Pathological processes in any segment of the INTESTINE from DUODENUM to RECTUM.
A condition that is caused by HYPERPLASIA of LYMPHOCYTES in the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL) and the mesenteric LYMPH NODES. These lymphocytes produce an anomalous alpha heavy chain protein. Generally, these IPSID patients have either concurrent LYMPHOMA or develop lymphoma within a few years. The disease was first described in the Mediterranean region and is characterized by malabsorption; WEIGHT LOSS; DIARRHEA; and STEATORRHEA.
An independent state consisting of three islands in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Sicily. Its capital is Valetta. The major island is Malta, the two smaller islands are Comino and Gozo. It was a Phoenician and Carthaginian colony, captured by the Romans in 218 B.C. It was overrun by Saracens in 870, taken by the Normans in 1090, and subsequently held by the French and later the British who allotted them a dominion government in 1921. It became a crown colony in 1933, achieving independence in 1964. The name possibly comes from a pre-Indoeuropean root mel, high, referring to its rocks, but a more picturesque origin derives the name from the Greek melitta or melissa, honey, with reference to its early fame for its honey production. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p719 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p330)
Inflammation of any segment of the SMALL INTESTINE.
General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.
Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.
Inflammation of a DIVERTICULUM or diverticula.
The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN A. They have a molecular weight of approximately 58 kDa and contain about 470 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component bound covalently to their Fc fragment constant region.
A chronic malabsorption syndrome, occurring mainly in residents of or visitors to the tropics or subtropics. The failed INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients from the SMALL INTESTINE results in MALNUTRITION and ANEMIA that is due to FOLIC ACID deficiency.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CAMPYLOBACTER.
A chronic transmural inflammation that may involve any part of the DIGESTIVE TRACT from MOUTH to ANUS, mostly found in the ILEUM, the CECUM, and the COLON. In Crohn disease, the inflammation, extending through the intestinal wall from the MUCOSA to the serosa, is characteristically asymmetric and segmental. Epithelioid GRANULOMAS may be seen in some patients.
Communicable diseases, also known as infectious diseases, are medical conditions that result from the infection, transmission, or colonization of pathogenic microorganisms like bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites, which can be spread from one host to another through various modes of transmission.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Acute inflammation of the intestine associated with infectious DIARRHEA of various etiologies, generally acquired by eating contaminated food containing TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL derived from BACTERIA or other microorganisms. Dysentery is characterized initially by watery FECES then by bloody mucoid stools. It is often associated with ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and DEHYDRATION.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A malabsorption syndrome that is precipitated by the ingestion of foods containing GLUTEN, such as wheat, rye, and barley. It is characterized by INFLAMMATION of the SMALL INTESTINE, loss of MICROVILLI structure, failed INTESTINAL ABSORPTION, and MALNUTRITION.
Chronic, non-specific inflammation of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Etiology may be genetic or environmental. This term includes CROHN DISEASE and ULCERATIVE COLITIS.
Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.
Virus diseases caused by CALICIVIRIDAE. They include HEPATITIS E; VESICULAR EXANTHEMA OF SWINE; acute respiratory infections in felines, rabbit hemorrhagic disease, and some cases of gastroenteritis in humans.
Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.
INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
A genus in the family CALICIVIRIDAE, associated with epidemic GASTROENTERITIS in humans. The type species, NORWALK VIRUS, contains multiple strains.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but 'England' is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom, known for its rich history, cultural heritage, and contributions to medical science. However, in a medical context, it may refer to the location of a patient, healthcare provider, or research study, but it is not a term with a specific medical meaning.
A genus of bacteria found in the reproductive organs, intestinal tract, and oral cavity of animals and man. Some species are pathogenic.
ENTEROCOLITIS with extensive ulceration (ULCER) and NECROSIS. It is observed primarily in LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANT.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Wales" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. It is a country that is part of the United Kingdom, located in Europe. If you have any questions about a specific medical topic, I would be happy to help answer those!
A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
Inflammation of the COLON that is predominantly confined to the MUCOSA. Its major symptoms include DIARRHEA, rectal BLEEDING, the passage of MUCUS, and ABDOMINAL PAIN.
A species of bacteria that resemble small tightly coiled spirals. Its organisms are known to cause abortion in sheep and fever and enteritis in man and may be associated with enteric diseases of calves, lambs, and other animals.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.
Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.
Commonly known as parasitic worms, this group includes the ACANTHOCEPHALA; NEMATODA; and PLATYHELMINTHS. Some authors consider certain species of LEECHES that can become temporarily parasitic as helminths.
Infestation with parasitic worms of the helminth class.
Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
Infestation of animals with parasitic worms of the helminth class. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.

Persistent damage to Enterocytozoon bieneusi, with persistent symptomatic relief, after combined furazolidone and albendazole in AIDS patients. (1/790)

AIM: To investigate morphological changes in Enterocytozoon bieneusi and the duration of symptomatic relief after combination treatment with furazolidone and albendazole in AIDS patients. METHODS: Four severely immunocompromised AIDS patients with symptomatic E bieneusi infection of the gut received an 18 day course of combined furazolidone and albendazole (500 + 800 mg daily). All patients were monitored for parasite shedding in stool by light microscopy at the end of treatment and monthly during follow up. At the end of treatment, duodenal biopsy specimens obtained from three patients were studied by transmission electron microscopy by two pathologists blind to the patients' treatment or clinical outcome. Duodenal biopsy specimens obtained from one of the patients two months after completion of treatment were also studied electronmicroscopically. RESULTS: All patients had long lasting symptomatic relief, with a major decrease--or transient absence--of spore shedding in stools from completion of treatment. After treatment, changes in faecal spores were persistently found by light microscopy in all cases, and there was evidence of both a substantial decrease in the parasite load and ultrastructural damage in the parasite in all biopsy specimens. The treatment was well tolerated, and no patient had clinical or parasitological relapse during follow up (up to 15 months). CONCLUSIONS: The long lasting symptomatic relief observed in all four treated patients correlated with the persistent decrease in parasite load both in tissue and in stool, and with the morphological changes observed in the life cycle of the protozoan. These data suggest that combined treatment with furazolidone and albendazole is active against E bieneusi and may result in lasting remission even in severely immunocompromised patients.  (+info)

A powerful DNA extraction method and PCR for detection of microsporidia in clinical stool specimens. (2/790)

The diagnosis of intestinal microsporidiosis has traditionally depended on direct visualization of the parasite in stool specimens or intestinal biopsy samples by light and/or electron microscopy. Limited information about the specificity and sensitivity of PCR for the detection microsporidia in clinical stool specimens is available. To establish a sensitive and specific method for the detection of microsporidia in clinical samples, we studied clinical stool specimens of 104 randomly selected human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with diarrhea to compare light microscopy and PCR. Fluorochrome Uvitex 2B staining was used for light microscopy. To raise the sensitivity of PCR, we used a powerful and fast DNA extraction method including stool sedimentation, glass bead disruption, and proteinase K and chitinase digestion. PCR was performed with primer pairs V1-PMP2, V1-EB450, and V1-SI500, and the nature of the PCR products was confirmed by Southern blot hybridization. Microsporidiosis was diagnosed by light microscopy in eight patients. Ten patients tested positive for microsporidiosis by PCR. Enterocytozoon bieneusi was found in seven cases, and Encephalitozoon intestinalis was found in four cases. In one case a double infection with E. bieneusi and E. intestinalis was diagnosed by PCR, whereas light microscopy showed only E. bieneusi infection. PCR testing of stool specimens is useful for diagnosis and species differentiation of intestinal microsporidiosis in HIV patients.  (+info)

Prevalence of intestinal parasite infections with special reference to Entamoeba histolytica on the island of Bioko (Equatorial Guinea). (3/790)

The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was assessed (1993 through 1995) among two different groups of persons on the island of Bioko, Equatorial Guinea. In the first group, parasitologic examinations were performed on stool specimens from a household-based sample of 557 dwellers from the rural area of the island. In the second group, 1,633 inpatients and outpatients at the General Hospital of Malabo (the capital of the country) were studied. All age groups were represented in both groups. The average prevalence of the most common protozoan and helminthic intestinal infections in rural and urban areas, respectively, was as follows: Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (14.9% and 32.7%, respectively), Giardia lamblia (7.2% and 8.6%), Ascaris lumbricoides (45.8% and 31.4%), and Trichuris trichiura (25.7% and 36.4%). Seventy-nine sera from patients with amebic liver abscess (suspected by ultrasonography) were studied by an immunohemagglutination assay, with 44 (56%) showing anti-E. histolytica titers > or = 1:32. Of these 79 sera, 71 were studied by an enzyme immunoassay, 86% of which were positive with titers > or = 1:64. This study showed that parasitic infections in Equatorial Guinea represent a major health problem.  (+info)

The cost effectiveness of strategies for the treatment of intestinal parasites in immigrants. (4/790)

BACKGROUND: Currently, more than 600,000 immigrants enter the United States each year from countries where intestinal parasites are endemic. At entry persons with parasitic infections may be asymptomatic, and stool examinations are not a sensitive method of screening for parasitosis. Albendazole is a new, broad-spectrum antiparasitic drug, which was approved recently by the Food and Drug Administration. International trials have shown albendazole to be safe and effective in eradicating many parasites. In the United States there is now disagreement about whether to screen all immigrants for parasites, treat all immigrants presumptively, or do nothing unless they have symptoms. METHODS: We compared the costs and benefits of no preventive intervention (watchful waiting) with those of universal screening or presumptive treatment with 400 mg of albendazole per day for five days. Those at risk were defined as immigrants to the United States from Asia, the Middle East, sub-Saharan Africa, Eastern Europe, and Latin America and the Caribbean. Cost effectiveness was expressed both in terms of the cost of treatment per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted (one DALY is defined as the loss of one year of healthy life to disease) and in terms of the cost per hospitalization averted. RESULTS: As compared with watchful waiting, presumptive treatment of all immigrants at risk for parasitosis would avert at least 870 DALYs, prevent at least 33 deaths and 374 hospitalizations, and save at least $4.2 million per year. As compared with watchful waiting, screening would cost $159,236 per DALY averted. CONCLUSIONS: Presumptive administration of albendazole to all immigrants at risk for parasitosis would save lives and money. Universal screening, with treatment of persons with positive stool examinations, would save lives but is less cost effective than presumptive treatment.  (+info)

Suppression of giardiasis during the intestinal phase of trichinosis in the mouse. (5/790)

The interaction of the intestinal phases of Giardia muris and Trichinella spiralis was investigated in Swiss albino mice. Intraoesophageal inoculation of G. muris cysts seven days before, or seven days after, similar inoculation of T. spiralis larvae resulted in significant reduction in the numbers of Giardia trophozoites in small bowel and Giardia cysts in stools. This effect was not observed when G. muris cysts were administered after resolution of the intestinal phase of trichinosis. Giardiasis had no effect on trichinosis as assessed by numbers of adult worms in small bowel and larvae in skeletal muscles. Studies of small bowel morphology showed that the intestinal phase of trichinosis was associated with increased numbers of inflammatory cells in the lamina propria, a significant increase in Paneth cells in crypts, and a marked reduction in the villus:crypt ratio of jejunum. These observations suggest that the intestinal phase of trichinosis induced environmental changes in small bowel, perhaps related to inflammation, which resulted in suppression of proliferation of Giardia trophozoites.  (+info)

A case of gastric pseudoterranoviasis in a 43-year-old man in Korea. (6/790)

A case of Pseudoterranova decipiens infection was found in a 43-year-old man by gastroendoscopic examination on August 20, 1996. On August 6, 1996, he visited a local clinic, complaining of epigastric pain two days after eating raw marine fishes. Although the symptoms were relieved soon, endoscopic examination was done for differential diagnosis. A white, live nematode larva was removed from the fundus of the stomach. The larva was 38.3 x 1.0 mm in size and had a cecum reaching to the mid-level of the ventriculus. A lot of transverse striations were regularly arranged on the cuticle of its body surface, but the boring tooth and mucron were not observed at both ends of the worm. The worm was identified as the 4th stage larva of P. decipiens.  (+info)

Nematode intestinal parasites of children in rural Guinea, Africa: prevalence and relationship to geophagia. (7/790)

BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasitism is common among children in developing countries, but the risk factors for infection are not well characterized. METHODS: A stool examination was performed on 286 randomly selected children aged 1-18 years from three rural villages in Guinea, Africa. Information collected by questionnaire was used to examine the relationship between geophagia and infection with intestinal nematodes acquired by ingestion versus skin penetration. RESULTS: Fifty-three per cent of children were infected by at least one type of soil-transmitted nematode. Geophagia was reported by parents to occur in 57%, 53%, and 43%, of children ages 1-5, 6-10, and 11-18 years, respectively. The pattern of geophagia by age and gender of the children more closely resembled the infection pattern for the two orally acquired and soil-transmitted nematodes (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura) than it did the infection pattern for the two soil-transmitted nematodes that infect by skin penetration (hookworm, Strongyloides stercoralis). CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that geophagia is an important risk factor for orally acquired nematode infections in African children. Education regarding geophagia prevention should be an integral component of any soil-transmitted parasite control programme.  (+info)

Development of a polymerase chain reaction diagnostic assay for Ceratomyxa shasta, a myxosporean parasite of salmonid fish. (8/790)

A diagnostic procedure based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed for the myxosporean parasite Ceratomyxa shasta. Three sets of oligonucleotide primers were designed to specifically amplify C. shasta ribosomal RNA genes and several parameters of the assay were tested and optimised. A simple protocol for the processing of fish tissue samples was also developed. In a single round, 20 microliters volume reaction the optimised procedure allows the detection of 50 fg of purified C. shasta genomic DNA, or 0.01 spore from a seeded fish intestine sample. This protocol is considerably faster, cheaper and more reliable than any previous diagnostic procedure for a myxosporean parasite, and can be an invaluable tool for the monitoring of early and/or subclinical C. shasta infections in wild and cultured salmon populations.  (+info)

Intestinal diseases refer to a wide range of conditions that affect the function or structure of the small intestine, large intestine (colon), or both. These diseases can cause various symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation, bloating, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. They can be caused by infections, inflammation, genetic disorders, or other factors. Some examples of intestinal diseases include inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), celiac disease, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and intestinal infections. The specific medical definition may vary depending on the context and the specific condition being referred to.

Immunoproliferative Small Intestinal Disease (IPSID) is a rare condition primarily affecting the small intestine. It is characterized by an excessive proliferation of immune cells, particularly plasma cells, in the lining of the small intestine. This leads to thickening of the intestinal wall, impaired absorption of nutrients, and various gastrointestinal symptoms. IPSID is often associated with a specific type of abnormal protein, called an alpha-defensin, in the stool. It's also known as alpha-defensin enteropathy or Mediterranean lymphoma. The exact cause of IPSID is not fully understood, but it may be linked to chronic antigenic stimulation, such as that caused by certain bacterial infections.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Malta" is not a medical term. It is a country located in Southern Europe, consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

Enteritis is a medical term that refers to inflammation of the small intestine. The small intestine is responsible for digesting and absorbing nutrients from food, so inflammation in this area can interfere with these processes and lead to symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss.

Enteritis can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacterial or viral infections, parasites, autoimmune disorders, medications, and exposure to toxins. In some cases, the cause of enteritis may be unknown. Treatment for enteritis depends on the underlying cause, but may include antibiotics, antiparasitic drugs, anti-inflammatory medications, or supportive care such as fluid replacement therapy.

Malabsorption syndromes refer to a group of disorders in which the small intestine is unable to properly absorb nutrients from food, leading to various gastrointestinal and systemic symptoms. This can result from a variety of underlying conditions, including:

1. Mucosal damage: Conditions such as celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), or bacterial overgrowth that cause damage to the lining of the small intestine, impairing nutrient absorption.
2. Pancreatic insufficiency: A lack of digestive enzymes produced by the pancreas can lead to poor breakdown and absorption of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. Examples include chronic pancreatitis or cystic fibrosis.
3. Bile acid deficiency: Insufficient bile acids, which are necessary for fat emulsification and absorption, can result in steatorrhea (fatty stools) and malabsorption. This may occur due to liver dysfunction, gallbladder removal, or ileal resection.
4. Motility disorders: Abnormalities in small intestine motility can affect nutrient absorption, as seen in conditions like gastroparesis, intestinal pseudo-obstruction, or scleroderma.
5. Structural abnormalities: Congenital or acquired structural defects of the small intestine, such as short bowel syndrome, may lead to malabsorption.
6. Infections: Certain bacterial, viral, or parasitic infections can cause transient malabsorption by damaging the intestinal mucosa or altering gut flora.

Symptoms of malabsorption syndromes may include diarrhea, steatorrhea, bloating, abdominal cramps, weight loss, and nutrient deficiencies. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, radiologic imaging, and sometimes endoscopic procedures to identify the underlying cause. Treatment is focused on addressing the specific etiology and providing supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Parasitic intestinal diseases are disorders caused by microscopic parasites that invade the gastrointestinal tract, specifically the small intestine. These parasites include protozoa (single-celled organisms) and helminths (parasitic worms). The most common protozoan parasites that cause intestinal disease are Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Entamoeba histolytica. Common helminthic parasites include roundworms (Ascaris lumbricoides), tapeworms (Taenia saginata and Taenia solium), hookworms (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus), and pinworms (Enterobius vermicularis).

Parasitic intestinal diseases can cause a variety of symptoms, including diarrhea, abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and weight loss. The severity and duration of the symptoms depend on the type of parasite, the number of organisms present, and the immune status of the host.

Transmission of these parasites can occur through various routes, including contaminated food and water, person-to-person contact, and contact with contaminated soil or feces. Preventive measures include practicing good hygiene, washing hands thoroughly after using the toilet and before handling food, cooking food thoroughly, and avoiding consumption of raw or undercooked meat, poultry, or seafood.

Treatment of parasitic intestinal diseases typically involves the use of antiparasitic medications that target the specific parasite causing the infection. In some cases, supportive care such as fluid replacement and symptom management may also be necessary.

Diverticulitis is a medical condition characterized by the inflammation or infection of one or more diverticula, which are small pouches that form in the wall of the colon (large intestine). The condition most commonly affects the sigmoid colon, which is the part of the colon located in the lower left abdomen.

Diverticulitis occurs when these pouches become inflamed or infected, often as a result of a small piece of stool or undigested food getting trapped inside them. This can cause symptoms such as:

* Severe abdominal pain and tenderness, particularly in the lower left side of the abdomen
* Fever and chills
* Nausea and vomiting
* Constipation or diarrhea
* Bloating and gas
* Loss of appetite

Diverticulitis can range from mild to severe, and in some cases, it may require hospitalization and surgery. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to clear the infection, as well as a liquid diet to allow the colon to rest and heal. In more severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the affected portion of the colon.

Immunoglobulin alpha-chains (IgA) are a type of immunoglobulin or antibody that plays a crucial role in the immune system. They are composed of two heavy chains, known as alpha-chains, and two light chains. IgA is primarily found in secretions such as tears, saliva, breast milk, and respiratory and intestinal mucus, where they provide protection against pathogens that enter the body through these surfaces.

IgA can exist in two forms: a monomeric form, which consists of a single IgA molecule, and a polymeric form, which consists of several IgA molecules joined together by a J chain. The polymeric form is more common in secretions, where it provides an effective barrier against pathogens.

IgA functions by binding to antigens on the surface of pathogens, preventing them from attaching to and infecting host cells. It can also neutralize toxins produced by some bacteria and viruses. Additionally, IgA can activate the complement system, a group of proteins that work together to destroy pathogens, and initiate an immune response by recruiting other immune cells to the site of infection.

Deficiencies in IgA are relatively common and usually do not cause any significant health problems. However, in some cases, people with IgA deficiency may develop recurrent infections or allergies.

Tropical sprue is a malabsorption disorder that is most commonly found in tropical or subtropical regions. It is characterized by symptoms such as chronic diarrhea, weight loss, and fatigue, which are caused by the impaired absorption of nutrients in the small intestine.

The exact cause of tropical sprue is not known, but it is thought to be related to an infection or other environmental factor that damages the lining of the small intestine. This damage can interfere with the absorption of nutrients, particularly fat-soluble vitamins and minerals such as vitamin B12, iron, and folate.

Tropical sprue is typically treated with a combination of antibiotics to eliminate any potential infectious causes, as well as a diet that is high in nutrients and low in fat. In severe cases, supplementation with fat-soluble vitamins and other nutrients may be necessary. With appropriate treatment, most people with tropical sprue are able to recover and manage their symptoms.

The intestinal mucosa is the innermost layer of the intestines, which comes into direct contact with digested food and microbes. It is a specialized epithelial tissue that plays crucial roles in nutrient absorption, barrier function, and immune defense. The intestinal mucosa is composed of several cell types, including absorptive enterocytes, mucus-secreting goblet cells, hormone-producing enteroendocrine cells, and immune cells such as lymphocytes and macrophages.

The surface of the intestinal mucosa is covered by a single layer of epithelial cells, which are joined together by tight junctions to form a protective barrier against harmful substances and microorganisms. This barrier also allows for the selective absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream. The intestinal mucosa also contains numerous lymphoid follicles, known as Peyer's patches, which are involved in immune surveillance and defense against pathogens.

In addition to its role in absorption and immunity, the intestinal mucosa is also capable of producing hormones that regulate digestion and metabolism. Dysfunction of the intestinal mucosa can lead to various gastrointestinal disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and food allergies.

The small intestine is the portion of the gastrointestinal tract that extends from the pylorus of the stomach to the beginning of the large intestine (cecum). It plays a crucial role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients from food. The small intestine is divided into three parts: the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.

1. Duodenum: This is the shortest and widest part of the small intestine, approximately 10 inches long. It receives chyme (partially digested food) from the stomach and begins the process of further digestion with the help of various enzymes and bile from the liver and pancreas.
2. Jejunum: The jejunum is the middle section, which measures about 8 feet in length. It has a large surface area due to the presence of circular folds (plicae circulares), finger-like projections called villi, and microvilli on the surface of the absorptive cells (enterocytes). These structures increase the intestinal surface area for efficient absorption of nutrients, electrolytes, and water.
3. Ileum: The ileum is the longest and final section of the small intestine, spanning about 12 feet. It continues the absorption process, mainly of vitamin B12, bile salts, and any remaining nutrients. At the end of the ileum, there is a valve called the ileocecal valve that prevents backflow of contents from the large intestine into the small intestine.

The primary function of the small intestine is to absorb the majority of nutrients, electrolytes, and water from ingested food. The mucosal lining of the small intestine contains numerous goblet cells that secrete mucus, which protects the epithelial surface and facilitates the movement of chyme through peristalsis. Additionally, the small intestine hosts a diverse community of microbiota, which contributes to various physiological functions, including digestion, immunity, and protection against pathogens.

Campylobacter infections are illnesses caused by the bacterium *Campylobacter jejuni* or other species of the genus *Campylobacter*. These bacteria are commonly found in the intestines of animals, particularly birds, and can be transmitted to humans through contaminated food, water, or contact with infected animals.

The most common symptom of Campylobacter infection is diarrhea, which can range from mild to severe and may be bloody. Other symptoms may include abdominal cramps, fever, nausea, and vomiting. The illness usually lasts about a week, but in some cases, it can lead to serious complications such as bacteremia (bacteria in the bloodstream), meningitis, or Guillain-Barré syndrome, a neurological disorder that can cause muscle weakness and paralysis.

Campylobacter infections are typically treated with antibiotics, but in mild cases, they may resolve on their own without treatment. Prevention measures include cooking meat thoroughly, washing hands and surfaces that come into contact with raw meat, avoiding unpasteurized dairy products and untreated water, and handling pets, particularly birds and reptiles, with care.

Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract, from the mouth to the anus. It is characterized by chronic inflammation of the digestive tract, which can lead to symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, weight loss, and malnutrition.

The specific causes of Crohn's disease are not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to a combination of genetic, environmental, and immune system factors. The disease can affect people of any age, but it is most commonly diagnosed in young adults between the ages of 15 and 35.

There is no cure for Crohn's disease, but treatments such as medications, lifestyle changes, and surgery can help manage symptoms and prevent complications. Treatment options depend on the severity and location of the disease, as well as the individual patient's needs and preferences.

Communicable diseases, also known as infectious diseases, are illnesses that can be transmitted from one person to another through various modes of transmission. These modes include:

1. Direct contact: This occurs when an individual comes into physical contact with an infected person, such as touching or shaking hands, or having sexual contact.
2. Indirect contact: This happens when an individual comes into contact with contaminated objects or surfaces, like doorknobs, towels, or utensils.
3. Airborne transmission: Infectious agents can be spread through the air when an infected person coughs, sneezes, talks, or sings, releasing droplets containing the pathogen into the environment. These droplets can then be inhaled by nearby individuals.
4. Droplet transmission: Similar to airborne transmission, but involving larger respiratory droplets that don't remain suspended in the air for long periods and typically travel shorter distances (usually less than 6 feet).
5. Vector-borne transmission: This occurs when an infected animal or insect, such as a mosquito or tick, transmits the disease to a human through a bite or other means.

Examples of communicable diseases include COVID-19, influenza, tuberculosis, measles, hepatitis B, and malaria. Preventive measures for communicable diseases often involve public health initiatives like vaccination programs, hygiene promotion, and vector control strategies.

The intestines, also known as the bowel, are a part of the digestive system that extends from the stomach to the anus. They are responsible for the further breakdown and absorption of nutrients from food, as well as the elimination of waste products. The intestines can be divided into two main sections: the small intestine and the large intestine.

The small intestine is a long, coiled tube that measures about 20 feet in length and is lined with tiny finger-like projections called villi, which increase its surface area and enhance nutrient absorption. The small intestine is where most of the digestion and absorption of nutrients takes place.

The large intestine, also known as the colon, is a wider tube that measures about 5 feet in length and is responsible for absorbing water and electrolytes from digested food, forming stool, and eliminating waste products from the body. The large intestine includes several regions, including the cecum, colon, rectum, and anus.

Together, the intestines play a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being by ensuring that the body receives the nutrients it needs to function properly.

Dysentery is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the intestine, particularly the colon, leading to severe diarrhea containing blood, mucus, and/or pus. It is typically caused by infectious agents such as bacteria (like Shigella, Salmonella, or Escherichia coli) or parasites (such as Entamoeba histolytica). The infection can be acquired through contaminated food, water, or direct contact with an infected person. Symptoms may also include abdominal cramps, fever, and dehydration. Immediate medical attention is required for proper diagnosis and treatment to prevent potential complications.

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

Celiac disease is a genetic autoimmune disorder in which the consumption of gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley, and rye, leads to damage in the small intestine. In people with celiac disease, their immune system reacts to gluten by attacking the lining of the small intestine, leading to inflammation and destruction of the villi - finger-like projections that help absorb nutrients from food.

This damage can result in various symptoms such as diarrhea, bloating, fatigue, anemia, and malnutrition. Over time, if left untreated, celiac disease can lead to serious health complications, including osteoporosis, infertility, neurological disorders, and even certain types of cancer.

The only treatment for celiac disease is a strict gluten-free diet, which involves avoiding all foods, beverages, and products that contain gluten. With proper management, individuals with celiac disease can lead healthy lives and prevent further intestinal damage and related health complications.

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) are a group of chronic inflammatory conditions primarily affecting the gastrointestinal tract. The two main types of IBD are Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.

Crohn's disease can cause inflammation in any part of the digestive system, from the mouth to the anus, but it most commonly affects the lower part of the small intestine (the ileum) and/or the colon. The inflammation caused by Crohn's disease often spreads deep into the layers of affected bowel tissue.

Ulcerative colitis, on the other hand, is limited to the colon, specifically the innermost lining of the colon. It causes long-lasting inflammation and sores (ulcers) in the lining of the large intestine (colon) and rectum.

Symptoms can vary depending on the severity and location of inflammation but often include abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, weight loss, and reduced appetite. IBD is not the same as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), which is a functional gastrointestinal disorder.

The exact cause of IBD remains unknown, but it's thought to be a combination of genetic factors, an abnormal immune response, and environmental triggers. There is no cure for IBD, but treatments can help manage symptoms and reduce inflammation, potentially leading to long-term remission.

Intestinal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the tissues of the intestines, which can be benign or malignant. These growths are called neoplasms and they result from uncontrolled cell division. In the case of intestinal neoplasms, these growths occur in the small intestine, large intestine (colon), rectum, or appendix.

Benign intestinal neoplasms are not cancerous and often do not invade surrounding tissues or spread to other parts of the body. However, they can still cause problems if they grow large enough to obstruct the intestines or cause bleeding. Common types of benign intestinal neoplasms include polyps, leiomyomas, and lipomas.

Malignant intestinal neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous and can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body. The most common type of malignant intestinal neoplasm is adenocarcinoma, which arises from the glandular cells lining the inside of the intestines. Other types of malignant intestinal neoplasms include lymphomas, sarcomas, and carcinoid tumors.

Symptoms of intestinal neoplasms can vary depending on their size, location, and type. Common symptoms include abdominal pain, bloating, changes in bowel habits, rectal bleeding, weight loss, and fatigue. If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention promptly.

Caliciviridae is a family of single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses that includes several important pathogens causing gastrointestinal illness in humans and animals. The most well-known human calicivirus is norovirus, which is the leading cause of acute viral gastroenteritis worldwide.

Calicivirus infections typically cause symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, and fever. The infection is usually self-limiting and lasts for a few days, but in some cases, it can lead to dehydration, especially in young children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems.

Norovirus is highly contagious and can spread through close contact with an infected person, consumption of contaminated food or water, or touching contaminated surfaces and then touching the mouth. Prevention measures include frequent handwashing, proper food handling and preparation, and cleaning and disinfection of contaminated surfaces.

There is no specific treatment for calicivirus infections, and antibiotics are not effective against viral infections. Treatment is generally supportive and includes hydration to replace lost fluids and electrolytes. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary for intravenous fluid replacement and monitoring.

Gastrointestinal diseases refer to a group of conditions that affect the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which includes the organs from the mouth to the anus, responsible for food digestion, absorption, and elimination of waste. These diseases can affect any part of the GI tract, causing various symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, constipation, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss.

Common gastrointestinal diseases include:

1. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) - a condition where stomach acid flows back into the esophagus, causing heartburn and other symptoms.
2. Peptic ulcers - sores that develop in the lining of the stomach or duodenum, often caused by bacterial infection or long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
3. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) - a group of chronic inflammatory conditions of the intestine, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
4. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) - a functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and altered bowel habits.
5. Celiac disease - an autoimmune disorder where the ingestion of gluten leads to damage in the small intestine.
6. Diverticular disease - a condition that affects the colon, causing diverticula (small pouches) to form and potentially become inflamed or infected.
7. Constipation - a common gastrointestinal symptom characterized by infrequent bowel movements, hard stools, and difficulty passing stools.
8. Diarrhea - a common gastrointestinal symptom characterized by loose, watery stools and frequent bowel movements.
9. Food intolerances and allergies - adverse reactions to specific foods or food components that can cause various gastrointestinal symptoms.
10. Gastrointestinal infections - caused by bacteria, viruses, parasites, or fungi that can lead to a range of symptoms, including diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.

Gastroenteritis is not a medical condition itself, but rather a symptom-based description of inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract, primarily involving the stomach and intestines. It's often referred to as "stomach flu," although it's not caused by influenza virus.

Medically, gastroenteritis is defined as an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the stomach and intestines, usually resulting in symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration. This condition can be caused by various factors, including viral (like rotavirus or norovirus), bacterial (such as Salmonella, Shigella, or Escherichia coli), or parasitic infections, food poisoning, allergies, or the use of certain medications.

Gastroenteritis is generally self-limiting and resolves within a few days with proper hydration and rest. However, severe cases may require medical attention to prevent complications like dehydration, which can be particularly dangerous for young children, older adults, and individuals with weakened immune systems.

Diarrhea is a condition in which an individual experiences loose, watery stools frequently, often exceeding three times a day. It can be acute, lasting for several days, or chronic, persisting for weeks or even months. Diarrhea can result from various factors, including viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections, food intolerances, medications, and underlying medical conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome. Dehydration is a potential complication of diarrhea, particularly in severe cases or in vulnerable populations like young children and the elderly.

Norovirus is a highly contagious virus that causes gastroenteritis, an inflammation of the stomach and intestines. It is often referred to as the "stomach flu" or "winter vomiting bug." Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. It can spread easily through contaminated food or water, contact with an infected person, or touching contaminated surfaces. Norovirus outbreaks are common in closed settings such as hospitals, nursing homes, schools, and cruise ships. The virus is hardy and can survive for weeks on surfaces, making it difficult to eliminate. It is also resistant to many disinfectants. There is no specific treatment for norovirus infection other than managing symptoms and staying hydrated. Vaccines are under development but not yet available.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "England" is not a medical term or concept. It is one of the four constituent countries that make up the United Kingdom, along with Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. England is located in the southern part of Great Britain, which is the largest island of the British Isles.

If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you!

'Campylobacter' is a genus of gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the intestinal tracts of animals, including birds and mammals. These bacteria are a leading cause of bacterial foodborne illness worldwide, with Campylobacter jejuni being the most frequently identified species associated with human infection.

Campylobacter infection, also known as campylobacteriosis, typically causes symptoms such as diarrhea (often bloody), abdominal cramps, fever, and vomiting. The infection is usually acquired through the consumption of contaminated food or water, particularly undercooked poultry, raw milk, and contaminated produce. It can also be transmitted through contact with infected animals or their feces.

While most cases of campylobacteriosis are self-limiting and resolve within a week without specific treatment, severe or prolonged infections may require antibiotic therapy. In rare cases, Campylobacter infection can lead to serious complications such as bacteremia (bacterial bloodstream infection), meningitis, or Guillain-Barré syndrome, a neurological disorder that can cause muscle weakness and paralysis.

Preventive measures include proper food handling and cooking techniques, thorough handwashing, and avoiding cross-contamination between raw and cooked foods.

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a serious gastrointestinal condition that primarily affects premature infants. It is characterized by the inflammation and death of intestinal tissue, which can lead to perforations (holes) in the bowel wall. Here's a brief medical definition:

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEK-roh-tiz-ing en-ter-koh-li-TIE-tis): A gastrointestinal emergency in which the inner lining of the intestinal wall undergoes necrosis (tissue death) due to inflammation, often affecting premature infants. The condition may result in bowel perforations, sepsis, and other systemic complications, requiring surgical intervention and intensive care management.

The exact cause of NEC is not fully understood, but it's thought to be associated with factors such as prematurity, formula feeding, intestinal immaturity or injury, and disturbed blood flow in the intestines. Symptoms may include abdominal distention, bloody stools, feeding intolerance, lethargy, and temperature instability. Early recognition and prompt treatment are crucial for improving outcomes in affected infants.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Wales" is not a medical term. It is a country that is part of the United Kingdom, located in Western Europe. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help answer those!

'Clostridium difficile' (also known as 'C. difficile' or 'C. diff') is a type of Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium that can be found in the environment, including in soil, water, and human and animal feces. It is a common cause of healthcare-associated infections, particularly in individuals who have recently received antibiotics or have other underlying health conditions that weaken their immune system.

C. difficile produces toxins that can cause a range of symptoms, from mild diarrhea to severe colitis (inflammation of the colon) and potentially life-threatening complications such as sepsis and toxic megacolon. The most common toxins produced by C. difficile are called TcdA and TcdB, which damage the lining of the intestine and cause inflammation.

C. difficile infections (CDIs) can be difficult to treat, particularly in severe cases or in patients who have recurrent infections. Treatment typically involves discontinuing any unnecessary antibiotics, if possible, and administering specific antibiotics that are effective against C. difficile, such as metronidazole, vancomycin, or fidaxomicin. In some cases, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) may be recommended as a last resort for patients with recurrent or severe CDIs who have not responded to other treatments.

Preventing the spread of C. difficile is critical in healthcare settings, and includes measures such as hand hygiene, contact precautions, environmental cleaning, and antibiotic stewardship programs that promote the appropriate use of antibiotics.

The ileum is the third and final segment of the small intestine, located between the jejunum and the cecum (the beginning of the large intestine). It plays a crucial role in nutrient absorption, particularly for vitamin B12 and bile salts. The ileum is characterized by its thin, lined walls and the presence of Peyer's patches, which are part of the immune system and help surveil for pathogens.

Ulcerative colitis is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that affects the lining of the large intestine (colon) and rectum. In ulcerative colitis, the lining of the colon becomes inflamed and develops ulcers or open sores that produce pus and mucous. The symptoms of ulcerative colitis include diarrhea, abdominal pain, and rectal bleeding.

The exact cause of ulcerative colitis is not known, but it is thought to be related to an abnormal immune response in which the body's immune system attacks the cells in the digestive tract. The inflammation can be triggered by environmental factors such as diet, stress, and infections.

Ulcerative colitis is a chronic condition that can cause symptoms ranging from mild to severe. It can also lead to complications such as anemia, malnutrition, and colon cancer. There is no cure for ulcerative colitis, but treatment options such as medications, lifestyle changes, and surgery can help manage the symptoms and prevent complications.

'Campylobacter jejuni' is a gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacterium that is a common cause of foodborne illness worldwide. It is often found in the intestines of warm-blooded animals, including birds and mammals, and can be transmitted to humans through contaminated food or water.

The bacteria are capable of causing an infection known as campylobacteriosis, which is characterized by symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, and vomiting. In severe cases, the infection can spread to the bloodstream and cause serious complications, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

'Campylobacter jejuni' is one of the most common causes of foodborne illness in the United States, with an estimated 1.3 million cases occurring each year. It is often found in undercooked poultry and raw or unpasteurized milk products, as well as in contaminated water supplies. Proper cooking and pasteurization can help reduce the risk of infection, as can good hygiene practices such as washing hands thoroughly after handling raw meat and vegetables.

Intestinal absorption refers to the process by which the small intestine absorbs water, nutrients, and electrolytes from food into the bloodstream. This is a critical part of the digestive process, allowing the body to utilize the nutrients it needs and eliminate waste products. The inner wall of the small intestine contains tiny finger-like projections called villi, which increase the surface area for absorption. Nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream through the walls of the capillaries in these villi, and then transported to other parts of the body for use or storage.

The jejunum is the middle section of the small intestine, located between the duodenum and the ileum. It is responsible for the majority of nutrient absorption that occurs in the small intestine, particularly carbohydrates, proteins, and some fats. The jejunum is characterized by its smooth muscle structure, which allows it to contract and mix food with digestive enzymes and absorb nutrients through its extensive network of finger-like projections called villi.

The jejunum is also lined with microvilli, which further increase the surface area available for absorption. Additionally, the jejunum contains numerous lymphatic vessels called lacteals, which help to absorb fats and fat-soluble vitamins into the bloodstream. Overall, the jejunum plays a critical role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients from food.

Colitis is a medical term that refers to inflammation of the inner lining of the colon or large intestine. The condition can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and urgency to have a bowel movement. Colitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, inflammatory bowel disease (such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis), microscopic colitis, ischemic colitis, and radiation therapy. The specific symptoms and treatment options for colitis may vary depending on the underlying cause.

Probiotics are defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host." They are often referred to as "good" or "friendly" bacteria because they help keep your gut healthy. Probiotics are naturally found in certain foods such as fermented foods like yogurt, sauerkraut, and some cheeses, or they can be taken as dietary supplements.

The most common groups of probiotics are lactic acid bacteria (like Lactobacillus) and bifidobacteria. They can help restore the balance of bacteria in your gut when it's been disrupted by things like illness, medication (such as antibiotics), or poor diet. Probiotics have been studied for their potential benefits in a variety of health conditions, including digestive issues, skin conditions, and even mental health disorders, although more research is needed to fully understand their effects and optimal uses.

The colon, also known as the large intestine, is a part of the digestive system in humans and other vertebrates. It is an organ that eliminates waste from the body and is located between the small intestine and the rectum. The main function of the colon is to absorb water and electrolytes from digested food, forming and storing feces until they are eliminated through the anus.

The colon is divided into several regions, including the cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, and anus. The walls of the colon contain a layer of muscle that helps to move waste material through the organ by a process called peristalsis.

The inner surface of the colon is lined with mucous membrane, which secretes mucus to lubricate the passage of feces. The colon also contains a large population of bacteria, known as the gut microbiota, which play an important role in digestion and immunity.

A biopsy is a medical procedure in which a small sample of tissue is taken from the body to be examined under a microscope for the presence of disease. This can help doctors diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as cancer, infections, or autoimmune disorders. The type of biopsy performed will depend on the location and nature of the suspected condition. Some common types of biopsies include:

1. Incisional biopsy: In this procedure, a surgeon removes a piece of tissue from an abnormal area using a scalpel or other surgical instrument. This type of biopsy is often used when the lesion is too large to be removed entirely during the initial biopsy.

2. Excisional biopsy: An excisional biopsy involves removing the entire abnormal area, along with a margin of healthy tissue surrounding it. This technique is typically employed for smaller lesions or when cancer is suspected.

3. Needle biopsy: A needle biopsy uses a thin, hollow needle to extract cells or fluid from the body. There are two main types of needle biopsies: fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy. FNA extracts loose cells, while a core needle biopsy removes a small piece of tissue.

4. Punch biopsy: In a punch biopsy, a round, sharp tool is used to remove a small cylindrical sample of skin tissue. This type of biopsy is often used for evaluating rashes or other skin abnormalities.

5. Shave biopsy: During a shave biopsy, a thin slice of tissue is removed from the surface of the skin using a sharp razor-like instrument. This technique is typically used for superficial lesions or growths on the skin.

After the biopsy sample has been collected, it is sent to a laboratory where a pathologist will examine the tissue under a microscope and provide a diagnosis based on their findings. The results of the biopsy can help guide further treatment decisions and determine the best course of action for managing the patient's condition.

In epidemiology, the incidence of a disease is defined as the number of new cases of that disease within a specific population over a certain period of time. It is typically expressed as a rate, with the number of new cases in the numerator and the size of the population at risk in the denominator. Incidence provides information about the risk of developing a disease during a given time period and can be used to compare disease rates between different populations or to monitor trends in disease occurrence over time.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Parasitic diseases are infections or illnesses caused by parasites, which are organisms that live and feed on host organisms, often causing harm. Parasites can be protozoans (single-celled organisms), helminths (worms), or ectoparasites (ticks, mites, fleas). These diseases can affect various body systems and cause a range of symptoms, depending on the type of parasite and the location of infection. They are typically spread through contaminated food or water, insect vectors, or direct contact with an infected host or contaminated environment. Examples of parasitic diseases include malaria, giardiasis, toxoplasmosis, ascariasis, and leishmaniasis.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Protozoan infections are diseases caused by microscopic, single-celled organisms known as protozoa. These parasites can enter the human body through contaminated food, water, or contact with an infected person or animal. Once inside the body, they can multiply and cause a range of symptoms depending on the type of protozoan and where it infects in the body. Some common protozoan infections include malaria, giardiasis, amoebiasis, and toxoplasmosis. Symptoms can vary widely but may include diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, fatigue, and skin rashes. Treatment typically involves the use of antiprotozoal medications to kill the parasites and alleviate symptoms.

Helminths are a type of parasitic worm that can infect humans and animals. They are multi-cellular organisms that belong to the phyla Platyhelminthes (flatworms) or Nematoda (roundworms). Helminths can be further classified into three main groups: nematodes (roundworms), cestodes (tapeworms), and trematodes (flukes).

Helminth infections are typically acquired through contact with contaminated soil, food, or water. The symptoms of helminth infections can vary widely depending on the type of worm and the location and extent of the infection. Some common symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, anemia, and malnutrition.

Helminths have complex life cycles that often involve multiple hosts. They can be difficult to diagnose and treat, and in some cases, may require long-term treatment with anti-parasitic drugs. Preventive measures such as good hygiene practices, proper sanitation, and access to clean water can help reduce the risk of helminth infections.

Helminthiasis is a medical condition characterized by the infection and infestation of body tissues and organs by helminths, which are parasitic worms. These worms can be classified into three main groups: nematodes (roundworms), cestodes (tapeworms), and trematodes (flukes).

Helminthiasis infections can occur through various modes of transmission, such as ingestion of contaminated food or water, skin contact with contaminated soil, or direct contact with an infected person or animal. The severity of the infection depends on several factors, including the type and number of worms involved, the duration of the infestation, and the overall health status of the host.

Common symptoms of helminthiasis include abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, anemia, and nutritional deficiencies. In severe cases, the infection can lead to organ damage or failure, impaired growth and development in children, and even death.

Diagnosis of helminthiasis typically involves microscopic examination of stool samples to identify the presence and type of worms. Treatment usually consists of administering anthelmintic drugs that are effective against specific types of worms. Preventive measures include improving sanitation and hygiene, avoiding contact with contaminated soil or water, and practicing safe food handling and preparation.

A parasite is an organism that lives on or in a host organism and gets its sustenance at the expense of the host. Parasites are typically much smaller than their hosts, and they may be classified as either ectoparasites (which live on the outside of the host's body) or endoparasites (which live inside the host's body).

Parasites can cause a range of health problems in humans, depending on the type of parasite and the extent of the infection. Some parasites may cause only mild symptoms or none at all, while others can lead to serious illness or even death. Common symptoms of parasitic infections include diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss, and fatigue.

There are many different types of parasites that can infect humans, including protozoa (single-celled organisms), helminths (worms), and ectoparasites (such as lice and ticks). Parasitic infections are more common in developing countries with poor sanitation and hygiene, but they can also occur in industrialized nations.

Preventing parasitic infections typically involves practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly, cooking food thoroughly, and avoiding contaminated water. Treatment for parasitic infections usually involves medication to kill the parasites and relieve symptoms.

Helminthiasis, in general, refers to the infection or infestation of humans and animals by helminths, which are parasitic worms. When referring to "Animal Helminthiasis," it specifically pertains to the condition where animals, including domestic pets and livestock, are infected by various helminth species. These parasitic worms can reside in different organs of the animal's body, leading to a wide range of clinical signs depending on the worm species and the location of the infestation.

Animal Helminthiasis can be caused by different types of helminths:

1. Nematodes (roundworms): These include species like Ascaris suum in pigs, Toxocara cati and Toxascaris leonina in cats, and Toxocara canis in dogs. They can cause gastrointestinal issues such as diarrhea, vomiting, and weight loss.
2. Cestodes (tapeworms): Examples include Taenia saginata in cattle, Echinococcus granulosus in sheep and goats, and Dipylidium caninum in dogs and cats. Tapeworm infestations may lead to gastrointestinal symptoms like diarrhea or constipation and may also cause vitamin deficiencies due to the worm's ability to absorb nutrients from the host animal's digestive system.
3. Trematodes (flukes): These include liver flukes such as Fasciola hepatica in sheep, goats, and cattle, and schistosomes that can affect various animals, including birds and mammals. Liver fluke infestations may cause liver damage, leading to symptoms like weight loss, decreased appetite, and jaundice. Schistosome infestations can lead to issues in multiple organs depending on the species involved.

Preventing and controlling Helminthiasis in animals is crucial for maintaining animal health and welfare, as well as ensuring food safety for humans who consume products from these animals. Regular deworming programs, good hygiene practices, proper pasture management, and monitoring for clinical signs are essential components of a comprehensive parasite control strategy.

"Intestinal Protozoal Diseases: eMedicine Pediatrics: General Medicine". Retrieved 2010-04-25. "Parasitic Diseases". Retrieved ... and parasitic arthropods. Parasitic diseases are thus considered those diseases that are caused by pathogens belonging ... A parasitic disease, also known as parasitosis, is an infectious disease caused by parasites.[citation needed] Parasites are ... Occasionally the definition of "parasitic disease" is restricted to diseases due to endoparasites. Mammals can get parasites ...
... is a parasitic disease of the intestinal tract of animals caused by coccidian protozoa. The disease spreads from ... Sarcocystis may cause disease in dogs and cats. Genus Toxoplasma has one important species, T. gondii. Cats are the definitive ... Untreated, the disease can be fatal. Treatment is routine and effective. Diagnosis is made by low-powered microscopic ... Disease in dogs includes paralysis, tremors, and seizures. Dogs and cats are usually treated with clindamycin. Genus Neospora ...
... is one of several species that cause cryptosporidiosis, a parasitic disease of the mammalian intestinal ... "Surveillance for Waterborne-Disease Outbreaks --United States, 1993-1994". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ... Extra-intestinal sites include the lung, liver, and gall bladder, where it causes respiratory cryptosporidiosis, hepatitis, and ... Invasion of the apical tip of ileal enterocytes by sporozoites and merozoites causes pathology seen in the disease.[citation ...
"WHO Model Prescribing Information: Drugs Used in Parasitic Diseases - Second Edition: Helminths: Cestode (tapeworm) infection ... Specifically, lack of access to facilities for safe disposal of human waste can result in intestinal parasites and disease. ... An intestinal parasite infection is a condition in which a parasite infects the gastro-intestinal tract of humans and other ... "Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and risk factors among schoolchildren at the University of Gondar Community ...
... is a parasitic disease of livestock animals, more commonly of cattle and sheep, and humans caused by immature ... The zoonotic infection in human is caused by G. discoides and W. watsoni which are essentially intestinal flukes. The disease ... An Emerging Parasitic Disease in Europe". Trends in Parasitology. 33 (11): 836-844. doi:10.1016/ ISSN 1471- ... a plant-borne zoonotic disease caused by the intestinal amphistome fluke Gastrodiscoides hominis (Trematoda: Gastrodiscidae)". ...
Chinese immigrants were inspected for parasitic diseases, and the tests for intestinal parasites required a stool specimen. ... At this time, the plague was difficult to diagnose due to other diseases which could mask the presence of plague. The culture ... Craddock, Susan (2004). City of Plagues: Disease, Poverty and Deviance in San Francisco. St. Paul: University of Minnesota ... the San Francisco Health Board quickly quarantined the local area to neutralize possible disease-causing agents. Persons ...
Infectious diseases and parasitic diseases are the most common causes of death in young children. Adolescent death is often a ... Acute diarrheal disease, intestinal infectious diseases, perinatal infections, malnutrition and acute respiratory infections ... The disease causes a fifth of all infant deaths and has orphaned 200,000 children. The Human Rights Measurement Initiative ... AIDS, intestinal infections and complications during pregnancy are responsible for most maternal deaths. Among the numerous ...
... is a disease caused by nematodes in the genus Capillaria. The two principal forms of the disease are: Intestinal ... Human Parasitic Diseases Sourcebook. Jones and Bartlett Publishers: Sudbury, Massachusetts, 2006. v t e (Articles with short ...
Coccidiosis is a parasitic disease of the intestinal tract. This disease is treated by placing anticoccidials in the chickens' ... "Oral Pharmacological Treatments for Parasitic Diseases of Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus Mykiss. I: Hexamita Salmonas". Diseases of ... Protozoan infections are parasitic diseases caused by organisms formerly classified in the kingdom Protozoa. They are usually ... Acute Chagas disease can be treated using benznidazole or nifurtimox. Chronic chagas disease is asymptomatic and causes heart ...
A number of intestinal nematodes cause diseases affecting human beings, including ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm ... Most species are free-living, feeding on microorganisms, but there are many that are parasitic. The parasitic worms (helminths ... The many parasitic forms include pathogens in most plants and animals. A third of the genera occur as parasites of vertebrates ... Plant-parasitic nematodes include several groups causing severe crop losses, taking 10% of crops worldwide every year. The most ...
Malaria, a disease still rampant in Africa also increases the risk of contracting HIV. These parasitic diseases, affect the ... Intestinal parasites are extremely prevalent in tropical areas. These include helminths like hookworms, roundworms, and flukes ... Gum disease has been linked to diseases such as cardiovascular disease. Diseases of poverty reflect the dynamic relationship ... These diseases produced in part by poverty are in contrast to diseases of affluence, which are diseases thought to be a result ...
... a protozoan that can cause-intestinal illness with diarrhea in humans Cryptosporidiosis, a parasitic intestinal disease in ... also called cryptococcal disease), a disease caused by Cryptococcus Cryptosporidium, ... a genus of fungus that can cause lung disease, meningitis, and other illnesses in humans and animals Cryptococcosis ( ...
Intestinal infectious diseases, Tropical diseases, Parasitic protostomes, Sanitation). ... Parasitic Roundworm Diseases World Health Organisation (WHO) topic page on Intestinal worms (CS1 maint: multiple names: authors ... Many are intestinal worms that are soil-transmitted and infect the gastrointestinal tract. Other parasitic worms such as ... Parasitic worms have been used as a medical treatment for various diseases, particularly those involving an overactive immune ...
Egusa S, Nakajima K (1981) A new Myxozoa Thelohanellus kitauei, the cause of intestinal giant cystic disease of carp. Fish ... Parasitic animal stubs). ...
Sweet RL, Gibbs RS (2009). "Parasitic Disease in Pregnancy". Infectious Diseases of the Female Genital Tract. Lippincott ... It is an antimicrobial used to treat intestinal parasitic infections such as cryptosporidiosis and amoebiasis, and other ... Bennett JE, Blaser MJ, Dolin R (2015). Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's principles and practice of infectious diseases (Eighth ... 2012). "Agents Active Against Intestinal and Intra-Abdominal Protozoa: Paromomycin". Kucers' the use of antibiotics a clinical ...
2016), "Early evidence for travel with infectious diseases along the Silk Road: Intestinal parasites from 2000 year-old ... Bower, Bruce (2016), "Parasitic worm eggs found on Silk Road latrine artifacts, Science News 29 July 2016. Newitz, Annalee ( ...
Parasitic worms cause both inflammation and chronic blood loss by binding to a human's small-intestinal mucosa, and through ... Poor absorption of iron from food may occur as a result of an intestinal disorder such as inflammatory bowel disease or celiac ... The leading cause of iron-deficiency anemia worldwide is a parasitic disease known as a helminthiasis caused by infestation ... inflammatory bowel disease, or H. pylori infection; these cases would require treatment of the underlying disease to increase ...
... is a parasitic nematode which causes intestinal capillariasis. This sometimes fatal disease was first ... Parasitic nematodes of vertebrates, Parasites of birds, Parasitic nematodes of humans, Parasitic diseases, Conditions diagnosed ... Clinical Infectious Diseases. 17 (5): 909-12. doi:10.1093/clinids/17.5.909. PMID 8286640. Cross, J H (1992). "Intestinal ... If the fish are fed to uninfested birds, the larvae develop into adults in the intestinal tract of the birds. Larvae recovered ...
"Helminths: Cestode (tapeworm) infection: Albendazole". WHO Model Prescribing Information: Drugs Used in Parasitic Diseases - ... A single dose of albendazole is sufficient to treat intestinal infestations by A. duodenale or Necator americanus. Intestinal ... Drugs Used in Parasitic Diseases - Second Edition. WHO. 1995. Archived from the original on August 31, 2015. Retrieved August ... though ivermectin is much better Intestinal myiasis Though albendazole is effective in treating many diseases, it is only FDA- ...
"Helminths: Intestinal nematode infection: Piperazine". WHO Model Prescribing Information: Drugs Used in Parasitic Diseases - ...
It is an intestinal parasite of the turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and can cause outbreaks of disease in farmed fish. It causes ... Enteromyxum scophthalmi is a species of parasitic myxozoan, a pathogen of fish. ... Myxozoa), an intestinal parasite of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) using morphological and ribosomal RNA sequence data". ... Parasitic cnidarians, Animal parasites of fish, Cnidarians of the Atlantic Ocean, Animals described in 2002). ...
Metagonimiasis is a parasitic infection caused by the intestinal trematode species, Metagonimus yokogawai. The disease affects ... Gastropod-borne parasitic diseases (GPDs) are a group of infectious diseases that require a gastropod species to serve as an ... Haplorchiasis is a parasitic infection caused by the intestinal trematode genus, Haplorchis. Heterophyiasis is a parasitic ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Parasitic diseases, Human diseases and disorders). ...
"Initiative for Vaccine Research (IVR): Parasitic Diseases - Leishmaniasis". World Health Organization. 2013. Archived from the ... Bernstein D. "Intestinal Parasite Infections From Roundworms - Description, Diagnosis, Treatment". Fungus Focus. Archived from ... Lists of diseases List of infectious diseases List of causes of death by rate List of notifiable diseases - diseases that ... "Smallpox Disease and Its Clinical Management" (PDF). From the training course titled "Smallpox: Disease, Prevention, and ...
... disease - a chronic parasitic infection of the colon leading to loss of nerve endings Kawasaki disease - a rare presentation ... Intestinal neuronal dysplasia: a disease of motor neurons leading to the bowels. Bowel obstruction: mechanical or functional ... Symptoms indicative of advanced disease and possible intestinal failure include diarrhea, loss of appetite, sepsis, bloating, ... Akikusa JD, Laxer RM, Friedman JN (May 2004). "Intestinal pseudoobstruction in Kawasaki disease". Pediatrics. 113 (5): e504-6. ...
"Programme on Intestinal Parasitic Infections", the "Schistosomiasis and Intestinal Parasites Unit" and the "Parasitic Diseases ... 1979 and in infectious diseases, 1985) from the University of Rome "La Sapienza". He further pursued his studies in the United ... "Department of Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases". The recipient of several awards and distinctions, Savioli is a senior ... Savioli is a senior United Nations civil servant and the director of the Department of Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases ...
Pawlowski, Zbigniew S. "Intestinal Helminthiases and Human Health: Recent Advances and Future Needs." Parasitic Disease ... "Trends in parasitic diseases in the Republic of Korea." Trends in Parasitology. Vol. 24: 143-150. 2008. "The Medical Letter." ... Metagonimiasis is a disease caused by an intestinal trematode, most commonly Metagonimus yokagawai, but sometimes by M. ... Despommier D.; Gwadz R.; Hotez P.; Knirsch C. Parasitic Diseases. Fifth Edition. New York: Apple Trees Productions. 2006. ...
"Schistosomiasis-Disease". CDC, Division of Parasitic Diseases. Archived from the original on 2 December 2016. Retrieved 17 ... The most common symptoms are anemia, stunted growth, intestinal problems, lack of energy, and compromised physical and ... Contagious disease Fecal-oral transmission Neglected Tropical Disease Research and Development Drugs for Neglected Diseases ... and infectious disease experts over which diseases are classified as neglected tropical diseases. Feasey, a researcher in ...
... crohn disease MeSH C06.405.469.445 - intestinal atresia MeSH C06.405.469.452 - intestinal diseases, parasitic MeSH C06.405. ... immunoproliferative small intestinal disease MeSH C06.405.469.491.523 - jejunal neoplasms MeSH C06.405.469.531 - intestinal ... immunoproliferative small intestinal disease MeSH C06.301.371.411.523 - jejunal neoplasms MeSH C06.301.371.767 - stomach ... immunoproliferative small intestinal disease MeSH C06.405.249.411.523 - jejunal neoplasms MeSH C06.405.249.767 - stomach ...
note that macrophages induced by Treg cells fight not only the parasitic disease, but also resist the immune system's response ... describe their experimental findings that an allergic response against peanuts is inhibited in mice infected with an intestinal ... The tendency of many parasitic worms to pacify the host's immune response allows them to mollify some diseases, while worsening ... Rook points out that this hypothesis would only explain the regulatory effects of parasitic worms on autoimmune diseases caused ...
... cause the disease enterobiasis. Hookworms, intestinal parasites of mammals. Pentastomida, sometimes referred to as tongue worms ... host disease by tapeworm larve Helminthiasis, disease caused by any parasitic worm Nematomorpha, the horsehair worms are ... Liver fluke Blood fluke Lung fluke Intestinal fluke Tapeworm infection Deworming Effects of parasitic worms on the immune ... Parasitic worm, also known as helminth, is large macroparasite. Parasitic worm may also refer to: Acanthocephala, or the spiny- ...
MAXIMUM 150 WORDS: Remember: front load your paragraphs! This content should include a strong opening sentence describing the health topic in the Eastern Mediterranean (include key words "Eastern Mediterranean" and health topic name for search engine optimization). You should focus on the issue as it relates to the Region and the magnitude of problem in the region, as well as a brief mention of current situation/problem.. ...
Assessment of the quality of laboratory diagnosis of intestinal parasitic diseases by the laboratories participating in the ... The findings suggest that the quality of microscopic detection of the causative agents of parasitic diseases is low in the ... In 2010-2013, the quality of microscopic detection of the causative agents ofparasitic diseases in the feces has been assessed ...
High intestinal parasitic diseases among Fulani pastoralists in rivers state, South-South Nigeria. Author: Eze, Chinwe N. and ... Eleven parasitic intestinal diseases of which hookworm had the highest prevalence 450 (75.9%) was observed. Hookworm was highly ... The study has documented a very high prevalence of intestinal diseases among the Fulani pastoralists examined. There is a great ... otherwise they will remain a permanent source of health hazard for all intestinal diseases. ...
"Intestinal Protozoal Diseases: eMedicine Pediatrics: General Medicine". Retrieved 2010-04-25. "Parasitic Diseases". Retrieved ... and parasitic arthropods. Parasitic diseases are thus considered those diseases that are caused by pathogens belonging ... A parasitic disease, also known as parasitosis, is an infectious disease caused by parasites.[citation needed] Parasites are ... Occasionally the definition of "parasitic disease" is restricted to diseases due to endoparasites. Mammals can get parasites ...
Content source: Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria homeDPDx Home ... Intestinal hookworm disease in humans is caused by Ancylostoma duodenale, A. ceylanicum, and Necator americanus. Classically, A ... Intestinal hookworm infections are commonly asymptomatic. Attachment of the hookworms to the intestinal wall may stimulate ... Tropical Infectious Diseases. New York: Saunders Elsevier; 2011, pp. 799-804.. Brooker, S., Bethony, J. and Hotez, P.J., 2004. ...
Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic / parasitology * Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic / veterinary* * Intestine, Large / parasitology ...
Author summary Parasitic helminths (worms) are important infections of humans in many less well developed countries, ... Parasitic diseases Is the Subject Area "Parasitic diseases" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ... PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases is the top Open Access tropical medicine journal, featuring an International Editorial Board ...
... parasitic diseases are defined as those caused by protozoa or helminths. The old classification, in which a single phylum of ... encoded search term (Intestinal Protozoal Diseases) and Intestinal Protozoal Diseases What to Read Next on Medscape ... Intestinal Protozoal Diseases. Updated: Sep 21, 2022 * Author: Enrique Chacon-Cruz, MD, MSc; Chief Editor: Russell W Steele, MD ... Parasitic protozoan disease occurs throughout the world.. * Amebiasis: An estimated 10% of the worlds population is infected ...
Fish-borne parasitic zoonoses: status and issues. Int J Parasitol. 2005;35:1233-54. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Fishborne Zoonotic Intestinal Trematodes, Vietnam. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(12):1828-1833. doi:10.3201/ ... Intestinal fluke species identified (mean body length × width measurements in µm) were Haplorchis pumilio (632 × 291), H. ... Intestinal trematode infections in Thailand. In: Arizono N, Chai JY, Nawa Y, Takahashi Y, editors. Asian parasitology, vol. 1, ...
Parasitic diseases; Intestinal tissue; Immune system; Stomach disorders; Animal products; Public health; Cattle; Animal ... Disease incidence; Disease prevention; Disease transmission; Infectious diseases; Infection control; Infection prevention; ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People ...
Parasitic Intestinal Diseases ISO. IL5 (Homo sapiens). 9068941. RGD. PMID:15534922 and REF_RGD_ID:11354941. ... Diseases Aging & Age-Related Disease Cancer & Neoplastic Disease Cardiovascular Disease COVID-19 Developmental Disease Diabetes ... Infectious Disease Liver Disease Neurological Disease Obesity & Metabolic Syndrome Renal Disease Respiratory Disease Sensory ... genetic disease ISO. IL5 (Homo sapiens). 8554872. ClinVar Annotator: match by term: Inborn genetic diseases. ClinVar. ...
Categories: Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People ...
Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic. *Opisthorchiasis. *Schistosomiasis. *Trichuriasis. How long have you been taking it?. Choose ...
Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic. *Opisthorchiasis. *Schistosomiasis. *Trichuriasis. How long have you been taking it?. Choose ...
... intestinal, adrenal, or thyroid disease. Also tell your doctor if you have any type of untreated bacterial, fungal, parasitic, ... Deflazacort is used to treat Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD; a progressive disease in which the muscles do not function ... an eye disease); high blood pressure; heart failure; a recent heart attack; diabetes; emotional problems, depression, or other ...
However, it is the most common intestinal parasitic disease in the United States, with an excess of 19,000 infections reported ... Cortese MM, Haber P. Epidemiology and prevention of vaccine-preventable diseases: rotavirus. Centers for Disease Control and ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported that enteritis deaths more than doubled in the United States, an ... Lancet Infectious Diseases Editors. The inexorable progress of norovirus. Lancet Infect Dis. 2013 Feb. 13(2):97. [QxMD MEDLINE ...
... for improved intestinal parasitic disease control, cost-effective, simple, sensitive, and consistent diagnosis tests are ... the diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infection may not be appropriate and may result in misdiagnosis of intestinal parasitic ... K. Parameshwarappa, C. Chandrakanth, and B. Sunil, "The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infestations and the evaluation of ... and disease burden," PLoS neglected tropical diseases, vol. 3, no. 8, article e412, 2009. ...
Strongyloidiasis is a soil-transmitted, intestinal parasitic neglected disease caused by the nematode genus Strongyloides. We ... Reactivation of the disease was defined both by clinical symptoms appearance and/or direct larvae detection from 30 days after ... intestinal, severe, cutaneous, and asymptomatic), immunological status and eosinophil count were not associated with specific ... 15th International Conference on Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics of Infectious Diseases; 2021 ...
Examples of important parasitic diseases to be covered include malaria, sleeping sickness, elephantiasis, river blindness, ... It includes study of a variety of parasites classified by diseases such as blood and intestinal protozoan parasites, nematodes ... 650,000 study to compare the genetic response in cattle in sub-Saharan Africa to the parasitic disease Trypanosomiasis, or " ... and the application of these concepts to infectious diseases, vaccine design, autoimmune diseases, cancer, transplantation, ...
Chronic diarrhea, which is reoccurring and lasts for long periods of time may be caused by an intestinal disease or a ... ulcerative colitis or celiac disease. Acute diarrhea is typically caused by a viral, bacterial or parasitic infection. It is ... National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse: Diarrhea * American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology: Tips to ... This includes conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome, Crohns disease, ...
However, the correlation between malaria intestinal pathology and intestinal microbiota has not been investigated. In the ... By contrast, BALB/c mice are resistant to ECM and exhibit milder intestinal pathology and dysbiosis. These results indicate ... This is the first report demonstrating that malaria affects intestinal microbiota and causes dysbiosis. ... such as detachment of epithelia in the small intestines and increased intestinal permeability, which correlated with ...
Raccoons also have an intestinal parasitic worm that will cause severe disease if it infects humans. Do not ever handle a ... Heartworm is a parasitic disease of dogs and cats that causes heart failure. The mature worms live in the chambers of the heart ... 7. What is Lyme disease and what do I do about it?. Lyme disease is transmitted by ticks and causes inflamed joints, fever and ... The disease is transmitted by mosquitoes. There is a blood test that your veterinarian can do to see if your pet has heartworm ...
Raccoons also have an intestinal parasitic worm that will cause severe disease if it infects humans. Do not ever handle a ... Heartworm is a parasitic disease of dogs and cats that causes heart failure. The mature worms live in the chambers of the heart ... 7. What is Lyme disease and what do I do about it?. Lyme disease is transmitted by ticks and causes inflamed joints, fever and ... The disease is transmitted by mosquitoes. There is a blood test that your veterinarian can do to see if your pet has heartworm ...
... a parasitic disease that attacks the intestinal tract.. Wild cats were likely first drawn to human communities in search of ... Two-legged house-mates should also take note because cats -- a.k.a. Felis catus -- can transmit some of those diseases to ... The effects were consistent for almost all of the diseases, including feline roundworm and the single-cell parasite that causes ... Other domesticated animals transmit disease to their caretakers -- dogs, for examples, spread rabies, and cattle carry ...
The maximum ICF value was reported for gastro-intestinal and parasitic disorders. Gastro-intestinal diseases were widespread in ... 31The local inhabitants of the area used plants for curing a wide variety of diseases. The diseases were broadly classified ... eye and ear diseases - maladies des yeux et des oreilles; D: diabetes - diabètes; RTD: respiratory diseases - maladies ... skin diseases - maladies de la peau; CSD: circulatory system diseases - maladies du système circulatoire; URSD: urinary and ...
Amebiasis is a parasitic infection caused by the protozoal organism E histolytica, which can give rise both to intestinal ... Gross pathology of intestinal ulcers due to amebiasis. Image courtesy of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ... Rapid Diagnosis of Intestinal Parasitic Protozoa, with a Focus on Entamoeba histolytica. Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis. 2009 ... 28] Amebiasis is the second leading cause of death due to parasitic diseases, killing about 40,000-100,000 people per year ...
Intestinal schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease in tropical and sub-tropical regions. The present work investigated the ... Abstract: Intestinal schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease in tropical and sub-tropical regions. The present work investigated ... Intestinal schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease in tropical and sub-tropical regions. The present work investigated the ...
... after exclusion of extra-intestinal, infectious or parasitic diseases, CEs can be subdivided retrospectively based on the ... Evaluation of disease activity markers in dogs with idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease. J Small Anim Pract. (2007) 48:620-5 ... A scoring index for disease activity in canine inflammatory bowel disease. J Vet Intern Med. (2003) 17:291-7. doi: 10.1111/j. ... Involvement of autotaxin/lysophospholipase d expression in intestinal vessels in aggravation of intestinal damage through ...
  • Furthermore, human intestinal flukes are highly prevalent in neighboring countries such as Thailand ( 14 ), Lao People's Democratic Republic ( 15 ), and the People's Republic of China ( 16 ), which further raises the issue of whether human infections might be present in Vietnam but overlooked because of diagnostic difficulties in differentiating liver and intestinal fluke eggs in fecal examinations ( 11 , 17 ). (
  • Eighteen patients hospitalized with intestinal parasitic infections associated with diarrhea and dehydration completed a study of nitazoxanide in the treatment of Cryptosporidium parvum and other intestinal parasitic infections. (
  • These larvae are capable of re-activating and establishing patent, intestinal infections. (
  • Intestinal hookworm infections are commonly asymptomatic. (
  • Iron deficiency anemia caused by blood loss at the site of intestinal attachment of adult worms may occur especially in heavy infections. (
  • Undernutrition is further aggravated by the presence of intestinal parasitic infections. (
  • Intestinal parasitic infections are major health problems in preschool and school children in many developing countries. (
  • Ethiopia is one of the Sub-Saharan-African countries with high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and undernutrition. (
  • Some ways in which people may acquire parasitic infections are walking barefoot, inadequate disposal of feces, lack of hygiene, close contact with someone carrying specific parasites, and eating undercooked foods, unwashed fruits and vegetables or foods from contaminated regions. (
  • citation needed] Parasitic infections can usually be treated with antiparasitic drugs. (
  • NIAID-funded biologists at the University of California, San Diego, have identified a protein that could potentially be a new treatment for parasitic roundworm infections, including ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm. (
  • If scientists can solve this issue of delivering the treatment to the gut, it will likely become a superior anthelmintic used to treat parasitic infections. (
  • Overview of Intestinal Protozoan and Microsporidia Infections Protozoa is a loose term for certain nucleated, unicellular organisms (eukaryotes) that lack a cell wall and are neither animals, plants, nor fungi. (
  • The good news is that all parasitic infections are easily treatable. (
  • Infections with intestinal parasites continue to pose serious threats to global public health, particularly in underdeveloped nations. (
  • Intestinal parasite infection was not significantly correlated with the parameters, such as weight for age, height for age, and weight for height (P = 0.005).The presence of parasitic infections decreases the body mass index in the study region of Lower Dir. (
  • There were increases in infectious and parasitic diseases (primarily ill defined intestinal infections), disorders of the peripheral nervous system and sense organs, upper respiratory tract infections, and other skin diseases. (
  • Several of these increases correlated with chloracne state and infections disease episodes increased with higher TCDD concentration as well. (
  • In line with WHO analyses of NTDs, intestinal nematode infections, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, and lymphatic filariasis should be prioritised, as well as the burden of disease of cryptosporidiosis, which is largely underestimated. (
  • Treats: external bacterial, oodinum ( coral fish disease ), and fungal infections in marine fish. (
  • Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are neglected diseases with limited data regarding prevalence in Brazil and many other countries. (
  • Doctors can treat bacterial and parasitic infections with targeted medications, such as antibiotics. (
  • Three organisms can cause parasitic infections: protozoa, helminths, and ectoparasites. (
  • There are many ways that parasitic infections can spread. (
  • Also, it's not always easy to distinguish between parasitic and bacterial infections. (
  • But many parasitic infections can be treated and stopped. (
  • Ivermectin (also available under the brand name of Stromectol) is a powerful prescription medicine used to treat parasitic diseases such as gut infections caused by intestinal parasites - strongyloidiasis and onchocerciasis. (
  • A set of nine A-4 colour plates with 118 photomicrographs illustrating the appearance and diagnostic features of all the common intestinal helminths and protozoan parasites known to infect humans. (
  • Although all infectious agents in humans are parasites, by convention, parasitic diseases are defined as those caused by protozoa or helminths. (
  • Medical parasitology is concerned with three major groups of parasites: parasitic protozoa, helminths, and parasitic arthropods. (
  • To date, there is only one drug, albendazole, which is widely used in administering single-dose treatments to large populations as an antihelminthic (a substance to destroy or eliminate parasitic worms, especially intestinal helminths). (
  • Four hundred stool samples were examined for the evidence of eggs of various intestinal helminths under the microscope at the Parasitology Laboratory. (
  • Among all intestinal protozoa, those listed in Table 1 have been confirmed to cause GI disease. (
  • The life cycles of intestinal protozoa are very similar, with the exception of D fragilis, which lacks a cyst stage. (
  • Mechanisms of diarrhea production by intestinal protozoa are related to direct cytotoxic effects, the ability to invade, and/or effects of the immune response on the intestinal epithelium. (
  • No evidence suggests that intestinal protozoa produce enterotoxins. (
  • Malaria, for example, is caused by parasitic protozoa that are spread when mosquitoes feed on people. (
  • Coccidiosis is an enteric disease caused by parasitic protozoa in the Eimeria genus. (
  • This species of mosquito is a vector of arboviruses and filarial worms, which cause disease in humans. (
  • We isolated eggs of four species of parasitic intestinal worms: Chinese liver fluke (Clonorchis sinensis), Taenia sp. (
  • Diseases of the eyes in connection with intestinal worms. (
  • On the influence of intestinal parasites (worms) on the health of man. (
  • A great proportion of the high mortality among the children of the urban poor can be attributed to diseases common in urban areas such as diarrhea, tuberculosis and parasitic diseases (intestinal worms) that are frequently associated with lack of safe water and sanitation. (
  • Agents destructive to parasitic worms. (
  • Strongyloides infection is an infection caused by intestinal worms. (
  • Intestinal worms are one of the main types of intestinal parasites. (
  • These herbs, especially Vidang and Palaash, are very effective in treating diseases caused by worms. (
  • Infestation with parasitic worms of the helminth class. (
  • Early research at University of Iowa showed that exposing mice to parasitic worms helped prevent inflammatory bowel disease. (
  • But human research has stalled in the United States since the Food and Drug Administration classified parasitic worms as a drug in November 2009. (
  • Intestinal parasitic nematode (roundworm) diseases infect well over 1 billion people worldwide and cause significant illness, especially in children and pregnant women. (
  • A parasitic infection caused by the nematode Loa loa. (
  • A species of parasitic nematode widely distributed in tropical and subtropical countries. (
  • Classically, A. duodenale and N. americanus were considered the two primary intestinal hookworm species worldwide, but newer studies show that a parasite infecting animals, A. ceylanicum , is also an important emerging parasite infecting humans in some regions. (
  • Human hookworm infection is caused by intestinal worm parasites transmitted to humans from contaminated soil. (
  • Specific variants of S. scabiei exist for humans and animals, but many have the ability to cross species and cause disease. (
  • Parasitic attack or subsistence on the skin by members of the order Phthiraptera, especially on humans by Pediculus humanus of the family Pediculidae. (
  • Most emerging infectious diseases in humans are zoonoses. (
  • According to a 2008 study conducted by the Center for Disease Control, overall roundworm prevalence in humans is 13.9% in the United States. (
  • Like humans, cats can suffer from many joint related diseases, such as feline arthritis. (
  • The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of undernutrition, intestinal parasitic infection and their associated risk factors among school children in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. (
  • The prevalence of human intestinal protozoal and helminthic infection in Karachi. (
  • Ivermectin is approved "to treat persons with intestinal strongyloidiasis and onchocerciasis," according to the FDA's own website. (
  • The FDA has approved ivermectin pills for the treatment of intestinal strongyloidiasis and onchocerciasis, two parasitic worm-related diseases. (
  • To examine jejunal biopsies from patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), chronic diarrhea, and weight loss, and to correlate the presence of small intestinal injury with pathogens, histopathologic changes, and absorption. (
  • Acute diarrhea may be caused by a bacterial, viral, or parasitic infection. (
  • Chronic diarrhea is usually related to a functional disorder such as irritable bowel syndrome or an intestinal disease such as Crohn's disease. (
  • A number of diseases and conditions can cause diarrhea. (
  • Chronic diarrhea has a number of other causes, such as Crohn's disease , ulcerative colitis , celiac disease, microscopic colitis and irritable bowel syndrome. (
  • For example, lack of sanitation and inadequate disposal or storage of waste near houses can provide habitats for vectors responsible for several infectious diseases such as amebiasis, typhoid fever and diarrhea. (
  • The females and their larvae inhabit the mucosa of the intestinal tract, where they cause ulceration and diarrhea. (
  • Children are especially at risk for chronic diarrhea as a symptom of many diseases and disorders, according to the National Institute of Diabetics and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). (
  • It causes human and animal cryptosporidiosis a disease characterized by severe gastroenteritis and watery diarrhea. (
  • We seek to test the hypothesis that HRG1 is the elusive human intestinal heme transporter and part of an essential heme trafficking network. (
  • Parasitic diseases are thus considered those diseases that are caused by pathogens belonging taxonomically to either the animal kingdom, or the protozoan kingdom. (
  • The most important intestinal protozoan pathogens. (
  • The online journal 'Frontiers in Microbiology - Infectious Diseases' will be publishing a special issue on Blastocystis , Pneumocystis and microsporidia as opportunistic eukaryotes and controversial pathogens. (
  • Intestinal wall injury increases the likelihood of the invasion of pathogens and makes birds more susceptible to diseases like necrotic enteritis . (
  • To support Phylox in high-challenge environments, Calibrin ® -Z, a broad-spectrum biotoxin-control feed additive, can decrease the level of additional enteric pathogens that reduce feed conversion and damage intestinal integrity. (
  • When you have a parasitic disease affecting the intestinal tract, you may find yourself going to the bathroom frequently. (
  • A superfamily of strongyles or roundworms which are parasites in the intestinal tract of equines, pigs, rodents, and primates (including man). (
  • Vinegar of any kind is intended to acidify the intestinal tract and prevent parasitic diseases such as verminosis and coccidiosis. (
  • Assessment of the quality of laboratory diagnosis of intestinal parasitic diseases by the laboratories participating in the Federal System of External Quality Assessment of Clinical Laboratory Testing]. (
  • Regularly clean and refill waterers to prevent bacterial growth and the spread of disease. (
  • Several species of the genus Simulium (family Simuliidae) that act as intermediate hosts (vectors) for the parasitic disease ONCHOCERCIASIS. (
  • Although fishborne zoonotic trematodes that infect the liver are well documented in Vietnam, intestinal fishborne zoonotic trematodes are unreported. (
  • These neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are "forgotten" illnesses that manage to infect more than a billion people, though they can often be prevented with clean water and proper hygiene. (
  • Hookworms are dangerous intestinal parasites that infect dogs. (
  • Two decades or more have passed since the attention of our people was turned prominently to the existence of hookworm disease in the States. (
  • In particular, researchers have begun testing the effects of controlled exposure to hookworm and other intestinal parasites. (
  • It then penetrates the intestinal mucosa where it reproduces and causes severe lesions. (
  • Reproduction of Eimeria occurs within the host and involves acute invasion and destruction of the intestinal mucosa. (
  • A parasitic disease, also known as parasitosis, is an infectious disease caused by parasites. (
  • However, recent Vietnamese surveys for zoonotic parasites in cultured and wild fish in northern and southern Vietnam identified metacercarial stages of several zoonotic intestinal trematode species in fish ( 12 , 13 ). (
  • The incidence of human infection with zoonotic intestinal parasites is significant. (
  • With careful attention to hygiene, nutrition, and disease prevention, you can enjoy the benefits of fresh eggs and the companionship of your feathered friends while keeping them safe and healthy. (
  • It is important that workers with occupational animal exposure be educated about symptoms of enteric diseases and prevention measures, which include using dedicated clothing at work and proper handwashing after touching animals. (
  • If you're familiar with the symptoms and treatments of these diseases, you can be prepared in the event you have to face them. (
  • Parasites can cause many symptoms, some of which look like other infectious diseases . (
  • Two small groups of adults - one whose members had colitis, and the other made up of those with Crohn's disease - experienced reduced symptoms after being treated with whipworm for multiple weeks by University of Iowa researchers. (
  • A genus of parasitic nematodes found throughout the rain-forest areas of the Sudan and the basin of the Congo. (
  • Infection of horses with parasitic nematodes of the superfamily STRONGYLOIDEA. (
  • A genus of parasitic nematodes whose organisms live and breed in skin and subcutaneous tissues. (
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. (
  • Another reason neglected diseases are not considered high priorities for prevention or treatment is because they usually do not affect people who live in the United States and other developed nations. (
  • Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in cooperation with the American Association of Veterinary Parasitologists. (
  • A brief survey of self-prevention behaviors towards intestinal parasite infection of the villagers was performed. (
  • Join us as we uncover the telltale signs, effective treatments, and proactive prevention measures of the most common poultry diseases to ensure the vitality and happiness of your feathered companions. (
  • To calculate the relationship between intestinal helminth infection and body mass index (BMI) status of school children between 5 and 12 years of age in district Lower Dir, Pakistan. (
  • Human spinal cord cell atlas provides foundation to study neurodegeneration, chronic pain, and other diseases. (
  • Chronic lesions with inflamed rims, or “smoldering” plaques, in the brains of people with multiple sclerosis (MS) have been linked to more aggressive and disabling forms of the disease. (
  • The diagnostic codes traditionally used for digestive diseases primarily code for chronic conditions that are neither infectious nor malignant. (
  • Chronic liver disease was marginally increased in the high TCDD subgroup. (
  • Findings relative to occurrence of ulcers, chronic lung disease, and kidney and metabolic disorders were unremarkable. (
  • Research has expanded in surprising ways to consider other big-time chronic diseases linked to excess inflammation, including heart disease, depression, and obesity. (
  • Light and electron microscopic examination detected cryptosporidia or microsporidia in 19 of 27 patients with small intestinal injury. (
  • An examination of changes in the intestinal microbial profile and SIBO test revealed curcumin had no significant effect on these parameters. (
  • Parasitic infestation of the human lymphatic system by WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI or BRUGIA MALAYI. (
  • The Centers for Disease Control show that more than 60 million Americans are infected with parasites, but most don't know it. (
  • For others, they and many other digestive system disorders were grouped under "other digestive diseases," so that a more complete impact of the total burden of digestive diseases could be estimated. (
  • Assessment of intestinal parasites among children taking antiparasitic drugs at Ngoma primary school, Rwanda. (
  • 4. Carabin H, Budke C, Cowan L, Willingham A, Torgerson P: 2005 Methods for assessing the burden of parasitic zoonoses: echinococcosis and cysticercosis. (
  • This unfortunately detracts attention from the many emerging zoonoses that fall under the radar as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). (
  • According to World Health Organization (WHO), more than 1.5 billion peoples are infected with soil-transmitted helminthes and 870 million children are living in areas where parasitic worm infection is endemic[ 3 ]. (
  • By encouraging Wolbachia infection among mosquito populations, Dr. Dobson's team hopes to decrease and eventually reduce the population of A. polynesiensis , lowering the number of infected mosquitoes capable of transmitting the disease-causing worm. (
  • and diseases that affect the stomach, small intestine, or colon. (
  • Another intestinal parasite common in Africa and Latin America. (
  • The diseases are most heavily concentrated in low-income nations in Africa and Latin America. (
  • The majority of patients with sickle-cell anaemia live in the underdeveloped nations where endemic parasitic diseases are prevalent and this may exacerbate the severity of steady-state anaemia in infected patients. (
  • Many of these conditions are infectious diseases that are most prevalent in tropical climates, particularly in areas with unsafe drinking water, poor sanitation, substandard housing and little or no access to health care. (
  • Some inflammatory and autoimmune diseases can also be caused by parasites in the gut. (
  • Today, drug companies are working to create parasites that the FDA would approve for inflammatory bowel disease, according to Joel Weinstock, the Tufts University gastroenterologist who is a leading researcher in the field. (
  • See Common Intestinal Parasites , a Critical Images slideshow, to help make an accurate diagnosis. (
  • NIEHS research uses state-of-the-art science and technology to investigate the interplay between environmental exposures, human biology, genetics, and common diseases to help prevent disease and improve human health. (
  • Digestive diseases were common all-listed diagnoses at hospital discharge in 2004 as well as first-listed diagnosis (Table 1). (
  • Comparable or lower age-adjusted rates of ambulatory care visits among blacks, yet higher rates of hospitalization, were a common finding for a number of digestive diseases. (
  • Giardiasis is the most common intestinal parasitic disease in the US. (
  • One of the most common causes of this is Giardiasis, which is a common parasitic disease affecting many people in the United States. (
  • But many of the most common diseases affecting the world's poor have names you've never heard at an advocacy event. (
  • The most common type of neglected diseases are tropical diseases. (
  • In this article, we will discuss some key strategies to prevent common chicken diseases and ensure a flourishing flock. (
  • Most common cause of this disease is coming in contact with the contaminated soil. (
  • In this article, we'll delve into the realm of common poultry diseases that frequently challenge backyard chicken keepers. (
  • There are a few common poultry diseases that almost every backyard chicken keeper must face. (
  • Routine collection of information on occupation in dedicated fields in infectious disease surveillance systems could improve the use of data to ascertain the extent of occupationally acquired disease and protect workers' health. (
  • Waterborne infectious diseases claim up to 3.2 million lives annually , according to the World Health Organization (WHO), which accounts for 6% of total deaths worldwide. (
  • This study revealed that undernutrition and intestinal parasitic infection were public health problems among school children in the study areas. (
  • For systematic coding, mortality and health care statistics rely on disease classification systems, of which the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the world standard. (
  • Diarrheal diseases can quickly reach epidemic proportions, rapidly overwhelming public health systems in even the most advanced societies. (
  • 11. Hotez PJ: 2009.One world health: neglected tropical diseases in a flat world. (
  • Neglected diseases are conditions that inflict severe health burdens on the world's poorest people and are often overlooked by drug developers or by others instrumental in drug access. (
  • Neglected diseases are conditions that inflict severe health burdens on the world's poorest people. (
  • Diseases are said to be neglected if they are often overlooked by drug developers or by others instrumental in drug access, such as government officials, public health programs and the news media. (
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that more than 1 billion people - one-sixth of the world's population - suffer from one or more neglected diseases. (
  • Salient infectious diseases, such as malaria and HIV (which have high burdens of disease), attract sophisticated public health frameworks and funding from global/regional organisations, such as the WHO. (
  • The role of Blastocystis and other 'apathogenic' gut parasites in health and disease - how to proceed? (
  • In this paper, the author will focus on the parasitic contamination in water and further implication on human health. (
  • Despite industry advances, coccidiosis remains the leading intestinal health disease of broilers. (
  • Poultry Health Today asked experts to share latest insights and recommendations for managing this costly parasitic disease. (
  • Phylox is a synergistic blend of bioactive phytochemicals with multiple modes of action that work to disrupt the Eimeria life cycle as well as improve intestinal health. (
  • Cervical malignancy is a disease of public health importance. (
  • This deterioration can lead to various health problems, including disease. (
  • Methylprednisolone injection is used in the management of multiple sclerosis (a disease in which the nerves do not function properly), lupus (a disease in which the body attacks many of its own organs), gastrointestinal disease, and certain types of arthritis. (
  • Outcome measures included the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS), intestinal microbial profile (16S rRNA), Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale - 21 (DASS-21), Short Form-36 (SF-36), and SIBO breath test. (
  • An investigation into other potential mechanisms associated with curcumin's gastrointestinal-relieving effects will also be important such as examining its influence on the intestinal barrier function, inflammation, neurotransmitter activity, and visceral sensitivity. (
  • Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease, 4 (1). (
  • The workshop took place on 9-10 October and covered sessions on diagnosis (microscopy, culture, PCR, etc.), in vivo and in vitro experimental models, subtype calling from DNA sequence data, gut microbiota analysis (NGS data processing in R), genomics and evolution (introduction to Blastocystis genomics and resources available), and theoretical topics linked to epidemiology, clinical microbiology and infectious disease issues. (
  • Neurological infection seems to be an important group of infectious disease. (
  • Although organisms such as bacteria function as parasites, the usage of the term "parasitic disease" is usually more restricted. (
  • Similarly, Phylox works synergistically with Varium ® , a natural patented mineral-based feed formulation, that can also reduce challenges from pathogenic bacteria and their toxins while strengthening the intestinal barrier and gently stimulating intestinal immunity. (
  • The study of parasites and parasitic diseases is known as parasitology. (
  • Some parasites are spread by insects, called vectors because they carry the disease. (
  • In addition, several topical ivermectin formulations have been licensed for the treatment of external parasites such as head lice and skin diseases including rosacea. (
  • This review considers the available literature and the attribution of burden of disease to the most insidious NTDs and recommends which five are deserving of policy prioritisation. (
  • Others, such as Trichomonas hominis (in infants) and Entamoeba polecki (associated with pigs), have rarely been associated with diarrheal disease and are not discussed in this article. (
  • Normally, more than 100,000 E coli are required to cause disease, while only 10 Entamoeba, Giardia cysts, or norovirus particles may suffice to do the same. (
  • Our main focus is on early screening for cancer and Alzheimer's disease, as well as testing for respiratory, intestinal, and parasitic diseases. (
  • Greg Mathis, PhD, of Southern Poultry Research, Athens, Georgia, talks about the continued challenges of managing coccidiosis and offers suggestions for improving management programs targeting the costly disease. (
  • On the other hand, coccidiosis is a particularly serious disease of the digestive system of chickens. (
  • Contamination of water leads to a whole range of diarrheal diseases such as cholera that kills 1.8 million people worldwide. (
  • Intestinal Tritrichomonas foetus infection in cats: a retrospective study of 104 cases. (
  • The aim of this study was to collect and analyze clinical data from pet cats diagnosed with intestinal T foetus infection. (
  • A disease called Paragonimiasis is caused by a flatworm known as a lung fluke. (
  • We determined that Toxoplasma sexual development is prolific when feline intestinal organoids are supplemented with linoleic acid. (
  • Many neglected tropical diseases are caused by parasites, which are spread by insects or contact with contaminated water or soil. (
  • 3 Rates of all-listed hospitalization with a digestive disease diagnosis fell between 1983 and 1988, a pattern that occurred for all hospitalizations in the United States. (