Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
Stable strontium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element strontium, but differ in the atomic weight. Sr-84, 86, 87, and 88 are the stable strontium isotopes.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.
Stable calcium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element calcium, but differ in atomic weight. Ca-42-44, 46, and 48 are stable calcium isotopes.
The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Agents that aid or increase the action of the principle drug (DRUG SYNERGISM) or that affect the absorption, mechanism of action, metabolism, or excretion of the primary drug (PHARMACOKINETICS) in such a way as to enhance its effects.
A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A thin lining of closed cavities of the body, consisting of a single layer of squamous epithelial cells (MESOTHELIUM) resting on a thin layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and covered with secreted clear fluid from blood and lymph vessels. Major serous membranes in the body include PERICARDIUM; PERITONEUM; and PLEURA.
A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).
A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic with antimicrobial activity similar to that of CEPHALORIDINE or CEPHALOTHIN, but somewhat less potent. It is effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
A selective histamine H1-receptor antagonist devoid of central nervous system depressant activity. The drug was used for ALLERGY but withdrawn due to causing LONG QT SYNDROME.
Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
An autosomal recessive disorder due to defective absorption of NEUTRAL AMINO ACIDS by both the intestine and the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. The abnormal urinary loss of TRYPTOPHAN, a precursor of NIACIN, leads to a NICOTINAMIDE deficiency, PELLAGRA-like light-sensitive rash, CEREBELLAR ATAXIA, emotional instability, and aminoaciduria. Mutations involve the neurotransmitter transporter gene SLC6A19.
A selenium compound with the molecular formula H2SO3. It used as a source of SELENIUM, especially for patients that develop selenium deficiency following prolonged PARENTERAL NUTRITION.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
A system of organs and tissues that process and transport immune cells and LYMPH.
Absorptive cells in the lining of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA. They are differentiated EPITHELIAL CELLS with apical MICROVILLI facing the intestinal lumen. Enterocytes are more abundant in the SMALL INTESTINE than in the LARGE INTESTINE. Their microvilli greatly increase the luminal surface area of the cell by 14- to 40 fold.
(Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.
Recycling through liver by excretion in bile, reabsorption from intestines (INTESTINAL REABSORPTION) into portal circulation, passage back into liver, and re-excretion in bile.
Peptides composed of two amino acid units.
Catalyzes the hydrolysis of pteroylpolyglutamic acids in gamma linkage to pterolylmonoglutamic acid and free glutamic acid. EC
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
A malabsorption syndrome resulting from extensive operative resection of the SMALL INTESTINE, the absorptive region of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Uptake of substances through the SKIN.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A group of FLAVONOIDS characterized with a 4-ketone.
A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
A strong dibasic acid with the molecular formula H2SeO4. Included under this heading is the acid form, and inorganic salts of dihydrogen selenium tetraoxide.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.
Cholecalciferols substituted with two hydroxy groups in any position.
A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.
A strong dicarboxylic acid occurring in many plants and vegetables. It is produced in the body by metabolism of glyoxylic acid or ascorbic acid. It is not metabolized but excreted in the urine. It is used as an analytical reagent and general reducing agent.
Derivatives of folic acid (pteroylglutamic acid). In gamma-glutamyl linkage they are found in many tissues. They are converted to folic acid by the action of pteroylpolyglutamate hydrolase or synthesized from folic acid by the action of folate polyglutamate synthetase. Synthetic pteroylpolyglutamic acids, which are in alpha-glutamyl linkage, are active in bacterial growth assays.
Hydroxy analogs of vitamin D 3; (CHOLECALCIFEROL); including CALCIFEDIOL; CALCITRIOL; and 24,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D 3.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
The at-home administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered via a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
Glycosides of GLUCURONIC ACID formed by the reaction of URIDINE DIPHOSPHATE GLUCURONIC ACID with certain endogenous and exogenous substances. Their formation is important for the detoxification of drugs, steroid excretion and BILIRUBIN metabolism to a more water-soluble compound that can be eliminated in the URINE and BILE.
Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.
Fluids originating from the epithelial lining of the intestines, adjoining exocrine glands and from organs such as the liver, which empty into the cavity of the intestines.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
Analysis of the energy absorbed across a spectrum of x-ray energies/wavelengths to determine the chemical structure and electronic states of the absorbing medium.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
Unstable isotopes of calcium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ca atoms with atomic weights 39, 41, 45, 47, 49, and 50 are radioactive calcium isotopes.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic that is stable to hydrolysis by beta-lactamases.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
A symporter protein that couples the transport of FOLIC ACID with HYDROGEN IONS. The transporter functions most effectively under acidic conditions.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A group of compounds consisting of two aromatic rings separated by seven carbons (HEPTANES) and having various substituents. The best known member is CURCUMIN.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
A plant genus of the family OLEACEAE. Members contain suspensaside.
Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.
A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.
Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.
The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Magnesium oxide (MgO). An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral periclase. In aqueous media combines quickly with water to form magnesium hydroxide. It is used as an antacid and mild laxative and has many nonmedicinal uses.
The founding member of the sodium glucose transport proteins. It is predominately expressed in the INTESTINAL MUCOSA of the SMALL INTESTINE.
The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.
Dynamic and kinetic mechanisms of exogenous chemical and DRUG LIBERATION; ABSORPTION; BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT; TISSUE DISTRIBUTION; BIOTRANSFORMATION; elimination; and DRUG TOXICITY as a function of dosage, and rate of METABOLISM. LADMER, ADME and ADMET are abbreviations for liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and toxicology.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
Sequelae of gastrectomy from the second week after operation on. Include recurrent or anastomotic ulcer, postprandial syndromes (DUMPING SYNDROME and late postprandial hypoglycemia), disordered bowel action, and nutritional deficiencies.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.
Non-ionic surfactant of the polyethylene glycol family. It is used as a solubilizer and emulsifying agent in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals, often as an ointment base, and also as a research tool.
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
A plant genus of the family Paeoniaceae, order Dilleniales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. These perennial herbs are up to 2 m (6') tall. Leaves are alternate and are divided into three lobes, each lobe being further divided into three smaller lobes. The large flowers are symmetrical, bisexual, have 5 sepals, 5 petals (sometimes 10), and many stamens.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
Disorders caused by interruption of BONE MINERALIZATION manifesting as OSTEOMALACIA in adults and characteristic deformities in infancy and childhood due to disturbances in normal BONE FORMATION. The mineralization process may be interrupted by disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis, resulting from dietary deficiencies, or acquired, or inherited metabolic, or hormonal disturbances.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.
A group of inherited kidney disorders characterized by the abnormally elevated levels of AMINO ACIDS in URINE. Genetic mutations of transport proteins result in the defective reabsorption of free amino acids at the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. Renal aminoaciduria are classified by the specific amino acid or acids involved.
The study of the physical and chemical properties of a drug and its dosage form as related to the onset, duration, and intensity of its action.
Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.
Epithelial cell line originally derived from porcine kidneys. It is used for pharmacologic and metabolic studies.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.
Derivatives of OXALIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are derived from the ethanedioic acid structure.
An epithelial cell line derived from a kidney of a normal adult female dog.
A fluorescent probe with low toxicity which is a potent substrate for P-glycoprotein and the bacterial multidrug efflux transporter. It is used to assess mitochondrial bioenergetics in living cells and to measure the efflux activity of P-glycoprotein in both normal and malignant cells. (Leukemia 1997;11(7):1124-30)
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A methylpentose whose L- isomer is found naturally in many plant glycosides and some gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides.
The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A system of vessels in which blood, after passing through one capillary bed, is conveyed through a second set of capillaries before it returns to the systemic circulation. It pertains especially to the hepatic portal system.
The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.
A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Anemia characterized by larger than normal erythrocytes, increased mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and increased mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH).
10-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A starch found in the tubers and roots of many plants. Since it is hydrolyzable to FRUCTOSE, it is classified as a fructosan. It has been used in physiologic investigation for determination of the rate of glomerular function.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
An element of the alkaline earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sr, atomic number 38, and atomic weight 87.62.
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
A cytochrome oxidase inhibitor which is a nitridizing agent and an inhibitor of terminal oxidation. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
A synthetic disaccharide used in the treatment of constipation and hepatic encephalopathy. It has also been used in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p887)
A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A carotenoid that is a precursor of VITAMIN A. It is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC). (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Engewood, CO, 1995.)
Unstable isotopes of zinc that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Zn atoms with atomic weights 60-63, 65, 69, 71, and 72 are radioactive zinc isotopes.
A type of glycoside widely distributed in plants. Each consists of a sapogenin as the aglycone moiety, and a sugar. The sapogenin may be a steroid or a triterpene and the sugar may be glucose, galactose, a pentose, or a methylpentose.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
A major primary bile acid produced in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It facilitates fat absorption and cholesterol excretion.
Complexing agent for removal of traces of heavy metal ions. It acts also as a hypocalcemic agent.
The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
A subfamily of transmembrane proteins from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that are closely related in sequence to P-GLYCOPROTEIN. When overexpressed, they function as ATP-dependent efflux pumps able to extrude lipophilic drugs, especially ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, from cells causing multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although P-Glycoproteins share functional similarities to MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS they are two distinct subclasses of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS, and have little sequence homology.
Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Agents that are used to treat allergic reactions. Most of these drugs act by preventing the release of inflammatory mediators or inhibiting the actions of released mediators on their target cells. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p475)
The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.
The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
Reduction of the blood calcium below normal. Manifestations include hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, Chvostek's sign, muscle and abdominal cramps, and carpopedal spasm. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Unstable isotopes of iron that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Fe atoms with atomic weights 52, 53, 55, and 59-61 are radioactive iron isotopes.
The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Stable zinc atoms that have the same atomic number as the element zinc, but differ in atomic weight. Zn-66-68, and 70 are stable zinc isotopes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of FOLIC ACID in the diet. Many plant and animal tissues contain folic acid, abundant in green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver, and mushrooms but destroyed by long-term cooking. Alcohol interferes with its intermediate metabolism and absorption. Folic acid deficiency may develop in long-term anticonvulsant therapy or with use of oral contraceptives. This deficiency causes anemia, macrocytic anemia, and megaloblastic anemia. It is indistinguishable from vitamin B 12 deficiency in peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, but the neurologic lesions seen in B 12 deficiency do not occur. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholanic acid family of bile acids in man, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. They act as detergents to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, are reabsorbed by the small intestine, and are used as cholagogues and choleretics.
Cytoplasm stored in an egg that contains nutritional reserves for the developing embryo. It is rich in polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins.
Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.
A cardiotonic glycoside obtained mainly from Digitalis lanata; it consists of three sugars and the aglycone DIGOXIGENIN. Digoxin has positive inotropic and negative chronotropic activity. It is used to control ventricular rate in ATRIAL FIBRILLATION and in the management of congestive heart failure with atrial fibrillation. Its use in congestive heart failure and sinus rhythm is less certain. The margin between toxic and therapeutic doses is small. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p666)
3-Phenylchromones. Isomeric form of FLAVONOIDS in which the benzene group is attached to the 3 position of the benzopyran ring instead of the 2 position.
An epimer of chenodeoxycholic acid. It is a mammalian bile acid found first in the bear and is apparently either a precursor or a product of chenodeoxycholate. Its administration changes the composition of bile and may dissolve gallstones. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.
A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.
3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-5-(2- hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazolium chloride.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC
A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.
A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS whose transport of organic anions is driven either directly or indirectly by a gradient of sodium ions.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A family of proteins involved in the transport of organic cations. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics, and their metabolites from the body.
A malabsorption syndrome that is precipitated by the ingestion of foods containing GLUTEN, such as wheat, rye, and barley. It is characterized by INFLAMMATION of the SMALL INTESTINE, loss of MICROVILLI structure, failed INTESTINAL ABSORPTION, and MALNUTRITION.

Abnormal calcium metabolism in normocalcaemic sarcoidosis. (1/5177)

In studies of calcium metabolism in 13 unselected patients with untreated sarcoidosis all were normocalcaemic but five had hypercalcuria. All had normal renal function. Calcium absorption was indexed by a double isotope test. 45Ca hyperabsorption occurred in six patients. Ten kinetic studies were carried out with 47Ca and in six bone turnover was increased. 45Ca absorption correlated well with the calculated bone uptake rate of calcium, and with urine calcium excretion. These results suggest that in sarcoidosis abnormalities in calcium metabolism are fairly common although they rarely result in sustained hypercalcaemia.  (+info)

Endemic tropical sprue in Rhodesia. (2/5177)

The existence of tropical sprue in Africa is controversial. In this paper we present 31 cases seen in Rhodesia over a 15 month period. They have the clinical features, small intestinal morphology, malabsorption pattern, and treatment response of tropical sprue. Other causes of malabsorption, and primary malnutrition, have been excluded. The severity of the clinical state and intestinal malabsorption distinguish these patients from those we have described with tropical enteropathy. The previous work on tropical sprue in Africa is reviewed and it is apparent that, when it has been adequately looked for, it has been found. It is clear that the question of tropical sprue in Africa must be re-examined and that it existence may have hitherto been concealed by the assumption that primary malnutrition is responsible for the high prevalence of deficiency states.  (+info)

Tropical enteropathy in Rhodesia. (3/5177)

Tropical enteropathy, which may be related to tropical sprue, has been described in many developing countries including parts of Africa. The jejunal changes of enteropathy are seen in Rhodesians of all social and racial categories. Xylose excretion, however, is related to socioeconomic status, but not race. Upper socioeconomic Africans and Europeans excrete significantly more xylose than lower socioeconomic Africans. Vitamin B12 and fat absorption are normal, suggesting predominant involvement of the proximal small intestine. Tropical enteropathy in Rhodesia is similar to that seen in Nigeria but is associated with less malabsorption than is found in the Caribbean, the Indian subcontinent, and South East Asia. The possible aetiological factors are discussed. It is postulated that the lighter exposure of upper class Africans and Europeans to repeated gastrointestinal infections may accound for their superior xylose absorption compared with Africans of low socioeconomic circumstances. It is further suggested that the milder enteropathy seen in Africa may be explained by a lower prevalence of acute gastroenteritis than in experienced elsewhere in the tropics.  (+info)

Metallothionein-null mice absorb less Zn from an egg-white diet, but a similar amount from solutions, although with altered intertissue Zn distribution. (4/5177)

The influence of metallothionein (MT) on Zn transfer into non-gut tissues was investigated in MT-null (MT-/-) and normal (MT+/+) mice 4 h after oral gavage of aqueous 65ZnSO4solution at doses of 154, 385, 770 and 1540 nmol Zn per mouse. Zn transfer was not significantly different between MT+/+ and MT-/- mice and was directly proportional to the oral dose (slope = 0.127, r = 0.991; 0. 146, r = 0.994, respectively). Blood 65Zn and plasma Zn concentrations increased progressively in MT-/- mice at doses >154 nmol Zn, reaching levels of 2.4% of oral dose and 60 micromol/L, respectively, at the 1540 nmol Zn dose. The corresponding values for MT+/+ mice were approximately half, 1.0% and 29 micromol/L. Intergenotypic differences were found in tissue distribution of 65Zn within the body; MT-/- mice had higher 65Zn levels in muscle, skin, heart and brain, whereas MT+/+ mice retained progressively more Zn in the liver, in conjunction with a linear increase in hepatic MT up to the highest Zn dose. MT induction in the small intestine reached its maximum at an oral dose of 385 nmol Zn and did not differ at higher doses. Absorption of a 770 nmol 65Zn dose from a solid egg-white diet was only one fourth (MT+/+) and one eighth (MT-/-) of the Zn absorption from the same dose of 65Zn in aqueous solution. MT+/+ mice had greater (P < 0.05) Zn absorption from the egg-white diet than did MT-/- mice, indicating that gut MT confers an absorptive advantage, but only when Zn is incorporated into solid food.  (+info)

The sodium concentration of enteral diets does not influence absorption of nutrients but induces intestinal secretion of water in miniature pigs. (5/5177)

Contradictory opinions exist as to whether the sodium concentration of enteral diets influences absorption of macronutrients and transepithelial movement of sodium and water. Therefore, we investigated the effects of various sodium concentrations of enteral diets on absorption of macronutrients and on net fluxes of sodium and water. In unanesthetized miniature pigs, a 150-cm jejunal segment was perfused with an oligopeptide (Peptisorb), an oligomeric and a polymeric diet. The polymeric diet was supplemented with pancreatic enzymes. The sodium concentrations varied between 30 and 150 mmol/L. The energy density was 3.4 MJ/L. The sodium concentration of the diets did not influence absorption of macronutrients and of total energy. However, increasing sodium concentrations of the diets were associated with increasing osmolality of the solutions, resulting in a linear increase in net secretion of water and flow rate of chyme. With all diets and sodium concentrations net secretion of sodium occurred. The sodium secretion was independent of the initial sodium concentration of the diets. It was linearly correlated with net flux of water and was largest in miniature pigs infused with the oligomeric diet. The sodium concentration of the jejunal effluent did not correspond to the initial sodium concentration of the diets. The present results indicate that enteral feeding of diets with high energy density inevitably increases net secretion of water and sodium as sodium concentration increases. Therefore, the sodium concentration of diets should be as low as possible to meet only the minimal daily requirement of sodium. Low sodium concentrations of diets have no negative effects on absorption of macronutrients.  (+info)

Neural modulation of cephalexin intestinal absorption through the di- and tripeptide brush border transporter of rat jejunum in vivo. (6/5177)

Intestinal absorption of beta-lactamine antibiotics (e.g., cefixime and cephalexin) has been shown to proceed through the dipeptide carrier system. In a previous study, nifedipine (NFP), an L-type calcium channel blocker, enhanced the absorption of cefixime in vivo but not in vitro, and it was suggested that neural mechanisms might be involved in the effect of NFP. The aim of the present study was to assess the involvement of the nervous system on the intestinal absorption of cephalexin (CFX). To investigate this, we used a single-pass jejunal perfusion technique in rats. NFP and diltiazem enhanced approximately 2-fold the plasma levels of CFX in treated rats versus untreated controls. NFP also increased approximately 2-fold the CFX level in portal plasma and increased urinary excretion of CFX, thus indicating that CFX did effectively increase CFX intestinal absorption. Perfusing high concentrations of dipeptides in the jejunal lumen competitively reduced CFX absorption and inhibited the enhancement of CFX absorption produced by NFP. Hexamethonium and lidocaine inhibited the effect of NFP, whereas atropine, capsaicin, clonidine, and isoproterenol enhanced CFX absorption by the same order of magnitude as NFP. Thus, complex neural networks can modulate the function of the intestinal di- and tripeptide transporter. Sympathetic noradrenergic fibers, intestinal sensory neurons, and nicotinic synapses are involved in the increase of CFX absorption produced by NFP.  (+info)

Lack of absorption of didanosine after rectal administration in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. (7/5177)

The feasibility of rectal administration of didanosine (DDI) was studied in six human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. After oral intake of a DDI solution (100 mg/m2 of body surface area) combined with an antacid (Maalox), pharmacokinetic parametric values were in accordance with previously published data; the mean +/- standard deviation for terminal half-life was 59.5 +/- 15.0 min, that for peak concentration was 5.2 +/- 3.9 mumol/liter, and that for the area under the time-concentration curve (AUC) was 494 +/- 412 min.mumol/liter. After rectal administration of a similarly prepared DDI solution (100 mg/m2 of body surface area), plasma DDI levels were below the detection limit (0.1 mumol/liter) at all time points in five of the six patients, and in the remaining patient the AUC after rectal application was only 5% of that after oral administration. We conclude that oral administration of DDI cannot be easily replaced by rectal application.  (+info)

Effect of shellfish calcium on the apparent absorption of calcium and bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats. (8/5177)

Fossil shellfish powder (FS) and Ezo giant scallop shell powder (EG) were rendered soluble with lactate and citrate under decompression (FSEx and EGEx, respectively) and we examined the effects of lactate-citrate solubilization of FS and EG on mineral absorption, tissue mineral contents, serum biochemical indices and bone mineral density (BMD) in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The apparent absorption ratios of minerals tended to be high in the rats fed with the solubilized mineral sources, those in the FSEx group being significantly higher than in the FS group. There was no significant difference in the tibia mineral content among the OVX groups. BMD at the distal femoral diaphysis was significantly increased by FSEx and EGEx feeding. It is suggested that solubilization with lactate and citrate under decompression increased the solubility and bioavailability of calcium from such natural sources of shellfish calcium as FS and EG.  (+info)

1. The influence of citrate on intestinal calcium absorption (CaA) was studied in eight healthy males.. 2. On separate occasions, either a load containing 5 mmol of calcium chloride and 21 mmol of citrate in the form of sodium potassium citrate or a citrate-free vehicle load corrected for pH and cations was ingested. CaA was measured over 3 h with a 47Ca-85Sr double tracer method.. 3. After citrate administration, 10 min fractional CaA decreased significantly from 30 to 110 min post-load, and 3 h cumulative CaA dropped to 54.6 ± (sem)6.1% of the total dose as opposed to 76.3 ± 4.5% after vehicle administration (P , 0.002). Citrate administration raised serum and urinary citrate, but had little effect on blood acid-base status. After both loads, urinary specific activity of 47Ca significantly correlated with 3 h cumulative CaA, while citrate administration decreased urinary calcium excretion only slightly as compared with vehicle.. 4. The results suggest that, in man, higher doses of oral ...
Cholesterol absorption plays a key role in cholesterol homeostasis and understanding the lumenal events that play key roles in absorption remain poorly understood. The aims of the present study are fourfold: 1) To determine whether previously observed effects on cholesterol absorption during bile acid feeding are related to changes in pool size and intestinal transit or meal stimulated gall bladder emptying or plasma cholecystokinin levels. 2) To determine the effect of dietary sphingomyelin on cholesterol absorption, micellar solubilization and synthesis in normal adults and to assess the effects of intralumenal cholesterol solubilization, absorption and synthesis in adults with heterozygous mdr 3 deficiency (a defect leading to low biliary phospholipid content). 3) To determine the mechanism of action of a non-ionic detergent, Pluronic F-68, by evaluating its effect on cholesterol solubilization and distribution between micelles and vesicles, on cholesterol absorption and synthesis. 4) To ...
Cholesterol absorption plays a key role in cholesterol homeostasis and understanding the lumenal events that play key roles in absorption remain poorly understood. The aims of the present study are fourfold: 1) To determine whether previously observed effects on cholesterol absorption during bile acid feeding are related to changes in pool size and intestinal transit or meal stimulated gall bladder emptying or plasma cholecystokinin levels. 2) To determine the effect of dietary sphingomyelin on cholesterol absorption, micellar solubilization and synthesis in normal adults and to assess the effects of intralumenal cholesterol solubilization, absorption and synthesis in adults with heterozygous mdr 3 deficiency (a defect leading to low biliary phospholipid content). 3) To determine the mechanism of action of a non-ionic detergent, Pluronic F-68, by evaluating its effect on cholesterol solubilization and distribution between micelles and vesicles, on cholesterol absorption and synthesis. 4) To ...
This work describes the preparation and characterization of different guar gum (GG) hydrogels at different sizes to be used for protein absorption. GG macrogels and micro/nanogels were synthesized through chemical crosslinkingviabulk polymerization and reverse micelle microemulsion techniques, respectively, and high yields, for example, 94 +/- 4% and 91 +/- 6% were obtained. GG micro/nanogels with spherical shape and smooth surface were separated in the range of 1-10 mu m and 300-900 nm by the filtration process. The blood compatibility assay revealed that GG micro/nanogels were blood compatible up to 2 mg/mL concentration with maximum 1.59 +/- 0.97% hemolysis ratio and minimum 84 +/- 2.6% blood clotting index. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity assay demonstrated that linear GG inhibited cell viability at >= 250 mu g/mL concentrations, whereas no significant difference was obtained up to 1000 mu g/mL concentration when compared to the control groups statistically (p > .05). It was further ...
The influence of active secretion processes on intestinal absorption of salbutamol in the rat. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICS AND BIOPHARMACEUTICS. 31-37. 2001 ...
The intestinal absorption of (14C)oleoyl moieties in triglyceride and phospholipid was investigated by means of (14C)phosphatidylcholine and (14C)triolein breath tests. In patients who had undergone ileal resection the absorption of both phosphatidylcholine and triglyceride was subnormal, as reflected by a lower production of 14CO2. In healthy subjects the production of expiratory 14CO2 after oral administration of (14C)phosphatidylcholine was slightly higher than after administration of (14C)triolein. This was also observed in the patient group, indicating that the absorption of both triglyceride and phospholipid was decreased to similar extents, although triglyceride absorption tended to be more affected after major ileal resection. In patients with lipid malabsorption the proportion of linoleic acid in serum phosphatidylcholine was subnormal, and the decrease was correlated to the decrease in lipid absorption. The concentration in serum of selenium, alpha-tocopherol, and carotene but not of ascorbic
Florian M. Reichle, Stephan Czerner, Gaby Groeger, Peter Conzen, Klaus Peter; Room 310, 10/16/2000 9: 00 AM - 10: 30 AM (PD) Comparison of Carbon Dioxide Absorption Capacity and Compound A Production in Different Soda Limes : A-1233. Anesthesiology 2000;93(3A):A-1233. doi: https://doi.org/.. Download citation file:. ...
مشخصات پژوهش Experimental data, thermodynamic and neural network modeling of CO۲ absorption capacity for ۲-amino-۲-methyl-۱-propanol (AMP) Methanol (MeOH) H۲O system، انجام شده توسط امیرعباس ایزدپناه، گروه مهندسی شیمی دانشکده مهندسی نفت، گاز و پتروشیمی دانشگاه خلیج فارس
TY - JOUR. T1 - Secretion and excretion of calcium by the human gastrointestinal tract. AU - Heaney, Robert P.. AU - Skillman, Thomas G.. PY - 1964/7/1. Y1 - 1964/7/1. N2 - Fecal excretion of calcium of endogenous origin has been measured in 52 studies in 33 adult human subjects, under full metabolic balance conditions. Endogenous fecal calcium averaged .130 ± .047 Gm. per day, was positively correlated with both fecal calcium and dietary calcium and was inversely correlated with fractional calcium absorption. The regression line relating endogenous fecal calcium with fractional absorption allowed estimates for total intestinal calcium secretion at both zero and 100 per cent absorption; from these estimates it was calculated that approximately 15 per cent of the total intestinal calcium secretion was nonabsorbable even under conditions when dietary calcium was completely absorbed (presumably because it enters the gut caudad of the absorption sites). Total intestinal calcium secretion, ...
With the global population rising, the need for sustainable and resource-efficiently produced proteins with nutritional and health promoting qualities has become urgent. Proteins are important macronutrients and are involved in most, if not all, biological processes in the human body. This review discusses these absorption mechanisms in the small intestine. To study intestinal transport and predict bioavailability, cell lines are widely applied as screening models and often concern Caco-2, HT-29, HT-29/MTX and T84 cells. Here, we provide an overview of the presence and activities of peptide- and amino acid transporters in these cell models. Further, inter-laboratory differences are discussed as well as the culture micro-environment, both of which may influence cell culture phenotype and performance. Finally, the value of new developments in the field, including culturing cells in 3-dimensional systems under shear stress (i.e., gut-on-chips), is highlighted. In particular, their suitability in screening
In isolated perfused small intestine, PGE2acutely increased glucose and galactose but not fructose absorption (figs 1 and 2). As glucose and galactose are absorbed via SGLT11 and fructose via GLUT5,2 this indicates that SGLT1 was involved in the stimulation of absorption by PGE2. These results are supported by the data obtained with isolated enterocytes, in which phlorizin, a specific inhibitor of SGLT1,20 markedly decreased the PGE2stimulated 3-O-[14C]methylglucose uptake (fig 3B). The different responses to PGE2 of glucose and galactose absorption on the one hand and fructose absorption on the other also ruled out stimulation via the paracellular route, which has been proposed previously.28 29 In addition, no stimulatory effect would be detectable in isolated enterocytes because, in cell suspensions, no paracellular pathways are present. This is in accordance with the previous finding of negligible paracellular intestinal glucose transport in the rat.30 Also PGE2 induced changes in ...
Heparin, a highly sulfated and acidic glycosaminoglycan, has been clinically used in parenteral formulations to prevent and/or treat thromboembolic disorders for more than 90 years. Actions of heparin are not limited to anticoagulation and antithrombosis. Rather heparin has several other important actions which include fat clearing, antitumor and anti-inflammatory effects. However, use of heparin for such applications has been limited by its route of administration. Historically, it has been believed that heparin is not absorbed following oral administration and therefore is only available for clinical use by parenteral administration. This belief has been challenged several times by our laboratory and other researchers showing heparin binding to endothelium following oral administration as well as prevention of thrombosis and lowering blood pressure, etc. However, the site of oral heparin absorption and the mechanism responsible for absorption have not been investigated. This in vitro study was ...
We have the pleasure to announce the upcoming workshop on Total Absorption Spectroscopy: present and near future, to be held at IFIC, Valencia (Spain) from December-16th to December-19th, 2019. This workshop aims to bring together the present and prospective TAS community to review the present status of the different TAS detectors (Lucrecia, DTAS & Rocinante) at the different facilities (ISOLDE, RIKEN, FAIR, JYFL...), as well as discuss the near-future experimental programme, future plans and ideas.. A session of the workshop will be devoted to instrumentation and analysis methods, within the NUSPIN working group on High-Efficiency and Fast Timing Scintillators, and is partially funded by the NUSPIN network in the framework of ENSAR2 (HORIZON2020).. ...
Bioavailability of orally administered drugs can be influenced by a number of factors including release from the formulation, dissolution, stability in the gastrointestinal (GI) environment, permeability through the gut wall and first-pass gut wall and hepatic metabolism. Although there are various enzymes in the gut
The effects of hydroxylated derivatives of vitamin D3 and aqueous extracts of Solanum malacoxylon on the intestinal absorption of calcium, phosphate, sodium, potassium and water have been studied in unstressed vitamin D-replete pigs each of which was surgically prepared beforehand with a Thirty-Vella loop of jejunum. The addition, for six 1 h periods of perfusion, of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25-(OH)2D3) or 1α-hydroxycholecalciferol at similar concentrations (3·6-3·75 pmol/ml) to the solution used to perfuse the intestinal loop caused a rapid increase in the absorption of calcium but increased the absorption of phosphate only after a delay of at least 12 h. The absorption of both calcium and phosphate reached a maximum on the day following the addition of the vitamin D derivative to the perfusate. The addition of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-(OH)D3) at a concentration of 3·75 pmol/ml was without effect on absorption except for a small increase in the absorption of phosphate on the ...
PubMed journal article: [Intestinal absorption and iron deficiency (authors transl)]. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
1. The interaction of cyclosporin A (CyA) with p-glycoprotein during intestinal uptake was investigated by a combination of in vitro experiments with human Caco-2 cells and an intubation study in healthy volunteers. 2. CyA uptake into the cells was not saturable and exhibited only a low temperature sensitivity, suggesting passive diffusion. When the permeation of CyA across Caco-2 monolayers from the apical to the basolateral side was determined, overall transport had an apparently saturable component up to a concentration of 1 microM. At higher concentrations permeation increased over-proportionally. Calculation of the kinetic parameters of apical to basolateral permeation suggested a diffusional process with a KD of 0.5 microliter min-1 per filter, which was overlayed by an active system in basolateral to apical direction with a KM of 3.8 microM and a Jmax of 6.5 picomol min-1 per filter. 3. CyA permeation was significantly higher when the drug was given from the basolateral side as compared ...
In this study, we showed that the HIEC monolayer, which differentiated from ISCs, displayed mature morphologic features consisting of polarized columnar epithelia with dense microvilli, tight junctions, and desmosomes. The looseness of the tight junctions in the HIEC monolayer was similar to that in the human small intestine, whereas those of Caco-2 cells were not, and the HIEC monolayer also had a high Papp for paracellularly absorbed compounds. Furthermore, the presence of the functions of P-gp and BCRP, and abundant mRNA expression of CNT3 made HIECs a valuable tool for studies on the intestinal absorption of these substrates.. Paracellular absorption refers to permeation across cell monolayers through pores in the tight junction, and the oral absorption of hydrophilic molecules generally relies on the paracellular pathway. In this study, the permeability values of paracellularly absorbed compounds (FD-4, atenolol, and terbutaline) were higher in HIECs than in Caco-2 cells (Table 2). These ...
I think that all that talk is nonsense..there is a reason why protein is pushed so hard in the bodybuilding culture..its because it works! Experiement with yourself..whatever your eating right now use as your baseline...go up twenty grams for a while, see if it does anything..go up fifty..go down some..see what works for you..I notice that when I get 330 grams a day i feel my muscles are much harder and fuller and I feel stronger! I weigh 220ish so thats about 1.5 grams of protein per lb of body weight...I dont listen to all those people telling me my body can only absorb this or that..eat ur protein ...
To define areas of carbohydrate metabolism which might be altered in uremia, determinations of gastric and intestinal absorption of glucose and deposition of glycogen in the liver of 9 acutely uremic and 24 control rats were performed. Residual gastric and intestinal glucose contents and hepatic glycogen contents were determined 3 hours after glucose lavage in rats fasted for 24 hours. No statistically significant difference was observed in gastrointestinal absorption of glucose and in hepatic deposition of glycogen of the uremic and control animals.. ...
PET technology is a powerful tool for in vivo analysis of the gastrointestinal absorption of orally administered drugs, based on a study of conscious and anesthetized rats, published in the February issue of the Journal of Nuclear Medicine.
Amitava Mitra, Ph.D. (Sandoz) LINK TO PRESENTATION The Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Modeling is a widely-used in silico tool in the pharmaceutical industry to predict oral drug absorption rate and extent, to simulate clinical pharmacokinetic profiles and also to support Regulatory submissions. Such mode
The investigation of social capital, absorptive capacity and the bandwagon theory on the decision-making process of public sector managers ...
The absorption of calcium in our body and its relation with food is very important. Most of us associate calcium and vitamin D that help absorption because of milk but vitamin C and A are very important in the absorption process. Actually those vitamins are in a relation to help each other in absorption and transportation Food and calcium Foods…
At latest update, relevant information on excretion into breast milk was not found. Because of pharmacokinetic data (wide distribution volume and moderately high molecular weight) excretion into breast milk in significant quantity seems to be unlikely. Based on a low oral bioavailability, concentration in the infants plasma should be nil or low, except in premature and newborn infants with a increased intestinal absorption capacity.
Diet is by far the best source of potassium. Many of the foods rich in potassium also contain an array of nutrients essential to your health. Beyond diet,...
The Isomeric Cross Section Ratios (ICSR) Method at the Investigation of the Role of Isospin at the Population Compound States Cloused Yrast Band in the Nuclear Reactions with Neutron Heavy ...
Good intestinal absorption is looked upon with favor by both researchers and clinicians. Often, it predicts lower, more affordable dosing and improved efficacy. But absorption is not always a relevant matter. There are 3 situations in which good absorption is less important: The affinity for the molecular target is high. A stronger interaction with the target (nanomolar EC50 or…
An interactive computer-simulation of experiments which may be performed on one of the classical in vitro techniques used to study intestinal absorption: the isolated, everted intestinal sac of the rat. The program simulates experiments designed to demonstrate the important characteristics of the transport of two important nutrients - hexoses and amino acids - in the small intestine. Introduction and Methods use a combination of text and high-resolution graphics to explain the everted sac preparation, the process of carrier-mediated transport of these nutrients and the methods used to measure it (using radiolabelled galactose, glycine and methionine and a scintillation counting technique). The Experiments section allows users to: 1. Measure the transport of these nutrients; 2. Demonstrate the Na+ dependence of the transport process; 3. Investigate the mutual interaction of the hexose and amino acid transport systems by performing a series of experiments (including a kinetic analysis and ...
According to Jones Lang LaSalle IPs Office Market Overview for Latin America, supply of new office space in São Paulo should rise from 325,000 square metres in 2014 to 516,000 square metres in 2015. Expected net absorption is expected to rise from 100,000 square metres to 150,000 square metres. This is in the context of an overall vacancy rate of 22.8% across 3,956,000 square metres of space at the end of 2014. Class A office rents were USD20-65 per square metre per month. Source : 31 Mar 2015/JLL/ São Paulo /OFF ...
As the researchers report in the journal Angewandte Chemie, drug absorption is increased through control of the enzymatic digestion of the lipid droplets. For example, the body only absorbs fat-soluble vitamins A and D in the presence of some fat. Also, the bioavailability of many poorly water-soluble drugs increases when they are taken with high-fat meals. There are many techniques for the lipid-based delivery of pharmaceuticals, including emulsions, micelles and packaging in liposomes. These methods prevent the active ingredients from precipitating out and improve transportation to the absorption sites in the gastrointestinal tract. However, in order for the drug to become active in the body, it must be released from its lipid shell. The enzymatic decomposition of the lipid coating plays an important role in this process, but it has proven to be difficult to control. In addition, it is difficult to calculate the extent to which such lipid packaging really increases the bioavailability of a ...
Rice P. Oral Delivery and Gastrointestinal Absorption of Soluble Glucans Stimulate Increased Resistance to Infectious Challenge. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 2005;314(3):1079-1086 ...
Note: the tests were carried out using the ABSORBICA L57 energy absorber. The energy absorption capacity of the ASAPSORBER AXESS is greater than that of the ABSORBICA L57: the results are thus also valid for the ASAPSORBER AXESS (only the tearing lengths may differ; the impact forces at the anchor are less than 6 kN).. ...
WPI has amongst the best Organic Values3, which means it yields far more usable grams of Amino Acids than other Protein nutritional supplements. Furthermore, it has quick chain peptides which enable it to be available for absorption inside fifteen minutes immediately after use. This timing is most crucial as post-training is when your muscles are primed for nutrient and Protein absorption. Whey Isolate contains little to no find out here now Fat, Lactose or Cholesterol ...
Filtering by: Degree Ph.D. Remove constraint Degree: Ph.D. Department Dept. of Physiology Remove constraint Department: Dept. of Physiology Keyword rats Remove constraint Keyword: rats Keyword intestinal absorption Remove constraint Keyword: intestinal absorption Collection Scholars Archive Remove constraint Collection: Scholars Archive Resource type thesis Remove constraint Resource type: thesis School School of Medicine Remove constraint School: School of Medicine ...
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Optimum Nutrition Gold Standard 100% Casein - Sometimes slower is better - especially when it comes to the rate of protein digestion. While rapid protein absorption is desirable immediately before or after exercise, delayed release is probably more beneficial throughout the remainder of the day. Cas
Developed specifically for serious athletes & bodybuilders, Precision Protein™ formulation focuses exclusively on protein absorption, utilization, and synthesis.
The past method: Glaser. The traditional method for assessing the moisture balance of a building component has been the Glaser method (described in the DIN 4108 / ISO 13788 standard) which analyzes the vapor diffusion transport in the component. However, this method does not account for the capillary transport of moisture and for the absorption capacity of the component, both of which reduce the risk of damage in case of condensation. Furthermore, since the Glaser method only considers steady-state transport under simplified steady-state boundary conditions, it cannot reproduce individual short-term events or allow for rain and solar radiation. It was meant to provide a general assessment of the hygrothermal suitability of a component, not to produce a simulation of realistic heat and moisture conditions in a component exposed to the weather prevailing at its individual location.. Current, state-of-the-art method: WUFI®. The Department of Hygrothermics at Fraunhofer IBP has developed the WUFI® ...
Plastic spill tray for 1 ibc without ras - Polyethylene drip-tray for 1 IBC or 1 palette of 1200 x 1000 mm. Without grid. Absorption capacity: 1125 litres, admissible weight: 1500 kg. Dimensions: 1590 x 1455 x H715 mm, weight 78 kg, colour blue
Concerns over calcium absorption are common among people who are at risk for bone-thinning diseases such as osteoporosis. If youre not absorbing...
Stress can affect digestion, and what nutrients the intestines absorb. Gas production related to nutrient absorption may increase. The intestines have a tight barrier to protect the body from (most) food related bacteria. Stress can make the intestinal barrier weaker and allow gut bacteria to enter the body.. ...
1. The localisation of intestinal calcium absorption in the rat was studied by means of radioactive45Calcium. Rats were killed 20, 40, and 60 min after oral administration of45CaCl2-solution.45Ca-acti...
The new JB Academy range of general purpose digital water baths from Grant incorporate Set and Forget™ technology for fast heat and accurate temperature control and simple to use controls with a bright and clear display. Available in 3 sizes from 5L to 18
Absorption of Digested Foods: Download it here: absorption-of-digested-foods.ppt Class Notes to fill in here (pdf download) - Virtual Fetal Pig dissection (digestive system) from Whitman Zooming in - Intestine to epithelial cells (with comedy Lancashire accent) from UCLans Sonic Nursing project Villi structure from 3d4 Medical.com Lots of digestion and absorption animations from Nutrition.jbpub.com (passive transport,…
Click on a genes description to view its network relationships with genes known to be involved in intestinal cholesterol absorption ...
Demaks contains a fat-soluble vitamin D3, that helps to maintain normal growth and development of bones for children, contributes to the normal health of teeth and muscles, promotes normal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, helps to maintain normal blood calcium levels and contributes to the normal functioning of the immune system.. ...
Looking for online definition of carbohydrate absorption in the Medical Dictionary? carbohydrate absorption explanation free. What is carbohydrate absorption? Meaning of carbohydrate absorption medical term. What does carbohydrate absorption mean?
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Looking for online definition of intestinal absorption in the Medical Dictionary? intestinal absorption explanation free. What is intestinal absorption? Meaning of intestinal absorption medical term. What does intestinal absorption mean?
BACKGROUND: The nitric oxide (NO) precursor L-arginine has been shown to produce variable effects on intestinal absorptive function, including ion transport. AIMS: To determine whether there is an optimal concentration of L-arginine, promoting proabsorptive effects from oral rehydration solutions (ORS) with 90 or 60 mM sodium. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In vivo perfusion of rat jejunum with determination of net water absorption, unidirectional fluid exchanges, sodium and calcium transport, and glucose absorption. RESULTS: L-Arginine (1 mM) added to the 90 mM sodium ORS increased intestinal absorption of both sodium and water. Higher concentrations of L-arginine (2 to 10 mM) lacked this stimulatory effect. At 20 mM, L-arginine decreased sodium absorption below baseline. With a 60 mM sodium ORS, 2 mM L-arginine had a maximal fluid and electrolyte proabsorptive effect. At 20 mM L-arginine, net water absorption was indistinguishable from that obtained in the absence of L-arginine, and lower than with 2 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of 1,25-(OH)2D3 on jejunal absorption of magnesium in patients with chronic renal disease. AU - Schmulen, A. C.. AU - Lerman, M.. AU - Pak, C. Y C. PY - 1980/1/1. Y1 - 1980/1/1. N2 - These studies were performed to see if jejunal malabsorption of magnesium in patients with chronic renal disease was influenced by therapy with 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH)2D3; 2 μg/day by mouth for 7 days]. This treatment restored normal serum concentrations of the vitamin D metabolite from 0.9 ± 0.2 to 4.2 ± 0.6 ng/dl. Jejunal absorption of magnesium, measured by a triple-lumen constant-perfusion technique, was enhanced in each of the seven patients by this therapy. The mean value rose from 0.04 ± 0.02 to 0.13 ± 0.02 mmol.30 cm-1.h-1. This last value is similar to the magnesium absorption rate in untreated normal subjects. These results demonstrate that magnesium absorption in the human jejunum is dependent on vitamin D, and they show that 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 therapy in ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of High cholesterol absorption efficiency and rapid biliary secretion of chylomicron remnant cholesterol enhance cholelithogenesis in gallstone-susceptible mice. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
inproceedings{2127976, abstract = {Yeast-extracts derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be used as feed additive to improve animal health by promoting intestinal flora and by stimulating the immune system (Patterson, 2005). The impact of such feed additives on intestinal absorption of antibiotics has however not been described yet. T-2 toxin is an emerging Fusarium mycotoxin, that can be present as feed contaminant and for which it is known it disturbs the intestinal integrity. It was therefore the aim of the present study to determine the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of orally administered chlortetracycline in pigs after intake of 100 {\textmu}g/kg T-2 toxin contaminated feed whether or not supplemented with a commercially available yeast-extract feed additive. Twenty-four 9-week-old pigs (Landrace) were randomized into a control group (n = 6) and three experimental groups (each n = 6). After an acclimatization period of one week, the groups were given respectively blank feed (control ...
Lookup HS Codes for Malta xiii 70.19.32 Of low moisture absorption capacity, intended for certain types of aircraft. Avalara LandedCosts helps determine your duty rates and other import taxes for Malta.
This study analysed the moisture absorption kinetics of FruitPad embedded with different concentrations of fructose with further application of such pads in packaging of fresh strawberries. The FruitPad was exposed to different storage conditions (temperature and RH) and moisture absorption kinetics was gravimetrically determined over 5 days of storage. FruitPad with 30% fructose showed highest amount of moisture absorption (0.94 g of water/g of pad) at 20 °C and 100% RH. The Weibull model combined with the Flory-Huggins model adequately described changes in moisture content of the FruitPad with respect to storage time and humidity (R2 = 93-96%). The FruitPad containing fructose minimized in-package condensation compared to the pad without fructose. Weight loss of packaged strawberry was less than 0.9% which was much below the acceptable limit of 6% for strawberry ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Distribution of calcium absorption in middle-aged women. AU - Heaney, R. P.. AU - Recker, R. R.. PY - 1986/1/1. Y1 - 1986/1/1. N2 - Distribution of true fractional absorption of calcium in estrogen-deprived, nonosteoporotic, middle-aged women was examined in 273 person-studies, using a double-tracer method. Fractional absorption averaged 0.266 (± 0.096). Calcium intake averaged 0.802 g/day (± 0.419) and urine calcium, 0.144 g/day (± 0.062). Fractional absorption was inversely correlated with intake. Using parameters of the regression equation for the two variables, each absorption value was adjusted to the mean intake of the group so that absorption could be evaluated apart from the effect of intake. The distribution of such diet-adjusted values revealed that 55% of these estrogen-deprived women had insufficient absorption to maintain calcium balance at an intake equal to the 1980 RDA. Nearly one-fourth would still be in negative balance at an intake of 1.5 g/day. Since urine ...
Cholesterol is a vital component of the human body. It stabilizes cell membranes and is the precursor of bile acids, vitamin D and steroid hormones. However, cholesterol accumulation in the bloodstream (hypercholesterolemia) can cause atherosclerotic plaques within artery walls, leading to heart attacks and strokes. The efficiency of cholesterol absorption in the small intestine is of great interest because human and animal studies have linked cholesterol absorption with plasma concentration of total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Cholesterol absorption is highly regulated and influenced by particular compounds in the food supply. Therefore, it is desirable to learn more about natural food components that inhibit cholesterol absorption so that food ingredients and dietary supplements can be developed for consumers who wish to manage their plasma cholesterol levels by non-pharmacological means. Food components thus far identified as inhibitors of cholesterol absorption include phytosterols,
Water absorption test is the measurement of moisture quantity that roofing tile may absorb. If water absorption is too high, the tile may suffer from cracking which is not desirable. So, this test reflects the suitability of the tile for application; roofing tile need to have substantially low absorption capacity, especially in environments subjected to […]
Several published studies have shown that the three options are effective in suppressing PTH. However, clinical studies indicate that non-selective VDRAs can lead to dose-limited hyperphosphataemia and hypercalcaemia. The sVDRAs have less effect on intestinal calcium absorption and calcium and phosphorus mobilization in bone, leading to fewer episodes of hypercalcaemia and hyperphosphatemia.8 Calcimimetics are also very effective, although they are often associated with hypocalcaemia.9. One of the current problems in defining SHPT is the diversity of procedures for measuring PTH. Because of this, different guidelines refer to different normal ranges for PTH in dialysis patients. Nevertheless, as recognized by the KDIGO guidelines, clinical judgment in SHPT should be based not only on the absolute PTH level within the normal range, but also on the progressive tendency for an increase in levels. The rational histological basis for considering this tendency is progressive transformation of ...
III. MUCOSAL INTEGRITY Studies of gastrointestinal physiology reveal an intricate interaction between central and peripheral nerves, hormones, and peptides inside and outside the intestinal cell. This is exemplified by the different phases of vagal stimulation, made known to the rest of the world by Pavlovs classic studies in dogs in the 19th century. To use a slight understatement: Our knowledge has expanded since the work of Pavlov. We know now that physiological intestinal homeostasis is mediated through several mechanisms, whereby the way in which cellular mucosal defense is achieved is of utmost importance for maintaining mucosal integrity and thus also very relevant to drug absorption. 2. 3. If there is an impaired secretion of bile acids into the lumen (obstructive jaundice, intrahepatic cholestasis, primary biliary cirrhosis) If there is an extensive bile acid loss from the lumen, higher than the synthetic capacity in the liver If bile acids are deconjugated in the intestinal lumen ...
This paper studies impact energy absorption characteristics of FRTP deep drawn structures having three representative shapes, i.e., hemi-shere,...
Results: Aspirin increased plasma concentrations of gliadin after oral administration but had no effect in the closed intestinal loop study. An in situ intestinal re-circulating perfusion study showed that FITC-labeled gliadin was absorbed similarly to FD-40. Aspirin increased absorption of both intact and pepsin-digested gliadin, with a more significant effect on absorption of pepsin-treated gliadin. Immunoblotting showed that most gliadin was absorbed in intact form. When the gliadin fraction was extracted from rat plasma after gavage and injected intradermally into gliadin-sensitized rats, EBD extravasation was observed at injection sites in a gliadin dose-dependent manner ...
Results: Aspirin increased plasma concentrations of gliadin after oral administration but had no effect in the closed intestinal loop study. An in situ intestinal re-circulating perfusion study showed that FITC-labeled gliadin was absorbed similarly to FD-40. Aspirin increased absorption of both intact and pepsin-digested gliadin, with a more significant effect on absorption of pepsin-treated gliadin. Immunoblotting showed that most gliadin was absorbed in intact form. When the gliadin fraction was extracted from rat plasma after gavage and injected intradermally into gliadin-sensitized rats, EBD extravasation was observed at injection sites in a gliadin dose-dependent manner ...
Intestinal Permeability Assessment is a powerful noninvasive gastrointestinal test assessment of small intestinal absorption and barrier function in the bowel. The small intestine uniquely functions as a digestive/absorptive organ for nutrients as well as a powerful immune and mechanical barrier against excessive absor
The Absorption Kinetics of Ketoconazole Plays a Major Role in Explaining the Reported Variability in the Level of Interaction with Midazolam: Interplay Between Formulation and Inhibition of Gut Wall and Liver Metabolism ...
Purchase Intestinal Absorption of Metal Ions, Trace Elements and Radionuclides - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780080157214, 9781483160047
In vitro characterization of the intestinal absorption of methylmercury using a Caco-2 cell model.: Methylmercury (CH3Hg) is one of the forms of mercury found i
Absorption rate is average number of homes sold per month over a particular period of time. The months to sell is a reflection of the absorption rate, how long it will take to sell the current inventory at the said absorption rate. The Pending Ratio is the number of homes currently under contract compared to the number of homes available for sale . This is a very interesting way to look at the market, as of today: Average List Price $485,243 Days on the market 134 Median List Price $374,000 Days on the market 95 Price Range Active Listings Monthly Absorption Rate Pending Past week/Total Months to sell Current Inventory Pending Ratio Up to $199,999 24 8.6 5/26 2.8 108% 200,000-299,999 124 31.8 3/50 3.9 40% 300,000-399,999 95 17.2 1/11 5.5 11.8% 400,000-499,999 53 7.1 1/8 6.2 15.1% 500,000-599,999 37 4.3 0/3 8.6 8% 600,000-699,999 28 1.9 0/3 14.7 11% 700,000-799,999 22 .9 1/3 24.4 14% 800,000-899,999 9 .8 0/0 11.3 0% 900,000-999,999 4 .4 0/0 10.0 0% 1,000,000-1,999,999 23 .9 0/1 25.6 4% 2,000,000+ 5 .2 0
Aims. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) sausage tube waves are excited in magnetic flux tubes by p-mode forcing. These tube waves carry energy away from the p-mode cavity which results in a source of absorption. We wish to see the effect of an ensemble of randomly distributed thin magnetic flux tubes on the absorption of p-modes for the model plage region and also study the effect of the spacial weighting function on the theoretically calculated absorption coefficients. Methods. We calculate the absorption coefficients of p modes for a model plage, assumed to consist of an ensemble of many thin magnetic flux tubes with randomly distributed plasma properties. Each magnetic flux tube in the ensemble is modelled as axisymmetric, non-interacting, vertically oriented and untwisted. Results. We find that the magnitude and the form of the absorption coefficient is sensitive to the plasma-beta of the tubes which is consistent with previous work. Both the random distribution used to model the ensemble of flux ...
Part I focuses on in vitro and in vivo measurements of physicochemical properties, such as membrane permeability and ionization. Part II discusses solubility and gastrointestinal absorption, while the third part is devoted to metabolism and excretory mechanisms. The much revised and expanded part IV surveys current in silico approaches to predict drug properties needed to estimate the bioavailability of any new drug candidate. The final part shows how poor bioavailability may be improved by various approaches during the development process ...
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/01/120120003510.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily%2Ftop_news%2Ftop_health+%28ScienceDaily%3A+Top+News+--+Top+Health%29 ScienceDaily (Jan. 20, 2012) - A groundbreaking study conducted by Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute (CHORI) Senior Scientist Elizabeth Theil, PhD, is the first to reveal the existence of at least two independent mechanisms for iron absorption from non-meat sources-and a potential treatment for iron deficiency, the most common nutrient deficiency worldwide. Dr. Theils…
To support rapid growth and a high metabolic rate, infants require enormous amounts of nutrients. The small intestine must have the complete array of transporters that absorb the nutrients released from digested food. Failure of intestinal transporters to function properly often presents symptoms as …
Higher level of apparent absorption and retention of zinc in lambs receiving the organic form of zinc (Zn-glycine) was showed. Korniewicz et al. [7] also stated that zinc apparent absorption and retention of zinc were higher when applying amino-acid zinc chelate in lamb feeding than when zinc oxide was used. The research results related to apparent absorption of zinc were higher than the values obtained by Kinal et al. [5] after supplying sheep with zinc bioplexes. S upczy ska [13] in experiment conducted on lambs indicated that animals receiving amino acid chelates (Zn-lysine, Zn-metionine and Zn-glycine) had higher apparent absorption and retention of zinc then animals receiving zinc oxide and apparent absorption and retention of zinc by lambs received amino acid chelates of Zn were vary and was the higher for Zn-Lysine. On the other hand Spears [15] in his research on lambs stated that the apparent absorption of zinc from Zn-methionine and from the oxide was comparable and Zn retention from ...
Biosketch. Chris Porters research is focused in the area of drug absorption and drug delivery. His major interests are in understanding, quantifying and predicting the mechanisms of absorption of drug molecules and drug delivery systems after oral and parenteral delivery. His group has contributed substantially to the drug delivery literature (,220 peer reviewed papers and book chapters; ,16,000 citations; h-index 70, Google Scholar). Porters group has published widely on the mechanisms of absorption and disposition of small molecular weight drugs and high molecular weight proteins and nanoparticulate carriers such as nanoparticles and dendrimers. His group has a specific interest in using endogenous lipid transport pathways to promote the delivery of poorly water soluble drugs. This includes the use of lipids to enhance oral drug absorption, the use of lipid-mimetic prodrugs to target the lymphatic system and the potential role of intracellular lipid transport systems to promote drug ...
hello leela...... the physicochemical factors affecting drug absorption are. drug solubility and dissolution. particle siza and surface area. polymorphism and amorphism. pseudopolymorphism. salt form of the drug lipophilicity of drug. pka and pH value. drug stability. reference: brahmankar, page no.18 edition 1995. ...
In some previous papers it has been shown by the author and others that saturated compounds of most substances in the vapour state show continuous absorption. A typical example is SO3-vapour, which was recently studied by the author and which enabled him to make an accurate estimation of the heat of dissociation of oxygen. In the present work, the absorption spectrum of N2O was investigated with a view to determining the heat of dissociation of nitrogen. Leifson was the first to investigate the absorption spectrum of N2O gas and found that the gas shows no selective absorption in the Schumann region. He states that the absorption is in the form of two continuous bands, the first extending from λ 2000 to λ 1680 and the second from λ 1550 beyond the range of observation. Recently Wulf and Melvin showed that when N2O is illuminated with light of wave-length λ 2300, it is decomposed photochemically into NO and N; they also noticed that N2O possesses no band absorption. ...
Lexaria Bioscience Corp. has developed and out-licenses its disruptive technology that promotes healthier ingestion methods, lower overall dosing and higher effectiveness of lipophilic active molecules. Lexaria has multiple patents pending in over 40 countries around the world and was granted its first patents in the USA and in Australia related to edible forms of cannabinoids. Lexarias technology provides increases in intestinal absorption rates; more rapid delivery to the bloodstream; and important taste-masking benefits, for orally administered bioactive molecules including cannabinoids, vitamins, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), nicotine and other molecules.. ...
Absorption of electrolytes is dependent on solution pH. At pH ≤2, amphoteric resins play a role as strong base resins; the absorption of electrolytes takes place according to the anion exchange mechanism, At pH2~7, the molecular sorption by breaking of innersalt bonds increases gradually. At pH≥7,the principal absorption is the molecular sorption by breaking innersalt bonds as well as ion exchange.At the same time, the ion selectivity obviously increases, which may be useful in the softening of concentrated NaCl solution.
The dynamic interactions of metabolism and secretion, and the role of transporters on drug absorption have been under considerable debate. The thorough understanding of intestinal processes would be learnt through modeling of intestinal data only in the absence of the contribution from the liver. Recent studies on the interactions between the P450s and Pgp in vitro have led to the conclusion that intestinal metabolism is enhanced by the secretory action of P-glycoprotein due to an increase in the mean residence time (MRT) of drug in the intestine (Benet and Cummins, 2001; Cummins et al., 2001; Johnson et al., 2001). Theoretical examinations on Caco-2 cells and intestinal vascular perfusion systems support the notion that the mean residence time was increased, but metabolism under linear conditions was in fact decreased in the presence of secretion, even though the mean residence time has increased; under nonlinear metabolism, instances exist whereby the rate of metabolite accrual may increase, ...
M1.BC.74) A 12-year-old boy presents to the pediatrician for the dermatological changes seen in Figure A that began two weeks ago after he begun his first day of football practice. The skin eruptions appeared to be localized solely to sun exposed areas. The boy notes that he has also had diarrhea, headaches, and confusion appearing at the same time. On examination, the pediatrician notes ataxia and tremors in the boy. A urinalysis revealed elevated levels of tyrosine, leucine, valine, isoleucine, tryptophan, glycine, alanine, and phenylalanine. Which of the following vitamin deficiencies would produce a similar clinical presentation? ...
Fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K need fat in order to be absorbed by our body. Coconut oil and nutrient absorption work particularly well together.
To verify the acceptability of the roofing product characteristics and process capability, some daily QC test results have also been analyzed. Water absorption (24 hours) average was 1.12% while the maximum admissible is 3%; values were between 0.50 and 2.17%. All data (approximately 5500) have been summarized graphically. None of the samples showed any signs of cracking, spalling, or other forms of deterioration. However, the frequency and amplitude are not uniform, the curve having a random aspect, which makes difficult to do estimations or find an empirical formula. Cuvinte cheie: wood plastic composites, polymers, plastics, water absorption. URL: http://www.forestprod.org/confwoodfiber07.html. ...
D7433 - 13 Standard Test Method for Measuring Surface Water Absorption of Overlaid Wood-Based Panels , wood-based panels, water absorption, overlays, Cobb Ring,
Ezetimibe interferes with the gastrointestinal absorption not only of cholesterol, but also of other molecular entities that could conceivably affect the growth of cancer cells. The fact that the combined data from all three trials showed an increase in cancer mortality with ezetimibe should not be assumed to be a chance finding until further data are in. It is appropriate that SHARP and IMPROVE-IT continue. Careful follow-up of the patients in these trials will be essential, and other existing data sets on ezetimibe-treated patients should be analyzed for cancer end points. The Food and Drug Administration has already announced that during the next few months it will conduct its own analysis of the potential cancer hazard of ezetimibe ...
were fed the unlabelled diet for 20 d and then the labelled diet for 10 d while wearing a neck collar to avoid caecotrophy (group COLL), in order to discriminate it from direct intestinal absorption. At day 30 animals were slaughtered and caecal bacteria and liver samples taken. The 15N enrichment in amino acids of caecal bacteria and liver were determined by GC-combustion/isotope ratio MS. Lysine showed a higher enrichment in caecal microflora (0·925 atom% excess, APE) than liver (0·215 APE) in group ISOT animals, confirming the double origin of body lysine: microbial and dietary. The COLL group showed a much lower enrichment in tissue lysine (0·007 (SE 0·0029) APE for liver). Any enrichment in the latter animals was due to direct absorption of microbial lysine along the digestive tract, since recycling of microbial protein (caecotrophy) was avoided. In such conditions liver enrichment was low, indicating a small direct intestinal absorption. From the ratio of [15N]lysine enrichment between ...
Gastrointestinal motility is one of the most important factors that can influence drug absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of the present s
Assessment of the toxicokinetic behavior No studies are available investigating the toxicokinetic properties of the test substance. The test substance (molecular weight of 278.4 g/mol) is a clear, yellow to brown viscous liquid (BASF, 2012) with a water solubility of 0.04 g/L (Ciba-Geigy, 1985) and a vapor pressure of 0.0025 Pa at 25°C (Ciba-Geigy, 1985). The log Pow was calculated to be 5.8 for the neutral, undissoziated form (EPI Suite, BASF, 2012), and is further characterized by pH dependency, ranging from 4.6 at pH 4 to 1.7 at pH 9 (SciFinder, 2011). Absorption Absorption via the gastrointestinal tract: Absorption through the gastrointestinal tract is favored for molecules with a molecular weight below 500 g/mol (ECHA GD 7c, 2008), thus the test articles molecular weight is favorable for absorption after oral exposure. Further criteria in favor of absorption are hydrophilicity and a moderate log POW value (between -1 and 4). The test article is hydrophobic and therefore not very soluble ...
All CMI scheduled meetings are being held virtually. CMI faculty, staff and students should continue to check the Princeton University homepage for University-wide updates.. ...
Free, official coding info for 2018 ICD-10-CM E74.3 - includes detailed rules, notes, synonyms, ICD-9-CM conversion, index and annotation crosswalks, DRG grouping and more.
There are several ways a company can allocate overhead costs to products produced or services provided. Two of these methods are absorption costing and variable costing. This assignment will allow you to explore the two methods of costing and compare/contrast the different uses of each costing system.. Using the module readings and the Argosy University online library resources, research absorption and variable costing. Use your research and/or your experiences as a working professional to complete this assignment.. Respond to the following:. Explain the differences between absorption costing and variable costing. Explain, with the help of an example, how a company could use a variable costing system, as well as an absorption costing system. You have the option of using the company you work for as an example. Explain which method is better for the company being discussed. Write your initial response in 300-500 words. Your response should be thorough and address all components of the discussion ...
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