A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
Occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians, and are qualified by special training and, frequently, by licensure to work in supporting roles in the health care field. These occupations include, but are not limited to, medical technology, physical therapy, physician assistant, etc.
A 4-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyridyl, 5-methoxybenzimidazole derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits an H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
Compounds that inhibit H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE. They are used as ANTI-ULCER AGENTS and sometimes in place of HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS for GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX.
The calcium salt of gluconic acid. The compound has a variety of uses, including its use as a calcium replenisher in hypocalcemic states.
Stable calcium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element calcium, but differ in atomic weight. Ca-42-44, 46, and 48 are stable calcium isotopes.
The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.
Anemia characterized by decreased or absent iron stores, low serum iron concentration, low transferrin saturation, and low hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit value. The erythrocytes are hypochromic and microcytic and the iron binding capacity is increased.
Computer programs or software installed on mobile electronic devices which support a wide range of functions and uses which include television, telephone, video, music, word processing, and Internet service.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.
Insulated enclosures in which temperature, humidity, and other environmental conditions can be regulated at levels optimal for growth, hatching, reproduction, or metabolic reactions.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic with antimicrobial activity similar to that of CEPHALORIDINE or CEPHALOTHIN, but somewhat less potent. It is effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A group of telomere associated proteins that interact with TRF1 PROTEIN, contain ANKYRIN REPEATS and have poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity.
Procedures that render the female sterile by interrupting the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE. These procedures generally are surgical, and may also use chemicals or physical means.
Excision of the uterus.
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
Procedures to reverse the effect of REPRODUCTIVE STERILIZATION and to regain fertility. Reversal procedures include those used to restore the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE or the VAS DEFERENS.
Procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction. Surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used. There are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.

Abnormal calcium metabolism in normocalcaemic sarcoidosis. (1/5177)

In studies of calcium metabolism in 13 unselected patients with untreated sarcoidosis all were normocalcaemic but five had hypercalcuria. All had normal renal function. Calcium absorption was indexed by a double isotope test. 45Ca hyperabsorption occurred in six patients. Ten kinetic studies were carried out with 47Ca and in six bone turnover was increased. 45Ca absorption correlated well with the calculated bone uptake rate of calcium, and with urine calcium excretion. These results suggest that in sarcoidosis abnormalities in calcium metabolism are fairly common although they rarely result in sustained hypercalcaemia.  (+info)

Endemic tropical sprue in Rhodesia. (2/5177)

The existence of tropical sprue in Africa is controversial. In this paper we present 31 cases seen in Rhodesia over a 15 month period. They have the clinical features, small intestinal morphology, malabsorption pattern, and treatment response of tropical sprue. Other causes of malabsorption, and primary malnutrition, have been excluded. The severity of the clinical state and intestinal malabsorption distinguish these patients from those we have described with tropical enteropathy. The previous work on tropical sprue in Africa is reviewed and it is apparent that, when it has been adequately looked for, it has been found. It is clear that the question of tropical sprue in Africa must be re-examined and that it existence may have hitherto been concealed by the assumption that primary malnutrition is responsible for the high prevalence of deficiency states.  (+info)

Tropical enteropathy in Rhodesia. (3/5177)

Tropical enteropathy, which may be related to tropical sprue, has been described in many developing countries including parts of Africa. The jejunal changes of enteropathy are seen in Rhodesians of all social and racial categories. Xylose excretion, however, is related to socioeconomic status, but not race. Upper socioeconomic Africans and Europeans excrete significantly more xylose than lower socioeconomic Africans. Vitamin B12 and fat absorption are normal, suggesting predominant involvement of the proximal small intestine. Tropical enteropathy in Rhodesia is similar to that seen in Nigeria but is associated with less malabsorption than is found in the Caribbean, the Indian subcontinent, and South East Asia. The possible aetiological factors are discussed. It is postulated that the lighter exposure of upper class Africans and Europeans to repeated gastrointestinal infections may accound for their superior xylose absorption compared with Africans of low socioeconomic circumstances. It is further suggested that the milder enteropathy seen in Africa may be explained by a lower prevalence of acute gastroenteritis than in experienced elsewhere in the tropics.  (+info)

Metallothionein-null mice absorb less Zn from an egg-white diet, but a similar amount from solutions, although with altered intertissue Zn distribution. (4/5177)

The influence of metallothionein (MT) on Zn transfer into non-gut tissues was investigated in MT-null (MT-/-) and normal (MT+/+) mice 4 h after oral gavage of aqueous 65ZnSO4solution at doses of 154, 385, 770 and 1540 nmol Zn per mouse. Zn transfer was not significantly different between MT+/+ and MT-/- mice and was directly proportional to the oral dose (slope = 0.127, r = 0.991; 0. 146, r = 0.994, respectively). Blood 65Zn and plasma Zn concentrations increased progressively in MT-/- mice at doses >154 nmol Zn, reaching levels of 2.4% of oral dose and 60 micromol/L, respectively, at the 1540 nmol Zn dose. The corresponding values for MT+/+ mice were approximately half, 1.0% and 29 micromol/L. Intergenotypic differences were found in tissue distribution of 65Zn within the body; MT-/- mice had higher 65Zn levels in muscle, skin, heart and brain, whereas MT+/+ mice retained progressively more Zn in the liver, in conjunction with a linear increase in hepatic MT up to the highest Zn dose. MT induction in the small intestine reached its maximum at an oral dose of 385 nmol Zn and did not differ at higher doses. Absorption of a 770 nmol 65Zn dose from a solid egg-white diet was only one fourth (MT+/+) and one eighth (MT-/-) of the Zn absorption from the same dose of 65Zn in aqueous solution. MT+/+ mice had greater (P < 0.05) Zn absorption from the egg-white diet than did MT-/- mice, indicating that gut MT confers an absorptive advantage, but only when Zn is incorporated into solid food.  (+info)

The sodium concentration of enteral diets does not influence absorption of nutrients but induces intestinal secretion of water in miniature pigs. (5/5177)

Contradictory opinions exist as to whether the sodium concentration of enteral diets influences absorption of macronutrients and transepithelial movement of sodium and water. Therefore, we investigated the effects of various sodium concentrations of enteral diets on absorption of macronutrients and on net fluxes of sodium and water. In unanesthetized miniature pigs, a 150-cm jejunal segment was perfused with an oligopeptide (Peptisorb), an oligomeric and a polymeric diet. The polymeric diet was supplemented with pancreatic enzymes. The sodium concentrations varied between 30 and 150 mmol/L. The energy density was 3.4 MJ/L. The sodium concentration of the diets did not influence absorption of macronutrients and of total energy. However, increasing sodium concentrations of the diets were associated with increasing osmolality of the solutions, resulting in a linear increase in net secretion of water and flow rate of chyme. With all diets and sodium concentrations net secretion of sodium occurred. The sodium secretion was independent of the initial sodium concentration of the diets. It was linearly correlated with net flux of water and was largest in miniature pigs infused with the oligomeric diet. The sodium concentration of the jejunal effluent did not correspond to the initial sodium concentration of the diets. The present results indicate that enteral feeding of diets with high energy density inevitably increases net secretion of water and sodium as sodium concentration increases. Therefore, the sodium concentration of diets should be as low as possible to meet only the minimal daily requirement of sodium. Low sodium concentrations of diets have no negative effects on absorption of macronutrients.  (+info)

Neural modulation of cephalexin intestinal absorption through the di- and tripeptide brush border transporter of rat jejunum in vivo. (6/5177)

Intestinal absorption of beta-lactamine antibiotics (e.g., cefixime and cephalexin) has been shown to proceed through the dipeptide carrier system. In a previous study, nifedipine (NFP), an L-type calcium channel blocker, enhanced the absorption of cefixime in vivo but not in vitro, and it was suggested that neural mechanisms might be involved in the effect of NFP. The aim of the present study was to assess the involvement of the nervous system on the intestinal absorption of cephalexin (CFX). To investigate this, we used a single-pass jejunal perfusion technique in rats. NFP and diltiazem enhanced approximately 2-fold the plasma levels of CFX in treated rats versus untreated controls. NFP also increased approximately 2-fold the CFX level in portal plasma and increased urinary excretion of CFX, thus indicating that CFX did effectively increase CFX intestinal absorption. Perfusing high concentrations of dipeptides in the jejunal lumen competitively reduced CFX absorption and inhibited the enhancement of CFX absorption produced by NFP. Hexamethonium and lidocaine inhibited the effect of NFP, whereas atropine, capsaicin, clonidine, and isoproterenol enhanced CFX absorption by the same order of magnitude as NFP. Thus, complex neural networks can modulate the function of the intestinal di- and tripeptide transporter. Sympathetic noradrenergic fibers, intestinal sensory neurons, and nicotinic synapses are involved in the increase of CFX absorption produced by NFP.  (+info)

Lack of absorption of didanosine after rectal administration in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. (7/5177)

The feasibility of rectal administration of didanosine (DDI) was studied in six human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. After oral intake of a DDI solution (100 mg/m2 of body surface area) combined with an antacid (Maalox), pharmacokinetic parametric values were in accordance with previously published data; the mean +/- standard deviation for terminal half-life was 59.5 +/- 15.0 min, that for peak concentration was 5.2 +/- 3.9 mumol/liter, and that for the area under the time-concentration curve (AUC) was 494 +/- 412 min.mumol/liter. After rectal administration of a similarly prepared DDI solution (100 mg/m2 of body surface area), plasma DDI levels were below the detection limit (0.1 mumol/liter) at all time points in five of the six patients, and in the remaining patient the AUC after rectal application was only 5% of that after oral administration. We conclude that oral administration of DDI cannot be easily replaced by rectal application.  (+info)

Effect of shellfish calcium on the apparent absorption of calcium and bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats. (8/5177)

Fossil shellfish powder (FS) and Ezo giant scallop shell powder (EG) were rendered soluble with lactate and citrate under decompression (FSEx and EGEx, respectively) and we examined the effects of lactate-citrate solubilization of FS and EG on mineral absorption, tissue mineral contents, serum biochemical indices and bone mineral density (BMD) in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The apparent absorption ratios of minerals tended to be high in the rats fed with the solubilized mineral sources, those in the FSEx group being significantly higher than in the FS group. There was no significant difference in the tibia mineral content among the OVX groups. BMD at the distal femoral diaphysis was significantly increased by FSEx and EGEx feeding. It is suggested that solubilization with lactate and citrate under decompression increased the solubility and bioavailability of calcium from such natural sources of shellfish calcium as FS and EG.  (+info)

1. The influence of citrate on intestinal calcium absorption (CaA) was studied in eight healthy males.. 2. On separate occasions, either a load containing 5 mmol of calcium chloride and 21 mmol of citrate in the form of sodium potassium citrate or a citrate-free vehicle load corrected for pH and cations was ingested. CaA was measured over 3 h with a 47Ca-85Sr double tracer method.. 3. After citrate administration, 10 min fractional CaA decreased significantly from 30 to 110 min post-load, and 3 h cumulative CaA dropped to 54.6 ± (sem)6.1% of the total dose as opposed to 76.3 ± 4.5% after vehicle administration (P , 0.002). Citrate administration raised serum and urinary citrate, but had little effect on blood acid-base status. After both loads, urinary specific activity of 47Ca significantly correlated with 3 h cumulative CaA, while citrate administration decreased urinary calcium excretion only slightly as compared with vehicle.. 4. The results suggest that, in man, higher doses of oral ...
Cholesterol absorption plays a key role in cholesterol homeostasis and understanding the lumenal events that play key roles in absorption remain poorly understood. The aims of the present study are fourfold: 1) To determine whether previously observed effects on cholesterol absorption during bile acid feeding are related to changes in pool size and intestinal transit or meal stimulated gall bladder emptying or plasma cholecystokinin levels. 2) To determine the effect of dietary sphingomyelin on cholesterol absorption, micellar solubilization and synthesis in normal adults and to assess the effects of intralumenal cholesterol solubilization, absorption and synthesis in adults with heterozygous mdr 3 deficiency (a defect leading to low biliary phospholipid content). 3) To determine the mechanism of action of a non-ionic detergent, Pluronic F-68, by evaluating its effect on cholesterol solubilization and distribution between micelles and vesicles, on cholesterol absorption and synthesis. 4) To ...
Cholesterol absorption plays a key role in cholesterol homeostasis and understanding the lumenal events that play key roles in absorption remain poorly understood. The aims of the present study are fourfold: 1) To determine whether previously observed effects on cholesterol absorption during bile acid feeding are related to changes in pool size and intestinal transit or meal stimulated gall bladder emptying or plasma cholecystokinin levels. 2) To determine the effect of dietary sphingomyelin on cholesterol absorption, micellar solubilization and synthesis in normal adults and to assess the effects of intralumenal cholesterol solubilization, absorption and synthesis in adults with heterozygous mdr 3 deficiency (a defect leading to low biliary phospholipid content). 3) To determine the mechanism of action of a non-ionic detergent, Pluronic F-68, by evaluating its effect on cholesterol solubilization and distribution between micelles and vesicles, on cholesterol absorption and synthesis. 4) To ...
This work describes the preparation and characterization of different guar gum (GG) hydrogels at different sizes to be used for protein absorption. GG macrogels and micro/nanogels were synthesized through chemical crosslinkingviabulk polymerization and reverse micelle microemulsion techniques, respectively, and high yields, for example, 94 +/- 4% and 91 +/- 6% were obtained. GG micro/nanogels with spherical shape and smooth surface were separated in the range of 1-10 mu m and 300-900 nm by the filtration process. The blood compatibility assay revealed that GG micro/nanogels were blood compatible up to 2 mg/mL concentration with maximum 1.59 +/- 0.97% hemolysis ratio and minimum 84 +/- 2.6% blood clotting index. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity assay demonstrated that linear GG inhibited cell viability at >= 250 mu g/mL concentrations, whereas no significant difference was obtained up to 1000 mu g/mL concentration when compared to the control groups statistically (p > .05). It was further ...
The intestinal absorption of (14C)oleoyl moieties in triglyceride and phospholipid was investigated by means of (14C)phosphatidylcholine and (14C)triolein breath tests. In patients who had undergone ileal resection the absorption of both phosphatidylcholine and triglyceride was subnormal, as reflected by a lower production of 14CO2. In healthy subjects the production of expiratory 14CO2 after oral administration of (14C)phosphatidylcholine was slightly higher than after administration of (14C)triolein. This was also observed in the patient group, indicating that the absorption of both triglyceride and phospholipid was decreased to similar extents, although triglyceride absorption tended to be more affected after major ileal resection. In patients with lipid malabsorption the proportion of linoleic acid in serum phosphatidylcholine was subnormal, and the decrease was correlated to the decrease in lipid absorption. The concentration in serum of selenium, alpha-tocopherol, and carotene but not of ascorbic
Florian M. Reichle, Stephan Czerner, Gaby Groeger, Peter Conzen, Klaus Peter; Room 310, 10/16/2000 9: 00 AM - 10: 30 AM (PD) Comparison of Carbon Dioxide Absorption Capacity and Compound A Production in Different Soda Limes : A-1233. Anesthesiology 2000;93(3A):A-1233. doi: https://doi.org/.. Download citation file:. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Secretion and excretion of calcium by the human gastrointestinal tract. AU - Heaney, Robert P.. AU - Skillman, Thomas G.. PY - 1964/7/1. Y1 - 1964/7/1. N2 - Fecal excretion of calcium of endogenous origin has been measured in 52 studies in 33 adult human subjects, under full metabolic balance conditions. Endogenous fecal calcium averaged .130 ± .047 Gm. per day, was positively correlated with both fecal calcium and dietary calcium and was inversely correlated with fractional calcium absorption. The regression line relating endogenous fecal calcium with fractional absorption allowed estimates for total intestinal calcium secretion at both zero and 100 per cent absorption; from these estimates it was calculated that approximately 15 per cent of the total intestinal calcium secretion was nonabsorbable even under conditions when dietary calcium was completely absorbed (presumably because it enters the gut caudad of the absorption sites). Total intestinal calcium secretion, ...
With the global population rising, the need for sustainable and resource-efficiently produced proteins with nutritional and health promoting qualities has become urgent. Proteins are important macronutrients and are involved in most, if not all, biological processes in the human body. This review discusses these absorption mechanisms in the small intestine. To study intestinal transport and predict bioavailability, cell lines are widely applied as screening models and often concern Caco-2, HT-29, HT-29/MTX and T84 cells. Here, we provide an overview of the presence and activities of peptide- and amino acid transporters in these cell models. Further, inter-laboratory differences are discussed as well as the culture micro-environment, both of which may influence cell culture phenotype and performance. Finally, the value of new developments in the field, including culturing cells in 3-dimensional systems under shear stress (i.e., gut-on-chips), is highlighted. In particular, their suitability in screening
In isolated perfused small intestine, PGE2acutely increased glucose and galactose but not fructose absorption (figs 1 and 2). As glucose and galactose are absorbed via SGLT11 and fructose via GLUT5,2 this indicates that SGLT1 was involved in the stimulation of absorption by PGE2. These results are supported by the data obtained with isolated enterocytes, in which phlorizin, a specific inhibitor of SGLT1,20 markedly decreased the PGE2stimulated 3-O-[14C]methylglucose uptake (fig 3B). The different responses to PGE2 of glucose and galactose absorption on the one hand and fructose absorption on the other also ruled out stimulation via the paracellular route, which has been proposed previously.28 29 In addition, no stimulatory effect would be detectable in isolated enterocytes because, in cell suspensions, no paracellular pathways are present. This is in accordance with the previous finding of negligible paracellular intestinal glucose transport in the rat.30 Also PGE2 induced changes in ...
Heparin, a highly sulfated and acidic glycosaminoglycan, has been clinically used in parenteral formulations to prevent and/or treat thromboembolic disorders for more than 90 years. Actions of heparin are not limited to anticoagulation and antithrombosis. Rather heparin has several other important actions which include fat clearing, antitumor and anti-inflammatory effects. However, use of heparin for such applications has been limited by its route of administration. Historically, it has been believed that heparin is not absorbed following oral administration and therefore is only available for clinical use by parenteral administration. This belief has been challenged several times by our laboratory and other researchers showing heparin binding to endothelium following oral administration as well as prevention of thrombosis and lowering blood pressure, etc. However, the site of oral heparin absorption and the mechanism responsible for absorption have not been investigated. This in vitro study was ...
We have the pleasure to announce the upcoming workshop on Total Absorption Spectroscopy: present and near future, to be held at IFIC, Valencia (Spain) from December-16th to December-19th, 2019. This workshop aims to bring together the present and prospective TAS community to review the present status of the different TAS detectors (Lucrecia, DTAS & Rocinante) at the different facilities (ISOLDE, RIKEN, FAIR, JYFL...), as well as discuss the near-future experimental programme, future plans and ideas.. A session of the workshop will be devoted to instrumentation and analysis methods, within the NUSPIN working group on High-Efficiency and Fast Timing Scintillators, and is partially funded by the NUSPIN network in the framework of ENSAR2 (HORIZON2020).. ...
Bioavailability of orally administered drugs can be influenced by a number of factors including release from the formulation, dissolution, stability in the gastrointestinal (GI) environment, permeability through the gut wall and first-pass gut wall and hepatic metabolism. Although there are various enzymes in the gut
The effects of hydroxylated derivatives of vitamin D3 and aqueous extracts of Solanum malacoxylon on the intestinal absorption of calcium, phosphate, sodium, potassium and water have been studied in unstressed vitamin D-replete pigs each of which was surgically prepared beforehand with a Thirty-Vella loop of jejunum. The addition, for six 1 h periods of perfusion, of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25-(OH)2D3) or 1α-hydroxycholecalciferol at similar concentrations (3·6-3·75 pmol/ml) to the solution used to perfuse the intestinal loop caused a rapid increase in the absorption of calcium but increased the absorption of phosphate only after a delay of at least 12 h. The absorption of both calcium and phosphate reached a maximum on the day following the addition of the vitamin D derivative to the perfusate. The addition of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-(OH)D3) at a concentration of 3·75 pmol/ml was without effect on absorption except for a small increase in the absorption of phosphate on the ...
PubMed journal article: [Intestinal absorption and iron deficiency (authors transl)]. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
1. The interaction of cyclosporin A (CyA) with p-glycoprotein during intestinal uptake was investigated by a combination of in vitro experiments with human Caco-2 cells and an intubation study in healthy volunteers. 2. CyA uptake into the cells was not saturable and exhibited only a low temperature sensitivity, suggesting passive diffusion. When the permeation of CyA across Caco-2 monolayers from the apical to the basolateral side was determined, overall transport had an apparently saturable component up to a concentration of 1 microM. At higher concentrations permeation increased over-proportionally. Calculation of the kinetic parameters of apical to basolateral permeation suggested a diffusional process with a KD of 0.5 microliter min-1 per filter, which was overlayed by an active system in basolateral to apical direction with a KM of 3.8 microM and a Jmax of 6.5 picomol min-1 per filter. 3. CyA permeation was significantly higher when the drug was given from the basolateral side as compared ...
In this study, we showed that the HIEC monolayer, which differentiated from ISCs, displayed mature morphologic features consisting of polarized columnar epithelia with dense microvilli, tight junctions, and desmosomes. The looseness of the tight junctions in the HIEC monolayer was similar to that in the human small intestine, whereas those of Caco-2 cells were not, and the HIEC monolayer also had a high Papp for paracellularly absorbed compounds. Furthermore, the presence of the functions of P-gp and BCRP, and abundant mRNA expression of CNT3 made HIECs a valuable tool for studies on the intestinal absorption of these substrates.. Paracellular absorption refers to permeation across cell monolayers through pores in the tight junction, and the oral absorption of hydrophilic molecules generally relies on the paracellular pathway. In this study, the permeability values of paracellularly absorbed compounds (FD-4, atenolol, and terbutaline) were higher in HIECs than in Caco-2 cells (Table 2). These ...
I think that all that talk is nonsense..there is a reason why protein is pushed so hard in the bodybuilding culture..its because it works! Experiement with yourself..whatever your eating right now use as your baseline...go up twenty grams for a while, see if it does anything..go up fifty..go down some..see what works for you..I notice that when I get 330 grams a day i feel my muscles are much harder and fuller and I feel stronger! I weigh 220ish so thats about 1.5 grams of protein per lb of body weight...I dont listen to all those people telling me my body can only absorb this or that..eat ur protein ...
To define areas of carbohydrate metabolism which might be altered in uremia, determinations of gastric and intestinal absorption of glucose and deposition of glycogen in the liver of 9 acutely uremic and 24 control rats were performed. Residual gastric and intestinal glucose contents and hepatic glycogen contents were determined 3 hours after glucose lavage in rats fasted for 24 hours. No statistically significant difference was observed in gastrointestinal absorption of glucose and in hepatic deposition of glycogen of the uremic and control animals.. ...
PET technology is a powerful tool for in vivo analysis of the gastrointestinal absorption of orally administered drugs, based on a study of conscious and anesthetized rats, published in the February issue of the Journal of Nuclear Medicine.
Amitava Mitra, Ph.D. (Sandoz) LINK TO PRESENTATION The Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Modeling is a widely-used in silico tool in the pharmaceutical industry to predict oral drug absorption rate and extent, to simulate clinical pharmacokinetic profiles and also to support Regulatory submissions. Such mode
The investigation of social capital, absorptive capacity and the bandwagon theory on the decision-making process of public sector managers ...
The absorption of calcium in our body and its relation with food is very important. Most of us associate calcium and vitamin D that help absorption because of milk but vitamin C and A are very important in the absorption process. Actually those vitamins are in a relation to help each other in absorption and transportation Food and calcium Foods…
At latest update, relevant information on excretion into breast milk was not found. Because of pharmacokinetic data (wide distribution volume and moderately high molecular weight) excretion into breast milk in significant quantity seems to be unlikely. Based on a low oral bioavailability, concentration in the infants plasma should be nil or low, except in premature and newborn infants with a increased intestinal absorption capacity.
Diet is by far the best source of potassium. Many of the foods rich in potassium also contain an array of nutrients essential to your health. Beyond diet,...
The Isomeric Cross Section Ratios (ICSR) Method at the Investigation of the Role of Isospin at the Population Compound States Cloused Yrast Band in the Nuclear Reactions with Neutron Heavy ...
Good intestinal absorption is looked upon with favor by both researchers and clinicians. Often, it predicts lower, more affordable dosing and improved efficacy. But absorption is not always a relevant matter. There are 3 situations in which good absorption is less important: The affinity for the molecular target is high. A stronger interaction with the target (nanomolar EC50 or…
According to Jones Lang LaSalle IPs Office Market Overview for Latin America, supply of new office space in São Paulo should rise from 325,000 square metres in 2014 to 516,000 square metres in 2015. Expected net absorption is expected to rise from 100,000 square metres to 150,000 square metres. This is in the context of an overall vacancy rate of 22.8% across 3,956,000 square metres of space at the end of 2014. Class A office rents were USD20-65 per square metre per month. Source : 31 Mar 2015/JLL/ São Paulo /OFF ...
As the researchers report in the journal Angewandte Chemie, drug absorption is increased through control of the enzymatic digestion of the lipid droplets. For example, the body only absorbs fat-soluble vitamins A and D in the presence of some fat. Also, the bioavailability of many poorly water-soluble drugs increases when they are taken with high-fat meals. There are many techniques for the lipid-based delivery of pharmaceuticals, including emulsions, micelles and packaging in liposomes. These methods prevent the active ingredients from precipitating out and improve transportation to the absorption sites in the gastrointestinal tract. However, in order for the drug to become active in the body, it must be released from its lipid shell. The enzymatic decomposition of the lipid coating plays an important role in this process, but it has proven to be difficult to control. In addition, it is difficult to calculate the extent to which such lipid packaging really increases the bioavailability of a ...
Rice P. Oral Delivery and Gastrointestinal Absorption of Soluble Glucans Stimulate Increased Resistance to Infectious Challenge. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 2005;314(3):1079-1086 ...
WPI has amongst the best Organic Values3, which means it yields far more usable grams of Amino Acids than other Protein nutritional supplements. Furthermore, it has quick chain peptides which enable it to be available for absorption inside fifteen minutes immediately after use. This timing is most crucial as post-training is when your muscles are primed for nutrient and Protein absorption. Whey Isolate contains little to no find out here now Fat, Lactose or Cholesterol ...
Filtering by: Degree Ph.D. Remove constraint Degree: Ph.D. Department Dept. of Physiology Remove constraint Department: Dept. of Physiology Keyword rats Remove constraint Keyword: rats Keyword intestinal absorption Remove constraint Keyword: intestinal absorption Collection Scholars Archive Remove constraint Collection: Scholars Archive Resource type thesis Remove constraint Resource type: thesis School School of Medicine Remove constraint School: School of Medicine ...
UCL Discovery is UCLs open access repository, showcasing and providing access to UCL research outputs from all UCL disciplines.
Optimum Nutrition Gold Standard 100% Casein - Sometimes slower is better - especially when it comes to the rate of protein digestion. While rapid protein absorption is desirable immediately before or after exercise, delayed release is probably more beneficial throughout the remainder of the day. Cas
Developed specifically for serious athletes & bodybuilders, Precision Protein™ formulation focuses exclusively on protein absorption, utilization, and synthesis.
Concerns over calcium absorption are common among people who are at risk for bone-thinning diseases such as osteoporosis. If youre not absorbing...
Stress can affect digestion, and what nutrients the intestines absorb. Gas production related to nutrient absorption may increase. The intestines have a tight barrier to protect the body from (most) food related bacteria. Stress can make the intestinal barrier weaker and allow gut bacteria to enter the body.. ...
1. The localisation of intestinal calcium absorption in the rat was studied by means of radioactive45Calcium. Rats were killed 20, 40, and 60 min after oral administration of45CaCl2-solution.45Ca-acti...
The new JB Academy range of general purpose digital water baths from Grant incorporate Set and Forget™ technology for fast heat and accurate temperature control and simple to use controls with a bright and clear display. Available in 3 sizes from 5L to 18
Absorption of Digested Foods: Download it here: absorption-of-digested-foods.ppt Class Notes to fill in here (pdf download) - Virtual Fetal Pig dissection (digestive system) from Whitman Zooming in - Intestine to epithelial cells (with comedy Lancashire accent) from UCLans Sonic Nursing project Villi structure from 3d4 Medical.com Lots of digestion and absorption animations from Nutrition.jbpub.com (passive transport,…
Click on a genes description to view its network relationships with genes known to be involved in intestinal cholesterol absorption ...
Demaks contains a fat-soluble vitamin D3, that helps to maintain normal growth and development of bones for children, contributes to the normal health of teeth and muscles, promotes normal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, helps to maintain normal blood calcium levels and contributes to the normal functioning of the immune system.. ...
The bioavailability of the food we eat is the most important factor in whether your body will easily absorb its nutrients. Just because...
People make use of quite a few chemical reactions to breakdown tissue protein; through the mouth and thru the digestive tract, which in the end will allow your body to receive a steady stream of amino acids which might be appropriately processed for max utilization. You see, On the subject of amino acid absorption, flooding the bloodstream can result in protein to become squandered--because the human processing components cannot keep up. Imagine it like a muscle mass-setting up assembly line which is turned on much too rapidly, While amino acids (or building blocks) are relocating so fast down the assembly line (bloodstream) that a entire muscle mass protein cannot be designed ...
WHY BIOGANIX? - Our Daily Essential Enzyme formula has 18 enzymes, is non-GMO, and is made in the USA, in GMP Certified and FDA Registered Facilities to the highest standards; All our products are 3rd Party Lab verified; We stand behind our products with a 100% Money Back Satisfaction Guarantee! Click Add to Cart Today ...
Slim Fast Boosters Carb Cutter, with green tea extract, helps reduce calorie uptake and limits carb and sugar absorption. Take Slim Fast Carb Cutter before a carborhydrate-rich meal or snack to help limit carb and sugar absorption.
Statements on this site have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. Do not take this product for more than 2 weeks, or if symptoms reoccur, unless directed by a doctor ...
When infections and inflammations happen in the intestinal tract, nutrient absorption is greatly reduced, and challenges like diarrhea, mortality and poor...
Looking for online definition of carbohydrate absorption in the Medical Dictionary? carbohydrate absorption explanation free. What is carbohydrate absorption? Meaning of carbohydrate absorption medical term. What does carbohydrate absorption mean?
Transitions Carbohydrate Absorption Inhibitor - Purchase Transitions Carbohydrate Absorption Inhibitor - Market America are the finest quality products you will find. Become a Transitions Carbohydrate Absorption Inhibitor Distributor.
Looking for online definition of intestinal absorption in the Medical Dictionary? intestinal absorption explanation free. What is intestinal absorption? Meaning of intestinal absorption medical term. What does intestinal absorption mean?
BACKGROUND: The nitric oxide (NO) precursor L-arginine has been shown to produce variable effects on intestinal absorptive function, including ion transport. AIMS: To determine whether there is an optimal concentration of L-arginine, promoting proabsorptive effects from oral rehydration solutions (ORS) with 90 or 60 mM sodium. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In vivo perfusion of rat jejunum with determination of net water absorption, unidirectional fluid exchanges, sodium and calcium transport, and glucose absorption. RESULTS: L-Arginine (1 mM) added to the 90 mM sodium ORS increased intestinal absorption of both sodium and water. Higher concentrations of L-arginine (2 to 10 mM) lacked this stimulatory effect. At 20 mM, L-arginine decreased sodium absorption below baseline. With a 60 mM sodium ORS, 2 mM L-arginine had a maximal fluid and electrolyte proabsorptive effect. At 20 mM L-arginine, net water absorption was indistinguishable from that obtained in the absence of L-arginine, and lower than with 2 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of 1,25-(OH)2D3 on jejunal absorption of magnesium in patients with chronic renal disease. AU - Schmulen, A. C.. AU - Lerman, M.. AU - Pak, C. Y C. PY - 1980/1/1. Y1 - 1980/1/1. N2 - These studies were performed to see if jejunal malabsorption of magnesium in patients with chronic renal disease was influenced by therapy with 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH)2D3; 2 μg/day by mouth for 7 days]. This treatment restored normal serum concentrations of the vitamin D metabolite from 0.9 ± 0.2 to 4.2 ± 0.6 ng/dl. Jejunal absorption of magnesium, measured by a triple-lumen constant-perfusion technique, was enhanced in each of the seven patients by this therapy. The mean value rose from 0.04 ± 0.02 to 0.13 ± 0.02 mmol.30 cm-1.h-1. This last value is similar to the magnesium absorption rate in untreated normal subjects. These results demonstrate that magnesium absorption in the human jejunum is dependent on vitamin D, and they show that 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 therapy in ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of High cholesterol absorption efficiency and rapid biliary secretion of chylomicron remnant cholesterol enhance cholelithogenesis in gallstone-susceptible mice. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
inproceedings{2127976, abstract = {Yeast-extracts derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be used as feed additive to improve animal health by promoting intestinal flora and by stimulating the immune system (Patterson, 2005). The impact of such feed additives on intestinal absorption of antibiotics has however not been described yet. T-2 toxin is an emerging Fusarium mycotoxin, that can be present as feed contaminant and for which it is known it disturbs the intestinal integrity. It was therefore the aim of the present study to determine the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of orally administered chlortetracycline in pigs after intake of 100 {\textmu}g/kg T-2 toxin contaminated feed whether or not supplemented with a commercially available yeast-extract feed additive. Twenty-four 9-week-old pigs (Landrace) were randomized into a control group (n = 6) and three experimental groups (each n = 6). After an acclimatization period of one week, the groups were given respectively blank feed (control ...
Lookup HS Codes for Malta xiii 70.19.32 Of low moisture absorption capacity, intended for certain types of aircraft. Avalara LandedCosts helps determine your duty rates and other import taxes for Malta.
This study analysed the moisture absorption kinetics of FruitPad embedded with different concentrations of fructose with further application of such pads in packaging of fresh strawberries. The FruitPad was exposed to different storage conditions (temperature and RH) and moisture absorption kinetics was gravimetrically determined over 5 days of storage. FruitPad with 30% fructose showed highest amount of moisture absorption (0.94 g of water/g of pad) at 20 °C and 100% RH. The Weibull model combined with the Flory-Huggins model adequately described changes in moisture content of the FruitPad with respect to storage time and humidity (R2 = 93-96%). The FruitPad containing fructose minimized in-package condensation compared to the pad without fructose. Weight loss of packaged strawberry was less than 0.9% which was much below the acceptable limit of 6% for strawberry ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Distribution of calcium absorption in middle-aged women. AU - Heaney, R. P.. AU - Recker, R. R.. PY - 1986/1/1. Y1 - 1986/1/1. N2 - Distribution of true fractional absorption of calcium in estrogen-deprived, nonosteoporotic, middle-aged women was examined in 273 person-studies, using a double-tracer method. Fractional absorption averaged 0.266 (± 0.096). Calcium intake averaged 0.802 g/day (± 0.419) and urine calcium, 0.144 g/day (± 0.062). Fractional absorption was inversely correlated with intake. Using parameters of the regression equation for the two variables, each absorption value was adjusted to the mean intake of the group so that absorption could be evaluated apart from the effect of intake. The distribution of such diet-adjusted values revealed that 55% of these estrogen-deprived women had insufficient absorption to maintain calcium balance at an intake equal to the 1980 RDA. Nearly one-fourth would still be in negative balance at an intake of 1.5 g/day. Since urine ...
Cholesterol is a vital component of the human body. It stabilizes cell membranes and is the precursor of bile acids, vitamin D and steroid hormones. However, cholesterol accumulation in the bloodstream (hypercholesterolemia) can cause atherosclerotic plaques within artery walls, leading to heart attacks and strokes. The efficiency of cholesterol absorption in the small intestine is of great interest because human and animal studies have linked cholesterol absorption with plasma concentration of total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Cholesterol absorption is highly regulated and influenced by particular compounds in the food supply. Therefore, it is desirable to learn more about natural food components that inhibit cholesterol absorption so that food ingredients and dietary supplements can be developed for consumers who wish to manage their plasma cholesterol levels by non-pharmacological means. Food components thus far identified as inhibitors of cholesterol absorption include phytosterols,
Water absorption test is the measurement of moisture quantity that roofing tile may absorb. If water absorption is too high, the tile may suffer from cracking which is not desirable. So, this test reflects the suitability of the tile for application; roofing tile need to have substantially low absorption capacity, especially in environments subjected to […]
Several published studies have shown that the three options are effective in suppressing PTH. However, clinical studies indicate that non-selective VDRAs can lead to dose-limited hyperphosphataemia and hypercalcaemia. The sVDRAs have less effect on intestinal calcium absorption and calcium and phosphorus mobilization in bone, leading to fewer episodes of hypercalcaemia and hyperphosphatemia.8 Calcimimetics are also very effective, although they are often associated with hypocalcaemia.9. One of the current problems in defining SHPT is the diversity of procedures for measuring PTH. Because of this, different guidelines refer to different normal ranges for PTH in dialysis patients. Nevertheless, as recognized by the KDIGO guidelines, clinical judgment in SHPT should be based not only on the absolute PTH level within the normal range, but also on the progressive tendency for an increase in levels. The rational histological basis for considering this tendency is progressive transformation of ...
III. MUCOSAL INTEGRITY Studies of gastrointestinal physiology reveal an intricate interaction between central and peripheral nerves, hormones, and peptides inside and outside the intestinal cell. This is exemplified by the different phases of vagal stimulation, made known to the rest of the world by Pavlovs classic studies in dogs in the 19th century. To use a slight understatement: Our knowledge has expanded since the work of Pavlov. We know now that physiological intestinal homeostasis is mediated through several mechanisms, whereby the way in which cellular mucosal defense is achieved is of utmost importance for maintaining mucosal integrity and thus also very relevant to drug absorption. 2. 3. If there is an impaired secretion of bile acids into the lumen (obstructive jaundice, intrahepatic cholestasis, primary biliary cirrhosis) If there is an extensive bile acid loss from the lumen, higher than the synthetic capacity in the liver If bile acids are deconjugated in the intestinal lumen ...
This paper studies impact energy absorption characteristics of FRTP deep drawn structures having three representative shapes, i.e., hemi-shere,...
Results: Aspirin increased plasma concentrations of gliadin after oral administration but had no effect in the closed intestinal loop study. An in situ intestinal re-circulating perfusion study showed that FITC-labeled gliadin was absorbed similarly to FD-40. Aspirin increased absorption of both intact and pepsin-digested gliadin, with a more significant effect on absorption of pepsin-treated gliadin. Immunoblotting showed that most gliadin was absorbed in intact form. When the gliadin fraction was extracted from rat plasma after gavage and injected intradermally into gliadin-sensitized rats, EBD extravasation was observed at injection sites in a gliadin dose-dependent manner ...
Results: Aspirin increased plasma concentrations of gliadin after oral administration but had no effect in the closed intestinal loop study. An in situ intestinal re-circulating perfusion study showed that FITC-labeled gliadin was absorbed similarly to FD-40. Aspirin increased absorption of both intact and pepsin-digested gliadin, with a more significant effect on absorption of pepsin-treated gliadin. Immunoblotting showed that most gliadin was absorbed in intact form. When the gliadin fraction was extracted from rat plasma after gavage and injected intradermally into gliadin-sensitized rats, EBD extravasation was observed at injection sites in a gliadin dose-dependent manner ...
Intestinal Permeability Assessment is a powerful noninvasive gastrointestinal test assessment of small intestinal absorption and barrier function in the bowel. The small intestine uniquely functions as a digestive/absorptive organ for nutrients as well as a powerful immune and mechanical barrier against excessive absor
The Absorption Kinetics of Ketoconazole Plays a Major Role in Explaining the Reported Variability in the Level of Interaction with Midazolam: Interplay Between Formulation and Inhibition of Gut Wall and Liver Metabolism ...
Purchase Intestinal Absorption of Metal Ions, Trace Elements and Radionuclides - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780080157214, 9781483160047
In vitro characterization of the intestinal absorption of methylmercury using a Caco-2 cell model.: Methylmercury (CH3Hg) is one of the forms of mercury found i
Absorption rate is average number of homes sold per month over a particular period of time. The months to sell is a reflection of the absorption rate, how long it will take to sell the current inventory at the said absorption rate. The Pending Ratio is the number of homes currently under contract compared to the number of homes available for sale . This is a very interesting way to look at the market, as of today: Average List Price $485,243 Days on the market 134 Median List Price $374,000 Days on the market 95 Price Range Active Listings Monthly Absorption Rate Pending Past week/Total Months to sell Current Inventory Pending Ratio Up to $199,999 24 8.6 5/26 2.8 108% 200,000-299,999 124 31.8 3/50 3.9 40% 300,000-399,999 95 17.2 1/11 5.5 11.8% 400,000-499,999 53 7.1 1/8 6.2 15.1% 500,000-599,999 37 4.3 0/3 8.6 8% 600,000-699,999 28 1.9 0/3 14.7 11% 700,000-799,999 22 .9 1/3 24.4 14% 800,000-899,999 9 .8 0/0 11.3 0% 900,000-999,999 4 .4 0/0 10.0 0% 1,000,000-1,999,999 23 .9 0/1 25.6 4% 2,000,000+ 5 .2 0
Aims. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) sausage tube waves are excited in magnetic flux tubes by p-mode forcing. These tube waves carry energy away from the p-mode cavity which results in a source of absorption. We wish to see the effect of an ensemble of randomly distributed thin magnetic flux tubes on the absorption of p-modes for the model plage region and also study the effect of the spacial weighting function on the theoretically calculated absorption coefficients. Methods. We calculate the absorption coefficients of p modes for a model plage, assumed to consist of an ensemble of many thin magnetic flux tubes with randomly distributed plasma properties. Each magnetic flux tube in the ensemble is modelled as axisymmetric, non-interacting, vertically oriented and untwisted. Results. We find that the magnitude and the form of the absorption coefficient is sensitive to the plasma-beta of the tubes which is consistent with previous work. Both the random distribution used to model the ensemble of flux ...
Part I focuses on in vitro and in vivo measurements of physicochemical properties, such as membrane permeability and ionization. Part II discusses solubility and gastrointestinal absorption, while the third part is devoted to metabolism and excretory mechanisms. The much revised and expanded part IV surveys current in silico approaches to predict drug properties needed to estimate the bioavailability of any new drug candidate. The final part shows how poor bioavailability may be improved by various approaches during the development process ...
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/01/120120003510.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily%2Ftop_news%2Ftop_health+%28ScienceDaily%3A+Top+News+--+Top+Health%29 ScienceDaily (Jan. 20, 2012) - A groundbreaking study conducted by Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute (CHORI) Senior Scientist Elizabeth Theil, PhD, is the first to reveal the existence of at least two independent mechanisms for iron absorption from non-meat sources-and a potential treatment for iron deficiency, the most common nutrient deficiency worldwide. Dr. Theils…
To support rapid growth and a high metabolic rate, infants require enormous amounts of nutrients. The small intestine must have the complete array of transporters that absorb the nutrients released from digested food. Failure of intestinal transporters to function properly often presents symptoms as …
Higher level of apparent absorption and retention of zinc in lambs receiving the organic form of zinc (Zn-glycine) was showed. Korniewicz et al. [7] also stated that zinc apparent absorption and retention of zinc were higher when applying amino-acid zinc chelate in lamb feeding than when zinc oxide was used. The research results related to apparent absorption of zinc were higher than the values obtained by Kinal et al. [5] after supplying sheep with zinc bioplexes. S upczy ska [13] in experiment conducted on lambs indicated that animals receiving amino acid chelates (Zn-lysine, Zn-metionine and Zn-glycine) had higher apparent absorption and retention of zinc then animals receiving zinc oxide and apparent absorption and retention of zinc by lambs received amino acid chelates of Zn were vary and was the higher for Zn-Lysine. On the other hand Spears [15] in his research on lambs stated that the apparent absorption of zinc from Zn-methionine and from the oxide was comparable and Zn retention from ...
Biosketch. Chris Porters research is focused in the area of drug absorption and drug delivery. His major interests are in understanding, quantifying and predicting the mechanisms of absorption of drug molecules and drug delivery systems after oral and parenteral delivery. His group has contributed substantially to the drug delivery literature (,220 peer reviewed papers and book chapters; ,16,000 citations; h-index 70, Google Scholar). Porters group has published widely on the mechanisms of absorption and disposition of small molecular weight drugs and high molecular weight proteins and nanoparticulate carriers such as nanoparticles and dendrimers. His group has a specific interest in using endogenous lipid transport pathways to promote the delivery of poorly water soluble drugs. This includes the use of lipids to enhance oral drug absorption, the use of lipid-mimetic prodrugs to target the lymphatic system and the potential role of intracellular lipid transport systems to promote drug ...
hello leela...... the physicochemical factors affecting drug absorption are. drug solubility and dissolution. particle siza and surface area. polymorphism and amorphism. pseudopolymorphism. salt form of the drug lipophilicity of drug. pka and pH value. drug stability. reference: brahmankar, page no.18 edition 1995. ...
In some previous papers it has been shown by the author and others that saturated compounds of most substances in the vapour state show continuous absorption. A typical example is SO3-vapour, which was recently studied by the author and which enabled him to make an accurate estimation of the heat of dissociation of oxygen. In the present work, the absorption spectrum of N2O was investigated with a view to determining the heat of dissociation of nitrogen. Leifson was the first to investigate the absorption spectrum of N2O gas and found that the gas shows no selective absorption in the Schumann region. He states that the absorption is in the form of two continuous bands, the first extending from λ 2000 to λ 1680 and the second from λ 1550 beyond the range of observation. Recently Wulf and Melvin showed that when N2O is illuminated with light of wave-length λ 2300, it is decomposed photochemically into NO and N; they also noticed that N2O possesses no band absorption. ...
Lexaria Bioscience Corp. has developed and out-licenses its disruptive technology that promotes healthier ingestion methods, lower overall dosing and higher effectiveness of lipophilic active molecules. Lexaria has multiple patents pending in over 40 countries around the world and was granted its first patents in the USA and in Australia related to edible forms of cannabinoids. Lexarias technology provides increases in intestinal absorption rates; more rapid delivery to the bloodstream; and important taste-masking benefits, for orally administered bioactive molecules including cannabinoids, vitamins, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), nicotine and other molecules.. ...
Absorption of electrolytes is dependent on solution pH. At pH ≤2, amphoteric resins play a role as strong base resins; the absorption of electrolytes takes place according to the anion exchange mechanism, At pH2~7, the molecular sorption by breaking of innersalt bonds increases gradually. At pH≥7,the principal absorption is the molecular sorption by breaking innersalt bonds as well as ion exchange.At the same time, the ion selectivity obviously increases, which may be useful in the softening of concentrated NaCl solution.
The dynamic interactions of metabolism and secretion, and the role of transporters on drug absorption have been under considerable debate. The thorough understanding of intestinal processes would be learnt through modeling of intestinal data only in the absence of the contribution from the liver. Recent studies on the interactions between the P450s and Pgp in vitro have led to the conclusion that intestinal metabolism is enhanced by the secretory action of P-glycoprotein due to an increase in the mean residence time (MRT) of drug in the intestine (Benet and Cummins, 2001; Cummins et al., 2001; Johnson et al., 2001). Theoretical examinations on Caco-2 cells and intestinal vascular perfusion systems support the notion that the mean residence time was increased, but metabolism under linear conditions was in fact decreased in the presence of secretion, even though the mean residence time has increased; under nonlinear metabolism, instances exist whereby the rate of metabolite accrual may increase, ...
M1.BC.74) A 12-year-old boy presents to the pediatrician for the dermatological changes seen in Figure A that began two weeks ago after he begun his first day of football practice. The skin eruptions appeared to be localized solely to sun exposed areas. The boy notes that he has also had diarrhea, headaches, and confusion appearing at the same time. On examination, the pediatrician notes ataxia and tremors in the boy. A urinalysis revealed elevated levels of tyrosine, leucine, valine, isoleucine, tryptophan, glycine, alanine, and phenylalanine. Which of the following vitamin deficiencies would produce a similar clinical presentation? ...
Fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K need fat in order to be absorbed by our body. Coconut oil and nutrient absorption work particularly well together.
To verify the acceptability of the roofing product characteristics and process capability, some daily QC test results have also been analyzed. Water absorption (24 hours) average was 1.12% while the maximum admissible is 3%; values were between 0.50 and 2.17%. All data (approximately 5500) have been summarized graphically. None of the samples showed any signs of cracking, spalling, or other forms of deterioration. However, the frequency and amplitude are not uniform, the curve having a random aspect, which makes difficult to do estimations or find an empirical formula. Cuvinte cheie: wood plastic composites, polymers, plastics, water absorption. URL: http://www.forestprod.org/confwoodfiber07.html. ...
D7433 - 13 Standard Test Method for Measuring Surface Water Absorption of Overlaid Wood-Based Panels , wood-based panels, water absorption, overlays, Cobb Ring,
Ezetimibe interferes with the gastrointestinal absorption not only of cholesterol, but also of other molecular entities that could conceivably affect the growth of cancer cells. The fact that the combined data from all three trials showed an increase in cancer mortality with ezetimibe should not be assumed to be a chance finding until further data are in. It is appropriate that SHARP and IMPROVE-IT continue. Careful follow-up of the patients in these trials will be essential, and other existing data sets on ezetimibe-treated patients should be analyzed for cancer end points. The Food and Drug Administration has already announced that during the next few months it will conduct its own analysis of the potential cancer hazard of ezetimibe ...
were fed the unlabelled diet for 20 d and then the labelled diet for 10 d while wearing a neck collar to avoid caecotrophy (group COLL), in order to discriminate it from direct intestinal absorption. At day 30 animals were slaughtered and caecal bacteria and liver samples taken. The 15N enrichment in amino acids of caecal bacteria and liver were determined by GC-combustion/isotope ratio MS. Lysine showed a higher enrichment in caecal microflora (0·925 atom% excess, APE) than liver (0·215 APE) in group ISOT animals, confirming the double origin of body lysine: microbial and dietary. The COLL group showed a much lower enrichment in tissue lysine (0·007 (SE 0·0029) APE for liver). Any enrichment in the latter animals was due to direct absorption of microbial lysine along the digestive tract, since recycling of microbial protein (caecotrophy) was avoided. In such conditions liver enrichment was low, indicating a small direct intestinal absorption. From the ratio of [15N]lysine enrichment between ...
Gastrointestinal motility is one of the most important factors that can influence drug absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of the present s
Assessment of the toxicokinetic behavior No studies are available investigating the toxicokinetic properties of the test substance. The test substance (molecular weight of 278.4 g/mol) is a clear, yellow to brown viscous liquid (BASF, 2012) with a water solubility of 0.04 g/L (Ciba-Geigy, 1985) and a vapor pressure of 0.0025 Pa at 25°C (Ciba-Geigy, 1985). The log Pow was calculated to be 5.8 for the neutral, undissoziated form (EPI Suite, BASF, 2012), and is further characterized by pH dependency, ranging from 4.6 at pH 4 to 1.7 at pH 9 (SciFinder, 2011). Absorption Absorption via the gastrointestinal tract: Absorption through the gastrointestinal tract is favored for molecules with a molecular weight below 500 g/mol (ECHA GD 7c, 2008), thus the test articles molecular weight is favorable for absorption after oral exposure. Further criteria in favor of absorption are hydrophilicity and a moderate log POW value (between -1 and 4). The test article is hydrophobic and therefore not very soluble ...
All CMI scheduled meetings are being held virtually. CMI faculty, staff and students should continue to check the Princeton University homepage for University-wide updates.. ...
Free, official coding info for 2018 ICD-10-CM E74.3 - includes detailed rules, notes, synonyms, ICD-9-CM conversion, index and annotation crosswalks, DRG grouping and more.
There are several ways a company can allocate overhead costs to products produced or services provided. Two of these methods are absorption costing and variable costing. This assignment will allow you to explore the two methods of costing and compare/contrast the different uses of each costing system.. Using the module readings and the Argosy University online library resources, research absorption and variable costing. Use your research and/or your experiences as a working professional to complete this assignment.. Respond to the following:. Explain the differences between absorption costing and variable costing. Explain, with the help of an example, how a company could use a variable costing system, as well as an absorption costing system. You have the option of using the company you work for as an example. Explain which method is better for the company being discussed. Write your initial response in 300-500 words. Your response should be thorough and address all components of the discussion ...
Moisture Absorption Price - Select 2018 high quality Moisture Absorption Price products in best price from certified Chinese PVC Sheet manufacturers, Moisture Absorption Fabric suppliers, wholesalers and factory on Made-in-China.com
Halsted, CH (December 1989). "The intestinal absorption of dietary folates in health and disease". Journal of the American ... "The intestinal absorption of folates". Annual Review of Physiology. 76: 251-74. doi:10.1146/annurev-physiol-020911-153251. PMC ... A deficiency of folate can occur when the body's need for folate is increased, when dietary intake or absorption of folate is ... Important steps in the absorption are reduction of the polyglutamate chain by pteroylpolyglutamate hydrolase (gamma-glutamyl ...
"Intestinal absorption of sugars". Physiological Reviews, Vol. 40, 1960, pp. 789-825. Robert K. Crane, D. Miller and I. Bihler ... "In vitro method for the study of the rate of intestinal absorption of sugars". Journal of Applied Physiology, Vol. 12, 1958, pp ... Daphne A Christie, E M. Tansey (eds). "Intestinal absorption". Wellcome Witnesses to Twentieth Century Medicine, Vol. 8, The ... "Studies on the organization of the brush border in intestinal epithelial cells VI. Glucose binding to isolated intestinal brush ...
Vukavic T (May 1983). "Intestinal absorption of IgA in the newborn". Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. 2 (2 ... which binds to iron and inhibits the growth of intestinal bacteria).[121][122] ...
Bummer, Paul (2012). Gastro Intestinal Tract and Oral Drug Absorption. University of Kentucky.. ... "MODELING OF INTESTINAL DRUG ABSORPTION: ROLES OF TRANSPORTERS AND METABOLIC ENZYMES (FOR THE GILLETTE REVIEW SERIES)".. .mw- ...
2000). Intestinal Absorption. Wellcome Witnesses to Contemporary Medicine. History of Modern Biomedicine Research Group. ISBN ...
2000). Intestinal Absorption. Wellcome Witnesses to Contemporary Medicine. History of Modern Biomedicine Research Group. ISBN ... John Ramsey Bronk (December 20, 1929 - December 31, 2007) was an American biologist, specialising in the study of intestinal ...
Therefore, PTHrP does not increase intestinal calcium absorption. Genetics[edit]. Four alternatively spliced transcript ...
... is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and ... Bouillon R, Van Cromphaut S, Carmeliet G (February 2003). "Intestinal calcium absorption: Molecular vitamin D mediated ... Being deficient in vitamin D can cause intestinal absorption of dietary calcium to fall to 15%.[20] When not deficient, an ... One of the most important roles of vitamin D is to maintain skeletal calcium balance by promoting calcium absorption in the ...
Reid EW (1901). "Intestinal absorption of maltose". The Journal of Physiology. 26 (6): 427-435. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.1901. ... In 1902 Reid demonstrated the importance of NaCl in absorption. ... This pioneer in studies on epithelial transport was in many ... Reid invented a recording osmometer, and at Dundee investigated secretion and absorption and the processes of diffusion, ... Reid EW (1892). "Report on experiments upon "absorption without osmosis."". British Medical Journal. 1 (1624): 323-326. doi: ...
... reduced intestinal calcium absorption; some protection against bone loss by obesity; and similar skeletal response to therapy ...
CRANE, RK (Oct 1960). "Intestinal absorption of sugars". Physiological Reviews. 40 (4): 789-825. doi:10.1152/physrev.1960.40. ... Its lining is specialised for the absorption by enterocytes of small nutrient molecules which have been previously digested by ... While the length of the entire intestinal tract contains lymphoid tissue, only the ileum has abundant Peyer's patches, which ... The lining of the jejunum is specialized for the absorption by enterocytes of small nutrient particles which have been ...
"Altered intestinal absorption of L-thyroxine caused by coffee". Thyroid. Mary Ann Liebert. 18 (3): 293-301. doi:10.1089/thy. ... There are foods and other substances that can interfere with absorption of thyroxine. Other substances that reduce absorption ... A study of eight women suggested that coffee may interfere with the intestinal absorption of levothyroxine, though at a level ... Absorption of orally administered levothyroxine from the gastrointestinal tract ranges from 40 to 80%, with the majority of the ...
Functional importance of DGAT1 in the intestinal fat absorption". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 283 (44): 29802-11. doi: ... and is speculated to relate to abnormal fat absorption and buildup of DGAT1 substrates in the intestinal mucosa. ... DGAT is considered the terminal and only committed step in triglyceride synthesis and to be essential for intestinal absorption ... and duodenum where it reassembles triglycerides that were decomposed through lipolysis in the process of intestinal absorption ...
1978). Intestinal absorption of fluoride preparations. Laryngoscope. 88:1918-21. Deka RC, Ghosh P & Kacker SK. (1977). ...
When a modest dose of a folate is given by mouth, there is impaired intestinal folate absorption without other signs of ... Visentin, M; Diop-Bove, N; Zhao, R; Goldman, ID (2014). "The intestinal absorption of folates". Annual Review of Physiology. 76 ... Extensive clinical studies established that HFM is due to (i) impaired intestinal absorption of folates and (ii) impaired ... that drives intestinal folate absorption. PCFT is expressed to a lesser extent elsewhere in the small and large intestine along ...
1. Prediction of intestinal absorption". Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 88 (8): 807-14. doi:10.1021/js9804011. PMID ... "Polar molecular surface properties predict the intestinal absorption of drugs in humans". Pharmaceutical Research. 14 (5): 568- ...
Ozawa, Y.; Mizushima, Y.; Koyama, I.; Akimoto, M.; Yamagata, Y.; Hayashi, H.; Murayama, H. (1986). "Intestinal absorption ... Absorption and metabolism[edit]. Absorption[edit]. CoQ10 is a crystalline powder insoluble in water. Absorption follows the ... "Improvement in intestinal coenzyme Q10 absorption by food intake". Yakugaku Zasshi. 127 (8): 1251-1254. doi:10.1248/yakushi. ... Facilitating drug absorption by increasing its solubility in water is a common pharmaceutical strategy and also has been shown ...
"IEC-6 cells are an appropriate model of intestinal iron absorption in rats". The Journal of Nutrition. 132 (4): 680-7. doi: ... "Intestinal expression of genes involved in iron absorption in humans". American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and ... Ferroportin is found on the basolateral membranes of intestinal epithelia of mammals, including:[11][12] ...
Cohn JS, Kamili A, Wat E, Chung RW, Tandy S (February 2010). "Dietary phospholipids and intestinal cholesterol absorption". ... which compete with cholesterol for absorption in the intestines, reduce the absorption of both dietary and bile cholesterol. A ... When intestinal lining cells absorb phytosterols, in place of cholesterol, they usually excrete the phytosterol molecules back ... LDL receptors are used up during cholesterol absorption, and its synthesis is regulated by SREBP, the same protein that ...
Lee BH; Choi SH; Kim HJ; Park SD; Rhim H; Kim HC; Hwang SH; Nah SY (2018). "Gintonin Absorption in Intestinal Model Systems". J ...
Identification of an intestinal heme transporter. Cell. 2005 Sep 9;122(5):789-801.According to Google Scholar, this article has ... Siderophore mediated absorption of iron. InSiderophores from Microorganisms and Plants 1984 (pp. 25-87). Springer, Berlin, ...
Asatoor, A. M.; Bandoh, J. K.; Lant, A. F.; Milne, M. D.; Navab, F. (1970). "Intestinal absorption of carnosine and its ... Milne, M. D.; Asatoor, A. M.; Edwards, K. D.; Loughridge, L. W. (1961). "The intestinal absorption defect in cystinuria". Gut. ... Asatoor, A. M.; Harrison, B. D.; Milne, M. D.; Prosser, D. I. (1972). "Intestinal absorption of an arginine-containing peptide ... "Intestinal absorption of two dipeptides in Hartnup disease". Gut. 11 (5): 380-387. doi:10.1136/gut.11.5.380. PMC 1411553. PMID ...
The lemon juice improves intestinal iron absorption. The iron fish is also used while cooking rice or stews. Approximately 92% ...
Vukavic T (May 1983). "Intestinal absorption of IgA in the newborn". Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. 2 (2 ... which binds to iron and inhibits the growth of intestinal bacteria). Exclusive breastfeeding till six months of age helps to ...
Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) Fujisawa, T; Riby J; Kretchmer N (1991). "Intestinal absorption of fructose in the rat ... Several studies have measured the intestinal absorption of fructose using the hydrogen breath test. These studies indicate that ... After absorption, it enters the hepatic portal vein and is directed toward the liver. The mechanism of fructose absorption in ... Ravich, WJ; Bayless TM; Thomas, M (1983). "Fructose: incomplete intestinal absorption in humans". Gastroenterology. 84 (1): 26- ...
Hahn, P. F.; Bale, W. F.; Ross, J. F.; Balfour, W. M.; Whipple, G. H. (1943). "Radioactive Iron Absorption by Gastro-Intestinal ... Its absorption, transportation, and utilization". J. Exp. Med. 69 (5): 739-53. doi:10.1084/jem.69.5.739. PMC 2133749. PMID ... Its absorption, transportation, and utilization". J. Exp. Med. 69 (5): 739-53. doi:10.1084/jem.69.5.739. PMC 2133749. PMID ... Its absorption, transportation, and utilization A Combined Voltage Regulating and Quenching Circuit for the Geiger‐Müller ...
I. Intestinal iron absorption and its regulation". American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. 289 ( ... This can result due to a lack of dietary iron or consumption of foods that inhibit iron absorption. Absorption inhibition has ... Absorption of iron from animal products, and some plant products, is in the form of heme iron, and is more efficient, allowing ... The absorption of dietary iron is a variable and dynamic process. The amount of iron absorbed compared to the amount ingested ...
Lark-Horovitz, Karl, & Leng, Herta R. (1941). Radioactive indicators, enteric coatings and intestinal absorption. Nature. 147: ... enteric coatings and intestinal absorption. A new method of testing enteric coatings. On the Existence of Single Magnetic Poles ...
One of the recognized manifestations of renal insufficiency is a defect in intestinal absorption of calcium (1). There is ... Intestinal Absorption Intestinal Calcium Absorption Renal Calcium Lanthanum Chloride Duodenal Loop These keywords were added by ... Coburn, J. W.; Hartenbower, D.L.; Erickman, A.S.; Massry, S.G., and Kopple, J.D.: Intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium ... Malluche, H.H.; Werner, E. and Ritz, E.: Intestinal absorption of calcium and whole-body calcium retention in incipient and ...
Delayed intestinal absorption of levothyroxine.. Benvenga S1, Bartolone L, Squadrito S, Lo Giudice F, Trimarchi F. ... Gastrointestinal or other diseases and drugs known to interfere with the intestinal absorption of L-T4 were not the cause of ... of the maximal absorption occurred at 110 min vs 45 min in EC and 50 min in HC; (iii) the maximal increment in T4 absorption ... The gastrointestinal absorption test of L-T4 (1000 micrograms) was performed in four patients; in three patients it revealed ...
Purchase Intestinal Absorption of Metal Ions, Trace Elements and Radionuclides - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN ... Absorption of Specific Metal Ions. The Intestinal Absorption of Sodium and Potassium The Intestinal Absorption of Calcium ... Intestinal Absorption of Magnesium Absorption of Copper from the Gastrointestinal Tract The Intestinal Absorption of Zinc ... Cobalt Absorption. Gastrointestinal Absorption, Distribution, and Excretion of Radiocesium Intestinal Absorption of Strontium ...
Pinoresinol of olive oil decreases vitamin D intestinal absorption.. Goncalves A1, Margier M1, Tagliaferri C2, Lebecque P2, ... However, data regarding the interactions occurring at the intestinal level between vitamin D and phenols from olive oil are ... on vitamin D absorption in rats. We then investigated the effects of 3 main olive oil phenols (oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol and ...
Intestinal absorption of magnesium from food and supplements.. K D Fine, C A Santa Ana, J L Porter, and J S Fordtran Department ... Although absorption increased with each increment in intake, fractional magnesium absorption fell progressively (from 65% at ... Net magnesium absorption was measured in normal subjects after they ingested a standard meal supplemented with 0, 10, 20, 40, ... The purpose of this study was to measure magnesium absorption over the wide range of intakes to which the intestine may be ...
... can inhibit intestinal cholesterol absorption. Limited evidence from clinical studies suggests that dietary PL supplementation ... Further research is however required to establish whether the ability of PLs to inhibit cholesterol absorption is of ... Dietary Phospholipids and Intestinal Cholesterol Absorption by Jeffrey S. Cohn *, Alvin Kamili , Elaine Wat , Rosanna W. S. ... Cohn, J.S.; Kamili, A.; Wat, E.; Chung, R.W.S.; Tandy, S. Dietary Phospholipids and Intestinal Cholesterol Absorption. ...
Fractional Calcium Absorption. Omeprazole. Stable Calcium Isotopes. Proton Pump Inhibitor. Intestinal Absorption of Calcium. ... Change in Intestinal Calcium Absorption From Baseline to One Month [ Time Frame: change in calcium absorption from baseline to ... The purpose of this study is to measure the effect of omeprazole on intestinal calcium absorption in postmenopausal women. ... The primary study outcome is the change in intestinal calcium absorption following omeprazole therapy 40 mg daily for 30 days. ...
Intestinal absorption and iron deficiency (authors transl)]. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android ... Influence of corticosteroids on intestinal absorption of iron].. *[Inhibition of iron absorption in man by tetracycline ( ... Anemia, HypochromicFatsFemaleGlucoseHumansIntestinal AbsorptionIronMaleSerum Albumin, Radio-Iodinated ... TY - JOUR T1 - [Intestinal absorption and iron deficiency (authors transl)]. AU - Garcia Cobo,C, AU - De Castro del Pozo,S, AU ...
Bacterial metabolism rescues the inhibition of intestinal drug absorption by food and drug additives. View ORCID ProfileLing ... intestinal. concentration. ,. [. I. ]. =. Amount. (. g. ). ÷. Molar. Mass. (. g/mol. ). 250. mL. .. [2] ... Here, we evaluate their potential impact on intestinal drug absorption. By screening 136 unique compounds for inhibition of the ... Bacterial metabolism rescues the inhibition of intestinal drug absorption by food and drug additives ...
Jonas F Ludvigsson, Daniel A Leffler, Julio C Bai, Federico Biagi, Alessio Fasano, Peter H R Green, Marios Hadjivassiliou, Katri Kaukinen, Ciaran P Kelly, Jonathan N Leonard, Knut Erik Aslaksen Lundin, Joseph A Murray, David S Sanders, Marjorie M Walker, Fabiana Zingone, Carolina Ciacci ...
... plays a key role in neonatal nutrient absorption and intestinal function. FGF21 also contributes to improve newborn growth and ... FGF21 compound in breast milk plays key role in neonatal nutrient absorption, intestinal function. *Download PDF Copy ... gut induces the gene expression of intestinal hormones and increases intestinal lactase activity and lactose absorption. ... plays a key role in neonatal nutrient absorption and intestinal function. FGF21 also contributes to improve newborn growth and ...
This review discusses these absorption mechanisms in the small intestine. To study intestinal transport and predict ... Evaluating Human Intestinal Cell Lines for Studying Dietary Protein Absorption by Paulus G. M. Jochems ... This review discusses these absorption mechanisms in the small intestine. To study intestinal transport and predict ... "Evaluating Human Intestinal Cell Lines for Studying Dietary Protein Absorption" Nutrients 10, no. 3: 322. https://doi.org/ ...
An in situ intestinal circulation perfusion experiment was used to study the changes in intestinal absorption kinetics of ... Effect of borneol on intestinal absorption of muscone in rats].. [Liang Zou, Jun-Zhi Lin, Hui-Ling Hu, Ying Wang, Ping Wang, ... Borneol can promote the intestinal absorption of muscone in rats to some extent. ... To explore the influence of borneol on intestinal absorption of muscone in rats. ...
Glucose amplifies its own transport from the intestinal lumen to the bloodstream by increasing luminal apelin secretion. In the ... The intestinal glucose-apelin cycle controls carbohydrate absorption in mice Gastroenterology. 2013 Apr;144(4):771-80. doi: ... we studied whether glucose modulates apelin secretion by enterocytes and the effects of apelin on intestinal glucose absorption ... Conclusions: Glucose amplifies its own transport from the intestinal lumen to the bloodstream by increasing luminal apelin ...
Intestinal Absorption of Oligopeptides in Cystinuria. A. M. Asatoor, M. R. Crouchman, A. R. Harrison, F. W. Light, L. W. ... Intestinal Absorption of Oligopeptides in Cystinuria. A. M. Asatoor, M. R. Crouchman, A. R. Harrison, F. W. Light, L. W. ... Intestinal Absorption of Oligopeptides in Cystinuria Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Clinical ... 5. Absorption rates of the dipeptides l-lysylglycine and l-arginyl-l-aspartate from an isolated loop of rat gut are compared ...
It is widely expressed and has been postulated to play important roles in intestinal iron absorption, erythroid iron ... Slc11a2 is required for intestinal iron absorption and erythropoiesis but dispensable in placenta and liver. ... Slc11a2 is required for intestinal iron absorption and erythropoiesis but dispensable in placenta and liver. ... is not needed for materno-fetal iron transfer but that Slc11a2 activity is essential for intestinal non-heme iron absorption ...
... bowel syndrome were prospectively studied to quantitatively assess their free oral intake and their net digestive absorption of ... Intestinal absorption of free oral hyperalimentation in the very short bowel syndrome Gastroenterology. 1991 Jun;100(6):1502-8. ... Net digestive absorption was 67% +/- 12% for total calories, 79% +/- 15% for carbohydrate, 52% +/- 16% for fat, and 61% +/- 19 ... The larger net digestive absorption of carbohydrate (P less than or equal to 0.004) compared with fat and protein suggests ...
absorption of allergens by intestinal wall - posted in -Immunology and Neuroscience-: Hello, I cant find the step in the IgE- ... absorption of allergens by intestinal wall. Started by SID007, May 22 2014 01:25 PM ... Also tagged with one or more of these keywords: immune system, allergen, food allergy, gut, absorption. Protocols and ... I think absorption occurs as presented in this text: http://en.m.wikipedi.../Microfold_cell ...
The purpose of this study was to evaluate intestinal absorption, organ distribution, and urinary elimination of the rare sugar ... Intestinal absorption, organ distribution, and urinary excretion of the rare sugar D-psicose Ikuko Tsukamoto,1,* Akram Hossain, ... Intestinal absorption, organ distribution, and urinary excretion of the rare sugar D-psicose. ... Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate intestinal absorption, organ distribution, and urinary elimination of the ...
Effect of Bile Acids on the Intestinal Absorption of Endotoxin in Rats. L. T. Kocsár, L. Bertók, V. Várterész ... The intestinal absorption of endotoxin in rats, rendered bile-deficient, may be prevented by sodium deoxycholate. Supported by ... Practically, there is no endotoxin absorption from the intestinal tract of normal rats. The bile duct of rats was chronically ... Effect of Bile Acids on the Intestinal Absorption of Endotoxin in Rats ...
... our findings support a role of intestinal T1R2 signals in the regulation of glucose absorption via SGLT-1. Indeed, intestinal ... Small intestinal glucose absorption and duodenal motility in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Am J Gastroenterol 2002;97:3123-3130pmid ... Glucose absorption and small intestinal transit in critical illness. Crit Care Med 2011;39:1282-1288pmid:21336122. ... Disordered Control of Intestinal Sweet Taste Receptor Expression and Glucose Absorption in Type 2 Diabetes. ...
Study to Evaluate the Effects of Zemplar Injection and Calcijex on Intestinal Absorption of Calcium. The safety and scientific ... A study to investigate the effects of Zemplar and Calcijex on intestinal calcium absorption in hemodialysis subjects.. ... Study to Evaluate the Effects of Zemplar Injection and Calcijex on Intestinal Absorption of Calcium. ... Active-Controlled Cross-Over Pilot Study to Evaluate the Effects of Zemplar Injection and Calcijex on Intestinal Absorption of ...
used as an expression of the absorption rate constant was calculated as follows: , where is the rate at which the compound ... Alleviating the Intestinal Absorption of Rhein in Rhubarb through Herb Compatibility in Tiaowei Chengqi Tang in Caco-2 Cells. ... The results showed that the intestinal absorption of rhein occurred through active diffusion, and rhein might be composed of ... and TWCQT on the intestinal absorption of rhein.. 2. Materials and Methods. 2.1. Herbs. Rhubarb, Natrii Sulfas, and processed ...
... ... The results showed that the intestinal absorption of rhein occurred through active diffusion, and rhein might be composed of ... This study focused on the intestinal absorption of rhein in disassembly of the TWCQT extracts through the Caco-2 cell monolayer ... concluded that the active ingredients of processed liquorice may play a critical role in reducing the intestinal absorption of ...
Intestinal Fatty acid Absorption. Author(s): Yong Ji, Xiaoming Li, Patrick Tso. Department of Pathology, University of ... The authors basic and clinical insights into the processes of intestinal lipid absorption provide valuable information about ... The authors basic and clinical insights into the processes of intestinal lipid absorption provide valuable information about ... Yong Ji, Xiaoming Li and Patrick Tso, " Intestinal Fatty acid Absorption", Immunology, Endocrine & Metabolic Agents in ...
The Role of Macrophages in the Control of Intestinal Iron Absorption KB Raja; KB Raja ... The Role of Macrophages in the Control of Intestinal Iron Absorption. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 July 1996; 91 (s35): 3P. doi: https:// ...
A Study of Zemplar® Injection and Hectorol® Injection on Intestinal Absorption of Calcium in Chronic Kidney Disease. The safety ... on Intestinal Absorption of Calcium in CKD Stage 5 Subjects on Hemodialysis. ... Injection on intestinal calcium absorption in Chronic Kidney Disease Stage 5 subjects on hemodialysis. ... Calcium Absorption Fractions Analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) [ Time Frame: 42 Days ]. ...
To evaluate and optimize the use of Caco-2 cell monolayers to predict the in vivo absorption of a broad range of compounds in ... In Vitro Permeability Across Caco-2 Cells (Colonic) Can Predict In Vivo (Small Intestinal) Absorption in Man-Fact or Myth. ... Caco-2 absorption prediction human P-glycoprotein transport This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. ... A strong correlation was observed between in vivo human absorption and in vitro Papp for a variety of compounds (R = 0.95, N = ...
Although canagliflozin reduced intestinal glucose absorption by ∼31% over the first hour and by ∼20% over the first 2 h after a ... The current study investigated the effects of a single 300-mg oral dose of canagliflozin on intestinal glucose absorption and ... The delay in oral glucose absorption is likely due to local and transient intestinal SGLT1 inhibition resulting from high ... Although this study demonstrated that a single 300-mg dose of canagliflozin delays intestinal glucose absorption in healthy ...
Read L.C., Gale S.M., George-Nascimento C. (1987) Intestinal Absorption of Epidermal Growth Factor in Newborn Lambs. In: ... W. Thornburg, L. Matrisian, B. Magun, and O. Koldovsky, Gastrointestinal absorption of epidermal growth factor in suckling rats ...
  • One of the recognized manifestations of renal insufficiency is a defect in intestinal absorption of calcium (1). (springer.com)
  • There is substantial clinical and experimental evidence that this abnormality in intestinal absorption of calcium is secondary to uremia per se and to reduced ability of the diseased kidney to synthesize 1,25 (OH) 2 vitamin D 3 (2-5). (springer.com)
  • Interestingly, this impairment of intestinal transport of calcium has been described even in early stages of renal insufficiency when other parameters of renal function are relatively well preserved, and when plasma levels of 1,25 (OH) 2 vitamin D 3 may be normal (5,6). (springer.com)
  • Normal level of vitamin D in the face of reduced intestinal absorption of calcium suggests that renal lα-hydroxylase activity is relatively suppressed in early uremia (7). (springer.com)
  • Massry, S.G., and Kopple, J.D.: Intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium and phosphorus in chronic renal insufficiency. (springer.com)
  • Riddy, C.R. and Norman, A. W.: Calciferol metabolism and intestinal calcium transport in the chick with reduced renal function. (springer.com)
  • Werner, E. and Ritz, E.: Intestinal absorption of calcium and whole-body calcium retention in incipient and advanced renal failure. (springer.com)
  • Compared to previous studies of calcium absorption, much less magnesium that calcium was absorbed at intakes above 8 mEq/meal, apparently due to greater restriction of intestinal permeability to magnesium. (jci.org)
  • Does Omeprazole Decrease Intestinal Calcium Absorption? (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The purpose of this study is to measure the effect of omeprazole on intestinal calcium absorption in postmenopausal women. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Existing literature makes it unclear whether proton pump inhibitor therapy truly decreases intestinal calcium absorption. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The primary study outcome is the change in intestinal calcium absorption following omeprazole therapy 40 mg daily for 30 days. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Eligible subjects will undergo three calcium absorption studies. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The first 2 studies will determine the monthly variation in calcium absorption, while the 3rd study will occur after taking 40 mg of omeprazole daily for 30 days. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The mean within subject difference in calcium absorption rates between treatment regimens will be analyzed using ANOVA appropriate for a two-period cross-over trial. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A study to investigate the effects of Zemplar and Calcijex on intestinal calcium absorption in hemodialysis subjects. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of Zemplar® Injection and Hectorol® Injection on intestinal calcium absorption in Chronic Kidney Disease Stage 5 subjects on hemodialysis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Measuring intestinal calcium absorption may help to identify individuals who are prone to develop kidney stones, according to a study appearing in an upcoming issue of the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology ( CJASN ). (medicalxpress.com)
  • To look for such distinguishing factors, Giuseppe Vezzoli, MD (San Raffaele Scientific Institute, in Milan, Italy) and his colleagues evaluated absorption of calcium in the first part of the small intestine as well as urinary excretion of calcium in 172 hypercalciuric stone formers and 36 hypercalciuric patients without a history of kidney stones. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The researchers found that both absorption and excretion of calcium were faster in hypercalciuric stone formers than in hypercalciuric patients without a history of stones. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Its findings identify a characteristic of calcium metabolism that may predispose hypercalciuric patients to calcium stone formation, and highlight the role of intestinal absorption in stone formation. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Background and objectives Idiopathic hypercalciuria is a frequent defect in calcium kidney stone formers that is associated with high intestinal calcium absorption and osteopenia. (asnjournals.org)
  • Conclusions High calcium absorption in duodenum and jejunum may expose hypercalciuric patients to the risk of stones because of increased postprandial calcium concentrations in urine and tubular fluid. (asnjournals.org)
  • High calcium absorption may identify patients at risk of bone loss among stone formers. (asnjournals.org)
  • Patients with idiopathic hypercalciuria are characterized by high intestinal absorption and low tubular reabsorption of calcium and may have decreased bone mass ( 3 - 5 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • A primary increase of enteral calcium absorption was hypothesized to cause hypercalciuria in a large portion of patients ( 6 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • Decreased bone mineral density (BMD) may result from the negative balance between urine loss and enteral absorption of calcium ( 3 , 4 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • However, low BMD was associated with high calcium absorption and could be supported by a primary defect of calcium handling in intestinal, bony, and kidney tubular cells ( 7 , 11 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • The large intestine (colon) is responsible for reabsorption of water, sodium, potassium, and vitamin K. However, retrospective studies have shown that the large intestine also is responsible for absorption of small amounts of calcium and magnesium. (o-wm.com)
  • BACKGROUND: In many species, the small intestine is the major site of calcium (Ca(2+)) absorption. (uzh.ch)
  • The effect of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol on renal tubular reabsorption of phosphate, intestinal absorption of calcium and bone histology in hypophosphataemic renal tubular rickets. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 2. 1,25-(OH)2-D3 increased intestinal absorption and urinary excretion of calcium without significant effect on the renal handling of phosphate or its plasma concentration. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Our results suggest that the intestinal absorption of dietary oxalate makes a substantial contribution to urinary oxalate excretion and that this absorption can be modified by decreasing oxalate intake or increasing the intakes of calcium, magnesium, and fiber. (usu.edu)
  • The assessment of intestinal calcium absorption using stable s. (mysciencework.com)
  • The availability of currently used methods of measuring intestinal calcium absorption is limited by their expense and complexity. (mysciencework.com)
  • A comparison of this test with the single-isotope radio-calcium absorption test in the same group of patients showed a close correlation between the fractional absorption rates of the two elements (r = 0.93, P less than 0.001). (mysciencework.com)
  • Subjects were correctly categorized as having normal or low absorption in 12 out of 13 cases (92%) and the value in the misclassified subject was at the borderline between normal and low calcium absorption. (mysciencework.com)
  • If these early results are confirmed, this test will make the assessment of calcium absorption much more widely available. (mysciencework.com)
  • Elevated levels of intracellular calcium ([Ca 2+ ] i ) are known to inhibit NaCl absorption and involve multiple components of the Ca 2+ signaling pathway. (elsevier.com)
  • This is due in part to impaired glomerular filtration rate, and in part to the action of steroid on calcium and phosphorus absorption. (elsevier.com)
  • 1) Helps in the intestinal absorption of calcium from blood. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Experiments carried out with cultured cells and in experimental animals have consistently shown that phospholipids (PLs) can inhibit intestinal cholesterol absorption. (mdpi.com)
  • Further research is however required to establish whether the ability of PLs to inhibit cholesterol absorption is of therapeutic benefit. (mdpi.com)
  • To learn more about how the step of cholesterol uptake into the brush border membrane (BBM) of enterocytes influences overall cholesterol absorption, we measured cholesterol absorption 4 and 24 h after administration of an intragastric bolus of radioactive cholesterol in mice with scavenger receptor class B, type 1 (SR-BI) and/or cluster determinant 36 (CD36) deleted. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The cholesterol absorption efficiency is unaltered by deletion of either one or both of the receptors. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Sitagliptin promotes macrophage-to-faeces reverse cholesterol transport through reduced intestinal cholesterol absorption in obese insulin resistant CETP-apoB100 transgenic mice. (inserm.fr)
  • Administration of (14) C-cholesterol labelled olive oil orally showed a significant reduction of (14) C-tracer plasma appearance over time with sitagliptin, indicating that this drug promotes RCT through reduced intestinal cholesterol absorption. (inserm.fr)
  • Wang, DQH & Carey, MC 2003, ' Measurement of intestinal cholesterol absorption by plasma and fecal dual-isotope ratio, mass balance, and lymph fistula methods in the mouse: An analysis of direct versus indirect methodologies ', Journal of Lipid Research , vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 1042-1059. (elsevier.com)
  • The intestinal absorption of cholesterol decreased from 54% to 4%, and feces bile acid excretion increased 2.5-fold in Cyp27a1 knockout mice, while feeding them a bile acid-rich diet reversed the impairment of intestinal cholesterol absorption [56]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Our study implies that because cholesterol absorption efficiency is reduced by ∼50% in Muc1-deficient mice, there may be one or more additional pathways for cholesterol absorption. (elsevier.com)
  • We first determined the effect of polyphenols from a virgin olive oil, and a virgin olive oil enriched with DHA, on vitamin D absorption in rats. (nih.gov)
  • Effect of borneol on intestinal absorption of muscone in rats]. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • To explore the influence of borneol on intestinal absorption of muscone in rats. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • in ileum, there was no significant statistical difference between LBMG and MG. Borneol can promote the intestinal absorption of muscone in rats to some extent. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The absorption of tritium-labeled Escherichia coli O89 Westphal-type endotoxin from the peritoneal cavity of rats was diminished by bile by 23% and by sodium deoxycholate by 47%, respectively. (asm.org)
  • Practically, there is no endotoxin absorption from the intestinal tract of normal rats. (asm.org)
  • A significant amount of perorally administered endotoxin absorbed from the intestinal canal into the blood in the rats treated thus. (asm.org)
  • Absorption was demonstrated by the lethal effect of endotoxin on rats previously hypersensitized by lead acetate, and by the radioactivities found in the blood samples. (asm.org)
  • The intestinal absorption of endotoxin in rats, rendered bile-deficient, may be prevented by sodium deoxycholate. (asm.org)
  • Liquorice could inhibit the intestinal motility in rats [ 13 ] and induce CYP3A enzyme [ 14 ], which thereby could relieve the abdominal pain caused by rhubarb and accelerate the metabolism of anthraquinones. (hindawi.com)
  • Radioautography was used to detect the synthesis of labeled glycerides in intestinal absorptive cells following injections of fatty chyme and glucose-6-H 3 into ligated segments of upper jejunum of fasting rats. (rupress.org)
  • Bioavailability of talinolol, a β 1 -adrenergic receptor antagonist, was enhanced by coadministration with grapefruit juice (GFJ) in rats, whereas GFJ ingestion markedly reduced the absorption of talinolol in humans. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Because our recent study indicated that the inhibitory effect of GFJ on organic anion-transporting polypeptide (Oatp)- and P-gp-mediated talinolol absorption depends on the concentration of naringin in ingested GFJ, the apparent inconsistent findings may be explained by the species difference in the affinity of naringin for OATP/Oatp and P-gp multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1/Mdr1) between humans and rats. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Because the naringin concentration in commercially prepared GFJ was found to be approximately 1200 μM, these results suggested that GFJ would reduce the intestinal absorption of talinolol through inhibition of OATP1A2-mediated talinolol uptake in humans, whereas an increase of talinolol absorption is mainly through inhibition of Mdr1a-mediated efflux in rats. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The present study indicated that the species difference in the effect of GFJ on intestinal absorption of talinolol between humans and rats may be due to differences in the affinity of naringin for OATP/Oatp and MDR1/Mdr1 transporters between the two species. (aspetjournals.org)
  • However, this ex vivo method has its limitations in simulating intestinal conditions, and we therefore conducted an in vivo single-dose experiment in rats, investigating the effects of GG on AFB 1 absorption and toxic effects. (asm.org)
  • The effect of Pgp induction in rats by pregnenolone 16α-carbonitrile (PCN) (3 days, 35 mg/kg/d, p.o.) on digoxin pharmacokinetics and intestinal transport has been assessed. (hud.ac.uk)
  • To evaluate the effects of a leucine supplemented diet on the intestinal absorption alterations produced by Walker 256, growing pregnant rats were distributed into six groups. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Leucine supplementation during pregnancy in tumor-bearing rats promoted high leucine absorption, increasing the availability of the amino acid for neoplasic cells and, mainly, for fetus and host utilization. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Capsaicin-induced increase of intestinal cefazolin absorption in rats. (elsevier.com)
  • The effect of capsaicin on intestinal cefazolin absorption was examined by means of an in situ closed loop method in rats to clarify whether the vanilloid receptor (TRPV1) is involved in drug absorption driven by passive diffusion. (elsevier.com)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Capsaicin-induced increase of intestinal cefazolin absorption in rats. (elsevier.com)
  • Understanding of the absorption and metabolism of those materials at the intestinal mucosal level is very important because it regulates the bioavailability of those substances. (rroij.com)
  • The approaches documented herein provide quantifiable methodologies for exploring genetic mechanisms of Ch absorption, and for investigating the assembly and secretion of chylomicrons, as well as intestinal lipoprotein metabolism in mice. (elsevier.com)
  • An invitro evaluation of metabolism and poor membrane permeation impeding intestinal absorption of leucineenkephalin, and methods to increase absorption. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The rat intestinal permeability of talinolol measured by the in situ closed loop method was indeed significantly increased in the presence of GFJ, whereas a significant decrease was observed with 6-fold diluted GFJ, in which the naringin concentration was approximately 200 μM. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The main aim of this study was to investigate whether CIO also enhances the permeability of high MW model drugs in a model of the intestinal epithelium. (diva-portal.org)
  • In the perfused rat intestinal model, permeability coefficients based on CTS disappearance from the luminal perfusate (Plumen) were 6.7- to 10.3-fold higher than permeability coefficients based on drug appearance in venous blood (Pblood). (edu.au)
  • The rise in luminal hydrostatic pressure during absorption studies at particular sites can influence intestinal permeability. (rroij.com)
  • Participants returned for a second visit for the performance of intestinal absorption and permeability assays. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Collectively, the mechanism accounting for the capsaicin-induced increase in the intestinal cefazolin absorption is probably that capsaicin associating with TRPV1 increases the intrinsic permeability of cefazolin in intestine. (elsevier.com)
  • During the absorption of fat by the intestinal epithelium of the mouse, spindle-shaped particles of lipoid material can be seen in the free border of the epithelial cells. (biologists.org)
  • Experiment 2 was designed to determine whether WG caused pathological changes in the intestinal epithelium, and if a diet with 35% of CP from WG could support rapid growth. (nofima.no)
  • The intestinal epithelium is the barrier which regulates the entry of xenobiotics and nutrients. (rroij.com)
  • 10 mmol l -1 ) are required for the anion exchange process and could be the result of both a high metabolic activity of the intestinal epithelium and a close association of the anion exchange protein and the enzyme carbonic anhydrase. (biologists.org)
  • An in situ intestinal circulation perfusion experiment was used to study the changes in intestinal absorption kinetics of muscone before and after being compatible with borneol. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Adibi SA, Gray SJ, Menden E. The kinetics of amino acid absorption and alteration of plasma composition of free amino acids after intestinal perfusion of amino acid mixtures. (harvard.edu)
  • and 3) single-pass rat intestinal perfusion with mesenteric vein cannulation. (edu.au)
  • After 20 days, the animals were submitted to intestinal perfusion to measure leucine, methionine and glucose absorption. (biomedcentral.com)
  • we studied whether glucose modulates apelin secretion by enterocytes and the effects of apelin on intestinal glucose absorption. (nih.gov)
  • The net effect of apelin on intestinal glucose transepithelial transport was determined in mice. (nih.gov)
  • Glucose amplifies its own transport from the intestinal lumen to the bloodstream by increasing luminal apelin secretion. (nih.gov)
  • The glucose-apelin cycle might be pharmacologically handled to regulate glucose absorption and assess better control of glucose homeostasis. (nih.gov)
  • Here we determined whether STR expression was 1 ) acutely regulated by changes in luminal and systemic glucose levels, 2 ) disordered in type 2 diabetes, and 3 ) linked to glucose absorption. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Intestinal T1R2 expression is reciprocally regulated by luminal glucose in health according to glycemic status but is disordered in type 2 diabetes during acute hyperglycemia. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This defect may enhance glucose absorption in type 2 diabetic patients and exacerbate postprandial hyperglycemia. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Glucose in the small intestinal lumen induces feedback that regulates gastric emptying, absorptive function, and energy intake ( 1 - 3 ), mediated both by vagal nerve pathways and secretion of gut peptides ( 4 ), including glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) from enteroendocrine K cells and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) from L cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This two-period, crossover study evaluated effects of canagliflozin on intestinal glucose absorption in 20 healthy subjects using a dual-tracer method. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A modest (∼10%) reduction in acetaminophen absorption was observed over the first 2 h, but this difference was not sufficient to explain the reduction in R a O. Total glucose disposal over 0 to 6 h was similar across groups. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS Canagliflozin reduces postprandial plasma glucose and insulin by increasing UGE (via renal SGLT2 inhibition) and delaying R a O, likely due to intestinal SGLT1 inhibition. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Although SGLT1 plays a smaller role in renal glucose absorption than SGLT2, SGLT1 is the primary pathway involved in intestinal glucose and galactose absorption ( 2 , 4 , 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Glucose absorption was reduced in both tumor-bearing groups. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The effect of the laxative oxyphenisatin on the intestinal absorption of glucose in rat and man. (docphin.com)
  • Hart SL, McColl I. The effect of the laxative oxyphenisatin on the intestinal absorption of glucose in rat and man. (docphin.com)
  • During absorption of glucose, amino acids, and lipids, the villus interstitium develops a gradient of osmolarity from the base to the apex in the range of 450 to over 600 mOsm. (elsevier.com)
  • The mechanism of dilation for large arterioles is primarily related to sodium induced hyperosmolarity caused by return of hypertonic blood and lymph from the mucosa and this can be tested by duplication of same sodium hyperosmolarity as occurs beside each arteriole during glucose or oleic acid absorption. (elsevier.com)
  • The fundamental cellular mechanism which establishes the gradient of osmolarity and oxygen tension from the villus apex to base may be greater sodium ion absorption at rest and cellular co-transport of amino acids and glucose with sodium molecules in the apical than basal portions of the villus. (elsevier.com)
  • In August 1960, in Prague, Crane presented for the first time his discovery of the sodium-glucose cotransport as the mechanism for intestinal glucose absorption. (wikipedia.org)
  • This treatment counterbalances the loss of water and electrolytes caused by cholera via a glucose containing salt solution that accelerates water and electrolyte absorption. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1978, The Lancet wrote: "the discovery that sodium transport and glucose transport are coupled in the small intestine, so that glucose accelerates absorption of solute and water, was potentially the most important medical advance this century. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is widely expressed and has been postulated to play important roles in intestinal iron absorption, erythroid iron utilization, hepatic iron accumulation, placental iron transfer, and other processes. (jci.org)
  • We found that fetal Slc11a2 is not needed for materno-fetal iron transfer but that Slc11a2 activity is essential for intestinal non-heme iron absorption after birth. (jci.org)
  • Generally, the physiology of vitamin and minerals (absorption from the resected intestine and subsequent use by the body) requires adequate nutritional intake, including enzymes and specific hormones in amounts sufficient to process the nutrients. (o-wm.com)
  • The literature search focused on the anatomy of the intestine, the physiology that affects mineral and bile salt absorption, and whether intestinal resection can result in latent deficiencies of essential vitamins and minerals. (o-wm.com)
  • E74.39 is a billable ICD code used to specify a diagnosis of other disorders of intestinal carbohydrate absorption. (icd.codes)
  • Involves surgical procedures with anaesthesia, and anaesthesia have effects on intestinal drug absorption. (rroij.com)
  • The drug-absorption-enhancing effects of combinations of N-trimethyl chitosan chloride (TMC) with degrees of quaternization of 48 and 64%, dicarboxymethyl chitosan oligosaccharide, and chitosan lactate oligomer with monocaprin and melittin were compared to their individual performances using the in vitro Caco-2 cell model. (nwu.ac.za)
  • It has been shown that at biotin and biocytin concentrations !ess than 40 and 50 nM respectively, absorption proceeds by a saturable process, whereas at higher concentrations uptake by passive diffusion predominates. (portlandpress.com)
  • The prenatal pig intestine is similar to the neonatal pig intestine in that colostrum stimulates both the macromolecule absorption and the cessation of macromolecule uptake (intestinal closure). (ovid.com)
  • GG was subsequently demonstrated to bind AFB 1 and to reduce its uptake into intestinal tissue in the ligated duodenal loops of 1-week-old chicks ( 8 ). (asm.org)
  • Respective contributions of intestinal Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 and scavenger receptor class B type I to cholesterol and tocopherol uptake: in vivo v. in vitro studies. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The delta psi a,b response to reduced apical NaCl entry would assist in maintaining the driving force for Na-coupled amino acid uptake across the apical membrane as luminal [NaCl] falls during absorption. (rupress.org)
  • In spite of having a significant decrease in leucine and methionine absorption compared to L, the WL group has shown a higher absorption rate of methionine than WN group, probably due to the ingestion of the leucine supplemented diet inducing this amino acid uptake. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Before cholesterol and fatty acid molecules in the small intestinal lumen can interact with their possible transporters for uptake and absorption, they must pass through a diffusion barrier, which may modify the kinetics of nutrient assimilation. (elsevier.com)
  • In the present study, we investigated whether disruption of the mucin gene (Muc)1 may influence intestinal uptake and absorption of cholesterol and fatty acid in male Muc1 -/- mice. (elsevier.com)
  • Intestinal uptake and absorption of cholesterol but not palmitic acid were significantly reduced in Muc1 -/- mice compared with the wild-type mice. (elsevier.com)
  • We conclude that physiological levels of the epithelial mucin produced by the Muc1 gene are necessary for normal intestinal uptake and absorption of cholesterol in mice. (elsevier.com)
  • The Intestinal Absorption of Phosphorus. (clinsci.org)
  • Vitamin D aids in the intestinal reabsorption of phosphorus. (medscape.com)
  • Ten adult ambulatory patients with the nonactive digestive disease short bowel syndrome were prospectively studied to quantitatively assess their free oral intake and their net digestive absorption of total calories, fat, protein, and carbohydrate during a 3-day period at least 6 months after a resection. (nih.gov)
  • Net digestive absorption was 67% +/- 12% for total calories, 79% +/- 15% for carbohydrate, 52% +/- 16% for fat, and 61% +/- 19% for protein. (nih.gov)
  • The larger net digestive absorption of carbohydrate (P less than or equal to 0.004) compared with fat and protein suggests salvage of colonic cholesterol in short bowel syndrome patients. (nih.gov)
  • Cotransport was the first ever proposal of flux coupling in biology and was the most important event concerning carbohydrate absorption in the 20th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • serum strontium concentration-time curve and renal strontium clearance were evaluated to estimate absorption and excretion of divalent cations. (asnjournals.org)
  • It was shown, however, that the unavoidable renal and extra-renal fluid loss to the hypertonic marine environment in hypo-osmoregulating fish was compensated for by ingestion of seawater with subsequent water absorption across the gastro-intestinal tract ( Smith, 1930 ). (biologists.org)
  • While hummingbirds rely on varying renal water reabsorption, the passerine nectarivores modulate intestinal water absorption during water loading, thus reducing the impact on the kidneys. (biologists.org)
  • had oesophageal and intestinal contents that were just acid and the granular contents of cells of the intestinal wall were acid to different degrees. (brillonline.com)
  • It is believed that drug then partitions from the emulsion oil droplets and bile salt mixed micelles to be absorbed by the mucosal cells of the intestinal wall. (nih.gov)
  • Caco-2 cells are derived from human adenocarcinoma colon cells and spontaneously differentiate when grown on porous polyethylene terephthalate membranes (PETP) in a 12 well format to form monolayers of polarized cells possessing function similar to intestinal enterocytes. (springer.com)
  • Additionally, the aromatic amino acid uniporter TAT1 (SLC16A10) was shown to play a major role in levodopa efflux from intestinal enterocytes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Fructose malabsorption, formerly named 'dietary fructose intolerance' (DFI), is a digestive disorder in which absorption of fructose is impaired by deficient fructose carriers in the small intestine's enterocytes. (icd.codes)
  • Evaluating Human Intestinal Cell Lines for Studying Dietary Protein Absorption" Nutrients 10, no. 3: 322. (mdpi.com)
  • Promotor is a novel formulation that enhances intestinal absorption of nutrients and xenobiotics. (laboratoires-tbc.net)
  • Potentially increased intestinal absorption of nutrients as a result of single in ovo injection of [alpha] - galactosides can be the basis for achieving better production results and finally positive economic effects. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The item Digestion and intestinal absorption, editors: P. Hore, G. Semenza represents a specific, individual, material embodiment of a distinct intellectual or artistic creation found in College of Physicians of Philadelphia . (collegeofphysicians.org)
  • The following is adapted from a talk entitled "Absorption and Digestion after Surgery" given by Stephanie Wakefield, a specialist Upper GI dietician from Imperial Collage Healthcare NHS Trust. (gics.org.uk)
  • However, knockout of the Muc1 gene did not impair either expression levels of the genes that encode intestinal sterol efflux transporters Abcg5 and Abcg8 and fatty acid transporter Fatp4 or small intestinal transit rates. (elsevier.com)
  • This barrier includes an unstirred water layer and a surface mucous coat, which is located at the intestinal lumen-membrane interface. (elsevier.com)
  • Our results are statistically compatible with a magnesium absorption process that simultaneously uses a mechanism that reaches an absorptive maximum, plus a mechanism that endlessly absorbs a defined fraction (7%) of ingested magnesium. (jci.org)
  • This study focused on the intestinal absorption of rhein in disassembly of the TWCQT extracts through the Caco-2 cell monolayer model to explicate the possible detoxification mechanism of herb-herb compatibility in TWCQT. (hindawi.com)
  • These data suggest that Caco-2 cells developed under the culturing and transport conditions defined herein can be used to predict in vivo human absorption of compounds regardless of transport mechanism, viz. (springer.com)
  • The rate of intestinal cholesterol (Ch) absorption is an important criterion for quantitation of Ch homeostasis. (elsevier.com)
  • SGLT1 is a low-capacity, high-affinity transporter expressed in the distal segment of the proximal tubule ( 1 ), in the intestinal mucosa of the small intestine ( 2 ), and in other tissues to a lesser extent ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • No indication of intestinal pathology was seen in the salmon fed the FM or WG diets, while 60% of the examined fish fed SBM had SBM-induced changes in the mucosa of the posterior intestine. (nofima.no)
  • Electrophysiology of flounder intestinal mucosa. (rupress.org)
  • The overall hypothesis is that hyperosmolarity generated in the mucosa during nutrient absorption is a signal for dilation of the resistance vessels and oxygen delivery to the mucosa is improved by increased oxygen content of arteriolar blood due to decreased counter-current exchange of oxygen. (elsevier.com)
  • In this systematic study involving Xenopus laevis oocytes and MDCK epithelia expression systems and ex vivo preparations from wild type and knockout mice, we identified the neutral and dibasic amino acids exchanger (antiporter) b 0,+ AT-rBAT (SLC7A9-SLC3A1) as the luminal intestinal levodopa transporter. (aspetjournals.org)
  • It is now being recognized that intestinal anion exchange is responsible for high luminal HCO 3 - and CO 3 2- concentrations while at the same time contributing substantially to intestinal Cl - and thereby water absorption, which is vital for marine fish osmoregulation. (biologists.org)
  • Sodium caprate (CIO), a medium chain fatty acid, is used clinically to enhance rectal absorption of the low molecular weight (MW) drug ampicillin. (diva-portal.org)
  • The greater absorption rate of sodium at rest and sodium with carbohydrates or amino acids in the apical than basal portions of the villus is potentially responsible for the reduction in oxygen tension from villus base to apex, rather than counter-current oxygen exchange in the villus. (elsevier.com)
  • Other examples of in vitro methods for kinetics include measurements of i) intestinal absorption and transport using intestinal epithelial cells, ii) metabolic conversion by cells or tissue fractions from different organs including liver, and iii) protein binding assays. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Combining the absorption enhancers showed synergism in both the reduction of the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and the enhancement of the transport of a macromolecular model compound across this intestinal epithelial cell layer. (nwu.ac.za)
  • To evaluate and optimize the use of Caco-2 cell monolayers to predict the in vivo absorption of a broad range of compounds in man. (springer.com)
  • A strong correlation was observed between in vivo human absorption and in vitro P app for a variety of compounds (R = 0.95, N = 35). (springer.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the protein and mRNA expression patterns of VDR, CB and TRPV6 and the ex-vivo Ca(2+) absorption in horses, assessed by qualitative and quantitative RT-PCR, western blot, immunohistochemistry and the Ussing chamber technique. (uzh.ch)
  • Ussing chamber studies revealed ex-vivo Ca(2+) absorption only in the duodenum, but not in cecum and specific sites of the colon. (uzh.ch)
  • Absorption models are broadly grouped into three i.e. in vivo , in situ and in vitro models. (rroij.com)
  • The anion exchange activity in vivo is likely most pronounced in the anterior segment and results in net intestinal acid absorption. (biologists.org)
  • The research study led by Dr Villarroya, director of the Institute of Biomedicine of the UB (IBUB), has proved that oral infusion of FGF21 to neonatal gut induces the gene expression of intestinal hormones and increases intestinal lactase activity and lactose absorption. (news-medical.net)
  • The intestinal absorption of zinc, cobalt, and strontium and absorption of copper from the gastrointestinal tract are underscored. (elsevier.com)
  • This paper describes a test which measures the intestinal absorption of stable strontium. (mysciencework.com)
  • Villus hyperosmolarity has implications for regulation of intestinal blood flow during food absorption. (elsevier.com)
  • Influence of class B scavenger receptors on cholesterol flux across the brush border membrane and intestinal absorption. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Puromycin treatment causes the absorptive cell to accumulate increased quantities of lipid that are devoid of membrane during fat absorption. (rupress.org)
  • A compound found in breast milk, named fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), plays a key role in neonatal nutrient absorption and intestinal function. (news-medical.net)
  • The flow of lymph keeps the osmotic gradient from villus apex to base smaller than would expected due to the proposed major differences in absorptive rates along the villus shaft both at rest and during nutrient absorption. (elsevier.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to measure magnesium absorption over the wide range of intakes to which the intestine may be exposed from food and/or magnesium-containing medications. (jci.org)
  • This review discusses these absorption mechanisms in the small intestine. (mdpi.com)
  • We previously established that the intestinal sweet taste receptors (STRs), T1R2 and T1R3, were expressed in distinct epithelial cells in the human proximal intestine and that their transcript levels varied with glycemic status in patients with type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, the absorption of S -nitrosothiols by the intestine, which is the first limiting barrier for their vascular bioavailability, is rarely evaluated. (ovid.com)
  • Levodopa absorption in small intestine has been suggested to be mediated by the large neutral amino acids transport machinery, but the identity of the involved transporters is unknown. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Because mineral absorption in people with ostomies was a concern of the members of the Fort Worth Chapter of the United Ostomy Association (UOA), a literature search was conducted to determine if intestinal resection with loss of significant portions of the intestine can affect absorption of vital nutritional elements. (o-wm.com)
  • The intestinal tract comprises the stomach, the small intestine, and the large intestine or colon. (o-wm.com)
  • Each section of the intestine is responsible for the absorption of a particular nutritional element. (o-wm.com)
  • Here we show that a scavenging CD36-like receptor is a potential mediator of heme absorption in the intestine of the salmon louse. (uib.no)
  • Parmelee and Renfro, 1983 ) of this gastro-intestinal segment results in a reduction of osmotic pressure in the fluids entering the anterior portion of the intestine ( Marshall and Grosell, 2005 ). (biologists.org)
  • Does Intestinal Resection Affect the Absorption of Essential Vitamins, Minerals, and Bile Salts? (o-wm.com)
  • Intestinal absorption of phosphatidylcholine and triglyceride after ileal resection. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In patients who had undergone ileal resection the absorption of both phosphatidylcholine and triglyceride was subnormal, as reflected by a lower production of 14CO2. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Thus, this study was performed to get more information about the transcellular Ca(2+) absorption in the horse.Two mechanisms of intestinal Ca(2+) absorption are described: the passive paracellular pathway and the active, vitamin D-dependent transcellular pathway. (uzh.ch)
  • These birds show similar dependence of sugar preferences on nectar concentration, high intestinal sucrase activity and rapid absorption of hexoses via mediated and paracellular routes. (biologists.org)
  • To study intestinal transport and predict bioavailability, cell lines are widely applied as screening models and often concern Caco-2, HT-29, HT-29/MTX and T84 cells. (mdpi.com)
  • In this review we discuss about a few very commonly used models to study intestinal absorption [ 33 - 56 ]. (rroij.com)
  • It has therefore been concluded that the active ingredients of processed liquorice may play a critical role in reducing the intestinal absorption of rhein to alleviate the toxicity of rhubarb in TWCQT. (hindawi.com)
  • Evaluation of: oral absorption efficiency, oral bioavailability and oral toxicity. (readycell.com)
  • Pinoresinol of olive oil decreases vitamin D intestinal absorption. (nih.gov)
  • However, data regarding the interactions occurring at the intestinal level between vitamin D and phenols from olive oil are scarce. (nih.gov)
  • CARMEL R, HERBERT V. Correctable Intestinal Defect of Vitamin B 12 Absorption in Pernicious Anemia. (annals.org)
  • Intestinal Absorption Vitamin C Crystal Powder As Active Trasporter Vitamin C, another name Ascorbic Acid, is a kind of acidic polyol with 6 carbon atoms. (vitaminc-powder.com)
  • Furthermore, clinical disorders related to intestinal lipid transport are discussed. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The authors basic and clinical insights into the processes of intestinal lipid absorption provide valuable information about effective, safe ways to prevent obesity and hyperlipidemia. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Efficient absorption of the drug by the intestinal mucosal cells is of course the ultimate goal of any oral lipid-based formulation. (nih.gov)
  • Figure 2 shows the processes that occur in the intestinal milieu for a lipid-based drug formulation [13]. (nih.gov)
  • Intestinal absorption of magnesium from food and supplements. (jci.org)
  • Net magnesium absorption was measured in normal subjects after they ingested a standard meal supplemented with 0, 10, 20, 40, and 80 mEq of magnesium acetate. (jci.org)
  • Although absorption increased with each increment in intake, fractional magnesium absorption fell progressively (from 65% at the lowest to 11% at the highest intake) so that absorption as a function of intake was curvilinear. (jci.org)
  • In contrast, magnesium absorption from commercially available enteric-coated magnesium chloride was much less than from magnesium acetate, suggesting that enteric coating can impair magnesium bioavailability. (jci.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate intestinal absorption, organ distribution, and urinary elimination of the rare sugar D-psicose, a 3-carbon stereoisomer of D-fructose that is currently being investigated and which has been found to be strongly effective against hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. (dovepress.com)
  • Urinary excretion of D + xylose is a useful method for screening patients suspected of intestinal malabsorption. (annals.org)
  • Restoring oxalate to the formula diet increased urinary oxalate excretion and illustrates that this experimental protocol may be well-suited for studying oxalate absorption and factors that modify it. (usu.edu)
  • Hypophosphatemia is caused by the intracellular shift of phosphate from serum, increased urinary excretion of phosphate, decreased intestinal absorption of phosphate, or decreased dietary intake. (medscape.com)
  • In this study we evaluated ten successive patients with pernicious anemia, found an ileal defect in absorption of B 12 in four of them, and corrected the B 12 malabsorption by B 12 therapy in three of these four. (annals.org)
  • It has been used as a penetration enhancer for topical and transdermal absorption, rectal absorption, buccal delivery and intestinal absorption [5, 6]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In addition to expression in intestinal sweet taste cells, some of these taste components are also expressed in separate intestinal cell populations that detect umami (T1R3, α-gustducin, TRPM5), bitter, and fats (α-gustducin, TRPM5) ( 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Six separate intestinal collections of three subjects were used to calculate the mean ± 1 SD. (harvard.edu)
  • Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of macronutrients and energy, and apparent absorption coefficients (AACs) of amino acids and elements were assessed in an experiment with 0.9 kg Atlantic salmon reared in saltwater tanks. (nofima.no)
  • Yong Ji, Xiaoming Li and Patrick Tso, " Intestinal Fatty acid Absorption", Immunology, Endocrine & Metabolic Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (Under Re-organization) (2009) 9: 60. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Gastrointestinal or other diseases and drugs known to interfere with the intestinal absorption of L-T4 were not the cause of this failure. (nih.gov)
  • Acid, intestinal enzymes, and intestinal mucus were shown not to interfere with AFB 1 binding of this probiotic ( 6 , 7 , 11 , 12 ). (asm.org)
  • Grapefruit juice can interfere with intestinal absorption of the drug. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Previous studies have been hampered by inaccurate food composition tables for oxalate and inadequate methods for studying intestinal oxalate absorption. (usu.edu)
  • In the present study, we adapted four standard methods, one direct (lymph collection) and three indirect (plasma and fecal dual-isotope ratio, and sterol balance) measurements of Ch absorption and applied them to mice. (elsevier.com)
  • We find that all methods provide excellent interexperimental agreement, and the ranges obtained challenge previously held beliefs regarding the spread of intestinal Ch absorption efficiencies in mice. (elsevier.com)
  • The intestinal electroneutral Na + absorptive processes account for most small intestinal Na + absorption in the period between meals and also for the great majority of the increase in ileal Na + absorption that occurs postprandially. (elsevier.com)
  • Furthermore, the expression patterns of these Ca(2+) transport elements and the results of the Ussing chamber procedure indicate that a significant part of active intestinal Ca(2+) absorption occurs in the duodenum in this species. (uzh.ch)
  • 1. The intestinal transport of oligopeptides containing either lysine or arginine has been compared with that of the corresponding free amino acids in six homozygous cystinuric patients and in six normal adult subjects by use of the oral tolerance test technique. (clinsci.org)
  • 5. Absorption rates of the dipeptides l-lysylglycine and l-arginyl-l-aspartate from an isolated loop of rat gut are compared with those of an equivalent free amino acid mixture. (clinsci.org)
  • No difference was found for the former peptide, but in the latter absorption rates of arginine were higher after the amino acid mixture. (clinsci.org)
  • Intestinal Absorption of Metal Ions, Trace Elements, and Radionuclides focuses on the transport of metal ions across biological membranes. (elsevier.com)
  • Earlier it is used to study the transport of macromolecules and liposomes but now it is being used to mostly to quantify the paracellular transport of hydrophilic molecules, and to estimate the effects of potent enhancers on their absorption. (rroij.com)