Any of the 23 plates of fibrocartilage found between the bodies of adjacent VERTEBRAE.
Degenerative changes in the INTERVERTEBRAL DISC due to aging or structural damage, especially to the vertebral end-plates.
An INTERVERTEBRAL DISC in which the nucleus pulposus has protruded through surrounding fibrocartilage. This occurs most frequently in the lower lumbar region.
VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.
A type of CARTILAGE whose matrix contains large bundles of COLLAGEN TYPE I. Fibrocartilage is typically found in the INTERVERTEBRAL DISK; PUBIC SYMPHYSIS; TIBIAL MENISCI; and articular disks in synovial JOINTS. (From Ross et. al., Histology, 3rd ed., p132,136)
'Spinal diseases' is a broad term referring to various medical conditions that affect the structural integrity, function, or health of the spinal column, including degenerative disorders, infections, inflammatory processes, traumatic injuries, neoplasms, and congenital abnormalities.
The spinal or vertebral column.
The dissolving of the nucleus pulposus, the semi-gelatinous tissue of a displaced INTERVERTEBRAL DISC. It is usually achieved by the direct injection of a proteolytic enzyme, especially CHYMOPAPAIN, into the herniated disc.
Large HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). They form into aggregates that provide tissues with the capacity to resist high compressive and tensile forces.
Excision, in part or whole, of an INTERVERTEBRAL DISC. The most common indication is disk displacement or herniation. In addition to standard surgical removal, it can be performed by percutaneous diskectomy (DISKECTOMY, PERCUTANEOUS) or by laparoscopic diskectomy, the former being the more common.
The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)
The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.
Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.
A cartilaginous rod of mesodermal cells at the dorsal midline of all CHORDATE embryos. In lower vertebrates, notochord is the backbone of support. In the higher vertebrates, notochord is a transient structure, and segments of the vertebral column will develop around it. Notochord is also a source of midline signals that pattern surrounding tissues including the NEURAL TUBE development.
A cysteine endopeptidase isolated from papaya latex. Preferential cleavage at glutamic and aspartic acid residues. EC
The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.
Outgrowth of immature bony processes or bone spurs (OSTEOPHYTE) from the VERTEBRAE, reflecting the presence of degenerative disease and calcification. It commonly occurs in cervical and lumbar SPONDYLOSIS.
A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.
Inflammation of an INTERVERTEBRAL DISC or disk space which may lead to disk erosion. Until recently, discitis has been defined as a nonbacterial inflammation and has been attributed to aseptic processes (e.g., chemical reaction to an injected substance). However, recent studies provide evidence that infection may be the initial cause, but perhaps not the promoter, of most cases of discitis. Discitis has been diagnosed in patients following discography, myelography, lumbar puncture, paravertebral injection, and obstetrical epidural anesthesia. Discitis following chemonucleolysis (especially with chymopapain) is attributed to chemical reaction by some and to introduction of microorganisms by others.
A fibrillar collagen found predominantly in CARTILAGE and vitreous humor. It consists of three identical alpha1(II) chains.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Acute or chronic pain in the lumbar or sacral regions, which may be associated with musculo-ligamentous SPRAINS AND STRAINS; INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; and other conditions.
A condition characterized by pain radiating from the back into the buttock and posterior/lateral aspects of the leg. Sciatica may be a manifestation of SCIATIC NEUROPATHY; RADICULOPATHY (involving the SPINAL NERVE ROOTS; L4, L5, S1, or S2, often associated with INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT); or lesions of the CAUDA EQUINA.
Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)
Five fused VERTEBRAE forming a triangle-shaped structure at the back of the PELVIS. It articulates superiorly with the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, inferiorly with the COCCYX, and anteriorly with the ILIUM of the PELVIS. The sacrum strengthens and stabilizes the PELVIS.
X-ray visualization of the spinal cord following injection of contrast medium into the spinal arachnoid space.
Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
Disease involving a spinal nerve root (see SPINAL NERVE ROOTS) which may result from compression related to INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; SPINAL CORD INJURIES; SPINAL DISEASES; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include radicular pain, weakness, and sensory loss referable to structures innervated by the involved nerve root.
A fibril-associated collagen usually found crosslinked to the surface of COLLAGEN TYPE II fibrils. It is a heterotrimer containing alpha1(IX), alpha2(IX) and alpha3(IX) subunits.
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
An appreciable lateral deviation in the normally straight vertical line of the spine. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Percutaneous excision of a herniated or displaced INTERVERTEBRAL DISC by posterolateral approach, always remaining outside the spinal canal. Percutaneous nucleotomy was first described by Hijikata in Japan in 1975. In 1985 Onik introduced automated percutaneous nucleotomy which consists in percutaneous aspiration of the nucleus pulposus. It is carried out under local anesthesia, thus reducing the surgical insult and requiring brief hospitalization, often performed on an outpatient basis. It appears to be a well-tolerated alternative to surgical diskectomy and chymopapain nucleolysis.
Forward displacement of a superior vertebral body over the vertebral body below.
Narrowing of the spinal canal.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A surgical procedure that entails removing all (laminectomy) or part (laminotomy) of selected vertebral lamina to relieve pressure on the SPINAL CORD and/or SPINAL NERVE ROOTS. Vertebral lamina is the thin flattened posterior wall of vertebral arch that forms the vertebral foramen through which pass the spinal cord and nerve roots.
A dead body, usually a human body.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
The replacement of intervertebral discs in the spinal column with artificial devices. The procedure is done in the lumbar or cervical spine to relieve severe pain resulting from INTERVERTEBRAL DISC DEGENERATION.
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the THORAX; LUMBOSACRAL REGION; or the adjacent regions.
The cavity within the SPINAL COLUMN through which the SPINAL CORD passes.
Disease or injury involving multiple SPINAL NERVE ROOTS. Polyradiculitis refers to inflammation of multiple spinal nerve roots.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.
A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A small leucine-rich proteoglycan found in a variety of tissues including CAPILLARY ENDOTHELIUM; SKELETAL MUSCLE; CARTILAGE; BONE; and TENDONS. The protein contains two glycosaminoglycan chains and is similar in structure to DECORIN.
Injuries involving the vertebral column.
An extracellular endopeptidase which excises a block of peptides at the amino terminal, nonhelical region of the procollagen molecule with the formation of collagen. Absence or deficiency of the enzyme causes accumulation of procollagen which results in the inherited connective tissue disorder--dermatosparaxis. EC
Shiny, flexible bands of fibrous tissue connecting together articular extremities of bones. They are pliant, tough, and inextensile.
A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.
Inflammation of the SPINE. This includes both arthritic and non-arthritic conditions.
An anionic, hydrophilic azo dye with an orange-yellow color used in fabrics, foods and cosmetics, and as a biological stain.
A sulfated mucopolysaccharide initially isolated from bovine cornea. At least two types are known. Type I, found mostly in the cornea, contains D-galactose and D-glucosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit; type II, found in skeletal tissues, contains D-galactose and D-galactosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit.
The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.
The anterior concavity in the curvature of the lumbar and cervical spine as viewed from the side. The term usually refers to abnormally increased curvature (hollow back, saddle back, swayback). It does not include lordosis as normal mating posture in certain animals ( = POSTURE + SEX BEHAVIOR, ANIMAL).
Internal devices used in osteosynthesis to hold the position of the fracture in proper alignment. By applying the principles of biomedical engineering, the surgeon uses metal plates, nails, rods, etc., for the correction of skeletal defects.
A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.
In anatomical terms, "tail" is not used as a medical definition to describe any part of the human body; it is however used in veterinary medicine to refer to the distal portion of the spine in animals possessing tails.
The joint that occurs between facets of the interior and superior articular processes of adjacent VERTEBRAE.
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-18 in simple, or predominately single layered, internal epithelia.
Deformities of the SPINE characterized by an exaggerated convexity of the vertebral column. The forward bending of the thoracic region usually is more than 40 degrees. This deformity sometimes is called round back or hunchback.
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
Space between the dura mater and the walls of the vertebral canal.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Deficient development or degeneration of a portion of the VERTEBRA, usually in the pars interarticularis (the bone bridge between the superior and inferior facet joints of the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE) leading to SPONDYLOLISTHESIS.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A degenerative spinal disease that can involve any part of the VERTEBRA, the INTERVERTEBRAL DISK, and the surrounding soft tissue.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Acute and chronic conditions characterized by external mechanical compression of the SPINAL CORD due to extramedullary neoplasm; EPIDURAL ABSCESS; SPINAL FRACTURES; bony deformities of the vertebral bodies; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations vary with the anatomic site of the lesion and may include localized pain, weakness, sensory loss, incontinence, and impotence.
The nine cartilages of the larynx, including the cricoid, thyroid and epiglottic, and two each of arytenoid, corniculate and cuneiform.
Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.
Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.
Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.
A degenerative joint disease involving the SPINE. It is characterized by progressive deterioration of the spinal articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR), usually with hardening of the subchondral bone and outgrowth of bone spurs (OSTEOPHYTE).
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.
Local surroundings with which cells interact by processing various chemical and physical signals, and by contributing their own effects to this environment.
An inorganic pyrophosphate which affects calcium metabolism in mammals. Abnormalities in its metabolism occur in some human diseases, notably HYPOPHOSPHATASIA and pseudogout (CHONDROCALCINOSIS).
A non-fibrillar collagen found primarily in terminally differentiated hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES. It is a homotrimer of three identical alpha1(X) subunits.
Examination of any part of the body for diagnostic purposes by means of X-RAYS or GAMMA RAYS, recording the image on a sensitized surface (such as photographic film).
Surgical insertion of a prosthesis.
The pull on a limb or a part thereof. Skin traction (indirect traction) is applied by using a bandage to pull on the skin and fascia where light traction is required. Skeletal traction (direct traction), however, uses pins or wires inserted through bone and is attached to weights, pulleys, and ropes. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed)
A type of CARTILAGE characterized by a homogenous amorphous matrix containing predominately TYPE II COLLAGEN and ground substance. Hyaline cartilage is found in ARTICULAR CARTILAGE; COSTAL CARTILAGE; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; and the NASAL SEPTUM.
The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.
Transference of cells within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A plate of fibrous tissue that divides the temporomandibular joint into an upper and lower cavity. The disc is attached to the articular capsule and moves forward with the condyle in free opening and protrusion. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p92)
A growth differentiation factor that plays a role in early CHONDROGENESIS and joint formation.
A small leucine-rich proteoglycan that interacts with FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and modifies the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX structure of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. Decorin has also been shown to play additional roles in the regulation of cellular responses to GROWTH FACTORS. The protein contains a single glycosaminoglycan chain and is similar in structure to BIGLYCAN.

A comparative chemical and histochemical study of the chondrodystrophoid and nonchondrodystrophoid canine intervertebral disc. (1/1257)

The chemical composition of the intervertebral disc of 9-month-old chondrodystrophoid and nonchondrodystrophoid dogs was studied for collagen, noncollagenous protein and glycosaminoglycan. Content of these substances differed significantly between breeds. The differences were most marked in the nucleus pulposus; the noncollagenous protein content of the nonchondrodystrophoid breed was higher than in that of the chondrodystrophoid dogs. The total nitrogen value of the nonchondrodystrophoid nuclei pulposi was less than that of the corresponding chondrodystrophoid discs mainly because of the high collagen content of the latter discs. Histochemically, it was found that the nuclei pulposi of the nonchondrodystrophoid breed contains larger amounts of glycosaminoglycan than in the discs of the chondrodystrophoid breeds.  (+info)

Extradural inflammation associated with annular tears: demonstration with gadolinium-enhanced lumbar spine MRI. (2/1257)

Annular tears are manifest on MRI as the high-intensity zone (HIZ) or as annular enhancement. Patients with annular tears may experience low back pain with radiation into the lower limb in the absence of nerve root compression. Inflammation of nerve roots from leak of degenerative nuclear material through full-thickness annular tears is a proposed mechanism for such leg pain. The aim of this study is to illustrate the appearance of extradural enhancement adjacent to annular tears in patients being investigated for low back pain with radiation into the lower limb(s). Sagittal T1- and T2-weighted spin echo and axial T1-weighted spin echo sequences were obtained in eight patients being investigated for low back and leg pain. In all patients, the T1-weighted sequences were repeated following intravenous gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA). Annular tears were identified at 12 sites in eight patients. Extradural inflammation appeared as a region of intermediate signal intensity replacing the fat between the posterior disc margin and the theca, which enhanced following Gd-DTPA. The inflammatory change was always associated with an annular tear, and in four cases directly involved the nerve root. Enhancement of the nerve root was seen in two cases. The findings may be relevant in the diagnosis of chemical radiculopathy secondary to inflammation at the site of an annular leak from a degenerating disc.  (+info)

A clinico-pathological study of cervical myelopathy in rheumatoid arthritis: post-mortem analysis of two cases. (3/1257)

Two patients who developed cervical myelopathy secondary to rheumatoid arthritis were analyzed post mortem. One patient had anterior atlanto-axial subluxation (AAS) combined with subaxial subluxation (SS), and the other had vertical subluxation (VS) combined with SS. In the patient with AAS, the posterior aspect of the spinal cord demonstrated severe constriction at the C2 segment, which arose from dynamic osseous compression by the C1 posterior arch. A histological cross-section of the spinal cord at the segment was characterized by distinct necrosis in the posterior white columns and the gray matter. In the patient with VS, the upper cervical cord and medulla oblongata showed angulation over the invaginated odontoid process, whereas no significant pathological changes were observed. At the level of SS, the spinal cord was pinched and compressed between the upper corner of the vertebral body and the lower edge of the lamina. Histologically, demyelination and gliosis were observed in the posterior and lateral white columns.  (+info)

Ten- to 15-year outcome of surgery for lumbar disc herniation: radiographic instability and clinical findings. (4/1257)

The most appropriate treatment for radiculopathy associated with disc pathology is still controversial. Since 1934, surgical treatment has consisted of hemilaminectomy and removal of the herniated material. Many authors believe that these procedures may cause degenerative spondylosis and vertebral instability. Several surgical methods have been proposed, but the long-term effects are still being debated. In addition there appear to be few well-designed outcome studies on the management of this disease. In the present study, 150 patients were selected for surgery with strict criteria and all treated with the standard technique. The series was evaluated by subjective analyses (Roland questionnaire; 120 patients), objective examinations (68 patients - 56.6%) and radiographic studies including dynamic views (analyzed by the Taillard and Boxall methods) to establish the presence of vertebral instability (50 patients - 41.6%). The subjective and objective analyses showed a high rate of good results. Radiographic studies showed vertebral instability in 30 cases, but only 9 were symptomatic. Recurrences were not observed and only a few patients suffered from leg pain. The standard procedure for lumbar disc herniation showed good results at 10- and 15-year follow-up.  (+info)

Cervical spondylotic myelopathy in elderly people: a high incidence of conduction block at C3-4 or C4-5. (5/1257)

OBJECTIVES: To precisely localise the site of conduction block in elderly patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy in the presence of multilevel compression shown by MRI. METHODS: A total of 44 patients aged 65 and older underwent serial intervertebral recording of spinal somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) from either the intervertebral disc or the ligamentum flavum after epidural stimulation. The site of conduction block identified by abrupt reduction in size of the negative peak was designated as the 0 level with the other levels numbered in order of distance assigning a minus sign caudally. RESULTS: A single site of focal conduction block was disclosed in 42 patients, 23 (55%) at C3-4, 17 (40%) at C4-5, and two (5%) at C5-6. At these levels (0), the amplitude of the negative component was reduced (p<0.0001) to 29% and the area to 22%, with a concomitant increase (p<0.0001) of the initial positive component to 150% in amplitude and 293% in area as compared to the-2 level which was taken as the baseline (100%). CONCLUSIONS: A high incidence (95%) of focal conduction block at C3-4 or C4-5 with normal conduction at C5-6 and C6-7 characterises cervical spondylotic myelopathy in elderly people. Incremental SSEP studies documenting the site of conduction block will help exclude clinically silent cord compression, directing the surgical intervention to the appropriate level of concern.  (+info)

Fungal spinal osteomyelitis in the immunocompromised patient: MR findings in three cases. (6/1257)

The MR imaging findings of fungal spinal osteomyelitis in three recipients of organ transplants showed hypointensity of the vertebral bodies on T1-weighted sequences in all cases. Signal changes and enhancement extended into the posterior elements in two cases. Multiple-level disease was present in two cases (with a total of five intervertebral disks involved in three cases). All cases lacked hyperintensity within the disks on T2-weighted images. In addition, the intranuclear cleft was preserved in four of five affected disks at initial MR imaging. MR features in Candida and Aspergillus spondylitis that are distinct from pyogenic osteomyelitis include absence of disk hyperintensity and preservation of the intranuclear cleft on T2-weighted images. Prompt recognition of these findings may avoid delay in establishing a diagnosis and instituting treatment of opportunistic osteomyelitis in the immunocompromised patient.  (+info)

Lumbar intradiscal pressure after posterolateral fusion and pedicle screw fixation. (7/1257)

In vitro biomechanical testing was performed in single-functional spinal units of fresh calf lumbar spines, using pressure needle transducers to investigate the effect of posterolateral fusion (PLF) and pedicle screw constructs (PS) on intradiscal pressure (IDP), in order to elucidate the mechanical factors concerned with residual low back pain after PLF. IDP of 6 calf lumbar spines consisting of L4 and L5 vertebrae and an intervening disc was measured under axial compression, flexion-extension and lateral bending in the intact spine, PS, PLF and the destabilized spine. Relative to the intact spines, the destabilized spines showed increased IDP in all of lordings and moments. IDP under PS and PLF were significantly decreased in axial compression, extension and lateral bending loads (p<0.05). In flexion, IDP under PS and PLF increased linearly proportional to the magnitude of flexion moment and reached as high as IDP of the intact spines. These results demonstrated that despite an increase in the stiffness of motion segments after PLF and PS, significant high disc pressure is still generated in flexion. Flexibility of PS and PLF may cause increased axial load sharing of the disc in flexion and increased IDP. This high IDP may explain patients' persisting pain following PS and PLF.  (+info)

Relationship of pain drawings to invasive tests assessing intervertebral disc pathology. (8/1257)

It has been found that the pain patterns in pain drawings are related to the presence of herniated disc identified by myelography. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the pattern of pain in the drawings or the type of pain indicated (aching, burning, numbness, pins and needles, stabbing) was related to the presence of symptomatic disc pathology identified by CT/discography. In a subgroup of patients who underwent myelography, the relationship of the drawings to myelographic findings was also investigated. Pain drawings were completed by 187 patients with low back and/or radicular pain who were undergoing CT/discography. The drawings were scored in two ways, first by the system described by Ransford and secondly by visual inspection. They were classified as being indicative, or not, of disc pathology. The CT/discograms were classified as disrupted, or not, and the pain responses were recorded upon injection of each disc, based on the similarity of the pain provoked to clinical symptoms. Among the 133 patients with discogenic pain confirmed by discography, 110 (82.7%) had pain drawings that were classified as indicative. Among the 45 patients without discogenic pain, 29 (64.4%) had pain drawings classified as non-indicative. Patients with discogenic pain used more symbols indicating burning pain and aching pain than did non-discogenic pain patients. Our results confirmed those reported earlier by Uden, who found a relationship between the pattern of pain in the drawings and myelographic findings. Pain drawings may be helpful in the diagnosis of symptomatic disc pathology.  (+info)

An intervertebral disc is a fibrocartilaginous structure found between the vertebrae of the spinal column in humans and other animals. It functions as a shock absorber, distributes mechanical stress during weight-bearing activities, and allows for varying degrees of mobility between adjacent vertebrae.

The disc is composed of two parts: the annulus fibrosus, which forms the tough, outer layer; and the nucleus pulposus, which is a gel-like substance in the center that contains proteoglycans and water. The combination of these components provides the disc with its unique ability to distribute forces and allow for movement.

The intervertebral discs are essential for the normal functioning of the spine, providing stability, flexibility, and protection to the spinal cord and nerves. However, they can also be subject to degeneration and injury, which may result in conditions such as herniated discs or degenerative disc disease.

Intervertebral disc degeneration is a physiological and biochemical process that occurs in the spinal discs, which are located between each vertebra in the spine. These discs act as shock absorbers and allow for movement and flexibility of the spine.

The degenerative process involves changes in the structure and composition of the disc, including loss of water content, decreased production of proteoglycans (which help to maintain the disc's elasticity), and disorganization of the collagen fibers that make up the disc's outer layer (annulus fibrosus). These changes can lead to a decrease in the disc's height and mobility, as well as the development of tears or cracks in the annulus fibrosus.

In advanced stages of degeneration, the disc may herniate or bulge outward, causing pressure on nearby nerves and potentially leading to pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the affected area. It's worth noting that while intervertebral disc degeneration is a normal part of aging, certain factors such as injury, smoking, obesity, and repetitive stress can accelerate the process.

Intervertebral disc displacement, also known as a slipped disc or herniated disc, is a medical condition where the inner, softer material (nucleus pulposus) of the intervertebral disc bulges or ruptures through its outer, tougher ring (annulus fibrosus). This can put pressure on nearby nerves and cause pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the affected area, often in the lower back or neck. The displacement may also lead to inflammation and irritation of the surrounding spinal structures, further exacerbating the symptoms. The condition is typically caused by age-related wear and tear (degenerative disc disease) or sudden trauma.

The lumbar vertebrae are the five largest and strongest vertebrae in the human spine, located in the lower back region. They are responsible for bearing most of the body's weight and providing stability during movement. The lumbar vertebrae have a characteristic shape, with a large body in the front, which serves as the main weight-bearing structure, and a bony ring in the back, formed by the pedicles, laminae, and processes. This ring encloses and protects the spinal cord and nerves. The lumbar vertebrae are numbered L1 to L5, starting from the uppermost one. They allow for flexion, extension, lateral bending, and rotation movements of the trunk.

Fibrocartilage is a type of tough, dense connective tissue that contains both collagen fibers and cartilaginous matrix. It is composed of fibroblasts embedded in a extracellular matrix rich in collagen types I and II, proteoglycans and elastin. Fibrocartilage is found in areas of the body where strong, flexible support is required, such as intervertebral discs, menisci (knee cartilage), labrum (shoulder and hip cartilage) and pubic symphysis. It has both the elasticity and flexibility of cartilage and the strength and durability of fibrous tissue. Fibrocartilage can withstand high compressive loads and provides cushioning, shock absorption and stability to the joints and spine.

Spinal diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the spinal column, which is made up of vertebrae (bones), intervertebral discs, facet joints, nerves, ligaments, and muscles. These diseases can cause pain, discomfort, stiffness, numbness, weakness, or even paralysis, depending on the severity and location of the condition. Here are some examples of spinal diseases:

1. Degenerative disc disease: This is a condition where the intervertebral discs lose their elasticity and height, leading to stiffness, pain, and decreased mobility.
2. Herniated disc: This occurs when the inner material of the intervertebral disc bulges or herniates out through a tear in the outer layer, causing pressure on the spinal nerves and resulting in pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the affected area.
3. Spinal stenosis: This is a narrowing of the spinal canal or the neural foramen (the openings where the spinal nerves exit the spinal column), which can cause pressure on the spinal cord or nerves and result in pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness.
4. Scoliosis: This is a curvature of the spine that can occur in children or adults, leading to an abnormal posture, back pain, and decreased lung function.
5. Osteoarthritis: This is a degenerative joint disease that affects the facet joints in the spine, causing pain, stiffness, and decreased mobility.
6. Ankylosing spondylitis: This is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the spine and sacroiliac joints, leading to pain, stiffness, and fusion of the vertebrae.
7. Spinal tumors: These are abnormal growths that can occur in the spinal column, which can be benign or malignant, causing pain, neurological symptoms, or even paralysis.
8. Infections: Bacterial or viral infections can affect the spine, leading to pain, fever, and other systemic symptoms.
9. Trauma: Fractures, dislocations, or sprains of the spine can occur due to accidents, falls, or sports injuries, causing pain, neurological deficits, or even paralysis.

The spine, also known as the vertebral column, is a complex structure in the human body that is part of the axial skeleton. It is composed of 33 individual vertebrae (except in some people where there are fewer due to fusion of certain vertebrae), intervertebral discs, facet joints, ligaments, muscles, and nerves.

The spine has several important functions:

1. Protection: The spine protects the spinal cord, which is a major component of the nervous system, by enclosing it within a bony canal.
2. Support: The spine supports the head and upper body, allowing us to maintain an upright posture and facilitating movement of the trunk and head.
3. Movement: The spine enables various movements such as flexion (bending forward), extension (bending backward), lateral flexion (bending sideways), and rotation (twisting).
4. Weight-bearing: The spine helps distribute weight and pressure evenly across the body, reducing stress on individual vertebrae and other structures.
5. Blood vessel and nerve protection: The spine protects vital blood vessels and nerves that pass through it, including the aorta, vena cava, and spinal nerves.

The spine is divided into five regions: cervical (7 vertebrae), thoracic (12 vertebrae), lumbar (5 vertebrae), sacrum (5 fused vertebrae), and coccyx (4 fused vertebrae, also known as the tailbone). Each region has unique characteristics that allow for specific functions and adaptations to the body's needs.

I am unable to find a medical definition for "Intervertebral Disc Chemolysis" as it is not a widely recognized or established term in the field of medicine. The term "chemolysis" refers to the breakdown of chemical compounds by chemical means, and "intervertebral disc" refers to the cushion-like structure found between the vertebrae in the spine.

However, I can tell you that there is a medical procedure called "chemonucleolysis," which involves the use of enzymes or chemicals to break down the nucleus pulposus (the inner, gel-like material) of an intervertebral disc in order to reduce the pressure on surrounding nerves and relieve pain.

Therefore, it is possible that "Intervertebral Disc Chemolysis" may refer to a similar process, but I cannot confirm this without further context or information.

Aggrecan is a large, complex proteoglycan molecule found in the extracellular matrix of articular cartilage and other connective tissues. It is a key component of the structural framework of these tissues, helping to provide resiliency, cushioning, and protection to the cells within. Aggrecan contains numerous glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains, which are negatively charged molecules that attract water and ions, creating a swelling pressure that contributes to the tissue's load-bearing capacity.

The medical definition of 'Aggrecans' can be described as:

1. A large proteoglycan molecule found in articular cartilage and other connective tissues.
2. Composed of a core protein with attached glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains, primarily chondroitin sulfate and keratan sulfate.
3. Plays a crucial role in the biomechanical properties of articular cartilage by attracting water and ions, creating a swelling pressure that contributes to the tissue's load-bearing capacity.
4. Aggrecan degradation or loss is associated with various joint diseases, such as osteoarthritis, due to reduced structural integrity and shock-absorbing capabilities of articular cartilage.

Diskectomy is a surgical procedure in which all or part of an intervertebral disc (the cushion between two vertebrae) is removed. This procedure is typically performed to alleviate pressure on nerve roots or the spinal cord caused by a herniated or degenerative disc. In a diskectomy, the surgeon accesses the damaged disc through an incision in the back or neck and removes the portion of the disc that is causing the compression. This can help to relieve pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the affected limb. Diskectomy may be performed as an open surgery or using minimally invasive techniques, depending on the individual case.

Compressive strength is a measure of the maximum compressive load that a material or structure can withstand before failure or deformation. It is typically expressed in units of pressure, such as pounds per square inch (psi) or megapascals (MPa). Compressive strength is an important property in the design and analysis of structures and materials, as it helps to ensure their safety and durability under compressive loads.

In medical terminology, compressive strength may refer to the ability of biological tissues, such as bone or cartilage, to withstand compressive forces without deforming or failing. For example, osteoporosis is a condition characterized by reduced bone density and compressive strength, which can increase the risk of fractures in affected individuals. Similarly, degenerative changes in articular cartilage can lead to decreased compressive strength and joint pain or stiffness.

The cervical vertebrae are the seven vertebrae that make up the upper part of the spine, also known as the neck region. They are labeled C1 to C7, with C1 being closest to the skull and C7 connecting to the thoracic vertebrae in the chest region. The cervical vertebrae have unique structures to allow for a wide range of motion in the neck while also protecting the spinal cord and providing attachment points for muscles and ligaments.

The lumbosacral region is the lower part of the back where the lumbar spine (five vertebrae in the lower back) connects with the sacrum (a triangular bone at the base of the spine). This region is subject to various conditions such as sprains, strains, herniated discs, and degenerative disorders that can cause pain and discomfort. It's also a common site for surgical intervention when non-surgical treatments fail to provide relief.

The notochord is a flexible, rod-shaped structure that is present in the embryos of chordates, including humans. It is composed of cells called chordocytes and is surrounded by a sheath. The notochord runs along the length of the body, providing support and flexibility. In human embryos, the notochord eventually becomes part of the discs between the vertebrae in the spine. An abnormal or absent notochord can lead to developmental problems with the spine and nervous system.

Chymopapain is a proteolytic enzyme that is derived from the papaya fruit (Carica papaya). It is specifically obtained from the latex of unripe papayas. Chymopapain is used in medical treatments, particularly as an enzyme therapy for disc herniation in the spine, which can cause pain, numbness, or weakness due to pressure on nearby nerves.

The procedure, called chemonucleolysis, involves injecting chymopapain directly into the damaged intervertebral disc. The enzyme breaks down and dissolves part of the proteoglycan matrix in the nucleus pulposus (the inner, gel-like portion of the intervertebral disc), reducing its size and relieving pressure on the affected nerves. This can help alleviate pain and improve function in some patients with herniated discs.

However, the use of chymopapain for disc herniation has declined over time due to the development of other treatment options, such as minimally invasive surgical techniques, and concerns about potential side effects and allergic reactions associated with its use. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for appropriate evaluation and management of spinal conditions.

"Weight-bearing" is a term used in the medical field to describe the ability of a body part or limb to support the weight or pressure exerted upon it, typically while standing, walking, or performing other physical activities. In a clinical setting, healthcare professionals often use the term "weight-bearing exercise" to refer to physical activities that involve supporting one's own body weight, such as walking, jogging, or climbing stairs. These exercises can help improve bone density, muscle strength, and overall physical function, particularly in individuals with conditions affecting the bones, joints, or muscles.

In addition, "weight-bearing" is also used to describe the positioning of a body part during medical imaging studies, such as X-rays or MRIs. For example, a weight-bearing X-ray of the foot or ankle involves taking an image while the patient stands on the affected limb, allowing healthcare providers to assess any alignment or stability issues that may not be apparent in a non-weight-bearing position.

Spinal osteophytosis, also known as spinal osteophyte formation or bone spurs on the spine, refers to the abnormal growth of bony projections along the vertebral column's margins. These bony outgrowths develop due to degenerative changes, inflammation, or injury in the joints between the vertebrae (facet joints) and can cause stiffness, pain, and reduced mobility. In some cases, spinal osteophytosis may lead to complications such as spinal stenosis or nerve compression.

The thoracic vertebrae are the 12 vertebrae in the thoracic region of the spine, which is the portion between the cervical and lumbar regions. These vertebrae are numbered T1 to T12, with T1 being closest to the skull and T12 connecting to the lumbar region.

The main function of the thoracic vertebrae is to provide stability and support for the chest region, including protection for the vital organs within, such as the heart and lungs. Each thoracic vertebra has costal facets on its sides, which articulate with the heads of the ribs, forming the costovertebral joints. This connection between the spine and the ribcage allows for a range of movements while maintaining stability.

The thoracic vertebrae have a unique structure compared to other regions of the spine. They are characterized by having long, narrow bodies, small bony processes, and prominent spinous processes that point downwards. This particular shape and orientation of the thoracic vertebrae contribute to their role in limiting excessive spinal movement and providing overall trunk stability.

Discitis is a medical condition that refers to an inflammation of the intervertebral disc space, which is the area between two adjacent vertebrae in the spine. The condition is usually caused by an infection, most commonly bacterial, that spreads to the disc space from nearby tissues or the bloodstream.

The symptoms of discitis may include lower back pain, fever, and difficulty walking or standing upright. In some cases, the condition may also cause nerve root compression, leading to radiating pain, numbness, or weakness in the legs. Diagnosis of discitis typically involves imaging studies such as X-rays, MRI scans, or CT scans, as well as blood tests and sometimes a biopsy to confirm the presence of an infection.

Treatment for discitis usually involves antibiotics to treat the underlying infection, as well as pain management and physical therapy to help manage symptoms and maintain mobility. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove infected tissue or stabilize the spine.

Collagen Type II is a specific type of collagen that is a major component of the extracellular matrix in articular cartilage, which is the connective tissue that covers and protects the ends of bones in joints. It is also found in other tissues such as the vitreous humor of the eye and the inner ear.

Collagen Type II is a triple helix molecule composed of three polypeptide chains that contain a high proportion of the amino acids proline and hydroxyproline. This type of collagen provides structural support and elasticity to tissues, and it also plays a role in the regulation of cell behavior and signaling.

Collagen Type II is a target for autoimmune responses in conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, where the immune system mistakenly attacks the body's own collagen, leading to joint inflammation and damage. It is also a common component of various dietary supplements and therapies used to support joint health and treat osteoarthritis.

Biomechanics is the application of mechanical laws to living structures and systems, particularly in the field of medicine and healthcare. A biomechanical phenomenon refers to a observable event or occurrence that involves the interaction of biological tissues or systems with mechanical forces. These phenomena can be studied at various levels, from the molecular and cellular level to the tissue, organ, and whole-body level.

Examples of biomechanical phenomena include:

1. The way that bones and muscles work together to produce movement (known as joint kinematics).
2. The mechanical behavior of biological tissues such as bone, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments under various loads and stresses.
3. The response of cells and tissues to mechanical stimuli, such as the way that bone tissue adapts to changes in loading conditions (known as Wolff's law).
4. The biomechanics of injury and disease processes, such as the mechanisms of joint injury or the development of osteoarthritis.
5. The use of mechanical devices and interventions to treat medical conditions, such as orthopedic implants or assistive devices for mobility impairments.

Understanding biomechanical phenomena is essential for developing effective treatments and prevention strategies for a wide range of medical conditions, from musculoskeletal injuries to neurological disorders.

Low back pain is a common musculoskeletal disorder characterized by discomfort or pain in the lower part of the back, typically between the costal margin (bottom of the ribcage) and the gluteal folds (buttocks). It can be caused by several factors including strain or sprain of the muscles or ligaments, disc herniation, spinal stenosis, osteoarthritis, or other degenerative conditions affecting the spine. The pain can range from a dull ache to a sharp stabbing sensation and may be accompanied by stiffness, limited mobility, and radiating pain down the legs in some cases. Low back pain is often described as acute (lasting less than 6 weeks), subacute (lasting between 6-12 weeks), or chronic (lasting more than 12 weeks).

Sciatica is not a medical condition itself but rather a symptom of an underlying medical problem. It's typically described as pain that radiates along the sciatic nerve, which runs from your lower back through your hips and buttocks and down each leg.

The pain can vary widely, from a mild ache to a sharp, burning sensation or excruciating discomfort. Sometimes, the pain is severe enough to make moving difficult. Sciatica most commonly occurs when a herniated disk, bone spur on the spine, or narrowing of the spine (spinal stenosis) compresses part of the nerve.

While sciatica can be quite painful, it's not typically a sign of permanent nerve damage and can often be relieved with non-surgical treatments. However, if the pain is severe or persists for a long period, it's essential to seek medical attention as it could indicate a more serious underlying condition.

Spinal fusion is a surgical procedure where two or more vertebrae in the spine are fused together to create a solid bone. The purpose of this procedure is to restrict movement between the fused vertebrae, which can help reduce pain and stabilize the spine. This is typically done using bone grafts or bone graft substitutes, along with hardware such as rods, screws, or cages to hold the vertebrae in place while they heal together. The procedure may be recommended for various spinal conditions, including degenerative disc disease, spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, scoliosis, or fractures.

The sacrum is a triangular-shaped bone in the lower portion of the human vertebral column, located between the lumbar spine and the coccyx (tailbone). It forms through the fusion of several vertebrae during fetal development. The sacrum's base articulates with the fifth lumbar vertebra, while its apex connects with the coccyx.

The sacrum plays an essential role in supporting the spine and transmitting weight from the upper body to the pelvis and lower limbs. It also serves as an attachment site for various muscles and ligaments. The sacral region is often a focus in medical and chiropractic treatments due to its importance in spinal stability, posture, and overall health.

Myelography is a medical imaging technique used to examine the spinal cord and surrounding structures, such as the spinal nerves, intervertebral discs, and the spinal column. This procedure involves the injection of a contrast dye into the subarachnoid space, which is the area surrounding the spinal cord filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The dye outlines the spinal structures, making them visible on X-ray or CT scan images.

The primary purpose of myelography is to diagnose various spinal conditions, including herniated discs, spinal stenosis, tumors, infection, and traumatic injuries. It can help identify any compression or irritation of the spinal cord or nerves that may be causing pain, numbness, weakness, or other neurological symptoms.

The procedure typically requires the patient to lie flat on their stomach or side while the radiologist inserts a thin needle into the subarachnoid space, usually at the lower lumbar level. Once the contrast dye is injected, the patient will be repositioned for various X-ray views or undergo a CT scan to capture detailed images of the spine. After the procedure, patients may experience headaches, nausea, or discomfort at the injection site, but these symptoms usually resolve within a few days.

Proteoglycans are complex, highly negatively charged macromolecules that are composed of a core protein covalently linked to one or more glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains. They are a major component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell signaling, regulation of growth factor activity, and maintenance of tissue structure and function.

The GAG chains, which can vary in length and composition, are long, unbranched polysaccharides that are composed of repeating disaccharide units containing a hexuronic acid (either glucuronic or iduronic acid) and a hexosamine (either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine). These GAG chains can be sulfated to varying degrees, which contributes to the negative charge of proteoglycans.

Proteoglycans are classified into four major groups based on their core protein structure and GAG composition: heparan sulfate/heparin proteoglycans, chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycans, keratan sulfate proteoglycans, and hyaluronan-binding proteoglycans. Each group has distinct functions and is found in specific tissues and cell types.

In summary, proteoglycans are complex macromolecules composed of a core protein and one or more GAG chains that play important roles in the ECM and various biological processes, including cell signaling, growth factor regulation, and tissue structure maintenance.

Radiculopathy is a medical term that refers to the condition where there is damage or disturbance in the nerve roots as they exit the spinal column. These nerve roots, also known as radicles, can become damaged due to various reasons such as compression, inflammation, or injury, leading to a range of symptoms.

Radiculopathy may occur in any part of the spine, but it is most commonly found in the cervical (neck) and lumbar (lower back) regions. When the nerve roots in the cervical region are affected, it can result in symptoms such as neck pain, shoulder pain, arm pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the arms or fingers. On the other hand, when the nerve roots in the lumbar region are affected, it can cause lower back pain, leg pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the legs or feet.

The symptoms of radiculopathy can vary depending on the severity and location of the damage to the nerve roots. In some cases, the condition may resolve on its own with rest and conservative treatment. However, in more severe cases, medical intervention such as physical therapy, medication, or surgery may be necessary to alleviate the symptoms and prevent further damage.

Collagen type IX is a type of collagen that is found in the extracellular matrix, particularly in the cartilage and vitreous humor of the eye. It is a heterotrimeric protein made up of three alpha chains (alpha1, alpha2, and alpha3), which are encoded by different genes (COL9A1, COL9A2, and COL9A3). Collagen type IX is thought to play a role in the organization and stability of collagen fibrils, as well as in the interaction between collagen and other extracellular matrix components. It has been implicated in various connective tissue disorders, such as Stickler syndrome and Marshall syndrome.

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are long, unbranched polysaccharides composed of repeating disaccharide units. They are a major component of the extracellular matrix and connective tissues in the body. GAGs are negatively charged due to the presence of sulfate and carboxyl groups, which allows them to attract positively charged ions and water molecules, contributing to their ability to retain moisture and maintain tissue hydration and elasticity.

GAGs can be categorized into four main groups: heparin/heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate, keratan sulfate, and hyaluronic acid. These different types of GAGs have varying structures and functions in the body, including roles in cell signaling, inflammation, and protection against enzymatic degradation.

Heparin is a highly sulfated form of heparan sulfate that is found in mast cells and has anticoagulant properties. Chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate are commonly found in cartilage and contribute to its resiliency and ability to withstand compressive forces. Keratan sulfate is found in corneas, cartilage, and bone, where it plays a role in maintaining the structure and function of these tissues. Hyaluronic acid is a large, nonsulfated GAG that is widely distributed throughout the body, including in synovial fluid, where it provides lubrication and shock absorption for joints.

Scoliosis is a medical condition characterized by an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine, which most often occurs in the thoracic or lumbar regions. The curvature can be "C" or "S" shaped and may also include rotation of the vertebrae. Mild scoliosis doesn't typically cause problems, but severe cases can interfere with breathing and other bodily functions.

The exact cause of most scoliosis is unknown, but it may be related to genetic factors. It often develops in the pre-teen or teenage years, particularly in girls, and is more commonly found in individuals with certain neuromuscular disorders such as cerebral palsy and muscular dystrophy.

Treatment for scoliosis depends on the severity of the curve, its location, and the age and expected growth of the individual. Mild cases may only require regular monitoring to ensure the curve doesn't worsen. More severe cases may require bracing or surgery to correct the curvature and prevent it from getting worse.

A percutaneous diskectomy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure to remove herniated disc material that is causing pain or neurological symptoms. "Percutaneous" means that the surgery is performed through a small incision or needle stick, rather than through a larger incision that requires muscle dissection.

During the procedure, the surgeon uses imaging guidance, such as fluoroscopy or computed tomography (CT), to guide a needle or series of needles into the affected disc space. Once the needle is in place, the surgeon uses small instruments or lasers to remove the herniated disc material that is pressing on nearby nerves or the spinal cord.

Percutaneous diskectomy is typically recommended for patients who have not responded to conservative treatments such as physical therapy, medication, and rest, and who have symptoms that are severe or worsening. The procedure is usually performed on an outpatient basis and has a shorter recovery time compared to traditional open discectomy. However, it may not be appropriate for all cases of herniated discs, particularly those with significant nerve compression or spinal instability.

Spondylolisthesis is a medical condition that affects the spine, specifically the vertebrae in the lower back (lumbar region). It occurs when one vertebra slips forward and onto the vertebra below it. This slippage can lead to narrowing of the spinal canal and compression of the nerves exiting the spine, causing pain and discomfort. The condition can be congenital, degenerative, or result from trauma or injury. Symptoms may include lower back pain, stiffness, and radiating pain down the legs. Treatment options range from physical therapy and pain management to surgical intervention in severe cases.

Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal or the neural foramina (the openings through which nerves exit the spinal column), typically in the lower back (lumbar) or neck (cervical) regions. This can put pressure on the spinal cord and/or nerve roots, causing pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the affected areas, often in the legs, arms, or hands. It's most commonly caused by age-related wear and tear, but can also be due to degenerative changes, herniated discs, tumors, or spinal injuries.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

A laminectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of the lamina, which is the back part of the vertebra that covers the spinal canal. This procedure is often performed to relieve pressure on the spinal cord or nerves caused by conditions such as herniated discs, spinal stenosis, or tumors. By removing the lamina, the surgeon can access the affected area and alleviate the compression on the spinal cord or nerves, thereby reducing pain, numbness, or weakness in the back, legs, or arms.

Laminectomy may be performed as a standalone procedure or in combination with other surgical techniques such as discectomy, foraminotomy, or spinal fusion. The specific approach and extent of the surgery will depend on the patient's individual condition and symptoms.

A cadaver is a deceased body that is used for medical research or education. In the field of medicine, cadavers are often used in anatomy lessons, surgical training, and other forms of medical research. The use of cadavers allows medical professionals to gain a deeper understanding of the human body and its various systems without causing harm to living subjects. Cadavers may be donated to medical schools or obtained through other means, such as through consent of the deceased or their next of kin. It is important to handle and treat cadavers with respect and dignity, as they were once living individuals who deserve to be treated with care even in death.

The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a complex network of biomolecules that provides structural and biochemical support to cells in tissues and organs. It is composed of various proteins, glycoproteins, and polysaccharides, such as collagens, elastin, fibronectin, laminin, and proteoglycans. The ECM plays crucial roles in maintaining tissue architecture, regulating cell behavior, and facilitating communication between cells. It provides a scaffold for cell attachment, migration, and differentiation, and helps to maintain the structural integrity of tissues by resisting mechanical stresses. Additionally, the ECM contains various growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines that can influence cellular processes such as proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Overall, the extracellular matrix is essential for the normal functioning of tissues and organs, and its dysregulation can contribute to various pathological conditions, including fibrosis, cancer, and degenerative diseases.

Total disc replacement (TDR), also known as total disc arthroplasty, is a surgical procedure in which the damaged or degenerated intervertebral disc in the spine is removed and replaced with an artificial device. The primary goal of this procedure is to maintain motion within the spinal segment while alleviating pain and other symptoms caused by the damaged disc.

The artificial disc, typically made from materials such as metal or polymer, is designed to replicate the natural movement and function of a healthy intervertebral disc. The surgery can be performed at various levels of the spine, including cervical (neck) and lumbar (lower back), depending on the location of the damaged disc.

TDR is generally considered for patients with degenerative disc disease who have not responded to non-surgical treatments such as physical therapy or pain management. The potential benefits of TDR over traditional spinal fusion surgery include preserving motion, reducing the risk of adjacent segment degeneration, and potentially faster recovery times. However, as with any surgical procedure, there are risks involved, including infection, implant wear, dislocation, or subsidence (sinking of the implant into the bone). It is essential to discuss these potential risks and benefits with a qualified medical professional before making a decision about undergoing TDR surgery.

Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are a group of structural and functional molecules that provide support, organization, and regulation to the cells in tissues and organs. The ECM is composed of a complex network of proteins, glycoproteins, and carbohydrates that are secreted by the cells and deposited outside of them.

ECM proteins can be classified into several categories based on their structure and function, including:

1. Collagens: These are the most abundant ECM proteins and provide strength and stability to tissues. They form fibrils that can withstand high tensile forces.
2. Proteoglycans: These are complex molecules made up of a core protein and one or more glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains. The GAG chains attract water, making proteoglycans important for maintaining tissue hydration and resilience.
3. Elastin: This is an elastic protein that allows tissues to stretch and recoil, such as in the lungs and blood vessels.
4. Fibronectins: These are large glycoproteins that bind to cells and ECM components, providing adhesion, migration, and signaling functions.
5. Laminins: These are large proteins found in basement membranes, which provide structural support for epithelial and endothelial cells.
6. Tenascins: These are large glycoproteins that modulate cell adhesion and migration, and regulate ECM assembly and remodeling.

Together, these ECM proteins create a microenvironment that influences cell behavior, differentiation, and function. Dysregulation of ECM proteins has been implicated in various diseases, including fibrosis, cancer, and degenerative disorders.

Back pain is a common symptom characterized by discomfort or soreness in the back, often occurring in the lower region of the back (lumbago). It can range from a mild ache to a sharp stabbing or shooting pain, and it may be accompanied by stiffness, restricted mobility, and difficulty performing daily activities. Back pain is typically caused by strain or sprain to the muscles, ligaments, or spinal joints, but it can also result from degenerative conditions, disc herniation, spinal stenosis, osteoarthritis, or other medical issues affecting the spine. The severity and duration of back pain can vary widely, with some cases resolving on their own within a few days or weeks, while others may require medical treatment and rehabilitation.

The spinal canal is the bony, protective channel within the vertebral column that contains and houses the spinal cord. It extends from the foramen magnum at the base of the skull to the sacrum, where the spinal cord ends and forms the cauda equina. The spinal canal is formed by a series of vertebral bodies stacked on top of each other, intervertebral discs in between them, and the laminae and spinous processes that form the posterior elements of the vertebrae. The spinal canal provides protection to the spinal cord from external trauma and contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that circulates around the cord, providing nutrients and cushioning. Any narrowing or compression of the spinal canal, known as spinal stenosis, can cause various neurological symptoms due to pressure on the spinal cord or nerve roots.

Polyradiculopathy is a medical term that refers to a condition affecting multiple nerve roots. It's a type of neurological disorder where there is damage or injury to the nerve roots, which are the beginning portions of nerves as they exit the spinal cord. This damage can result in various symptoms such as weakness, numbness, tingling, and pain in the affected areas of the body, depending on the specific nerves involved.

Polyradiculopathy can be caused by a variety of factors, including trauma, infection, inflammation, compression, or degenerative changes in the spine. Some common causes include spinal cord tumors, herniated discs, spinal stenosis, and autoimmune disorders such as Guillain-Barre syndrome.

Diagnosing polyradiculopathy typically involves a thorough neurological examination, imaging studies such as MRI or CT scans, and sometimes nerve conduction studies or electromyography (EMG) to assess the function of the affected nerves. Treatment for polyradiculopathy depends on the underlying cause but may include medications, physical therapy, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

Mechanical stress, in the context of physiology and medicine, refers to any type of force that is applied to body tissues or organs, which can cause deformation or displacement of those structures. Mechanical stress can be either external, such as forces exerted on the body during physical activity or trauma, or internal, such as the pressure changes that occur within blood vessels or other hollow organs.

Mechanical stress can have a variety of effects on the body, depending on the type, duration, and magnitude of the force applied. For example, prolonged exposure to mechanical stress can lead to tissue damage, inflammation, and chronic pain. Additionally, abnormal or excessive mechanical stress can contribute to the development of various musculoskeletal disorders, such as tendinitis, osteoarthritis, and herniated discs.

In order to mitigate the negative effects of mechanical stress, the body has a number of adaptive responses that help to distribute forces more evenly across tissues and maintain structural integrity. These responses include changes in muscle tone, joint positioning, and connective tissue stiffness, as well as the remodeling of bone and other tissues over time. However, when these adaptive mechanisms are overwhelmed or impaired, mechanical stress can become a significant factor in the development of various pathological conditions.

Chondrocytes are the specialized cells that produce and maintain the extracellular matrix of cartilage tissue. They are responsible for synthesizing and secreting the collagen fibers, proteoglycans, and other components that give cartilage its unique properties, such as elasticity, resiliency, and resistance to compression. Chondrocytes are located within lacunae, or small cavities, in the cartilage matrix, and they receive nutrients and oxygen through diffusion from the surrounding tissue fluid. They are capable of adapting to changes in mechanical stress by modulating the production and organization of the extracellular matrix, which allows cartilage to withstand various loads and maintain its structural integrity. Chondrocytes play a crucial role in the development, maintenance, and repair of cartilaginous tissues throughout the body, including articular cartilage, costal cartilage, and growth plate cartilage.

Surgical decompression is a medical procedure that involves relieving pressure on a nerve or tissue by creating additional space. This is typically accomplished through the removal of a portion of bone or other tissue that is causing the compression. The goal of surgical decompression is to alleviate symptoms such as pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness caused by the compression.

In the context of spinal disorders, surgical decompression is often used to treat conditions such as herniated discs, spinal stenosis, or bone spurs that are compressing nerves in the spine. The specific procedure used may vary depending on the location and severity of the compression, but common techniques include laminectomy, discectomy, and foraminotomy.

It's important to note that surgical decompression is a significant medical intervention that carries risks such as infection, bleeding, and injury to surrounding tissues. As with any surgery, it should be considered as a last resort after other conservative treatments have been tried and found to be ineffective. A thorough evaluation by a qualified medical professional is necessary to determine whether surgical decompression is appropriate in a given case.

Biglycan is a type of small leucine-rich proteoglycan (SLRP) that is found in the extracellular matrix of various tissues, including bone, cartilage, and tendons. It plays important roles in the organization and stabilization of the extracellular matrix, as well as in the regulation of cell behavior and signaling pathways.

Biglycan is composed of a core protein and one or more glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains, which are long, unbranched polysaccharides made up of repeating disaccharide units. The GAG chains attach to the core protein via specific serine residues, forming a proteoglycan.

In addition to its structural roles, biglycan has been shown to interact with various growth factors and cytokines, modulating their activity and influencing cellular responses such as proliferation, differentiation, and migration. Dysregulation of biglycan expression or function has been implicated in several diseases, including osteoarthritis, cancer, and fibrosis.

Spinal injuries refer to damages or traumas that occur to the vertebral column, which houses and protects the spinal cord. These injuries can be caused by various factors such as trauma from accidents (motor vehicle, sports-related, falls, etc.), violence, or degenerative conditions like arthritis, disc herniation, or spinal stenosis.

Spinal injuries can result in bruising, fractures, dislocations, or compression of the vertebrae, which may then cause damage to the spinal cord and its surrounding tissues, nerves, and blood vessels. The severity of a spinal injury can range from mild, with temporary symptoms, to severe, resulting in permanent impairment or paralysis below the level of injury.

Symptoms of spinal injuries may include:
- Pain or stiffness in the neck or back
- Numbness, tingling, or weakness in the limbs
- Loss of bladder or bowel control
- Difficulty walking or maintaining balance
- Paralysis or loss of sensation below the level of injury
- In severe cases, respiratory problems and difficulty in breathing

Immediate medical attention is crucial for spinal injuries to prevent further damage and ensure proper treatment. Treatment options may include immobilization, surgery, medication, rehabilitation, and physical therapy.

Procollagen N-Endopeptidase, also known as ADAMTS2 (A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase with Thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 2), is an enzyme involved in the processing and maturation of procollagens. Specifically, it cleaves off the N-terminal extension peptides from procollagen types I, II, and III, allowing for the formation of stable collagen fibrils. Mutations in the ADAMTS2 gene can lead to various connective tissue disorders, such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and dermatosparaxis type of cutis laxa.

Ligaments are bands of dense, fibrous connective tissue that surround joints and provide support, stability, and limits the range of motion. They are made up primarily of collagen fibers arranged in a parallel pattern to withstand tension and stress. Ligaments attach bone to bone, and their function is to prevent excessive movement that could cause injury or dislocation.

There are two main types of ligaments: extracapsular and intracapsular. Extracapsular ligaments are located outside the joint capsule and provide stability to the joint by limiting its range of motion. Intracapsular ligaments, on the other hand, are found inside the joint capsule and help maintain the alignment of the joint surfaces.

Examples of common ligaments in the body include the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) in the knee, the medial collateral ligament (MCL) and lateral collateral ligament (LCL) in the elbow, and the coracoacromial ligament in the shoulder.

Injuries to ligaments can occur due to sudden trauma or overuse, leading to sprains, strains, or tears. These injuries can cause pain, swelling, bruising, and limited mobility, and may require medical treatment such as immobilization, physical therapy, or surgery.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Finite Element Analysis" (FEA) is not a medical term. It is a computational technique used in engineering and physical sciences. FEA is a computerized method for predicting how a product reacts to real-world forces, vibration, heat, fluid flow, and other physical effects. It's a way that engineers can simulate the performance of a product or system before it is built, which can help reduce costs, improve quality, and shorten the development time.

However, in a medical context, FEA might be used in the field of biomechanical engineering to analyze the mechanical behavior of biological systems, such as bones, joints, or soft tissues, under various loads and conditions. This can help researchers and clinicians better understand the mechanisms of injury, disease, or the effects of treatment, and develop more effective prevention, diagnostic, or therapeutic strategies.

Spondylitis is a term used to describe inflammation in the spinal vertebrae, often leading to stiffness and pain. The most common form is Ankylosing Spondylitis, which is a chronic autoimmune disease where the body's immune system mistakenly attacks the joints in the spine. This can cause the bones in the spine to grow together, resulting in a rigid and inflexible spine. Other forms of spondylitis include reactive spondylitis, infectious spondylitis, and seronegative spondyloarthropathies. Symptoms may also include pain and stiffness in the neck, lower back, hips, and small joints of the body.

Tartrazine is a synthetic food coloring agent, also known as E number E102. It is a yellow dye derived from coal tar and is primarily used in the food industry to add or restore color. Tartrazine can be found in various products such as candies, desserts, beverages, sauces, and baked goods.

In addition to its use in food, tartrazine is also employed in cosmetics, personal care items, and pharmaceuticals. It serves as a coloring agent and can help improve the appearance of these products. However, some people may experience allergic reactions or sensitivities to tartrazine, which can result in symptoms like hives, itching, or swelling.

It is essential to note that tartrazine has been approved for use by regulatory bodies worldwide, including the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). However, these organizations recommend limiting its usage in food products due to potential health concerns.

Keratan sulfate is a type of glycosaminoglycan (GAG), which is a complex carbohydrate found in connective tissues, including the cornea and cartilage. It is composed of repeating disaccharide units of galactose and N-acetylglucosamine, with sulfate groups attached to some of the sugar molecules.

Keratan sulfate is unique among GAGs because it contains a high proportion of non-sulfated sugars and is often found covalently linked to proteins in structures called proteoglycans. In the cornea, keratan sulfate plays important roles in maintaining transparency and regulating hydration. In cartilage, it contributes to the elasticity and resilience of the tissue.

Abnormalities in keratan sulfate metabolism have been associated with several genetic disorders, including corneal dystrophies and skeletal dysplasias.

Articular Range of Motion (AROM) is a term used in physiotherapy and orthopedics to describe the amount of movement available in a joint, measured in degrees of a circle. It refers to the range through which synovial joints can actively move without causing pain or injury. AROM is assessed by measuring the degree of motion achieved by active muscle contraction, as opposed to passive range of motion (PROM), where the movement is generated by an external force.

Assessment of AROM is important in evaluating a patient's functional ability and progress, planning treatment interventions, and determining return to normal activities or sports participation. It is also used to identify any restrictions in joint mobility that may be due to injury, disease, or surgery, and to monitor the effectiveness of rehabilitation programs.

Lordosis is a term used in the medical field to describe an excessive inward curvature of the spine. It most commonly occurs in the cervical (neck) and lumbar (lower back) regions. When it happens in the lower back, it's often referred to as swayback. While some degree of lordosis is normal and necessary for proper spinal alignment and movement, excessive curvature can lead to pain, discomfort, and difficulty with mobility. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including poor posture, obesity, pregnancy, and certain medical conditions such as kyphosis or spondylolisthesis.

Internal fixators are medical devices that are implanted into the body through surgery to stabilize and hold broken or fractured bones in the correct position while they heal. These devices can be made from various materials, such as metal (stainless steel or titanium) or bioabsorbable materials. Internal fixators can take many forms, including plates, screws, rods, nails, wires, or cages, depending on the type and location of the fracture.

The main goal of using internal fixators is to promote bone healing by maintaining accurate reduction and alignment of the fractured bones, allowing for early mobilization and rehabilitation. This can help reduce the risk of complications such as malunion, nonunion, or deformity. Internal fixators are typically removed once the bone has healed, although some bioabsorbable devices may not require a second surgery for removal.

It is important to note that while internal fixators provide stability and support for fractured bones, they do not replace the need for proper immobilization, protection, or rehabilitation during the healing process. Close follow-up with an orthopedic surgeon is essential to ensure appropriate healing and address any potential complications.

SOX9 (SRY-related HMG-box gene 9) is a transcription factor that belongs to the SOX family of proteins, which are characterized by a high mobility group (HMG) box DNA-binding domain. SOX9 plays crucial roles in various developmental processes, including sex determination, chondrogenesis, and neurogenesis.

As a transcription factor, SOX9 binds to specific DNA sequences in the promoter or enhancer regions of its target genes and regulates their expression. In the context of sex determination, SOX9 is essential for the development of Sertoli cells in the male gonad, which are responsible for supporting sperm production. SOX9 also plays a role in maintaining the undifferentiated state of stem cells and promoting cell differentiation in various tissues.

Mutations in the SOX9 gene have been associated with several human genetic disorders, including campomelic dysplasia, a severe skeletal disorder characterized by bowed legs, and sex reversal in individuals with XY chromosomes.

In the context of human anatomy, the term "tail" is not used to describe any part of the body. Humans are considered tailless primates, and there is no structure or feature that corresponds directly to the tails found in many other animals.

However, there are some medical terms related to the lower end of the spine that might be confused with a tail:

1. Coccyx (Tailbone): The coccyx is a small triangular bone at the very bottom of the spinal column, formed by the fusion of several rudimentary vertebrae. It's also known as the tailbone because it resembles the end of an animal's tail in its location and appearance.
2. Cauda Equina (Horse's Tail): The cauda equina is a bundle of nerve roots at the lower end of the spinal cord, just above the coccyx. It got its name because it looks like a horse's tail due to the numerous rootlets radiating from the conus medullaris (the tapering end of the spinal cord).

These two structures are not tails in the traditional sense but rather medical terms related to the lower end of the human spine.

A zygapophyseal joint, also known as a facet joint, is a type of synovial joint that connects the articulating processes of adjacent vertebrae in the spine. These joints are formed by the superior and inferior articular processes of the vertebral bodies and are covered with hyaline cartilage. They allow for smooth movement between the vertebrae, providing stability and limiting excessive motion while allowing flexibility in the spine. The zygapophyseal joints are supported by a capsule and ligaments that help to maintain their alignment and restrict abnormal movements. These joints can become sources of pain and discomfort when they become inflamed or damaged due to conditions such as arthritis, degenerative disc disease, or injury.

Regeneration in a medical context refers to the process of renewal, restoration, and growth that replaces damaged or missing cells, tissues, organs, or even whole limbs in some organisms. This complex biological process involves various cellular and molecular mechanisms, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration, which work together to restore the structural and functional integrity of the affected area.

In human medicine, regeneration has attracted significant interest due to its potential therapeutic applications in treating various conditions, including degenerative diseases, trauma, and congenital disorders. Researchers are actively studying the underlying mechanisms of regeneration in various model organisms to develop novel strategies for promoting tissue repair and regeneration in humans.

Examples of regeneration in human medicine include liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy, where the remaining liver lobes can grow back to their original size within weeks, and skin wound healing, where keratinocytes migrate and proliferate to close the wound and restore the epidermal layer. However, the regenerative capacity of humans is limited compared to some other organisms, such as planarians and axolotls, which can regenerate entire body parts or even their central nervous system.

There is no medical definition for "dog diseases" as it is too broad a term. However, dogs can suffer from various health conditions and illnesses that are specific to their species or similar to those found in humans. Some common categories of dog diseases include:

1. Infectious Diseases: These are caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites. Examples include distemper, parvovirus, kennel cough, Lyme disease, and heartworms.
2. Hereditary/Genetic Disorders: Some dogs may inherit certain genetic disorders from their parents. Examples include hip dysplasia, elbow dysplasia, progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), and degenerative myelopathy.
3. Age-Related Diseases: As dogs age, they become more susceptible to various health issues. Common age-related diseases in dogs include arthritis, dental disease, cancer, and cognitive dysfunction syndrome (CDS).
4. Nutritional Disorders: Malnutrition or improper feeding can lead to various health problems in dogs. Examples include obesity, malnutrition, and vitamin deficiencies.
5. Environmental Diseases: These are caused by exposure to environmental factors such as toxins, allergens, or extreme temperatures. Examples include heatstroke, frostbite, and toxicities from ingesting harmful substances.
6. Neurological Disorders: Dogs can suffer from various neurological conditions that affect their nervous system. Examples include epilepsy, intervertebral disc disease (IVDD), and vestibular disease.
7. Behavioral Disorders: Some dogs may develop behavioral issues due to various factors such as anxiety, fear, or aggression. Examples include separation anxiety, noise phobias, and resource guarding.

It's important to note that regular veterinary care, proper nutrition, exercise, and preventative measures can help reduce the risk of many dog diseases.

Keratin-8 is a type of keratin protein that is primarily found in the epithelial cells, including those that line the surfaces of organs and glands. It is one of the major components of intermediate filaments, which are the structural proteins that help to maintain the shape and integrity of cells.

Keratin-8 is known to form heteropolymers with keratin-18 and is abundant in simple epithelia such as those lining the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory system, and reproductive organs. It has been implicated in various cellular processes, including protection against mechanical stress, regulation of cell signaling, and apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Mutations in the gene that encodes keratin-8 have been associated with several diseases, including a rare form of liver disease called cryptogenic cirrhosis. Additionally, abnormalities in keratin-8 expression and assembly have been linked to cancer progression and metastasis.

Kyphosis is a medical term used to describe an excessive curvature of the spine in the sagittal plane, leading to a rounded or humped back appearance. This condition often affects the thoracic region of the spine and can result from various factors such as age-related degenerative changes, congenital disorders, Scheuermann's disease, osteoporosis, or traumatic injuries. Mild kyphosis may not cause any significant symptoms; however, severe cases can lead to pain, respiratory difficulties, and decreased quality of life. Treatment options typically include physical therapy, bracing, and, in some cases, surgical intervention.

Cartilage is a type of connective tissue that is found throughout the body in various forms. It is made up of specialized cells called chondrocytes, which are embedded in a firm, flexible matrix composed of collagen fibers and proteoglycans. This unique structure gives cartilage its characteristic properties of being both strong and flexible.

There are three main types of cartilage in the human body: hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, and fibrocartilage.

1. Hyaline cartilage is the most common type and is found in areas such as the articular surfaces of bones (where they meet to form joints), the nose, trachea, and larynx. It has a smooth, glassy appearance and provides a smooth, lubricated surface for joint movement.
2. Elastic cartilage contains more elastin fibers than hyaline cartilage, which gives it greater flexibility and resilience. It is found in structures such as the external ear and parts of the larynx and epiglottis.
3. Fibrocartilage has a higher proportion of collagen fibers and fewer chondrocytes than hyaline or elastic cartilage. It is found in areas that require high tensile strength, such as the intervertebral discs, menisci (found in joints like the knee), and the pubic symphysis.

Cartilage plays a crucial role in supporting and protecting various structures within the body, allowing for smooth movement and providing a cushion between bones to absorb shock and prevent wear and tear. However, cartilage has limited capacity for self-repair and regeneration, making damage or degeneration of cartilage tissue a significant concern in conditions such as osteoarthritis.

The epidural space is the potential space located outside the dura mater, which is the outermost of the three membranes covering the brain and spinal cord (the meninges). This space runs the entire length of the spinal canal and contains fatty tissue, blood vessels, and nerve roots. It is often used as a route for administering anesthesia during childbirth or surgery, as well as for pain management in certain medical conditions. The injection of medications into this space is called an epidural block.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

Spondylolysis is a defect or stress fracture in the pars interarticularis, which is a part of the vertebra in the lower back (lumbar spine). This condition most commonly affects young athletes who participate in sports that involve repetitive hyperextension of the lower back, such as gymnastics, football, and dance. Spondylolysis can cause lower back pain and stiffness, and if left untreated, it may lead to spondylolisthesis, a condition where one vertebra slips forward over the one below it. In some cases, spondylolysis may not cause any symptoms and may be discovered during an imaging test performed for another reason.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Spondylosis is a general term that refers to degenerative changes in the spine, particularly in the joints (facets) between vertebrae and/or intervertebral discs. It's a common age-related condition, which can also be caused by stresses on the spine due to poor posture, repetitive movements, or injury.

The degenerative process often involves loss of hydration and elasticity in the intervertebral discs, leading to decreased disc height and potential disc herniation. This can cause narrowing of the spinal canal (spinal stenosis) or nerve root canal (foraminal stenosis), resulting in pressure on the spinal cord and/or nerves.

Spondylosis can occur throughout the spine, but it is most commonly found in the cervical (neck) and lumbar (lower back) regions. Symptoms may include pain, stiffness, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the neck, arms, legs, or back, depending on the location and severity of the degeneration. However, it's worth noting that many people with spondylosis might not experience any symptoms at all. Treatment options typically include pain management, physical therapy, and, in severe cases, surgery.

Aging is a complex, progressive and inevitable process of bodily changes over time, characterized by the accumulation of cellular damage and degenerative changes that eventually lead to increased vulnerability to disease and death. It involves various biological, genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors that contribute to the decline in physical and mental functions. The medical field studies aging through the discipline of gerontology, which aims to understand the underlying mechanisms of aging and develop interventions to promote healthy aging and extend the human healthspan.

Spinal cord compression is a medical condition that refers to the narrowing of the spinal canal, which puts pressure on the spinal cord and the nerves that branch out from it. This can occur due to various reasons such as degenerative changes in the spine, herniated discs, bone spurs, tumors, or fractures. The compression can lead to a range of symptoms including pain, numbness, tingling, weakness, or loss of bladder and bowel control. In severe cases, it can cause paralysis. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and may include physical therapy, medication, surgery, or radiation therapy.

Laryngeal cartilages refer to the various pieces of cartilage that make up the structure of the larynx, also known as the voice box. The larynx is a crucial part of the respiratory system, located in the neck between the pharynx and the trachea. It plays a vital role in protecting the lower airways from food or drink entering the windpipe, as well as producing sound during speech.

There are several laryngeal cartilages, including:

1. Thyroid cartilage: This is the largest and most superior of the laryngeal cartilages. It forms the Adam's apple in men and has a prominent notch in the front called the thyroid notch. The thyroid cartilage protects the larynx and provides attachment for various muscles and ligaments.
2. Cricoid cartilage: This is the only complete ring of cartilage in the airway and lies inferior to the thyroid cartilage. It has a broad, flat superior portion called the cricoid lamina and a narrower, more curved inferior portion called the cricoid arch. The cricoid cartilage serves as an attachment site for several muscles and ligaments involved in breathing and swallowing.
3. Arytenoid cartilages: These are paired, pyramid-shaped structures that sit on top of the cricoid cartilage. They help form the posterior portion of the laryngeal inlet and provide attachment for the vocal cords (vocal folds). The arytenoid cartilages play a crucial role in voice production and respiration.
4. Corniculate cartilages: These are small, conical-shaped structures that project from the superior aspect of each arytenoid cartilage. They help form the most posterior portion of the laryngeal inlet.
5. Cuneiform cartilages: These are tiny, flat, crescent-shaped structures located near the corniculate cartilages. They also contribute to forming the posterior aspect of the laryngeal inlet.

These laryngeal cartilages work together to protect the airway, facilitate breathing, and enable voice production.

Tissue engineering is a branch of biomedical engineering that combines the principles of engineering, materials science, and biological sciences to develop functional substitutes for damaged or diseased tissues and organs. It involves the creation of living, three-dimensional structures that can restore, maintain, or improve tissue function. This is typically accomplished through the use of cells, scaffolds (biodegradable matrices), and biologically active molecules. The goal of tissue engineering is to develop biological substitutes that can ultimately restore normal function and structure in damaged tissues or organs.

Prostheses: Artificial substitutes or replacements for missing body parts, such as limbs, eyes, or teeth. They are designed to restore the function, appearance, or mobility of the lost part. Prosthetic devices can be categorized into several types, including:

1. External prostheses: Devices that are attached to the outside of the body, like artificial arms, legs, hands, and feet. These may be further classified into:
a. Cosmetic or aesthetic prostheses: Primarily designed to improve the appearance of the affected area.
b. Functional prostheses: Designed to help restore the functionality and mobility of the lost limb.
2. Internal prostheses: Implanted artificial parts that replace missing internal organs, bones, or tissues, such as heart valves, hip joints, or intraocular lenses.

Implants: Medical devices or substances that are intentionally placed inside the body to replace or support a missing or damaged biological structure, deliver medication, monitor physiological functions, or enhance bodily functions. Examples of implants include:

1. Orthopedic implants: Devices used to replace or reinforce damaged bones, joints, or cartilage, such as knee or hip replacements.
2. Cardiovascular implants: Devices that help support or regulate heart function, like pacemakers, defibrillators, and artificial heart valves.
3. Dental implants: Artificial tooth roots that are placed into the jawbone to support dental prostheses, such as crowns, bridges, or dentures.
4. Neurological implants: Devices used to stimulate nerves, brain structures, or spinal cord tissues to treat various neurological conditions, like deep brain stimulators for Parkinson's disease or cochlear implants for hearing loss.
5. Ophthalmic implants: Artificial lenses that are placed inside the eye to replace a damaged or removed natural lens, such as intraocular lenses used in cataract surgery.

Spinal nerve roots are the initial parts of spinal nerves that emerge from the spinal cord through the intervertebral foramen, which are small openings between each vertebra in the spine. These nerve roots carry motor, sensory, and autonomic fibers to and from specific regions of the body. There are 31 pairs of spinal nerve roots in total, with 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal pair. Each root has a dorsal (posterior) and ventral (anterior) ramus that branch off to form the peripheral nervous system. Irritation or compression of these nerve roots can result in pain, numbness, weakness, or loss of reflexes in the affected area.

Osteoarthritis of the spine, also known as spondylosis, is a degenerative joint disease that affects the spine. It is characterized by the breakdown and eventual loss of cartilage in the joints of the spine, which can lead to pain, stiffness, and decreased mobility. The condition most commonly affects the joints in the lower back (lumbar) and neck (cervical) regions of the spine.

The symptoms of osteoarthritis of the spine can vary widely, but may include:

* Pain and stiffness in the neck or back, especially after prolonged periods of inactivity or overuse
* Numbness, tingling, or weakness in the arms or legs, due to nerve compression
* Decreased range of motion and flexibility in the spine
* Popping, cracking, or grinding sounds in the spine with movement
* In severe cases, loss of bladder or bowel control.

The diagnosis of osteoarthritis of the spine is typically made through a combination of physical exam, medical history, and imaging studies such as X-rays, MRI, or CT scan. Treatment options may include pain medication, physical therapy, exercise, and in some cases, surgery.

Collagen is the most abundant protein in the human body, and it is a major component of connective tissues such as tendons, ligaments, skin, and bones. Collagen provides structure and strength to these tissues and helps them to withstand stretching and tension. It is made up of long chains of amino acids, primarily glycine, proline, and hydroxyproline, which are arranged in a triple helix structure. There are at least 16 different types of collagen found in the body, each with slightly different structures and functions. Collagen is important for maintaining the integrity and health of tissues throughout the body, and it has been studied for its potential therapeutic uses in various medical conditions.

Hexuronic acids are a type of uronic acid that contains six carbon atoms and is commonly found in various biological tissues and polysaccharides, such as pectins, heparin, and certain glycoproteins. The most common hexuronic acids are glucuronic acid and iduronic acid, which are formed from the oxidation of the corresponding hexoses, glucose and galactose, respectively. Hexuronic acids play important roles in various biological processes, including the detoxification and excretion of xenobiotics, the formation of proteoglycans, and the regulation of cell growth and differentiation.

The cellular microenvironment refers to the sum of all physical and biochemical factors in the immediate vicinity of a cell that influence its behavior and function. This includes elements such as:

1. Extracellular matrix (ECM): The non-cellular component that provides structural support, anchorage, and biochemical cues to cells through various molecules like collagens, fibronectin, and laminins.
2. Soluble factors: These include growth factors, hormones, cytokines, and chemokines that bind to cell surface receptors and modulate cellular responses.
3. Neighboring cells: The types and states of nearby cells can significantly impact a cell's behavior through direct contact, paracrine signaling, or competition for resources.
4. Physical conditions: Variables such as temperature, pH, oxygen tension, and mechanical stresses (e.g., stiffness, strain) also contribute to the cellular microenvironment.
5. Biochemical gradients: Concentration gradients of molecules within the ECM or surrounding fluid can guide cell migration, differentiation, and other responses.

Collectively, these factors interact to create a complex and dynamic milieu that regulates various aspects of cellular physiology, including proliferation, differentiation, survival, and motility. Understanding the cellular microenvironment is crucial for developing effective therapies and tissue engineering strategies in regenerative medicine and cancer treatment.

Calcium pyrophosphate is a mineral compound made up of calcium and pyrophosphate ions. In the body, it can form crystals that deposit in joints, causing a type of arthritis known as calcium pyrophosphate deposition (CPPD) disease or pseudogout. CPPD disease is characterized by sudden attacks of joint pain and swelling, often in the knee or wrist. The condition is more common in older adults and can also occur in people with underlying medical conditions such as hyperparathyroidism, hemochromatosis, and hypophosphatasia. Calcium pyrophosphate crystals may also be found in the fluid around the heart (pericardial fluid) or in other tissues, but they do not always cause symptoms.

Collagen type X is a specific type of collagen that is primarily found in the hypertrophic zone of mature cartilage, which is located near the site of bone formation during endochondral ossification. It plays a crucial role in the mineralization process of the cartilage matrix and is essential for the formation of healthy bones. Collagen type X is composed of three identical alpha chains that form a triple helix structure, and it is synthesized by chondrocytes, which are the specialized cells found in cartilage tissue. Mutations in the gene that encodes collagen type X have been associated with certain skeletal disorders, such as Schmid metaphyseal chondrodysplasia.

Radiography is a diagnostic technique that uses X-rays, gamma rays, or similar types of radiation to produce images of the internal structures of the body. It is a non-invasive procedure that can help healthcare professionals diagnose and monitor a wide range of medical conditions, including bone fractures, tumors, infections, and foreign objects lodged in the body.

During a radiography exam, a patient is positioned between an X-ray machine and a special film or digital detector. The machine emits a beam of radiation that passes through the body and strikes the film or detector, creating a shadow image of the internal structures. Denser tissues, such as bones, block more of the radiation and appear white on the image, while less dense tissues, such as muscles and organs, allow more of the radiation to pass through and appear darker.

Radiography is a valuable tool in modern medicine, but it does involve exposure to ionizing radiation, which can carry some risks. Healthcare professionals take steps to minimize these risks by using the lowest possible dose of radiation necessary to produce a diagnostic image, and by shielding sensitive areas of the body with lead aprons or other protective devices.

Prosthesis implantation is a surgical procedure where an artificial device or component, known as a prosthesis, is placed inside the body to replace a missing or damaged body part. The prosthesis can be made from various materials such as metal, plastic, or ceramic and is designed to perform the same function as the original body part.

The implantation procedure involves making an incision in the skin to create a pocket where the prosthesis will be placed. The prosthesis is then carefully positioned and secured in place using screws, cement, or other fixation methods. In some cases, tissue from the patient's own body may be used to help anchor the prosthesis.

Once the prosthesis is in place, the incision is closed with sutures or staples, and the area is bandaged. The patient will typically need to undergo rehabilitation and physical therapy to learn how to use the new prosthesis and regain mobility and strength.

Prosthesis implantation is commonly performed for a variety of reasons, including joint replacement due to arthritis or injury, dental implants to replace missing teeth, and breast reconstruction after mastectomy. The specific procedure and recovery time will depend on the type and location of the prosthesis being implanted.

Traction, in medical terms, refers to the application of a pulling force to distract or align parts of the body, particularly bones, joints, or muscles, with the aim of immobilizing, reducing displacement, or realigning them. This is often achieved through the use of various devices such as tongs, pulleys, weights, or specialized traction tables. Traction may be applied manually or mechanically and can be continuous or intermittent, depending on the specific medical condition being treated. Common indications for traction include fractures, dislocations, spinal cord injuries, and certain neurological conditions.

Hyaline cartilage is a type of cartilaginous tissue that is primarily found in the articulating surfaces of bones, ribcage, nose, ears, and trachea. It has a smooth, glassy appearance (hence the name "hyaline," derived from the Greek word "hyalos" meaning glass) due to the presence of type II collagen fibers that are arranged in a precise pattern and embedded in a proteoglycan-rich matrix.

The high concentration of proteoglycans, which are complex molecules made up of a protein core and glycosaminoglycan side chains, gives hyaline cartilage its firm yet flexible properties. This type of cartilage is avascular, meaning it does not contain blood vessels, and receives nutrients through diffusion from the surrounding synovial fluid in joints or adjacent tissues.

Hyaline cartilage plays a crucial role in providing structural support, reducing friction between articulating bones, and facilitating smooth movement in joints. It also serves as a template for endochondral ossification, a process by which long bones grow in length during development.

Collagen Type I is the most abundant form of collagen in the human body, found in various connective tissues such as tendons, ligaments, skin, and bones. It is a structural protein that provides strength and integrity to these tissues. Collagen Type I is composed of three alpha chains, two alpha-1(I) chains, and one alpha-2(I) chain, arranged in a triple helix structure. This type of collagen is often used in medical research and clinical applications, such as tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, due to its excellent mechanical properties and biocompatibility.

Cell transplantation is the process of transferring living cells from one part of the body to another or from one individual to another. In medicine, cell transplantation is often used as a treatment for various diseases and conditions, including neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes, and certain types of cancer. The goal of cell transplantation is to replace damaged or dysfunctional cells with healthy ones, thereby restoring normal function to the affected area.

In the context of medical research, cell transplantation may involve the use of stem cells, which are immature cells that have the ability to develop into many different types of specialized cells. Stem cell transplantation has shown promise in the treatment of a variety of conditions, including spinal cord injuries, stroke, and heart disease.

It is important to note that cell transplantation carries certain risks, such as immune rejection and infection. As such, it is typically reserved for cases where other treatments have failed or are unlikely to be effective.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc is a small, thin piece of fibrocartilaginous tissue located within the TMJ, which is the joint that connects the mandible (jawbone) to the temporal bone of the skull. The disc acts as a cushion and allows for smooth movement of the jaw during activities such as eating, speaking, and yawning. It divides the joint into two compartments: the upper and lower compartments.

The TMJ disc is composed of several types of tissue, including collagen fibers, elastin fibers, and a small number of cells called fibroblasts. The disc's unique structure allows it to withstand the forces generated during jaw movement and helps to distribute these forces evenly across the joint.

The TMJ disc can become damaged or displaced due to various factors such as trauma, teeth grinding (bruxism), or degenerative joint diseases like osteoarthritis. This can lead to temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) characterized by pain, stiffness, and limited jaw movement.

Growth Differentiation Factor 5 (GDF5) is a member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily of proteins, which are involved in various developmental processes such as cell growth, differentiation, and migration. GDF5 plays crucial roles in skeletal development, joint formation, and cartilage maintenance. It is a secreted signaling molecule that binds to specific receptors on the cell surface, activating intracellular signaling pathways that regulate gene expression and ultimately influence cell behavior.

GDF5 has been associated with several genetic disorders affecting the musculoskeletal system, such as brachydactyly type C (shortened fingers or toes), Grebe's recessive chondrodysplasia (disproportionate short stature and joint deformities), and Hunter-Thompson syndrome (a rare skeletal disorder characterized by abnormal bone growth, joint laxity, and other features). Additionally, GDF5 has been implicated in osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease, due to its role in maintaining cartilage homeostasis.

Decorin is a small proteoglycan, a type of protein with a attached sugar chain, that is found in the extracellular matrix of connective tissues in the body. It is composed of a core protein and one or more glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains, specifically dermatan sulfate. Decorin plays important roles in the organization and biomechanical properties of collagen fibrils, regulation of cell proliferation and migration, and modulation of growth factor activity. It has been studied for its potential role in various physiological and pathological processes, including wound healing, fibrosis, and cancer.

Stuttgart: Thieme Wikimedia Commons has media related to Intervertebral discs. Intervertebral Discs Spinal Disc Summary Cross ... An intervertebral disc (or intervertebral fibrocartilage) lies between adjacent vertebrae in the vertebral column. Each disc ... infection of the intervertebral disc).[medical citation needed] The intervertebral disc functions to separate the vertebrae ... The fibrous intervertebral disc contains the nucleus pulposus and this helps to distribute pressure evenly across the disc. ...
The term intervertebral disc annuloplasty indicates any procedure aimed at repairing the annulus of a bulging intervertebral ... The heat is intended to seal any ruptures in the disc wall and may also burn nerve endings, which can make the area less ... Disc biacuplasty Intradiscal Electrothermal Annuloplasty from The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons v t e (Neurosurgery ... is a recently developed minimally invasive form of annuloplasty consisting of the insertion in the affected disc of a hollow ...
It is a surgical procedure in which degenerated intervertebral discs in the spinal column are replaced with artificial disc ... Multiple artificial discs (or disc replacements) have been approved by the FDA for use in the US, although several have been ... The second disc replacement to achieve wide clinical use was the prodisc total disc replacement; it continues to have worldwide ... Disc replacement is also an alternative intervention for symptomatic disc herniation with associated arm and hand, or leg ...
The documented expansion of disc volume after spaceflight, together with the intervertebral disc injuries after reloading in ... but there is currently no evidence that links the origin of intervertebral disc damage with changes to the disc as a result of ... astronauts may be at an increased risk of intervertebral disc injury or damage when the swollen discs are subjected to ... increasing the susceptibility of these discs to damage. The relative risk of spaceflight-induced intervertebral disc injury ...
"Intervertebral disc disease in Dachshunds radiographically screened for intervertebral disc calcifications". Acta Veterinaria ... Dachshunds with a number of calcified intervertebral discs at a young age have a higher risk of developing disc disease in ... "Intervertebral Disc Disease". Genetic Welfare Problems of Companion Animals. Universities Federation for Animal ... Jensen, V. F.; Ersbøll, A. K. (2000). "Mechanical Factors affecting the Occurrence of Intervertebral Disc Calcification in the ...
... though the cells of the disc demonstrate histological changes. Intervertebral disc annuloplasty Kapural, Leonardo; Mekhail, N; ... The procedure is designed to reduce chronic back pain caused by the intervertebral discs. The procedure is in the early stages ... "New radiofrequency technique reduces disc pain with quick recovery time". American College of Radiology. Archived from the ... Petersohn, J; Conquergood, LR; Leung, M (2007-03-09). "Acute histologic effects and thermal distribution profile of disc ...
... more commonly called a slipped disc, is the result of a tear in the outer ring (anulus fibrosus) of the intervertebral disc, ... There are no intervertebral discs. Somites form in the early embryo and some of these develop into sclerotomes. The sclerotomes ... Feeding of the intervertebral discs through the reflex (hyaline ligament) plate that separates the cancellous bone of the ... The upper and lower surfaces of the centrum are flattened and rough in order to give attachment to the intervertebral discs. ...
An example is the intervertebral disc. Individual intervertebral discs allow for small movements between adjacent vertebrae, ... two or more articulation surfaces and an articular disc or meniscus (e.g. knee joint) The joints may be classified anatomically ...
Braund KG, Ghosh P, Taylor TK, Larsen LH (September 1975). "Morphological studies of the canine intervertebral disc. The ... The vertebral bodies are short and flattened with relatively large intervertebral disk height, and there is congenitally ...
2008). "Aquaporin expression in the human intervertebral disc". J. Mol. Histol. 39 (3): 303-9. doi:10.1007/s10735-008-9166-1. ...
Intervertebral disc arthroplasty: also called Artificial Disc Replacement (ADR), or Total Disc Replacement (TDR), is a type of ... Intervertebral disc annuloplasty (IDET): A procedure wherein the disc is heated to 90 °C for 15 minutes in an effort to seal ... Schol, Jordy; Sakai, Daisuke (April 2019). "Cell therapy for intervertebral disc herniation and degenerative disc disease: ... "Menopause is associated with lumbar disc degeneration: a review of 4230 intervertebral discs". Climacteric. 17 (6): 700-704. ...
Intervertebral disc cell-mediated mesenchymal stem cell differentiation. Stem Cells 24:707-16 Rhodes NP, Bellón JM, Buján MJ, ...
Cushing may have had a ruptured intervertebral disc. He had suffered enough shocks to dislocate half a dozen vertebrae, and ...
... is an intervertebral disc disorder. The facet joints or zygapophyseal joints are synovial cartilage ...
Intervertebral disc Posterior longitudinal ligament Sinnatamby C (2011). Last's Anatomy (12th ed.). p. 424. ISBN 978-0-7295- ... but is less strongly connected with the intervertebral discs. It has three layers: superficial, intermediate and deep. The ... is thick and slightly more narrow over the vertebral bodies and thinner but slightly wider over the intervertebral discs. It ... ligament is a ligament that extends across the anterior/ventral aspect of the vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs the ...
Kraemer J (March 1995). "Natural course and prognosis of intervertebral disc diseases. International Society for the Study of ... blood pressure Lipid disorders Skin problems such as hair loss Mortality in adults Obesity Osteoporosis Scoliosis Spinal disc ...
Intervertebral disc Minimal invasive spine surgery Osteoporosis Dalton, BE; AC Kohm; LE Miller; JE Block; RD Poser (19 November ...
It may be secondary to intervertebral disk herniation (most commonly at C7 and then the C6 level), degenerative disc disease, ... Heckmann JG, Lang CJ, Zöbelein I, Laumer R, Druschky A, Neundörfer B (October 1999). "Herniated cervical intervertebral discs ... Saal JA, Saal JS (April 1989). "Nonoperative treatment of herniated lumbar intervertebral disc with radiculopathy. An outcome ...
Intervertebral disc Spinal disc herniation Arachnoiditis Govind J (2004). "Lumbar radicular pain". Aust Fam Physician. 33 (6): ... and foot as often secondary to nerve root irritation from a spinal disc herniation or from osteophytes in the lumbar region of ...
... is an infection in the intervertebral disc space. It affects different age groups. Symptoms include severe back pain, ... Discitis, or diskitis, is an infection in the intervertebral disc space that affects different age groups. Symptoms include ... causing spontaneous fusion of the intervertebral disc space, cause a chronic low grade infection, or progress to osteomyelitis ... in such cases usually involving the areas adjacent to the intervertebral disc spaces) the condition is called spondylodiscitis ...
Roberts S, Menage J, Sivan S, Urban JP (February 2008). "Bovine explant model of degeneration of the intervertebral disc". BMC ... Papain has also been used to create a degenerated disc disease model to assess various types of injectable therapies. An ... Chan SC, Bürki A, Bonél HM, Benneker LM, Gantenbein-Ritter B (March 2013). "Papain-induced in vitro disc degeneration model for ...
... and calcification of the intervertebral disc; which gives a susceptibility to IVDD (intervertebral disc disease). GRCh38: ... "FGF4 retrogene on CFA12 is responsible for chondrodystrophy and intervertebral disc disease in dogs". Proceedings of the ... has found that FGF4 retrogene on chromosome 12 is also attributed to the short legs and abnormal intervertebral disc that ... on not only chromosome 18 but also 12 leads to shortened limbs and abnormal vertebrae associated with intervertebral disc ...
Degeneration of the intervertebral disc, facet joints, and its capsules, and ligamentum flavum all can also cause spinal canal ... MRI can show intervertebral foramen, spinal canal, ligaments, degree of disc degeneration or herniation, alignment of the spine ... Cervical X-rays may show osteophytes, decreased intervertebral disc height, narrowing of the spinal canal, and abnormal ... Commonly, osteophytes and portions of intervertebral disc are removed. Fusion surgery: Performed when there is evidence of ...
documented limbus vertebrae, intervertebral disc bulges, and disc degeneration. Three of the five practitioners also reported ...
Anterior longitudinal ligament Intervertebral disc Cramer, Gregory D. (2014). "5 - The Cervical Region". Clinical anatomy of ... and broader over the intervertebral discs (to which it attaches less firmly to allow for the passage of the basivertebral veins ... It also limits spinal disc herniation, although it is much narrower than the anterior longitudinal ligament. The posterior ... It also prevents posterior spinal disc herniation, although problems with the ligament can cause it. The posterior longitudinal ...
"Mechanobiology of the intervertebral disc and relevance to disc degeneration". J Bone Joint Surg Am. 88 (2): 52-57. doi:10.2106 ... Her most noticeable work has documented the biological responses of cartilage and intervertebral disc to mechanical loading, ... "Early-onset degeneration of the intervertebral disc and vertebral end plate in mice deficient in type IX collagen". Arthritis ... "Osmolarity regulates gene expression in intervertebral disc cells determined by gene array and real-time quantitative RT-PCR". ...
... degenerative disc disease). It is also used as a backup procedure for total disc replacement surgery (intervertebral disc ... Interbody Fusion is a graft where the entire intervertebral disc between vertebrae is removed and a bone graft is placed in the ... Chapter 39: Lower Back Pain and Disorders of Intervertebral Discs. In: Canale, S. T. and J. H. Beaty. Campbell's Operative ... The most common cause of pressure on the spinal cord/nerves is degenerative disc disease. Other common causes include disc ...
p112.(PDF) Virgin, W. J. (1951-11-01). "Experimental investigations into the physical properties of the intervertebral disc". ...
Sun Z, Zhang M, Zhao XH, Liu ZH, Gao Y, Samartzis D, Wang HQ, Luo ZJ (2013). "Immune cascades in human intervertebral disc: the ...
The notochord will form the nucleus pulposus of intervertebral discs. There is some discussion as to whether these cells ...
Stuttgart: Thieme Wikimedia Commons has media related to Intervertebral discs. Intervertebral Discs Spinal Disc Summary Cross ... An intervertebral disc (or intervertebral fibrocartilage) lies between adjacent vertebrae in the vertebral column. Each disc ... infection of the intervertebral disc).[medical citation needed] The intervertebral disc functions to separate the vertebrae ... The fibrous intervertebral disc contains the nucleus pulposus and this helps to distribute pressure evenly across the disc. ...
... of one or more of the discs that separate the bones of the spine (vertebrae), causing pain in the back or neck and frequently ... Intervertebral disc disease is a common condition characterized by the breakdown (degeneration) ... any part of the spine can have disc degeneration. Depending on the location of the affected disc or discs, intervertebral disc ... Intervertebral disc disease. ...
Sixty-one lumbar intervertebral joints were compressed while wedged to simulate hyperflexion. Twenty ... Influence of Disc Degeneration on Mechanism of Thoracolumbar Burst Fractures * What is Intervertebral Disc Degeneration, and ... Prolapsed Intervertebral Disc: A Hyperflexion Injury : Spine. You may be trying to access this site from a secured browser on ... Prolapsed Intervertebral Disc. A Hyperflexion Injury. ADAMS, M A; HUTTON, W C ...
Lumbar (Intervertebral) Disc Disorder Management in the ED * Sections Lumbar (Intervertebral) Disc Disorder Management in the ... encoded search term (Lumbar (Intervertebral) Disc Disorder Management in the ED) and Lumbar (Intervertebral) Disc Disorder ... The intervertebral discs act as shock absorbers and are found between the bodies of the vertebrae. They have a central area ... NSAIDs such as the following may be used in patients with lumbar (intervertebral) disc disorders to reduce pain and ...
... Feline Intervertebral Disc Disease of the Thoracolumbar Area. ... Diagnosis of Intervertebral Disc Disease Cats. Diagnostic tests are needed to recognize T-L disc disease and differentiate it ... Treatment of Intervertebral Disc Disease in Cats. The type of appropriate treatment will depend on the severity of the clinical ... This condition is commonly referred to as Intervertebral Disc Disease (IVDD) that can occur in the thoracolumbar area of the ...
This involves removing the damaged disc and inserting an artificial disc in its place ... Evidence-based recommendations on prosthetic intervertebral disc replacement in the lumbar spine. ... Prosthetic intervertebral disc replacement in the lumbar spine. Interventional procedures guidance [IPG306]. Published: 22 July ... Evidence-based recommendations on prosthetic intervertebral disc replacement in the lumbar spine. This involves removing the ...
... locus with intervertebral disc calcification have strongly supported a genetic component in IVDD in dogs. Recent studies ... locus with intervertebral disc calcification have strongly supported a genetic component in IVDD in dogs. Recent studies ... they have also highlighted knowledge gaps in our understanding of intervertebral disc herniation which is a complex and ... they have also highlighted knowledge gaps in our understanding of intervertebral disc herniation which is a complex and ...
Finding biomarkers of IDD is very helpful for maintaining the function of the intervertebral disc and reducing the occurrence ... i,Background and Objective,/i,. Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is closely related to back pain. ... Intervertebral disc degeneration is an important cause of intervertebral disc calcification. As the intervertebral discs ... Back pain is closely related to intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) [3]. Due to the degeneration of intervertebral disc, ...
To trace the fate of notochordal cells within the intervertebral disc, we derived a notochord-specific Cre mouse line by ... The aim of this study was to determine the developmental origins of nucleus pulposus cells within the intervertebral disc using ... mouse as a unique tool to interrogate the contribution of notochordal cells to both intervertebral disc development and disc ... the notochord gives rise to the nucleus pulposus in fully formed intervertebral discs. Cellular localization of β-galactosidase ...
ETDEWEB / / Follow-up radiographs of the cervical spine after anterior fusion with titanium intervertebral disc; Roentgen- ... Conclusions: The titanium intervertebral disc provides initial distraction of the fusioned segments with partial recurrence of ... Conclusions: The titanium intervertebral disc provides initial distraction of the fusioned segments with partial recurrence of ... Results: Implantation of the titanium disc led to post-operative distraction of the intervertebral space and slight lordosis. ...
Multifidus Muscle Fibre Type Distribution is Changed in Mouse Models of Chronic Intervertebral Disc Degeneration, but is not ... Multifidus Muscle Fibre Type Distribution is Changed in Mouse Models of Chronic Intervertebral Disc Degeneration, but is not ... Multifidus Muscle Fibre Type Distribution is Changed in Mouse Models of Chronic Intervertebral Disc Degeneration, but is not ...
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Keywords: intervertebral disc degeneration, FasL, immune privilege, macrophage, CD8+ T cell. Introduction. Intervertebral disc ... Apoptosis of human intervertebral discs after trauma compares to degenerated discs involving both receptor-mediated and ... Fas ligand exists on intervertebral disc cells: a potential molecular mechanism for immune privilege of the disc. Spine. 2002; ... Intervertebral disc cells as competent phagocytes in vitro: implications for cell death in disc degeneration. Arthritis ...
Intervertebral disc degeneration results in changes in the disc and can ultimately lead to disc herniation and spinal cord ... Intervertebral disc disease is caused by degenerative changes in the intervertebral disc. In some patients, especially the ... Intervertebral disc disease (IVDD) is the most common spinal disease in dogs and is also seen occasionally in cats. ... Animals affected by intervertebral disc disease may present with spinal pain localised to the back or neck, progressing to ...
bullet lodged in intervertebral disc. View: Monthly list ✔ Monthly list ✔ Monthly calendar ✔ Weekly list ...
Lumbar disc volume, anterior and posterior disc height, disc signal intensity, intervertebral length, and lordosis were ... RESULTS.: Compared with prior to bed rest, increases in disc volume, disc height, and intervertebral length persisted 180 days ... CONCLUSION.: The recovery of the lumbar intervertebral discs after 60-day bed rest is a prolonged process and incomplete within ... OBJECTIVE.: To evaluate the recovery of the lumbar intervertebral discs after bed rest. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: Prolonged ...
Keywords: autologous PRP; degenerative disc disease; intervertebral disc degeneration; long-term outcomes. ... Treatment of symptomatic degenerative intervertebral discs with autologous platelet-rich plasma: follow-up at 5-9 years Regen ...
This medical illustration depicts a sagittal view of a section of the spine to demonstrate herniated intervertebral disc ...
United States of America. Phone: 1-833-2 ...
SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The intervertebral disc is the largest avascular structure in the body. Disc cells in the nucleus ... METHODS: We measured solute transport into the disc using N2O as a tracer, in 19 human discs from five patients with ... During anesthesia N2O diffuses into the disc at a rate governed by effective permeability of the vertebral body-disc interface ... were significantly higher 2 discs below or above the apex. CONCLUSIONS: Because flux into the apical disc is most restricted, ...
Why are we so passionate about what we do? Its because Movement is the Cornerstone of a healthy lifestyle, so let us help you lay the foundation ...
A normal intervertebral disc consists of a tough outer annulus and a soft inner nucleus. If the annulus is weakened, the ... Intervertebral discs are situated between each vertebral body of the spinal column. They serve as cushions to absorb shock and ... nucleus can begin to push through the inner annular fibers, causing the disc to bulge into the spinal canal and neural foramina ... This exhibit depicts the lateral anatomy of the cervical spine comparing three intervertebral disc conditions. ...
Intervertebral Disc and Neurologic Testing & boost your knowledge! Study for your classes, USMLE, MCAT or MBBS. Learn online ... The lecture Intervertebral Disc and Neurologic Testing by Sheldon C. Yao, DO is from the course Osteopathic Diagnosis of the ... Author of lecture Intervertebral Disc and Neurologic Testing. Sheldon C. Yao, DO. ... Which of the following is the most common direction of a spinal disc herniation? ...
Managing a condition such as Intervertebral Disc Syndrome (IVDS) can be extremely stressful, not to mention painful, and the ... Intervertebral Disc Syndrome (IVDS) is a back condition in which one or more intervertebral disc(s) or disc fragments-the bones ... How Can Intervertebral Disc Syndrome Impact My Ability to Work?. Intervertebral Disc Syndrome can have an incredibly ... Getting Long-Term Disability for Intervertebral Disc Syndrome (IVDS). Managing a condition such as Intervertebral Disc Syndrome ...
The discs absorb the forces across the vertebra and provide cushion during motion. ... Intervertebral disc is kind of cushion between two vertebrae. ... Structure of Intervertebral Disc. Each disc is made up of two ... The disc is not innervated beyond the superficial fibers. Intervertebral Disc Nutrition. The intervertebral disc is avascular ... Biomechanics of Intervertebral Disc. Disc Load and Changes in Hydration. HydrationThe intervertebral disc is a highly hydrated ...
In this article we will talk about the clinical signs and treatment of osteochondrosis of the intervertebral discs in the ... accompanied by progressive degenerative changes in the intervertebral discs. Most often, such a pathological process affects ... Gradually, it leads to the formation of an intervertebral hernia, followed by compression of the spinal cord, vessels passing ...
Like the more common forms of Intervertebral disc disease, ANNPE is a neurological emergency. It happens suddenly when disc ... Dogs with ANNPE will show signs of a lesion above the injured disc, reduced disc fluid and narrowing of the disc space. Victims ... ANNPE in Dogs: A New Category of Intervertebral Disc Disease. Sharon Seltzer Jul 27, 2023. Facebook. Tweet. LinkedIn ... But before I share those facts, I want to explain Intervertebral disc disease and how it effects a dogs spine and mobility. ...
The intervertebral disk compression can be present anywhere between the cervical to the lumbar region. ... Intervertebral disks act as shock absorbers, support the upper body, and allows a wide range of movements. An injury to these ... Intervertebral Disc Compression. Intervertebral disks act as shock absorbers, support the upper body, and allows a wide range ... The backache with a pulling sensation and radiating pain can occur due to a mild prolapse of the intervertebral disc. It can ...
Intervertebral disc cell therapy for regeneration:Mesenchymal stem cell implantation in rat intervertebral discs.. Ann Biomed ... Regeneration of intervertebral discs in a rat disc degeneration model by implanted adipose-tissue-derived stromal cells.. Acta ... Role of biomechanics in intervertebral disc degeneration and regenerative therapies:What needs repairing in the disc and what ... Intervertebral disc tissue engineering: A brief review Authors. * Janja Stergar Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of ...
Dispelling the Myth: Why Intervertebral Discs Do Not Slip. RSS Sorry, there are no published articles for this blog ...
  • Each disc forms a fibrocartilaginous joint (a symphysis), to allow slight movement of the vertebrae, to act as a ligament to hold the vertebrae together, and to function as a shock absorber for the spine. (
  • There are 23 discs in the human spine: 6 in the neck (cervical) region, 12 in the middle back (thoracic) region, and 5 in the lower back (lumbar) region Discs are named by the vertebral body above and below. (
  • Intervertebral disc disease is a common condition characterized by the breakdown (degeneration) of one or more of the discs that separate the bones of the spine (vertebrae), causing pain in the back or neck and frequently in the legs and arms. (
  • The intervertebral discs provide cushioning between vertebrae and absorb pressure put on the spine. (
  • region of the spine are most often affected in intervertebral disc disease, any part of the spine can have disc degeneration. (
  • Due to the degeneration of intervertebral disc, there will be pathological changes such as sciatica, disc herniation/prolapse, and spinal stenosis, which will lead to back pain from cervical spine to tailbone [ 4 ]. (
  • Purpose: We examined the postoperative changes of the cervical spine after treatment of cervical nerve root compression with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion with a new titanium intervertebral disc. (
  • These include meningitis, infections in the spine or disc space, tumours or cancers, blood or other clots affecting the spinal cord, trauma and even tick paralysis envenomation. (
  • This medical illustration depicts a sagittal view of a section of the spine to demonstrate herniated intervertebral disc material pressing on a nerve root. (
  • This exhibit depicts the lateral anatomy of the cervical spine comparing three intervertebral disc conditions. (
  • In this article we will talk about the clinical signs and treatment of osteochondrosis of the intervertebral discs in the lumbar spine. (
  • Intervertebral Disc Syndrome (IVDS) is a back condition in which one or more intervertebral disc(s) or disc fragments-the bones that make up the spine-are displaced or break down at any level of the spine (i.e., lumbar, cervical, or thoracic). (
  • Intervertebral Disc Syndrome can also cause nerve pain in the legs and arms, depending on where in the spine the displaced disc is located. (
  • It happens suddenly when disc material in the spine ruptures. (
  • But before I share those facts, I want to explain Intervertebral disc disease and how it effects a dog's spine and mobility. (
  • IVDD is a degenerative condition that causes the discs in the spine to age faster than normal and rupture. (
  • Hansen Type II causes the discs in a dog's spine to degenerate and become too soft. (
  • Both Type I and Type II IVDD are identified by changes in the disc material in the spine. (
  • Only a small amount of disc material leaks from the spine in ANNPE. (
  • I guess you do not have a fever, burning urination, etc.The next possibility is of spondylosis of lumbar spine or a disc problem. (
  • I have gone through your query and I can understand your concerns The severe back pain that you have mentioned, suggests some spine related conditions probably IVDP (intervertebral disc prolapse), which might be aggravated by your posture and strain. (
  • KL grade 4 and loss of inter-vertebral disc space were associated with higher spine aBMD. (
  • Advanced age is the greatest risk factor for the majority of human ailments, including spine-related chronic disability and back pain, which stem from age-associated intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). (
  • Intervertebral Disc (IVD) is a moderately moving joint that provides load transfer and flexibility to the entire spine. (
  • What Is A Healthy Intervertebral Disc of The Severna Park Spine? (
  • The intervertebral disc in the human spine acts as a separator holding the spinal bone apart, the vertebrae, apart and allows motion of the spine. (
  • The disc also maintains a large opening for the nerves leaving the spine through which to pass. (
  • First, Back And Neck Care Center offers a specialized form of Severna Park spinal manipulation which enlarges the disc space height, boosts the nerve opening size, drops pressure within the disc to assist in circulation, returns lost range of motion to the spine and creates nerve conduction to the brain for pain relief . (
  • Your Severna Park spine will be grateful for the attention you give its cushy, separating, springy spinal disc! (
  • Sagittal MR diffusion-weighted images of the lumbar intervertebral discs were obtained using a 1.5-Tesla MR system with a spine coil before and immediately after the exercise. (
  • Objective To assess therapeutic benefits for intervertebral disc matrix repair and regeneration the synergism of IGF-1 and BMP7 in Idasanutlin (RG7388) bovine spine discs were evaluated and molecular/mobile mechanisms were elucidated. (
  • ADAMTS) both of which are endogenously produced by spine disc cells (8). (
  • To investigate the distribution and characteristics of the lumbar intervertebral disc height (IDH) in asymptomatic Asian population and to determine whether the lumbar IDH is related to the lumbar spine sagittal alignment. (
  • The reduction of lumbar intervertebral disc height (IDH) is the key point in the pathological process of intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD), and the diseases of lumbar degeneration often demonstrate the reduction of intervertebral disc height and the change of lumbar spine sagittal alignment in the radiographic images. (
  • Much of the research has examined that the morphology of intervertebral space has a pivotal role in the lumbar spine sagittal alignment and the intervertebral space is closely related to the type and motion of lumbar spine. (
  • Association Between Lumbar Spine Sagittal Alignment and L4-L5 Disc Degeneration Among Asymptomatic Young Adults. (
  • An intervertebral disc (or intervertebral fibrocartilage) lies between adjacent vertebrae in the vertebral column. (
  • The nucleus of the disc acts as a shock absorber, absorbing the impact of the body's activities and keeping the two vertebrae separated. (
  • There is one disc between each pair of vertebrae, except for the first cervical segment, the atlas. (
  • The intervertebral disc space is typically defined on an X-ray photograph as the space between adjacent vertebrae. (
  • medical citation needed] The intervertebral disc functions to separate the vertebrae from each other and provides the surface for the shock-absorbing gel of the nucleus pulposus. (
  • As a disc degenerates, small bony outgrowths (bone spurs) may form at the edges of the affected vertebrae. (
  • Over time, a degenerating disc may break down completely and leave no space between vertebrae, which can result in impaired movement, pain, and nerve damage. (
  • Variants in genes that play roles in the development and maintenance of the intervertebral discs and vertebrae have also been found to be associated with intervertebral disc disease. (
  • The intervertebral discs act as shock absorbers and are found between the bodies of the vertebrae. (
  • Intervertebral discs are fibrocartilage cushions that sit between the vertebrae (except for C1-2). (
  • The Intervertebral disc is a kind of cushion-like structure between two vertebrae that absorbs the forces across the vertebra and provide cushion during motion of vertebrae, thus preventing grinding of vertebrae against each other. (
  • On x-ray, the disc is not visible but a gross idea about its height can be made by looking at intervertebral space, which is space between two vertebrae. (
  • The inter-vertebral discs are flat and round, present between the lumbar vertebrae and act as shock absorbers when you walk or run. (
  • The lumbar vertebral bodies (vertebrae) are the heaviest components, connected together by the intervertebral discs. (
  • A spinal disc herniation, commonly referred to as a slipped disc, can happen when unbalanced mechanical pressures substantially deform the anulus fibrosus, allowing part of the nucleus to obtrude. (
  • Another kind of herniation, of the nucleus pulposus, can happen as a result of the formation of Schmorl's nodes on the intervertebral disc. (
  • This is referred to as vertical disc herniation. (
  • The associated variants can lead to disc degeneration and herniation. (
  • While preliminary data from studies investigating FGF4 retrogenes in IVDD implicate FGF4 overexpression as a major disease factor, they have also highlighted knowledge gaps in our understanding of intervertebral disc herniation which is a complex and multifactorial disease process. (
  • Intervertebral disc degeneration results in changes in the disc and can ultimately lead to disc herniation and spinal cord compression. (
  • Spinal disk herniation (also known as herniated nucleus pulposus) describes the expulsion of the nucleus pulposus through a perforation in the annulus fibrosus of the intervertebral disk. (
  • Which of the following is the most common direction of a spinal disc herniation? (
  • MRI was deemed to have a sensitivity of 98.5 percent for detecting intervertebral disc herniation, compared to a sensitivity of 88.6 percent with CT examination. (
  • MRI was also more accurate (93.2 percent) when compared with CT (84.1 percent) for locating intervertebral disc herniation, as well as in differentiating disc protrusion versus extrusion (MRI at 94.4 percent versus CT at 85.7 percent) and lesion lateralisation (MRI at 95 percent versus CT at 69.9 percent). (
  • MRI misdiagnosed all cases in the study, failing to identify any intradural herniation and, instead, characterising the cases as standard intervertebral disc herniation. (
  • However, low-field MRI misdiagnosed all cases of thoracolumbar intradural disc herniation when compared with CT myelography in dogs. (
  • Listen to this PODCAST by Dr. Jonathan Cerrutti as he shares his chiropractic care of a painful, stenotic disc and spinal canal due to disc herniation on The Back Doctors Podcast with Dr. Michael Johnson . (
  • Mini-open Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion for Recurrent Lumbar Disc Herniation Following Posterior Instrumentation. (
  • Its clinical presentation can be mistaken for disc herniation, with back pain, radiculopathy and neurological deficit. (
  • Firstly, the data related to Intervertebral Disc Degeneration and normal intervertebral disc were downloaded from the GEO database. (
  • abstract = "Purpose: We aimed to evaluate the acute physiological effects of high-load deadlift exercise on the lumbar intervertebral discs using MR diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). (
  • Several lines of evidence including disease breed predisposition, studies suggesting heritability of premature intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) and association of a dog chromosome 12 (CFA 12) locus with intervertebral disc calcification have strongly supported a genetic component in IVDD in dogs. (
  • The high penetrance of intervertebral disc disease (IVDD) associated genes in many popular dog breeds presents a daunting clinical challenge and results in millions, if not billions of dollars of annual veterinary treatment-related expense and suffering. (
  • Intervertebral disc disease (IVDD) is the most common spinal disease in dogs and is also seen occasionally in cats. (
  • It's a new category of Intervertebral Disc Disease (IVDD), the number one cause of canine paralysis, that was identified only a handful of years ago. (
  • The ruptured disc is only partially torn vs. a complete tear in IVDD. (
  • Sesn2-/- mice showed a more severe degeneration and NR did not completely alleviate the intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) of Sesn2-/- mice. (
  • Intervertebral discs consist of an outer fibrous ring, the anulus fibrosus disci intervertebralis, which surrounds an inner gel-like center, the nucleus pulposus. (
  • The fibrous intervertebral disc contains the nucleus pulposus and this helps to distribute pressure evenly across the disc. (
  • The nucleus pulposus of the disc functions to distribute hydraulic pressure in all directions within each intervertebral disc under compressive loads. (
  • One effect of aging and disc degeneration is that the nucleus pulposus begins to dehydrate and the concentration of proteoglycans in the matrix decreases, thus limiting the ability of the disc to absorb shock. (
  • Due to the structure of the disc, the nucleus pulposus in the center is isolated from the immune circulatory system [ 13 ]. (
  • The aim of this study was to determine the developmental origins of nucleus pulposus cells within the intervertebral disc using a novel notochord-specific Cre mouse. (
  • Fate mapping studies demonstrated that, following elongation and formation of the primitive axial skeleton, the notochord gives rise to the nucleus pulposus in fully formed intervertebral discs. (
  • These studies establish conclusively that notochordal cells act as embryonic precursors to all cells found within the nucleus pulposus of the mature intervertebral disc. (
  • Moreover, studies with human disc cells, especially focusing on nucleus pulposus (NP) cells, are seldom found in the literature. (
  • Disc cells in the nucleus rely on the blood supply from the vertebral bodies for supply of nutrients and removal of waste. (
  • A normal intervertebral disc consists of a tough outer annulus and a soft inner nucleus. (
  • If the annulus is weakened, the nucleus can begin to push through the inner annular fibers, causing the disc to bulge into the spinal canal and neural foramina. (
  • Each disc is made up of two parts: the annulus fibrosus and the nucleus pulposus. (
  • The annulus is a ring-like tough structure that surrounds and encases the other structure of the intervertebral disc, called the nucleus pulposus. (
  • Quantifying internal intervertebral disc strains to assess nucleus replacement device designs: a digital volume correlation and ultra-high-resolution MRI study. (
  • Introduction: Nucleus replacement has been proposed as a treatment to restore biomechanics and relieve pain in degenerate intervertebral discs (IVDs). (
  • Intervertebral disc (IVD) consists of a soft gelatinous material in its center, the nucleus pulposus (NP), bounded peripherally by fibrocartilage, annulus fibrosus (AF). (
  • Huang Y, Jiang T, Chen J, Yin GY, Fan J. Effects of kartogenin on the attenuated nucleus pulposus cell degeneration of intervertebral discs induced by interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. (
  • an index of water movement) of the nucleus pulposus from diffusion weighted images at all lumbar intervertebral discs (L1/2 through L5/S1). (
  • the protruding disc can press against one of the spinal nerves that run from the spinal cord to the rest of the body. (
  • Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is a major cause of many spinal disorders [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • Animals affected by intervertebral disc disease may present with spinal pain localised to the back or neck, progressing to weakness or even paralysis. (
  • Plain spinal radiographs may reveal characteristic changes of disc disease however plain radiographs rarely provide the accurate conformation and localisation required for surgical management. (
  • Myelogram showing spinal coard compression by an extruded disc at T13-L1 oblique view. (
  • CT scan showing spinal cord compression by an extruded disc at T13-L1. (
  • Intervertebral discs are situated between each vertebral body of the spinal column. (
  • Gradually, it leads to the formation of an intervertebral hernia, followed by compression of the spinal cord, vessels passing nearby, and so on. (
  • Although thoracic vertebral malformations with kyphosis and scoliosis are often considered incidental findings on diagnostic imaging studies of screw-tailed brachycephalic breeds, they have been suggested to interfere with spinal biomechanics and intervertebral disc degeneration. (
  • It is however unknown if an abnormal spinal curvature also predisposes dogs to develop clinically relevant intervertebral disc herniations. (
  • French bulldogs that underwent computed tomography for reasons unrelated to spinal disease ( n = 101), and French bulldogs with thoracolumbar ( n = 47) or cervical intervertebral disc extrusion ( n = 30) that underwent magnetic resonance imaging were included. (
  • Although thoracic vertebral malformations with kyphosis only rarely cause spinal cord dysfunction in itself, French bulldogs with kyphosis appear to be at higher risk to develop thoracolumbar intervertebral disc extrusion. (
  • Imagine this clinical scenario: you are presented with a Dachshund with acute onset paraplegia that you suspect has an intervertebral disc extrusion between the T3 and L3 spinal cord segments. (
  • A spinal disc. (
  • Back And Neck Care Center understands well the spinal intervertebral disc! (
  • The normal disc therefore functions to preclude nerve compression and to allow spinal motion. (
  • The vertebra and discs form the spinal column from the head to the pelvis, giving symmetry and support to the body. (
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate if the occurrence of thoracic vertebral malformations, kyphosis or scoliosis would be associated with a higher prevalence of cervical or thoracolumbar intervertebral disc extrusion in French bulldogs. (
  • 2014) directly compared the sensitivity of MRI and CT in the diagnosis of thoracolumbar intervertebral disc disease in 44 dogs. (
  • As the largest avascular organ in the human body, the intervertebral disc is isolated from the host immune system [ 8 ]. (
  • SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The intervertebral disc is the largest avascular structure in the body. (
  • Discs are avascular structures and receive nutrition via osmosis from surrounding structures. (
  • The intervertebral disc is avascular because the capillaries terminate at the vertebral endplates. (
  • As there is anaerobic metabolism due to the anaerobic avascular nature of the disc, the latent pH within the disc under normal conditions is acidic. (
  • The intervertebral disc (IVD) is the most avascular and acellular tissue in the body and therefore prone to degeneration. (
  • Introduction Notochordal cells (NCs) design aneural and avascular intervertebral discs (IVDs) Odanacatib (MK-0822) and their disappearance is connected with onset of IVD degeneration. (
  • In conclusion, this project significantly extended the understanding of PCD biomechanics, highlighting its benefits in the treatment of advanced cases of intervertebral disc degeneration. (
  • Fibrotic-like changes in degenerate human intervertebral discs revealed by quantitative proteomic analysis. (
  • If this opening is thinned, which occurs when discs degenerate and lose height, the nerves passing through are compressed. (
  • Managing a condition such as Intervertebral Disc Syndrome (IVDS) can be extremely stressful, not to mention painful, and the added challenge of fighting the insurance company for long-term disability (LTD) benefits can often be too much. (
  • Loss of nutrient supply is thought to lead to disc degeneration, but solute transport has not been measured in vivo in humans. (
  • Species that retain high proportions of large vacuolated NCs into adulthood (for example rat mouse pig and rabbit) do not experience age-related disc degeneration as found in humans [8]. (
  • Li X, Dou Q, Kong Q. Repair and Regenerative Therapies of the Annulus Fibrosus of the Intervertebral Disc. (
  • The resulting element-wise damage prediction gives us insight into the location of damage initiation and pattern of fatigue damage progression in the cervical disc annulus. (
  • Between each vertebra there's a disc that's filled with a soft jelly-like substance. (
  • The intervertebral disc performs like a spring to keep the vertebra apart. (
  • When the disc degenerates, or thins, it permits the adjacent vertebra to move nearer one another, causing in motion loss, nerve compression, and back pain or arm or leg pain. (
  • It is made up of bony segments called vertebra with fibrous tissue called inter-vertebral discs between them. (
  • The intervertebral discal surface of an adult vertebra contains a ring of cortical bone peripherally termed the epiphysial ring. (
  • Beneath each lumbar vertebra, a pair of intervertebral (neural) foramina with the same number designations can be found, such that the L1 neural foramina are located just below the L1 vertebra. (
  • Intervertebral disc disease is caused by degenerative changes in the intervertebral disc. (
  • Chondrodystrophic dogs frequently have early degenerative changes in their discs making them more likely to cause problems. (
  • Osteochondrosis is a disease that has a chronic course, accompanied by progressive degenerative changes in the intervertebral discs. (
  • Results: Implantation of the titanium disc led to post-operative distraction of the intervertebral space and slight lordosis. (
  • Lumbar disc volume, anterior and posterior disc height, disc signal intensity, intervertebral length, and lordosis were measured on sagittal plane magnetic resonance images. (
  • Regenerative medicine of the intervertebral disc: from pathophysiology to clinical application]. (
  • Thus, overall, the disc gradients from the fibrous well-organized periphery to the randomly organized gelatinous center. (
  • A limitation of the study is that there was no evaluation of CT-positive MRI-negative disc herniations and therefore no ability to fully compare MRI to CT for lesion characterisation. (
  • The presence of a normal CT or multiple intervertebral disc herniations identified on non-contrast CT (and therefore difficulty distinguishing acute from chronic lesions) were both cited as common reasons for requiring additional imaging techniques. (
  • Herniated discs often cause nerve pain called sciatica that travels along the sciatic nerve, which runs from the lower back down the length of each leg. (
  • Techens, Chloe' (2022) Percutaneous Cement Discoplasty: Biomechanical and clinical assessment of a minimally invasive treatment of lumbar intervertebral disc disease , [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. (
  • Percutaneous Cement Discoplasty (PCD) is a minimally invasive technique developed to treat highly degenerated intervertebral discs exhibiting a vacuum phenomenon. (
  • Twenty-six of the joints failed by posterior disc prolapse. (
  • The results show that slightly degenerated discs at lower lumbar levels from subjects aged between 40 and 50 years are most susceptible to prolapse. (
  • Depending on the location of the affected disc or discs, intervertebral disc disease can cause periodic or chronic pain in the back or neck. (
  • Multifidus Muscle Fibre Type Distribution is Changed in Mouse Models of Chronic Intervertebral Disc Degeneration, but is not Attenuated by Whole Body Physical Activity. (
  • The intervertebral disk compression can be present anywhere between the cervical to the lumbar region. (
  • Collagens form a network of fibers that create structure and stability within the intervertebral discs. (
  • Multiple layers of collagen fibers arranged in a unique circumferential orientation along the disc periphery. (
  • Intervertebral disc disease is estimated to affect about 5 percent of the population in developed countries each year. (
  • Intervertebral disc disease results from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. (
  • Researchers have identified variations in several genes that may influence the risk of developing intervertebral disc disease. (
  • Specific variations in several collagen genes seem to affect the risk of developing intervertebral disc disease by impairing the ability of collagens to interact with each other, decreasing the stability of the disc and leading to its degeneration. (
  • Normal variations in genes related to the body's immune function are also associated with an increased risk of developing intervertebral disc disease. (
  • Researchers are working to identify and confirm other genetic changes associated with an increased risk of intervertebral disc disease. (
  • Nongenetic factors that contribute to the risk of intervertebral disc disease are also being studied. (
  • Intervertebral disc disease can run in families, but the inheritance pattern is usually unknown. (
  • People with a first-degree relative (such as a parent or sibling) with intervertebral disc disease have an increased risk of developing the disorder themselves. (
  • Individuals may inherit a gene variation that increases the risk of intervertebral disc disease, but do not inherit the condition itself. (
  • Not all people with intervertebral disc disease have an identified gene variation that increases the risk, and not all people with such a gene variation will develop the disorder. (
  • Lumbar (intervertebral) disk disease is a frequent source of low back pain. (
  • Laboratory tests are generally not helpful in the diagnosis of lumbar disc disease. (
  • Most patients with pain from lumbar disc disease have resolution of their symptoms with conservative treatment. (
  • Salicylates, acetaminophen, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs appear to be about equally effective for the treatment of pain from lumbar disc disease. (
  • For example, disc disease in the lower back can cause hind limb weakness, paralysis or urinary incontinence whilst disc disease in the neck can cause weakness or even paralysis of all four limbs. (
  • Disc disease can also affect the ability to empty the bladder and in severe cases there can be loss of sensation or feeling in the legs. (
  • Intervertebral disc disease may be strongly suspected based on clinical signs especially in predisposed breeds, however diagnostic imaging is essential to confirm the diagnosis. (
  • Like the more common forms of Intervertebral disc disease, ANNPE is a neurological emergency. (
  • Along with this, you have also mentioned about your MRI reports (attachments removed to protect patient identity) which show degenerative disc disease at multipl. (
  • Degenerative inter-vertebral disc disease osteochondrosis intervertebralis in Europe: prevalence, geographic variation and radiological correlates in men and women aged 50 and over. (
  • Overall, MRI was found to have an increased sensitivity for the detection of intervertebral disc disease in dogs compared to non-contrast CT. (
  • Degenerative disc disease is one of the most prevalent causes of back/neck pain that often leads to disability for individuals of working age. (
  • Intervertebral disks act as shock absorbers, support the upper body, and allows a wide range of movements. (
  • This significantly impacted the development of tissue engineering in various medical fields, including regenerative techniques for intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration (IDD). (
  • It is this glycosaminoglycan that absorbs water to nine times its own volume , producing greater fluid content in the disc to improve both nerve opening size and aid prevention of disc degeneration and inflammation. (
  • The size of the space can be altered in pathological conditions such as discitis (infection of the intervertebral disc). (
  • Therefore, the search for early biological markers of IDD can not only better maintain the biological function of the patient's intervertebral disc but also reduce the probability of the possible occurrence of back pain, which has important clinical significance. (
  • This helps to prevent further disc extrusion and worsening of your pet's condition. (
  • There was a significant association between the presence of kyphosis and the occurrence of intervertebral disc extrusion, particularly in the thoracolumbar region. (
  • Presence of scoliosis was not associated with an increased odds of being affected by intervertebral disc extrusion. (
  • It is thought that these gene variants can lead to an immune response that results in inflammation and water loss (dehydration) of the discs, which causes their degeneration. (
  • Extreme differences in limb length define many of the dog breeds around the world, and the association between specific "short-legged" breeds and premature intervertebral disc degeneration has been documented since the early twentieth century [referenced in ( 4 , 5 )] Skeletal dysplasia is a general term describing abnormalities of growth and development of cartilage and/or bone and associated alterations in stature ( 6 , 7 ). (
  • The pain subsided after onset of bone bridging and stable fixation of the loosened discs. (
  • Vertebral endplates have a cortical rim and compressed cancellous bone in the central disc area, which covers nearly 70% of the disk. (
  • Filling the disc with bone cement creates a stand-alone spacer which partially restores the disc height and re-opens the foraminal space. (
  • As the etiology of back again pain is probable multi-factorial it's been connected with intervertebral disk (IVD) degeneration (1-2). (
  • We believe that biological therapies for symptomatic disc degeneration will be more successful if they can recapitulate or otherwise utilize the important factors that exist during development when the IVD is in homeostasis and anabolism outweighs catabolism. (
  • Thoracic vertebral body malformations with kyphosis have been associated with subsequent early degeneration of adjacent intervertebral discs and altered distribution of intervertebral disc extrusions (IVDEs), along the vertebral column in FB [ 5 ]. (
  • There was also an association between the presence of scoliosis and the anatomical distribution of intervertebral disc extrusions, with dogs with scoliosis more likely to have more caudal lumbar intervertebral disc extrusions. (
  • You plan to perform a hemilaminectomy procedure and want to evaluate the evidence behind whether computed tomography (CT) is a reliable modality in comparison to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the diagnosis and surgical planning of thoracolumbar disc extrusions in dogs. (
  • Premature degeneration of the intervertebral disc and its association with specific chondrodystrophic dog breeds has been recognized for over a century. (
  • premature degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD) in chondrodystrophic dog breeds provides a quintessential example of this dilemma. (
  • The lack of effective treatment for this widespread problem is directly related to our limited understanding of disc development, maintenance and degeneration. (
  • Our study demonstrated that FasL expression tends to decrease in degenerated discs and FasL plays an important role in human disc immune privilege, which might provide a novel target for the treatment strategies for IDD. (
  • The pathogenesis and treatment mechanism of Intervertebral Disc Degeneration (IDD) has always been the focus of scientific research, but its pathogenesis is still unknown. (
  • Blanquer, S , Grijpma, DW & Poot, AA 2015, ' Delivery systems for the treatment of degenerated intervertebral discs ', Advanced drug delivery reviews , vol. 84, pp. 172-187. (
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine pathways for nutrient transport into scoliotic human discs in vivo. (
  • Investigation of the effects of the impairment of different nutritional pathways on the intervertebral disc degeneration patterns in terms of spatial distributions of cell density, glycosaminoglycan content, and water content. (
  • DDD was associated with flattened, non-ovoid inter-vertebral disc spaces. (
  • Current therapies for IDD include conservative and invasive approaches, but none of those treatments are able to restore the disc structure and function. (
  • Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is closely related to back pain. (
  • High collagen/ low proteoglycan ratio of these makes the disc flexible enough. (
  • Lin P, Fu Q. [Association of collagen type I alpha1 Sp1 polymorphism with intervertebral disc degeneration in Han elderly people]. (
  • The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the current knowledge and the recent progress made to elucidate specific molecular mechanisms underlying disc aging. (
  • To trace the fate of notochordal cells within the intervertebral disc, we derived a notochord-specific Cre mouse line by targeting the homeobox gene Noto. (
  • This suggests that notochordal cells might serve as tissue-specific progenitor cells within the disc and establishes the Noto-cre mouse as a unique tool to interrogate the contribution of notochordal cells to both intervertebral disc development and disc degeneration. (
  • METHODS: We measured solute transport into the disc using N2O as a tracer, in 19 human discs from five patients with neuromuscular scoliosis (6-19 years of age) during surgery for correction of scoliotic deformities. (
  • The in vitro specimens were mechanically investigated in flexion and extension, while a DIC system quantified the range of motion, disc height, and strains on the disc surface. (
  • The lecture Intervertebral Disc and Neurologic Testing by Sheldon C. Yao, DO is from the course Osteopathic Diagnosis of the Lumbar Region. (