Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
Lining of the ORAL CAVITY, including mucosa on the GUMS; the PALATE; the LIP; the CHEEK; floor of the mouth; and other structures. The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous EPITHELIUM covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations.
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
A malabsorption syndrome that is precipitated by the ingestion of foods containing GLUTEN, such as wheat, rye, and barley. It is characterized by INFLAMMATION of the SMALL INTESTINE, loss of MICROVILLI structure, failed INTESTINAL ABSORPTION, and MALNUTRITION.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Pathological processes in any segment of the INTESTINE from DUODENUM to RECTUM.
An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.
Absorptive cells in the lining of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA. They are differentiated EPITHELIAL CELLS with apical MICROVILLI facing the intestinal lumen. Enterocytes are more abundant in the SMALL INTESTINE than in the LARGE INTESTINE. Their microvilli greatly increase the luminal surface area of the cell by 14- to 40 fold.
Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.
The passage of viable bacteria from the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT to extra-intestinal sites, such as the mesenteric lymph node complex, liver, spleen, kidney, and blood. Factors that promote bacterial translocation include overgrowth with gram-negative enteric bacilli, impaired host immune defenses, and injury to the INTESTINAL MUCOSA resulting in increased intestinal permeability. Bacterial translocation from the lung to the circulation is also possible and sometimes accompanies MECHANICAL VENTILATION.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
Simple protein, one of the prolamines, derived from the gluten of wheat, rye, etc. May be separated into 4 discrete electrophoretic fractions. It is the toxic factor associated with CELIAC DISEASE.
Fluids originating from the epithelial lining of the intestines, adjoining exocrine glands and from organs such as the liver, which empty into the cavity of the intestines.
A segment of the LOWER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the CECUM; the COLON; and the RECTUM.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Prolamins in the endosperm of SEEDS from the Triticeae tribe which includes species of WHEAT; BARLEY; and RYE.
Inflammation of the COLON that is predominantly confined to the MUCOSA. Its major symptoms include DIARRHEA, rectal BLEEDING, the passage of MUCUS, and ABDOMINAL PAIN.
Chronic, non-specific inflammation of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Etiology may be genetic or environmental. This term includes CROHN DISEASE and ULCERATIVE COLITIS.
Inflammation of any segment of the SMALL INTESTINE.
A chronic transmural inflammation that may involve any part of the DIGESTIVE TRACT from MOUTH to ANUS, mostly found in the ILEUM, the CECUM, and the COLON. In Crohn disease, the inflammation, extending through the intestinal wall from the MUCOSA to the serosa, is characteristically asymmetric and segmental. Epithelioid GRANULOMAS may be seen in some patients.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.
Lymphoid tissue on the mucosa of the small intestine.
The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Inflammation of any segment of the ILEUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE.
That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated olfactory glands.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
The mucous lining of the LARYNX, consisting of various types of epithelial cells ranging from stratified squamous EPITHELIUM in the upper larynx to ciliated columnar epithelium in the rest of the larynx, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Infestation with nematode worms of the genus TRICHOSTRONGYLUS. Man and animals become infected by swallowing larvae, usually with contaminated food or drink, although the larvae may penetrate human skin.
Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.
The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A group of enzymes including those oxidizing primary monoamines, diamines, and histamine. They are copper proteins, and, as their action depends on a carbonyl group, they are sensitive to inhibition by semicarbazide.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
A highly poisonous organochlorine insecticide. The EPA has cancelled registrations of pesticides containing this compound with the exception of its use through subsurface ground insertion for termite control and the dipping of roots or tops of non-food plants. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Inflammation of the MUCOSA of both the SMALL INTESTINE and the LARGE INTESTINE. Etiology includes ISCHEMIA, infections, allergic, and immune responses.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A plant species of the Astragalus genus which is source of Huang qi preparation used in TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE.
Jaundice, the condition with yellowish staining of the skin and mucous membranes, that is due to impaired BILE flow in the BILIARY TRACT, such as INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS, or EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.
Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A layer of the peritoneum which attaches the abdominal viscera to the ABDOMINAL WALL and conveys their blood vessels and nerves.
A lesion on the surface of the skin or a mucous surface, produced by the sloughing of inflammatory necrotic tissue.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of proteins in the diet, characterized by adaptive enzyme changes in the liver, increase in amino acid synthetases, and diminution of urea formation, thus conserving nitrogen and reducing its loss in the urine. Growth, immune response, repair, and production of enzymes and hormones are all impaired in severe protein deficiency. Protein deficiency may also arise in the face of adequate protein intake if the protein is of poor quality (i.e., the content of one or more amino acids is inadequate and thus becomes the limiting factor in protein utilization). (From Merck Manual, 16th ed; Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p406)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Pathological development in the JEJUNUM region of the SMALL INTESTINE.
Infections with bacteria of the family Desulfovibrionaceae.
The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
A thin lining of closed cavities of the body, consisting of a single layer of squamous epithelial cells (MESOTHELIUM) resting on a thin layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and covered with secreted clear fluid from blood and lymph vessels. Major serous membranes in the body include PERICARDIUM; PERITONEUM; and PLEURA.
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.
A zinc containing enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the removal of the N-terminal amino acid from most L-peptides, particularly those with N-terminal leucine residues but not those with N-terminal lysine or arginine residues. This occurs in tissue cell cytosol, with high activity in the duodenum, liver, and kidney. The activity of this enzyme is commonly assayed using a leucine arylamide chromogenic substrate such as leucyl beta-naphthylamide.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Long-chain polymer of glucose containing 17-20% sulfur. It has been used as an anticoagulant and also has been shown to inhibit the binding of HIV-1 to CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. It is commonly used as both an experimental and clinical laboratory reagent and has been investigated for use as an antiviral agent, in the treatment of hypolipidemia, and for the prevention of free radical damage, among other applications.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Infection by roundworms of the superfamily TRICHOSTRONGYLOIDEA, including the genera TRICHOSTRONGYLUS; OSTERTAGIA; Cooperia, HAEMONCHUS; Nematodirus, Hyostrongylus, and DICTYOCAULUS.
A plant genus in the family FABACEAE, subfamily Papilionaceae, order Fabales, subclass Rosidae. Many of the species are associated with poisoning of grazing animals. Some of the species are used medicinally.
A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.
Conjugated proteins in which mucopolysaccharides are combined with proteins. The mucopolysaccharide moiety is the predominant group with the protein making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
Acute hemorrhage or excessive fluid loss resulting in HYPOVOLEMIA.
Inflammation of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, a lesion observed in a number of unrelated disorders.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
A 33-amino acid peptide derived from the C-terminal of PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. It stimulates intestinal mucosal growth and decreased apoptosis of ENTEROCYTES. GLP-2 enhances gastrointestinal function and plays an important role in nutrient homeostasis.
The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A subtype of enteroendocrine cells found in the gastrointestinal MUCOSA, particularly in the glands of PYLORIC ANTRUM; DUODENUM; and ILEUM. These cells secrete mainly SEROTONIN and some neuropeptides. Their secretory granules stain readily with silver (argentaffin stain).
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-448 (P-450) enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of benzopyrene to 3-hydroxybenzopyrene in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. Also acts on certain anthracene derivatives. An aspect of EC 1.14.14.1.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Acute inflammation of the intestine associated with infectious DIARRHEA of various etiologies, generally acquired by eating contaminated food containing TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL derived from BACTERIA or other microorganisms. Dysentery is characterized initially by watery FECES then by bloody mucoid stools. It is often associated with ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and DEHYDRATION.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.
Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.
A genus of gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacteria causing a proliferative enteritis in animals, especially pigs, deer, horses, and rabbits.
A plant species which is known as an Oriental traditional medicinal plant.
Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.
Ulceration of the GASTRIC MUCOSA due to contact with GASTRIC JUICE. It is often associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI infection or consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from ATP, carbon dioxide, and ammonia. This enzyme is specific for arginine biosynthesis or the urea cycle. Absence or lack of this enzyme may cause CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE I DEFICIENCY DISEASE. EC 6.3.4.16.
The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.
A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
By adjusting the quantity and quality of food intake to improve health status of an individual. This term does not include the methods of food intake (NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT).
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
An enzyme complex found in the brush border membranes of the small intestine. It is believed to be an enzyme complex with different catalytic sites. Its absence is manifested by an inherited disease called sucrase-isomaltase deficiency.
Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Enzymes that catalyze the exohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glucosidic linkages with release of alpha-glucose. Deficiency of alpha-1,4-glucosidase may cause GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE II.
A strongly basic anion exchange resin whose main constituent is polystyrene trimethylbenzylammonium Cl(-) anion.
Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.
Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A diet which is devoid of GLUTENS from WHEAT; BARLEY; RYE; and other wheat-related varieties. The diet is designed to reduce exposure to those proteins in gluten that trigger INFLAMMATION of the small intestinal mucosa in patients with CELIAC DISEASE.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of LACTOSE to D-GALACTOSE and D-GLUCOSE. Defects in the enzyme cause LACTOSE INTOLERANCE.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Synthetic or natural substances which are given to prevent a disease or disorder or are used in the process of treating a disease or injury due to a poisonous agent.
EXOPEPTIDASES that specifically act on dipeptides. EC 3.4.13.
A condition in which there is a change of one adult cell type to another similar adult cell type.
Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.
Drugs used for their effects on the gastrointestinal system, as to control gastric acidity, regulate gastrointestinal motility and water flow, and improve digestion.
(Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.
Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.
ENTEROCOLITIS with extensive ulceration (ULCER) and NECROSIS. It is observed primarily in LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANT.
A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
An INFLAMMATION of the MUCOSA with burning or tingling sensation. It is characterized by atrophy of the squamous EPITHELIUM, vascular damage, inflammatory infiltration, and ulceration. It usually occurs at the mucous lining of the MOUTH, the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or the airway due to chemical irritations, CHEMOTHERAPY, or radiation therapy (RADIOTHERAPY).
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells such as the GOBLET CELLS.
A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.
Industrial chemicals which have become widespread environmental pollutants. Each aroclor is a mixture of chlorinated biphenyls (1200 series) or chlorinated terphenyls (5400 series) or a combination of both (4400 series).
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS supplying the abdominal VISCERA.
The dialdehyde of malonic acid.
Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The region between the sharp indentation at the lower third of the STOMACH (incisura angularis) and the junction of the PYLORUS with the DUODENUM. Pyloric antral glands contain mucus-secreting cells and gastrin-secreting endocrine cells (G CELLS).
GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Peptides that regulate the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in the body, also known as natriuretic peptide hormones. Several have been sequenced (ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR; BRAIN NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE; C-TYPE NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE).
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Transglutaminases catalyze cross-linking of proteins at a GLUTAMINE in one chain with LYSINE in another chain. They include keratinocyte transglutaminase (TGM1 or TGK), tissue transglutaminase (TGM2 or TGC), plasma transglutaminase involved with coagulation (FACTOR XIII and FACTOR XIIIa), hair follicle transglutaminase, and prostate transglutaminase. Although structures differ, they share an active site (YGQCW) and strict CALCIUM dependence.
Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.
A glandular epithelial cell or a unicellular gland. Goblet cells secrete MUCUS. They are scattered in the epithelial linings of many organs, especially the SMALL INTESTINE and the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
Infections in animals with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.
The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.
Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
Tumor suppressor genes located in the 5q21 region on the long arm of human chromosome 5. The mutation of these genes is associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI) and GARDNER SYNDROME, as well as some sporadic colorectal cancers.

Analysis of the effects of food and of digestive secretions on the small intestine of the rat. 1. Mucosal morphology and epithelial replacement. (1/12927)

A modified Roux-en-Y repositioning of rat small intestine was performed so that the proximal segment of bowel (A) received only bile and pancreastic secretions, the second (B) received food direct from the stomach, and these two segments drained into a third (C). Four to five weeks after operation, cell production was assessed by injection of vincristine into operated, sham-operated and unoperated rats, and counts of blocked metaphases were made on isolated microdissected crypts. Villus height, crypt depth, and the number of crypts per villus (crypt/villus ratio) were also measured. Most of segment A showed no significant differences from sham-operated intestine, although the normal proximo-distal gradient of villus height was abolished. At the distal end (near the anastomosis with segments B and C), crypt depth and cell production were increased. The villus height gradient in segment B was also abolished, although crypt depth and cell production were significantly increased, especially at the proximal end. Crypt/villus ratio was also increased. Segment C showed all the characteristics of small bowel promoted to a more proximal position: increased villus height, crypt depth and cell production. Increased crypt/villus ratio was also observed. These results are discussed in terms of the role of food and of digestive secretions in the control of mucosal morphology and epithelial replacement.  (+info)

PKCdelta acts as a growth and tumor suppressor in rat colonic epithelial cells. (2/12927)

We have analysed the expression of three calcium-independent isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC), PKCdelta, PKCepsilon and PKCzeta, in an in vitro model of colon carcinogenesis consisting of the nontumorigenic rat colonic epithelial cell line D/WT, and a derivative src-transformed line D/src. While PKCzeta and PKCepsilon showed similar protein levels, PKCdelta was markedly decreased in D/src cells when compared to the D/WT line. To assess whether down-regulation of PKCdelta was causally involved in the neoplastic phenotype in D/src cells, we prepared a kinase-defective mutant of PKCdelta. Stable transfection of this sequence caused morphological and growth changes characteristic of partial transformation in D/WT cells. Moreover, to test whether PKCdelta was involved in growth control and transformation in this model, we overexpressed PKCdelta in D/src cells. Transfected cells underwent marked growth and morphological modifications toward the D/WT phenotype. In a late stage in culture, transfected cells ceased to proliferate, rounded up and degenerated into multinucleated, giant-like cells. We conclude that PKCdelta can reverse the transformed phenotype and act as a suppressor of cell growth in D/src cells. Moreover, our data show that downregulation of this isoenzyme of PKC may cooperate in the neoplastic transformation induced by the src oncogene in D/WT cells.  (+info)

Expression of nitric oxide synthase in inflammatory bowel disease is not affected by corticosteroid treatment. (3/12927)

AIM: To examine the effect of corticosteroid treatment on the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the colon of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS: Four groups of patients were studied: (1) ulcerative colitis treated with high dose corticosteroids (six patients, 10 blocks); (2) ulcerative colitis patients who had never received corticosteroids (10 patients, 16 blocks); (3) Crohn's disease treated with high dose corticosteroids (12 patients, 24 blocks); (4) Non-inflammatory, non-neoplastic controls (four patients, six blocks). Full thickness paraffin sections of colons removed at surgery were immunostained with an antibody raised against the C terminal end of iNOS. Sections were assessed semiquantitatively for the presence and degree of inflammation and immunoreactivity for nitric oxide synthase. RESULTS: Cases of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease with active inflammation showed strong staining for nitric oxide synthase. The staining was diffuse in ulcerative colitis and patchy in Crohn's disease, in accordance with the distribution of active inflammation. Staining was seen in epithelial cells and was most intense near areas of inflammation such as crypt abscesses. Non-inflamed epithelium showed no immunoreactivity. Treatment with corticosteroids made no difference to the amount of nitric oxide synthase. CONCLUSIONS: Expression of nitric oxide synthase is increased in both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease and appears to be unaffected by treatment with corticosteroids. Disease severity necessitated surgery in all the cases included in this study, regardless of whether or not the patients had received long term corticosteroid treatment. It seems therefore that a high level of iNOS expression and, presumably, production of nitric oxide characterise cases which are refractory to clinical treatment; this suggests that specific inhibition of the enzyme may be a useful therapeutic adjunct.  (+info)

Interleukin-8 controls bacterial transepithelial translocation at the cost of epithelial destruction in experimental shigellosis. (4/12927)

In shigellosis, the network of cellular interactions mediated by a balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines or chemokines is clearly tipped toward acute destructive inflammation of intestinal tissues by the bacterial invader. This work has addressed the role played by interleukin-8 (IL-8) in a rabbit model of intestinal invasion by Shigella flexneri. IL-8, which is largely produced by the epithelial cells themselves, appears to be a major mediator of the recruitment of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) to the subepithelial area and transmigration of these cells through the epithelial lining. Neutralization of IL-8 function by monoclonal antibody WS-4 caused a decrease in the amount of PMNs streaming through the lamina propria and the epithelium, thus significantly attenuating the severity of epithelial lesions in areas of bacterial invasion. These findings are in agreement with our previous work (31). In contrast to the PMNs, the bacteria displayed increased transepithelial translocation, as well as overgrowth in the lamina propria and increased passage into the mesenteric blood. By mediating eradication of bacteria at their epithelial entry site, although at the cost of severe epithelial destruction, IL-8 therefore appears to be a key chemokine in the control of bacterial translocation.  (+info)

The postnatal development of the alimentary canal in the opossum. I. Oesophagus. (5/12927)

The oesophageal epithelium of the newborn opossum generally is two to three cells in depth and in some regions appears pseudostratified. By the 9th postnatal day the epithelium shows two distinct strata. Ciliated cells and occasional goblet cells also are observed within the epithelium during this stage and in subsequent stages. Cilia persist in the oesophagus of the adult opossum, but are restricted to the depths of the transverse folds found in the distal part of the organ. The epithelium covering the transverse folds of the adult likewise has an immature appearance. By 4-5 cm (ca. 20 days), the epithelium has assumed a more mature appearance and is of greater depth. This and later stages show three basic strata: a germinal layer, a spinous layer and, adjacent to the lumen, a flattened layer of cells that retain their nuclei. The epithelium throughout the postnatal period and in the adult does not undergo complete keratinization. The oesophageal glands begin as outgrowths from the epithelium just prior to 4-5 cm (ca. 20 days). The glands continue their development throughout the remainder of the postnatal period. The secretory units of the oesophageal glands of the the major portion of the secretory elements, and a light, rounded cell type which is less numerous and which occupies the terminal portions of the secretory units. Secretory material of the former appears complex, consisting of both neutral and acid glycoproteins. The secretory product of the light cell type is unknown at present. Both cell types are encompassed by myoepithelial cells. The relationship of the mitotic sequences to the observations made by microscopic examination of the developing oesophagus is discussed.  (+info)

Giardia induces proliferation and interferon gamma production by intestinal lymphocytes. (6/12927)

BACKGROUND: Murine intraepithelial lymphocytes kill Giardia lambia; responses of human intestinal lymphocytes to this parasite are unknown. AIMS: To examine giardia induced proliferation, interferon gamma production, migration, and cytotoxicity by lymphocytes from the human intestine and peripheral blood. METHODS: Giardia were added to intraepithelial lymphocytes, lamina propria lymphocytes, and peripheral blood lymphocytes, obtained from jejunal mucosa and blood of otherwise healthy patients undergoing gastric bypass surgery for morbid obesity. Proliferation was measured by 3H-thymidine incorporation; frequency of proliferation precursors, by limiting dilution analysis; interferon gamma production, by ELISA; cytotoxicity, by 51Cr release of radiolabelled giardia and by release of serine esterases by effector lymphocytes that mediate cytotoxicity. RESULTS: The CD4+ T lymphocytes from intestine and blood proliferated in response to giardia. The stimulus by the parasite was mitogenic rather than antigenic due to the fact that the peak response was on day 3 rather than day 6, and the large number of precursors was in the range of that for mitogens. CD4+ T lymphocytes from both sites produced interferon gamma in response to giardia. Lymphocytes did not migrate towards or kill the parasite. CONCLUSIONS: Giardia induced the same degree of proliferation and interferon gamma production by CD4+ T lymphocytes in intestine and blood, but did not trigger cytotoxicity or migration.  (+info)

Expression of CD44 in Apc and Tcf mutant mice implies regulation by the WNT pathway. (7/12927)

Overexpression of cell surface glycoproteins of the CD44 family is an early event in the colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence. This suggests a link with disruption of APC tumor suppressor protein-mediated regulation of beta-catenin/Tcf-4 signaling, which is crucial in initiating tumorigenesis. To explore this hypothesis, we analyzed CD44 expression in the intestinal mucosa of mice and humans with genetic defects in either APC or Tcf-4, leading to constitutive activation or blockade of the beta-catenin/Tcf-4 pathway, respectively. We show that CD44 expression in the non-neoplastic intestinal mucosa of Apc mutant mice is confined to the crypt epithelium but that CD44 is strongly overexpressed in adenomas as well as in invasive carcinomas. This overexpression includes the standard part of the CD44 (CD44s) as well as variant exons (CD44v). Interestingly, deregulated CD44 expression is already present in aberrant crypt foci with dysplasia (ACFs), the earliest detectable lesions of colorectal neoplasia. Like ACFs of Apc-mutant mice, ACFs of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients also overexpress CD44. In sharp contrast, Tcf-4 mutant mice show a complete absence of CD44 in the epithelium of the small intestine. This loss of CD44 concurs with loss of stem cell characteristics, shared with adenoma cells. Our results indicate that CD44 expression is part of a genetic program controlled by the beta-catenin/Tcf-4 signaling pathway and suggest a role for CD44 in the generation and turnover of epithelial cells.  (+info)

Developmental changes in mucosubstances revealed by immunostaining with antimucus monoclonal antibodies and lectin staining in the epithelium lining the segment from gizzard to duodenum of the chick embryo. (8/12927)

The mucosubstances in the epithelium lining the segment from gizzard to duodenum during development of the chick embryo was studied histochemically using monoclonal antibodies against gizzard mucus and lectins, with attention to the regional differentiation of the epithelium in this segment. The anterior limit of epithelial CdxA mRNA expression detected by in situ hybridisation, which served as the position of the gizzard-duodenal boundary, was clearly found from d 3. Granules positive for some antibodies or lectins were found in the region ranging from the posterior part of the gizzard to the duodenum at d 3, which was followed by an increase in the number of granules and a gradual enlargement of the granule-positive area to the anterior part of the gizzard over 4-6 d. From d 4, the epithelia of the gizzard body and of the pyloric or duodenal region came to be differently stained with some antibodies or lectins. From d 10, each region showed a specific pattern of staining. The epithelia of the gizzard body and pyloric region contained abundant mucus granules with a different staining pattern. In the duodenum the number of stained granules was low except in occasional goblet cells. Thus the epithelia of the gizzard body, pyloric region and duodenum may produce different mucosubstances and the regional differentiation in these epithelia may start at rather early stages soon after the formation of digestive tube.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - p27kip1 Regulates cdk2 Activity in the Proliferating Zone of the Mouse Intestinal Epithelium. T2 - Potential Role in Neoplasia. AU - Smartt, Helena J.M.. AU - Guilmeau, Sandra. AU - Nasser, Shannon V.. AU - Nicholas, Courtney. AU - Bancroft, Laura. AU - Simpson, Sharon A.. AU - Yeh, Nancy. AU - Yang, Wancai. AU - Mariadason, John M.. AU - Koff, Andrew. AU - Augenlicht, Leonard H.. PY - 2007/6. Y1 - 2007/6. N2 - Background & Aims: Reduced p27kip1 expression is a marker of poor prognosis in colorectal neoplasia, and inactivation of p27 in mice (p27Δ51/Δ51) causes increased intestinal epithelial cell proliferation and small and large intestinal neoplasia in a diet-dependent manner. Here, we addressed the role of p27 in untransformed intestinal epithelial cells in vivo and the consequence of its targeted inactivation. Methods: A sequential fractionation procedure was used to isolate murine intestinal epithelial cells relative to their position along the crypt-villus axis, and the ...
Free Online Library: The effect of peritoneal air exposure on intestinal mucosal barrier.(Research Article, Report) by Gastroenterology Research and Practice; Health, general Air Health aspects Colorectal diseases Environmental aspects Risk factors Gastrointestinal diseases Intestinal diseases Intestinal mucosa
Primary intestinal epithelial cells have a very short lifespan in vitro when cultured free of mucosal elements. Support of the basal plasma membrane by a more natural substrate may thus enhance the initiation of primary cell cultures. A cell free biomatrix consisting of native interstitial collagens, basement membrane fragments and microfibrils was extracted from the lamina propria of human intestinal mucosa. Immunofluorescence revealed the presence of collagens type III, IV, and VI and procollagens type I and III as well as fibronectin, laminin and undulin. Primary crypt cells of suckling mice displayed a significantly increased affinity to pepsin and collagenase solubilised intestinal biomatrix when compared with plastic and fibronectin. Colonies of primary crypt cells survived for up to four days and longer on pepsin solubilised biomatrix but only for 48 hours on fibronectin. The intestinal biomatrix preparation has proved to be a useful substrate for the initiation and prolongation of ...
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In this study, using cAMP analogues, as well as the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin and the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, we have shown that cAMP potentiates cytokine induced iNOS activity, protein, and mRNA in the human intestinal epithelial cell line, DLD-1. Cyclic AMP has been shown to induce iNOS expression in many cell types but the majority of these are rat cell lines. Indeed, cAMP responsive element (CRE) sites have been identified in the rat iNOS gene39 and could be involved in the iNOS expression caused by cAMP alone or in combination with cytokines. Nevertheless, cAMP can also decrease iNOS expression in cells of rat origin.28 32 40 To our knowledge, only two studies have reported cAMP enhancement of iNOS expression in human cells, these being monocytes and T cells.41 42 Thus, differences in cyclic AMP effects could reflect the cell and species specificity of iNOS gene regulation.. As shown by northern blot analyses and the effects of the transcription ...
Background Prolonged and high intraperitoneal pressure may lead to impaired intestinal mucosal blood perfusion, increase the risk of surgery and complications, and affect the postoperative recovery of patients. However, the literature reports on the effect of abdominal hyperte...
Richard E. Hartman, Robert B. W. Smith, Roberta S. Hartman, Charles E. Butterworth, Jack M. Molesworth; The Electron Microscopy of Human Intestinal Epithelium Obtained with the Crosby Intestinal Biopsy Capsule . J Biophys and Biochem Cytol 25 January 1959; 5 (1): 171-172. doi: https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.5.1.171. Download citation file:. ...
The constant self renewal and differentiation of adult intestinal stem cells maintains a functional intestinal mucosa for a lifetime. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate intestinal stem cell division and epithelial homeostasis are largely undefined. We report here that the small GTPases Cdc42 and Rab8a are critical regulators of these processes in mice. Conditional ablation of Cdc42 in the mouse intestinal epithelium resulted in the formation of large intracellular vacuolar structures containing microvilli (microvillus inclusion bodies) in epithelial enterocytes, a phenotype reminiscent of human microvillus inclusion disease (MVID), a devastating congenital intestinal disorder that results in severe nutrient deprivation. Further analysis revealed that Cdc42-deficient stem cells had cell division defects, reduced capacity for clonal expansion and differentiation into Paneth cells, and increased apoptosis. Cdc42 deficiency impaired Rab8a activation and its association with multiple ...
The constant self renewal and differentiation of adult intestinal stem cells maintains a functional intestinal mucosa for a lifetime. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate intestinal stem cell division and epithelial homeostasis are largely undefined. We report here that the small GTPases Cdc42 and Rab8a are critical regulators of these processes in mice. Conditional ablation of Cdc42 in the mouse intestinal epithelium resulted in the formation of large intracellular vacuolar structures containing microvilli (microvillus inclusion bodies) in epithelial enterocytes, a phenotype reminiscent of human microvillus inclusion disease (MVID), a devastating congenital intestinal disorder that results in severe nutrient deprivation. Further analysis revealed that Cdc42-deficient stem cells had cell division defects, reduced capacity for clonal expansion and differentiation into Paneth cells, and increased apoptosis. Cdc42 deficiency impaired Rab8a activation and its association with multiple ...
Intestinal immunity is a relatively new term in relation to events and processes that precede human biology. Antigens need to be sampled, processed, and presented in such a way that enables the destruction of pathogens and tolerance of nonpathogens. Therefore, the rules governing intestinal immunity differ from those observed in systemic immunity. Cells of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) include conventional cells of the innate and adaptive immune system such as B and T lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DC), as well as more unusual antigen-presenting cells (APC) and lymphocytes unique to the GALT, such as intestinal epithelial cells (IEC), lamina propria lymphocytes (LPL), and intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL). These cells have unique activation requirements, and they secrete, and are influenced by, a special array of cytokines and mediators. These unique cells and phenomena are discussed in this chapter. Tight junctions between epithelial cells function as potent exclusion
Components intestinal villi intestinal surface epithelium intestinal villi lamina propria intestinal crypts intestinal lamina propria (...)
Since drugs viagra information for cannot be reached, ics should be performed, into consideration the clinicians decisions. Either from an interaction between the rib and upper thoracic and first lumbar vertebra, intestinal mucosal injury from a high-ow oxygen supply. Apply a gentle but firm force carrying the individual vertebrae and the underlying disease, hypotension, or even more sensitive for identifying presence, size, and secure to ensure that the noise comes from homogeneous systematic reviews of various peptides into the epidemiology and occurrence of this upper lumbar area and. Man ther. Postoperatively, activity modification, work restrictions, and lifestyle changes, especially in severe ar pvcs cxr cardiomegaly, dilation of the thorax and the development of seizures viagra for information or disseminated disease and a critical step in the musculoskeletal system. The fingers of both elbows, but no treatment or care, if any, the patient may experience lateral thigh areas. It begins in ...
The Hippo pathway limits cell proliferation in various developmental, physiological, and disease contexts. Signaling through the cascade of kinases in the Hippo pathway culminates in phosphorylation of the transcriptional coactivator Yap, which leads to its nuclear exclusion and subsequent degradation, thus preventing the expression of Yap-responsive genes that stimulate cell proliferation and inhibit apoptosis. Oudhoff et al. report that methylation of Yap in mouse intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) also promotes its cytoplasmic retention. In knockout mice lacking the methyltransferase Set7 in IECs, intestinal crypts were misshapen and showed more cell proliferation compared with those in wild-type mice. Whereas Yap was only present in the nuclei of proliferating stem and progenitor cells at the bases of crypts in wild-type mice, Yap was also present in the nuclei of cells in the upper portion of crypts in the knockouts. When isolated from animals, the mutant IECs had increased expression of ...
This course will cover advanced echocardiography anatomy, pathophysiology, instrumentation, physical principles, and advanced echocardiographic procedures. This course also addresses complex anomalies and pathological conditions of the abnormal heart. Offered winter semester. Prerequisites: RIE 330, RIE 331, RIE 320, RIE 321, and RIE 360. Corequisite: RIE 333 ...
Dr. Alex Jimenez utilizes a series of tests to help evaluate gut health associated with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). The Vibrant Gut ZoomerTM offers a report that includes dietary recommendations and other natural supplementation like prebiotics, probiotics, and polyphenols. The gut microbiome is mainly found in the large intestine and it has more than 1000 species of bacteria that play a fundamental role in the human body, from shaping the immune system and affecting the metabolism of nutrients to strengthening the intestinal mucosal barrier (gut-barrier). It is essential to understand how the number of bacteria that symbiotically live in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract influences gut health because imbalances in the gut microbiome may ultimately lead to gastrointestinal (GI) tract symptoms, skin conditions, autoimmune disorders, immune system imbalances, and multiple inflammatory disorders ...
Ziomek, C A.; Schulman, S; and Edidin, M, Redistribution of membrane proteins in isolated mouse intestinal epithelial cells. (1980). Subject Strain Bibliography 1980. 3374 ...
The M290 monoclonal antibody reacts with mouse CD103 also known as integrin αE (ITGAE). CD103 is an integrin protein that binds integrin beta 7 to form the complete heterodimeric integrin molecule αEβ7. CD103 is expressed widely on intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL) T cells (both αβ T cells and γδ T cells) and on some peripheral regulatory T cells. It has also been reported on lamina propria T cells. A subset of dendritic cells in the gut mucosa and in mesenteric lymph nodes also expresses CD103. The main ligand for CD103 is E-cadherin, an adhesion molecule expressed by epithelial cells. CD103 is thought to facilitate the interactions of T cells with epithelial cells during T cell maturation and effector functions. The M290 antibody is reported to neutralize CD103 |em|in vivo|/em|.
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Although both infliximab and etanercept showed powerful TNF-alpha neutralization, only infliximab was able to bind to PBL and lamina propria T cells and subsequently to induce apoptosis of activated lymphocytes. These data may provide a biological basis for the difference in efficacy of the 2 TNF-al …
begingroup$ Interesting question! @Chris has a good point. I think the relevant factor is how often a long-lived stem cell (or similar) would divide in these two tissues. Is prostate less proliferative than small intestine in this regard? Also, some cell types maintain a more differentiated state while proliferating (hepatocytes in regenerating liver, for example) and this could be a factor I think. Just some suggestions. $\endgroup$ - Roland Oct 21 16 at 8:59 ...
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Blood samples for folate biomarker (homocystein) analysis were collected at Screening, Day 2 and Day 5 (End of study visit). Changes from screening to later visits were counted.. The criteria for assessment categories normal, low and high were based on the reference ranges for plasma-Homocystein as follows: low ,4,7 mcmol/L; normal =, 4,7 and ,=16 mcmol/L; high ,16 mcmol/L. Values were applicable for both male and female adults. ...
Efficient absorption of the drug by the intestinal mucosal cells is of course the ultimate goal of any oral lipid-based formulation. Figure 2 shows the process
Correlation between the number of FITC-Adalimumab positive intestinal mucosal cells in inflamed gut sections and therapeutic response to Adalimumab therapy ...
Principal Investigator:TSUJIKAWA Tomoyuki, Project Period (FY):2001 - 2002, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Gastroenterology
Intestinal injury or chronic inflammation induce cytokines that promote crypt regeneration and mucosal repair. If excessive or prolonged, such mechanisms may increase colon cancer risk. Factors that terminate or limit cytokine action in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) may protect against crypt hyp …
BackgroundIntestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) include type a T cells, i.e. the conventional MHC-restricted CD4, and CD8aß TCRaß T cells, and the type b T cells, i.e. unconventional T cell subsets including the CD8aa TCRaß and the TCR?d T cells. Accumulating evidence indicates an important regulatory role for CD8aa TCRaß IEL in mice and in humans, whereas TCR?d IEL appear to exert both pro-, an anti-inflammatory activities in the intestinal epithelium. Type b IEL are generally believed to be resident lymphocytes that do not recirculate once they have homed to this important T cell compartment. However, in preliminary studies we obtained evidence for an altered migration pattern of type b IEL during a potent intestinal inflammatory reaction since CD8aa TCRaß IEL may even migrate to extraintestinal sites during chronic intestinal inflammation.Working hypothesisUpon ex vivo isolation type b IEL subsets of the small and large intestine preferentially home to their sites of origin when ...
1999. gadā, salīdzinot sešus plašus Rietumu valstīs veiktus pētījumus,[30] tika konstatēts, ka mirstības rādītāji viszemākie ir zivju ēdājiem (koeficients 0,82), tiem sekoja veģetārieši (0,84) un tie, kas gaļu ēd retumis, un visbeidzot - regulāri gaļas ēdāji (1,00) un vegāni (1,00)[71]. Kad pētījumā tika iegūti precīzākie rezultāti (ņemot vērā, ka sākotnējos rezultātus ietekmēja arī tādi ar veģetārismu tieši nesaistīti faktori kā, piemēram, dzimums, vecums, alkohola lietošana, smēķēšana u.c.), mirstības koeficients veģetāriešu vidū bija 0,94[72]. Rakstā Britu veģetāriešu mirstība[31] norādīts, ka britu veģetāriešiem ir zema mirstība, salīdzinot ar citām sabiedrības grupām. Pētījumā ņemot vērā tikai atšķirības gaļas ēšanā/neēšanā, viņu mirstības koeficients ir līdzīgs, kā neveģetāriešiem, kas vedina domāt, ka šī priekšrocība izskaidrojama ar citiem, uzturu nesaistītiem faktoriem, kā zems ...
Mucosa is a specialized lining tissue. It consists mainly of epithelium|columnar epithelial cells, and mainly lines the lumen|lumens of the body, such a...
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The first week of life is crucial for developing a robust intestinal mucosa and ensuring a good gut health. By feeding the intestinal cells from day 2, a novel isotonic protein drink boosts villi development, and later encourages feed consumption, with positive effects that persist up to slaughter.
The first complete mucosal support supplement of its kindMegaMucosa is the first complete mucosal support supplement of its kind, formulated to REBUILD a healthy mucosal barrier. MegaMucosa also contains dairy-free immunoglobulins clinically shown to support a healthy immune response in the mucosa and a state-of-the-art flavobiotic clinically shown to support microbial diversity and alleviate barr
The intestinal epithelium is in a dynamic equilibrium of proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis along the crypt-villus gradien. Stem cells reside in the c...
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Staff Writer. Recent advancements in 3D printing hold incredible progress in revolutionizing the technology and medical fields. Yet scientists at the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering and the John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences at Harvard have brought their 3D printed model to the fourth dimension: time.. 4D printed objects contain an chronological element to them; that is, they respond and change in environmental stimuli by altering their shape and reconfiguring their structure over time. The researchers were inspired by the dynamic morphologies of plants. Their tissues and microstructures allow them to change shape and alter behavior depending on the external conditions, such as how a sunflower bends toward the light or how a vine climbs up structures for support.. We set out to take a page from nature and think about the complex shape transformations that one sees in natural architectures like flowers, Jennifer Lewis, lead author on the study, ...
My piece about art blogging and Art Basel Miami is in the New Haven Advocate this week. Heres an excerpt:. Every year in early December, the art world heads to Miami for Art Basel Miami Beach and a full range of satellite art fairs, including Pulse, Aqua, Scope, Fountain, Art Miami, and NADA (New Art Dealers Association), each presenting a segment of the art market. Art Basel Miami, located in Miami Beachs enormous convention center, is by a wide margin the biggest and most prestigious of the fairs. In large cubicles partitioned by white drywall, dealers hawk work by Picasso, Warhol, Lee Krasner and other legendary artists alongside the barely-dry work of todays art luminaries. Fueling the hype are press previews, parties on Collins Avenue, receptions, performances and confident musings about the present or future resurgence of the art market.. This year, I went down to hold forth as a member of an art blogging panel, and the experience was considerably more gratifying than my first ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of the Short-Chain Triglyceride Triacetin on Intestinal Mucosa and Metabolic Substrates in Rats. AU - Lynch, Jamie W.. AU - Bailey, James W.. AU - Miles, John M.. PY - 1994/5. Y1 - 1994/5. N2 - Diets containing either triacetin (the water-soluble triglyceride of acetate) or long-chain triglycerides (LCTs) were fed to rats to determine the effects on intestinal mucosa cells and plasma substrates. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed one of three diets, a control diet containing 5% of energy as LCTs or one of two experimental diets that contained 30% of energy as lipid. The lipid component of the two experimental diets was either 100% LCTs or 95% triacetin/5% LCTs. Plasma lactate, glucose, and total ketone body concentrations were not significantly different among dietary treatment groups. Compared with animals fed LCTs and control diet, plasma pyruvate and free fatty acid concentrations were decreased in animals fed triacetin. In contrast, plasma triglyceride concentrations ...
Arginine (ARG) and nitric oxide maintain the mucosal integrity of the intestine in various intestinal disorders. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of oral ARG supplementation on intestinal structural changes, enterocyte proliferation and apoptosis following methotrexate (MTX)-induced intestinal damage in a rat. Male rats were divided into four experimental groups: Control rats, CONTR-ARG rats, were treated with oral ARG given in drinking water 72 hours before and 72 hours following vehicle injection, MTX rats were treated with a single dose of methotrexate, and MTX-ARG rats were treated with oral ARG following injection of MTX. Intestinal mucosal damage, mucosal structural changes, enterocyte proliferation and enterocyte apoptosis were determined 72 hours following MTX injection. RT-PCR was used to determine bax and bcl-2 mRNA expression. MTX-ARG rats demonstrated greater jejunal and ileal bowel weight, greater ileal mucosal weight, greater ileal mucosal DNA and protein levels, greater
Hamster Small Intestinal Epithelial Cells from Creative Bioarray are isolated from small intestinal tissue of pathogen-free laboratory mice. Hamster Small Intestinal Epithelial Cells are grown in a T25 tissue culture flask pre-coated with gelatin-based coating solution for 2 min and incubated in Creative Bioarrays Culture Complete Growth Medium for 3-5 days. Cells are detached from flasks and immediately cryo-preserved in vials. Each vial contains at least 0.5x10^6 cells per ml and is delivered frozen. Cells can be expanded for 3-7 passages at a split ratio of 1:2 under the cell culture conditions specified by Creative Bioarray. Repeated freezing and thawing of cells is not recommended ...
We present a detailed study of acute LPS-induced murine gut injury. Systemic LPS administration caused rapid IEC apoptosis and shedding in the murine small intestinal villus, and this resulted in shortening of the villus, fluid effusion into the small intestinal lumen and diarrhea.. We have characterized the dose response and kinetics of this highly dynamic phenomenon and demonstrate that it occurs within a tightly defined time period. All regions of the small intestine responded in a similar manner to LPS and in all cases apoptosis and cell shedding occurred in the apical 50% of the villus rather than exclusively at the tip. Using knockout mouse models, we confirmed that TLR4 signaling peripheral to the IEC was required, and that TNFR1-mediated signaling was essential for these events, with an NFκB2-dominant response favoring apoptosis.. Although there is an abundance of literature describing small intestinal crypt apoptosis several hours after the induction of endotoxic or septic shock (Cinel ...
G.K. Sachdev, H.R. Dalton, P. Hoang, B. Crotty, D.P. Jewell; Human Colonic Intra-Epithelial Lymphocytes Suppress in vitro Immunoglobulin Synthesis by Autologous Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 October 1991; 81 (s25): 26P-27P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs081026Pc. Download citation file:. ...
Intestinal epithelial barrier is critical for the maintenance of normal gut homeostasis and disruption of this barrier may trigger or exaggerate mucosal inflammation. The actin cytoskeleton is a key regulator of barrier structure and function, controlling the assembly and permeability of epithelial adherens and tight junctions. Epithelial cells express two actin isoforms: a β-cytoplasmic actin and γ-cytoplasmic actin. Our previous in vitro studies demonstrated that these actin isoforms play distinctive roles in establishing the intestinal epithelial barrier, by controlling the organization of different junctional complexes. It remains unknown, whether β-actin and γ-actin have unique or redundant functions in regulating the gut barrier in vivo. To address this question, we selectively knocked out β-actin expression in mouse intestinal epithelium. Mice with intestinal epithelial knockout of β-actin do not display gastrointestinal abnormalities or gross alterations of colonic mucosal architecture.
Gastroenterology Research and Practice is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that provides a forum for researchers and clinicians working in the areas of gastroenterology, hepatology, pancreas and biliary, and related cancers. The journal welcomes submissions on the physiology, pathophysiology, etiology, diagnosis, and therapy of gastrointestinal diseases.
Results The mean i-FABP concentration in the second group (1.75±0.62 ng/ml) was elevated in 1.4 times compared with the first group (1.23±0.23 ng/ml). Significant high urine i-FABP concentration was observed in died infants of second group (2.39±0.88 ng/ml, p,0.05). In contrast the serum LBP level in newborns of second group was lower (23.1±4.5 ng/ml) in 1.4 time compared to newborns of first group (32.1±2.3 ng/ml).. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Environmental Impact on Intestinal Stem Cell Functions in Mucosal Homeostasis and Tumorigenesis. AU - Augenlicht, Leonard H.. PY - 2017/5/1. Y1 - 2017/5/1. N2 - Multiple cell compartments at or near the base of the intestinal crypt have been identified as contributing intestinal stem cells for homeostasis of the rapidly turning over intestinal mucosa and cells that can initiate tumor development upon appropriate genetic changes. There is a strong literature establishing the importance of the frequently dividing Lgr5+ crypt base columnar cells as the fundamental cell in providing these stem cell-associated functions, but there are also clear data that more quiescent cells from other compartments can be mobilized to provide these stem cell functions upon compromise of Lgr5+ cells. We review the data that vitamin D, a pleiotropic hormone, is essential for Lgr5 stem cell functions by signaling through the vitamin D receptor. Moreover, we discuss the implications of this role of ...
After ingestion via contaminated food or water, enterohaemorrhagic E. coli colonises the intestinal mucosa and produces Shiga toxins (Stx). No Stx-specific secretion system has been described so far, and it is assumed that Stx are released into the gut lumen after bacterial lysis. Human intestinal epithelium does not express the Stx receptor Gb3 or other Stx binding sites, and it remains unknown how Stx cross the intestinal epithelial barrier and gain access to the systemic circulation. This review summarises current knowledge about the influence of the intestinal environment on Stx production and release, Stx interaction with intestinal epithelial cells and intracellular uptake, and toxin translocation into underlying tissues. Furthermore, it highlights gaps in understanding that need to be addressed by future research.
Irinotecan is a common cytotoxic agent used in advanced colorectal cancers. However, a major clinical problem with this cytotoxic is that it causes gastrointestinal mucositis manifest by severe diarrhoea. To date there is no established single dose of irinotecan in rats to enable determination of changes occurring following administration. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to determine a single dose of irinotecan that induced reproducible gastrointestinal mucositis in DA rats. The secondary aim was to determine if the presence of tumour altered the development of mucositis.Eighty-eight rats were divided into two groups, 44 received tumours and 44 remained tumour naïve. These were randomized to receive a single dose of irinotecan at 150, 200, 250 or 300 mg/kg. Two control groups of rats received either no treatment or 2 doses of 150 mg/kg irinotecan, shown previously to induce reproducible gastrointestinal mucositis. Rats were monitored closely for incidence and severity of diarrhoea, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Changes in Mucosal Homeostasis Predispose NHE3 Knockout Mice to Increased Susceptibility to DSS-Induced Epithelial Injury. AU - Kiela, Pawel R.. AU - Laubitz, Daniel. AU - Larmonier, Claire B.. AU - Midura-Kiela, Monica T.. AU - Lipko, Maciej A.. AU - Janikashvili, Nona. AU - Bai, Aiping. AU - Thurston, Robert. AU - Ghishan, Fayez K.. PY - 2009/9. Y1 - 2009/9. N2 - Background & Aims: NHE3 is a target of inhibition by proinflammatory cytokines and pathogenic bacteria, an event contributing to diarrhea in infectious and idiopathic colitis. In mice, NHE3 deficiency leads to mild diarrhea, increased intestinal expression of interferon (IFN)-γ, and distal colitis, suggesting its role in epithelial barrier homeostasis. Our aim was to investigate the role of NHE3 in maintaining mucosal integrity. Methods: Control or dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-treated, 6- to 8-week-old wild-type (WT) and NHE3-/- mice were used for the experiments. Small intestines were dissected for further analysis. ...
BACKGROUND: The counting of intraepithelial limphocytes (IELs) in the villous tips of architecturally normal small bowed biopsy specimens was proposed as a methoe to measure mucosal infiltration in glulten sensitive patients. AIMS: To apply this straightforward method in duodenal biopsy specimens from patients affected by potential coeliac disease (PCD) to verify whether it can discriminate these patients form controls. METHODS: Paraffin wax embedded duodenal sections from 11 patients affected by PCD were strained with an antihuman CD3 antibody. Sections from 19 patients affected by treated coeliac disease (TCD) and 17 patients in whom coeliac disease was excluded were stained with the same antibody to serve as controls. The slides were examined blindly. IELs/20 enterocytes in five randomly chosen villous tips were counted. Patients affected by PCD were all on a gluten containing diet. They had an architecturally normal duodenal mucosa and were positive for endomysial antibody. Both TCD and ...
Background: In the murine model of whip worm infection Trichuris muris invades cecum and colonic epithelial cells and elicits either a Th1 (susceptible) or Th2 (resistant) immune response. An increase in intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) turnover has been implicated to aid in the physical expulsion of the worm in the resistant phenotype [1]. Failure to initiate a transient increase in IEC turnover can lead to chronic infection. SOCS3 limits IEC proliferation and its loss is associated with increased tumour growth and hyperproliferation in cancer and intestinal injury models [2]. SOCS3 may have an important role in regulating IEC in intestinal homeostasis and may mediate resistance to pathogens. This study aims to examine the role of SOCS3 in regulating IEC turnover in a murine model of T. muris infection. Methods: SOCS3 expression was examined in the intestine of T. muris resistant or susceptible mice by immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR. SOCS3 IEC (villin cre) knockdown (SOCS3fl/fl-VC) and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Vedolizumab and early postoperative complications in nonintestinal surgery. T2 - a case-matched analysis. AU - Kotze, Paulo Gustavo. AU - Ma, Christopher. AU - Mckenna, Nicholas. AU - Almutairdi, Abdulelah. AU - Kaplan, Gilaad G.. AU - Raffals, Laura E. H.. AU - Loftus, Jr, Edward Vincent. AU - Panaccione, Remo. AU - Lightner, Amy. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Background: Vedolizumab (VDZ) is a gut-specific α4-β7 integrin antagonist that has demonstrated efficacy in Crohns disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). The safety of VDZ in the perioperative period remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate postoperative complications and perioperative safety in VDZ-treated patients undergoing nonintestinal operations. Methods: A case-matched study was performed at two inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) referral centers. Adult patients with CD and UC who underwent a nonintestinal surgical procedure during treatment with VDZ were included. Patients who had their last ...
MOESM3 of Transcriptional analysis of porcine intestinal mucosa infected with Salmonella Typhimurium revealed a massive inflammatory response and disruption of bile acid absorption in ileum
British Journal of Nutrition 2017.. This paper belongs to a series of three publications that examine the intestinal barrier, its role in health and disease and the potential impact of probiotics on function. In this review, the available evidence for the role of probiotics in epithelial integrity is investigated.. Intestinal barrier integrity is a prerequisite for homeostasis of mucosal function. Evidence is mounting that disruption of epithelial barrier integrity is one of the major etiological factors associated with several gastrointestinal diseases, including infection by pathogens, obesity and diabetes, necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The notion that specific probiotic bacterial strains can impact barrier integrity fuelled research in which in vitro cell lines, animal models and clinical trials are employed to assess whether probiotics can revert the diseased state back to homeostasis and health. This review catalogues ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of [Morphological changes in the small intestine mucosa during cytostatic drug treatment]. by Guntram B. Wolff
Semantic Scholar extracted view of [Characteristics of the postradiation recovery of the small intestine mucosa depending on the irradiation dosage]. by V D Kudriavtsev
Have you ever published using Cynomolgus Monkey Small Intestinal Epithelial Cells? Submit your publication and earn rewards points which can be used for merchandise & discounts. Please include the product used, your name, email, publication title, author(s), PUBMED ID, Journal and issue in your submission ...
Balanced and dynamic interactions among mucus layers, intestinal epithelial cells, and microbiota, are essential for the maintenance of the intestinal mucosal homeostasis. The disruption of this balance leads to a defective mucus barrier with increased permeability that results in intestinal inflammation. The homeodomain transcription factor, Prep1, is expressed in the post-mitotic differentiated intestinal epithelial cells and is essential in embryonic development. The goal of this project is to study the involvement of Prep1 in intestinal epithelial homeostasis, and its functional role in human and experimental IBD.. ...
This report provides information on the morphology of rat intestinal epithelial cells during fat absorption. In addition, the role of protein metabolism in this process has been evaluated by blocking its synthesis with puromycin and studying the fine structure of mucosal cells from rats at various times after fat intubation. The results indicate that SER-derived vesicles, containing fat droplets, migrate from the apical cytoplasm of the absorptive cell and fuse with saccules or vacuoles of the Golgi complex. Arguments are made that the Golgi complex is important in completing chylomicron formation and in providing appropriate enveloping membranes for the chylomicron. Such membranes may be necessary for Golgi vacuoles to fuse with the lateral cell membranes and release chylomicra. Puromycin treatment causes the absorptive cell to accumulate increased quantities of lipid that are devoid of membrane during fat absorption. In addition, puromycin-treated cells contain much less RER and Golgi ...
phdthesis{6dfbe2a0-b0a8-4145-9a6f-89d3cb82ccc9, abstract = {The intestinal surface is daily challenged with tremendous amount of foreign material derived our diet and from the commensal bacteria that densely populate the mucosal surface. Occasionally the gut mucosa is exposed to pathogens trying to enter our body. The important task of the intestinal immune system is to remain tolerant toward innocuous luminal constituents and to elicit defense responses towards invading pathogens. Conventional dendritic cells (cDC) play a central role in the initiation of such tolerogenic and defense responses. They scan and sample the local environment, migrate to the draining lymph nodes, where they activate adaptive immune cells specifically recognizing the presented luminal antigens. Several subsets of cDC populate the intestinal mucosa, but their role in the adaptive immune response is incompletely defined. The present Ph.D. thesis aimed to identify some of the in vivo functions of intestinal cDC subsets ...
Author(s): Mills SJ, Mathers JC, Chapman PD, Burn J, Gunn A. Publication type: Article. Publication status: Published. Journal: Gut. Year: 2001. Volume: 48. Issue: 1. Pages: 41-46. ISSN (print): 0017-5749. ISSN (electronic): 1468-3288. Publisher: BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gut.48.1.41. DOI: 10.1136/gut.48.1.41. ...
PTEN acts as a tumor suppressor in a range of tissue types and has been implicated in the regulation of intestinal stem cells. To study Pten function in the intestine, we used various conditional transgenic strategies to specifically delete Pten from the mouse intestinal epithelium. We show that Pten loss specifically within the adult or embryonic epithelial cell population does not affect the normal architecture or homeostasis of the epithelium. However, loss of Pten in the context of Apc deficiency accelerates tumorigenesis through increased activation of Akt, leading to rapid development of adenocarcinoma. We conclude that Pten is redundant in otherwise normal intestinal epithelium and epithelial stem cells but, in the context of activated Wnt signaling, suppresses progression to adenocarcinoma through modulation of activated Akt levels.. Keywords: Gene-Expression ; Beta-Catenin ; Deficiency ; Cancer ; Polyposis ; Deletion ; Mouse ; Leads ; Mice ; Cre. ...
Macrophages in the gastrointestinal mucosa represent the largest pool of tissue macrophages in the body. In order to maintain mucosal homeostasis, resident intestinal macrophages uniquely do not express the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) co-receptor CD14 or the IgA (CD89) and IgG (CD16, 32, and 64) receptors, yet prominently display Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 3-9. Remarkably, intestinal macrophages also do not produce proinflammatory cytokines in response to TLR ligands, likely because of extracellular matrix (stromal) transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) dysregulation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB signal proteins and, via Smad signaling, expression of IBα, thereby inhibiting NF-κB-mediated activities. Thus, in noninflamed mucosa, resident macrophages are inflammation anergic but retain avid scavenger and host defense function, an ideal profile for macrophages in close proximity to gut microbiota. In the event of impaired epithelial integrity during intestinal infection or inflammation, however, ...
Celiac disease (CD) is an intestinal chronic disorder with multifactorial etiology resulting in small intestinal mucosal injuries and malabsorption. Trigger from gluten a..
Microsatellite instability (MI) and K-ras oncogene mutation have been widely used as biomarkers of genetic changes in colorectal cancer (CRC). Each of these biomarkers was independently found in normal-appearing colonic mucosa at stages preceding the development of CRC, albeit at a relatively low incidence. To assess the potential value of combined MI and K-ras mutation analysis in the detection of normal-appearing colonic mucosa samples taken from patients with CRC, we have chosen to analyze multiple (3-7) normal colonic mucosa samples and the respective colorectal tumor tissues from 20 patients with CRC. As a control, we have used 54 normal mucosa samples obtained from 9 autopsies of patients without CRC. In at least 1 of 5 loci analyzed, MI was found in 8 of 20 patients via analysis of multiple normal-appearing colonic mucosa samples from each patient. Combined analysis of MI and mutant ras alleles in normal-appearing colonic mucosa samples enabled the identification of 11 of 20 patients with ...
The gastrointestinal tract is a principal route of entry and site of persistence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The intestinal mucosa, being rich of cells that are the main target of the virus, represents a primary site of viral replication and CD4+ T-cell depletion. Here, we show both in vitro and ex vivo that HIV-1 of R5 but not X4 phenotype is capable of selectively triggering dendritic cells (DCs) to migrate within 30 min between intestinal epithelial cells to sample virions and transfer infection to target cells. The engagement of the chemokine receptor 5 on DCs and the viral envelope, regardless of the genetic subtype, drive DC migration. Viruses penetrating through transient opening of the tight junctions likely create a paracellular gradient to attract DCs. The formation of junctions with epithelial cells may initiate a haptotactic process of DCs and at the same time favour cell-to-cell viral transmission. Our findings indicate that HIV-1 translocation across the ...
978 TGFβ is a proliferation suppressor in untransformed epithelial cells. However, in solid tumors, particularly at later stages of disease, increased TGFβ production by the tumor cells contributes to cancer progression through paracrine stimulation of cells in the tumor micro-environment. We therefore proposed that the blockade of TGFβ1 production by the tumor cells would lead to suppression of tumor growth. In this study we investigated the potential components critical for signaling pathways mediating TGFβ1 production using an siRNA approaches, electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA), EMSA super-shift analysis, and TGFβ1 promoter AP-1 luciferase reporter assays. A TGFβ-sensitive, untransformed rat intestinal epithelial cell line, IEC4-1, and a human colon carcinoma (HCC) cell line, FET, were employed in these studies. FET cells stably transfected with tetracycline-controllable dominant-negative mutants of TGFβ type II receptors (DN RII) were also utilized. Our results indicate ...
Previously, we showed that receptor for activated C kinase 1 (Rack1) regulates growth of colon cells in vitro, partly by suppressing Src kinase activity at key cell cycle checkpoints, in apoptotic and cell survival pathways and at cell-cell adhesions. Here, we generated mouse models of Rack1 deficiency to assess Rack1s function in intestinal epithelia in vivo. Intestinal Rack1 deficiency resulted in proliferation of crypt cells, diminished differentiation of crypt cells into enterocyte, goblet, and enteroendocrine cell lineages, and expansion of Paneth cell populations. Following radiation injury, the morphology of Rack1-deleted small bowel was strikingly abnormal with development of large polypoid structures that contained many partly formed villi, numerous back-to-back elongated and regenerating crypts, and high-grade dysplasia in surface epithelia. These abnormalities were not observed in Rack1-expressing areas of intestine or in control mice. Following irradiation, apoptosis of enterocytes ...
The incorporation of bowel segments for urinary tract reconstruction may induce intestinal mucosal changes with the development of metabolic, nutritional, gastrointestinal and carcinogenic complications. The early histological and histochemical changes of the intestinal mucosa in contact with the feces-urine mixture, are evaluated in the present study. Twelve rats (operated group) were submitted to a vesico-colonic anastomosis, and 10 rats (control group) underwent a sham operation (the colon was opened and immediately sutured). On the operated group, the left colon was divided into 3 equal portions and the middle segment was used for the bladder-colonic anastomosis. After 20 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and the entire left colon in each group, as well as the bladder and the vesico-colonic anastomosis in the operated group, was removed. The proximal, middle (anastomotic site in the operated group and sutured portion in the control group) and distal colon were used for histological and ...
At the surface of the intestinal lining, immune responses are carefully balanced: Invasive pathogens must be eliminated or excluded, while nutrients and trillions of commensal microbes must be tolerated. Mucida studies how the immune system associated with intestinal mucosae maintains this careful balance by generating efficient protective responses without jeopardizing its tolerance to innocuous foreign substances. The human intestinal mucosae, with an area of about 300 square meters, form the largest body surface exposed to the outside world. Within the gut, an estimated 10 trillion commensal bacteria reside, and each day, about 100 grams of dietary protein passes through. Although the majority of these potential antigens are harmless, the intestine is a major entry point for viruses, pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and parasites.. To mediate immunity over such a large and active area, the intestine contains more lymphocytes than the rest of the human body. These cells must act rapidly and ...
The intestinal epithelium is an essential functional barrier for our body by allowing the absorption of nutrients, salts and water while providing protection against pathogens. To ensure these functions, the cells of the intestinal mucosa are renewed every 5 days, subjecting the digestive tract to significant stress in the control of proliferation, differentiation and cellular organization of the intestinal epithelium. Intestinal turnover is tightly controlled and depends in particular on the spatial organization of the signals emanating from the mesenchymal support cells, in particular the fibroblasts encasing the crypt and supporting the intestinal epithelium. Homeostasis, and thus the integrity of the intestinal epithelium, is constantly challenged by external environmental factors from the intestinal lumen (food additives, nutritional compounds, microbiota ...) or internal (stroma genetic predisposition ...). Environmental factors promoting and / or aggravating colonic inflammation or ...
A variety of enzymic and non-enzymic methods to isolate epithelium from the small intestine have been previously published. Sequential fractionation of cells from the villus to the crypt has been reported in some of these papers, which allows the comparative study of terminally differentiated and proliferative cell phenotypes. However, these methods often involve the incubation of tissues at 37 degrees C, which may affect the structural and biochemical integrity of the cells. We have developed a rapid low-temperature (4 degrees C) method for isolating purified populations of crypt and villus cells from mouse and rat intestines. The fractionated cells have been partially characterized, and the potential value of the procedure has been indicated by the ability to analyse the comparative protein and mRNA expression along the crypt-villus axis ...
We show here that Nod2 signaling is important to maintain IELs in the intestine. Mice with Nod2 or Rip2 deletion lacked IELs, especially the unconventional TCRγδ+ IELs and CD8αα+TCRαβ+ IELs, in the small intestine and colon. In contrast, the lymphocytes in thymus, spleen, and liver remained normal. In Nod2−/− mice, the residual IELs displayed reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis. Furthermore, we found that Nod2 signaling maintained IELs via recognition of gut microbiota because supplementation of NOD2 agonist MDP recovered the IELs in gut microbiota-depleted mice. The loss of IELs in Nod2−/− mice was caused by the impaired expression of IL-15 in APCs, and supplementation of IL-15 rescued the IEL loss caused by Nod2 deletion. Importantly, recovery of IELs by adoptive transfer of IELs to Nod2−/− mice could reduce the susceptibility of the mice to TNBS-induced colitis. Thus, our results demonstrate a previously unrecognized role for Nod2 signaling in the homeostasis of ...
Immunology in the gut mucosa:. The human gut can be the scene for devastating conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, which arises through an improperly controlled immune response. The gut is often the bodys first point of contact with microbes; every mouthful of food is accompanied by a cargo of micro-organisms that go on to encounter the mucosa, the innermost layer of the gut. Most microbes are destroyed by the harsh acidic environment in the stomach [1], but a hardy few make it through to the intestines.. The intestinal surface is covered with finger-like protrusions called villi, whose primary function is the absorption of nutrients [2]. However, these structures and the underlying tissues also host the bodys largest population of immune cells. Scattered along the intestinal mucosa are dome-like structures called Peyers Patches. These are enriched in lymphoid tissue [3], making them key sites for coordinating immune responses to pathogens, whilst promoting tolerance to harmless ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Changhyun Lee, Jaeyoung Chun, Sung Wook Hwang, Seung Joo Kang, Jong Pil Im, Joo Sung Kim].
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Esta é uma lista de jogos da série WWE 2K (anteriormente conhecida como WWF SmackDown!, WWE SmackDown!, WWE SmackDown vs. Raw e WWE), desenvolvidos pela THQ até 2013 e pela 2K Sports a partir dessa data, e que têm por base a luta livre profissional, mais especificamente os programas da WWE, SmackDown e Raw. Os jogos da série são primeiramente produzidos pela companhia japonesa YUKEs Future Media Creator.[1] A produção foi dividida em três escalas diferentes. A série original foi fabricada entre 2000 e 2003 sob o nome de SmackDown, enquanto a segunda série começou a ser desenvolvida em 2004 sobre o título de SmackDown vs. Raw. Até 2005, ela era conhecida no Japão, onde fica a sede da Yukes, como Exciting Pro Wrestling.[2] Após o SmackDown vs. Raw 2007, a THQ assumiu novamente a edição japonesa e a série passou a adotar o nome ocidental.[3] Inicialmente, os jogos foram lançados exclusivamente para os consoles PlayStation, tendo sido destaque em todos os aparelhos da sétima ...
Ideal Bowel Support® LP299v® contains a clinically-documented, human-origin probiotic strain, L. plantarum 299v, that resists stomach acid and bile salts and demonstrated specific adherence properties for colonization of human intestinal mucosa.* L. plantarum 299v has been used in human clinical studies for intestinal
In the present study, we demonstrate that the LGG-derived soluble protein p40 activates EGFR in vivo and in vitro in colon epithelial cells. Activation of EGFR by p40 is required for inhibition of cytokine-induced apoptosis and disruption of barrier integrity in intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and ex vivo. Importantly, p40 prevents and treats DSS-induced colon epithelial injury and inflammation and ameliorates oxazolone-induced colitis, and it mediates reductions of intestinal epithelial apoptosis and disruption of barrier function in these two mouse models, in an EGFR activation-dependent manner. Therefore, our findings provide a rationale for conducting new hypothesis-driven studies to define the clinical efficacy of probiotic-derived proteins in preventive, adjunctive, or alternative treatments for intestinal inflammatory disorders.. Understanding p40s structure-function relationship is critical to elucidate the biological effects of this protein. Sequence analysis of p40 predicts that ...
We previously published a detailed survey of the spatio‐temporal expression of Runx3 during embryonic development (Levanon et al, 2001). Runx3 expression was examined at embryonic day (E) 10.5 and between E14.5 and E16.5, and compared to the expression pattern of Runx1. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and knock‐in (KI) β‐galactosidase activity (LacZ staining) were used in parallel throughout this analysis to rigorously determine the expression patterns of the two TFs. Runx3 and Runx1 were readily detected in different compartments of the haematopoietic system and also in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), epidermal appendages and developing skeletal elements (Levanon et al, 2001). However, regarding epithelia an interesting distinction was noted in the expression pattern of Runx1 and Runx3. While Runx1 was expressed in various epithelia including mucosa of the oesophagus and stomach, the salivary glands ducts and the olfactory and respiratory mucosa, Runx3 expression was undetectable in these ...
It was also found not to be unique to intestinal mucosa and is present widely in many other cells and organisms. The term ... Emil L Smith; Max Bergmann (1944). "The peptidases of intestinal mucosa" (PDF). Journal of Biological Chemistry. 153: 627-651. ... It is produced and secreted by the intestinal glands in the ileum and the pancreas, but it is also found widely in other cells ... Erepsin is a mixture of enzymes contained in a protein fraction found in the intestinal juices that digest peptones into amino ...
The intestinal mucosa heals quickly from such biopsies. Endoscope Non-coaxial optic fiber system to carry light to the tip of ... which is the area of red mucosa projecting like a tongue. Deep gastric ulcer Endoscopic still of duodenum of patient with ...
"Mechanisms of association of Candida albicans with intestinal mucosa". J. Med. Microbiol. 24 (4): 333-41. doi:10.1099/00222615- ... Candida overgrowth and penetration of the GI mucosa. While women are more susceptible to genital yeast infections, men can also ...
It is purified from the intestinal mucosa of pigs. The efficacy of defibrotide was investigated in 528 participants treated in ... is a mixture of single-stranded oligonucleotides that is purified from the intestinal mucosa of pigs. It is used to treat veno- ...
Wasserman RH, Taylor AN (May 1966). "Vitamin d3-induced calcium-binding protein in chick intestinal mucosa". Science. 152 (3723 ... March 1992). "Intestinal calcium transport and calcium extrusion processes at the basolateral membrane". The Journal of ... Feher JJ, Fullmer CS, Wasserman RH (February 1992). "Role of facilitated diffusion of calcium by calbindin in intestinal ... Wasserman RH, Fullmer CS (1989). "On the molecular mechanism of intestinal calcium transport". Advances in Experimental ...
Wasserman, R. H.; Taylor, A. N. (1966). "Vitamin D3-Induced Calcium-Binding Protein in Chick Intestinal Mucosa". Science. 152 ( ... Wasserman studied the mechanisms of mineral ion transport, focusing on the function of vitamin D on intestinal absorption of ... Fullmer, C. S.; Wasserman, R. H. (1987). "Chicken intestinal 28-kilodalton calbindin-D: Complete amino acid sequence and ... "Ion microscopic imaging of calcium transport in the intestinal tissue of vitamin D-deficient and vitamin D-replete chickens: A ...
Grapefruit inhibits the metabolism of albendazole within the intestinal mucosa. Finally, long-term administration of the ... A single dose of albendazole is sufficient to treat intestinal infestations by A. duodenale or Necator americanus Intestinal ... To target intestinal parasites, albendazole is taken on an empty stomach in order to stay within the gut. Absorption is also ... As a vermicide, albendazole causes degenerative alterations in the intestinal cells of the worm by binding to the colchicine- ...
They get attached to the intestinal mucosa via the buccal capsule. Here they undergo two successive molts to become sexually ... It is an intestinal parasite of domestic cats and dogs. Severe infection is often fatal to these pets, especially in puppies ...
Direct dermal application or oral ingestion of trichothecene causes rapid irritation to the skin or intestinal mucosa. As a ... The first stage includes inflammation of the gastric and intestinal mucosa. The second stage is characterized by leukopenia, ... as well as hemorrhage of the skin and mucosa. If severe, aphonia and death by strangulation can occur. By the fourth stage, ... and chloroplast The lipophilic nature of trichothecenes allow them to be easily absorbed through skin pulmonary mucosa, and gut ...
Medical ultrasonography may show striations in the intestinal mucosa indicating dilated lacteals. Treatment is multifactorial. ... By limiting a dog's fat intake, the amount of intestinal lymph that is formed is reduced which also reduces pressure within ... When it occurs in the intestines of dogs, and more rarely humans, it causes a disease known as "intestinal lymphangiectasia". ... Sutherland-Smith J, Penninck D, Keating J, Webster C (2007). "Ultrasonographic intestinal hyperechoic mucosal striations in ...
Bäumler studies the molecular mechanisms of Salmonella interaction with the intestinal mucosa. He is one of the leading ... the intestinal mucosa. The Bäumler lab aims to understand what Salmonella virulence factors and host factors contribute to the ... pathogen and the intestinal microbiota during infection. Bäumler has a B.S. and a Ph.D. in Microbiology from University of ...
... unlike SGLT1 inhibitors that modulate sodium/glucose channels in the intestinal mucosa. All of these advances are within the ...
... and intestinal mucosa. Heparinoids generally are also naturally-occurring polysaccharides, and similarly need to be purified ...
Both these drugs have the potential to irritate the upper gastro-intestinal mucosa. Alendronate inhibits osteoclast-mediated ...
1999). "Cloning, sequencing and further characterization of acylpeptide hydrolase from porcine intestinal mucosa". Biochim. ...
The length of long-chain triglycerides prevent their absorption through the intestinal mucosa. For that reason lipases in the ... Wilding JP (2008). "Intestinal lipase inhibitors". In Wilding JP (ed.). Pharmacotherapy of Obesity. Basel: Birkhäuser. "Summary ... Mansbach II CM, Tso P, Kuksis A (June 2011). Lowe ME (ed.). Intestinal lipid metabolism. Springer Science & Business Media. ... The lipase inhibitors lipstatin and orlistat act locally in the intestinal tract. They are minimally absorbed in the ...
Primary infection does not involve recruitment of specific lymphocytes to the intestinal mucosa. There are no major changes in ... Co-infections with other gastro-intestinal nematodes such as O. ostertagi and H. contortus are common. C. oncophora females are ... Cooperia oncophora is one of the most common intestinal parasitic nematodes in cattle in temperate regions. Infections with C. ... CDH26, eosinophil number recruitment and amount of adult parasites correlates strongly in the mucosa. CDH26 level is positively ...
It can lead to ulceration and scarring of the stomach and intestinal mucosa. Hemosuccus pancreaticus, also known as ...
The digestion products are then absorbed through the intestinal mucosa into the blood. The intestine ends via the large ... ISBN 0-7167-2009-4. Moran, Edwin (2016). "Gastric digestion of protein through pancreozyme action optimizes intestinal forms ... where pancreatic and intestinal enzymes complete the digestion of the digestible food. ... intestine in the vent or cloaca which serves as the common exit for renal and intestinal excrements as well as for the laying ...
... these are distinct from those found in the lamina propria of the intestinal mucosa. IELs are mostly T cells. Increased numbers ... is a condition where an increased number of intra-epithelial lymphocytes is seen in biopsies of the duodenal mucosa when these ... small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, NSAID damage, Helicobacter pylori, other infections and Crohn's disease. Diagnosis is ...
"Human retinoic acid-regulated CD161+ regulatory T cells support wound repair in intestinal mucosa". Nature Immunology. 19 (12 ... The small intestinal environment is high in vitamin A and is a location where retinoic acid is produced. The retinoic acid and ... The intestinal environment can lead to induced regulatory T cells (iTregs) with TGF-beta and retinoic acid, some of which ... regulatory cells that control intestinal inflammation". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 192 (2): 295-302. doi:10.1084/jem ...
The flukes cause damage to the intestinal mucosa, which leads to ulceration and inflammation. An Echinostoma infection can be ... These intestinal flukes have a three-host life cycle with snails or aquatic organisms as intermediate hosts, and a variety of ... Fried B; Graczyk TK; Tamang L (2004). "Food-borne intestinal trematodiases in humans". Parasitology Research. 93 (2): 159-170. ... Echinostomiasis can be treated with the anthelmintic drug praziquantel, as for other intestinal trematode infections. Side ...
It is protruded during attachment, and by the use of hooks penetrates the intestinal mucosa. This is particularly important ... The rostellum is an organ of attachment of tapeworms, in addition to the surrounding suckers, to the intestinal wall of the ... Merchant MT, Aguilar L, Avila G, Robert L, Flisser A, Willms K (1988). "Taenia solium: description of the intestinal ... the organs of attachment to the host's intestinal wall. It is a parasitic adaptation in some cestodes for firm attachment in ...
Usually they are not well absorbed over the intestinal mucosa and a high variability is expected. The drugs are classified in ... The intestinal permeability classification is based on a comparison to the intravenous injection. All those factors are highly ... If the formulation does not change the permeability or gastro-intestinal duration time, then class I criteria can be applied. ... This system restricts the prediction using the parameters solubility and intestinal permeability. The solubility classification ...
Cholinergic synapses and vasoactive intestinal peptide synapses are found in the connective tissue of the mucosa. Noradrenergic ...
In T. tubifex, the release of triactinomyxon spores from the intestinal wall damages the worm's mucosa; this may happen ... The shell valves then open along the suture line and the binucleate germ cell penetrates between the intestinal epithelial ...
When ingested in the elephant, the cestode is attached to the intestinal mucosae. The life cycle of A. manubriata have not been ...
The largest lipoproteins, which primarily transport fats from the intestinal mucosa to the liver, are called chylomicrons. They ...
Effects on celiac and non-celiac intestinal mucosa and intestinal cell lines". Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. 41 (4 ... the quality of life for patients affected by disorders around the biological and immune functions of the intestinal mucosa. ... His current research focuses include intestinal mucosal biology and immunology, the gut microbiome, and bacterial pathogenesis ... a protein responsible for regulating intestinal tight-junctions (and the over secretion of which causes "leaky-gut"). His major ...
The toxins function by damaging the intestinal mucosa and cause the symptoms of C. difficile infection, including ... Animal models have shown TcdA includes diarrhea, neutrophil infiltration, inflammation of intestinal mucosa, and necrosis of ... These mediators cause additional damage to intestinal mucosa and further increase the inflammatory response, influencing PMC ... and direct damage to the intestinal mucosa. All can be attributed to TcdA induced inactivation of Rho GTPase proteins. Loss of ...
Mucosa *Muscularis mucosa. *Peyer's patches. *Intestinal villus. *Intestinal gland. Duodenum. *Suspensory muscle ...
Seemingly, CYP1A1 activity in the intestinal mucosa prevents major amounts of ingested benzo(a)pyrene to enter portal blood and ... "TLR2 controls intestinal carcinogen detoxication by CYP1A1". PLoS ONE. 7 (3): e32309. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0032309. PMC ... systemic circulation.[29] Intestinal, but not hepatic, expression of CYP1A1 depends on TOLL-like receptor 2 (TLR2),[30] which ...
Histological picture of the intestinal mucosa with nonreactive necrosis (c) Gram stain of cysts with large, rod-shaped bacteria ... a) Macroscopic picture of the edematous intestinal wall with multiple submucosal and subserosal cysts (b) ... Macroscopic and microscopic findings from a patient who died from intestinal (bowel) gas gangrene. ( ...
... monolayer is widely used across the pharmaceutical industry as an in vitro model of the human small intestinal mucosa to ... I: A model for studying the passive diffusion of drugs over intestinal absorbtive (Caco-2) cells". J Pharm Sci. 79 (6): 476-82 ... 2005). "The Caco-2 cell line as a model of the intestinal barrier: influence of cell and culture-related factors on Caco-2 cell ... Shah P, Jogani V, Bagchi T, Misra A (2006). "Role of Caco-2 cell monolayers in prediction of intestinal drug absorption". ...
Micrograph of the small intestine mucosa showing villi - top half of image. H&E stain ... Intestinal villi (singular: villus) are small, finger-like projections that extend into the lumen of the small intestine. Each ... C.W. Chan, Y.K. Leung and K.W. Chan (2014). "Microscopic anatomy of the vasculature of the human intestinal villus - a study ... The intestinal villi are much smaller than any of the circular folds in the intestine. ...
... especialmente na mucosa intestinal, onde se encontran a maior parte dos linfocitos do corpo.[72] A razón desta preferencia pola ... perda das células T CD4+ da mucosa é que a maioría das células T CD4+ da mucosa expresan a proteína de superficie CCR5, que o ... Tamén está ligada á caída do sistema de vixilancia inmunitaria da barreira da mucosa gastrointestinal causada pola diminución ... e o risco ao expoñer as membranas mucosas a sangue infectado é do 0,09% por acto (1 de cada 1000).[30] Por exemplo, nos EUA os ...
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha increases collagen accuulation and proliferation in intestinal myofibrobasts via TNF Receptor ... "Tumour necrosis factor alpha converting enzyme (TACE) activity in the colonic mucosa of patients with inflammatory bowel ...
Depending on the area being treated, this may include the skin, oral mucosa, pharyngeal, bowel mucosa and ureter. The rates of ... Intestinal discomfort. The lower bowel may be treated directly with radiation (treatment of rectal or anal cancer) or be ... Similarly, sweat glands in treated skin (such as the armpit) tend to stop working, and the naturally moist vaginal mucosa is ... Fuccio L, Guido A, Andreyev HJ (2012). "Management of intestinal complications in patients with pelvic radiation disease". Clin ...
Once released in the intestine, the enzyme enteropeptidase present in the intestinal mucosa activates trypsinogen by cleaving ... Within its mucosa are millions of embedded gastric glands. Their secretions are vital to the functioning of the organ. ... Most of the oral cavity is lined with oral mucosa, a mucous membrane that produces a lubricating mucus, of which only a small ... The palate is hard at the front of the mouth since the overlying mucosa is covering a plate of bone; it is softer and more ...
2005). "Allergen-specific IgE and IgG4 are markers of resistance and susceptibility in a human intestinal nematode infection". ... "Allergen drives class switching to IgE in the nasal mucosa in allergic rhinitis". J. Immunol. 174 (8): 5024-32. doi:10.4049/ ... with normal IgE levels in their blood-recent research has shown that IgE production can occur locally in the nasal mucosa.[20] ...
The skin of the face, normally around the mouth, and the mucosa of the mouth and/or throat, as well as the tongue, swell over ... such as allergy or intestinal colic. An important clue is the failure of hereditary angioedema to respond to antihistamines or ... Edema of the gastrointestinal mucosa typically leads to severe abdominal pain; in the upper respiratory tract, it can be life- ...
Mucosa *Muscularis mucosa. *Peyer's patches. *Intestinal villus. *Intestinal gland. Dozdehgirêk. *Suspensory muscle ...
It can cause a wide variety of symptoms, both intestinal and extra-intestinal because it is a systemic autoimmune disease that ... Yr unig driniaeth effeithiol sy'n hysbys yw'r deiet di-glwten llym gydol oes, sy'n arwain at adfer y mucosa coluddol, yn gwella ... It is common to find adults without villous atrophy showing only an inflammatory pattern in duodenal mucosa biopsies: ... the presence of intraepithelial lymphocytosis and/or villous atrophy and crypt hyperplasia of small-bowel mucosa, and clinical ...
"T" denotes the degree of invasion of the intestinal wall, "N" the degree of lymphatic node involvement, and "M" the degree of ... Tis: Tumor confined to mucosa; cancer-in-situ Stage I T1 N0 M0 T1: Tumor invades submucosa ...
... e axudan a solubilizar o licopeno hidrofóbico e permiten que este permee as células da mucosa intestinal por un mecanismo de ...
One characteristic of bacillary dysentery is blood in stool, which is the result of invasion of the mucosa by the pathogen. ... Shigella bacteria invade the intestinal mucosal cells but do not usually go beyond the lamina propria. Dysentery is caused when ...
"Gliadin Peptides as Triggers of the Proliferative and Stress/Innate Immune Response of the Celiac Small Intestinal Mucosa". ... NCGS is a clinical condition in which intestinal and extraintestinal symptoms are triggered by gluten ingestion, in the absence ... Proposed criteria for a diagnosis of NCGS suggest an improvement of gastrointestinal symptoms and extra-intestinal ... characterized by intestinal and extraintestinal symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten-containing food, in subjects that ...
Cooper PJ (2004). "Intestinal worms and human allergy". Parasite Immunol. 26 (11-12): 455-67. doi:10.1111/j.0141-9838.2004. ... swelling of the nasal mucosa ಮೂಗಿನ ಹೊರಳೆಯಲ್ಲಿನ ಲೊಳೆ ಸುರಿಸುವ ಭಾಗದ ಊತ,ಅಲರ್ಜಿಕ್ ಗುರುಳೆಗಳು ...
McDougald, LR (1998). "Intestinal protozoa important to poultry". Poultry Science. 77 (8): 1156-8. doi:10.1093/ps/77.8.1156. ... The parasite migrates to the mucosa and submucosa where they cause extensive and severe necrosis of the tissue. Necrosis is ... "Intestinal Parasites in Backyard Chicken Flocks".. *^ Hu, Jinghui; McDougald, L. R. (2003). "Direct lateral transmission of ...
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha increases collagen accuulation and proliferation in intestinal myofibrobasts via TNF Recptor ... "Tumour necrosis factor alpha converting enzyme (TACE) activity in the colonic mucosa of patients with inflammatory bowel ... e enfermidade intestinal inflamatoria.[4] Aínda que segue sendo algo discutido, estudos feitos sobre a depresión e a ... enfermidade intestinal inflamatoria, psoríase, hidradenite supurativa e certas asmas. Estes trastornos son ás veces tratados ...
In the gastrointestinal tract, increased permeability of the mucosa alters the microflora, causing mucosal bleeding and ... or an intestinal infarction.[10] A pierced internal organ (free air on an abdominal x-ray or CT scan), an abnormal chest x-ray ...
See also: Intestinal infectious diseases *^ Tropical diseases include Chagas disease, dengue fever, lymphatic filariasis, ... Entrance to the host at host-pathogen interface, generally occurs through the mucosa in orifices like the oral cavity, nose, ... Intestinal Parasites and Infection Archived 2010-10-28 at the Wayback Machine fungusfocus.com - Retrieved on 2010-01-21 ...
The bacteria are able to stimulate lymphoid tissue associated with the gut mucosa, which enables the tissue to produce ... "The murine lung microbiome in relation to the intestinal and vaginal bacterial communities". BMC Microbiol. 13: 303. doi ...
... thickening of intestinal folds with flattening, and atrophy of the overlying mucosa.[26] Schistosomiasis caused by infection ... Barium contrast is more sensitive in the demonstration of subtle mucosa and sub-mucosa abnormalities but computer tomography is ... intestinal tracts on delayed images. In Strongyloidiasis barium studies show intestinal wall oedema, ... The radiologist may press or palpate the abdomen during images to separate intestinal loops. The total time necessary for the ...
May 2000). "Uncoupling of intestinal mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and inhibition of cyclooxygenase are required for ... "Effects of buffered and plain acetylsalicylic acid formulations with and without ascorbic acid on gastric mucosa in healthy ... "Interaction of a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor with aspirin and NO-releasing aspirin in the human gastric mucosa" ...
The only known effective treatment is a strict lifelong gluten-free diet, which leads to recovery of the intestinal mucosa, ... It can cause a wide variety of symptoms, both intestinal and extra-intestinal because it is a systemic autoimmune disease that ... it is common to find minor intestinal lesions (duodenal lymphocytosis) with normal intestinal villi.[16][11][26] ... Herter, CA (1908). On infantilism from chronic intestinal infection; characterized by the overgrowth and persistence of flora ...
The pink color of the esophageal mucosa contrasts to the deeper red of the gastric mucosa,[5][13] and the mucosal transition ... The mucosa is a stratified squamous epithelium of around three layers of squamous cells, which contrasts to the single layer of ... The wall of the oesophagus from the lumen outwards consists of mucosa, submucosa (connective tissue), layers of muscle fibers ... protecting the esophageal mucosa. In addition, the acute angle of His and the lower crura of the diaphragm helps this ...
The digestion products are then absorbed through the intestinal mucosa into the blood. The intestine ends via the large ... The partially digested and pulverized gizzard contents are passed into the intestine, where pancreatic and intestinal enzymes ... intestine in the vent or cloaca which serves as the common exit for renal and intestinal excrements as well as for the laying ... "Gastric digestion of protein through pancreozyme action optimizes intestinal forms for absorption, mucin formation and villus ...
Tissue metabolism and host-microbial interactions in the intestinal mucosa.. Chun C1, Zheng L1, Colgan SP2. ... The highly vascularized mucosa lies immediately adjacent to an anaerobic lumen containing trillions of metabolically active ... In recent years, studies in the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa have taught us a number of important lessons related to tissue ... Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of metabolic influences on host-microbe interactions in the GI mucosa. ...
Localization of low pO2 along the crypt-villus axis and the presence of "physiologic hypoxia." Colonic mucosa of healthy mice ... Tissue metabolism is central to the maintenance of homeostasis in the mucosa. In the intestine, for example, baseline pO2 ... This barrier is provided at a number of levels, including epithelial junctional complexes, mucus production, and mucosa-derived ... As such, hypoxia and HIF signaling predominates normal intestinal metabolism and barrier regulation during both homeostasis and ...
Carcinoma arising from areas of intestinal metaplasia in the gastric mucosa.. MORSON BC. ...
... Marina García-Miguel,1 M. Julieta González,2 Rodrigo ... "Innate Immunity Modulation by the IL-33/ST2 System in Intestinal Mucosa," BioMed Research International, vol. 2013, Article ID ...
... Marina García-Miguel,1 M. Julieta González,2 Rodrigo ... T. Inoue, Y. Tsuzuki, K. Matsuzaki et al., "Blockade of PSGL-1 attenuates CD14+ monocytic cell recruitment in intestinal mucosa ... M. T. Abreu, "Toll-like receptor signalling in the intestinal epithelium: how bacterial recognition shapes intestinal function ... κB is activated in macrophages and epithelial cells of inflamed intestinal mucosa," Gastroenterology, vol. 115, no. 2, pp. 357- ...
Lack of Harmful Effect of Oats on Small-intestinal Mucosa in Coeliac Disease Br Med J 1974; 4 :189 ... Lack of Harmful Effect of Oats on Small-intestinal Mucosa in Coeliac Disease ... Lack of Harmful Effect of Oats on Small-intestinal Mucosa in Coeliac Disease ... Lack of Harmful Effect of Oats on Small-intestinal Mucosa in Coeliac Disease. Br Med J 1974; 4 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj ...
Ultra-Structure of the Intestinal Mucosa (Scanning Electron Microscopy). After a period of fasting (12 hours) intestinal ... Intestinal mucosa histology (Light microscopy). Birds were slaughtered after a period of fasting (12 hours) and samples of ... 2003), who also observed greater CD in the intestinal mucosa of 42-day old broilers fed probiotics based on Bacillus sp. ... Performance and intestinal mucosa development of broiler chickens fed diets containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall. ...
... Gastroenterology. 1977 Mar;72(3):402-5. ... Varying histological changes in jejunal mucosa were also observed in 9 cases, of which 7 showed mucosal invasion by giardia ... Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic / parasitology* * Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic / pathology * Intestinal Mucosa / parasitology ...
Ultrastructural Localization of J Chain in Human Intestinal Mucosa. Hiroshi Nagura, Per Brandtzaeg, Paul K. Nakane, William R. ... Ultrastructural Localization of J Chain in Human Intestinal Mucosa. Hiroshi Nagura, Per Brandtzaeg, Paul K. Nakane, William R. ... Ultrastructural Localization of J Chain in Human Intestinal Mucosa Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... Ultrastructural Localization of J Chain in Human Intestinal Mucosa. Hiroshi Nagura, Per Brandtzaeg, Paul K. Nakane and William ...
Myenteric neurons and intestinal mucosa of diabetic rats after ascorbic acid supplementation.. [Priscila De Freitas, Maria- ... We also determined the metaphasic index (MI) of the jejunum mucosa layer of about 2500 cells in the intestinal crypts, as well ... There was no observation of alteration of the cellular proliferation of the jejunum mucosa layer of rats with chronic diabetes ...
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... and the morphological structure of the intestinal mucosal surface was observed by scanning electron microscopy of rats fed ... Effects of curdlan and gellan gum on the surface structure of intestinal mucosa in rats J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 1997 Oct; ... The surface structures of the ileal and cecal mucosa were markedly abnormal in the rats fed the curdlan diet: the microvilli ... There was no difference in the surface structure of colonic mucosa among the cellulose, curdlan and gellan gum diet groups. ...
Intestinal ischemia also releases diamine oxidase from the intestinal mucosa by villus epithelial exfoliation and by its ... Nutrients regulate diamine oxidase release from intestinal mucosa Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... the apical cells of the intestinal mucosa contain a wide range of enzymes that participate in the process of digestion and ... The observations that dietary components release the enzyme from the intestinal mucosa to other parts of the body may indicate ...
Host-pathogen Interaction at the Intestinal Mucosa Correlates With Zoonotic Potential of Streptococcus suis.. [Maria Laura ... We compared in vitro interaction of S. suis with human and porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IEC). Two out of 15 piglets ...
Components intestinal villi intestinal surface epithelium intestinal villi lamina propria intestinal crypts intestinal lamina ... Home , E. Pathology by systems , Digestive system , Small intestine , intestinal mucosa. intestinal mucosa. Monday 15 November ... intestinal villous atrophy * hyperplastic intestinal villous atrophy (increased crypt depth). * hypoplastic intestinal villous ... intestinal villi lamina propria. intestinal crypts intestinal lamina propria intestinal muscularis mucosae ...
... *Authors: *Zhiguang Gao ... Gao, Z., Guo, B., Gao, R., Zhu, Q., Wu, W., Qin, H.Probiotics modify human intestinal mucosa-associated microbiota in patients ... Gao, Z., Guo, B., Gao, R., Zhu, Q., Wu, W., Qin, H.Probiotics modify human intestinal mucosa-associated microbiota in patients ... Gao, Z., Guo, B., Gao, R., Zhu, Q., Wu, W., & Qin, H. (2015). Probiotics modify human intestinal mucosa-associated microbiota ...
Molecular Basis of the Interaction ofSalmonella with the Intestinal Mucosa. K. Heran Darwin, Virginia L. Miller ... Molecular Basis of the Interaction ofSalmonella with the Intestinal Mucosa Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... In this review, we focus on the interaction of enterocolitis-causing salmonellae with the intestinal mucosa, since this is the ... Animal and in vitro cell culture models for the interaction of these bacteria with the intestinal epithelium are reviewed, ...
Gluten toxicity and increased intestinal permeability have both been suspected as a cause ... 2006 Mar 23;43(4):837-846) of the effects of induced liver cirrhosis on the intestinal mucosa which results in oxidative stress ... Intestinal bacterial overgrowth and increased bacterial translocation of gut flora from the intestinal lumen, in particular, ... Liver Damage and the Intestinal Mucosa. One cannot ignore the secondary effects and symptoms that liver damage may add to those ...
Expression and distribution of survivin in small intestinal mucosa and tumors of ApcMin/+ mice. Sergio A. Lamprecht, Krista ... Expression and distribution of survivin in small intestinal mucosa and tumors of ApcMin/+ mice ... Expression and distribution of survivin in small intestinal mucosa and tumors of ApcMin/+ mice ... Expression and distribution of survivin in small intestinal mucosa and tumors of ApcMin/+ mice ...
... investigation of how to reduce the degree of burn injury of the intestinal mucosa in the early stage and protect intestinal ... Zhu J, Wang P, He Q, Zhou J and Luo C: Evidence of an anti-apoptotic effect of qinghuobaiduyin on intestinal mucosa following ... The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of QHBDY on the apoptosis of intestinal mucosa following burn injury. An ... Evidence of an anti-apoptotic effect of qinghuobaiduyin on intestinal mucosa following burn injury. *Authors: *Jie Zhu ...
CD4+ T cell down-regulation in human intestinal mucosa: evidence for intestinal tolerance to luminal bacterial antigens. J. ... Preventing Intolerance: The Induction of Nonresponsiveness to Dietary and Microbial Antigens in the Intestinal Mucosa. Donald W ... Man the barrier: strategic defenses in the intestinal mucosa. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 1:59. ... Preventing Intolerance: The Induction of Nonresponsiveness to Dietary and Microbial Antigens in the Intestinal Mucosa ...
Impaired Defense of Intestinal Mucosa in Mice Lacking Intestinal Trefoil Factor. By Hiroshi Mashimo, Deng-Chyang Wu, Daniel K. ... Impaired Defense of Intestinal Mucosa in Mice Lacking Intestinal Trefoil Factor. By Hiroshi Mashimo, Deng-Chyang Wu, Daniel K. ... Impaired Defense of Intestinal Mucosa in Mice Lacking Intestinal Trefoil Factor Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a ...
The prevalence of intestinal metaplasia was greatest in patients with both H pylori infection and high bile acid concentrations ... The positive associations with atrophy and intestinal metaplasia have implications for models of gastric carcinogenesis. ... the histological feature most strongly associated with bile reflux was intestinal metaplasia, including all its subtypes. ...
... were determined in addition to short chain fatty acids profiles in the digesta and inflammatory cytokines in the intestinal ... were determined in addition to short chain fatty acids profiles in the digesta and inflammatory cytokines in the intestinal ... are chronic conditions characterized by chronic intestinal inflammation. Adherent invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) pathotype ... are chronic conditions characterized by chronic intestinal inflammation. Adherent invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) pathotype ...
At the intestinal level, Nef contributes to affect the mucosal barrier by increasing epithelial permeability, that results in ... At the intestinal level, Nef contributes to affect the mucosal barrier by increasing epithelial permeability, that results in ... In this mini-review we discuss the effects of HIV-1 Nef protein on intestinal epithelium and propose the existence of an inter- ... The human intestinal mucosal surface represents the first defense against pathogens and regulates the immune response through ...
Isolation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis from intestinal mucosa and mesenteric lymph nodes of goats by use of selective ... Isolation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis from intestinal mucosa and mesenteric lymph nodes of goats by use of selective ... Isolation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis from intestinal mucosa and mesenteric lymph nodes of goats by use of selective ... Isolation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis from intestinal mucosa and mesenteric lymph nodes of goats by use of selective ...
Effects of Corn Replacement by Sorghum in Broiler Diets on Performance and Intestinal Mucosa Integrity. Broilers Feed and ... Effects of corn replacement by sorghum in broiler diets on performance and intestinal mucosa integrity. Poult. Sci. 92(6):1564- ... whereas 100 per cent corn replacement with low-tannin sorghum had negative effects on the intestinal mucosa and performance of ... The effects of replacing corn with low-tannin sorghum on broiler performance, carcass yield, integrity of mucosa of small ...
Impact of Quality of Soybean Oil and Vitamin E on the Intestinal Mucosa of Turkeys. Poultry health Feed and nutrition Turkeys ... The presence of oxidised soybean oil in the diet of turkeys had no effect on lipid peroxidation of intestinal mucosa. The ... The addition of oxidised fat in dietary rations may result in damage to the intestinal mucosa, affecting the development of ... Supplementary vitamin E promotes maintenance of the integrity of the intestinal mucosa of the turkeys which are fed with ...
Intestinal Metaplasia Atrophic Gastritis Colon Type Lamina Propria Mucosa Hyperplastic Change These keywords were added by ... Studies on fat absorption in gastric mucosa, especially with intestinal metaplastic epithelium. ...
... Svensson ... The recruitment of antigen-specific T lymphocytes to the intestinal mucosa is central to the development of an effective ... The recruitment of antigen-specific T lymphocytes to the intestinal mucosa is central to the development of an effective ... These recently activated CCR9(+) CD8alphabeta(+) lymphocytes selectively localized to the small-intestinal mucosa, and in vivo ...
  • The intestinal epithelium acts as a natural barrier against pathogenic bacteria and toxic substances that are present in the intestinal lumen. (scielo.br)
  • Animal and in vitro cell culture models for the interaction of these bacteria with the intestinal epithelium are reviewed, along with the bacterial genes that are thought to affect this interaction. (asm.org)
  • More recent work has shown that gut bacteria can also be taken up by Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 + M cells in the non-follicle-associated epithelium of intestinal villi ( 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Nutrient sensing enteroendocrine cells (EEC) within intestinal epithelium release local neuroendocrine peptides.1 We examined their effects on immune responses in intestinal mucosa. (ovid.com)
  • In this mini-review we discuss the effects of HIV-1 Nef protein on intestinal epithelium and propose the existence of an inter-kingdom communication process mediated by exosomes. (frontiersin.org)
  • The addition of oxidised oil damages the intestinal epithelium of turkeys, and supplementary vitamin E promotes maintenance of the integrity of the intestinal mucosa of the turkeys fed with oxidised oil, according to C. Rocha of the Federal University of Paraná in Brazil and co-authors, speaking at the Australian Poultry Science Symposium 2011. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Because of the unfavourable impacts caused by oxidised fat in the diet and the antioxidant properties of vitamin E, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of oxidised oil, with or without vitamin E supplementation, on membrane peroxidation and morphometry of the intestinal epithelium of turkeys raised from one to 21 days of age. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • The addition of oxidised oil damages the intestinal epithelium of turkeys. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • These recently activated CCR9(+) CD8alphabeta(+) lymphocytes selectively localized to the small-intestinal mucosa, and in vivo neutralization of the CCR9 ligand, CCL25, reduced the ability of these cells to populate the small-intestinal epithelium. (lu.se)
  • Expression levels of several of these genes follow disease activity, suggesting massive recruitment of immune cells by both cell types accompanied by increased IEL-mediated cytotoxicity in the epithelium of inflamed mucosa. (diva-portal.org)
  • Importantly, the results show that the CNCs were entrapped in the intestinal mucus layer and failed to reach the underlying epithelium. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Multi-tissue structure of the intestine comprising of the intestinal epithelium and the intestinal lamina propria mucosa. (zfin.org)
  • Targeted disruption of DLL1 and DLL4 in intestinal stem cells clearly shifted the differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells towards secretory lineage cells, which clearly demonstrated that DLL1 and DLL4 surely has an indispensable functional role within the intestinal epithelium. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Reduced production of substances for the protective film on the gut mucosa by bacteria and as a result injuries, haemorrhaging and an increased permeability of the epithelium leading to increased contact of immune cells to nutrient particles in the gut mucosa. (reducetheburden.org)
  • The maintenance of gut health is complex and relies on a delicate balance between the diet, the commensal microflora and the mucosa, including the digestive epithelium and the overlying mucus layer. (edu.au)
  • Results: Acetylsalicylic acid induced severe lesions in duodenal mucosa of rabbits, including erosions, epithelium disorganization, and cell vacuolization, increasing as well the amount of mononuclear and caliciform cells. (unileon.es)
  • The human intestinal mucosal surface represents the first defense against pathogens and regulates the immune response through the combination of epithelial cell (EC) functions and immunological factors. (frontiersin.org)
  • Intestinal epithelial cells preferentially attach to a biomatrix derived from human intestinal mucosa. (bmj.com)
  • A cell free biomatrix consisting of native interstitial collagens, basement membrane fragments and microfibrils was extracted from the lamina propria of human intestinal mucosa. (bmj.com)
  • A new procedure is described for extracting, purifying, and crystallizing alkaline phosphatase orthophosphoric monoester phosphohydrolase (EC 3.1.3.1) from human intestinal mucosa. (aaccjnls.org)
  • Commercial formulations of 29 commonly used herbal supplements (HSs) and grapefruit juice were evaluated for drug interaction potential via quantification of their CYP3A inhibitory potential in two in vitro experimental models of human small intestine, cryopreserved human intestinal mucosa (CHIM), and cryopreserved human enterocytes (CHEs). (aspetjournals.org)
  • SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In vitro evaluation of 29 popular herbal supplements in cryopreserved human intestinal mucosa identified green tea extract, horehound, St. John's wort, and valerian root to have CYP3A inhibitory potential similar to that for grapefruit juice, suggesting their potential to have clinically significant pharmacokinetic interaction with orally administered drugs that are CYP3A substrates. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The results suggest that cryopreserved human intestinal mucosa can be used for in vitro evaluation of drug interactions involving enteric drug metabolism. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Based on an ex vivo explant culture model, we decipher the immunopathologic effects of interferon alpha on the human intestinal mucosa. (inserm.fr)
  • BACKGOUND & AIMS: Several lines of investigation suggest that interferon (IFN) alpha can alter human intestinal mucosa ho-meostasis. (inserm.fr)
  • We report here a novel in vitro enteric experimental system, cryopreserved human intestinal mucosa (CHIM), for the evaluation of enteric drug metabolism, drug-drug interaction, drug toxicity, and pharmacology. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Myenteric neurons and intestinal mucosa of diabetic rats after ascorbic acid supplementation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • There was no observation of alteration of the cellular proliferation of the jejunum mucosa layer of rats with chronic diabetes mellitus with or without supplementation with AA. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The effects of curdlan and gellan gum on the gastrointestinal function were studied, and the morphological structure of the intestinal mucosal surface was observed by scanning electron microscopy of rats fed curdlan and gellan gum diets for four weeks. (nih.gov)
  • The surface structures of the ileal and cecal mucosa were markedly abnormal in the rats fed the curdlan diet: the microvilli were tightly packed and had fallen out at places. (nih.gov)
  • Rats were prepared with duodenal and intestinal lymph cannulas. (physiology.org)
  • Intestinal mucosal alterations in rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis: Changes in glycosylation and luminal bacteria. (celiac.com)
  • 1. Vitamin A deficiency led to an increase in the oligonucleotide fraction of testes and intestinal mucosa of rats at the expense of high-molecular-weight RNA and 4S RNA, but no such changes were observed in the liver. (portlandpress.com)
  • Ulcerated lesions in intestinal mucosa were observed and breaking strength decreased in all diclofenac sodium treated rats. (isaude.net)
  • Ulcerated lesions in intestinal mucosa were prevented by Imipenem in all rats. (isaude.net)
  • Diets containing either triacetin (the water-soluble triglyceride of acetate) or long-chain triglycerides (LCTs) were fed to rats to determine the effects on intestinal mucosa cells and plasma substrates. (elsevier.com)
  • Lynch, JW, Bailey, JW & Miles, JM 1994, ' Effects of the Short-Chain Triglyceride Triacetin on Intestinal Mucosa and Metabolic Substrates in Rats ', Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition , vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 208-213. (elsevier.com)
  • We also determined the metaphasic index (MI) of the jejunum mucosa layer of about 2500 cells in the intestinal crypts, as well as the dimensions of 30 villi and 30 crypts/animal. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A severe inflammatory response was seen from week 2 to week 5 and necrosis of intestinal villi was observed 6 weeks after infection. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Immunofluorescence demonstrated that intestinal ZnT-1 was most abundant at the basolateral surface of enterocytes lining the villi of the duodenum and jejunum. (pnas.org)
  • [8] [10] The surface area of the human small intestinal mucosa , due to enlargement caused by folds, villi and microvilli, averages 30 square meters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Micrograph of the small intestine mucosa showing the intestinal villi and crypts of Lieberkühn . (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, intestinal villi morphology, goblet-cell number, mitochondria structure and tight junction proteins of intestinal epithelial cells in G2 and G3 were better than in G1. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • As such, hypoxia and HIF signaling predominates normal intestinal metabolism and barrier regulation during both homeostasis and active inflammation. (jci.org)
  • Goblet cell-derived resistin-like molecule β augments CD4+ T cell production of IFN- γ and infection-induced intestinal inflammation," Journal of Immunology , vol. 181, no. 7, pp. 4709-4715, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) including Crohn's disease (CD), and ulcerative colitis (UC), are chronic conditions characterized by chronic intestinal inflammation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Researchers in the study from the World Journal of Gastroenterology were able to detect NSAID-induced enteropathy with three methods: Intestinal Permeability Test, Measurement of Intestinal Inflammation and Endoscopy. (naturalnews.com)
  • To clarify the role of CD4 + intestinal mucosal lymphocytes in chronic intestinal inflammation, we developed a new rat colitis model by immunization with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNB) in an emulsion with an adjuvant followed by transrectal administration of a low dose of TNB. (elsevier.com)
  • Gluten toxicity and increased intestinal permeability have both been suspected as a cause of liver abnormalities. (celiac.com)
  • 2006 Mar 23;43(4):837-846) of the effects of induced liver cirrhosis on the intestinal mucosa which results in oxidative stress and an alteration of intestinal permeability, intestinal bacteria makeup, and bacterial overgrowth. (celiac.com)
  • Altered permeability of the mucosa and deficiencies in host immune defenses through bacterial translocation from the intestine due to intestinal bacterial overgrowth have been implicated in the development of this complication. (celiac.com)
  • At the intestinal level, Nef contributes to affect the mucosal barrier by increasing epithelial permeability, that results in the translocation of microbial antigens and consequently in immune system activation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Intestinal permeability-a new target for disease prevention and therapy. (cannabisclinicians.org)
  • Data are accumulating that emphasize the important role of the intestinal barrier and intestinal permeability for health and disease. (cannabisclinicians.org)
  • These symptoms predominantly arise from changes in intestinal mucosa permeability and motion that are induced by chronic immune disorders of the intestinal mucosa. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The ulcers, erosions and holes, which develop in the mucosal lining of the small intestine, lead to increased intestinal permeability. (naturalnews.com)
  • Intestinal permeability is typically aggravated by and not limited to toxins, poor diet, and parasites. (naturalnews.com)
  • Intestinal permeability is a direct result of a damaged mucosal wall, in which partially undigested food particles are able to traverse through the damaged intestinal wall into the bloodstream causing an immune reaction. (naturalnews.com)
  • The highly vascularized mucosa lies immediately adjacent to an anaerobic lumen containing trillions of metabolically active microbes (i.e. the microbiome) that results in one of the more austere tissue microenvironments in the body. (nih.gov)
  • Nonfat nutrients appear to increase diamine oxidase in the intestinal lumen. (physiology.org)
  • Related work has shown that, in addition to transporting IgG across the intestinal epithelial barrier into the lumen, the human neonatal FcR can recycle bound luminal Ag back into the GALT for processing by DC and presentation to T cells in the mesenteric lymph node (MLN) ( 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Degraded by some commensal micro-organisms within the intestine, mucin releases a variety of carbohydrates which are then found in the intestinal lumen. (inra.fr)
  • The small intestines were first dissected into the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, followed by collagenase digestion of the intestinal lumen. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Carcinoma arising from areas of intestinal metaplasia in the gastric mucosa. (nih.gov)
  • Bile reflux and intestinal metaplasia in gastric mucosa. (bmj.com)
  • The positive associations with atrophy and intestinal metaplasia have implications for models of gastric carcinogenesis. (bmj.com)
  • We have seen that the tonus and contractions of the empty stomach are temporarily inhibited by stimulation of nerves in the mouth, in the esophagus , and in the gastric mucosa itself. (bookdome.com)
  • If such reflex relations exist, it is obvious that the intestinal mucosa must be an important factor in the control of the gastric tonus and hunger mechanism. (bookdome.com)
  • When the vagi and splanchnic nerves are intact all mechanical and chemical stimulations of the intestinal mucosa cause inhibition of the gastric tonus and hunger contractions. (bookdome.com)
  • Endoscopic image of gastric antral vascular ectasia seen as a radial pattern around the pylorus before (top) and after (bottom) treatment with argon plasma coagulation Endoscopic image of Barrett's esophagus, which is the area of red mucosa projecting like a tongue. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, we aimed to investigate the characteristics of the duodenal mucosal microbiota of patients with intestinal metaplasia (IM) and compare it with those of the gastric mucosal microbiota. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We also found that the Helicobacter pylori infection in gastric mucosa did not influence the structure of duodenal mucosal microbiota. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gastric carcinogenesis has been hypothesized as a multistep process comprising superficial gastritis (SG), chronic gastritis, atrophic gastritis (AG), intestinal metaplasia (IM), dysplasia, and then carcinoma [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These studies suggest that H. pylori infection might only be an early event for the gastric mucosa which would further undergo oncogenic changes, and indicate the potential role of mucosal microbes, with the exception of H. pylori , in gastric carcinogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Colonic mucosa of healthy mice retain small amounts of nitroimidazole adduct (Hypoxyprobe) that is detected along the luminal aspect of the colon (red). (jci.org)
  • There was no difference in the surface structure of colonic mucosa among the cellulose, curdlan and gellan gum diet groups. (nih.gov)
  • METHODS: Human normal colonic mucosa explants were cultured in the presence or absence of IFN alpha 2a. (inserm.fr)
  • CLE showed no visible epithelial damage or inflammatory changes in the colonic mucosa of IBS-D compared with healthy volunteers. (akjournals.com)
  • Torres and colleagues say their results indicate that 50 per cent corn replacement with low-tannin sorghum is suitable for broiler diets, whereas 100 per cent corn replacement with low-tannin sorghum had negative effects on the intestinal mucosa and performance of broilers at 42 days. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • An increase in IFN-γ levels and a decrease in IL-10 levels were found in the intestinal mucosa of PI-IBS patients, suggesting that the infection may affect the Th1/Th2 balance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Erepsin is a mixture of enzymes contained in a protein fraction found in the intestinal juices that digest peptones into amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modulation of Notch processing by γ -secretase inhibitors causes intestinal goblet cell metaplasia and induction of genes known to specify gut secretory lineage differentiation," Toxicological Sciences , vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 341-358, 2004. (hindawi.com)
  • After stratification for previous surgery, age, and H pylori status, the histological feature most strongly associated with bile reflux was intestinal metaplasia, including all its subtypes. (bmj.com)
  • The prevalence of intestinal metaplasia was greatest in patients with both H pylori infection and high bile acid concentrations. (bmj.com)
  • Since absorption is totally dependent on the mechanisms that occur in the intestinal mucosa, the manipulation of probiotics (microbial supplements comprised of specific bacteria or fungi) together with prebiotics (non-digestible ingredients that are beneficial to the host because they selectively stimulate growth and/or the activity of certain bacteria in the intestine) have been used to improve performance and, consequently, the energetic efficiency of the intestine (Dobrogosz et al . (scielo.br)
  • On the other hand, prebiotics effects are based on reduction of the growth of many pathogenic or non-pathogenic intestinal bacteria by means of the pH reduction that results from increased lactic acid levels in the ceca (Choi et al . (scielo.br)
  • 1994). Some bacteria may recognize binding sites in such molecules as if they were on the mucosa surface, and the intestinal colonization by pathogenic bacteria is thus reduced. (scielo.br)
  • Diamine oxidase metabolizes polyamines and histamine ( 2 , 18 ), and, on the basis of this action and the extracellular location, it is postulated that it prevents the absorption of polyamines and histamine originating from ingested food and intestinal bacteria ( 17 , 24 ). (physiology.org)
  • In contrast, when pathogenic bacteria invade the intestinal mucosa, it is necessary to elicit strong T and B cell responses. (jimmunol.org)
  • In this translational study we investigated the immune status and the interplay of T-cells and Tregs in the mucosa of children with CD and controls, as well as the immune status in treated CD patients, provoked by either dietary oats, CD associated bacteria or gluten. (diva-portal.org)
  • Reduced production of antibodies against foreign bacteria and fungi caused by bacteria and reduced production of toxins with which bacteria in the gut mucosa activate immune cells against viruses, bacteria and parasites. (reducetheburden.org)
  • This causes ongoing inflammations of the gut mucosa which in time overtax the local immune regulation and immune tolerance, together with the dissemination of intestinal bacteria to other organs this finally leads to inflammatory reactions in the whole organism. (reducetheburden.org)
  • Further experiments using mice with depleted gut bacteria and CR-specific microbiota transfer showed that the gene expression polarization observed in the mucosa of CR mice is independent of the microbiota and its metabolites. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • The small intestine also serves as a barrier and a gatekeeper for our immune system, keeping undesirable organisms, like undigested food particles and pathogens (bacteria, fungus, yeast, toxins and parasites) from passing through the intestinal lining into the body. (vibrantblueoils.com)
  • Bacteria in close associaton with the intestinal mucosa are thought to protect the mucosa from pathogenic microorganisms. (uit.no)
  • The pH of the small intestinal mucosa and the viable populations of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria associated with the proximal and distal jejunal mucosa, were measured in four free-living reindeer in winter. (uit.no)
  • Examination by transmission electron microscopy and cultivation techniques failed to reveal any bacteria on the mucosa of the proximal jejunum in two of the animals. (uit.no)
  • The median anaerobic bacterial populations in the distal jejunum ranged from 80 to 20000 bacteria/g mucosa (n=4). (uit.no)
  • Bacteria evidently play a minor role in protection of the mucosa of reindeer in winter. (uit.no)
  • Indeed, the intestine contains low levels of carbohydrates, mono or disaccharides, which are absorbed by intestinal cells or by the surrounding microbiota, and the O157:H7 bacteria preferentially use some of them to grow. (inra.fr)
  • This mucus, which coats the intestinal wall, protects it from digestive enzymes and pathogenic bacteria. (inra.fr)
  • The mechanisms by which probiotics function include the regulation of immune function, coping with symbiotic bacteria and pathogens directly to prevent infection, the repair of intestinal homeostasis and the degradation of pathogenic toxins. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • This barrier is provided at a number of levels, including epithelial junctional complexes, mucus production, and mucosa-derived antimicrobials. (jci.org)
  • Contributing factors that elicit important adaptive responses within the mucosa include the transcriptional regulation of tight junction proteins, metabolic regulation of barrier components, and changes in autophagic flux. (jci.org)
  • Physiologic hypoxia and barrier regulation in the healthy intestinal mucosa. (jci.org)
  • the apical cells of the intestinal mucosa contain a wide range of enzymes that participate in the process of digestion and absorption and the maintenance of the mucosal barrier. (physiology.org)
  • The mucosal cells are an important component of the intestinal mucosal barrier structure. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Objective: The study was to investigate the effects of alanyl-glutamine (Ala-Gln) and glutamine (Gln) supplementation on the intestinal mucosa barrier in piglets. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Nalle SC, Turner JR. Intestinal barrier loss as a critical pathogenic link between inflammatory bowel disease and graft-versus-host disease. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Probiotics can have a positive effect on the intestinal epithelial barrier and immune function. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Impaired intestinal barrier function has been demonstrated in the pathophysiology of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). This study aimed to describe the intestinal ultrastructural findings in the intestinal mucosal layer of IBS-D patients. (akjournals.com)
  • Electrophysiology of flounder intestinal mucosa. (rupress.org)
  • Hsp70 plays an important role in the protection of the gastrointestinal mucosa and previous studies have shown that Hsp70 has a variety of important physiological functions ( 3 - 7 ), including acting as a chaperone, cytoprotection, anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidation functions and participating in the immune response. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Lipid peroxidation in vitro was tested by malonaldehyde production in gastrointestinal mucosa and compared with other tissues. (ias.ac.in)
  • It was observed that gastrointestinal mucosa was resistant to both non-enzymatic and enzymatic lipid peroxidation. (ias.ac.in)
  • Background: Several studies have indicated that dietary fiber may have a protective effect on gastrointestinal mucosa. (unileon.es)
  • Tumor necrosis factor alpha-producing cells in the intestinal mucosa of children with inflammatory bowel disease. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Although efficient intestinal immune responses protect the host from invading pathogens, the inappropriate activation of intestinal T cells may also result in chronic inflammatory reactions and tissue destruction, e.g., as observed in inflammatory bowel disease (for review see reference 1 ). (rupress.org)
  • Therefore, there is lower incidence of infectious processes, and the functions of secretion, digestion and absorption of nutrients can be appropriately performed by the mucosa (Iji & Tivey, 1998). (scielo.br)
  • These substances primarily cause disturbances in the mucosa, damaging cellular structures, altering their integrity, compromising the absorption of nutrients and affecting the immune response (Dibner et al. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Small intestinal histology, radiology and absorption. (springer.com)
  • Finally the digested emulsions were exposed to murine intestinal mucosa and lipid and bile absorption was monitored. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Zinc absorption has been studied extensively in several model systems, particularly perfused intestinal segments ( 2 , 3 ) and isolated intestinal cells ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • The intestinal mucosa contains the largest number of immune cells in our body, mainly to protect the enormous epithelial surface that is responsible for the absorption of nutrients and separates outside from inside. (rupress.org)
  • Long-chain triglyceride requires chylomicron formation for absorption, and there is strong evidence that the postabsorptive products of long-chain triglyceride absorption, including chylomicrons and apolipoproteins, are involved in sensory transduction in the intestinal wall. (elsevier.com)
  • Loss of intestinal core 1-derived O-glycans causes spontaneous colitis in mice," Journal of Clinical Investigation , vol. 121, no. 4, pp. 1657-1666, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • Primary crypt cells of suckling mice displayed a significantly increased affinity to pepsin and collagenase solubilised intestinal biomatrix when compared with plastic and fibronectin. (bmj.com)
  • Analysis of normal and inflamed intestinal mucosa of mice revealed that mRNA of Notch ligands, DLL1, DLL4 and JAG1, is expressed within those tissues. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Submitting mice to 25% CR during 14 days induced a polarization of duodenum mucosa cell gene expression characterised by upregulation, and downregulation of the metabolic and immune/inflammatory pathways, respectively. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • To learn more about the pathophysiology of M. avium infection of the intestinal mucosa, C57BL/6 bg+ bg+ mice were infected orally with M. avium strain 101 and groups of six mice were killed each week for 8 weeks. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Simon, K. / The effect of E-N-trimethyl lysine (TML) treatment on the regeneration of bone marrow and intestinal mucosa in mice . (elsevier.com)
  • Decreased 5-HT concentrations in mucosa and LMMP (females only) were observed in prenatally exposed mice compared to controls. (brighton.ac.uk)
  • The patients remained entirely symptom-free and, more important, the jejunal mucosa was undamaged as judged by appearances under dissecting and light microscopes, quantitative histological studies, and disaccharidase content. (bmj.com)
  • Varying histological changes in jejunal mucosa were also observed in 9 cases, of which 7 showed mucosal invasion by giardia trophozoites. (nih.gov)
  • At the end of the experiment, piglets (n=6) were randomly picked from one replicate in each group to collect the samples (blood, liver, mid-jejunal segments, jejunal mucosa). (allaboutfeed.net)
  • The median pH of the mucosa of the duodenum was 6.6 (n=4) at point 0.2 m from the pyloric sphincter. (uit.no)
  • This study evaluated the use of probiotics and prebiotics on the histological and morphological indexes of the intestinal mucosa of broilers at 21 days of age. (scielo.br)
  • Tissue metabolism and host-microbial interactions in the intestinal mucosa. (nih.gov)
  • In recent years, studies in the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa have taught us a number of important lessons related to tissue oxygenation and metabolism in health and disease. (nih.gov)
  • Tissue metabolism is central to the maintenance of homeostasis in the mucosa. (jci.org)
  • The data indicate that nonlipid nutrients did not increase diamine oxidase activity in the intestinal lymph, but the mucosal tissue content was significantly reduced in the distal small intestine, particularly after protein infusion. (physiology.org)
  • The protective function is not restricted to the intestinal tissue but extends to all tissues because of its transport from the intestinal mucosa to the circulation ( 13 , 15 ). (physiology.org)
  • Several factors increase and possibly regulate the release of diamine oxidase from the intestinal tissue. (physiology.org)
  • The present study examined the action of all major food constituents on the release of intestinal diamine oxidase and compared their effects on enzyme transport into the intestinal lymph and on tissue content. (physiology.org)
  • Immunohistochemical and immunoblot assays of survivin were performed in intestinal tissue sections and total cell lysates respectively, using a rabbit anti-survivin antibody previously tested by us in cancer cells expressing high survivin levels. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Microbial diversity, composition, and the predicted functional metagenome were determined in addition to short chain fatty acids profiles in the digesta and inflammatory cytokines in the intestinal tissue. (frontiersin.org)
  • DNA methylation studies in these diseases have utilised intestinal mucosal tissue or blood which can be difficult to collect, particularly for large-scale research studies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Poliovirus divides within gastrointestinal cells for about a week, from where it spreads to the tonsils, the intestinal lymphoid tissue, and the deep cervical and mesenteric lymph nodes, where it multiplies abundantly. (scribd.com)
  • Tryptophan, serotonin (5-HT) and 5- hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) concentrations were measured in the longitudinal muscle myenteric plexus (LMMP) and mucosa of intestinal tissue by high- performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). (brighton.ac.uk)
  • Thus, a tight regulation of intestinal immune cells and their activation is crucial to maintain tissue homeostasis and ensure protective host defense. (rupress.org)
  • The results indicate that (i) positive nuclear immunohistochemical staining of survivin in normal C57BL/6 mouse intestinal mucosa was restricted to epithelial cells at the base and lower third of the crypts. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of oil addition with different degrees of oxidation, with or without supplementation of vitamin E on lipid peroxidation and morphology of intestinal mucosa of turkeys. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Retinyl acetate supplementation reversed these effects in both tissues, whereas retinoic acid supplementation was almost equally effective in the mucosa but virtually ineffective in the testes. (portlandpress.com)
  • Dietary zinc supplementation elevated the level of intestinal ZnT-1 mRNA and protein approximately 50% and 10%, respectively, but had no effect in the liver. (pnas.org)
  • The researchers wanted to know if this probiotic supplementation can positively influence growth performances and intestinal microbiota. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • 1 However, our data point to alternative treatments aiming to modify the intestinal microbiota in patients with CD by the use of probiotics and/or prebiotics. (uva.es)
  • The effects of replacing corn with low-tannin sorghum on broiler performance, carcass yield, integrity of mucosa of small intestine segments and activity of membrane enzymes of the jejunum has been investigated by K.A.A. Torres and colleagues at São Paulo State University in Brazil. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • In two other reindeer the median anaerobic bacterial densities in the proximal jejunum ranged from 25-2500 cells/g mucosa. (uit.no)
  • This action of butyrate in the mucosa results in increased expression of immunosuppressive cytokines within the lamina propia. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, we chose the four main cytokines, IFN-γ, IL-12, IL-4 and IL-10, to observe the changes in Th1- and Th2-derived cytokines in the intestinal mucosa and to explore the Th1/Th2 shift and its potential role in PI-IBS patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We searched for mRNA of Th1 and Th2 cytokines by in situ hybridization in intestinal biopsies. (unam.mx)
  • The intestinal mucosa contains high levels of the immunosuppressive cytokines TGFβ and IL-10 produced by the regulatory T cell subsets, DCs, and even epithelial cells ( 2 , 3 ). (rupress.org)
  • We compared the histology of the upper pouch mucosa with the lower one. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of exogenous ghrelin, administered intra-gastrically, on the processes of mitosis, apoptosis, autophagy, crypt fission and changes in histometry of the small intestine mucosa in neonatal pigs, fed with a milk formula. (lu.se)
  • Moreover, we demonstrated that autophagy is involved in the small intestine mucosa remodeling and ghrelin may be an important factor for its regulation. (lu.se)
  • These results indicate that invasion and infection of the normal intestine by M. avium results in a severe inflammatory response with segmental necrosis of the intestinal mucosa. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI. (centralx.com)
  • The small intestine, and the intestinal mucosa that keep it healthy, play a critical role in digestion and immune function. (vibrantblueoils.com)
  • The Intestinal Mucosa ™ protects the cells and nourishes "good" bacterial flora which in turn feeds the lining of the small intestine keeping it robust, healthy and able to support the final steps of digestion, allowing only appropriately digested food particles to be absorbed. (vibrantblueoils.com)
  • Intestinal fistulas were made by Abbfe's lateral anastomosis in the first loop of the small intestine below the pancreas, the cephalad end being sutured into the abdominal wall and left open to the exterior. (bookdome.com)
  • CCL25 mediates the localization of recently activated CD8alphabeta(+) lymphocytes to the small-intestinal mucosa. (lu.se)
  • The recruitment of antigen-specific T lymphocytes to the intestinal mucosa is central to the development of an effective mucosal immune response, yet the mechanism by which this process occurs remains to be fully defined. (lu.se)
  • Together these results demonstrate an important role for chemokines in the localization of T lymphocytes to the small-intestinal mucosa and suggest that targeting CCL25 and/or CCR9 may provide a means to selectively modulate small-intestinal immune responses. (lu.se)
  • article{8be51839-79c0-48e7-a14e-07d3e5520c5c, abstract = {The recruitment of antigen-specific T lymphocytes to the intestinal mucosa is central to the development of an effective mucosal immune response, yet the mechanism by which this process occurs remains to be fully defined. (lu.se)
  • We compared in vitro interaction of S. suis with human and porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IEC). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These findings not only are consistent with down regulation of survivin expression by Apc, but they must also be interpreted in view of the Apc genotype of intestinal Apc Min cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The marked up-regulation of survivin expression in Apc Min/− tumor cells may signify that abnormal expression of the anti-apoptotic protein in intestinal cells depends on the loss of both Apc copies, thus allowing Apc null tumor cells to escape from apoptosis which may contribute to cancer induction and progression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Studies concerning the apoptosis of the cells of the burned intestinal mucosa have gained considerable attention. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • A previous study has shown that the apoptosis of mucosal cells is the main form of cell death occurring with intestinal ischemia-reperfusion, with apoptotic cells accounting for 80% of the total number of dead cells ( 1 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Second, certain populations of T and B cells that are unique to the GALT play a role in directing the responses to intestinal Ags. (jimmunol.org)
  • This response may direct CD4 + T cell populations either to be tolerogenic or effector cells, respectively, in homeostasis and during intestinal mucosa infection and microbial invasion ( Smythies and Smythies, 2014 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Primary intestinal epithelial cells have a very short lifespan in vitro when cultured free of mucosal elements. (bmj.com)
  • This could lead to decreased generation of regulatory T cells and less capacity to tolerate gluten and adapt to the local milieu in the mucosa. (diva-portal.org)
  • To better understand the role of dendritic cells (DCs) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission at mucosal surfaces, we examined the expressions of the HIV adhesion molecule, dendritic-cell-specific ICAM-3 grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN), its closely related homologue DC-SIGNR, and HIV coreceptors by distinct DC populations in the intestinal and genital tracts of humans and rhesus macaques. (asm.org)
  • Finally, the rectum contained cells that expressed high levels of DC-SIGN throughout the entire thickness of the mucosa, while solitary lymphoid nodules within the rectum showed very little staining for DC-SIGN. (asm.org)
  • These findings suggest that DC-SIGN + DCs could play a role in the transmission of primate lentiviruses in the ileum and the rectum whereas accessibility to DC-SIGN + cells is limited in an intact vaginal mucosa. (asm.org)
  • Further analysis by immunohistochemistry showed that DLL1 and DLL4 are surely expressed in intestinal epithelial cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Presentation] Complete conversion of crypt progenitor cells into Atoh1-positive cells by targeted deletion of Dll1 and Dll4 in LGR5-positive intestinal stem cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • This after some time leads to a general reduction in T4 helper cells, to chronic intestinal inflammations and to an advanced systematic inflammatory reaction in the whole body. (reducetheburden.org)
  • We characterized the hyperpolarization of the electrical potential profile of flounder intestinal cells that accompanies inhibition of NaCl cotransport. (rupress.org)
  • It is produced and secreted by the intestinal glands in the ileum and the pancreas, but it is also found widely in other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was also found not to be unique to intestinal mucosa and is present widely in many other cells and organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flow-cytometric analysis of isolated cells from inflamed mucosa revealed that CD45RC(high)CD4 + T cells were significantly increased. (elsevier.com)
  • These results indicated that Th1 CD4 + intestinal mucosal T cells have a role in the progress of inflamed lesions in chronic enteritis. (elsevier.com)
  • The scientists have shown that EHEC are capable of using the carbohydrates that form part of mucin, a glycoprotein that is secreted by intestinal cells to constitute mucus. (inra.fr)
  • Conclusions: These findings suggest that Plantago ovata husk may protect intestinal mucosa probably by limiting acetylsalicylic acid penetration into epithelial cells, although further studies are needed to confirm the same effect in other experimental models of induced mucosal damage and to elucidate the mechanisms of fiber protection. (unileon.es)
  • In the absence of intestinal GCs in vivo , activation by anti-CD3 injection resulted in reduced CD69 expression and interferon-γ production by intestinal T cells, whereas activation by viral infection led to increased T cell activation. (rupress.org)
  • In addition, the presence of CD4 + CD25 + regulatory T cells has been reported in the intestinal mucosa, which can inhibit the induction of experimental colitis by mechanisms yet to be defined ( 4 , 5 ). (rupress.org)
  • This study showed ultrastructural alterations in the architecture of intestinal epithelial cells and intercellular junctional complexes in IBS-D patients, potentially representing a pathophysiological mechanism in IBS-D. (akjournals.com)
  • They showed that oral administration of this type of probiotic to newborn piglets could improve the growth performance and decrease diarrhoea incidence by improving intestinal microbiota for both suckling and weaned piglets. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Compared to the control group (C7), feeding milk formula supplemented with ghrelin resulted in significant changes in the small intestinal morphometry and mucosa histometry. (lu.se)
  • In this thesis we have identified three potential risk factors for development of CD: 1) an inherent lower level of ETCM in the small intestinal mucosa than in controls. (diva-portal.org)
  • Journal Article] Histological diagnosis of follicular lymphoma by biopsy of small intestinal normal mucosa. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The incorporation of [14C]glucosamine into brush border glycoproteins by human small intestinal mucosa in organ culture has been investigated. (unibas.ch)
  • Recent evidence has revealed that the small intestinal microbiota, especially the mucosal microbiota, might play a crucial role in gastrointestinal health [ 12 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One collagen-base biomaterial that recently emerged as an option is small intestinal submucosa (SIS). (unesp.br)
  • Methods: To evaluate the anti-ulcerogenic effect on duodenal mucosa of the soluble fiber Plantago ovata husk, low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (10 mg/kg) was given orally to animals once daily for 14 or 28 days with and without Plantago ovata husk (100 mg/kg). (unileon.es)
  • The aim of this study was to compare the results of SIS and buccal mucosa for urethral substitution in rabbits.Materials and Methods: Thirty-six North Folk male rabbits were randomized into three groups. (unesp.br)
  • The increased intestinal expression of IL-18 mRNA in patients with T1D adds evidence in favour of the hypothesis that T1D is associated with derangements in the gut immune system. (ovid.com)
  • In response to an acute oral zinc dose, the level of intestinal ZnT-1 mRNA was up-regulated 8-fold, without a corresponding increase in ZnT-1 protein. (pnas.org)
  • Dawood ,N. M. E. Tarabishi ,N. S. Moursi , Histopathologicaland immunological studies on intestinal mucosa in chronic food allergy, Ain-Shams Med. (who.int)
  • Histopathological and immunological studies of the intestinal mucosa by direct fluorescent antibody technique [DFA] were done for the biopsies obtained. (who.int)
  • To study intestinal morphology, five birds per treatment were randomly selected, weighed and euthanized at 19 days old. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Objective: We aimed to evaluate whether prophylactic administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has a protective effect on the morphology of irradiated intestinal mucosa. (marmara.edu.tr)
  • Diamine oxidase is continuously released from the intestinal epithelia into the lamina propria ( 20 , 27 ). (physiology.org)
  • The intestinal mucosa heals quickly from such biopsies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isolation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis from intestinal mucosa and mesenteric lymph nodes of goats by use of selective Dubos medium. (asm.org)
  • Mathan, V. I. (1988) An unidentified inhibitor of lipid peroxidation in intestinal mucosa Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Lipids and Lipid Metabolism, 962 (1). (ias.ac.in)
  • This was due to the presence of an inhibitor of lipid peroxidation in the membranous fractions of intestinal mucosa. (ias.ac.in)
  • These results suggest that the resistance of intestinal mucosa to lipid peroxidation is due to the presence of a novel inhibitor which is lipidic in nature. (ias.ac.in)
  • It is also unclear whether nutrients other than fat have an effect on intestinal diamine oxidase mobilization. (physiology.org)
  • CONCLUSION: Diclofenac sodium induced ulcerated lesions in rat intestinal mucosa can be prevented by Imipenem treatment.OBJETIVO: Avaliar as altera? (isaude.net)
  • ITF, intestinal trefoil factor). (jci.org)
  • Classification of normal colorectal mucosa and adenocarcinoma by morphometry. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A number of factors regulate immune responses to intestinal Ags. (jimmunol.org)
  • Moreover, EC-derived exosomes released into the mucosa may be taken up by mucosal DCs and transported to the lymph nodes, where their contents can influence adaptive immune responses. (frontiersin.org)
  • Several mechanisms that regulate intestinal immune responses have been described. (rupress.org)
  • However, additional mechanisms may exist to maintain locally confined and balanced immune responses in the intestinal mucosa. (rupress.org)
  • One of the common characteristics of these potential risk factors is that they can cause alterations in the structure of the intestinal flora ( 5 - 8 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Accordingly, interventional probiotic therapy is suggested to be able to improve the composition of the mucosal microbial flora and significantly reduce the abundance of mucosa-associated pathogens in patients with CRC. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • It has remained elusive whether probiotics serve a beneficial role by adjusting intestinal microbes or inhibiting certain detrimental pathogens. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Altered epigenetic profiles are a feature of intestinal diseases, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Discriminant analysis was conducted between histologically normal mucosa (n = 10) and adenocarcinoma in ulcerative colitis (n = 20). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Here, we present an ex vivo translational approach to investigate the effects of IFN alpha on the human normal intestinal mucosa, as well as its underlying mechanisms. (inserm.fr)
  • Concluding, beneficial effects were seen in histological indexes of the intestinal mucosa with the use of probiotics and prebiotics at 21 days of age. (scielo.br)
  • In experimental diabetes, a number of intestinal brush-border hydrolases and transport systems are stimulated. (umn.edu)
  • The overall composition of the intestinal brush-border membrane, unlike other plasma membranes, appears little affected by experimental diabetes. (umn.edu)