The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
A segment of the LOWER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the CECUM; the COLON; and the RECTUM.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.
The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.
Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
Absorptive cells in the lining of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA. They are differentiated EPITHELIAL CELLS with apical MICROVILLI facing the intestinal lumen. Enterocytes are more abundant in the SMALL INTESTINE than in the LARGE INTESTINE. Their microvilli greatly increase the luminal surface area of the cell by 14- to 40 fold.
Pathological processes in any segment of the INTESTINE from DUODENUM to RECTUM.
A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.
Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.
A thin lining of closed cavities of the body, consisting of a single layer of squamous epithelial cells (MESOTHELIUM) resting on a thin layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and covered with secreted clear fluid from blood and lymph vessels. Major serous membranes in the body include PERICARDIUM; PERITONEUM; and PLEURA.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Differentiated epithelial cells of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA, found in the basal part of the intestinal crypts of Lieberkuhn. Paneth cells secrete GROWTH FACTORS, digestive enzymes such as LYSOZYME and antimicrobial peptides such as cryptdins (ALPHA-DEFENSINS) into the crypt lumen.
Fluids originating from the epithelial lining of the intestines, adjoining exocrine glands and from organs such as the liver, which empty into the cavity of the intestines.
Inflammation of any segment of the SMALL INTESTINE.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Young, unweaned mammals. Refers to nursing animals whether nourished by their biological mother, foster mother, or bottle fed.
The contents included in all or any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus is located between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the gut. Its neurons project to the circular muscle, to other myenteric ganglia, to submucosal ganglia, or directly to the epithelium, and play an important role in regulating and patterning gut motility. (From FASEB J 1989;3:127-38)
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
Passage of food (sometimes in the form of a test meal) through the gastrointestinal tract as measured in minutes or hours. The rate of passage through the intestine is an indicator of small bowel function.
Two ganglionated neural plexuses in the gut wall which form one of the three major divisions of the autonomic nervous system. The enteric nervous system innervates the gastrointestinal tract, the pancreas, and the gallbladder. It contains sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. Thus the circuitry can autonomously sense the tension and the chemical environment in the gut and regulate blood vessel tone, motility, secretions, and fluid transport. The system is itself governed by the central nervous system and receives both parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation. (From Kandel, Schwartz, and Jessel, Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p766)
The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A layer of the peritoneum which attaches the abdominal viscera to the ABDOMINAL WALL and conveys their blood vessels and nerves.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Tumors or cancer in the JEJUNUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).
Lymphoid tissue on the mucosa of the small intestine.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Tumors or cancer in the ILEUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A movement, caused by sequential muscle contraction, that pushes the contents of the intestines or other tubular organs in one direction.
Cells found throughout the lining of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that contain and secrete regulatory PEPTIDE HORMONES and/or BIOGENIC AMINES.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the enteric nervous system. The submucous (Meissner's) plexus is in the connective tissue of the submucosa. Its neurons innervate the epithelium, blood vessels, endocrine cells, other submucosal ganglia, and myenteric ganglia, and play an important role in regulating ion and water transport. (From FASEB J 1989;3:127-38)
The founding member of the sodium glucose transport proteins. It is predominately expressed in the INTESTINAL MUCOSA of the SMALL INTESTINE.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A hexose transporter that mediates FRUCTOSE transport in SKELETAL MUSCLE and ADIPOCYTES and is responsible for luminal uptake of dietary fructose in the SMALL INTESTINE.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.
Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A pattern of gastrointestinal muscle contraction and depolarizing myoelectric activity that moves from the stomach to the ILEOCECAL VALVE at regular frequency during the interdigestive period. The complex and its accompanying motor activity periodically cleanse the bowel of interdigestive secretion and debris in preparation for the next meal.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
A glandular epithelial cell or a unicellular gland. Goblet cells secrete MUCUS. They are scattered in the epithelial linings of many organs, especially the SMALL INTESTINE and the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
An infection with TRICHINELLA. It is caused by eating raw or undercooked meat that is infected with larvae of nematode worms TRICHINELLA genus. All members of the TRICHINELLA genus can infect human in addition to TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS, the traditional etiological agent. It is distributed throughout much of the world and is re-emerging in some parts as a public health hazard and a food safety problem.
Discrete abnormal tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the INTESTINE. A polyp is attached to the intestinal wall either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
An enzyme complex found in the brush border membranes of the small intestine. It is believed to be an enzyme complex with different catalytic sites. Its absence is manifested by an inherited disease called sucrase-isomaltase deficiency.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Pathological development in the JEJUNUM region of the SMALL INTESTINE.
c-Kit positive cells related to SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that are intercalated between the autonomic nerves and the effector smooth muscle cells of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Different phenotypic classes play roles as pacemakers, mediators of neural inputs, and mechanosensors.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
Any impairment, arrest, or reversal of the normal flow of INTESTINAL CONTENTS toward the ANAL CANAL.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A gel-forming mucin found predominantly in SMALL INTESTINE and variety of mucous membrane-containing organs. It provides a protective, lubricating barrier against particles and infectious agents.
A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
ENTEROCOLITIS with extensive ulceration (ULCER) and NECROSIS. It is observed primarily in LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANT.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of LACTOSE to D-GALACTOSE and D-GLUCOSE. Defects in the enzyme cause LACTOSE INTOLERANCE.
The multifunctional protein that contains two enzyme domains. The first domain (EC 3.2.1.62) hydrolyzes glycosyl-N-acylsphingosine to a sugar and N-acylsphingosine. The second domain (EC 3.2.1.108) hydrolyzes LACTOSE and is found in the intestinal brush border membrane. Loss of activity for this enzyme in humans results in LACTOSE INTOLERANCE.
A 33-amino acid peptide derived from the C-terminal of PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. It stimulates intestinal mucosal growth and decreased apoptosis of ENTEROCYTES. GLP-2 enhances gastrointestinal function and plays an important role in nutrient homeostasis.
A malabsorption syndrome that is precipitated by the ingestion of foods containing GLUTEN, such as wheat, rye, and barley. It is characterized by INFLAMMATION of the SMALL INTESTINE, loss of MICROVILLI structure, failed INTESTINAL ABSORPTION, and MALNUTRITION.
The insertion of a tube into the stomach, intestines, or other portion of the gastrointestinal tract to allow for the passage of food products, etc.
Inflammation of any segment of the ILEUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.
Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Peptides that regulate the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in the body, also known as natriuretic peptide hormones. Several have been sequenced (ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR; BRAIN NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE; C-TYPE NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE).
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.
A chronic transmural inflammation that may involve any part of the DIGESTIVE TRACT from MOUTH to ANUS, mostly found in the ILEUM, the CECUM, and the COLON. In Crohn disease, the inflammation, extending through the intestinal wall from the MUCOSA to the serosa, is characteristically asymmetric and segmental. Epithelioid GRANULOMAS may be seen in some patients.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.
Inflammation of the MUCOSA of both the SMALL INTESTINE and the LARGE INTESTINE. Etiology includes ISCHEMIA, infections, allergic, and immune responses.
Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
Infections caused by infestation with worms of the class Trematoda.
Pathological development in the ILEUM including the ILEOCECAL VALVE.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Peptides derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of pancreatic GLUCAGON. Despite expression of proglucagon in multiple tissues, the major production site of glucagon-like peptides (GLPs) is the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLPs include glucagon-like peptide 1, glucagon-like peptide 2, and the various truncated forms.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
Glycosides of GLUCURONIC ACID formed by the reaction of URIDINE DIPHOSPHATE GLUCURONIC ACID with certain endogenous and exogenous substances. Their formation is important for the detoxification of drugs, steroid excretion and BILIRUBIN metabolism to a more water-soluble compound that can be eliminated in the URINE and BILE.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.
Surgical creation of an external opening into the ILEUM for fecal diversion or drainage. This replacement for the RECTUM is usually created in patients with severe INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES. Loop (continent) or tube (incontinent) procedures are most often employed.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
A family of snakes comprising the boas, anacondas, and pythons. They occupy a variety of habitats through the tropics and subtropics and are arboreal, aquatic or fossorial (burrowing). Some are oviparous, others ovoviviparous. Contrary to popular opinion, they do not crush the bones of their victims: their coils exert enough pressure to stop a prey's breathing, thus suffocating it. There are five subfamilies: Boinae, Bolyerinae, Erycinae, Pythoninae, and Tropidophiinae. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p315-320)
A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Chronic, non-specific inflammation of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Etiology may be genetic or environmental. This term includes CROHN DISEASE and ULCERATIVE COLITIS.
The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
Peptides composed of two amino acid units.
A sodium-dependent phosphate transporter present primarily at apical sites of EPITHELIAL CELLS in the SMALL INTESTINE.
A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.
The passage of viable bacteria from the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT to extra-intestinal sites, such as the mesenteric lymph node complex, liver, spleen, kidney, and blood. Factors that promote bacterial translocation include overgrowth with gram-negative enteric bacilli, impaired host immune defenses, and injury to the INTESTINAL MUCOSA resulting in increased intestinal permeability. Bacterial translocation from the lung to the circulation is also possible and sometimes accompanies MECHANICAL VENTILATION.
A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Tumor suppressor genes located in the 5q21 region on the long arm of human chromosome 5. The mutation of these genes is associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI) and GARDNER SYNDROME, as well as some sporadic colorectal cancers.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The common precursor polypeptide of pancreatic GLUCAGON and intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Proglucagon is the 158-amino acid segment of preproglucagon without the N-terminal signal sequence. Proglucagon is expressed in the PANCREAS; INTESTINES; and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Posttranslational processing of proglucagon is tissue-specific yielding numerous bioactive peptides.
The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The consumption of edible substances.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Infestation of animals with parasitic worms of the helminth class. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
A class of cellular membrane receptors that either have an intrinsic guanylate cyclase activity or are closely coupled to specific guanylate cyclases within the cell.
Recycling through liver by excretion in bile, reabsorption from intestines (INTESTINAL REABSORPTION) into portal circulation, passage back into liver, and re-excretion in bile.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A lesion on the surface of the skin or a mucous surface, produced by the sloughing of inflammatory necrotic tissue.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
A malabsorption syndrome resulting from extensive operative resection of the SMALL INTESTINE, the absorptive region of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
The thin, yellow, serous fluid secreted by the mammary glands during pregnancy and immediately postpartum before lactation begins. It consists of immunologically active substances, white blood cells, water, protein, fat, and carbohydrates.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
A 241-kDa protein synthesized only in the INTESTINES. It serves as a structural protein of CHYLOMICRONS. Its exclusive association with chylomicron particles provides an indicator of intestinally derived lipoproteins in circulation. Apo B-48 is a shortened form of apo B-100 and lacks the LDL-receptor region.

Blood thymidine level and iododeoxyuridine incorporation and reutilization in DNA in mice given long-acting thymidine pellets. (1/10242)

A long-acting thymidine pellet consisting of 190 mg of cholesterol and 60 mg of thymidine has been developed for the study of thymidine metabolism and reutilization in vivo. Implantation of such a pellet s.c. in adult mice will maintain the blood plasma concentration of thymidine at levels between 40 and 8 X 10(-6) M, which are from 36 to 7 times those of normal mice, for periods up to 48 hr. During this period, in vivo uptake and reutilization of [125I]iododeoxyuridine, a thymidine analog, into intestinal and tumor DNA were almost completely suppressed. While iododeoxyuridine reutilization is not large in normal proliferative tissue even in the absence of pellet implants, reutilization of over 30% was measured in large, rapidly growing ascites tumors. The inhibition of iododeoxyuridine incorporation by elevated thymidine blood levels is directly proportional to serum concentration. This appears to be due to a thymidine pool in rapid equilibrium with blood thymidine. This pool is at least 10 times larger than the 4-nmole pool of extracellular thymidine.  (+info)

Transformation of intestinal epithelial cells by chronic TGF-beta1 treatment results in downregulation of the type II TGF-beta receptor and induction of cyclooxygenase-2. (2/10242)

The precise role of TGF-beta in colorectal carcinogenesis is not clear. The purpose of this study was to determine the phenotypic alterations caused by chronic exposure to TGF-beta in non-transformed intestinal epithelial (RIE-1) cells. Growth of RIE-1 cells was inhibited by >75% following TGF-beta1 treatment for 7 days, after which the cells resumed a normal growth despite the presence of TGF-beta1. These 'TGF-beta-resistant' cells (RIE-Tr) were continuously exposed to TGF-beta for >50 days. Unlike the parental RIE cells, RIE-Tr cells lost contact inhibition, formed foci in culture, grew in soft agarose. RIE-Tr cells demonstrated TGF-beta-dependent invasive potential in an in vitro assay and were resistant to Matrigel and Na-butyrate-induced apoptosis. The RIE-Tr cells were also tumorigenic in nude mice. The transformed phenotype of RIE-Tr cells was associated with a 95% decrease in the level of the type II TGF-beta receptor (TbetaRII) protein, a 40-fold increase in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein, and 5.9-fold increase in the production of prostacyclin. Most RIE-Tr subclones that expressed low levels of TbetaRII and high levels of COX-2 were tumorigenic. Those subclones that express abundant TbetaRII and low levels of COX-2 were not tumorigenic in nude mice. A selective COX-2 inhibitor inhibited RIE-Tr cell growth in culture and tumor growth in nude mice. The reduced expression of TbetaRII, increased expression of COX-2, and the ability to form colonies in Matrigel were all reversible upon withdrawal of exogenous TGF-beta1 for the RIE-Tr cells.  (+info)

Vibrio parahaemolyticus thermostable direct hemolysin modulates cytoskeletal organization and calcium homeostasis in intestinal cultured cells. (3/10242)

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a marine bacterium known to be the leading cause of seafood gastroenteritis worldwide. A 46-kDa homodimer protein secreted by this microorganism, the thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH), is considered a major virulence factor involved in bacterial pathogenesis since a high percentage of strains of clinical origin are positive for TDH production. TDH is a pore-forming toxin, and its most extensively studied effect is the ability to cause hemolysis of erythrocytes from different mammalian species. Moreover, TDH induces in a variety of cells cytotoxic effects consisting mainly of cell degeneration which often leads to loss of viability. In this work, we examined the cellular changes induced by TDH in monolayers of IEC-6 cells (derived from the rat crypt small intestine), which represent a useful cell model for studying toxins from enteric bacteria. In experimental conditions allowing cell survival, TDH induces a rapid transient increase in intracellular calcium as well as a significant though reversible decreased rate of progression through the cell cycle. The morphological changes seem to be dependent on the organization of the microtubular network, which appears to be the preferential cytoskeletal element involved in the cellular response to the toxin.  (+info)

Accumulation of astaxanthin all-E, 9Z and 13Z geometrical isomers and 3 and 3' RS optical isomers in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is selective. (4/10242)

Concentrations of all-E-, 9Z- and 13Z- geometrical and (3R,3'R), (3R, 3'S) and (3S,3'S) optical isomers of astaxanthin were determined in rainbow trout liver, gut tissues, kidney, skin and blood plasma to evaluate their body distribution. Two cold-pelleted diets containing predominantly all-E-astaxanthin (36.9 mg/kg astaxanthin, 97% all-E-, 0.4% 9Z-, 1.5% 13Z-astaxanthin, and 1.1% other isomers, respectively) or a mixture of all-E- and Z-astaxanthins (35.4 mg/kg astaxanthin, 64% all-E-, 18.7% 9Z-, 12.3% 13Z-astaxanthin, and 2.0% other isomers, respectively), were fed to duplicate groups of trout for 69 d. Individual E/Z isomers were identified by VIS- and 1H-NMR-spectrometry, and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Significantly higher total carotenoid concentration was observed in plasma of trout fed diets with all-E-astaxanthin (P < 0.05). The relative E/Z-isomer concentrations of plasma, skin and kidney were not significantly different among groups, whereas all-E-astaxanthin was higher in intestinal tissues and 13Z-astaxanthin was lower in liver of trout fed all-E-astaxanthin (P < 0.05). The relative amount of hepatic 13Z-astaxanthin (39-49% of total astaxanthin) was higher than in all other samples (P < 0.05). Synthetic, optically inactive astaxanthin was used in all experiments, and the determined dietary ratio between the 3R,3'R:3R, 3'S (meso):3S,3'S optical isomers was 25.3:49.6:25.1. The distribution of R/S-astaxanthin isomers in feces, blood, liver and fillet was similar to that in the diets. The ratio between (3S,3'S)- and (3R,3'R)-astaxanthin in the skin and posterior kidney was ca. 2:1 and 3:1, respectively, regardless of dietary E/Z-astaxanthin composition. The results show that geometrical and optical isomers of astaxanthin are distributed selectively in different tissues of rainbow trout.  (+info)

Energy depletion differently affects membrane transport and intracellular metabolism of riboflavin taken up by isolated rat enterocytes. (5/10242)

Isolated rat enterocytes, both normal and those de-energized with rotenone, were used to study the energy dependence of membrane and intracellular intestinal riboflavin transport in vitro. Membrane and intracellular transport were investigated by using short (3 min) and long (20 min) incubation times, respectively. For both types of cells and incubation times, [3H]-riboflavin uptake presented a saturable component prevailing at physiologic intraluminal concentrations. At 3 min incubation, saturable [3H]-riboflavin transport was apparently an energy-independent process with high affinity and low capacity. Values of the saturable component and its apparent constants, Km and Jmax, did not differ in normal and de-energized enterocytes. At 20 min incubation, saturable [3H]-riboflavin transport was a strictly energy-dependent process in which values of the saturable component were significantly greater in normal than in de-energized enterocytes. Km values did not differ in the two types of cells and were unmodified over 3 min, whereas in normal enterocytes, Jmax at 20 min [6.25 +/- 0.2 pmol/(mg protein. 20 min)] was significantly greater than at 3 min [2.67 +/- 0.33 pmol/(mg protein. 3 min)] and compared with de-energized enterocytes at 20 min [2.54 +/- 0.16 pmol/(mg protein. 20 min)]. Both membrane and intracellular events were inhibited by unlabeled riboflavin and analogs, which are good substrates for flavokinase, thus demonstrating the paramount role of this enzyme in riboflavin intestinal transport.  (+info)

The sodium concentration of enteral diets does not influence absorption of nutrients but induces intestinal secretion of water in miniature pigs. (6/10242)

Contradictory opinions exist as to whether the sodium concentration of enteral diets influences absorption of macronutrients and transepithelial movement of sodium and water. Therefore, we investigated the effects of various sodium concentrations of enteral diets on absorption of macronutrients and on net fluxes of sodium and water. In unanesthetized miniature pigs, a 150-cm jejunal segment was perfused with an oligopeptide (Peptisorb), an oligomeric and a polymeric diet. The polymeric diet was supplemented with pancreatic enzymes. The sodium concentrations varied between 30 and 150 mmol/L. The energy density was 3.4 MJ/L. The sodium concentration of the diets did not influence absorption of macronutrients and of total energy. However, increasing sodium concentrations of the diets were associated with increasing osmolality of the solutions, resulting in a linear increase in net secretion of water and flow rate of chyme. With all diets and sodium concentrations net secretion of sodium occurred. The sodium secretion was independent of the initial sodium concentration of the diets. It was linearly correlated with net flux of water and was largest in miniature pigs infused with the oligomeric diet. The sodium concentration of the jejunal effluent did not correspond to the initial sodium concentration of the diets. The present results indicate that enteral feeding of diets with high energy density inevitably increases net secretion of water and sodium as sodium concentration increases. Therefore, the sodium concentration of diets should be as low as possible to meet only the minimal daily requirement of sodium. Low sodium concentrations of diets have no negative effects on absorption of macronutrients.  (+info)

Molecular basis for the enterocyte tropism exhibited by Salmonella typhimurium type 1 fimbriae. (7/10242)

Salmonella typhimurium exhibits a distinct tropism for mouse enterocytes that is linked to their expression of type 1 fimbriae. The distinct binding traits of Salmonella type 1 fimbriae is also reflected in their binding to selected mannosylated proteins and in their ability to promote secondary bacterial aggregation on enterocyte surfaces. The determinant of binding in Salmonella type 1 fimbriae is a 35-kDa structurally distinct fimbrial subunit, FimHS, because inactivation of fimHS abolished binding activity in the resulting mutant without any apparent effect on fimbrial expression. Surprisingly, when expressed in the absence of other fimbrial components and as a translational fusion protein with MalE, FimHS failed to demonstrate any specific binding tropism and bound equally to all cells and mannosylated proteins tested. To determine if the binding specificity of Salmonella type 1 fimbriae was determined by the fimbrial shaft that is intimately associated with FimHS, we replaced the amino-terminal half of FimHS with the corresponding sequence from Escherichia coli FimH (FimHE) that contains the receptor binding domain of FimHE. The resulting hybrid fimbriae bearing FimHES on a Salmonella fimbrial shaft exhibited binding traits that resembled that of Salmonella rather than E. coli fimbriae. Apparently, the quaternary constraints imposed by the fimbrial shaft on the adhesin determine the distinct binding traits of S. typhimurium type 1 fimbriae.  (+info)

Gallstones: an intestinal disease? (8/10242)

Current evidence suggests that impaired intestinal motility may facilitate gallstone formation by influencing biliary deoxycholate levels or by modulating interdigestive gall bladder motility (fig 2), although a primary intestinal defect in gallstone pathogenesis has not yet been demonstrated. In the cold war period, most interesting events, from a political point of view, occurred at the border between capitalist and communist systems, near the iron curtain. Similarly, the gall bladder and biliary tract can be viewed as the border between liver and intestinal tract, where many interesting things occur with profound impact on both systems. Combined efforts by researchers in the field of hepatology and gastrointestinal motility should brake down the Berlin wall of ignorance of one of the most common diseases in the Western world.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Injury-stimulated Hedgehog signaling promotes regenerative proliferation of Drosophila intestinal stem cells. AU - Tian, Aiguo. AU - Shi, Qing. AU - Jiang, Alice. AU - Li, Shuangxi. AU - Wang, Bing. AU - Jiang, Jin. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2015 Tian et al.. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - Many adult tissues are maintained by resident stem cells that elevate their proliferation in response to injury. The regulatory mechanisms underlying regenerative proliferation are still poorly understood. Here we show that injury induces Hedgehog (Hh) signaling in enteroblasts (EBs) to promote intestinal stem cell (ISC) proliferation in Drosophila melanogaster adult midgut. Elevated Hh signaling by patched (ptc) mutations drove ISC proliferation noncell autonomously. Inhibition of Hh signaling in the ISC lineage compromised injury-induced ISC proliferation but had little if any effect on homeostatic proliferation. Hh signaling acted in EBs to regulate the production of Upd2, which activated the ...
In this chapter we review the literature with respect to what is known about how Escherichia coli colonizesthe mammalian intestine. We begin with a brief discussion of the mammalian large intestine, the major site that commensal strains of E. coli colonize. Next, evidence is discussed showing that, in order to colonize, E. coli must be able to penetrate and grow in the mucus layer of the large intestine. This is followed by discussions of colonization resistance, i.e., factors that are involved in the ability of a complete microbiota (microflora) to resist colonization by an invading bacterium, the advantages and disadvantages of the in vivo colonization models used in colonization research, the initiation and maintenance stages of E. coli colonization, and the rate of E. coli growth in the intestine. The next two sections of the chapter discuss the role of motility in colonization and how adhesion to mucosal receptors aids or inhibits penetration of the intestinal mucus layer and thereby either
To determine whether genes involved in mitochondrial dynamics (fission, fusion, movement, and turnover) play a role in ISC function, we used the ISC/EB-specific, RU486-inducible 5961-Gal4GeneSwitch (5961GS) driver to direct expression of UAS-RNAi lines in ISCs/EBs in the adult midgut (see Materials and methods for specific RNAi lines tested). Use of the drug-inducible system permits comparison of genetically identical individuals that are either expressing (+RU486) or not expressing (EtOH/−RU486) the transgene of interest. Overexpression of srl led to a decrease in intestinal dysplasia, as previously reported (Rera et al., 2011). However, in contrast to our expectations, RNAi-mediated depletion of Pink1 or Parkin resulted in a drastic improvement in intestinal homeostasis in aged flies. Manipulation of other factors tested had no significant effect on ISC maintenance or tissue homeostasis during the time points assayed (10, 30, and 50 d post-eclosion).. Mutations in the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phosphorylation of pp62 and pp54 src-like proteins in a rat intestinal cell line in response to gastrin. AU - Singh, Pomila. AU - Narayan, S.. AU - Adiga, R. B.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0028121604&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0028121604&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 8074224. AN - SCOPUS:0028121604. VL - 267. JO - American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism. JF - American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism. SN - 0193-1849. IS - 2 part 1. ER - ...
We are aware that the COVID-19 pandemic is having an unprecedented impact on researchers worldwide. The Editors of all The Company of Biologists journals have been considering ways in which we can alleviate concerns that members of our community may have around publishing activities during this time. Read about the actions we are taking at this time.. Please dont hesitate to contact the Editorial Office if you have any questions or concerns.. ...
Gender is one of the factors influencing the intestinal microbial composition in mammals, but whether fish also have gender-specific intestinal microbial patterns remains unknown. In this decade, endocrine disrupting chemicals in surface and ground water of many areas and increasing observation of freshwater male fish displaying female sexual characteristics have been reported. Here we identified the difference in intestinal microbiota between male and female zebrafish, and revealed the influence of endocrine disrupting chemicals on zebrafish intestinal microbiota by using high-throughput sequencing. The results indicated that Fusobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria were dominant in the gut of zebrafish and there were no obvious gender-specific intestinal microbial patterns. Two endocrine disrupting chemicals, Estradiol (E2) and Bisphenol A (BPA), were selected to treat male zebrafish for 5 weeks. E2 and BPA increased vitellogenin expression in the liver of male zebrafish and altered the
Interesting traits could be components of the innate immune systems associated with high/low immunologic responders which may be measured in blood/milk, but also specific metabolic indicator traits of microbiota . Furthermore Natural Antibodies (Nab) could potentially be defined as a parameter of humoral innate immunity at the effector level. A prerequisite for these indicator traits to qualify as a selection tool / marker is that they are heritable, quantifiable, stable at specific time points and locations and linked to genetic variation in disease resistance.. The objective of the programme Intestinal health and Disease resistance in cattle, pig and poultry is to develop and to validate tools/phenotypes/technologies for genetic improvement in robustness of animals. This will contribute to improvement of health and welfare of animals, reduction in losses due to environmental challenges, improvement of longevity and reduction in use of antibiotics/drugs.. ...
Ebook How To Improve Intestinal Health :: Managing ibs food triggers tips for tracing ibs symptoms, How to improve your gut health, Blog dr lori kalie, Can you treat leaky gut with colostrum, How to improve gut health refreshing lives, Amazon com gut health how to improve your digestive, News media blog orgran, Lazy girl lazy girl tips 6 foods that will improve your, Dr ilona bekoben gut health and holistic wellness, 6 ways to improve your gut health the bewitchin kitchen
TY - JOUR. T1 - Developmental ecology of the neonatal intestine. T2 - Introduction. AU - Gaskins, H Rex. AU - Lien, E. L.. PY - 1999/5/11. Y1 - 1999/5/11. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0032965108&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0032965108&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Editorial. AN - SCOPUS:0032965108. VL - 69. JO - American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. JF - American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. SN - 0002-9165. IS - 5. ER - ...
MilPro-TX®, a feed additive, supports intestinal health in animals by reinforcing the intestinal mucosa barrier and assisting in the regeneration of epithelium.
Salmonella continues to be an important cause of disease. Every now and then it emerges from its slumbering state and makes newspaper headlines when food has been contaminated and vulnerable groups become ill. Apart from strict hygiene measures, feeding strategies can also contribute to diminishing salmonella incidents. Part 1 of this two part series discusses technical means influencing salmonella proliferation and intestinal health in pigs.
Breaking the Vicious Cycle: Intestinal Health Through Diet | Elaine Gottschall | ISBN: 8601200453447 | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon.
When two people both eat a similar diet but one gets heart disease and the other doesnt, we currently think the cardiac disease develops because of their genetic differences; but our studies show that is only a part of the equation, said Stanley Hazen, M.D., Ph.D., Staff in Lerner Research Institutes Department of Cell Biology and the Heart and Vascular Institutes Department of Cardiovascular Medicine and Section Head of Preventive Cardiology & Rehabilitation at Cleveland Clinic, and senior author of the study. Actually, differences in gut flora metabolism of the diet from one person to another appear to have a big effect on whether one develops heart disease. Gut flora is a filter for our largest environmental exposure -- what we eat. ...
In this study, we have revealed novel and important aspects of the role of Nod2 for the development and composition of the mammalian intestinal microbiota. A detailed view into the colonisation process during mouse development highlights that microbial composition is not only influenced by genotype, but also by stage of development. Previous studies based on fingerprinting approaches found that the caecal microbiota in SPF mice changes drastically with age, but stabilises after 4 weeks.45 In our study based on 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, the microbial community continued to change after week 4b, fluctuating in the proportions of the three most abundant phyla (Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria; figure 1B) until 10 weeks of age, at which point stable Firmicutes-dominated communities became apparent. Earlier culture-based studies found that the caecal microbiota matures as early as 4-5 weeks of age. These differences likely highlight the limitations of culture-dependent methods.46 Our ...
The intestinal epithelium acts as a physical barrier that separates the intestinal microbiota from the host and is critical for preserving intestinal homeostasis. The barrier is formed by tightly linked intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) (i.e. enterocytes, goblet cells, neuroendocrine cells, tuft cells, Paneth cells, and M cells), which constantly self-renew and shed. IECs also communicate with microbiota, coordinate innate and adaptive effector cell functions. In this review, we summarize the signaling pathways contributing to intestinal cell fates and homeostasis functions. We focus especially on intestinal stem cell proliferation, cell junction formation, remodelling, hypoxia, the impact of intestinal microbiota, the immune system, inflammation, and metabolism. Recognizing the critical role of KRAS mutants in colorectal cancer, we highlight the connections of KRAS signaling pathways in coordinating these functions. Furthermore, we review the impact of KRAS colorectal cancer mutants on pathway
Epithelial cells lining the intestinal tract function as a selective barrier that regulates nutrient uptake. In addition, the epithelial barrier protects underlying tissue compartments from pathogens and toxins in the lumen of the intestine. The intestinal epithelium is highly dynamic and actively turned over. Regulated intestinal stem cell proliferation and differentiation are required for normal intestinal homeostasis and repair after injury. Many gastrointestinal diseases including IBD are characterized by unbalanced proliferation and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells. In fact, accumulating evidence implicates the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis as a fundamental regulator of intestinal protein expression and epithelial barrier regulation. Patients with IBD clinically present with relapsing diarrhea that has been attributed in part to aberrant epithelial barrier function, the epithelial leaks appear early due to micro-erosions resulting from upregulated epithelial apoptosis ...
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This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled crossover design with two 3-week interventions and a 5-week washout period in between. Thirty-six participants will be enrolled. With informed consent, the daily questionnaire will be administered and a baseline stool sample will be obtained during the week before the start of each intervention period. Blood and saliva will be collected on the first and last day of each intervention period to assess immune function. A final stool sample will be obtained in the last week of the intervention period. Nutritional status, which can impact immune function, will be assessed using the Mini-Nutritional Assessment, Block Fiber Screen, and the Block 2005 Food Frequency Questionnaire. Daily questionnaires will record intake of the probiotic or placebo, level of stress, hours of sleep, visits to the physician, new medications, number of stools, etc. The Gastrointestinal Symptom Response Scale, which records gastrointestinal symptoms, such as bloating, ...
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A high-potency probiotic, Life 5™ represents the culmination of years of extensive research. Life 5 builds and restores core intestinal health by providing five clinically proven probiotic strains including two advanced super strains to enhance intestinal health, sustain energy and improve immunity. Life 5 contains 10 billion active cultures and improves colonization up to 10 times ...
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The development of the intestine and early establishment of commensal bacteria is important for rapid growth and enteric disease resistance of the modern broiler. Three studies measured the impact of yeast derivatives in diets of broilers. The objective of the first study was to determine if yeast products alone or in combination effected performance or gut morphology of broilers during a mild coccidia challenge. Day-old Cobb 500 chicks were placed in floor pens on litter seeded with coccidia and fed diets with or without yeast products. The objectives of the second and third studies were to 1) evaluate the effect of feeding cecal droppings collected from heavy (HW) or low weight (LW) broilers on performance and 2) to determine if dietary supplementation with yeast derivatives would effect growth and gut morphology in broilers fed the cecal droppings from HW or LW populations. Cobb 500 chicks were divided into two groups (HW or LW microflora; n=1400/group) and given access to the cecal droppings ...
As often happens in our Wheat Belly conversations, we end up talking about bowel health. After all, our unwitting bowels are the primary means through which we (used to) ingest this thing that annoys, erodes, irritates, and generally wreaks havoc on our health. The gastrointestinal tract, probably more than any other organ system, is the unhappy recipient of most of wheats destructive properties. The composition of your bowel flora, the little bacterial critters populating your gastrointestinal tract and outnumbering the number of cells in the rest of your body (yes: you are mostly a bacterial organism, judging by numbers! over 2 pounds in total), are increasingly appearing to be major players in overall health. Witness, for instance, this talk of fecal transplants in which the bowel flora/stool of a slender animal is transplanted into the intestinal tract of an overweight animal-and the overweight animal loses weight. Fecal bacteriotherapy may, in fact, be entering mainstream treatment for ...
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Be particularly wary of any food that you crave or eat large quantities of. That is an indication of a possible problem with that food. The usual allergens are wheat, corn, eggs, chocolate, and/or milk products.
Disclaimer: These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. Product results may vary from person to person. † Compare price is the price compared to the manufacturers suggested retail price or estimated selling price of the same or similar item at full-price stores. See Pricing Policy for details.. Information provided on this site is solely for informational purposes only. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice. Read more ©2000-2020 Nutrition Express. All rights reserved ...
Several studies have shown that gut bacteria have a role in diabetes in murine models. Specific bacteria have been correlated with the onset of diabetes in a rat model. However, it is unknown whether human intestinal microbes have a role in the development of autoimmunity that often leads to type 1 …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Deconvoluting the intestine. T2 - Molecular evidence for a major role of the mesenchyme in the modulation of signaling cross talk. AU - Li, Xing. AU - Madison, Blair B.. AU - Zacharias, William. AU - Kolterud, Åsa. AU - States, David. AU - Gumucio, Deborah L.. PY - 2007/6/27. Y1 - 2007/6/27. N2 - Reciprocal cross talk between the endodermally derived epithelium and the underlying mesenchyme is required for regional patterning and proper differentiation of the developing mammalian intestine. Though both epithelium and mesenchyme participate in patterning, the mesenchyme is thought to play a prominent role in the determination of the epithelial phenotype during development and in adult life. However, the molecular basis for this instructional dominance is unclear. In fact, surprisingly little is known about the cellular origins of many of the critical signaling molecules and the gene transcriptional events that they impact. Here, we profile genes that are expressed in the separate ...
The stiffness of breast tissue is increasingly recognized as an important factor explaining the onset of breast cancer. Stiffening induces molecular changes
Human bodies are highly fluctuating complex systems. They detect and integrate the clues from changing environments and their own internal states, making numerous responses after delicate computation and regulation. Traditional routes of drug administration includes oral intake or intravenous injection may be too simplified to promptly fit the real-time condition of the body states. In addition, the frequent and repetitive intake of drugs may be annoying, and sometimes the invasive processes are suffering, bringing inconvenience to our daily lives. Medical instruments or electrical monitors can instantaneously detect and response to some specific physiological or pathological parameters, but they are usually too heavy and bulky to carry, which restrict the mobility of patients while using it. Therefore we aim to program the intestinal microbes to build our novel smart drug delivery systems-PEPDEX. There are around \(10^{13}\) to \(10^{14}\) microorganisms inhabiting in our gastrointestinal ...
Human bodies are highly fluctuating complex systems. They detect and integrate the clues from changing environments and their own internal states, making numerous responses after delicate computation and regulation. Traditional routes of drug administration includes oral intake or intravenous injection may be too simplified to promptly fit the real-time condition of the body states. In addition, the frequent and repetitive intake of drugs may be annoying, and sometimes the invasive processes are suffering, bringing inconvenience to our daily lives. Medical instruments or electrical monitors can instantaneously detect and response to some specific physiological or pathological parameters, but they are usually too heavy and bulky to carry, which restrict the mobility of patients while using it. Therefore we aim to program the intestinal microbes to build our novel smart drug delivery systems-PEPDEX. There are around \(10^{13}\) to \(10^{14}\) microorganisms inhabiting in our gastrointestinal ...
Modeling physiological and pathophysiological processes in the human intestinal tract outside the human body has been a daunting challenge for…
Local immune system of intestine helps controlling microbes in the intestine. However, when bile flow is obstructed, this immune system become overly active and can cause autoimmune disease. Edited...
Research in the departments 14 laboratories is primarily focused on diseases of developing countries. Laboratory-based research may be supplemented by field-based studies of epidemiological and ecological aspects of infectious disease transmission and control.. Infectious and immune-mediated diseases currently under study include HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, Chagas, Malaria, Pneumonia, Enteric Diseases, Inflammatory Bowel, and Autoimmune diseases. Further immunologic studies focus on genetic regulation of the immune response, the interplay between the innate immune system and intestinal microbial communities, the function and regulation of T-cell-derived cytokines and cytokines involved in the regulation of inflammation.. Research in the department emphasizes basic pathogenic mechanisms that may lead to better diagnostic tools, the development of vaccines and other interventions for prevention and control of infection and disease, and the identification of new targets for antiviral and antiparasitic ...
The gut of experimental animals was differentially processed for histological examination depending on whether suspensions of MNCs from the intestinal epithelium and lamina propria were also prepared for flow cytometry analysis. Prior to the preparation of suspensions of gut-derived MNCs, 3 proximal, median, and distal fragments (5-10 mm long) of both small and large bowel were collected for histological examination. For the other experimental animals, the entire length of small and large bowel from SCID recipients was wrapped to form a roll before fixation in 10% neutral buffered formaldehyde for 24 h. Specimens were then embedded in paraffin and three 6-μm sections were taken 250 μm apart through the entire thickness of the bowel loops. Each section was stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Each section was examined and scored in a blind fashion by one of us (D. Banerjee) as described (17). Briefly, grade 0 corresponded to the absence of histological abnormalities; grade 1 to the presence of ...
Health and beauty are forged in the stomach and intestines.✅ Intestinal health reflects how we feel, we are and behave. Thats why we have to take into ac...
Causes for concern are both an overgrowth of microorganisms that are normally present in the intestines and the presence of microorganisms that are not normally present in the intestines. Either condition signals that major physiological pathways in the intestinal environment are outside homeostatic limits. Some of the immediate consequences can include adverse alterations in pH, digestion, and absorption. These factors set the stage for further deviations from health, including the retention and proliferation of microorganisms that would be maintained ordinarily at a lower concentration, or would be rapidly expelled. Such conditions can produce anatomic disruption of the intestinal mucosa resulting from the physical infestation of the microorganism, and chemical insult and physiological upset of the mucosa caused by adverse reactions to the metabolic products of the invader. Maldigestion and malabsorption of nutrients can produce longer-term dysfunction of the host. This condition can persist ...
BioAssay record AID 236268 submitted by ChEMBL: Fraction absorbed in human intestine after oral administration compound was measured.
Leaky gut conditions were simulated using 3D models of human intestines to identify biomarkers for diagnostics and therapeutic development in a recent study.
Studied and trusted for over 50 years. Maintains the balance of the intestinal flora.* Keeps intestines functioning well.* Promotes intestinal health.*...
The original probiotic offered by GHT in a lemon-power base, replenishes beneficial microflora in the intestines to help sustain and promote intestinal health.
This Short Course is suitable for anyone wanting to learn easy and practical tips to improve digestive and, consequently, mood health. Whether you have a gut-related condition, low mood or just wish to make positive choices to your intestinal health, this course is for you.. What you will learn. You will learn about the importance of the digestive system and how significant gut health is for your mood. You will cover issues surrounding diet, stress, lifestyle and weight control in relation to a healthy gut.. You will explore the physiology of the gut and what happens every time you put food in your mouth. You will discover the effect your choices have on healthy gut bacteria, and how different parts of the body are involved in and/or affected by digestion.. Most importantly, this course will equip you with the tools to improve your own digestion holistically through diet and lifestyle.. ...
The existence of important infection-causing ExPEC lineages (i.e., genetically closely related E. coli clones or clonal groups) has been recognized for the past 40 years. However, identification and detailed characterization of specific lineages has only recently been advanced, owing to the development of new methods for bacterial genotyping. Since ExPEC can colonize and persist in the human intestinal tract without detriment to the host, the operational definition of ExPEC is critical for defining the chain of ExPEC transmission from non-human reservoir to human intestinal colonization to active infection.
We are aware that the COVID-19 pandemic is having an unprecedented impact on researchers worldwide. The Editors of all The Company of Biologists journals have been considering ways in which we can alleviate concerns that members of our community may have around publishing activities during this time. Read about the actions we are taking at this time.. Please dont hesitate to contact the Editorial Office if you have any questions or concerns.. ...
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Intestines[edit]. The partially digested and pulverized gizzard contents, now called a bolus, are passed into the intestine, ... The intestine ends via the large intestine in the vent or cloaca which serves as the common exit for renal and intestinal ... A .Mature ovum, B. Infundibulum, C. Magnum, D. Isthmus, E. Uterus, F. Vagina, G. Cloaca, H. Large intestine, I. rudiment of ...
Large intestine[edit]. Although the large intestine has peristalsis of the type that the small intestine uses, it is not the ... Its primary purpose is to mix the chyme in the intestine rather than to move it forward in the intestine. Through this process ... the chyme gradually works its way through the small intestine to the large intestine.[3] ... Small intestine[edit]. Once processed and digested by the stomach, the milky chyme is squeezed through the pyloric sphincter ...
Small intestine[edit]. The following enzymes/hormones are produced in the duodenum: *secretin: This is an endocrine hormone ... In the human digestive system, the main sites of digestion are the oral cavity, the stomach, and the small intestine. Digestive ... Throughout the lining of the small intestine there are numerous brush border enzymes whose function is to further break down ... and in the secretions of cells lining the small and large intestines. ...
... (Hangul: 곱창) can refer to the small intestines of cattle (or big intestines of pig) or to a gui (grilled dish) made of ... pork's small intestines) or Latin American chunchullo (beef, pork, or lamb's small intestines). The Spanish/Portuguese term ... The intestines are cleaned thoroughly, rubbed with wheat flour and coarse salt, and rinsed several times. The fat is trimmed ... The latter is also called gopchang-gui (곱창구이; "grilled intestines"). The tube-shaped offal is chewy with rich elastic fibers. ...
... 腸 intestines; 心 heart; 肺 lung; 肝 liver; 膵 pancreas; 腎 kidney; 胆 gall bladder; 肛 anus; 膣 vagina 腕 arm; 肩 shoulder; 脇 armpit; 肘 ...
... intestines black; blood red; skin of body or liver green"). Sotah 5a Sanhedrin 38a et seq.; compare Genesis Rabba 8; Midrash ...
Intestine excretion. After being transported to the liver by HDL, cholesterol is delivered to the intestines via bile ... Intestine intake. Main article: Fat Digestion. Short- and medium chain fatty acids are absorbed directly into the blood via ... Intestine intake. Main article: Synthesis and intake. In lipid digestion, cholesterol is packed into Chylomicrons in the small ... The concentration of blood lipids depends on intake and excretion from the intestine, and uptake and secretion from cells. ...
קישקע): intestines, guts. In the singular, a kind of sausage stuffed with finely chopped potatoes, carrots, onions, spices, etc ...
Bloody animal intestines...Its reek stung her nose Burks, Robin (September 6, 2018). "20 Things Everyone Gets Wrong About Glee ...
I don't know how he did it, but a young boy brought a woman to the hospital; her intestines were out. He had tried to tie a ...
Intestines, liver and pancreas". Acta Theriologica Sinica. 5 (1): 3-9. Archived from the original on 26 July 2013. Shirakihara ... The stomach has three chambers, there is no caecum, and no distinct difference between the small and large intestines. Finless ...
Diseases of the Intestines. Baillière & Co., London, 1927. The Modern Therapeutics of Internal Diseases: An Introduction to ...
Intestines, liver and pancreas". Acta Theriologica Sinica. 5 (1): 3-9. Archived from the original on 2013-07-26. Jefferson, T.A ... The stomach has three chambers, with no caecum, and no distinct difference between the small and large intestines. Sexual ...
... intestines; liver, gall-bladder, and spleen 4. Urinary system 5. Conception, Pregnancy, the Uterus, Diseases of women. 6. The ...
Horseradish and cow intestines). Unlike most previous episodes, the episode ended before the first player to be eliminated from ...
intestines stool United States ingestion of oocyst thru contaminated food Dientamoebiasis Dientamoeba fragilis intestines stool ... intestine stool rare worldwide Diphyllobothriasis - tapeworm Diphyllobothrium latum intestines, blood stool (microscope) Europe ... small intestine Far East ingestion of raw fish, mollusks, snails Swimmer's itch Trichobilharzia regenti, Schistosomatidae ... intestine stool ingestion of infected faeces or infected slugs Anisakiasis[12] Anisakis allergic reaction biopsy incidental ...
... is an evisceration of the small intestine that occurs through the vagina, typically subsequent to vaginal ... M. Hyernaux (1864). "Rupture traumatique du vagin; issue des intestines à l'extérieur; application du grand forceps au détroit ... Vaginal evisceration is typically obvious upon presentation, as intestine (typically ileum) can be seen protruding from the ... Emergently, vaginal eviscerations are treated by keeping the exposed intestines moist and wrapped, while waiting for definitive ...
... his intestines rotten and gangrenous; he had a single testicle, black as coal, and his head was full of water." As suggested ...
This same rod was used to penetrate her so severely that the victim's intestines had to be surgically removed, before her death ... "No option, victim's intestines removed". Hindustan Times. Archived from the original on 3 April 2015. Retrieved 21 December ...
Traditionally, sausage casings were made of the cleaned intestines, or stomachs in the case of haggis and other traditional ... A popular street food, sundae is normally prepared by steaming or boiling cow or pig intestines stuffed with various ... The most common variation is composed of pork blood, cellophane noodle, sliced carrot and barley stuffed into pig intestines, ... Typically, a sausage is formed in a casing traditionally made from intestine but sometimes from synthetic materials. Sausages ...
... ranii of intestines simple, elongate ; esophagus as long as pharynx; testes, two, in median line behind uterus; seminal vesicle ...
Boley SJ, Brandt LJ, Veith FJ (April 1978). "Ischemic disorders of the intestines". Curr Probl Surg. 15 (4): 1-85. doi:10.1016/ ... is a medical condition in which inflammation and injury of the large intestine result from inadequate blood supply. Although ...
Traditionally, Swiss beef intestines were used for the casings, but towards the end of the 20th century, local cattle producers ... The ingredients are finely minced in a cutter, packed into beef intestines, smoked for an hour and then cooked by boiling for a ... By August 2008, most of the Swiss demand for bovine intestines had been met with imports from Uruguay, Argentina and Paraguay. ... The modern Swiss variety is packed into zebu intestines. The cervelat is often referred to as the national sausage of ...
... which is secreted into the intestines as bile. Intestines metabolise bilirubin into urobilinogen. Urobilinogen leaves the body ...
The stuffed intestines are cooked. These sausages require refrigeration and eaten within two weeks of being prepared. Linguiça ...
The Cape Fear shiner is unusual in its genus because its intestines are elongated and more convoluted than those of other ... The Cape Fear shiner's intestines are adapted to help the fish digest plants and they were initially suggested to be primarily ... The shiner's distinctive long dark intestines are coiled and visible through the fish's belly wall and it also has a ... It is unique amongst its genus because it has elongated intestines that are specifically adapted to a primarily herbivorous ...
Open surgery may also be used to remove or bypass the obstruction and may be required to remove any intestines that may have ... Mesenteric ischemia is a medical condition in which injury to the small intestine occurs due to not enough blood supply. It can ... Boley, SJ, Brandt, LJ, Veith, FJ (1978). "Ischemic disorders of the intestines". Curr Probl Surg. 15 (4): 1-85. doi:10.1016/ ...
nov., isolated from fish intestines". Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. 112 (10): 1567-1575. doi:10.1007/s10482-019-01284-6. PMID ... short-rod-shaped and non-motile bacterium from the genus Ottowia which has been isolated from the intestine a of fish from the ...
Regulating stomach and intestines condition. Pulpitis-caused tooth cavity aches. In pre-World War II Japan, Seirogan was ...
From the German word "Leber". Tetchan - intestine. From the Korean word "Dae-chang(대창, 大腸)". May simply be referred to as ...
Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=intestines&oldid=45975672" ...
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The small intestine is where most chemical digestion takes place. Many of the digestive enzymes that act in the small intestine ... The lining of the spiral intestine is similar to that of the small intestine in teleosts and non-mammalian tetrapods.[22] ... The small intestine or small bowel is an organ in the gastrointestinal tract where most of the end absorption of nutrients and ... The small intestine develops from the midgut of the primitive gut tube.[18] By the fifth week of embryological life, the ileum ...
If the intestine is too large, it may be not transplantable into young or small patients. Ideally, intestines should be ... Due to the sensitivity of the intestine to ischemic injury, many potential donor intestines are lost to the events following ... At one-year, graft survival rates for isolated intestine currently waver around 80%, and 70% for intestine-liver and ... The median times for isolated intestine, intestine-liver, and multivisceral transplants are 30, 60, and 40 days post-operation ...
Source for information on Intestine, Small: Gale Encyclopedia of Nursing and Allied Health dictionary. ... smallDefinitionThe small intestine is a long coiled tube located in the abdominal cavity. It is the major site of chemical ... Intestine, small. Definition. The small intestine is a long coiled tube located in the abdominal cavity. It is the major site ... intestine lie between the two sheets of the mesentery. In the adult, the small intestine measures on average about 22 ft (6.7 m ...
Find out about different diseases and disorders of the small intestine. ... Your small intestine connects your stomach to your large intestine (or colon). ... Intestine Transplant (United Network for Organ Sharing) * Meckels diverticulectomy - slideshow (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in ... Your small intestine does most of the digesting of the foods you eat. It has three areas called the duodenum, the ileum, and ...
My latest full or complete spine Xray shows the intestines up in ... ... Who do I go see for interposition of intestine between the right hemidiaphragm and liver? Has shown up on 3 different kinds of ... Interposition of intestines Teddybear556 Who do I go see for interposition of intestine between the right hemidiaphragm and ... Interposition of intestines. Who do I go see for interposition of intestine between the right hemidiaphragm and liver? Has ...
Small intestine, a long, narrow, folded or coiled tube extending from the stomach to the large intestine; it is the region ... Small intestine, a long, narrow, folded or coiled tube extending from the stomach to the large intestine; it is the region ... The small intestine is the principal organ of the digestive tract. The primary functions of the small intestine are mixing and ... The small intestine is the principal organ of the digestive tract. The primary functions of the small intestine are mixing and ...
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They will remove Large intestines and rectum.. I just wanted to wish you the best and I can totally understand what you are ... For the past 22 years I would be stuck on the toilet half the day...Anywaz, a few months back my intestines completely shut ...
For a time very early in the pregnancy, your babys intestines were so large they couldnt fit inside his abdomen. Where did ... the tube that connects the liver and the gallbladder to the small intestine. The part of the bile duct that is outside the ...
... changes in the time it takes for food to travel from the stomach through the intestine), intestinal barrier dysfunction (in ...
... the lining of the intestines that prevents bacteria, fungi and viruses from invading other parts of the body. ... 27 (UPI) -- The lining of the human intestine prevents potentially harmful bacteria, fungi and viruses that entered via ...
Image: X-Ray of the magnets in the boys intestines]. Hesketh said doctors and parents should keep magnet injuries on their ... The doctors had to remove a 4-inch (10 centimeters) segment of the boys bowel, and close four holes in his intestine wall with ... Swallowing Tiny Magnets Severely Damages Boys Intestines. By Bahar Gholipour 2014-12-09T14:35:53Z. ... and so they had pulled different parts of his intestines together, causing multiple holes in the intestinal walls, and tissue ...
... Teacher says exercise effective for demonstrating how long, tough organ is. By ... A video that has surfaced online of several North East Independent School District high schoolers using a cats intestines as a ... posted to SnapChat shows several Churchill High School students playing jump rope with what appears to be the intestines of a ...
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The small intestine is the portion of the digestive system most responsible for absorption of nutrients from food into the ... The small intestine is the portion of the digestive system most responsible for absorption of nutrients from food into the ... This short first portion of the small intestine is followed by the jejunum and the ileum. The ileocecal valve of the ileum ...
The small intestine employs more cells and mechanisms than scientists previously thought to absorb relatively large particles, ... Certain bacteria that inhabit the intestine provide the environmental trigger that initiates and perpetuates chronic intestinal ...
About 70% of your immune system is located in your intestines. If this area is blocked with waste, your immuno-defenses are ... Hip baths are very helpful in stimulating the stomach, liver, intestines, kidneys, spleen and other digestive organs, and in ... because bile helps in breaking down fats it is important for normal digestion and for the delivery of nutrients from intestines ... reality that many people suffering from ulcerative colitis will require surgery to rectify obstructions in the intestine. This ...
The reasons may vary from one person to another, but the motive is same that is to cleanse the intestines. These are few ways ... This is one of the easiest, effortless procedures to rinse out the intestines. The only thing one has to follow is to take ... Consuming water will lend a hand in cleansing the intestine in the most natural way. It helps the fiber to move in the ... All these problems are due to wrong eating habits that do not permit the intestines to be cleared completely. The people keep ...
Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Large Intestine in minutes with SmartDraw. SmartDraw includes 1000s of ... Large Intestine. Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Large Intestine in minutes with SmartDraw. SmartDraw ... Large Intestine. Internal anatomy of the ascending colon, cecum and the appendix.. Internal anatomy of. the ascending, ...
Peanut Butter Intestines By: Maiden of the Moon Johnny dissects an Uncrustable at lunch. Mmmm. . . Yummy. [AU ficlet. NnyxDevi ... "It looks like intestines.". I cant help but smirk slightly as my girlfriend starts to choke, clamping a thin hand over her ... But it looks like intestines," I repeat coolly, toying with my spork and shooting a warning glare at the cheerleader who-if ... before happily placing the wheat-byproduct-blanket upon the peanut butter-intestines and jelly-bile- taking a large bite. ...
In the adult intestine it comprises less than 1% of the total number of organisms. How bacteria come to live in the intestine ... Re: Development of E. coli in human intestines Area: Development Posted By: Lynn Bry, MD/PhD Student, Molecular Microbiology. ... Appoximately one third of all bacteria living in the intestine belong to the genera Bacteroides. These bacteria are anaerobic ( ...
Constipation is the delayed passage of waste through the lower portion of the large intestine, with the ultimate discharge of ... Unusually long mesenteries (the supporting tissues of the large intestine) may permit recurrent twisting, cutting off the blood ... A wide variety of diseases and disorders occur in the large intestine. Abnormal rotation of the colon is fairly frequent and ... Large intestine. A wide variety of diseases and disorders occur in the large intestine. Abnormal rotation of the colon is ...
How to use intestine in a sentence. Did You Know? ... Intestine definition is - the tubular part of the digestive ... Learn More about intestine. Share intestine Post the Definition of intestine to Facebook Share the Definition of intestine on ... Illustration of intestine. Noun intestine: A large intestine,B small intestine In the meaning defined above ... Britannica.com: Encyclopedia article about intestine. Comments on intestine What made you want to look up intestine? Please ...
Primary Volvulus of Small Intestine. Br Med J 1965; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.5464.743 (Published 25 September 1965) ...
The small intestine is the longest part of the GI tract and is responsible for further digesting food (after it leaves the ... The small intestine is a long, winding tube connected to the stomach on one end and the large intestine on the other. According ... Food comes into the small intestine from the stomach through the uppermost part of the small intestine, known as the duodenum, ... The small intestine can become diseased or problematic in many ways. According to the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM), ...
The large intestine is divided into the cecum, colon, rectum, and anal canal.. The Cecum (intestinum cæcum) (Fig. 1073), the ... Structure of the Colon. The large intestine has four coats: serous, muscular, areolar, and mucous.. The serous coat (tunica ... The large intestine, in its course, describes an arch which surrounds the convolutions of the small intestine. It commences in ... but are irregularly scattered also over the rest of the intestine. They are similar to those of the small intestine.. ...
The intestine is divided into two main parts:. *The small intestine (small bowel) receives food from the lower end of the ... The intestine (bowel) is the long, winding, tube that is part of the digestive tract. The intestine helps to process food, ... The large intestine is also called the colon. It is about 5 ft (1.5 m) to 6 ft (1.8 m) long and about 3 in. (7.6 cm) wide. ... The small intestine is about 20 ft (6.1 m) to 23 ft (7 m) long and about 1 in. (2.5 cm) wide. ...
... samples of human intestine have been coaxed into creating a functioning section of the real thing in mice ... Fully functioning human intestine grown in mouse. Health 9 January 2015 Grown in a mouse but works just like the human version ... Take a small sample of human intestine, grind it up and soak it in a digestive enzyme solution, pipette the mixture onto a ... Grikscheit and her colleagues found the transplants had grown many of the features typical of the human small intestine. These ...
  • The small intestine has three distinct regions - the duodenum , jejunum , and ileum . (wikipedia.org)
  • The jejunum is the midsection of the small intestine, connecting the duodenum to the ileum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Duodenum -The first section of the small intestine, extending from the stomach to the jejunum, the next section of the small intestine. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Food comes into the small intestine from the stomach through the uppermost part of the small intestine, known as the duodenum, according to the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh (UPMC). (livescience.com)
  • Next below the stomach comes the duodenum, the largest portion of the small intestine, about 12 in. (chestofbooks.com)
  • For people with certain inherited genetic syndromes who are at increased risk of small intestine cancer, doctors might recommend regular tests to look for cancer early, especially in the duodenum (the first part of the small intestine). (cancer.org)
  • Duodenum - Connecting to the pyloric segment of the stomach, the roughly C-shaped duodenum is the shortest section and represents the first nine to eleven inches (23 to 28 centimeters) of the small intestine. (crossfit.com)
  • It is commonly suggested that the ileum makes up the remaining 60 percent of the length of the small intestine - such estimates exclude the duodenum - making it about 12 feet long (3.75 meters). (crossfit.com)
  • The small intestine begins with the duodenum. (news-medical.net)
  • After the duodenum comes the next 40% of the mobile small intestine called the jejunum. (news-medical.net)
  • The small intestine is made up of the duodenum , jejunum , and ileum . (healthline.com)
  • In humans, the small intestine is further subdivided into the duodenum, jejunum and ileum while the large intestine is subdivided into the cecum and colon. (phys.org)
  • Your now unidentifiable sandwich squirts into the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine. (howstuffworks.com)
  • This surgery is used to remove tumours in the lower, or distal, part of the duodenum (the first part of the small intestine). (cancer.ca)
  • Small intestine cancer usually begins in an area of the intestine called the duodenum. (cancer.gov)
  • The small intestine (small bowel) lies between the stomach and the large intestine (large bowel) and includes the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. (medscape.com)
  • The small intestine is differentiated from the large intestine by the presence of a mesentery (exceptions being no mesentery in the duodenum, and presence of a mesentery in the transverse and sigmoid colons) and the absence of tenia coli and appendices epiploicae, which are present in the colon. (medscape.com)
  • small intestine The part of the gut between the stomach and the large intestine, comprising consecutively the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Micrograph of the small intestine mucosa showing the intestinal villi and crypts of Lieberkühn . (wikipedia.org)
  • Intestine transplantation, intestinal transplantation, or small bowel transplantation is the surgical replacement of the small intestine for chronic and acute cases of intestinal failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nerves lead to the small intestine from two divisions of the autonomic nervous system: parasympathetic nerves initiate muscular contractions that move food along the tract ( peristalsis ), and sympathetic nerves suppress intestinal movements. (britannica.com)
  • The mucous membrane lining the intestinal wall of the small intestine is thrown into transverse folds called plicae circulares, and in higher vertebrates minute fingerlike projections known as villi project into the cavity. (britannica.com)
  • Peristaltic waves move materials undergoing digestion through the small intestine, while churning movements called rhythmic segmentation mechanically break up these materials, mix them thoroughly with digestive enzymes from the pancreas, liver, and intestinal wall, and bring them in contact with the absorbing surface. (britannica.com)
  • The mice experienced gastrointestinal transit dysfunction (changes in the time it takes for food to travel from the stomach through the intestine), intestinal barrier dysfunction (in which the gastrointestinal tract does not provide a tight barrier against external, harmful bacteria as it normally would), inflammation, and behavior indicative of anxiety. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The ball-shaped magnets were attracted to each other through the walls of his bowels, and so they had pulled different parts of his intestines together, causing multiple holes in the intestinal walls, and tissue death in several regions. (livescience.com)
  • Certain bacteria that inhabit the intestine provide the environmental trigger that initiates and perpetuates chronic intestinal inflammation in individuals who are genetically susceptible to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a study led by Harvard S. (scienceblog.com)
  • One day this technology will allow us to grow a section of healthy intestine for transplant into a patient, but the ability to use it now to test and ask countless new questions will help human health to the greatest extent," said Michael Helmrath, MD, co-lead study investigator and surgical director of the Intestinal Rehabilitation Program at Cincinnati Children's. (eurekalert.org)
  • As science continues to learn more about how important intestinal health is to overall health, Wells and Helmrath said using functioning lab-generated human intestine creates an array of new research opportunities. (eurekalert.org)
  • Overall, within the small intestine a great deal of enzymatic digestion occurs, the products of which are very small nutrient molecules, small enough to be absorbed through the intestinal wall and into the bloodstream. (crossfit.com)
  • Intestinal arteries Loop of small intestine showing distribution of intestinal arteries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intestinal malrotation usually causes a twisted intestine, according to the International Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders. (reference.com)
  • Intestinal malrotation occurs in the first trimester of pregnancy, when the intestines do not turn properly after moving into the abdomen, explains KidsHealth. (reference.com)
  • With our study we originally wanted to study the role of bacteria in the intestines in the development of intestinal inflammation," explains Professor Dirk Haller from the Department of Nutrition and Immunology at the Weihenstephan Science Centre of the TUM. (innovations-report.com)
  • In contrast, intestine-specific KHK-C overexpression promotes intestinal fructose clearance and decreases fructose-induced lipogenesis. (scoop.it)
  • Modulating the capacity of the intestinal epithelium to catabolize fructose is shown to alter fructose-induced lipogenesis in the mouse liver, suggesting that fructose clearance in the small intestine protects from steatosis. (scoop.it)
  • How does our intestinal microbial spectrum compare with what lived in our ancestors' intestines? (thenakedscientists.com)
  • The intestinal tract can be broadly divided into two different parts, the small and large intestine. (bionity.com)
  • The muscle tone of the intestinal walls of large intestine causes the formation of pocket-like sacs known as haustra. (infobarrel.com)
  • enteritis , recent abdominal surgery, intestinal mural disease, intestinal parasites, a foreign object in the tract, and intense contractions of the bowel portion of the intestine. (petmd.com)
  • Generated from human pluripotent stem cells by researchers at Cincinnati Children's, the engineered intestines and enteric nerves give scientists an unprecedented tool for studying intestinal disease and new treatments. (newswise.com)
  • The final section of the small intestine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ileum -The last section of the small intestine located between the jejunum and the large intestine . (encyclopedia.com)
  • This section of the small intestine makes up about one-fifth of the total length of the organ and receives a semisolid sludge of partially digested food from the stomach. (livescience.com)
  • It fills in the gaps between an upper G.I. endoscopy and a colonoscopy, showing a 21-foot section of the small intestine. (peninsulaclarion.com)
  • In human anatomy, the intestine (or bowel ) is the segment of the alimentary canal extending from the pyloric sphincter of the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine. (phys.org)
  • With Anatomy Warehouse’s collection of intestine models and charts, students will find the perfect addition to their education. (anatomywarehouse.com)
  • Can you name the Large Intestine Anatomy? (sporcle.com)
  • Early work in the frog demonstrated the existence of a small potential difference across the wall of the small intestine [1, 2]. (springer.com)
  • The wall of the small intestine and colon is composed of four layers: mucosa (or mucous membrane), submucosa, muscularis (or muscularis propria), and adventitia (or serosa). (news-medical.net)
  • The walls of the small intestine house numerous microscopic glands. (britannica.com)
  • The inner walls of the small intestine show mucosal folds. (news-medical.net)
  • The internal walls of the small intestine are covered in finger-like tissue called villi. (healthline.com)
  • Mucosal folds -Mucosal folds are circular folds found on the inner surface of the small intestine. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Villi are like fingers that stick out from the surface of the small intestine. (edhelper.com)
  • The answer is simple: The surface of the small intestine has many tight folds that can absorb nutrients and water -- they greatly increase the surface area. (howstuffworks.com)
  • It connects your stomach to your large intestine (or colon) and folds many times to fit inside your abdomen. (medlineplus.gov)
  • When food enters the body, colon which is also known as large intestine, performs its function of absorbing the water and salts from digested food and channels the waste out of the body. (infobarrel.com)
  • The rapid contractions drive the material along the intestine into the colon, which cannot absorb the water rapidly enough. (britannica.com)
  • The large intestine is also called the colon. (stlukesonline.org)
  • The small intestine is a tubular structure within the abdominal cavity that carries the food in continuation with the stomach up to the colon from where the large intestine carries it to the rectum and out of the body via the anus. (news-medical.net)
  • The small intestine ends at the ileocecal valve that leads it to the colon. (news-medical.net)
  • Learn everything you want about Large Intestine (Colon) Health with the wikiHow Large Intestine (Colon) Health Category. (wikihow.com)
  • Browse 19,299 intestine stock photos and images available, or search for stomach or colon to find more great stock photos and pictures. (istockphoto.com)
  • But as soon as the microbiota, i.e. all the microorganisms in the intestine, were transplanted back into germ-free animals, tumours developed in the colon of the mice. (innovations-report.com)
  • While these tracts absorb, they also produce mucus that helps feces move easily through the descending colon and into the third part of the large intestine: the rectum. (howstuffworks.com)
  • The portion of the intestine that extends from the ileum to the anus, forming an arch around the convolutions of the small intestine and including the cecum, colon, rectum, and anal canal. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • the broad, shorter part of the intestines, comprising the cecum, colon, and rectum, that absorbs water from and eliminates the residues of digestion. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It is also used to remove tumours in the jejunum (the middle part of the small intestine) or the ileum (the last part of the small intestine near the colon ) if they have not grown through the wall and into other loops of the small intestine. (cancer.ca)
  • A right hemicolectomy removes part of the ileum (the last part of the small intestine), the cecum (the first part of the large intestine) and parts of the colon (the longest part of the large intestine). (cancer.ca)
  • This surgery is used to remove tumours that are close to the colon or are where the small intestine joins the colon. (cancer.ca)
  • The rest of the small intestine is a 4-6-m long convoluted tube occupying the center of the abdomen and the pelvis, surrounded on 2 sides and above by the colon (a part of the large intestine). (medscape.com)
  • The midgut also gives rise to the proximal large intestine (up to the proximal two thirds of the transverse colon). (medscape.com)
  • The large intestine can be subdivided into the appendix, cecum, rectum, colon and the anal canal. (infobarrel.com)
  • small intestine Part of the digestive system that, in humans, extends - about 6m (20ft) coiled and looped - from the stomach to the large intestine, or colon. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The ileum joins to the cecum of the large intestine at the ileocecal junction . (wikipedia.org)
  • The Cecum ( intestinum cæcum ) (Fig. 1073), the commencement of the large intestine, is the large blind pouch situated below the colic valve. (theodora.com)
  • It is situated in the right iliac fossa, above the lateral half of the inguinal ligament: it rests on the Iliacus and Psoas major, and usually lies in contact with the anterior abdominal wall, but the greater omentum and, if the cecum be empty, some coils of small intestine may lie in front of it. (theodora.com)
  • The longest part of the large intestine that receives almost completely digested food from the cecum (the first part of the large intestine), absorbs water and nutrients and passes waste (stool or feces) to the rectum. (cancer.ca)
  • The ileum continues into the large intestine (cecum) at the ileocecal junction. (medscape.com)
  • The first part of the large intestine is the cecum. (infobarrel.com)
  • The small intestine or small bowel is an organ in the gastrointestinal tract where most of the end absorption of nutrients and minerals from food takes place. (wikipedia.org)
  • [3] Taller people generally have a longer small intestine and measurements are generally longer after death and when the bowel is empty. (wikipedia.org)
  • The doctors had to remove a 4-inch (10 centimeters) segment of the boy's bowel, and close four holes in his intestine wall with sutures. (livescience.com)
  • According to the Cleveland Clinic , a few factors can increase the risk of developing problems with the small intestine: eating diets that are low in fiber, not getting enough exercise, experiencing stress or changes in routine, eating large amounts of dairy, resisting the urge to have a bowel movement, taking certain medications, and being pregnant. (livescience.com)
  • Probiotics and occasional bowel stimulants may also help keep the small intestine healthy. (livescience.com)
  • The intestine (bowel) is the long, winding, tube that is part of the digestive tract. (stlukesonline.org)
  • The small intestine (small bowel) receives food from the lower end of the stomach and continues to digest it before passing it into the large intestine. (stlukesonline.org)
  • The large intestine (large bowel) absorbs chemicals (such as sodium and chloride), nutrients, and water from the digested food. (stlukesonline.org)
  • Image of a biopsy from the intestine of a mouse that has inflammatory bowel disease, a condition in which TNF-mediated inflammation is heavily implicated. (eurekalert.org)
  • Different types of bowel resection may be used to treat small intestine tumours. (cancer.ca)
  • A segmental small bowel resection is surgery to remove part of the small intestine. (cancer.ca)
  • Sometimes a tumour can make a hole in the wall of the intestine (called a bowel perforation). (cancer.ca)
  • It is also done if a tumour blocks the small intestine (called a bowel obstruction). (cancer.ca)
  • Surgery for small intestine cancer may cause short bowel syndrome, which is when there is not enough intestine to properly absorb water and nutrients from foods. (cancer.ca)
  • Irritable bowel syndrome is the most common functional disorder of the intestine. (bionity.com)
  • At a top cancer meeting this month in Chicago, British researchers shared the result of a trial from 2009 to 2013 of 250 patients with colorectal cancer that had blocked their intestines, preventing bowel movement. (straitstimes.com)
  • They will remove Large intestines and rectum. (healingwell.com)
  • 1. Student will be able to identify and differentiate the large intestine, small intestine, rectum, and anus. (teach-nology.com)
  • 2. Student will be able to define the function and purpose of large intestine, small intestine, rectum, and anus. (teach-nology.com)
  • 3. Student will be able to connect the relation of the large intestine, small intestine, rectum, and anus to the entire digestive system. (teach-nology.com)
  • 1. Student will read all material related to the large intestine, small intestine, rectum, and anus. (teach-nology.com)
  • 3. Student will color and lable a diagram of the large intestine, small intestine, rectum, and anus. (teach-nology.com)
  • 4. Student will complete worksheets pertaining to the large intestine, small intestine, rectum, and anus that were given by the teacher. (teach-nology.com)
  • Them the teacher should introduce the new material (large intestine, small intestine, rectum, and anus). (teach-nology.com)
  • Failure of the small intestine would be life-threatening due to the inability to absorb nutrients, fluids, and electrolytes from food. (wikipedia.org)
  • The digestive system also eliminates solid waste , recycles water, and absorbs vitamins from nutrients in the large intestines. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The liver produces bile and because bile helps in breaking down fats it is important for normal digestion and for the delivery of nutrients from intestines into the blood. (articlealley.com)
  • The intestine helps to process food, extract and absorb nutrients and water, and eliminate waste. (stlukesonline.org)
  • 2 The job of the small intestine is to remove nutrients from the chyme. (edhelper.com)
  • The nutrients move from your small intestine to your blood. (edhelper.com)
  • These villi are how your small intestine pulls nutrients out of the chyme. (edhelper.com)
  • That means that the small intestine can pull out many more nutrients than it could with a smooth surface. (edhelper.com)
  • 3 By the time that the chyme makes it all the way through your small intestine, almost all the nutrients have been removed. (edhelper.com)
  • The main function of the small intestine is absorption of nutrients and minerals from food. (news-medical.net)
  • Most of the nutrients in your food pass through the lining of your small intestine into your blood. (planet-science.com)
  • A giant toadstool that swallows up vitamins and nutrients in the intestines and kidneys: This is how one receptor that absorbs B12 vitamins in the small intestine looks. (phys.org)
  • The absorbed nutrients move through the wall of the intestines and into blood vessels that take them throughout the body. (howstuffworks.com)
  • The results of this systematic analysis of nutrients used by E. coli MG1655 to colonize the mouse intestine are intriguing in light of the nutrient-niche hypothesis, which states that the ecological niches within the intestine are defined by nutrient availability. (pnas.org)
  • A large and growing body of evidence indicates that commensal E. coli grows in the intestine on nutrients acquired from mucus. (pnas.org)
  • However the large intestine is mainly concerned with the absorption of water from digested material (which is regulated by the hypothalamus ), the reabsorption of sodium , as well as any nutrients that may have escaped primary digestion in the ileum. (bionity.com)
  • Nov. 27 (UPI) -- The lining of the human intestine prevents potentially harmful bacteria, fungi and viruses that entered via consumed food from invading other parts of the body. (upi.com)
  • Take a small sample of human intestine, grind it up and soak it in a digestive enzyme solution, pipette the mixture onto a polymer scaffold and implant it into the abdominal cavity of a mouse. (newscientist.com)
  • Study authors at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center say the paper puts medical science a step closer to using human pluripotent stem cells (which can become any cell type in the body) for regenerative medicine and growing patient-specific human intestine for transplant. (eurekalert.org)
  • The technology will also allow researchers to test new therapeutics in functioning lab-engineered human intestine before clinical trials in patients. (eurekalert.org)
  • First-pass metabolism of midazolam by the human intestine. (nih.gov)
  • It lies between the stomach and large intestine , and receives bile and pancreatic juice through the pancreatic duct to aid in digestion . (wikipedia.org)
  • Digestion -The conversion of food in the stomach and in the intestines into substances capable of being absorbed by the blood. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Joe Genzel, Outdoor Life , "10 Common Parasites and Diseases Found in Game Fish (and What You Need to Know About Them)," 27 May 2020 Many of them live in the intestines of humans and animals and are considered healthy, with some aiding in food digestion. (merriam-webster.com)
  • The small intestine is the part of the intestines where 90% of the digestion and absorption of food occurs, the other 10% taking place in the stomach and large intestine. (news-medical.net)
  • Chemical digestion occurs in the small intestine (and, to a lesser extent, also in some other part of the gastrointestinal tract. (news-medical.net)
  • Your small intestine is the longest part of your digestive system - about twenty feet long! (medlineplus.gov)
  • It primarily causes ulcerations (breaks in the lining) of the small and large intestines, but can affect the digestive system anywhere from the mouth to the anus. (medindia.net)
  • We bet you thought "intestine" was a noun referring to a part of the digestive system! (merriam-webster.com)
  • Once swallowed, it travels through your digestive system and sends back images from the small intestine. (peninsulaclarion.com)
  • When studying the digestive system, it’s important to understand the intestines and their many functions and products. (anatomywarehouse.com)
  • With regards to its function in the digestive system, the large intestine serves as the last remaining site to absorb traces of water from food residue, serves as a temporary holding facility for the indigestible food residue and then eliminates them out of the body in a semisolid form of feces. (infobarrel.com)
  • We knocked out several pathways and tested the relative fitness of the mutants for colonization of the mouse intestine in competition with their wild-type parent. (pnas.org)
  • E. coli BJ4 grows rapidly in the mouse intestine, with a generation time of 40-80 min ( 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • Among mutants unable to colonize the mouse intestine are those that fail to penetrate mucus ( 13 , 17 ), have difficulty surviving in mucus ( 18 ), or have difficulty growing on mucus ( 16 , 18 , 19 ). (pnas.org)
  • It contains a cavity (abdominal cavity) that holds organs such as the pancreas, stomach, intestines, liver, and gallbladder. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Bile -A greenish yellow fluid produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder that is secreted in the small intestine to assist in the absorption of fats. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Who do I go see for interposition of intestine between the right hemidiaphragm and liver? (medhelp.org)
  • Bile Duct Cancer Overview Bile duct cancer: An uncommon type of cancer that arises from the bile duct, the tube that connects the liver and the gallbladder to the small intestine. (articlealley.com)
  • Hip baths are very helpful in stimulating the stomach, liver, intestines, kidneys, spleen and other digestive organs, and in maintaining their efficiency. (articlealley.com)
  • As Canada's largest intestine transplant program, we offer three transplant options: isolated intestine, liver & intestine, and multi-visceral, for patients with TPN. (uhn.ca)
  • Some of these chemicals are secreted in the lumen (the hollow area in the middle of the intestine), but others are transported to the intestine from other organs such as the pancreas and liver. (healthline.com)
  • The small intestine shields the liver from fruc. (scoop.it)
  • In mice, intestine-specific KHK-C deletion increases dietary fructose transit to the liver and gut microbiota and sensitizes mice to fructose's hyperlipidaemic effects and hepatic steatosis. (scoop.it)
  • During the first year after the transplantation, your child will need to visit the Liver and Intestine Transplant Clinic at Seattle Children's many times for follow-up visits and lab tests. (seattlechildrens.org)
  • Although inflammation in the fat and liver are established features of obesity-associated insulin resistance, the intestine is emerging as a new site for immunologic changes that affect whole-body metabolism. (jci.org)
  • It is covered by a membrane of peritoneum, and receives its blood vessels and nerves via the mesentery - a flat but fatty double membrane which fans out from the back of the abdomen to the loops of the small intestine. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Jejunum - There are few clear-cut means of identifying where each of the three regions of the small intestine begins and ends, but for the jejunum the transition can be closely approximated, as it has a more extensive blood supply than the other segments. (crossfit.com)
  • Constipation is the delayed passage of waste through the lower portion of the large intestine, with the ultimate discharge of dry, hardened feces from the anus . (britannica.com)
  • The small intestine is a long coiled tube located in the abdominal cavity. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The small intestine is a coiled, tube-like organ held in place by two membrane sheets attached to the walls of the abdominal cavity and referred to as the mesentery. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Ileum - The ileum (not to be confused with the ilium bone of the hip) is located lower within the abdominal cavity, and its terminus serves as a transition point, emptying its contents into the subsequent large intestine. (crossfit.com)
  • This allows free movement of the small intestine within the abdominal cavity. (news-medical.net)
  • Holding all this in place are the mesenteries which suspend the intestine in the abdominal cavity and stop it being disturbed when a person is physically active. (bionity.com)
  • The large intestine absorbs extra fluid to produce the solid waste we know as feces. (howstuffworks.com)
  • The large intestine absorbs water and eliminates wastes as feces. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the small intestine, the epithelial cells cover the villi and contain microvilli. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Villi - Small Intestine in minutes with SmartDraw. (smartdraw.com)
  • The inside of your small intestine is covered with millions of villi. (edhelper.com)
  • Magnified hundreds of times, this model replicates three of the more than 5 million villi that line the small intestine. (anatomywarehouse.com)
  • Villi are vaginations of the mucosa and increase the overall surface area of the intestine while also containing a lacteal, which is connected to the lymph system and aids in the removal of lipids and tissue fluid from the blood supply. (bionity.com)
  • The small intestine, despite its name, is the longest part of the gastrointestinal tract. (livescience.com)
  • Cancer of the small intestine is very rare, with fewer than 1 in 10 cancers occurring in the gastrointestinal track, according to the American Cancer Society (ACS). (livescience.com)
  • According to Harvard Health Publishing , there are many ways to help keep the small intestine, as well the rest of the gastrointestinal track, healthy. (livescience.com)
  • To learn about other types of cancer that can start in the small intestine, see Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors , Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors , or Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma . (cancer.org)
  • Immediately downstream from the stomach, which has the largest diameter of any segment in the gastrointestinal system, we find the small intestine. (crossfit.com)
  • Together with the esophagus, large intestine, and the stomach, it forms the gastrointestinal tract. (healthline.com)
  • While Crohn's can affect the entire gastrointestinal tract, ulcerative colitis is limited to the large intestine. (bionity.com)
  • Diarrhea is the abnormally swift passage of waste material through the large intestine, with consequent discharge of loose feces from the anus . (britannica.com)
  • The large intestine extends from the end of the ileum to the anus. (theodora.com)
  • The wide lower section of the intestine that extends from the end of the small intestine to the anus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These bacteria also account for the production of gases inside our intestine (this gas is released as flatulence when removed through the anus). (bionity.com)
  • For the kidney structure, see straight arterioles of kidney Vasa recta are straight arteries coming off from arcades in the mesentery of the jejunum and ileum, and heading toward the intestines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inflamed intestines cost Australians as much as $2.7 billion a year, according to the Access Economics study, first ever assessment of the economic impact of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. (medindia.net)
  • Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the intestines. (medindia.net)
  • The most common conditions in this group are ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, which usually affect the small and large intestines, respectively. (reference.com)
  • Both the jejunum and the ileum have linings with many folds that increase the surface area of the small intestine (about 2,700 square feet or 250 square meters) for maximized nutrient absorption. (livescience.com)
  • Appoximately one third of all bacteria living in the intestine belong to the genera Bacteroides . (madsci.org)
  • Gastroenteritis is inflammation of the intestines and is the most common disease of the intestines. (bionity.com)
  • First showing of the intestines in chest was in July and it seems to be getting worse - symptoms: swelling of upper abdomen and pain in chest, shortness of breath. (medhelp.org)
  • For a time very early in the pregnancy, your baby's intestines were so large they couldn't fit inside his abdomen. (articlealley.com)
  • Malrotation is a birth defect caused by the incorrect positioning of a fetus's intestines in the abdomen while the fetus is still in the uterus. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • When histamine is released in the lining of the intestines, inflammation occurs, which causes common digestive symptoms of a mushroom allergy. (livestrong.com)
  • Ulcerative colitis is a chronic disease caused by inflammation of the large intestine and the symptoms are characterised by blood- and mucus-mixed diarrhea, frequent stools, abdominal pain, fever, weight loss and anemia. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Colitis is an inflammation of the large intestine. (bionity.com)
  • Intussusception refers to an inflammation of the intestines, a portion of the intestine that has slipped out of its normal place ( prolapse ), and a portion of the intestine that has folded (invagination). (petmd.com)
  • Ulcerative colitis is a lifelong condition that begins with rectal inflammation and can worsen to involve much or all of the large intestine. (smore.com)
  • In a biopsy, small samples of tissue are clipped from the lining of the intestine so that they can be examined under a microscope for signs of inflammation. (smore.com)
  • Monique Brouillette, Scientific American , "Decoding the Vaginal Microbiome," 28 Feb. 2020 Another theory suggests diet changes have affected the microbes that live in our intestines and influence our immune systems. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Researchers now consider fiber's role in nourishing our gut microbiome - the ecosystem of microbes in our intestines - to be one of its main health benefits. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Scientists purposefully made mice sick to test how the creatures' intestines-and the microbes they harbor-would react. (icr.org)
  • Small intestine tissue produces fucose that travels down to the large intestine, where more microbes hang out. (icr.org)
  • Thus, a team of researchers sought to determine whether the changes in types of bacteria (gut microbes) in the intestines after gastric bypass contribute to weight loss. (nih.gov)
  • Treatment of disorders of the small intestine depends on the cause. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A wide variety of diseases and disorders occur in the large intestine. (britannica.com)
  • This bloating makes the intestines "unhealthy" and prone to tearing easily. (straitstimes.com)
  • A thin membranous material, the mesentery , supports and somewhat suspends the intestines. (britannica.com)
  • The remainder of the small intestine is suspended within the peritoneal cavity by a thin, broad-based mesentery that is attached to the posterior abdominal wall. (news-medical.net)
  • The intestines are responsible for the majority of fluid absorption. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Is the penis connected to our stomach and intestines? (yahoo.com)
  • Both the noun and the adjective "intestine" have been a part of English since the 15th century, and both trace to the Latin adjective intestinus, meaning "internal," and ultimately to intus, meaning "within. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Recent Examples on the Web: Noun Black grubs start in the intestines of birds, which transfer the fluke eggs to snails through feces. (merriam-webster.com)
  • There's always a floor beneath the bottom, Devi," I shrug, before happily placing the wheat-byproduct-blanket upon the peanut butter-intestines and jelly-bile- taking a large bite. (fanfiction.net)
  • The stents, which are 6cm to 12cm long and cost $1,800 to $2,000, are removed with the tumours, and the healthy intestine is rejoined. (straitstimes.com)
  • Welcome to Intestine Transplant Program at UHN, where our team is dedicated to helping patients with complex medical conditions through every stage of a transplant. (uhn.ca)
  • Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary , Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/intestine. (merriam-webster.com)
  • 2014. https://www.unboundmedicine.com/5minute/view/Diagnosaurus/114486/all/Obstruction_of_small_intestine. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The small intestine employs more cells and mechanisms than scientists previously thought to absorb relatively large particles, such as those that could encapsulate protein-based. (scienceblog.com)
  • If it was a simple pipe, its inner surface area would be about a half a square meter (about 5.4 square feet), hardly enough to absorb a small fraction of the volume of food handled by the intestines each day. (crossfit.com)
  • The type of surgery you have depends mainly on where the tumour is in the small intestine and whether or not it is resectable (it can be completely removed with surgery). (cancer.ca)
  • Palliative surgery is used to relieve pain and other symptoms caused by a small intestine tumour. (cancer.ca)
  • The surgeon may do a surgical bypass to allow digested food and fluid to go around, or bypass, a tumour in the small intestine. (cancer.ca)
  • By then, the tumour is so big that it has completely blocked the big intestine, preventing stool from passing. (straitstimes.com)
  • After the tumour is cut off, it could be difficult to sew up the intestine properly. (straitstimes.com)
  • Surgery to remove the tumour is often done one to two weeks later, giving the intestine time to regain health. (straitstimes.com)
  • The jejunum constitutes about two fifths of the proximal small intestine and the ileum makes the distal three fifths. (medscape.com)
  • The intestine is an epithelial tissue which is involved in the net transfer of both solutes and water from its lumen, and its electrical activity can be related to its absorptive functions. (springer.com)
  • Can Small Intestine Cancer (Adenocarcinoma) Be Prevented? (cancer.org)
  • Can Small Intestine Cancer (Adenocarcinoma) Be Found Early? (cancer.org)
  • See Tests for Small Intestine Cancer (Adenocarcinoma) to learn more about these tests. (cancer.org)
  • Most people with small intestine adenocarcinoma will have surgery. (cancer.ca)
  • The following are the types of surgery used to treat small intestine adenocarcinoma. (cancer.ca)
  • About 70% of your immune system is located in your intestines. (articlealley.com)
  • However, this is true for only a small number of people, those who have celiac disease, an immune disorder that can result in damage to the small intestine if the person eats gluten. (livescience.com)
  • Published online Nov. 21, the findings describe an unprecedented approach to engineer and study tissues in the intestine - the body's largest immune organ, its food processor and main interface with the outside world. (eurekalert.org)
  • When people with celiac disease consume gluten, the immune system gets confused and overreacts, attacking the small intestine. (healthline.com)
  • The new intestine comes from another person, so your child's immune system will recognize that the intestine is different and may try to attack it. (seattlechildrens.org)
  • If your child's immune system injures the intestine, this is called rejection. (seattlechildrens.org)
  • But at any time, your child's immune system might try to attack the intestine. (seattlechildrens.org)
  • Looking at the sample of intestine under a microscope, we can see if there has been any injury to the intestine caused by the immune system. (seattlechildrens.org)
  • Treatment for rejection involves increasing the amount of medicine to suppress your child's immune system and allowing the intestine to recover from the rejection injury. (seattlechildrens.org)
  • The rarest type of organ transplantation performed, intestine transplantation is becoming increasingly prevalent as a therapeutic option due to improvements in immunosuppressive regiments, surgical technique, PN, and the clinical management of pre and post-transplant patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the next two decades, attempts at transplanting the small intestine in humans were met with universal failure, and patients died of technical complications, sepsis, or graft rejection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small intestine cancer statistics based on data from large groups of patients to be used as a general guide. (cancer.gov)
  • If malrotation of the intestines causes symptoms, surgery usually is required to correct the position of the intestines. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • But small intestine adenocarcinomas are rare, and no effective screening tests have been found for these cancers, so routine testing for people without any symptoms is not recommended. (cancer.org)
  • Popcorn may worsen the symptoms, which include diarrhea, blood in the stool, ulcerations in the intestines, decreased appetite and abdominal cramping and pain. (livestrong.com)
  • If you're experiencing symptoms or would simply like to learn more about small intestine cancer causes, the experts at Moffitt can answer your questions and provide further information. (moffitt.org)
  • Depending on the cancer's size, as well as its location in our large intestine , the symptoms will likely vary when they start to appear. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Enteroviruses are named by their transmission-route through the intestine ( enteric = related to intestine), but their symptoms aren't mainly associated with the intestine. (bionity.com)
  • To check for rejection even if your child has no symptoms, we will take small samples (biopsies) of the transplanted intestine to look for signs of rejection. (seattlechildrens.org)
  • It secretes the hormones insulin and glucagon that control blood sugar levels and also secretes pancreatic enzymes in the small intestine for the breakdown of fats and proteins. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Recent Examples on the Web: Adjective Similarly, it could potentially be used to create intestine organoids to look at how sets of enzymes process food, giving information on Neanderthal diet. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Here in this microscopic world within mouse intestines, precisely designed enzymes and transporter proteins anticipate the needs of two totally different organisms. (icr.org)
  • In the small intestine food that has already been broken down by chewing and stomach enzymes is further degraded by additional enzymes. (healthline.com)
  • The worm-to-intestine chemical communication points back to creation, and the diseases point back to the curse. (icr.org)
  • As you age, the risk of developing diverticula, small bulging pouches in the intestine, increases, reaching around 50 percent by age 60, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. (livestrong.com)
  • Peristalsis , contraction of the muscle walls, is the force that propels matter through the small intestine. (healthline.com)