Lung Diseases, Interstitial: A diverse group of lung diseases that affect the lung parenchyma. They are characterized by an initial inflammation of PULMONARY ALVEOLI that extends to the interstitium and beyond leading to diffuse PULMONARY FIBROSIS. Interstitial lung diseases are classified by their etiology (known or unknown causes), and radiological-pathological features.Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias: A group of interstitial lung diseases with no known etiology. There are several entities with varying patterns of inflammation and fibrosis. They are classified by their distinct clinical-radiological-pathological features and prognosis. They include IDIOPATHIC PULMONARY FIBROSIS; CRYPTOGENIC ORGANIZING PNEUMONIA; and others.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Pulmonary Fibrosis: A process in which normal lung tissues are progressively replaced by FIBROBLASTS and COLLAGEN causing an irreversible loss of the ability to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream via PULMONARY ALVEOLI. Patients show progressive DYSPNEA finally resulting in death.Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A common interstitial lung disease of unknown etiology, usually occurring between 50-70 years of age. Clinically, it is characterized by an insidious onset of breathlessness with exertion and a nonproductive cough, leading to progressive DYSPNEA. Pathological features show scant interstitial inflammation, patchy collagen fibrosis, prominent fibroblast proliferation foci, and microscopic honeycomb change.Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia: An interstitial lung disease of unknown etiology, occurring between 21-80 years of age. It is characterized by a dramatic onset of a "pneumonia-like" illness with cough, fever, malaise, fatigue, and weight loss. Pathological features include prominent interstitial inflammation without collagen fibrosis, diffuse fibroblastic foci, and no microscopic honeycomb change. There is excessive proliferation of granulation tissue within small airways and alveolar ducts.Pneumonia, Bacterial: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.Pneumonia, Viral: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.Collagen Diseases: Historically, a heterogeneous group of acute and chronic diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, progressive systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis, etc. This classification was based on the notion that "collagen" was equivalent to "connective tissue", but with the present recognition of the different types of collagen and the aggregates derived from them as distinct entities, the term "collagen diseases" now pertains exclusively to those inherited conditions in which the primary defect is at the gene level and affects collagen biosynthesis, post-translational modification, or extracellular processing directly. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1494)Dermatomyositis: A subacute or chronic inflammatory disease of muscle and skin, marked by proximal muscle weakness and a characteristic skin rash. The illness occurs with approximately equal frequency in children and adults. The skin lesions usually take the form of a purplish rash (or less often an exfoliative dermatitis) involving the nose, cheeks, forehead, upper trunk, and arms. The disease is associated with a complement mediated intramuscular microangiopathy, leading to loss of capillaries, muscle ischemia, muscle-fiber necrosis, and perifascicular atrophy. The childhood form of this disease tends to evolve into a systemic vasculitis. Dermatomyositis may occur in association with malignant neoplasms. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1405-6)Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Pneumonia, Pneumococcal: A febrile disease caused by STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Pneumonia, Pneumocystis: A pulmonary disease in humans occurring in immunodeficient or malnourished patients or infants, characterized by DYSPNEA, tachypnea, and HYPOXEMIA. Pneumocystis pneumonia is a frequently seen opportunistic infection in AIDS. It is caused by the fungus PNEUMOCYSTIS JIROVECII. The disease is also found in other MAMMALS where it is caused by related species of Pneumocystis.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Connective Tissue Diseases: A heterogeneous group of disorders, some hereditary, others acquired, characterized by abnormal structure or function of one or more of the elements of connective tissue, i.e., collagen, elastin, or the mucopolysaccharides.Cystitis, Interstitial: A condition with recurring discomfort or pain in the URINARY BLADDER and the surrounding pelvic region without an identifiable disease. Severity of pain in interstitial cystitis varies greatly and often is accompanied by increased urination frequency and urgency.Bronchoalveolar Lavage: Washing out of the lungs with saline or mucolytic agents for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It is very useful in the diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in immunosuppressed patients.Alveolitis, Extrinsic Allergic: A common interstitial lung disease caused by hypersensitivity reactions of PULMONARY ALVEOLI after inhalation of and sensitization to environmental antigens of microbial, animal, or chemical sources. The disease is characterized by lymphocytic alveolitis and granulomatous pneumonitis.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Radiography, Thoracic: X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Interstitial Cells of Cajal: c-Kit positive cells related to SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that are intercalated between the autonomic nerves and the effector smooth muscle cells of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Different phenotypic classes play roles as pacemakers, mediators of neural inputs, and mechanosensors.Extracellular Fluid: The fluid of the body that is outside of CELLS. It is the external environment for the cells.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein C: A pulmonary surfactant associated protein that plays a role in alveolar stability by lowering the surface tension at the air-liquid interface. It is a membrane-bound protein that constitutes 1-2% of the pulmonary surfactant mass. Pulmonary surfactant-associated protein C is one of the most hydrophobic peptides yet isolated and contains an alpha-helical domain with a central poly-valine segment that binds to phospholipid bilayers.Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Pneumonia, Progressive Interstitial, of Sheep: Chronic respiratory disease caused by the VISNA-MAEDI VIRUS. It was formerly believed to be identical with jaagsiekte (PULMONARY ADENOMATOSIS, OVINE) but is now recognized as a separate entity.Pneumonia, Atypical Interstitial, of Cattle: A cattle disease of uncertain cause, probably an allergic reaction.Polymyositis: Diseases characterized by inflammation involving multiple muscles. This may occur as an acute or chronic condition associated with medication toxicity (DRUG TOXICITY); CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASES; infections; malignant NEOPLASMS; and other disorders. The term polymyositis is frequently used to refer to a specific clinical entity characterized by subacute or slowly progressing symmetrical weakness primarily affecting the proximal limb and trunk muscles. The illness may occur at any age, but is most frequent in the fourth to sixth decade of life. Weakness of pharyngeal and laryngeal muscles, interstitial lung disease, and inflammation of the myocardium may also occur. Muscle biopsy reveals widespread destruction of segments of muscle fibers and an inflammatory cellular response. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1404-9)Extracellular Space: Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.Pneumonia, Staphylococcal: Pneumonia caused by infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS, usually with STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Sarcoidosis, Pulmonary: Sarcoidosis affecting predominantly the lungs, the site most frequently involved and most commonly causing morbidity and mortality in sarcoidosis. Pulmonary sarcoidosis is characterized by sharply circumscribed granulomas in the alveolar, bronchial, and vascular walls, composed of tightly packed cells derived from the mononuclear phagocyte system. The clinical symptoms when present are dyspnea upon exertion, nonproductive cough, and wheezing. (Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p431)Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Prednisolone: A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.Mucin-1: Carbohydrate antigen elevated in patients with tumors of the breast, ovary, lung, and prostate as well as other disorders. The mucin is expressed normally by most glandular epithelia but shows particularly increased expression in the breast at lactation and in malignancy. It is thus an established serum marker for breast cancer.Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity: The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Bronchiolitis: Inflammation of the BRONCHIOLES.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.HSP47 Heat-Shock Proteins: Basic glycoprotein members of the SERPIN SUPERFAMILY that function as COLLAGEN-specific MOLECULAR CHAPERONES in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Scleroderma, Systemic: A chronic multi-system disorder of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. It is characterized by SCLEROSIS in the SKIN, the LUNGS, the HEART, the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, the KIDNEYS, and the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM. Other important features include diseased small BLOOD VESSELS and AUTOANTIBODIES. The disorder is named for its most prominent feature (hard skin), and classified into subsets by the extent of skin thickening: LIMITED SCLERODERMA and DIFFUSE SCLERODERMA.Autopsy: Postmortem examination of the body.Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated: Serious INFLAMMATION of the LUNG in patients who required the use of PULMONARY VENTILATOR. It is usually caused by cross bacterial infections in hospitals (NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS).Respiratory Insufficiency: Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)Lung Injury: Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.Pneumonia, Aspiration: A type of lung inflammation resulting from the aspiration of food, liquid, or gastric contents into the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.Total Lung Capacity: The volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It is the equivalent to each of the following sums: VITAL CAPACITY plus RESIDUAL VOLUME; INSPIRATORY CAPACITY plus FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY; TIDAL VOLUME plus INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus functional residual capacity; or tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume plus EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus residual volume.Lung Transplantation: The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another.Lung Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the lungs with parasites, most commonly by parasitic worms (HELMINTHS).Kidney Tubules: Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.Pneumonia, Mycoplasma: Interstitial pneumonia caused by extensive infection of the lungs (LUNG) and BRONCHI, particularly the lower lobes of the lungs, by MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE in humans. In SHEEP, it is caused by MYCOPLASMA OVIPNEUMONIAE. In CATTLE, it may be caused by MYCOPLASMA DISPAR.Pulmonary Eosinophilia: A condition characterized by infiltration of the lung with EOSINOPHILS due to inflammation or other disease processes. Major eosinophilic lung diseases are the eosinophilic pneumonias caused by infections, allergens, or toxic agents.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein A: An abundant pulmonary surfactant-associated protein that binds to a variety of lung pathogens, resulting in their opsinization. It also stimulates MACROPHAGES to undergo PHAGOCYTOSIS of microorganisms. Surfactant protein A contains a N-terminal collagen-like domain and a C-terminal lectin domain that are characteristic of members of the collectin family of proteins.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Community-Acquired Infections: Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.Bronchopneumonia: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is associated with BRONCHITIS, usually involving lobular areas from TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES to the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. The affected areas become filled with exudate that forms consolidated patches.Pulmonary Emphysema: Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Ureteral Obstruction: Blockage in any part of the URETER causing obstruction of urine flow from the kidney to the URINARY BLADDER. The obstruction may be congenital, acquired, unilateral, bilateral, complete, partial, acute, or chronic. Depending on the degree and duration of the obstruction, clinical features vary greatly such as HYDRONEPHROSIS and obstructive nephropathy.Hermanski-Pudlak Syndrome: Syndrome characterized by the triad of oculocutaneous albinism (ALBINISM, OCULOCUTANEOUS); PLATELET STORAGE POOL DEFICIENCY; and lysosomal accumulation of ceroid lipofuscin.Bird Fancier's Lung: A form of alveolitis or pneumonitis due to an acquired hypersensitivity to inhaled avian antigens, usually proteins in the dust of bird feathers and droppings.Methylprednisolone: A PREDNISOLONE derivative with similar anti-inflammatory action.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Pneumocystis jirovecii: A species of PNEUMOCYSTIS infecting humans and causing PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA. It also occasionally causes extrapulmonary disease in immunocompromised patients. Its former name was Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis.Visna-maedi virus: A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus ovine-caprine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, OVINE-CAPRINE), that can cause chronic pneumonia (maedi), mastitis, arthritis, and encephalomyelitis (visna) in sheep. Maedi is a progressive pneumonia of sheep which is similar to but not the same as jaagsiekte (PULMONARY ADENOMATOSIS, OVINE). Visna is a demyelinating leukoencephalomyelitis of sheep which is similar to but not the same as SCRAPIE.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Macrophages, Alveolar: Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.Aleutian Mink Disease Virus: A species of PARVOVIRUS that causes a disease in mink, mainly those homozygous for the recessive Aleutian gene which determines a desirable coat color.Bleomycin: A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Adrenal Cortex HormonesPulmonary Medicine: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM. It is especially concerned with diagnosis and treatment of diseases and defects of the lungs and bronchial tree.Hemoperfusion: Removal of toxins or metabolites from the circulation by the passing of blood, within a suitable extracorporeal circuit, over semipermeable microcapsules containing adsorbents (e.g., activated charcoal) or enzymes, other enzyme preparations (e.g., gel-entrapped microsomes, membrane-free enzymes bound to artificial carriers), or other adsorbents (e.g., various resins, albumin-conjugated agarose).Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Pneumonia, Lipid: Pneumonia due to aspiration or inhalation of various oily or fatty substances.Kidney Medulla: The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted: Endoscopic surgery of the pleural cavity performed with visualization via video transmission.Mediastinal Emphysema: Presence of air in the mediastinal tissues due to leakage of air from the tracheobronchial tree, usually as a result of trauma.Eye Manifestations: Ocular disorders attendant upon non-ocular disease or injury.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Bronchoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.Mucins: High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.Dyspnea: Difficult or labored breathing.Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Pulmonary Edema: Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.Nephritis, Interstitial: Inflammation of the interstitial tissue of the kidney. This term is generally used for primary inflammation of KIDNEY TUBULES and/or surrounding interstitium. For primary inflammation of glomerular interstitium, see GLOMERULONEPHRITIS. Infiltration of the inflammatory cells into the interstitial compartment results in EDEMA, increased spaces between the tubules, and tubular renal dysfunction.Leydig Cells: Steroid-producing cells in the interstitial tissue of the TESTIS. They are under the regulation of PITUITARY HORMONES; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; or interstitial cell-stimulating hormone. TESTOSTERONE is the major androgen (ANDROGENS) produced.Mucin-5B: A gel-forming mucin that is predominantly expressed by submucosal glands of airway tissues and the SUBLINGUAL GLAND. It is one of the principal components of high molecular weight salivary mucin.Alanine-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that activates alanine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.7.Acute Lung Injury: A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).Lymphocytosis: Excess of normal lymphocytes in the blood or in any effusion.Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein D: An abundant pulmonary surfactant-associated protein that binds to a variety of lung pathogens and enhances their opsinization and killing by phagocytic cells. Surfactant protein D contains a N-terminal collagen-like domain and a C-terminal lectin domain that are characteristic of members of the collectin family of proteins.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Hydrostatic Pressure: The pressure due to the weight of fluid.SkatoleRare Diseases: A large group of diseases which are characterized by a low prevalence in the population. They frequently are associated with problems in diagnosis and treatment.Pneumonectomy: The excision of lung tissue including partial or total lung lobectomy.Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha1 Subunit: An interleukin receptor subunit with specificity for INTERLEUKIN-13. It dimerizes with the INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT to form the TYPE II INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR which has specificity for both INTERLEUKIN-4 and INTERLEUKIN-13. Signaling of this receptor subunit occurs through the interaction of its cytoplasmic domain with JANUS KINASES such as the TYK2 KINASE.Mice, Inbred C57BLAnti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Farmer's Lung: A form of alveolitis or pneumonitis due to an acquired hypersensitivity to inhaled antigens associated with farm environment. Antigens in the farm dust are commonly from bacteria actinomycetes (SACCHAROPOLYSPORA and THERMOACTINOMYCES), fungi, and animal proteins in the soil, straw, crops, pelts, serum, and excreta.Capillary Permeability: The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Elastic Tissue: Connective tissue comprised chiefly of elastic fibers. Elastic fibers have two components: ELASTIN and MICROFIBRILS.Lymphatic System: A system of organs and tissues that process and transport immune cells and LYMPH.Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hydroxyproline: A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.Kidney Glomerulus: A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.Mink: Carnivores of genus Mustela of the family MUSTELIDAE. The European mink, which has white upper and lower lips, was widely trapped for commercial purposes and is classified as endangered. The American mink, lacking a white upper lip, is farmed commercially.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.Aleutian Mink Disease: A slow progressive disease of mink caused by the ALEUTIAN MINK DISEASE VIRUS. It is characterized by poor reproduction, weight loss, autoimmunity, hypergammaglobulinemia, increased susceptibility to bacterial infections, and death from renal failure. The disease occurs in all color types, but mink which are homozygous recessive for the Aleutian gene for light coat color are particularly susceptible.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Cytomegalovirus Infections: Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Lung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Rodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).Lymphatic Vessels: Tubular vessels that are involved in the transport of LYMPH and LYMPHOCYTES.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Kidney Cortex: The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.JapanSensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Cyclosporine: A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).Thoracoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the pleural cavity.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Capillaries: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Receptors, Interleukin-13: Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-13. Included under this heading are the INTERLEUKIN-13 RECEPTOR ALPHA2 which is a monomeric receptor and the INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR TYPE II which has specificity for both INTERLEUKIN-4 and INTERLEUKIN-13.Extravascular Lung Water: Water content outside of the lung vasculature. About 80% of a normal lung is made up of water, including intracellular, interstitial, and blood water. Failure to maintain the normal homeostatic fluid exchange between the vascular space and the interstitium of the lungs can result in PULMONARY EDEMA and flooding of the alveolar space.Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any of the BLOOD VESSELS in the cardiac or peripheral circulation. They include diseases of ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.Hypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Bronchiectasis: Persistent abnormal dilatation of the bronchi.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Biopsy, Needle: Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Proteinuria: The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Respiratory Mucosa: The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Glomerulonephritis: Inflammation of the renal glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) that can be classified by the type of glomerular injuries including antibody deposition, complement activation, cellular proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis. These structural and functional abnormalities usually lead to HEMATURIA; PROTEINURIA; HYPERTENSION; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Prednisone: A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.Albumins: Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Connective Tissue: Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.Sarcoidosis: An idiopathic systemic inflammatory granulomatous disorder comprised of epithelioid and multinucleated giant cells with little necrosis. It usually invades the lungs with fibrosis and may also involve lymph nodes, skin, liver, spleen, eyes, phalangeal bones, and parotid glands.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: A chronic lung disease developed after OXYGEN INHALATION THERAPY or mechanical ventilation (VENTILATION, MECHANICAL) usually occurring in certain premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE) or newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME, NEWBORN). Histologically, it is characterized by the unusual abnormalities of the bronchioles, such as METAPLASIA, decrease in alveolar number, and formation of CYSTS.Transforming Growth Factor beta1: A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.Circoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the CIRCOVIRIDAE.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Basement Membrane: A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Lymph: The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Seminiferous Tubules: The convoluted tubules in the TESTIS where sperm are produced (SPERMATOGENESIS) and conveyed to the RETE TESTIS. Spermatogenic tubules are composed of developing germ cells and the supporting SERTOLI CELLS.Lung Abscess: Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the lung parenchyma as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.
... or noninfectious pneumonia are a class of diffuse lung diseases. These diseases typically affect the pulmonary interstitium, ... giant cell interstitial pneumonia; HMF=heavy metal fibrosis, no longer grouped with diffuse lung disease Lymphoid interstitial ... organizing pneumonia; LIP=lymphoid interstitial pneumonia; LPD=lymphoproliferative disease (not considered a diffuse lung ... Table 1: Development of the (histologic) idiopathic interstitial pneumonia classification UIP=usual interstitial pneumonia; DAD ...
... (UIP) is a form of lung disease characterized by progressive scarring of both lungs. The scarring ... fibrosis) involves the supporting framework (interstitium) of the lung. UIP is thus classified as a form of interstitial lung ... "Diagnosis of usual interstitial pneumonia and distinction from other fibrosing interstitial lung diseases". Human Pathology. 39 ... Pathological findings in usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) Appearance of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) in a surgical lung ...
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis Conditions specifically affecting the interstitium are called interstitial lung diseases. ... Examples are: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, of which there are several types Sarcoidosis ... eMedicine Specialties > Pulmonology > Interstitial Lung Diseases > Restrictive Lung Disease Author: Lalit K Kanaparthi, MD, ... Restrictive lung diseases may be due to specific causes which can be intrinsic to the parenchyma of the lung, or extrinsic to ...
... respiratory bronchiolitis-interstitial lung disease [RB-ILD] and desquamative interstitial pneumonia [DIP]); and acute/subacute ... which are characterized by the involvement of the lung interstitium, the tissue between the air sacs of the lung. IPF is one ... Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) belongs to a large group of more than 200 lung diseases known as interstitial lung diseases ... Other differential diagnostic considerations include interstitial lung disease related to mixed connective tissue disease, ...
... the differential diagnosis in lung biopsies includes the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. This group of diseases includes ... The main feature of chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis on lung biopsies is expansion of the interstitium by lymphocytes ... The prognosis of some idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, e.g. idiopathic usual interstitial pneumonia (i.e. idiopathic ... usual interstitial pneumonia, non-specific interstitial pneumonia and cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, among others. ...
Interstitial/. restrictive. (fibrosis). External agents/. occupational. lung disease. Pneumoconiosis (Asbestosis, Baritosis, ... Desquamative Interstitial Pneumonia, DIP), ലസികാണുവർദ്ധ അന്തരാളകലാ ന്യുമോണിയ (Lymphocytic Interstitial Pneumonia, LIP) ... ഉദാഹരണത്തിനു വൈറസുകൾ പൊതുവേ ശ്വസനേന്ദ്രിയത്തിലെ വായു അറകൾക്കിടയ്ക്കുള്ള അന്തരാളകലകളിലാണു (interstitium) കോശജ്വലനവും നീർ ... Respiratory Bronchiolitis-associated Interstitial Lung Disease, RB-ILD), ശൽക്കലാപക്ഷയ അന്തരാളകലാ ന്യുമോണിയ ( ...
... respiratory bronchiolitis associated interstitial lung disease, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, drug-induced lung diseases ... or diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD), is a group of lung diseases affecting the interstitium (the tissue and space around ... "Interstitial Lung Disease/Pulmonary Fibrosis Northwestern Chicago Frequently Asked Questions". "Interstitial lung disease: ... drug-induced lung diseases, acute interstitial pneumonia Chronic: Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, ...
IPF belongs to a large group of more than 200 lung diseases known as interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), characterized by the ... European Respiratory Society International Multidisciplinary Consensus Classification of the Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias ... involvement of lung interstitium. IPF usually occurs in adults of between 50 and 70 years of age, particularly those with a ... Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic irreversible and fatal disease caused by a progressive decline in lung ...
Interstitial/. restrictive. (fibrosis). External agents/. occupational. lung disease. Pneumoconiosis Aluminosis. Asbestosis. ... Respiratory diseases principally affecting the interstitium. Hidden categories: *CS1 maint: extra punctuation ... Löffler's syndrome/Eosinophilic pneumonia. *Respiratory hypersensitivity *Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. *Hamman-Rich ... Acute lung injury may also cause pulmonary edema through injury to the vasculature and parenchyma of the lung. Acute lung ...
"Interstitial lung disease in newborns". Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine. 22 (4): 227-233. doi:10.1016/j.siny.2017.03. ... Lung biopsy or FOXF1 genetic testing[1][2]. Differential diagnosis. Idiopathic PPHN, sepsis, pneumonia, surfactant deficiencies ... Abnormal lung development is characterized by thickened alveolar interstitium, misplacement of pulmonary capillaries away from ... congenital diffuse lung disease characterized by abnormal blood vessels in the lungs that cause highly elevated pulmonary blood ...
Acute inflammation of the lung (usually caused in response to pneumonia) does not cause pain unless the inflammation involves ... Inflammatory bowel diseases Interstitial cystitis Mast Cell Activation Syndrome Mastocytosis Otitis Pelvic inflammatory disease ... Leukocytes reaching the tissue interstitium bind to extracellular matrix proteins via expressed integrins and CD44 to prevent ... Acne vulgaris Asthma Autoimmune diseases Autoinflammatory diseases Celiac disease Chronic prostatitis Colitis Diverticulitis ...
A sarcoidosis-like lung disease called granulomatous-lymphocytic interstitial lung disease can be seen in patients with common ... In 2005, he mentioned that the disease was in remission. His death on 9 August 2008 was caused by complications from pneumonia ... Cardiac sarcoidosis can cause fibrosis, granuloma formation, or the accumulation of fluid in the interstitium of the heart, or ... Sarcoidosis of the lung is primarily an interstitial lung disease in which the inflammatory process involves the alveoli, small ...
Interstitial/. restrictive. (fibrosis). External agents/. occupational. lung disease. Pneumoconiosis Aluminosis. Asbestosis. ... eosinophilic pneumonia, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, acute fibrinous organizing pneumonia, and diffuse alveolar damage ( ... Respiratory diseases principally affecting the interstitium. *Syndromes affecting the respiratory system. *Respiratory ... Lower RT/lung disease. (including LRTIs). Bronchial/. obstructive. acute. Acute bronchitis. chronic. COPD Chronic bronchitis. ...
Occupational lung diseases are occupational diseases affecting the respiratory system, including occupational asthma, black lung disease (coalworker's pneumoconiosis), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), mesothelioma, and silicosis. Infectious lung diseases can also be acquired in an occupational context. Exposure to substances like flock and silica can cause fibrosing lung disease, whereas exposure to carcinogens like asbestos and beryllium can cause lung cancer. Occupational cases of interstitial lung disease may be misdiagnosed as COPD, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, or a myriad of other diseases; leading to a delay in identification of the causative agent. Asbestosis is a fibrosing interstitial lung disease caused by exposure to forms of the ...
... (SP-C), is one of the pulmonary surfactant proteins. In humans this is encoded by the SFTPC gene. It is a membrane protein which manufactures surfactant. The propeptide of pulmonary surfactant C has an N-terminal alpha-helical segment whose suggested function was stabilization of the protein structure, since the latter can irreversibly transform from its native alpha-helical structure to beta-sheet aggregates and form amyloid fibrils. The correct intracellular trafficking of proSP-C has also been reported to depend on the propeptide. It is associated with surfactant metabolism dysfunction type 2. Humans and animals born lacking SP-C tend to develop progressive interstitial lung disease. Keller A, Eistetter HR, Voss T, Schafer KP (Aug 1991). "The pulmonary surfactant protein C (SP-C) precursor is a type II transmembrane protein". Biochem J. 277 (Pt 2): 493-9. PMC 1151261 . PMID 1859376. Johansson H, Nordling K, Weaver TE, Johansson J (Jul 2006). "The ...
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic irreversible and fatal disease caused by a progressive decline in lung function.[1][2] The term pulmonary fibrosis means scarring of lung tissue and is the cause of worsening dyspnea (shortness of breath). Fibrosis is usually associated with a poor prognosis.[1][2][3] IPF belongs to a large group of more than 200 lung diseases known as interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), characterized by the involvement of lung interstitium. IPF usually occurs in adults of between 50 and 70 years of age, particularly those with a history of cigarette smoking, and affects more men than women. Treatment to slow down the progression of the disease may include nintedanib or pirfenidone.[4] ...
... (DG) is an erythematous (red), desquamatous (shedding) and ulcerated appearance of the gums. It is a descriptive term and can be caused by several different disorders. Desquamative gingivitis involves lesions of the free and attached gingiva. Unlike plaque-induced inflammation of the gums (normal marginal gingivitis), desquamative gingivitis extends beyond the marginal gingiva, involving the full width of the gingiva and sometimes the alveolar mucosa. The term "full width gingivitis" usually refers to the oral lesions of orofacial granulomatosis however. The color is another dissimilarity between typical marginal gingivitis and desquamative gingivitis, in the latter it is dusky red. Plasma cell gingivitis is another form of gingivitis which affects both the attached and free gingiva. Caused by various autoimmune diseases as well as allergies. Erosive lichen planus, mucous membrane pemphigoid, pemphigus vulgaris, and lupus erythematosus. Desquamative gingivitis is a ...
... is a condition where pulmonary surfactant is insufficient for adequate respiration. Most disease-causing mutations in SFTPB result in a complete lack of mature SP-B protein 265120. Lung disease is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, requiring mutations in both alleles. Surfactant produced by infants with SP-B deficiency is abnormal in composition and does not function normally in lowering surface tension. Familial cases of SP-C dysfunction 610913 are inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, although the onset and severity of lung disease are highly variable, even within the same family. Mutations in ABCA3 appear to be the most common cause of genetic surfactant dysfunction in humans. The mutations result in a loss of or reduced function of the ABCA3 protein, and are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner 610921. Congenital hypothyroidism Infant respiratory distress syndrome Interstitial lung disease ...
In the average person, the diaphragm should be intersected by the 5th to 7th anterior ribs at the mid-clavicular line, and 9 to 10 posterior ribs should be viewable on a normal PA inspiratory film. An increase in the number of viewable ribs implies hyperinflation, as can occur, for example, with obstructive lung disease or foreign body aspiration. A decrease implies hypoventilation, as can occur with restrictive lung disease, pleural effusions or atelectasis. Underexpansion can also cause interstitial markings due to parenchymal crowding, which can mimic the appearance of interstitial lung disease. Enlargement of the right descending pulmonary artery can indirectly reflect changes of pulmonary hypertension, with a size greater than 16 mm abnormal in men and 15 mm in women.[6] Appropriate penetration of the film can be assessed by faint visualization of the thoracic spines and ...
... is a result of insufficient oxygen available to the lungs. A blocked airway, a drowning or a reduction in partial pressure (high altitude above 10,000 feet) are examples of how lungs can be deprived of oxygen. Some medical examples are abnormal pulmonary function or respiratory obstruction. Hypoxic hypoxia is seen in patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), neuromuscular diseases or interstitial lung disease. Cyanosis Headache Increased reaction time Impaired judgment time Euphoria Visual impairment Drowsiness Lightheaded or dizzy sensation Tingling in fingers and toes Numbness Pulmonology Oxygen Flight Standards Service. Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge: FAA Manual H-8083-25. Washington, DC: Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. Dept. of Transportation, 2001. ISBN 1-56027-540-5 ...
In liver pathology, a ground glass hepatocyte, abbreviated GGH, is a liver parenchymal cell with a flat hazy and uniformly dull appearing cytoplasm on light microscopy. The cytoplasm's granular homogeneous eosinophilic staining is caused by the presence of HBsAg. The appearance is classically associated with abundant hepatitis B antigen in the endoplasmic reticulum, but may also be drug-induced. In the context of hepatitis B, GGHs are only seen in chronic infections, i.e. they are not seen in acute hepatitis B. GGHs were first described by Hadziyannis et al. Several different types of GGHs are recognized: Type I - morphologically consist of GGHs that are scattered singly and have weak Pre-S2 positive immunostaining. Type II - morphologically consist of GGHs that are in clusters and have Pre-S2 negative immunostaining. There is some evidence to suggest that type II GGHs predispose to hepatocellular carcinoma. Drug reaction Mallory body Viral hepatitis Micrograph showing ground glass hepatocytes. ...
... (25 November 1841 - 28 August 1933) was a physician and hematologist born in Paris. He studied medicine in Paris, and later became a professor of therapy and materia medica. Beginning in 1878 he practiced medicine at the Hôpital Tenon; later on, he was associated with the Hôpital St. Antoine. From 1893 until 1911 he held the chair of clinical medicine. Georges Hayem was a pioneer in the field of hematology, and is remembered for his studies on the formation of leukocytes and erythrocytes. He performed the first accurate count of blood platelets, and is credited with developing a solution of mercury bichloride, sodium chloride and sodium sulfate for dilution of blood prior to counting erythrocytes with a hemocytometer. In 1874 he provided an early description of chronic interstitial hepatitis. With bacteriologist Georges-Fernand Widal (1862-1929), the eponymous "Hayem-Widal syndrome" is named, which is an historical term for acquired hemolytic anemia. Also, he introduced ...
It is vital for organisms to be able to maintain their fluid levels in very narrow ranges. The goal is to keep the interstitial fluid, the fluid outside the cell, at the same concentration as the intracellular fluid, fluid inside the cell. This condition is called isotonic and occurs when the same level of solutes are present on either side of the cell membrane so that the net water movement is zero. If the interstitial fluid has a higher concentration of solutes than the intracellular fluid it will pull water out of the cell. This condition is called hypertonic and if enough water leaves the cell it will not be able to perform essential chemical functions. If the interstitial fluid becomes less concentrated the cell will fill with water as it tries to equalize the concentrations. This condition is called hypotonic and can be dangerous because it can cause the cell to swell and rupture. One set of receptors ...
Abel Məhərrəmov 1950-ci il yanvarın 5-də Ağdam şəhərində anadan olmuşdur. Atası Məmmədəli Məhərrəmov riyaziyyatçı olub[2]. Oğlu anadan olanda adını Norveç riyaziyyatçısı Nils Abelin şərəfinə Abel qoymuşdur. 1966-cı ilin may ayının 25-i Amasiya rayonun Güllübulaq kənd orta məktəbini[3] qızıl medalla bitirdikdən sonra, elə 1966-cı ildə Bakı Dövlət Universitetinin kimya fakültəsinə qəbul olmuş və oranı 1971-ci ildə əla qiymətlərlə başa vurmuşdur. Universiteti bitirdikdən sonra təyinatla Ümümittifaq Olefinlər Elmi-Tədqiqat İnstitutunda operator, sonra isə mühəndis vəzifəsində çalışmışdır. 1973-ci ildə M.V.Lomonosov adına Moskva Dövlət Universitetində "Üzvi kimya" ixtisası üzrə əyani aspiranturaya daxil olmuşdur. 1976-ci ildə akademik N.S.Zefirovun rəhbərliyi altında "İkiqat rabitələrə birləşmə reaksiyalarında sulfenxloridlərin elektrofilliyinin artırılmasının yeni metodu" mövzusunda ...
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License and the GFDL; additional terms may apply. See Terms of Use for details ...
Pneumonia can be classified in several ways, most commonly by where it was acquired (hospital versus community), but may also by the area of lung affected or by the causative organism. There is also a combined clinical classification, which combines factors such as age, risk factors for certain microorganisms, the presence of underlying lung disease or systemic disease, and whether the person has recently been hospitalized. Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is infectious pneumonia in a person who has not recently been hospitalized. CAP is the most common type of pneumonia. The most common causes of CAP vary depending on a person's age, but they include Streptococcus pneumoniae, viruses, the atypical bacteria, and Haemophilus influenzae. Overall, Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia worldwide. Gram-negative ...
Video-assisted thoracoscopy was performed and a histological pattern of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) was found. A ... A multidisciplinary approach in the field of interstitial lung disease with NSIP, also including rheumatologic expertise, is ... Lung involvement can complicate the course and management of the disease, often determining a worse outcome. Respiratory ... are clinical entities characterised by signs and symptoms suggestive of a systemic autoimmune disease, which do not fulfil the ...
High-Resolution Computed Tomography Scan of the Chest Demonstrating Alveolar Infiltrate, Mostly in the Lung Bases. ... exogenous lipid pneumonia is made by a positive history of mineral oil exposure and radiologic findings in favor of the disease ... Multiple BALs can remove Lipid-laden macrophages as a leading cause of fibrosis in the alveoli and interstitium (3, 4). ... 2). Consolidation, nodular lesions, reticular and alveolar-interstitial patterns are the most common findings in the chest X- ...
Restrictive lung diseases (Respiratory Disease) - The Preventions *Restrictive lung diseases (Respiratory Disease) - Treatments ... affecting the interstitium of the kidneys and kidney function in wast removal. C. Diseases associated with interstitial ... Lower respiratory tract infection - Pneumonia *Lower respiratory tract infection (Respiratory Disease) - The Classification ... Interstitial nephritis (Tubulo-interstitial nephritis) - Diseases associated with interstitial nephritis. Posted on November 13 ...
Usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is a form of lung disease characterized by progressive scarring of both lungs. The scarring ... fibrosis) involves the supporting framework (interstitium) of the lung. UIP is thus classified as a form of interstitial lung ... "Diagnosis of usual interstitial pneumonia and distinction from other fibrosing interstitial lung diseases". Human Pathology. 39 ... Pathological findings in usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) Appearance of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) in a surgical lung ...
Types of Interstitial Lung Disease. All forms of interstitial lung disease cause thickening of the interstitium. The thickening ... Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP): A pneumonia-like interstitial lung disease but without an infection present. COP is ... Re: Tykerb Lung Breathing reaction - HELP Interstitial Lung Disease. Interstitial lung disease is a general category that ... Treatments for Interstitial Lung Disease. Treatments for interstitial lung disease vary according to the type of interstitial ...
... interstitial pneumonitis, black lung, Farmers lung, mold, grasses, fumes, and autoimmune diseases. The most common symptoms ... Treatment and prognosis depends upon the type of lung disease. ... is the name for a group of diseases that affect the lungs, for ... lungs a-z list / interstitial lung disease (interstitial pneumonia) center / interstitial lung disease (interstitial pneumonia ... Symptoms and signs of interstitial lung disease occur because the damage to the interstitium of the lung impairs breathing ...
... or noninfectious pneumonia are a class of diffuse lung diseases. These diseases typically affect the pulmonary interstitium, ... giant cell interstitial pneumonia; HMF=heavy metal fibrosis, no longer grouped with diffuse lung disease Lymphoid interstitial ... organizing pneumonia; LIP=lymphoid interstitial pneumonia; LPD=lymphoproliferative disease (not considered a diffuse lung ... Table 1: Development of the (histologic) idiopathic interstitial pneumonia classification UIP=usual interstitial pneumonia; DAD ...
... affects the tissue that separates the tiny air sacs of the lungs, causing difficulty in breathing and other problems. ... Idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia: lung manifestation of undifferentiated connective tissue disease?. Am J Respir ... The cellular form is defined mainly by inflammation of the cells of the interstitium. The fibrotic form is defined by ... Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonia (NSIP) Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) is a rare lung disorder that can cause ...
IP lies in the center of a heterogenous group of diffuse interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), either idiopathic or linked to ... refers to involvement of the lung parenchyma by varying degrees of inflammation and fibrosis, in contrast to airspace disease ... One of the major categories of disorders frequently associated with IP is a connective tissue disease (CTD), in which ... To be accurate, however, ILD comprises a broader range of lung diseases which involves the pulmonary interstitium, including ...
... interstitial lung disease and lymphangitic carcinomatosis.. Diffuse parenchymal pulmonary amyloidosis has a remarkably ... It is characterized by widespread amyloid deposition involving small vessels and the interstitium [18]. This is reflected by ... Differential considerations of diffuse parenchymal pulmonary amyloidosis are quite broad and include pneumonia, pneumoconiosis ... the patient received bilateral lung transplantation and remained stable after 7 years post lung transplantation [26]. Lung ...
Lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP) is regarded as both a disease and a nonneoplastic, inflammatory pulmonary reaction to ... polyclonal lymphoid cell infiltrate surrounding airways and expanding the lung interstitium. Classically, LIP occurs in ... Acute lung injury was assessed by measurements of lung water (lung wet/dry weight ratio; W/D ratio), the concentration ratio of ... In contrast, the PTXF-pretreated group did not demonstrate IL-2-induced acute lung injury (lung water, 125I-albumin lung-to- ...
First: Interstitial lung disease is an "umbrella" term for many diseases; one of these disease is idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis ... Answers from trusted physicians on interstitial lung disease and lupus. ... Interstitial lung disease is inflammation of the lung and usually starts in the "interstitium" but later can involve other ... Pneumonia: Interstitial lung diseases are typically progressive processes that are not commonly associated with infection. They ...
... defined as an interstitial abnormality secondary to administration of a drug, can be acute or chronic.1 Pres... ... nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP), acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP), ... Oxidative stress may cause apoptosis of structural cells making up the interstitium, thus playing a role in fibrosis.11 This ... Interstitial lung disease in lung cancer: Separating disease progression from treatment effects. Drug Saf. 2005;28(2):103-113. ...
All interstitial lung diseases affect the interstitium, a delicate network of tissue that extends throughout the lungs and ... such as interstitial pneumonia, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, non-specific interstitial pneumonitis and hypersensitivity ... Recognising and managing patients with interstitial lung disease. Interstitial lung disease is a wide-ranging category of ... which supports the microscopic air sacs within the lungs (alveoli). Unfortunately, some forms of interstitial lung disease have ...
LIP may also be known as lymphoid interstitial pneumonia and is characterized by the infiltration of the pulmonary interstitium ... "interstitial pneumonia" is used for certain forms of interstitial lung disease. Technically, however, the term "pneumonia" ... 2. Respiratory bronchiolitis-associated lung disease (RB-ILD) is most like what other interstitial lung disease discussed? ... 516.34 Respiratory bronchiolitis interstitial lung disease. Lymphocytic Interstitial Pneumonia (LIP): ...
... and an interstitial pattern.2 Cystic lung disease, spontaneous pneumothorax, and upper lobe parenchymal opacities have been ... revealed extensive cavitation versus bullous disease with upper lobe predominance and coarsening of the pulmonary interstitium ... Fulminant pneumonia with cavitary destruction of lung parenchyma. By Gabriel Peterson, MD, Reena Jha, MD, and Gayle P. Balba, ... Rapidly progressive cavitary lung disease can occur in the setting of PCP even on appropriate antibiotic therapy. Although drug ...
... latest diagnostic and therapeutic options for patients with the roughly 160 disorders categorized as interstitial lung diseases ... These disorders involve inflammation or fibrosis (scarring) of the interstitium (the tissue between the air sacs of the lungs ... Organizing pneumonia. *Less common disorders such as lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) or ... Interstitial Lung Disease Program. The Interstitial Lung Disease Program provides the latest diagnostic and therapeutic options ...
... of ILD is usually referred to a wide range of growing lung illnesses identifiable by the inflammation and scarring of the lungs ... Interstitial Pneumonia. This is when the interstitium of the lungs gets infected by bacteria, viruses or fungi. A bacteria ... This is another word for bronchitis obliterans creating pneumonia. It is an interstitial lung disease like pneumonia that ... Interstitial lung disease of ILD is usually referred to a wide range of growing lung illnesses identifiable by the inflammation ...
Interstitial Lung Disease. A broad category of over 200 lung diseases that affect the lung interstitium (walls of the air sacs ... is technically called usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). A diagnosis of IPF requires that your doctor cannot find a cause and ... Scleroderma-associated interstitial lung disease, or "SSc-ILD", is a chronic lung disease in which scar tissue ("fibrosis") and ... Myositis-associated interstitial lung disease is a chronic lung disease in which scar tissue ("fibrosis") and/or inflammation ...
Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the Merck Manuals - ... Interstitial Lung Diseases Overview of Interstitial Lung Disease. Drug-Induced Pulmonary Disease ... is a disorder of unknown etiology characterized by rapid eosinophilic infiltration of the lung interstitium. ... Acute eosinophilic pneumonia is a diagnosis of exclusion and requires the absence of known causes of eosinophilic pneumonia (eg ...
It is the result of the age-old attempt to make the distinction between an interstitial and airspace (alveolar) process to ... An interstitial lung pattern is a regular descriptive term used when reporting a plain chest radiograph. ... Take the example of a cavity - it could arise from airspace or interstitial disease:. * cavitating pneumonia occurs as a result ... The problem is that despite processes starting in the pulmonary interstitium, by the time they appear on a radiograph, there is ...
... respiratory bronchiolitis-interstitial lung disease), LIP (lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia), DAD (diffuse alveolar damage), ... isolated giant cells and/or tiny granulomas in the inter-alveolar interstitium, chronic inflammatory infiltrate of the pleura ... Transbronchial lung cryobiopsy Honeycombing Lung biopsy Cryobiopsy Interstitial lung disease Abbreviations. DAD. diffuse ... Transbronchial lung cryobiopsy in the diagnosis of fibrotic interstitial lung diseases. PLoS One. 2014;9(2):e86716.CrossRef ...
Many pathological situations can impair gas exchange and, therefore, may contribute to progressive lung damage and ILD. ... systemic disease-associated ILD; 3) alveolar structure disorder-associated ILD; and 4) ILD specific to infancy. Therapeutic ... Interstitial lung disease (ILD) in infants and children comprises a large spectrum of rare respiratory disorders that are ... to be structured with a clinical evaluation requiring a careful history paying attention to exposures and systemic diseases. ...
Interstitial lung diseases are named after the tissue between the air sacs of the lungs called the interstitium--the tissue ... How does interstitial lung disease occur?. In interstitial lung disease, the lung is affected in three ways:. *Lung tissue is ... Interstitial Lung Disease (Pulmonary Fibrosis). Click Image to Enlarge. What are interstitial lung diseases?. Interstitial lung ... What causes interstitial lung diseases?. The cause of interstitial lung disease is not known; however, a major contributing ...
Interstitial lung diseases (ILD) affect the interstitium, which is a microscopically thin, delicate lining between the lungs ... "Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most common idiopathic interstitial pneumonia and is increasingly recognized. Prior ... Other common medical conditions that are found around the world include lung diseases. For example, in 2010, lung diseases ... such as diseases that affect the airway, air sacs, and blood vessels, but the concern over interstitial lung diseases has ...
  • On physical examination he presented with tachycardia (190 min), tachypnea (80 min), O 2 saturation 50%, numerous crackles on auscultation of both lungs. (kowsarpub.com)
  • Computed tomography (CT) scan of the lungs three months later revealed a ground glass pattern in the apical segment of the upper and lower lobes. (biomedcentral.com)
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