columnar and topographic architecture, and ... "Intracellular Calcium Dynamics Permit a Purkinje Neuron Model to Perform Toggle and Gain Computations Upon its Inputs" ... "A quantitative description of membrane current and its application to conduction and excitation in nerve". J. Physiol. 117 (4 ... "Intracellular Calcium Dynamics Permit a Purkinje Neuron Model to Perform Toggle and Gain Computations Upon its Inputs" ...
VEGF-B treatment of hepatoma carcinoma cells can cause α-catenin to move from its normal location on the membrane into the ... First of all, by binding to cadherin receptor intracellular cytoplasmic tail domains, it can act as an integral component of a ...
EBOV is thought to infect humans through contact with mucous membranes or skin breaks.[54] After infection, endothelial cells ( ... "Intracellular events and cell fate in filovirus infection". Viruses. 3 (8): 1501-31. doi:10.3390/v3081501. PMC 3172725. PMID ... Virions bud off from the cell, gaining their envelopes from the cellular membrane from which they bud. The mature progeny ... Bleeding from mucous membranes or from sites of needle punctures has been reported in 40-50% of cases.[31] This may cause ...
Unlike the fast and transient sodium current, the persistent sodium current (INaP) is activated at very low membrane potentials ... Metabotropic glutamate 1/5 receptors appear to be important for the increase in intracellular calcium that activate ICAN. The ... Rhythmogenesis, the generation of rhythm, is modulated by membrane properties and synaptic interactions occurring in ... which allows neurons to intrinsically fire action potentials at sub-threshold membrane potentials. Studies have shown that the ...
Although the function of CD20 is unknown, it may play a role in Ca2+ influx across plasma membranes, maintaining intracellular ... The CD20 proteins are sticking out of the cell membrane, and rituximab, the Y-shaped antibody, is binding to the CD20 proteins. ...
membrane. • GO:0005578 extracellular matrix. • plasma membrane. • extracellular region. • extracellular space. • intracellular ...
The cell uses this positional information as a source of intracellular asymmetry to establish and maintain the orientation of ... Included are those involved in chemotaxis, outer membrane channel function, degradation of aromatic ring compounds, and the ...
Stacks of membrane-enclosed disks are unattached to cell membrane directly Disks are attached to outer membrane ... The net concentration of intracellular cGMP is reduced (due to its conversion to 5' GMP via PDE), resulting in the closure of ... The rhodopsin or iodopsin in the disc membrane of the outer segment absorbs a photon, changing the configuration of a retinal ... This results in a series of unstable intermediates, the last of which binds stronger to a G protein in the membrane, called ...
intracellular. • protein complex. • axon. • nuclear outer membrane. • endoplasmic reticulum membrane. • Golgi membrane. • ... plasma membrane. • cell cortex. • integral component of membrane. • azurophil granule membrane. • Z disc. • neuronal cell body ... synaptic membrane. • integral component of presynaptic membrane. • endosome. • early endosome membrane. • cell projection. ... nuclear membrane. • membrane. • mitochondrion. • ciliary rootlet. • neuron projection. • gamma-secretase complex. • cell ...
Primary type Ia sensory fibers (large diameter) spiral around all intrafusal muscle fibres, ending near the middle of each fibre. Secondary type II sensory fibers (medium diameter) end adjacent to the central regions of the static bag and chain fibres.[2] These fibres send information by stretch-sensitive mechanically-gated ion-channels of the axons.[3] The motor part of the spindle is provided by motor neurons: up to a dozen gamma motor neurons and one or two beta motor neurons, collectively called fusimotor neurons.[citation needed] These activate the muscle fibres within the spindle. Gamma motor neurons supply only muscle fibres within the spindle, whereas beta motor neurons supply muscle fibres both within and outside of the spindle. Activation of the neurons causes a contraction and stiffening of the end parts of the muscle spindle muscle fibers. Fusimotor neurons are classified as static or dynamic according to the type of muscle fibers they innervate and their effects on the responses of ...
E=extracellular space; P=plasma membrane; I=intracellular space. An integral membrane protein (IMP) is a type of membrane ... Single-pass membrane proteins cross the membrane only once, while multi-pass membrane proteins weave in and out, crossing ... Their membrane-anchoring α-helices have been removed to facilitate the extraction and crystallization. Search integral membrane ... and the membrane formed by the phospholipid bilayer is illustrated below. In this case the integral membrane protein spans the ...
An enzymatic oxidation process triggered by the plant's intracellular enzymes causes the leaves to turn progressively darker as ... which if left undisturbed will become a leathery membrane that can be wound around your finger and flipped away...[123] ...
integral component of membrane. • membrane. • postsynaptic density. • plasma membrane. • Z disc. • L-type voltage-gated calcium ... An increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration implicated in Cav1.2 facilitation, a form of positive feedback called Ca2+- ... membrane depolarization during AV node cell action potential. • heart development. • membrane depolarization during atrial ... Calcium channels mediate the influx of calcium ions (Ca2+) into the cell upon membrane polarization (see membrane potential and ...
... evidence for a novel outer membrane and for intracellular vesicle budding in an archaeon". Archaea. 1 (1): 9-18. doi:10.1155/ ... No membrane-bound organelles (questioned[56]) or nucleus. No membrane-bound organelles or nucleus. Membrane-bound organelles ... MembranesEdit. Membrane structures. Top, an archaeal phospholipid: 1, isoprene chains; 2, ether linkages; 3, L-glycerol moiety ... They have membranes composed of glycerol-ether lipids, whereas bacteria and eukaryotes have membranes composed mainly of ...
Contributions of protein-protein and protein-membrane interactions toward complex formation". J. Biol. Chem. 265 (7), 3708-18. ... Complementary DNA cloning and kinetic characterization of a novel intracellular serine proteinase inhibitor: mechanism of ...
... at the intracellular face of the plasma membrane with Val14rhoA microinjection showed the association of focal adhesions with ... The comparison with the normal cells showed that Rac1 stimulates actin filament production at the membrane, pinocytosis, and ... The inhibition of endogenous Rac function by mutants N17rac and V12rac1 prevented growth factor-induced membrane ruffling. In ... but had no effect on membrane ruffling. These findings were published in Cell and cited over 4000 times.[7] In parallel with ...
Cholesterol is required to build and maintain cell membranes; it regulates membrane fluidity over a wide range of temperatures ... The main regulatory mechanism is the sensing of intracellular cholesterol in the endoplasmic reticulum by the protein SREBP ( ... assisting in the formation of lipid rafts in the plasma membrane. It also reduces the permeability of the plasma membrane to ... The hydroxyl group on cholesterol interacts with the polar head groups of the membrane phospholipids and sphingolipids, while ...
This is because fluorescein is xylem-mobile and unable to cross plasma membranes, making it particularly useful in tracking ... FITC reacts with the amine groups of many biologically relevant compounds including intracellular proteins to form a thiourea ...
intracellular membrane-bounded organelle. • cell nucleus. • nucleolus. • mitochondrion. • mitochondrial matrix. • pyruvate ...
membrane. • focal adhesion. • spindle pole centrosome. • intracellular ribonucleoprotein complex. • cariolinfa. • centro ... intracellular protein transport. • reparo de ADN. • transdução de sinal. • negative regulation of cell proliferation. • ...
It inflames the mucous membranes in the eyes, nose, throat and lungs.[4] It causes immediate closing of the eyes, difficulty ...
BDNF is released from the post-synaptic membrane in an activity-dependent manner, allowing it to act on local TrkB receptors ... The mutation interferes with normal translation and intracellular trafficking of BDNF mRNA, as it destabilizes the mRNA and ... positive regulation of non-membrane spanning protein tyrosine kinase activity. • transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase ... BDNF signaling leads to the autophosphorylation of the intracellular domain of the TrkB receptor (ICD-TrkB). Upon ...
... an intracellular diastase which he called "zymase," what we know now as enzymes. Duclaux's study on the metabolism of nutrients ... which created fake membranes in the small patients' throats, therefore killing them by suffocation. It was deservedly called " ...
... evidence for a novel outer membrane and for intracellular vesicle budding in an archaeon" (PDF). Archaea 1 (1): 9-18. PMC ... Macalady JL, Vestling MM, Baumler D, Boekelheide N, Kaspar CW, Banfield JF (2004). "Tetraether-linked membrane monolayers in ... A new lineage of viruses with a membrane envelope". Mol. Microbiol. 72 (2): 307-19. PMID 19298373. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2958.2009 ... a basin-wide ecological study using 16S ribosomal and functional genes and membrane lipids". Environ. Microbiol. 9 (4): 1001-16 ...
plasma membrane. • Z disc. • cytoplasm. • cell cortex. • focal adhesion. • extracellular matrix. • cytosol. • cell nucleus. • ... FLNB regulates intracellular communication and signalling by cross-linking the protein actin to allow direct communication ... integral component of membrane. • cytoskeleton. • brush border. • actin cytoskeleton. • extracellular exosome. • stress fiber. ... cytoskeletal anchoring at plasma membrane. • cell differentiation. • signal transduction. • keratinocyte development. Sources: ...
... a unique protein associated with intracellular transfer of membrane by coated vesicles". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... The skelion will bind to other ones attached to the membrane to form a polyhedral lattice, skelion, which pulls the membrane ... It recruits clathrin to membranes and also promotes its polymerization. Epsin also recruits clathrin to membranes and promotes ... linking one of its three feet to the membrane at a time. Clathrin cannot bind to membrane or cargo directly and instead uses ...
membrane. Ergosterol. inhibitors. Azoles (lanosterol 14α-. demethylase inhibitors). Imidazoles. *Topical: bifonazole‡ ... Intracellular. Pyrimidine analogues/. thymidylate synthase inhibitors. *Systemic: flucytosine#. Mitotic inhibitors. *Systemic: ...
Mitotic cyclins, which persist in the cell for only a few minutes, have one of the shortest life spans of all intracellular ... membrane-bound organelles with acidic and protease-filled interiors that can degrade and then recycle exogenous proteins and ... The proteasome is also involved in Intracellular antibody-mediated proteolysis of antibody-bound virions. In this ... suggested the presence of a second intracellular degradation mechanism.[5] This was shown in 1978 to be composed of several ...
To engulf a particle or pathogen, a phagocyte extends portions of its plasma membrane, wrapping the membrane around the ... One strategy is intracellular replication, as practised by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, or wearing a protective capsule, which ... form holes in the plasma membrane of the pathogen, resulting in cytolysis of the pathogen cell, causing the death of the ... Mast cells are a type of innate immune cell that reside in connective tissue and in the mucous membranes. They are intimately ...
Modification of intracellular membrane structures for virus replication.. Miller S1, Krijnse-Locker J. ... We describe how viruses modify intracellular membranes, highlight similarities between the structures that are induced by ... Viruses are intracellular parasites that use the host cell they infect to produce new infectious progeny. Distinct steps of the ... Plus-stranded RNA viruses induce membrane proliferations that support the replication of their genomes. Similarly, cytoplasmic ...
... Adam M Gilmore, Australian National University, Canberra City, ... Gilmore, Adam M(Apr 2001) Cell Membranes: Intracellular pH and Electrochemical Potential. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, ... Cell Membranes , Biomolecular Interactions , Cellular Transport , Bioenergetics , Proteins: Structure, Function, Metabolism , ... The symbols n and p represent the negative and positive sides of the inner membrane, respectively. Adapted from Trumpower and ...
1), a family of cation non-selective ion channels that were initially thought to operate exclusively at the plasma membrane to ... For example, recent studies have revealed intracellular functions of several TRP proteins (reviewed in Ref. ... Studying TRP Channels in Intracellular Membranes - TRP Channels. Studying TRP Channels in Intracellular Membranes - TRP ... An alternative way to study intracellular TRPs is to reconstitute TRP proteins or TRP-resident intracellular membranes into a ...
They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC ... Intracellular Membranes. Known as: Membrane, Intracellular, Membranes, Intracellular, Wall of organelle Expand. ... Isolation of intracellular membranes by means of sodium carbonate treatment: application to endoplasmic reticulum ... SNARE proteins have been proposed to mediate all intracellular membrane fusion events. There are over 30 SNARE family members ...
The parasitophorous vacuole membrane surrounding intracellular Toxoplasma gondii functions as a molecular sieve.. J C Schwab, C ... The obligate intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii creates and enters into a unique membrane-bounded cytoplasmic ... The parasitophorous vacuole membrane surrounding intracellular Toxoplasma gondii functions as a molecular sieve. ... The parasitophorous vacuole membrane surrounding intracellular Toxoplasma gondii functions as a molecular sieve. ...
... and intracellular transient receptor potential (Trp) channels. The genomes of Trypanosoma, Leishmania and S. mansoni parasites ... including voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and plasma membrane Trp channels. The genome of S. mansoni also encodes Orai Ca2+ channel ... and show the existence within them of genes encoding homologues of mammalian intracellular Ca2+ release channels: inositol 1,4, ...
Dissecting Intracellular Signaling Pathways with Membrane-Permeable Peptides. By Mike S. S. Chang, James P. Tam, Elaine Sanders ... Dissecting Intracellular Signaling Pathways with Membrane-Permeable Peptides. By Mike S. S. Chang, James P. Tam, Elaine Sanders ... Dissecting Intracellular Signaling Pathways with Membrane-Permeable Peptides Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page ... This protocol describes methods to synthesize peptides coupled to a membrane-permeable sequence (MPS), designed from the signal ...
... Camilla Luccardini,1 ... Successful internalization and intracellular labelling with NCs have been demonstrated for both fixed immunolabelled and live ... NCs have predominantly been used as extracellular markers for tagging and tracking membrane proteins. ...
Membrane blebbing control by RhoB depends on its plasma membrane localization and down‐stream effectors ROCK and Myosin II. ... Apoptotic mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) induces widening pores in the mitochondrial outer membrane in a ... BAX/BAK pore formation ruptures the outer mitochondrial membrane in apoptotic cells while the inner membrane was thought to ... KIF13A kinesin regulates plasma membrane localization of the small GTPase RhoB, thereby controlling membrane blebbing and ...
Photodynamic Action of LED-Activated Curcumin against Staphylococcus aureus Involving Intracellular ROS Increase and Membrane ... for assaying membrane permeability, FCM analysis with DCFH-DA staining for measuring the intracellular ROS level, and ... Intracellular ROS increase was observed after light-activated curcumin. Conclusion. Blue light-activated curcumin markedly ... damaged membrane permeability, resulting in cell death of Staphylococcus aureus and highlighted that intracellular ROS increase ...
We describe how to measure near membrane and global intracellular calcium dynamics in cultured astrocytes using total internal ... Measuring Near Plasma Membrane and Global Intracellular Calcium Dynamics in Astrocytes. Eiji Shigetomi1, Baljit S. Khakh1 ... In this video article we present a simple method to image near plasma membrane and global intracellular calcium changes almost ... Shigetomi, E., Khakh, B. S. Measuring Near Plasma Membrane and Global Intracellular Calcium Dynamics in Astrocytes. J. Vis. Exp ...
Membrane-Permeable Mn(III) Complexes for Molecular Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Intracellular Targets. Research and Teaching ... Membrane-Permeable Mn(III) Complexes for Molecular Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Intracellular Targets. Download ... "Membrane-Permeable Mn(III) Complexes for Molecular Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Intracellular Targets." Journal of the ... Intracellular compartments make up roughly two-thirds of the body, but delivery of molecular imaging probes to these spaces can ...
... intracellular proliferation specifically intercepts intracellular membrane trafficking pathways and recruits membranes and ... In this paper we refer to all host membranes modified by intracellular Salmonella as Salmonella-modified membranes (SMMs). ... Proteomes of Host Cell Membranes Modified by Intracellular Activities of Salmonella enterica*. Stephanie Vorwerk,‡ Viktoria ... Intracellular Salmonella Redirects Host Traffic to SMM Small Rab GTPases perform a fundamental role in membrane dynamics and ...
Intracellular Lipid Flux and Membrane Microdomains as Organizing Principles in Inflammatory Cell Signaling. Michael B. Fessler ... Intracellular Lipid Flux and Membrane Microdomains as Organizing Principles in Inflammatory Cell Signaling ... Intracellular Lipid Flux and Membrane Microdomains as Organizing Principles in Inflammatory Cell Signaling ... Intracellular Lipid Flux and Membrane Microdomains as Organizing Principles in Inflammatory Cell Signaling ...
... In: Journal of ... Successful internalization and intracellular labelling with NCs have been demonstrated for both fixed immunolabelled and live ... This review focuses on the challenges of intracellular uses of NCs. Copyright (c) 2007 Camilla Luccardini et al. This is an ... NCs have predominantly been used as extracellular markers for tagging and tracking membrane proteins. ...
... Schesser Bartra, Sara Umeå ... 1. Outer membrane proteins of Yersinia pestis: Ail and OmpA. Open this publication in new window or tab ,,Outer membrane ... Some of these critical virulence determinants are outer membrane proteins. Outer membrane proteins of Gram-negative bacteria ... pestis outer membrane proteins, Ail and OmpA, and their roles in virulence. We provide evidence that Y. pestis Ail is a highly ...
I see that the membrane potential in the intracellular cell body and intracellular axon is the same voltage/value. Even in ... the intracellular readings should always be the same whether you measure intracellular cell body or intracellular axon. Is my ... Intracellular membrane potential of cell and axon. by ayong1970 » Fri Sep 07, 2012 6:43 pm ... Intracellular membrane potential of cell and axon. For discussing the functions of different structures of all organisms. ...
Sodium fluoride induces apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyocytes by altering mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular ROS ... intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, the changes of mitochondrial membrane potential, and the cell apoptosis. ... In summary, these data suggested that NaF-induced H9c2 cell apoptosis is mediated by direct increased intracellular ROS and ...
Skehel, J. J. and Wiley, D. C. (1998). Coiled coils in both intracellular vesicle and viral membrane fusion. Cell 95, 871-874. ... Functions of SNAREs in intracellular membrane fusion and lipid bilayer mixing Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... Söllner, T. H. (2004). Intracellular and viral membrane fusion: a uniting mechanism. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 16, 429-435. ... Reese, C., Heise, F. and Mayer, A. (2005). Trans-SNARE pairing can precede a hemifusion intermediate in intracellular membrane ...
... mechanism of metformin action involves glucose transporter translocation from an intracellular pool to the plasma membrane in ... muscle involves the subcellular redistribution of GLUT1 proteins from an intracellular compartment to the plasma membrane. Such ... and internal membranes (IM) prepared from L6 myotubes revealed that a 16-h treatment with 800 microM metformin significantly ... transporter number quantified by performing studies of D-glucose-protectable binding of cytochalasin-B in plasma membranes (PM ...
Here we show by simultaneous recording of intracellular calcium … ... Here we show by simultaneous recording of intracellular calcium ion ([Ca2+]i) and membrane potential that both PACAP-27 and ... PACAP reduces the membrane conductance and increases membrane excitability; and 2) PACAP activates a pronounced inward current ... Activation of this current does not require membrane depolarization, because the response is observed when cells are held under ...
Intracellular sodium, membrane potential, and contractility of rat mesenteric small arteries.. M J Mulvany, C Aalkjaer, T T ... Intracellular sodium, membrane potential, and contractility of rat mesenteric small arteries.. M J Mulvany, C Aalkjaer and T T ... Intracellular sodium, membrane potential, and contractility of rat mesenteric small arteries.. M J Mulvany, C Aalkjaer and T T ... We have investigated effects of altered extracellular sodium, intracellular sodium concentration, and membrane potential on the ...
Membrane effects of thyrotropin-releasing hormone and estrogen shown by intracellular recording from pituitary cells ... Membrane effects of thyrotropin-releasing hormone and estrogen shown by intracellular recording from pituitary cells ... Membrane effects of thyrotropin-releasing hormone and estrogen shown by intracellular recording from pituitary cells ... Membrane effects of thyrotropin-releasing hormone and estrogen shown by intracellular recording from pituitary cells ...
Read our Flow Cytometry Protocol for Staining Intracellular Molecules using Detergents to Permeabilize the Cell Membrane to ... Intracellular Flow Cytometry Overview. Flow cytometry can be used to analyze various intracellular molecules including ... To stain intracellular molecules, the cells need to be fixed in suspension and then permeabilized before the detection antibody ... To facilitate intracellular staining, cells were fixed with Flow Cytometry Fixation Buffer (Catalog # FC004) and permeabilized ...
The membrane responses of rabbit papillary muscles to rapid changes in [K](o) and [Cl](o) were measured with open-tipped ... Intracellular Fluid / analysis. Membrane Potentials / drug effects*. Microelectrodes. Muscles / metabolism*. Papillary Muscles ... Influence of changes in external potassium and chloride ions on membrane potential and intracellular potassium ion activity in ... which was slowed in the fashion expected from an inward-rectifying membrane.7. The influence of [K](i) on membrane potential ...
... light-microscope radioautographic studies showed that colchicine or vinblastine inhibited intracellular migration of ... Intracellular Membranes / metabolism*. Liver / cytology, metabolism*. Membrane Proteins / metabolism*. Microscopy, Electron. ... Previous Document: Influence of colchicine and vinblastine on the intracellular migration of secretory and membrane gly.... ... Inhibition of intracellular migration of membrane glycoproteins in rat intestinal columnar cells and hepatocytes as visualized ...
Membrane Transport and Intracellular Sequestration of Novel Thiosemicarbazone Chelators for the Treatment of Cancer. Angelica M ... Membrane Transport and Intracellular Sequestration of Novel Thiosemicarbazone Chelators for the Treatment of Cancer. Angelica M ... Membrane Transport and Intracellular Sequestration of Novel Thiosemicarbazone Chelators for the Treatment of Cancer. Angelica M ... Membrane Transport and Intracellular Sequestration of Novel Thiosemicarbazone Chelators for the Treatment of Cancer ...
... of plasma-membrane sphingomyelin rapidly alters the distribution of cholesterol between plasma membranes and intracellular ... Depletion of plasma-membrane sphingomyelin rapidly alters the distribution of cholesterol between plasma membranes and ... Depletion of plasma-membrane sphingomyelin rapidly alters the distribution of cholesterol between plasma membranes and ... Depletion of plasma-membrane sphingomyelin rapidly alters the distribution of cholesterol between plasma membranes and ...
PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IN ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANE ORGANELLES UNDERSTANDING THE PROTEIN ... T o l a t e f r i n s Membrane insertion must occur soon after translation ...
Reversible Membrane Permeabilization Streptolysin O. Abstract:. Fluorescence imaging of intracellular proteins is often ... Intracellular labeling of live cells via transient membrane permeabilization for fluorescence and super resolution microscopy. ... Intracellular labeling of live cells via transient membrane permeabilization for fluorescence and super resolution microscopy. ... Intracellular labeling of live cells via transient membrane permeabilization for fluorescence and super resolution microscopy. ...
  • For example, recent studies have revealed intracellular functions of several TRP proteins (reviewed in Ref. 1 ), a family of cation non-selective ion channels that were initially thought to operate exclusively at the plasma membrane to regulate the transmembrane flux of Na+, K+, Ca 2+ , and Mg 2+ . (nih.gov)
  • 1 Two strategies are commonly used to study intracellular localization of TRPs: fluorescent fusion proteins and antibody-mediated immunochemical approaches. (nih.gov)
  • NCs have predominantly been used as extracellular markers for tagging and tracking membrane proteins. (hindawi.com)
  • Expression of hepatitis C virus proteins induces distinct membrane alterations including a candidate viral replication complex. (semanticscholar.org)
  • SNARE proteins have been proposed to mediate all intracellular membrane fusion events. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We envision that these MSNs with large pores could serve as a transmembrane delivery vehicle for controlled release of membrane-impermeable proteins in live cells, which may lead to many important biotechnological applications including therapeutics and metabolic manipulation of cells. (nih.gov)
  • Misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum ( ER ) are dislocated across the ER membrane and degraded by the ubiquitin‐proteasome‐system. (embopress.org)
  • Using the macrophage and, in particular, TLR signaling in macrophages as a primary case in point, the dependence of inflammatory signaling upon cholesterol-loading conditions and on the regulatory proteins that control homeostatic intracellular trafficking of cholesterol through rafts will be highlighted. (jimmunol.org)
  • Although it is difficult to place a lower limit on their size in the resting state, and evidence indeed exists for "lipid shells" surrounding individual proteins in biological membranes ( 2 ), rafts can also be driven to coalesce into more stable, micrometer-range domains through lipid-lipid, protein-lipid, and protein-protein interactions. (jimmunol.org)
  • The ability of Y. pestis KIM mutants defective in the expression of outer membrane proteins to survive and proliferate in the presence of RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells was evaluated. (diva-portal.org)
  • Some of these critical virulence determinants are outer membrane proteins. (diva-portal.org)
  • pestis outer membrane proteins, Ail and OmpA, and their roles in virulence. (diva-portal.org)
  • This work has paved the way for future studies on the role of outer membrane proteins in virulence, particularly the role of Ail and OmpA. (diva-portal.org)
  • Using a Salmonella mutant strain that does not form this unique membrane network as a reference, we identified a high-confidence set of host proteins associated with Salmonella -modified membranes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Such intracellular niches of various pathogens are diverse, and biogenesis often depends on the delivery of bacterial effector proteins into the host cell cytoplasm. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This network contains various tubular structures such as Salmonella -induced filaments (SIFs), sorting nexin tubules, Salmonella -induced secretory carrier membrane protein 3 tubules, and lysosome-associated membrane protein 1-negative tubules ( 5 - 7 ), distinguishable by individual organelle marker proteins. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Exchange of lipids, metabolites or proteins across the lipid bilayer can occur through integral membrane proteins - as demonstrated for peroxisomes, mitochondria or chloroplasts. (biologists.org)
  • Generally, vesicle formation requires a conserved set of coat proteins that bind to cargo and induce membrane curvature. (biologists.org)
  • We propose that the molecular basis of metformin action in skeletal muscle involves the subcellular redistribution of GLUT1 proteins from an intracellular compartment to the plasma membrane. (nih.gov)
  • Flow cytometry can be used to analyze various intracellular molecules including phosphorylated signaling proteins and cytokines. (rndsystems.com)
  • This protocol is designed for intracellular staining of proteins. (rndsystems.com)
  • Fluorescence imaging of intracellular proteins is often achieved by using transfection-induced expression of fluorescent protein. (illinois.edu)
  • Here, we have developed a high-throughput technique for labeling intracellular proteins of living cells. (illinois.edu)
  • Other plasma membrane proteins such as Pma1 (H + -pumping ATPase) and Sur7 (an eisosomal protein) are not regulated by halotolerance kinases or by high K + levels. (asm.org)
  • On uninfected macrophages, these proteins are seen at the cell surface and in intracellular vacuole-like structures with a complex content of vesicles and interconnected membranes that lack endosome markers, including CD63. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Assembly of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) is a highly regulated process that requires the spatially and temporally coordinated recruitment of viral components, as well as key cellular proteins, to an appropriate membrane system. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Proteins, including membrane-spanning proteins (integral proteins or transmembrane proteins) which can aid in membrane transport 3. (coursehero.com)
  • Carbohydrates, associated with membrane proteins (glycoprotein) or membrane lipids (glycolipid) 4. (coursehero.com)
  • The curvature hypothesis proposes that some intracellular proteins can recognize membrane curvatures of a certain range at the cell-to-material interface. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Viral membrane proteins acquire galactose in trans Golgi cisternae during intracellular transport. (rupress.org)
  • Hence, about half of the RCA bound to Golgi membranes in thin sections was bound to spike proteins bearing complex oligosaccharides and these were restricted to the trans part of the Golgi stack. (rupress.org)
  • The instrument could resolve thicknesses that depended on pH measurements and the presence of membrane proteins that ranged from 8.6 to 23.2 nm, with the lower measurements supporting the lipid bilayer hypothesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • [7] Although the fluid mosaic model has been modernized to detail contemporary discoveries, the basics have remained constant: the membrane is a lipid bilayer composed of hydrophilic exterior heads and a hydrophobic interior where proteins can interact with hydrophilic heads through polar interactions, but proteins that span the bilayer fully or partially have hydrophobic amino acids that interact with the non-polar lipid interior. (wikipedia.org)
  • To obtain an overview of bioelectric patterning along the longitudinal and transversal axes of the developing follicle, the spatial distributions of membrane potentials (V mem ), intracellular pH (pH i ) and various membrane-channel proteins were studied systematically using fluorescent indicators, fluorescent inhibitors and antisera. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our data suggest that spatial patterning of V mem , pH i and specific membrane-channel proteins results in bioelectric signals that are supposed to play important roles during oogenesis, e. g. by influencing spatial coordinates, regulating migration processes or modifying the cytoskeletal organization. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Miro proteins recruit and stabilize mitochondrial myosin Myo19 on the outer mitochondrial membrane to mediate actin‐based mitochondrial movements. (cloudfront.net)
  • Sequential interaction with cytosolic chaperones and dedicated targeting factors stabilizes the nascent chain of tail‐anchored proteins to ensure proper membrane insertion. (embopress.org)
  • Sequential interaction with yeast cytosolic chaperones Hsp70 and Sgt2 stabilizes newly synthesized tail‐anchored ( TA ) proteins in the soluble form, thereby ensuring proper membrane insertion via targeting factor Get3. (embopress.org)
  • Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution. (nature.com)
  • The membrane also contains membrane proteins , including integral proteins that go across the membrane serving as membrane transporters , and peripheral proteins that loosely attach to the outer (peripheral) side of the cell membrane, acting as enzymes shaping the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • and content proteins and peripheral membrane proteins are released in soluble form. (psu.edu)
  • Chlamydial Inc proteins are known to be a major component of the inclusion membrane, but little is known about the gene number and function. (elsevier.com)
  • Outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of Gram-negative bacteria are key players in the biology of bacterial-host interactions. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Normal function of SPCA1 contributes to correct trafficking of cellular adhesion proteins, and defects in normal expression levels of SPCA1 lead to the HHD symptoms by affecting intracellular membrane trafficking [ 8 - 10 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Kneen M, Farinas J, Li Y and Verkman AS (1998) Green fluorescent protein as a noninvasive intracellular pH indicator. (els.net)
  • Many plasma membrane TRPs are activated or regulated by protein kinases or lipid signaling. (nih.gov)
  • Mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein MLKL causes necrotic membrane disruption upon phosphorylation by RIP3. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In contrast to the fact that cytochrome c is a cell-membrane-impermeable protein, we discovered that the cytochrome c-encapsulated MSNs could be internalized by live human cervical cancer cells (HeLa) and the protein could be released into the cytoplasm. (nih.gov)
  • Simple interventions upon membrane lipid, such as changes in cholesterol loading or crosslinking of raft lipids, are sufficient to induce micrometer-scale reordering of membranes and their protein cargo with consequent signal transduction. (jimmunol.org)
  • In this review, using TLR signaling in the macrophage as a central focus, we discuss emerging evidence that environmental and genetic perturbations of membrane lipid regulate protein signaling, illustrate how homeostatic flow of cholesterol and other lipids through rafts regulates the innate immune response, and highlight recent attempts to harness these insights toward therapeutic development. (jimmunol.org)
  • Progressively refined imaging techniques continue to support the existence of lateral protein/lipid heterogeneities in biological membranes ( 2 , 3 ), but the precise nature, size, and malleability of these microdomains remain a matter of debate. (jimmunol.org)
  • However, as detergent can itself induce the formation of domains in membranes ( 6 ), rafts should not be equated with "detergent-resistant membranes" (DRMs), nor can identification of a protein in DRMs be taken as sufficient evidence for assigning raft localization in vivo. (jimmunol.org)
  • We provide evidence that Y. pestis Ail is a highly expressed outer membrane protein that is absolutely essential for Y. pestis to resist the killing action of the complement system present in human blood and tissues, as well as the blood and tissues of other mammalian hosts. (diva-portal.org)
  • Furthermore, Ail was important for virulence in a Y. pestis-Canorhabditis elegans model of infection.The work in this thesis also provided the first evidence that another surface-exposed outer membrane protein, termed OmpA, is required for both Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Y. pestis to survive and proliferate intracellularly in macrophages. (diva-portal.org)
  • For instance, tubules decorated with lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1) are known as SIFs ( 8 , 9 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Direct labeling of the intracellular protein is an alternative to transfection, but is largely limited by permeability of the fluorescent probes. (illinois.edu)
  • Outer membrane protein A (OmpA) expression on E. coli contributes to binding to macrophages, phagocytosis, and survival within macrophages. (asm.org)
  • Studies with BMEC have suggested that outer membrane protein A (OmpA) of E. coli plays an important role in the invasion by interacting with a 96-kDa glycoprotein on human BMEC (HBMEC) ( 25 , 27 ). (asm.org)
  • In yeast, the major high-affinity K + transporter, Trk1, is inhibited by high intracellular K + levels and positively regulated by two redundant " hal otolerance" protein kinases, Sat4/Hal4 and Hal5. (asm.org)
  • TRK1 encodes the most active transporter, corresponding to a large protein, 1,235 amino acids long, containing eight membrane-spanning domains and with a four-MPM (membrane-pore-membrane) structure similar to that of shaker K + channels ( 9 , 12 ). (asm.org)
  • Like the H + -ATPase Pma1, Trk1 is an integral plasma membrane protein localized to the "raft" domains ( 1 , 45 ), which are glycolipid-enriched microdomains of the plasma membrane that are postulated to form a platform for lipid and protein sorting and trafficking ( 22 , 32 ). (asm.org)
  • Characterisation of a differentially expressed protein that shows an unusual localisation to intracellular membranes in Leishmania major. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Given the absence of an N-terminal signal sequence, transmembrane-spanning domains or detectable post-translational modifications, it is likely that this hydrophilic molecule is a peripheral membrane protein on the cytosolic face of intracellular membranes. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • The role of this novel protein, presumed to be part of a protein complex, in infective parasites that are nutrient-deficient and pre-adapted for intracellular survival in the mammalian host is under investigation. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Although local membranes in contact with the nanostructures are found to be fully fluidic for lipid and membrane protein diffusions, cells appear to actively sense and respond to the surface topography presented by vertical nanostructures. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • [3] In addition, cell membranes are involved in a variety of cellular processes such as cell adhesion , ion conductivity and cell signalling and serve as the attachment surface for several extracellular structures, including the cell wall , the carbohydrate layer called the glycocalyx , and the intracellular network of protein fibers called the cytoskeleton . (wikipedia.org)
  • The rhomboid protease PARL cleaves the lipid transfer protein STARD 7 at the inner membrane of mitochondria, allowing its partitioning between the mitochondrial intermembrane space and the cytosol. (cloudfront.net)
  • The cytosolic localization of STARD 7 strictly depends on PARL cleavage at the inner membrane, identifying PARL as a novel regulator of protein distribution. (cloudfront.net)
  • STARD 7 serves as an intra‐mitochondrial lipid transfer protein specific for PC , ensuring accumulation of phosphatidylcholine in the inner membrane. (cloudfront.net)
  • Analyses on a yeast membrane permease Mup1 identify protein clustering in membrane domains as a regulatory mechanism. (embopress.org)
  • SNARE (soluble NSF attachment protein receptors)-mediated intracellular fusion is essential for synaptic transmission, hormone secretion and endocytosis. (grantome.com)
  • Likewise, DCA was found to affect membrane distribution of caveolin-1, a marker protein that is enriched in caveolae membrane microdomains. (elsevier.com)
  • Durante L, Hübner W, Lauersen KJ, Remacle C. Characterization of the GPR1/FUN34/YaaH protein family in the green microalga Chlamydomonas suggests their role as intracellular membrane acetate channels. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Consistent with this, we have demonstrated previously by confocal microscopy that uncoated virus cores within the cytoplasm lack the IMV surface protein D8L, and we show here that intracellular cores lack the surface protein coat and lipid membrane. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In the post genomic era, essential molecules involved in intracellular membrane/protein transport are emerging with increasing pace. (vtt.fi)
  • The part of the membrane transport machinery, which forms stabile protein complexes is rather well known already. (vtt.fi)
  • Overall, the transformation potential of proto-Dbl mutants was associated with an augmented localization of the protein to the plasma membrane and a strong activation of Jun N-terminal kinase activity and transcription of cyclin D1. (elsevier.com)
  • Polytopic membrane protein synthesis involves translation followed by translocation across the lipid bilayer at the ER. (ubc.ca)
  • In the following study, we used Chitin synthase III (Chs3) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model to dissect the complexities involved in polytopic membrane protein synthesis at the ER. (ubc.ca)
  • Seroreactivity to Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 intracellular domain in malaria-exposed children and adults. (duke.edu)
  • Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) antigens mediate parasite sequestration and host immune evasion. (duke.edu)
  • To investigate the effect of photodynamic action of LED-activated curcumin on cell viability, membrane permeability, and intracellular reactive oxygen species of Staphylococcus aureus . (hindawi.com)
  • The colony forming unit assay was used to investigate photocytotoxicity of curcumin on Staphylococcus aureus , confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and flow cytometry (FCM) for assaying membrane permeability, FCM analysis with DCFH-DA staining for measuring the intracellular ROS level, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for observing morphology and structure. (hindawi.com)
  • Blue light-activated curcumin markedly damaged membrane permeability, resulting in cell death of Staphylococcus aureus and highlighted that intracellular ROS increase might be an important event in photodynamic killing of Staphylococcus aureus in the presence of curcumin. (hindawi.com)
  • Although the membrane response to changes in [Cl](o) was small, it was possible to calculate that the permeability ratio (P(Cl)/P(K)), was 0.11. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 0.001) lower than that of [ 14 C]Bp4eT at 37°C, indicating that the increased hydrophilicity of [ 14 C]PIH reduced membrane permeability. (aspetjournals.org)
  • However, its poor membrane-permeability, because its relative hydrophilicity, short half-life, and relatively low antiproliferative activity has resulted in mixed outcomes in clinical trials ( Kalinowski and Richardson, 2005 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Silver ions increase plasma membrane permeability for water and small organic compounds through their stimulatory effect on plasma membrane calcium channels, with subsequent modulation of intracellular calcium levels and ion homeostasis. (springer.com)
  • A link coupling the action of silver ions and cellular auxin efflux has been suggested earlier by their possible direct interaction with auxin efflux carriers or by influencing plasma membrane permeability. (springer.com)
  • Co-expression of BvPIP1;1 and BvPIP2;2 not only enhances oocyte plasma membrane water permeability synergistically but also reinforces pH inhibitory response from partial to complete shut down after cytosolic pH acidification. (deepdyve.com)
  • These results prove for the first time that PIP co-expression modulates the membrane water permeability through a pH regulatory response, enhancing in this way membrane versatility to adjust its water transfer capacity. (deepdyve.com)
  • MEMBRANE TRANSPORT & MEMBRANE POTENTIAL AC Brown page 2 A7a RATE OF MEMBRANE MOVEMENT A. Major Factors TRANSPORT RATE = AREA x PERMEABILITY x NET DRIVING FORCE B. Area (A) 1. (coursehero.com)
  • It wasn't until later studies with osmosis and permeability that cell membranes gained more recognition. (wikipedia.org)
  • In guineapig model of asthma sensitization to allergen increased the membrane permeability to calcium and sodium , and intracellular calcium levels. (bvsalud.org)
  • 8 Receptor-mediated activation of PLC leads to the breakdown of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) into IP 3 , which binds to the IP 3 R in the membranes of endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and releases Ca 2+ into the cytoplasm. (nih.gov)
  • For example, we noted that Salmonella redirects endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane trafficking to its intracellular niche, a finding that has not been described for Salmonella previously. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • After nuclear envelope disassembly, the mitotic apparatus becomes encased by a discontinuous network of endoplasmic reticulum membranes, which associate with mitochondria, presumably to prevent their diffusion into the spindle area. (biomedcentral.com)
  • SHERP has been localized to the endoplasmic reticulum as well as to the outer mitochondrial membrane in both wild-type and over-expressing parasites. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Frozen, thin sections of baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells were incubated with either concanavalin A (Con A) or Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA) to localize specific oligosaccharide moieties in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi membranes. (rupress.org)
  • When injected directly on the membrane of an excitable cell, thyrotropin-releasing hormone and 17 beta-estradiol induced action potentials within 1 minute. (sciencemag.org)
  • When [Cl](o) was changed at a constant [K](o) the membrane potentials changed rapidly and symmetrically by a small value and remained constant for 30 min.4. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Recovery of cardiac intracellular membrane potentials after potassium cardioplegia and hypothermia. (elsevier.com)
  • 5. Under voltage recording conditions, anoxia induced a reversible membrane depolarization (or receptor potential) accompanied, in many cases, by trains of action potentials. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 3 However, because most intracellular organelles also contain Ca 2+ (at concentrations from hundreds of micromolar to millimolar), 1 activation of TRPs localized in these compartments could result in elevation of [Ca 2+ ] i . (nih.gov)
  • Although Ca 2+ release from intracellular compartments is important for signal transduction and membrane trafficking, our knowledge of ion channels involved in Ca 2+ release remains very limited. (nih.gov)
  • In this chapter, we will discuss techniques employed to identify and characterize TRPs localized in intracellular compartments. (nih.gov)
  • Intracellular compartments make up roughly two-thirds of the body, but delivery of molecular imaging probes to these spaces can be challenging. (mit.edu)
  • Whereas some pathogens escape phagosomes and replicate in the host cytoplasm, most of the described pathogens replicate in membrane-bound, vacuole-like compartments ( 2 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • HIV assembles on, and accumulates within, these intracellular compartments. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In macrophages, HIV-1 has been shown to bud into intracellular structures that contain the late endosome marker CD63. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These results indicate that, in macrophages, HIV-1 exploits a previously undescribed intracellular plasma membrane domain to assemble infectious particles. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Lastly, a genetic screen using the iglE -null live vaccine strain resulted in the identification of key regions in the carboxyl terminus of IglE that are required for intracellular replication of Francisella tularensis in J774A.1 macrophages. (asm.org)
  • Kielian, MC & Cohn, ZA 1980, ' Phagosome-lysosome fusion: Characterization of intracellular membrane fusion in mouse macrophages ', Journal of Cell Biology , vol. 85, no. 3, pp. 754-765. (elsevier.com)
  • Molecular mechanisms regulating membrane traffic in macrophages : lessons from the intracellular pathogen mycobacterium spp. (unibas.ch)
  • Intracellular pathogens need to establish a growth-stimulating host niche for survival and replication. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Our system-wide approach therefore has the potential to rapidly close gaps in our knowledge of the infection process of intracellular pathogens and demonstrates a hitherto unrecognized complexity in the formation of Salmonella host niches. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
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  • Is the Subject Area "Intracellular pathogens" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular pathogens that proliferate only inside a vacuole, called an inclusion. (elsevier.com)
  • Hence, plasma membrane TRPs are natural candidates to mediate Ca 2+ influx. (nih.gov)
  • ER ‐resident Syntaxin‐17 and lysosomal SNARE VAMP 8 mediate membrane fusion events to guide allow degradation of misfolded polymers. (embopress.org)
  • Whereas Rab-GTPases seem to mediate the initial membrane contact, SNAREs appear to lie at the center of the fusion process. (biologists.org)
  • A variety of intracellular second messengers mediate transmitter and metabolic regulation of Kir channels. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "This paper reports the design, fabrication, and experimental results for a Micro Channel Array (MCA)-based photodynamic cell perforator toward intracellular technology. (elsevier.com)
  • Subcellular localization studies have revealed that many TRPs are localized on the membranes of intercellular organelles. (nih.gov)
  • SNAREs were initially classified according to their preferential localization as vesicle-localized (v)- or target-membrane-bound (t)-SNAREs ( Rothman, 1994 ). (biologists.org)
  • Intracellular localization of membrane-bound endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE) was examined in rat lung by sucrose-gradient ultracentrifugation coupled with organelle marker studies. (northwestern.edu)
  • Conformational changes induced by substrate transport affect Mup1 localization in the membrane. (embopress.org)
  • Figure 2: Whole-cell 3D localization microscopy of intracellular membranes. (nature.com)
  • Glucose transporter number quantified by performing studies of D-glucose-protectable binding of cytochalasin-B in plasma membranes (PM) and internal membranes (IM) prepared from L6 myotubes revealed that a 16-h treatment with 800 microM metformin significantly elevated glucose transporter number in the PM (by 47%), with an equivalent decrement in glucose transporter number (47%) in the IM. (nih.gov)
  • Microtubules may, therefore, be necessary for intracellular transport of membrane glycoproteins, although the possibility of a direct action of these drugs on Golgi or plasma membranes must also be considered. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These results are consistent with a rapid movement of cholesterol from sphingomyelin-depleted plasma membranes to the putative intracellular regulatory pool of cholesterol. (biochemj.org)
  • This mass movement of cholesterol away from the plasma membranes presumably resulted from a decreased capacity of the plasma membranes to solubilize cholesterol, since sphingomyelin-depleted cells also had a decreased capacity to incorporate nanomolar amounts of [3H]cholesterol from the extracellular medium, as compared with control cells. (biochemj.org)
  • Evidence for the presence of plasma membranes in the association fraction was obtained by using 125 I-labelled spheroplasts. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Fractionation on sucrose density gradients of incubation mixtures containing isolated crude plasma-membranes and vesicles gave rise to a visible intermediate-density band, which electron microscopy showed to contain membranes associated with vesicles. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Evidence for the presence of plasma membranes in the in vitro intermediate-density band came from incubating mixtures containing 125 I-labelled crude plasma-membranes, and evidence for the presence of vesicles came from using 125 I-labelled vesicles. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Purified plasma-membranes failed to form an intermediate-density band when incubated with vesicles. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Supplementing these incubation mixtures with calcium chloride did not produce an intermediate-density band, but caused extensive association of vesicles with plasma membranes that pelleted in gradients. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • 8 Unlike plasma membrane TRPs, the activation mechanisms of TRPs localized in intracellular organelles 1 are largely unknown. (nih.gov)
  • 1 Because TRPs are Ca 2+ permeable, and some localize to intracellular organelles, they are natural candidates for Ca 2+ release from intracellular organelles. (nih.gov)
  • A rapid and simple method for the isolation of membranes from subcellular organelles is described. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We show that these organelles are not endosomes, but an internally sequestered plasma membrane domain. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Intracellular organelles constitute dense and branched membrane networks that are under constant remodeling. (researchschool.nl)
  • The cell membrane controls the movement of substances in and out of cells and organelles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sedimentation profiles of marker enzymes for plasma membrane, Golgi, lysosome, and mitochondria showed that these organelles were measurably separated from each other. (northwestern.edu)
  • The procedure consists of diluting the organelles in ice-cold 100 mM Na 2COs followed by centrifugation to pellet the membranes. (psu.edu)
  • Mitochondria in eukaryotic cells are not involved in the processes of membrane flow and membrane transformation between cellular organelles. (journalcra.com)
  • This nomenclature turned out to be somewhat ambiguous, since t-SNAREs are also found on vesicles and v-SNAREs can be found on target membranes. (biologists.org)
  • Summary: Fractionation on sucrose density gradients of spheroplast lysates from Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCYC 366 yielded a fraction with a peak density of 1.05 g ml −1 , intermediate between that of membranes and intracellular low-density vesicles. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Electron microscopy showed the fraction to consist of membranes associated with intracellular vesicles. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The data reported provide further evidence for a role for intracellular low-density vesicles in envelope growth in S. cerevisiae. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • A major portion of phosphoramidon-sensitive ECE activity was distributed with a single peak at the ~1.05-1.2 M sucrose region, where it appeared to be cosedimented with membrane vesicles that contained the two different marker enzymes for Golgi apparatus. (northwestern.edu)
  • Disorganization of vacuolar membranes in apt1Δ cells was accompanied by a significant increase in the amounts of intra-vacuolar and pigment-containing vesicles. (elsevier.com)
  • [7] In 1895, Ernest Overton proposed that cell membranes were made of lipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, we analyzed the role of C. neoformans Apt1 in intracellular membrane architecture and synthesis of polysaccharide and lipids. (elsevier.com)
  • An important, and general, mechanism for regulation is feedback inhibition of K + transport by high intracellular K + levels ( 5 , 34 ), but the molecular details remain unknown. (asm.org)
  • Alterations in the regulation of intracellular calcium may play an important role in its pathogenesis . (bvsalud.org)
  • Manipulating the membrane potential with Cs + and the ionophore valinomycin can override K + regulation. (elsevier.com)
  • Activation of trout sperm by the dilution of extracellular [K+] suggests regulation by membrane potential. (elsevier.com)
  • These data suggest a role for intracellular superoxide in the regulation of VSMCs apoptosis. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • Similarly, cytoplasmic replication of some DNA viruses occurs in association with modified cellular membranes. (nih.gov)
  • Plus-strand RNA viruses characteristically replicate their genome in association with altered cellular membranes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In contrast, it was possible to discern tightly apposed cellular membranes, each 5 nm thick, in junctions between cells and in the myelin sheath of Schwann cells around neurons. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 3 It is not clear whether intracellular TRPs are also regulated by these mechanisms and, if so, whether they exhibit electrophysiological characteristics similar to plasma membrane TRPs. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we studied the fluoride-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cells and determined the underlying molecular mechanisms including the cell viability, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, the changes of mitochondrial membrane potential, and the cell apoptosis. (fluoridealert.org)
  • We buy to Discuss a view Regulatory Mechanisms of Intracellular Membrane for link and information on students that present other touch. (troop212.net)
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  • Cramer WA and Knaff DB (1990) Energy Transduction in Biological Membranes. (els.net)
  • Flippases are responsible for the asymmetric distribution of phospholipids in biological membranes. (elsevier.com)
  • 1984), light-microscope radioautographic studies showed that colchicine or vinblastine inhibited intracellular migration of glycoproteins out of the Golgi region in a variety of cell types. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This suggests that labeled glycoproteins destined for the apical plasma membrane were inhibited from leaving the Golgi region, while migration to the lateral plasma membrane was not impaired. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This indicates that the drugs inhibited migration of membrane glycoproteins from the Golgi region to the various portions of the plasma membrane. (biomedsearch.com)
  • one or two cis Golgi cisternae and all ER membranes were essentially unlabeled. (rupress.org)
  • Viruses are intracellular parasites that use the host cell they infect to produce new infectious progeny. (nih.gov)
  • While all bacterial cell walls (with a few exceptions e.g. intracellular parasites such as Mycoplasma ) contain peptidoglycan, not all cell walls have the same overall structures. (bionity.com)
  • Distinct steps of the virus life cycle occur in association with the cytoskeleton or cytoplasmic membranes, which are often modified during infection. (nih.gov)
  • The obligate intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii creates and enters into a unique membrane-bounded cytoplasmic compartment, the parasitophorous vacuole, when invading mammalian host cells. (pnas.org)
  • The marked area from the intracellular plasma membrane-connected compartment (IPMC) is shown at higher magnification in ( b ). c View of the area marked in ( b ) to show the immature phenotype of the budding-arrested virus particles. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Early studies proposed that the lipid crescents were synthesized de novo and matured into IMV particles that contained a single lipid bilayer (S. Dales and E. H. Mosbach, Virology 35:564-583, 1968), but a more recent study reported that the lipid crescent was derived from membranes of the intermediate compartment (IC) and contained a double lipid bilayer (B. Sodiek et al. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Artificially decreasing intracellular pH is not sufficient for activation of motility in trout sperm in an inhibitory [K + ]. Thus, unlike some other sperm, changes in intracellular pH do not regulate trout sperm motility. (elsevier.com)
  • To assess the validity of our approach, we first showed that glucose-induced (0.5-2.5 mmol/l) changes in intracellular Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ) oscillations, using fura-2 and changes in membrane potential (using a membrane potential-sensitive dye), were highly correlated in both glucose-excited and -inhibited neurons. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • An increase in intracellular pH has been suggested to be a conserved step in the activation of sperm motility. (elsevier.com)
  • Boitano, SA & Omoto, CK 1991, ' Membrane hyperpolarization activates trout sperm without an increase in intracellular pH ', Journal of Cell Science , vol. 98, no. 3, pp. 343-349. (elsevier.com)
  • Using these cells we then looked at the evolution of the surface membrane area during the cell cycle using the fluorescence membrane probe TMA-DPH. (biologists.org)
  • Confocal microscopy of Ca 2+ -sensitive fluorescence indicator Fluo-4FF, acetoxymethyl (AM) ester suggested that the extracellular Ca 2+ availability is necessary to trigger the response to silver ions and that the intracellular Ca 2+ pool alone is not sufficient for this effect. (springer.com)
  • To verify the intracellular delivery ability, DOX was selected as an example, and an enhanced fluorescence of DOX in cells exposed to resonator stimulation can be seen. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Additionally, fluorescence anisotropy revealed that DCA causes a decrease in membrane fluidity consistent with the increase in membrane cholesterol content observed after 4 h of DCA treatment of HCT116 cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Plásek J and Sigler K (1996) Slow fluorescent indicators of membrane potential: a survey of different approaches to probe response analysis. (els.net)
  • By microinjecting polar fluorescent molecules into individual T. gondii-infected fibroblasts, we show here that the parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM) surrounding the parasite functions as a molecular sieve. (pnas.org)
  • In contact with cells, this probe partitions between the membrane (probe fluorescent) and the external medium (non-fluorescent), delivering a signal proportional to the membrane area. (biologists.org)
  • Intracellular calcium [Ca(2+)]i was measured in tracheal smooth muscle cells and peripheral leukocytes using fluorescent dye FURA 2AM. (bvsalud.org)
  • Using the membrane potential-sensitive fluorescent dye 3,3′-dipropylthiocarbocyanine iodide (diS-C 3 -(5)) we directly measured the K + contribution to the membrane potential. (elsevier.com)
  • Intracellular sodium, membrane potential, and contractility of rat mesenteric small arteries. (ahajournals.org)
  • We have investigated effects of altered extracellular sodium, intracellular sodium concentration, and membrane potential on the contractile responses of rat isolated mesenteric small arteries (internal diameter ca. 200 microns), when mounted as ring preparations on an isometric myograph. (ahajournals.org)
  • The magnitude of the response was dependent on the ratio of intracellular to extracellular sodium and was not inhibitable by the calcium blockers, felodipine (1 nM) or D600 (10 microM). (ahajournals.org)
  • under normal conditions the effect of ouabain on activated vessels seems to be primarily due to its depolarizing effect, and not to its effect on intracellular sodium. (ahajournals.org)
  • In developing follicles, characteristic extracellular current patterns and membrane-potential changes in oocyte and nurse cells have been observed that partly depend on the exchange of protons, potassium ions and sodium ions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Calcium and sodium ion influx across the cell membrane was measured in leukocytes . (bvsalud.org)
  • 200 nm), cholesterol- and sphingolipid-enriched membrane microdomains, likely present in all eukaryotic cells, that compartmentalize select signaling and functional events. (jimmunol.org)
  • The subject of this volume is the molecular mechanism of the intracellular membrane trafficking, a central eukaryotic cell biological process. (vtt.fi)
  • The depolarization time course was easily fitted by the potential change calculated by assuming the need for K diffusion into the extracellular spaces and taking account of the logarithmic relation between membrane potential and [K](o). (biomedsearch.com)
  • The observed effects were dependent on the availability of extracellular calcium ions (Ca 2+ ) as shown by comparison of transport assays in Ca 2+ -rich and Ca 2+ -free buffers and upon treatment with inhibitors of plasma membrane Ca 2+ -permeable channels Al 3+ and ruthenium red, both abolishing the effect of AgNO 3 . (springer.com)
  • The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma ) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space). (wikipedia.org)
  • The plasma membrane oxidoreductase (PMOR) activity, which mainly utilises ascorbate as intracellular electron donor, represents a major mechanism for cell-dependent reduction of extracellular oxidants and might be an important process used by the erythrocytes to keep a reduced plasma environment. (zenodo.org)
  • intracellular conserved fragments were more widely recognized than were extracellular hypervariable fragments. (duke.edu)
  • Fusion seems to involve a cascade in which a Rab-GTPase, together with tethering factors, mediates membrane contact, which is followed by SNARE pairing and lipid bilayer mixing. (biologists.org)
  • SNARE complexes are required for membrane fusion in the endomembrane system. (semanticscholar.org)
  • HOPS prevents the disassembly of trans-SNARE complexes by Sec17p/Sec18p during membrane fusion. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This dye movement was not appreciably delayed by pretreatment of cells with 5 mM probenecid or chilling the monolayer to 5 degrees C, suggesting that dye movement was due to passive permeation through a membrane pore rather than active transport. (pnas.org)
  • Successful internalization and intracellular labelling with NCs have been demonstrated for both fixed immunolabelled and live cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Probe variants incorporating enzyme-cleavable acetomethoxy ester groups are processed by intracellular esterases and accumulate in cells. (mit.edu)
  • Whereas the initial maturation steps are similar to the canonical phagosome biogenesis, the formation of an extensive tubular membrane network extending from the mature SCV is unique to Salmonella- infected host cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The results reveal a rapid effect of both substances on the membrane of GH3/B6 cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • To stain intracellular molecules, the cells need to be fixed in suspension and then permeabilized before the detection antibody is added. (rndsystems.com)
  • This fixation/permeabilization treatment allows the antibody to pass through the plasma membrane into the cell interior, while maintaining the morphological characteristics used to sort the cells. (rndsystems.com)
  • Saponin-mediated cell permeabilization is a reversible process, it is important to keep the cells in the presence of Permeabilization Buffer I during intracellular staining. (rndsystems.com)
  • Inhibition of intracellular migration of membrane glycoproteins in rat intestinal columnar cells and hepatocytes as visualized by light and electron-microscope radioautography after 3H-fucose injection. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In the present work, the effects of these drugs on migration of membrane glycoproteins have been examined at the ultrastructural level in duodenal villous columnar cells and hepatocytes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The ability of these ligands to permeate the cell membrane and their cellular retention was examined under various conditions using SK-N-MC neuroepithelioma cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Altogether, our data suggest that in plant cells the effects of silver ions originate from the primal modification of the internal calcium levels, possibly by their interaction with Ca 2+ -permeable channels at the plasma membrane. (springer.com)
  • Internalization and intracellular survival within phagocytic cells thus may play an important role in the development of bacteremia, which is crucial for E. coli crossing of the blood-brain barrier. (asm.org)
  • K + transport in living cells must be tightly controlled because it affects basic physiological parameters such as turgor, membrane potential, ionic strength, and pH. (asm.org)
  • The liquid above the device working area will be accelerated and strike the substrate surface, thus generates pressure on cells, induces deformation and membrane poration, and finally realizes delivery of exogenous materials. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Disrupted cell membranes and porous structures can be seen after treatment, and resealed after 10 min recovery, indicating a strong fluid force exerted on cells and the influence is temporary and reversible. (alliedacademies.org)
  • In a time-course study, it was found that within 10 min of the addition of sphingomyelinase to cells, a dramatic increase in acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase activity could be observed, whether measured from the appearance of plasma membrane-derived [3H]cholesterol or exogenously added [14C]oleic acid, in cellular cholesteryl esters. (biochemj.org)
  • These findings confirm previous assumptions that the membrane sphingomyelin content is an important determinant of the overall distribution of cholesterol within intact cells. (biochemj.org)
  • We analyzed by TEM a random sample of 144 cells undergoing mitosis, focusing on intracellular membrane and microtubule (MT) behaviors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This unbiased approach provided a comprehensive ultrastructural view of the dividing cells, and allowed us to discover that S2 cells exhibit a previously uncharacterized behavior of intracellular membranes, involving the formation of a quadruple nuclear membrane in early prometaphase and its disassembly during late prometaphase. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Adrenal Chromaffin Cells Exposed to 5-ns Pulses Require Higher Electric Fields to Porate Intracellular Membranes than the Plasma Membrane: An Experimental and Modeling Study. (emf-portal.org)
  • While Robert Hooke 's discovery of cells in 1665 led to the proposal of the Cell Theory , Hooke misled the cell membrane theory that all cells contained a hard cell wall since only plant cells could be observed at the time. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, some microscopists correctly identified at this time that while invisible, it could be inferred that cell membranes existed in animal cells due to intracellular movement of components internally but not externally and that membranes weren't the equivalent of a cell wall to plant cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was also inferred that cell membranes weren't vital components to all cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Membrane and intracellular effects of adenosine in mouse pancreatic beta-cells. (uclouvain.be)
  • Here we describe a strategy using crosslink-stabilized lipid nanocapsules (NCs) as carriers to transport such membrane-penetrating particles into tumor cells and promote their transfer to intracellular membranes for enhanced radiotherapy of cancer. (elsevier.com)
  • Confocal and electron microscopies revealed that the intracellular distribution of amph-NPs within melanoma and breast tumor cells following uptake of free particles vs Au-NCs was quite distinct and that amph-NPs initially delivered into endosomes by Au-NCs transferred over a period of hours to intracellular membranes through tumor cells, with greater intracellular spread in melanoma cells than breast carcinoma cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Photodynamic perforation of the cell membrane performed successfully in the experiment using PC 12 cells with diameters as small as tens of μm. (elsevier.com)
  • Effects of hypoxia on membrane potential and intracellular calcium in rat neonatal carotid body type I cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 1. We have studied the effects of hypoxia on membrane potential and [Ca2+]i in enzymically isolated type I cells of the neonatal rat carotid body (the principal respiratory O2 chemosensor). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Indo-1 was loaded into cells using the esterified form indo-1 AM. Membrane potential was measured (and clamped) in single isolated type I cells using the perforated-patch (amphotericin B) whole-cell recording technique. (ox.ac.uk)
  • a) The electron and proton carriers are shown arranged vectorially across the energy‐transducing membrane. (els.net)
  • Trumpower BL and Gennis RB (1994) Energy transduction by cytochrome complexes in mitochondrial and bacterial respiration: the enzymology of coupling electron transfer reactions to trans‐membrane proton translocation. (els.net)
  • In the present study, we used high-resolution electron microscopy to reinvestigate the structures of the lipid crescents, IV, and IMV particles in order to determine if they contain one or two membranes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We describe how to measure near membrane and global intracellular calcium dynamics in cultured astrocytes using total internal reflection and epifluorescence microscopy. (jove.com)
  • By the second half of the 19th century, microscopy was still not advanced enough to make a distinction between cell membranes and cell walls. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we combined lattice light-sheet microscopy with newly developed, freely diffusing, cell-permeable chemical probes with targeted affinity for DNA, intracellular membranes or the plasma membrane. (nature.com)
  • Rho GTPases and actin dynamics in membrane protrusions and vesicle trafficking. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Projects developed in the "Membrane Dynamics and Mechanics of Intracellular Signaling" team are based on the new concepts and original assays developed by the team for the last ten years to investigate the Cell Biology of membrane trafficking and mechanics and its role in intracellular signaling. (institut-curie.org)
  • Effect of sensitization on membrane ion fluxes & intracellular calcium in guineapigs. (bvsalud.org)
  • We carried out this study to see the effect of sensitization with ovalbumin on membrane ion fluxes and intracellular calcium in a guinea pig model. (bvsalud.org)
  • With the increment of NaF concentration, the apoptotic rates and ROS generation were increased, while the [mitochondrial membrane potential] was decreased. (fluoridealert.org)
  • In summary, these data suggested that NaF-induced H9c2 cell apoptosis is mediated by direct increased intracellular ROS and downregulated [mitochondrial membrane potential]. (fluoridealert.org)
  • In the apoptotic process mitochondrial membrane potential was decreased and caspase-3, -8 and -9 were activated. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • The lipid bilayer hypothesis, proposed in 1925 by Gorter and Grendel, [9] created speculation to the description of the cell membrane bilayer structure based on crystallographic studies and soap bubble observations. (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] [2] The cell membrane consists of a lipid bilayer , including cholesterols (a lipid component) that sit between phospholipids to maintain their fluidity at various temperatures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Influence of changes in external potassium and chloride ions on membrane potential and intracellular potassium ion activity in rabbit ventricular muscle. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels control action-potential waveforms and neuronal firing patterns by opening and closing in response to membrane-potential changes. (elsevier.com)
  • The results obtained indicate that, although most of the flavonoids display significant antioxidant activities, only those (quercetin, myricetin, fisetin) that combine the cathecol structure of the B ring (responsible for the reducing activity) with the 2,3 double bond and 4-oxo function of the C ring (responsible for the uptake by erythrocytes) can act as intracellular substrates for PMOR. (zenodo.org)
  • Small size is extremely important because it allows for a large surface area-to-volume ratio which allows for rapid uptake and intracellular distribution of nutrients and excretion of wastes. (bionity.com)
  • In looking at simulations of resting membrane changes to a neuron in low Na+ ECF solution, I see that the membrane potential in the intracellular cell body and intracellular axon is the same voltage/value. (biology-online.org)
  • Measurement of potential with K(+)-selective micro-electrodes in these experiments showed no change in intracellular K activity. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The influence of [K](i) on membrane potential was investigated by changes in tonicity of the external solution. (biomedsearch.com)
  • K + is the major intracellular cation, and its concentration affects basic physiological parameters such as turgor pressure, electrical membrane potential, ionic strength, and pH ( 34 ). (asm.org)
  • Electrical charges Inside of the cell is generally negative relative to the outside of the cell Intracellular electrical potential (V m ) typically ≈ -70 to -80 millivolts (mV) 3. (coursehero.com)
  • MEMBRANE TRANSPORT & MEMBRANE POTENTIAL AC Brown page 3 A7a MODES OF MEMBRANE TRANSPORT (continued) B. Dissolve in Membrane Lipid 1. (coursehero.com)
  • Activation by divalent cations is explained by the cations' ability to mask membrane surface potential and thus alter the potential sensed by membrane voltage sensors. (elsevier.com)
  • Transient receptor potential channels (TRP channels) are a group of ion channels located mostly on the plasma membrane of numerous animal cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the inception of the lipid raft hypothesis in 1997 ( 1 ), a profusion of studies have reported roles for these cholesterol-enriched membrane microdomains in organization of cell signaling. (jimmunol.org)
  • This study examines the relationship between cellular sphingomyelin content and the distribution of unesterified cholesterol between the plasma-membrane pool and the putative intracellular regulatory pool. (biochemj.org)
  • 3 - Investigating the role of membrane trafficking in cholesterol transcriptional homeostasis . (institut-curie.org)
  • Depletion of membrane cholesterol by treating with methyl-β-cyclodextrin suppressed deoxycholic acid (DCA)-induced apoptosis, and staining for cholesterol with filipin showed that DCA caused a marked rearrangement of this lipid in the membrane. (elsevier.com)
  • Collectively, these data suggest that bile acid-induced signaling is initiated through alterations of the plasma membrane structure and the redistribution of cholesterol. (elsevier.com)
  • Vaccinia virus (VV) morphogenesis commences with the formation of lipid crescents that grow into spherical immature virus (IV) and then infectious intracellular mature virus (IMV) particles. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Moreover, crescents were found to form at sites remote from IC membranes-namely, within the center of virus factories and within the nucleus-demonstrating that crescent formation can occur independently of IC membranes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Beyond the simple cataloguing of signaling events compartmentalized by these membrane microdomains, recent studies have revealed the surprisingly central importance of dynamic remodeling of membrane lipid domains to immune signaling. (jimmunol.org)
  • In this study, we examined the actions of bile acids at the cell membrane and found that they can perturb membrane structure by alteration of membrane microdomains. (elsevier.com)
  • Intracellular survival of Yersinia spp. (diva-portal.org)
  • Invasion and intracellular survival of E. coli , therefore, represent an important pathogenicity mechanism in this infection. (asm.org)
  • Most TRPs are Ca 2+ -permeable nonselective cation channels, generally believed to regulate intracellular Ca 2+ ([Ca 2+ ] i ) levels. (nih.gov)
  • therefore, it is important to understand how ion channels open and close in response to neurotransmitters and intracellular messengers. (elsevier.com)
  • Most TRP channels are composed of 6 membrane-spanning helices with intracellular N- and C-termini. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modification of intracellular membrane structures for virus replication. (nih.gov)
  • Plus-stranded RNA viruses induce membrane proliferations that support the replication of their genomes. (nih.gov)
  • tularensis Schu S4 avirulent and incapable of intracellular replication, owing to an inability to escape the phagosome. (asm.org)
  • The parasitophorous vacuole membrane surrounding intracellular Toxoplasma gondii functions as a molecular sieve. (pnas.org)
  • rather, they stabilize the transporter at the plasma membrane under low K + conditions, preventing its endocytosis and vacuolar degradation. (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, adjusting the pH of the culture medium to model the tumor microenvironment did not affect [ 14 C]Bp4eT membrane transport. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Our working hypothesis is that these two key features might enhance plasticity of the membrane water transport capacity if they jointly trigger any cooperative interaction. (deepdyve.com)
  • Sum of passive forces (such as diffusion and electric forces) and active forces requiring energy developed by living systems (more later) MODES OF MEMBRANE TRANSPORT A. Cell Membrane Structure 1. (coursehero.com)
  • It is suggested that association of newly synthesized prohormones with intracellular membranes could be related to the facilitation of proteolytic processing of prohormones and/or transport from their site of synthesis to the secretory granules. (rupress.org)
  • We describe how viruses modify intracellular membranes, highlight similarities between the structures that are induced by viruses of different families and discuss how these structures could be formed. (nih.gov)
  • In 1890, an update to the Cell Theory stated that cell membranes existed, but were merely secondary structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • The action of silver ions at the plant plasma membrane is largely connected with the inhibition of ethylene signalling thanks to the ability of silver ion to replace the copper cofactor in the ethylene receptor. (springer.com)
  • Serial-section analysis and angular tilt analysis of sections detected no continuity between virus lipid crescents or IV particles and cellular membrane cisternae. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Amphiphilic gold nanoparticles (amph-NPs), composed of gold cores surrounded by an amphiphilic mixed organic ligand shell, are capable of embedding within and traversing lipid membranes. (elsevier.com)
  • Thus, multilamellar lipid capsules may serve as an effective carrier to deliver amphiphilic gold nanoparticles to tumors, where the membrane-penetrating properties of these materials can significantly enhance the efficacy of frontline radiotherapy treatments. (elsevier.com)
  • This novel regulatory mechanism of nutrient transporters may participate in the quiescence/growth transition and could result from effects of intracellular K + and halotolerance kinases on membrane trafficking and/or on the transporters themselves. (asm.org)
  • In this Account, we focus on some recent studies that support a new mechanism that local membrane curvature induced by nanoscale topography directly acts as a biochemical signal to induce intracellular signaling, which we refer to as the curvature hypothesis. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • We previously reported that in human erythrocytes, myricetin and quercetin act as intracellular substrates of a PMOR showing a novel mechanism whereby these flavonoids could exert beneficial effects under oxidative stress conditions. (zenodo.org)