Low molecular weight, calcium binding muscle proteins. Their physiological function is possibly related to the contractile process.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
A calbindin protein that is differentially expressed in distinct populations of NEURONS throughout the vertebrate and invertebrate NERVOUS SYSTEM, and modulates intrinsic neuronal excitability and influences LONG-TERM POTENTIATION. It is also found in LUNG, TESTIS, OVARY, KIDNEY, and BREAST, and is expressed in many tumor types found in these tissues. It is often used as an immunohistochemical marker for MESOTHELIOMA.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The largest portion of the CEREBRAL CORTEX in which the NEURONS are arranged in six layers in the mammalian brain: molecular, external granular, external pyramidal, internal granular, internal pyramidal and multiform layers.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID.
Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.
Hyperpolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during NEUROTRANSMISSION. They are local changes which diminish responsiveness to excitatory signals.
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC
Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.
Calcium-binding proteins that are found in DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES, INTESTINES, BRAIN, and other tissues where they bind, buffer and transport cytoplasmic calcium. Calbindins possess a variable number of EF-HAND MOTIFS which contain calcium-binding sites. Some isoforms are regulated by VITAMIN D.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.
The anterior subdivision of the embryonic PROSENCEPHALON or the corresponding part of the adult prosencephalon that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.
GRAY MATTER situated above the GYRUS HIPPOCAMPI. It is composed of three layers. The molecular layer is continuous with the HIPPOCAMPUS in the hippocampal fissure. The granular layer consists of closely arranged spherical or oval neurons, called GRANULE CELLS, whose AXONS pass through the polymorphic layer ending on the DENDRITES of PYRAMIDAL CELLS in the hippocampus.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Annelids of the class Hirudinea. Some species, the bloodsuckers, may become temporarily parasitic upon animals, including man. Medicinal leeches (HIRUDO MEDICINALIS) have been used therapeutically for drawing blood since ancient times.
The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
A genus of marine sea slugs in the family Glaucidae, superorder GASTROPODA, found on the Pacific coast of North America. They are used in behavioral and neurological laboratory studies.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
MOTOR NEURONS in the anterior (ventral) horn of the SPINAL CORD which project to SKELETAL MUSCLES.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC
A subclass of LIM domain proteins that include an additional centrally-located homeodomain region that binds AT-rich sites on DNA. Many LIM-homeodomain proteins play a role as transcriptional regulators that direct cell fate.
One of four subsections of the hippocampus described by Lorente de No, located furthest from the DENTATE GYRUS.
A vesicular glutamate transporter protein that is predominately expressed in the DIENCEPHALON and lower brainstem regions of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
The voltages across pre- or post-SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES.
The family Gryllidae consists of the common house cricket, Acheta domesticus, which is used in neurological and physiological studies. Other genera include Gryllotalpa (mole cricket); Gryllus (field cricket); and Oecanthus (tree cricket).
Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.
An isoquinoline alkaloid obtained from Dicentra cucullaria and other plants. It is a competitive antagonist for GABA-A receptors.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
A noncompetitive antagonist at GABA-A receptors and thus a convulsant. Picrotoxin blocks the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride ionophore. Although it is most often used as a research tool, it has been used as a CNS stimulant and an antidote in poisoning by CNS depressants, especially the barbiturates.
The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
A family of vesicular neurotransmitter transporter proteins that sequester the inhibitory neurotransmitters GLYCINE; GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID; and possibly GAMMA-HYDROXYBUTYRATE into SECRETORY VESICLES.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.
A subsection of the hippocampus, described by Lorente de No, that is located between the HIPPOCAMPUS CA2 FIELD and the DENTATE GYRUS.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE.
A potent excitatory amino acid antagonist with a preference for non-NMDA iontropic receptors. It is used primarily as a research tool.
Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.
Brain waves characterized by a frequency of 4-7 Hz, usually observed in the temporal lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed and sleepy.
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Techniques used to add in exogenous gene sequence such as mutated genes; REPORTER GENES, to study mechanisms of gene expression; or regulatory control sequences, to study effects of temporal changes to GENE EXPRESSION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.
A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.
Common name for the only family (Petromyzontidae) of eellike fish in the order Petromyzontiformes. They are jawless but have a sucking mouth with horny teeth.
A superfamily of various freshwater CRUSTACEA, in the infraorder Astacidea, comprising the crayfish. Common genera include Astacus and Procambarus. Crayfish resemble lobsters, but are usually much smaller.
The combination of genetic and optical methods in controlling specific events with temporal precision in targeted cells of a functioning intact biological system.
A vesicular glutamate transporter protein that is predominately expressed in TELENCEPHALON of the BRAIN.
Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A subset of GABA RECEPTORS that signal through their interaction with HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA-A RECEPTORS thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous GABA-A RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.
Neurons in the SPINAL CORD DORSAL HORN whose cell bodies and processes are confined entirely to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They receive collateral or direct terminations of dorsal root fibers. They send their axons either directly to ANTERIOR HORN CELLS or to the WHITE MATTER ascending and descending longitudinal fibers.
Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.
An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.
The superficial GRAY MATTER of the CEREBELLUM. It consists of two main layers, the stratum moleculare and the stratum granulosum.
Raised area at the infundibular region of the HYPOTHALAMUS at the floor of the BRAIN, ventral to the THIRD VENTRICLE and adjacent to the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS. It contains the terminals of hypothalamic neurons and the capillary network of hypophyseal portal system, thus serving as a neuroendocrine link between the brain and the PITUITARY GLAND.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
A genus of dextrally coiled freshwater snails that includes some species of importance as intermediate hosts of parasitic flukes.
Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors.
A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on GABAergic systems. GABAergic agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation or uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
(2S-(2 alpha,3 beta,4 beta))-2-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid. Ascaricide obtained from the red alga Digenea simplex. It is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist at some types of excitatory amino acid receptors and has been used to discriminate among receptor types. Like many excitatory amino acid agonists it can cause neurotoxicity and has been used experimentally for that purpose.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA).
Cell surface proteins that bind glutamate and act through G-proteins to influence second messenger systems. Several types of metabotropic glutamate receptors have been cloned. They differ in pharmacology, distribution, and mechanisms of action.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for KAINIC ACID.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
Cell-surface proteins that bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID with high affinity and trigger changes that influence the behavior of cells. GABA-A receptors control chloride channels formed by the receptor complex itself. They are blocked by bicuculline and usually have modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and barbiturates. GABA-B receptors act through G-proteins on several effector systems, are insensitive to bicuculline, and have a high affinity for L-baclofen.
Any drug used for its actions on cholinergic systems. Included here are agonists and antagonists, drugs that affect the life cycle of ACETYLCHOLINE, and drugs that affect the survival of cholinergic neurons. The term cholinergic agents is sometimes still used in the narrower sense of MUSCARINIC AGONISTS, although most modern texts discourage that usage.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A subsection of the hippocampus, described by Lorente de No, that is located between the HIPPOCAMPUS CA1 FIELD and the HIPPOCAMPUS CA3 FIELD.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
Fibers that arise from cell groups within the spinal cord and pass directly to the cerebellum. They include the anterior, posterior, and rostral spinocerebellar tracts, and the cuneocerebellar tract. (From Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p607)
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
Inorganic or organic derivatives of phosphinic acid, H2PO(OH). They include phosphinates and phosphinic acid esters.
Axons of certain cells in the DENTATE GYRUS. They project to the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus and to the proximal dendrites of PYRAMIDAL CELLS of the HIPPOCAMPUS. These mossy fibers should not be confused with mossy fibers that are cerebellar afferents (see NERVE FIBERS).
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
A member of the NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR subfamily of the LIGAND-GATED ION CHANNEL family. It consists entirely of pentameric a7 subunits expressed in the CNS, autonomic nervous system, vascular system, lymphocytes and spleen.
The electrical properties, characteristics of living organisms, and the processes of organisms or their parts that are involved in generating and responding to electrical charges.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.
The measurement of frequency or oscillation changes.
The D-enantiomer is a potent and specific antagonist of NMDA glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). The L form is inactive at NMDA receptors but may affect the AP4 (2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate; APB) excitatory amino acid receptors.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
A species of European freshwater LEECHES used for BLOODLETTING in ancient times and also for LEECHING in modern times.
An alkaloid found in the seeds of STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA. It is a competitive antagonist at glycine receptors and thus a convulsant. It has been used as an analeptic, in the treatment of nonketotic hyperglycinemia and sleep apnea, and as a rat poison.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.
Stereotyped patterns of response, characteristic of a given species, that have been phylogenetically adapted to a specific type of situation.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.
A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA-B RECEPTORS thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous GABA-B RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Networks of nerve cells that control the firing patterns of MOTOR NEURONS to produce rhythmic movements such as MASTICATION; WALKING; SWIMMING; RESPIRATION; and PERISTALSIS.
Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.
A subclass of serotonin receptors that form cation channels and mediate signal transduction by depolarizing the cell membrane. The cation channels are formed from 5 receptor subunits. When stimulated the receptors allow the selective passage of SODIUM; POTASSIUM; and CALCIUM.
Fibers that arise from cells within the cerebral cortex, pass through the medullary pyramid, and descend in the spinal cord. Many authorities say the pyramidal tracts include both the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts.
An opisthobranch mollusk of the order Anaspidea. It is used frequently in studies of nervous system development because of its large identifiable neurons. Aplysiatoxin and its derivatives are not biosynthesized by Aplysia, but acquired by ingestion of Lyngbya (seaweed) species.
Transference of brain tissue, either from a fetus or from a born individual, between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on glycinergic systems. Glycinergic agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation or uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.
Drugs that bind to nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC) and block the actions of acetylcholine or cholinergic agonists. Nicotinic antagonists block synaptic transmission at autonomic ganglia, the skeletal neuromuscular junction, and at central nervous system nicotinic synapses.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
Cavity in each of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES derived from the cavity of the embryonic NEURAL TUBE. They are separated from each other by the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM, and each communicates with the THIRD VENTRICLE by the foramen of Monro, through which also the choroid plexuses (CHOROID PLEXUS) of the lateral ventricles become continuous with that of the third ventricle.
Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Dihydro analog of beta-erythroidine, which is isolated from the seeds and other plant parts of Erythrina sp. Leguminosae. It is an alkaloid with curarimimetic properties.
A paired box transcription factor that is essential for ORGANOGENESIS of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and KIDNEY.
One of the POTASSIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS, with secondary effect on calcium currents, which is used mainly as a research tool and to characterize channel subtypes.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Physical forces and actions in living things.
Paired sense organs connected to the anterior segments of ARTHROPODS that help them navigate through the environment.
An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
INTERNEURONS of the vertebrate RETINA. They integrate, modulate, and interpose a temporal domain in the visual message presented to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS, with which they synapse in the inner plexiform layer.
An order of insects comprising two suborders: Caelifera and Ensifera. They consist of GRASSHOPPERS, locusts, and crickets (GRYLLIDAE).
A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.
Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.
A subclass of cannabinoid receptor found primarily on central and peripheral NEURONS where it may play a role modulating NEUROTRANSMITTER release.
Cell-surface proteins that bind glutamate and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors include ionotropic receptors (AMPA, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors), which directly control ion channels, and metabotropic receptors which act through second messenger systems. Glutamate receptors are the most common mediators of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. They have also been implicated in the mechanisms of memory and of many diseases.
An alpha-adrenergic sympathomimetic amine, biosynthesized from tyramine in the CNS and platelets and also in invertebrate nervous systems. It is used to treat hypotension and as a cardiotonic. The natural D(-) form is more potent than the L(+) form in producing cardiovascular adrenergic responses. It is also a neurotransmitter in some invertebrates.
A genus of large marine sea slugs in the family Tritoniidae found in the northern Pacific Ocean. They are used in neurological research.
A family of vesicular neurotransmitter transporter proteins that were originally characterized as sodium dependent inorganic phosphate cotransporters. Vesicular glutamate transport proteins sequester the excitatory neurotransmitter GLUTAMATE from the CYTOPLASM into SECRETORY VESICLES in exchange for lumenal PROTONS.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
A technique in which electric pulses of intensity in kilovolts per centimeter and of microsecond-to-millisecond duration cause a temporary loss of the semipermeability of CELL MEMBRANES, thus leading to ion leakage, escape of metabolites, and increased uptake by cells of drugs, molecular probes, and DNA.
Cerebral cortex region on the medial aspect of the PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS, immediately caudal to the OLFACTORY CORTEX of the uncus. The entorhinal cortex is the origin of the major neural fiber system afferent to the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the so-called PERFORANT PATHWAY.
In invertebrate zoology, a lateral lobe of the FOREBRAIN in certain ARTHROPODS. In vertebrate zoology, either of the corpora bigemina of non-mammalian VERTEBRATES. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1329)
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
Drugs used for their actions on any aspect of excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter systems. Included are drugs that act on excitatory amino acid receptors, affect the life cycle of excitatory amino acid transmitters, or affect the survival of neurons using excitatory amino acids.
An amino acid formed by cyclization of leucine. It has cytostatic, immunosuppressive and antineoplastic activities.
Mice which carry mutant genes for neurologic defects or abnormalities.
A subtype of dopamine D1 receptors that has higher affinity for DOPAMINE and differentially couples to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
Neurotransmitter receptors located on or near presynaptic terminals or varicosities. Presynaptic receptors which bind transmitter molecules released by the terminal itself are termed AUTORECEPTORS.
Postsynaptic potentials generated from a release of neurotransmitters from a presynaptic nerve terminal in the absence of an ACTION POTENTIAL. They may be m.e.p.p.s (miniature EXCITATORY POSTSYNAPTIC POTENTIALS) or m.i.p.p.s (miniature INHIBITORY POSTSYNAPTIC POTENTIALS).
A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional repressors.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.

Ringo, Doty, Demeter and Simard, Cerebral Cortex 1994;4:331-343: a proof of the need for the spatial clustering of interneuronal connections to enhance cortical computation. (1/3683)

It has been argued that an important principle driving the organization of the cerebral cortex towards local processing has been the need to decrease time lost to interneuronal conduction delay. In this paper, I show for a simplified model of the cerebral cortex, using analytical means, that if interneuronal conduction time increases proportional to interneuronal distance, then the only way to increase the numbers of synaptic events occurring in a fixed finite time period is to spatially cluster interneuronal connections.  (+info)

Developmental synaptic changes increase the range of integrative capabilities of an identified excitatory neocortical connection. (2/3683)

Excitatory synaptic transmission between pyramidal cells and fast-spiking (FS) interneurons of layer V of the motor cortex was investigated in acute slices by using paired recordings at 30 degrees C combined with morphological analysis. The presynaptic and postsynaptic properties at these identified central synapses were compared between 3- and 5-week-old rats. At these two postnatal developmental stages, unitary EPSCs were mediated by the activation of AMPA receptors with fast kinetics at a holding potential of -72 mV. The amplitude distribution analysis of the EPSCs indicates that, at both stages, pyramidal-FS connections consisted of multiple functional release sites. The apparent quantal size obtained by decreasing the external calcium ([Ca2+]e) varied from 11 to 29 pA near resting membrane potential. In young rats, pairs of presynaptic action potentials elicited unitary synaptic responses that displayed paired-pulse depression at all tested frequencies. In older animals, inputs from different pyramidal cells onto the same FS interneuron had different paired-pulse response characteristics and, at most of these connections, a switch from depression to facilitation occurred when decreasing the rate of presynaptic stimulation. The balance between facilitation and depression endows pyramidal-FS connections from 5-week-old animals with wide integrative capabilities and confers unique functional properties to each synapse.  (+info)

Activity-dependent metaplasticity of inhibitory and excitatory synaptic transmission in the lamprey spinal cord locomotor network. (3/3683)

Paired intracellular recordings have been used to examine the activity-dependent plasticity and neuromodulator-induced metaplasticity of synaptic inputs from identified inhibitory and excitatory interneurons in the lamprey spinal cord. Trains of spikes at 5-20 Hz were used to mimic the frequency of spiking that occurs in network interneurons during NMDA or brainstem-evoked locomotor activity. Inputs from inhibitory and excitatory interneurons exhibited similar activity-dependent changes, with synaptic depression developing during the spike train. The level of depression reached was greater with lower stimulation frequencies. Significant activity-dependent depression of inputs from excitatory interneurons and inhibitory crossed caudal interneurons, which are central elements in the patterning of network activity, usually developed between the fifth and tenth spikes in the train. Because these interneurons typically fire bursts of up to five spikes during locomotor activity, this activity-dependent plasticity will presumably not contribute to the patterning of network activity. However, in the presence of the neuromodulators substance P and 5-HT, significant activity-dependent metaplasticity of these inputs developed over the first five spikes in the train. Substance P induced significant activity-dependent depression of inhibitory but potentiation of excitatory interneuron inputs, whereas 5-HT induced significant activity-dependent potentiation of both inhibitory and excitatory interneuron inputs. Because these metaplastic effects are consistent with the substance P and 5-HT-induced modulation of the network output, activity-dependent metaplasticity could be a potential mechanism underlying the coordination and modulation of rhythmic network activity.  (+info)

Somatic recording of GABAergic autoreceptor current in cerebellar stellate and basket cells. (4/3683)

Patch-clamp recordings were performed from stellate and basket cells in rat cerebellar slices. Under somatic voltage clamp, short depolarizing pulses were applied to elicit action potentials in the axon. After the action potential, a bicuculline- and Cd2+-sensitive current transient was observed. A similar response was obtained when eliciting axonal firing by extracellular stimulation. With an isotonic internal Cl- solution, the peak amplitude of this current varied linearly with the holding potential, yielding an extrapolated reversal potential of -20 to 0 mV. Unlike synaptic or autaptic GABAergic currents obtained in the same preparation, the current transient had a slow rise-time and a low variability between trials. This current was blocked when 10 mM BAPTA was included in the recording solution. In some experiments, the current transient elicited axonal action potentials. The current transient was reliably observed in animals aged 12-15 d, with a mean amplitude of 82 pA at -70 mV, but was small and rare in the age group 29-49 d. Numerical simulations could account for all properties of the current transient by assuming that an action potential activates a distributed GABAergic conductance in the axon. The actual conductance is probably restricted to release sites, with an estimated mean presynaptic current response of 10 pA per site (-70 mV, age 12-15 d). We conclude that in developing rats, stellate and basket cell axons have a high density of GABAergic autoreceptors and that a sizable fraction of the corresponding current can be measured from the soma.  (+info)

Neural mapping of direction and frequency in the cricket cercal sensory system. (5/3683)

Primary mechanosensory receptors and interneurons in the cricket cercal sensory system are sensitive to the direction and frequency of air current stimuli. Receptors innervating long mechanoreceptor hairs (>1000 microm) are most sensitive to low-frequency air currents (<150 Hz); receptors innervating medium-length hairs (900-500 microm) are most sensitive to higher frequency ranges (150-400 Hz). Previous studies demonstrated that the projection pattern of the synaptic arborizations of long hair receptor afferents form a continuous map of air current direction within the terminal abdominal ganglion (). We demonstrate here that the projection pattern of the medium-length hair afferents also forms a continuous map of stimulus direction. However, the afferents from the long and medium-length hair afferents show very little spatial segregation with respect to their frequency sensitivity. The possible functional significance of this small degree of spatial segregation was investigated, by calculating the relative overlap between the long and medium-length hair afferents with the dendrites of two interneurons that are known to have different frequency sensitivities. Both interneurons were shown to have nearly equal anatomical overlap with long and medium hair afferents. Thus, the differential overlap of these interneurons with the two different classes of afferents was not adequate to explain the observed frequency selectivity of the interneurons. Other mechanisms such as selective connectivity between subsets of afferents and interneurons and/or differences in interneuron biophysical properties must play a role in establishing the frequency selectivities of these interneurons.  (+info)

Neural changes after operant conditioning of the aerial respiratory behavior in Lymnaea stagnalis. (6/3683)

In this study, we demonstrate neural changes that occurred during operant conditioning of the aerial respiratory behavior of Lymnaea stagnalis. Aerial respiration in Lymnaea occurs at the water interface and is achieved by opening and closing movements of its respiratory orifice, the pneumostome. This behavior is controlled by a central pattern generator (CPG), the neurons of which, as well as the motoneurons innervating the pneumostome, have previously been identified and their synaptic connections well characterized. The respiratory behavior was operantly conditioned by applying a mechanical stimulus to the open pneumostome whenever the animal attempted to breathe. This negative reinforcement to the open pneumostome resulted in its immediate closure and a significant reduction in the overall respiratory activity. Electrophysiological recordings from the isolated CNSs after operant conditioning showed that the spontaneous patterned respiratory activity of the CPG neurons was significantly reduced. This included reduced spontaneous activity of the CPG interneuron involved in pneumostome opening (input 3 interneuron) and a reduced frequency of spontaneous tonic activity of the CPG interneuron [right pedal dorsal 1 (RPeD1)]. The ability to trigger the patterned respiratory activity by electrical stimulation of RPeD1 was also significantly reduced after operant conditioning. This study therefore demonstrates significant changes within a CPG that are associated with changes in a rhythmic homeostatic behavior after operant conditioning.  (+info)

GABAergic excitatory synapses and electrical coupling sustain prolonged discharges in the prey capture neural network of Clione limacina. (7/3683)

Afterdischarges represent a prominent characteristic of the neural network that controls prey capture reactions in the carnivorous mollusc Clione limacina. Their main functional implication is transformation of a brief sensory input from a prey into a lasting prey capture response. The present study, which focuses on the neuronal mechanisms of afterdischarges, demonstrates that a single pair of interneurons [cerebral A interneuron (Cr-Aint)] is responsible for afterdischarge generation in the network. Cr-Aint neurons are electrically coupled to all other neurons in the network and produce slow excitatory synaptic inputs to them. This excitatory transmission is found to be GABAergic, which is demonstrated by the use of GABA antagonists, uptake inhibitors, and double-labeling experiments showing that Cr-Aint neurons are GABA-immunoreactive. The Cr-Aint neurons organize three different pathways in the prey capture network, which provide positive feedback necessary for sustaining prolonged spike activity. The first pathway includes electrical coupling and slow chemical transmission from the Cr-Aint neurons to all other neurons in the network. The second feedback is based on excitatory reciprocal connections between contralateral interneurons. Recurrent excitation via the contralateral cell can sustain prolonged interneuron firing, which then drives the activity of all other cells in the network. The third positive feedback is represented by prominent afterdepolarizing potentials after individual spikes in the Cr-Aint neurons. Afterdepolarizations apparently represent recurrent GABAergic excitatory inputs. It is suggested here that these afterdepolarizing potentials are produced by GABAergic excitatory autapses.  (+info)

Actions of a pair of identified cerebral-buccal interneurons (CBI-8/9) in Aplysia that contain the peptide myomodulin. (8/3683)

A combination of biocytin back-fills of the cerebral-buccal connectives and immunocytochemistry of the cerebral ganglion demonstrated that of the 13 bilateral pairs of cerebral-buccal interneurons in the cerebral ganglion, a subpopulation of 3 are immunopositive for the peptide myomodulin. The present paper describes the properties of two of these cells, which we have termed CBI-8 and CBI-9. CBI-8 and CBI-9 were found to be dye coupled and electrically coupled. The cells have virtually identical properties, and consequently we consider them to be "twin" pairs and refer to them as CBI-8/9. CBI-8/9 were identified by electrophysiological criteria and then labeled with dye. Labeled cells were found to be immunopositive for myomodulin, and, using high pressure liquid chromatography, the cells were shown to contain authentic myomodulin. CBI-8/9 were found to receive synaptic input after mechanical stimulation of the tentacles. They also received excitatory input from C-PR, a neuron involved in neck lengthening, and received a slow inhibitory input from CC5, a cell involved in neck shortening, suggesting that CBI-8/9 may be active during forward movements of the head or buccal mass. Firing of CBI-8 or CBI-9 resulted in the activation of a relatively small number of buccal neurons as evidenced by extracellular recordings from buccal nerves. Firing also produced local movements of the buccal mass, in particular a strong contraction of the I7 muscle, which mediates radula opening. CBI-8/9 were found to produce a slow depolarization and rhythmic activity of B48, the motor neuron for the I7 muscle. The data provide continuing evidence that the small population of cerebral buccal interneurons is composed of neurons that are highly diverse in their functional roles. CBI-8/9 may function as a type of premotor neuron, or perhaps as a peptidergic modulatory neuron, the functions of which are dependent on the coactivity of other neurons.  (+info)

Some interneurons of the hippocampus exhibit NMDA receptor-independent long-term potentiation (LTP) that is induced by presynaptic glutamate release when the postsynaptic membrane potential is hyperpolarized. This anti-Hebbian form of LTP is prevented by postsynaptic depolarization or by blocking AMPA and kainate receptors. Although both AMPA and kainate receptors are expressed in hippocampal interneurons, their relative roles in anti-Hebbian LTP are not known. Because interneuron diversity potentially conceals simple rules underlying different forms of plasticity, we focus on glutamatergic synapses onto a subset of interneurons with dendrites in stratum oriens and a main ascending axon that projects to stratum lacunosum moleculare, the oriens-lacunosum moleculare (O-LM) cells. We show that anti-Hebbian LTP in O-LM interneurons has consistent induction and expression properties, and is prevented by selective inhibition of AMPA receptors. The majority of the ionotropic glutamatergic synaptic current in
TY - JOUR. T1 - Activation of interneurons at the stratum oriens/alveus border suppresses excitatory transmission to apical dendrites in the CA1 area of the mouse hippocampus. AU - Yanovsky, Y.. AU - Sergeeva, O. A.. AU - Freund, T.. AU - Haas, H. L.. PY - 1997/1/6. Y1 - 1997/1/6. N2 - The consequences of activation or inactivation of interneurons at the CA1 stratum oriens/alveus border for signal transmission at the apical dendritic region of pyramidal cells were investigated in slices from mice submerged in a perfusion chamber. A characteristic subpopulation of interneurons with a horizontal dendritic tree in this region, which sends a GABAergic projection to the apical dendrites of CA1 pyramidal cells is strongly excited by metabotropic glutamate receptor activation and receives GABAergic input from vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-containing interneurons. Pressure ejection of glutamate or the metabotropic agonist 1s,3r-aminocyclopentane dicarboxylic acid from micropipettes onto the stratum ...
Regional and cell-type specification during embryogenesis are often coupled to expression of TFs that are restricted to specific progenitor domains. Here, we found that Nkx2-1 restricts the expression of Coup-TF1/2 in the MGE to an arc that extended from a small rostrodorsal domain to a larger caudoventral domain (Fig. 1; Fig. S1B,D,H,K,L). The Coup-TF1/2+ MGE domain was complementary to an Otx2+ domain (Fig. S1B-E), where Otx2 represses Coup-TF1 MGE expression (Hoch et al., 2015a,b).. Our data support a model in which the Coup-TF1/2+ MGE domain is biased towards generating SST+ CINs (Fig. 2; Fig. S3A-C), as well as cholinergic and pallidal neurons (Fig. S4). These conclusions differ from other publications regarding the major location for the origin of SST+ interneurons, and provide evidence for a Coup-TF1/2-dependent activation of Sox6 expression that promotes SST+ interneuron development.. Multiple lines of evidence show that Coup-TF1/2 have key roles in promoting SST+ interneuron ...
Several different populations of interneurons in the murine cortex, including somatostatin (SST)- or parvalbumin (PV)-expressing cells, are born in the ventral ganglionic eminences during mid-gestation and then migrate tangentially to the cortex. SST is expressed by some interneuron progenitors in the cerebral cortex and in migrating populations in the ventrolateral cortex at birth. However, PV (also known as PVALB) is not expressed by interneurons until the second postnatal week after reaching the cortex, suggesting that molecular cues in the cerebral cortex might be involved in the differentiation process. BMP4 is expressed at high levels in the somatosensory cortex at the time when the PV(+) interneurons differentiate. Treatment of cortical cultures containing interneuron precursors is sufficient to generate PV(+) interneurons prematurely and inhibit SST differentiation. Furthermore, overexpression of BMP4 in vivo increases the number of interneurons expressing PV, with a reduction in the number of
The mechanism underlying a hypercholinergic state in Parkinsons disease (PD) remains uncertain. Here, we show that disruption of the K(v)1 channel-mediated function causes hyperexcitability of striatal cholinergic interneurons in a mouse model of PD. Specifically, our data reveal that Kv1 channels containing K(v)1.3 subunits contribute significantly to the orphan potassium current known as I-sAHP in striatal cholinergic interneurons. Typically, this Kv1 current provides negative feedback to depolarization that limits burst firing and slows the tonic activity of cholinergic interneurons. However, such inhibitory control of cholinergic interneuron excitability by K(v)1.3-mediated current is markedly diminished in the parkinsonian striatum, suggesting that targeting Kv1.3 subunits and their regulatory pathways may have therapeutic potential in PD therapy. These studies reveal unexpected roles of Kv1.3 subunit-containing channels in the regulation of firing patterns of striatal cholinergic ...
This review addresses the question of interrelations between spinal interneuronal networks. On the basis of electrophysiological, pharmacological, morphological and immunohistochemical analysis of interneurones mediating various reflex actions from muscle receptors and of reticulospinal neurones a considerable degree of interweaving between networks of these neurones has been established. The coupling has been found to occur at the level of several sites of these networks but the review focuses on two of these sites. The first is between dorsal horn interneurones with group II input and their target ipsilaterally and contralaterally projecting intermediate zone and commissural interneurones. The second is between commissural interneurones with input from reticulospinal neurones and their target interneurones. Several ways of both strengthening and weakening of coupling between various interneuronal networks are also briefly reviewed. ...
Mammalian interneurons are crucial for cortical function, and are formed by progenitors located in the ganglionic eminences. Mutations in exon junction complex (EJC) components are associated with a raft of human neurological disorders known to affect interneuron neurogenesis, but these links, as well as our general understanding of interneuron generation and survival, are still incompletely understood. Now, Debra Silver and colleagues analyse the role of Magoh, an EJC component, in murine interneuron development. Magoh is highly expressed in the ganglionic eminences during interneuron neurogenesis, and conditional Magoh depletion in interneuron progenitors (but not in post-mitotic migrating interneurons) reduces cortical interneuron number in a dose-dependent manner. Magoh-depleted progenitors divide less (with over one-third of progenitors failing to divide entirely) and die more. One-third of all progenitor daughter cells also undergo apoptosis, and there is a bias towards interneurons at the ...
Inhibitory interneurons are essential components of the neural circuits underlying various brain functions. In the neocortex, a large diversity of GABAergic interneurons have been identified based on their morphology, molecular markers, biophysical properties, and innervation pattern 1,2,3 . However, how the activity of each subtype of interneurons contributes to sensory processing remains unclear. Here we show that optogenetic activation of parvalbumin-positive (PV+) interneurons in mouse V1 sharpens neuronal feature selectivity and improves perceptual discrimination. Using multichannel recording with silicon probes 4,5 and channelrhodopsin 2 (ChR2)-mediated optical activation 6 , we found that elevated spiking of PV+ interneurons markedly sharpened orientation tuning and enhanced direction selectivity of nearby neurons. These effects were caused by the activation of inhibitory neurons rather than decreased spiking of excitatory neurons, since
Clearance of extracellular glutamate is essential for limiting the activity of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) at excitatory synapses; however, the relative contribution of transporters found in neuronal and glial membranes to this uptake is poorly understood. Hippocampalinterneurons located at the oriens-alveus border express mGluR1alpha, a metabotropic glutamate receptor that regulates excitability and synaptic plasticity. To determine which glutamate transporters are essential for removing glutamate at these excitatory synapses, we recorded mGluR1-mediated EPSCs from oriens-lacunosum moleculare (O-LM) interneurons in acute hippocampal slices. Stimulation in stratum oriens reliably elicited a slow mGluR1-mediated current in O-LM interneurons if they were briefly depolarized to allow Ca2+ entry before stimulation. Selective inhibition of GLT-1 [for glutamate transporter; EAAT2 (for excitatory amino acid transporter)] with dihydrokainate increased the amplitude of these responses ...
Oriens-lacunosum moleculare (OLM) cells are hippocampal inhibitory interneurons that have been implicated in regulation of information flow and synaptic plasticity in the CA1 circuit. Since anatomical evidence indicates that OLM cells express metabotopic cholinergic (mAChR) and glutamatergic (mGluR) receptors, such modulation of these cells may contribute to switching between functional modes of the hippocampus. Using a transgenic mouse line to identify the Chrna2-positive OLM cells, we investigated metabotropic neuromodulation of intrinsic properties of OLM cells. We found that both mAChR and mGluR activation increased the spontaneous action potential rate and caused the cells to exhibit long-lasting depolarizing plateau potentials following evoked spike trains. Both the mAChR- and mGluR-induced increased spontaneous firing rate and plateau potentials were dependent on intracellular calcium, and were eliminated by blocking Ca2+-dependent transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels. At ...
GABA is the key inhibitory neurotransmitter in the cortex but regulation of its synthesis during forebrain development is poorly understood. In the telencephalon, members of the distal-less (Dlx) homeobox gene family are expressed in, and regulate the...
Our analysis indicates that interneuron firing, in the entorhinal cortex, can trigger rebound firing of their targets, which are mostly other interneurons, in a brain state dependent manner. The entire inhibition-excitation sequence representing PIR typically occurred within 5 ms after the firing of the presynaptic interneuron. The inhibition lasted for 1-2 ms, which is the characteristic timescale of monosynaptic interactions in vivo (Fujisawa et al., 2008), followed by a rebound that lasted for 2-3 ms. Interestingly, studies performed in vitro report that hyperpolarization-induced rebound excitation occurs tens to hundreds of milliseconds after the beginning of the hyperpolarization (Harris-Warrick et al., 1995a,b; Bertrand and Cazalets, 1998). In contrast, our in vivo data suggest that PIR is a very fast event, commensurate with the timescales of other monosynaptic interactions observed in vivo.. The evidence for the PIR from pairwise cross-correlograms is indirect, however, reliable (Moore ...
The cellular diversity of interneurons in the neocortex is thought to reflect subtype-specific roles of cortical inhibition. Here we ask whether perturbations to two subtypes-parvalbumin-positive (PV+) and somatostatin-positive (SST+) interneurons-can be compensated for with respect to their contributions to cortical development. We use a genetic cell fate switch to delete both PV+ and SST+ interneurons selectively in cortical layers 2-4 without numerically changing the total interneuron population. This manipulation is compensated for at the level of synaptic currents and receptive fields (RFs) in the somatosensory cortex. By contrast, we identify a deficit in inhibitory synchronization in vitro and a large reduction in cortical gamma oscillations in vivo. This reveals that, while the roles of inhibition in establishing cortical inhibitory/excitatory balance and RFs can be subserved by multiple interneuron subtypes, gamma oscillations depend on cellular properties that cannot be compensated ...
The long-term goal of our research program is to understand the neural circuit mechanisms underlying motivated behavior. The exquisite neural architecture of mi...
To determine whether autaptic inhibition plays a functional role in the adult hippocampus, the action potential afterhyperpolarisations (spike AHPs) of CA1 interneurones were investigated in 25 basket, three bistratified and eight axo-axonic cells. The spike AHPs showed two minima in all regular-spiking (5), burst-firing (3) and in many fast-spiking cells (17:28). The fast component had a time-to-peak (TTP) of 1.2 ± 0.5 ms, the slower TTP was very variable (range of 3.3-103 ms). The AHP width at half-amplitude (HW) was 12.5 ± 5.7 ms in fast-spiking, 29.3 ± 18 ms in regular-spiking and 99.7 ± 42 ms in burst-firing cells. Axo-axonic cells never establish autapses, and the fast-spiking variety showed narrow (HW: 3.9 ± 0.7 ms) spike AHPs with only one AHP minimum (TTP: 0.9 ± 0.1 ms). When challenged with GABAA receptor modulators, spike AHPs in basket and bistratified cells were enhanced by zolpidem (HW by 18.4 ± 6.2 % in 10:15 cells tested), diazepam (45.2 ± 0.5 %, 6:7), etomidate (43.9 ± ...
In vivo studies indicate that coherent firing among cortical neurons may be related to sensory stimulation and behavioral states (1-4). However, how postsynaptic cells read out the pattern of activity of their presynaptic axons and how spike synchrony among input axons may be detected by the cortical network remain poorly understood (3, 5).. Studies in intact animals as well as theoretical work suggest that inhibitory interneurons may coordinate neuronal activity in cortical networks (6-11). Fast-spiking (FS) cells are a prominent subtype of GABA-releasing (GABAergic) interneurons (12), exerting powerful inhibitory control of both excitatory and inhibitory cortical cells (13-17). The properties of excitatory synapses at FS cells (13, 18), as well as their voltage-dependent conductances (19-21), suggest that these cells may be particularly sensitive to the timing of their inputs, as has been shown for hippocampal interneurons (22,23). Moreover, cortical networks of FS cells are interconnected by ...
Exposure to addictive and non-addictive drugs during adolescence increases susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders. GABA interneurons mediate maturation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus during adolescence. Recent findings indicate that these drugs disrupt GABA interneurons in the maturing PFC, but effects on hippocampus are unknown. For my thesis, I investigated three such drugs for effects on hippocampal GABA interneurons in adolescent rats. I found developmental disregulation of GABA interneurons to cocaine and a glutamate agonist, but not to a marijuana-mimic. This research was performed in Dr. Kuei Yuan Tsengs Laboratory at Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science.
Primates and rodents, which descended from a common ancestor around 90 million years ago1, exhibit profound differences in behaviour and cognitive capacity; the cellular basis for these differences is unknown. Here we use single-nucleus RNA sequencing to profile RNA expression in 188,776 individual interneurons across homologous brain regions from three primates (human, macaque and marmoset), a rodent (mouse) and a weasel (ferret). Homologous interneuron types-which were readily identified by their RNA-expression patterns-varied in abundance and RNA expression among ferrets, mice and primates, but varied less among primates. Only a modest fraction of the genes identified as markers of specific interneuron subtypes in any one species had this property in another species. In the primate neocortex, dozens of genes showed spatial expression gradients among interneurons of the same type, which suggests that regional variation in cortical contexts shapes the RNA expression patterns of adult neocortical
Molecular definitions of neural cell types largely depend on the expression of RNAs or proteins as assessed by in situ hybridization, RNA array and sequencing,...
Video articles in JoVE about pyramidal cells include Multi-photon Intracellular Sodium Imaging Combined with UV-mediated Focal Uncaging of Glutamate in CA1 Pyramidal Neurons, Whole Cell Recording from an Organotypic Slice Preparation of Neocortex, Inhibitory Synapse Formation in a Co-culture Model Incorporating GABAergic Medium Spiny Neurons and HEK293 Cells Stably Expressing GABAA Receptors, Real-time Electrophysiology: Using Closed-loop Protocols to Probe Neuronal Dynamics and Beyond, Tuning in the Hippocampal Theta Band In Vitro: Methodologies for Recording from the Isolated Rodent Septohippocampal Circuit, Ex Utero Electroporation and Organotypic Slice Cultures of Embryonic Mouse Brains for Live-Imaging of Migrating GABAergic Interneurons, Paired Whole Cell Recordings in Organotypic Hippocampal Slices, Investigating Long-term Synaptic Plasticity in Interlamellar Hippocampus CA1 by Electrophysiological Field Recording, Homochronic Transplantation of Interneuron Precursors into
The diversity of premotor interneurons in the mammalian spinal cord is generated from a few phylogenetically conserved embryonic classes of interneurons (V0, V1, V2, V3). Their mechanisms of diversification remain unresolved, although these are clearly important to understand motor circuit assembly in the spinal cord. Some Ia inhibitory interneurons (IaINs) and all Renshaw cells (RCs) derive from embryonic V1 interneurons; however, in adult they display distinct functional properties and synaptic inputs, for example proprioceptive inputs preferentially target IaINs, while motor axons target RCs. Previously, we found that both inputs converge on RCs in neonates, raising the possibility that proprioceptive (VGLUT1-positive) and motor axon synapses (VAChT-positive) initially target several different V1 interneurons populations and then become selected or deselected postnatally. Alternatively, specific inputs might precisely connect only with predefined groups of V1 interneurons. To test these hypotheses we
Nerve cells are organized into complex networks that comprise the building blocks of our nervous system. Neurons communicate by transmitting messenger molecules released from synaptic vesicles. Alterations in neuronal circuitry and synaptic signaling contribute to a wide range of neurological conditions, often with consequences for movement. Intrinsic neuronal networks in the spinal cord serve to coordinate vital rhythmic motor functions. In spite of extensive efforts to address the organization of these neural circuits, much remains to be revealed regarding the identity and function of specific interneuron cell types and how neuromodulation tune network activity. In this thesis, two novel genes initially identified as markers for spinal neuronal populations were investigated: Slc10a4 and Dmrt3.. The orphan transporter SLC10A4 was found to be expressed on synaptic vesicles of the cholinergic system, including motor neurons, as well as in the monoaminergic system, including dopaminergic, ...
Neuronal firing sequences that occur during behavioral tasks are precisely reactivated in the neocortex and the hippocampus during rest and sleep. These precise firing sequences are likely to reflect latent memory traces, and their reactivation is believed to be essential for memory consolidation an …
Renshaw cell properties have been studied extensively for over 50 years, making them a uniquely well-defined class of spinal interneuron. Recent work has revealed novel ways to identify Renshaw cells in situ and this in turn has promoted a range of studies that have determined their ontogeny and organization of synaptic inputs in unprecedented detail. In this review we illustrate how mature Renshaw cell properties and connectivity arise through a combination of activity-dependent and genetically specified mechanisms. These new insights should aid the development of experimental strategies to manipulate Renshaw cells in spinal circuits and clarify their role in modulating motor output.
This is a model network of prefrontal cortical microcircuit based primarily on rodent data. It includes 16 pyramidal model neurons, 2 fast spiking interneuron models, 1 regular spiking interneuron model and 1 irregular spiking interneuron model. The goal of the paper was to use this model network to determine the role of specific interneuron subtypes in persistent activity ...
A detailed electrophysiological analysis reveals a new principle for how commissural excitatory interneurons are organised in an adult vertebrate.
GABA Regulates the Multidirectional Tangential Migration of GABAergic Interneurons in Living Neonatal Mice. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
COMMENT Sodium current for the soma References: 1. Martina, M., Vida, I., and Jonas, P. Distal initiation and active propagation of action potentials in interneuron dendrites, Science, 287:295-300, 2000. soma axon-lacking dend axon-bearing dend Na+ gmax 107 ps/um2 117 ps/um2 107 ps/um2 slope 10.9 mV/e 11.2 mV/e 11.2 mV/e V1/2 -37.8 mV -45.6 mV -45.6 mV 2. Marina, M. and Jonas, P. Functional differences in Na+ channel gating between fast-spiking interneurons and principal neurones of rat hippocampus, J. Physiol., 505.3:593-603, 1997. *Note* The interneurons here are basket cells from the dentate gyrus. Na+ Activation V1/2 -25.1 mV slope 11.5 Activation t (-20 mV) 0.16 ms Deactivation t (-40 mV) 0.13 ms Inactivation V1/2 -58.3 mV slope 6.7 onset of inactivation t (-20 mV) 1.34 ms onset of inactivation t (-55 mV) 18.6 ms recovery from inactivation t 2.0 ms (30 ms conditioning pulse) recovery from inactivation t 2.7 ms (300 ms conditioning pulse) ENDCOMMENT UNITS { (mA) = (milliamp) (mV) = ...
Our immunohistochemical studies suggest that similar populations of local and pcs interneurons may also be present in the rat BLA. GAD immunostaining revealed sparsely distributed local interneurons throughout the BLA as well as dense clusters localized to the lateral and medial borders of this brain region. It is noteworthy that PV staining was observed among the local interneurons but was not detected in the GAD-positive cells located within the dense clusters along the border of the BLA. Moreover, in the presence of glutamate receptor antagonists, GABAA IPSCs onto BLA pyramidal neurons could be evoked by stimulating electrodes placed distally, within the external capsule or locally, proximal to the cell being recorded. In addition, using a dual stimulation protocol, we demonstrated that a locally evoked conditioning IPSC significantly depressed the amplitude of a subsequent local test IPSC, evoked 250 ms later. In contrast, a distal conditioning IPSC, evoked by stimulating within the external ...
What are interneurons and how do they affect our brains ability to function, to change, and to learn? Research scientist Dr. Scott Owen explains the latest findings. The post #222: What are
On January 15, FSIS announced the availability of the agencys draft Establishment-Specific Data Release Strategic Plan (the draft plan) for sharing data on federally inspected meat and poultry establishments with the public. FSIS developed the plan in response to memoranda released by President Obama and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) that called for ...
2021, Miuli A, Sepede G, Stigliano G, Mosca A, Di Carlo F, dAndrea G, Lalli A, Spano MC, Pettorruso M, Martinotti G, di Giannantonio M ...
J:60594 Lee KJ, Dietrich P, Jessell TM, Genetic ablation reveals that the roof plate is essential for dorsal interneuron specification [see comments]. Nature. 2000 Feb 17;403(6771):734-40 ...
Article: Submillisecond firing synchrony between different subtypes of cortical interneurons connected chemically but not electrically. ...
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In the hippocampal CA1 area, a relatively homogenous population of pyramidal cells is accompanied by a diversity of GABAergic interneurons. Previously, we found that parvalbumin-expressing basket, axo-axonic, bistratified, and oriens-lacunosum moleculare cells, innervating different domains of pyramidal cells, have distinct firing patterns during network oscillations in vivo. A second family of interneurons, expressing cholecystokinin but not parvalbumin, is known to target the same domains of pyramidal cells as do the parvalbumin cells. To test the temporal activity of these independent and parallel GABAergic inputs, we recorded the precise spike timing of identified cholecystokinin interneurons during hippocampal network oscillations in anesthetized rats and determined their molecular expression profiles and synaptic targets. The cells were cannabinoid receptor type 1 immunopositive. Contrary to the stereotyped firing of parvalbumin interneurons, cholecystokinin-expressing basket and dendrite
To date, unequivocal neuroanatomical features have been demonstrated neither for sporadic nor for familial schizophrenia. Here, we investigated the neuroanatomical changes in a transgenic rat model for a subset of sporadic chronic mental illness (CMI), which modestly overexpresses human full-length, non-mutant Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), and for which aberrant dopamine homeostasis consistent with some schizophrenia phenotypes has previously been reported. Neuroanatomical analysis revealed a reduced density of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and reduced dopaminergic fibres in the striatum. Parvalbumin-positive interneuron occurrence in the somatosensory cortex was shifted from layers II/III to V/VI, and the number of calbindin-positive interneurons was slightly decreased. Reduced corpus callosum thickness confirmed trend-level observations from in vivo MRI and voxel-wise tensor based morphometry. These neuroanatomical changes help explain functional phenotypes of this ...
GABAergic internereurons are crucial components of the neocortical network, and the functional characterization of the neocortex has been greatly hindered by the lack of consensus regarding the way they should be classified. Interneurons differentiate from an electrophysiological, and a morphological point of view, as well as by the expression of molecular markers, and it remains debated if the combination of these features delineates separate classes, or if it defines a phenotypical continuum. During my PhD, I proposed myself to study the diversity of neocortical interneurons, while taking all these criterions into account. Patch-clamp recordings coupled to single-cell RT-PCR have been performed in mouse, on a sample of more than 300 neocortical interneurons, and the arborization of nearly 200 of them has been reconstructed in 3 dimensions. The electrophysiological, morphological and molecular phenotypes of sampled neurons have been quantified through a set of 56 parameters. Using this sample, we first
Perisomatic inhibition provided by a subgroup of GABAergic interneurons plays a critical role in timing the output of pyramidal cells. To test their contribution at the network and the behavioral level, we generated genetically modified mice in which the excitatory drive was selectively reduced either by the knockout of the GluR-D or by conditional ablation of the GluR-A subunit in parvalbumin-positive cells. Comparable cell type-specific reductions of AMPA-mediated currents were obtained. Kainate-induced gamma oscillations exhibited reduced power in hippocampal slices from GluR-D-/- and GluR-A(PVCre-/-) mice. Experimental and modeling data indicated that this alteration could be accounted for by imprecise spike timing of fast-spiking cells (FS) caused by smaller interneuronal EPSPs. GluR-D-/- and GluR-A(PVCre-/-) mice exhibited similar impairments in hippocampus-dependent tasks. These findings directly show the effects of insufficient recruitment of fast-spiking cells at the network and behavioral
Perisomatic inhibition provided by a subgroup of GABAergic interneurons plays a critical role in timing the output of pyramidal cells. To test their contribution at the network and the behavioral level, we generated genetically modified mice in which the excitatory drive was selectively reduced either by the knockout of the GluR-D or by conditional ablation of the GluR-A subunit in parvalbumin-positive cells. Comparable cell type-specific reductions of AMPA-mediated currents were obtained. Kainate-induced gamma oscillations exhibited reduced power in hippocampal slices from GluR-D-/- and GluR-A(PVCre-/-) mice. Experimental and modeling data indicated that this alteration could be accounted for by imprecise spike timing of fast-spiking cells (FS) caused by smaller interneuronal EPSPs. GluR-D-/- and GluR-A(PVCre-/-) mice exhibited similar impairments in hippocampus-dependent tasks. These findings directly show the effects of insufficient recruitment of fast-spiking cells at the network and behavioral
Difference between revisions of Parvalbumin-expressing interneurons coordinate hippocampal network dynamics required for memory consolidation ...
Neocortical GABAergic interneuron migration and thalamo-cortical axon (TCA) pathfinding follow similar trajectories and timing, suggesting they may be interdependent. The mechanisms that regulate the radial dispersion of neocortical interneurons are incompletely understood. In this new study we report that disruption of TCA innervation, or TCA-derived glutamate, affected the laminar distribution of GABAergic interneurons in mouse neocortex, resulting in abnormal accumulation in deep layers of interneurons that failed to switch from tangential to radial orientation. Expression of the KCC2 cotransporter was elevated in interneurons of denervated cortex, and KCC2 deletion restored normal interneuron lamination in the absence of TCAs. Disruption of interneuron NMDA receptors or pharmacological inhibition of calpain also led to increased KCC2 expression and defective radial dispersion of interneurons. Thus, although TCAs are not required to guide the tangential migration of GABAergic interneurons, ...
Exposure to propofol (30g or 60 mg/kg) on P7 produced significant c-Fos expression in the deep layers of the piriform cortex on P8. Double immunofluorescence of c-Fos with interneuron markers in the piriform cortex revealed that c-Fos was specifically induced in calbindin (CB)-positive interneurons. Repeated propofol exposure from P7 to P9 induced behavioral deficits in adult mice, such as olfactory function deficit in a buried food test, decreased sociability in a three-chambered choice task, and impaired recognitive ability of learning and memory in novel object recognition tests. However, locomotor activity in the open-field test was not generally affected. Propofol treatment also significantly decreased the number of CB-positive interneurons in the piriform cortex of mice on P21 and adulthood.. ...
In this study, we classified oriens-alveus interneurons into four subtypes. This classification is based on the size of the ACPD-induced inward current and the action potential firing pattern. Type I interneurons are located at the oriens-alveus border and have large, horizontally located cell bodies. Their dendritic trees run horizontally, and their axons run vertically toward stratum lacunosum-moleculare (Fig. 2 A). These interneurons contain somatostatin (Fig. 2 B). Therefore, these interneurons appear identical to the horizontal O-LM cells (Freund and Buzsáki, 1996; Katona et al., 1999). Type III interneurons have vertically oriented dendritic trees, and their axons terminate exlusively in stratum pyramidale (Fig. 2 A). Together with the characteristic high-frequency spiking pattern (Fig.1 C) and the immunoreactivity for parvalbumin (Fig.2 C), these interneurons are putative basket or chandelier cells (Freund and Buzsáki, 1996). Type II and type IV interneurons represent a heterogeneous ...
To investigate the electrophysiological properties, synaptic connections, and anatomy of individual parvalbumin-immunoreactive (PV-IR) and cholecystokinin-immunoreactive (CCK-IR) interneurones in CA1, dual intracellular recordings using biocytin-filled microelectrodes in slices of adult rat hippocampus were combined with fluorescence labelling of PV- and CCK-containing cells. Of 36 PV-IR cells, 29 were basket cells, with most of their axonal arbours in the stratum pyramidale (SP). Six were bistratified cells with axons ramifying throughout stratum oriens (SO) and stratum radiatum (SR). One was a putative axo-axonic cell with an axonal arbour confined to half of the SP and a narrow adjacent region of the SO. Of 27 CCK-IR neurones, 13 were basket cells, with most of their axonal arbours in the SP, and included basket cells with somata in the SP (6), SO (3), and SR (2) and at the border between the stratum lacunosum-moleculare (SLM) and the SR (2). In addition, several dendrite-targeting cell ...
β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation is described as a hallmark of Alzheimers disease (AD). Aβ perturbs a number of synaptic components including nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing α7 subunits (α7-nAChRs), which are abundantly expressed in the hippocampus and found on GABAergic interneurons. We have previously demonstrated the existence of a novel, heteromeric α7β2-nAChR in basal forebrain cholinergic neurons that exhibits high sensitivity to acute Aβ exposure. To extend our previous work, we evaluated the expression and pharmacology of α7β2-nAChRs in hippocampal interneurons and their sensitivity to Aβ. GABAergic interneurons in the CA1 subregion of the hippocampus expressed functional α7β2-nAChRs, which were characterized by relatively slow whole-cell current kinetics, pharmacological sensitivity to dihydro-β-erythroidine (DHβE), a nAChR β2* subunit selective blocker, and α7 and β2 subunit interaction using immunoprecipitation assay. In addition, α7β2-nAChRs were sensitive to 1
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Regionalized loss of parvalbumin interneurons in the cerebral cortex of mice with deficits in GFRα1 signaling. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Chandelier (or axo-axonic) cells are one of the most distinctive types of GABAergic interneurons in the cortex. Although they have traditionally been considered inhibitory neurons, data from rat and human neocortical preparations suggest that chandelier cells have a depolarizing effect on pyramidal neurons at resting membrane potential, and could even activate synaptic chains of neurons. At the same time, recent results from rat hippocampal chandeliers indicate a predominantly inhibitory effect on their postsynaptic targets. To better understand the function of chandelier neurons, we generated Nkx2.1Cre MADM mice, a strain of genetically engineered animals that, by expressing GFP in a subset of neocortical interneurons, enable the identification and targeting of chandelier cells in living brain slices. Using these mice, we characterized the basic electrophysiological properties of a homogeneous population of chandelier neurons from upper layers of somatosensory cortical slices. These chandelier cells
TY - JOUR. T1 - Electrophysiological analysis of GABAergic local circuit neurons in the central nervous system.. AU - Alger, B. E.. AU - Jahr, C. E.. AU - Nicoll, R. A.. PY - 1981/1/1. Y1 - 1981/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0019399076&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0019399076&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 7457236. AN - SCOPUS:0019399076. VL - 26. SP - 77. EP - 91. JO - Advances in biochemical psychopharmacology. JF - Advances in biochemical psychopharmacology. SN - 0065-2229. ER - ...
Epileptic seizures are characterized by periods of hypersynchronous, hyperexcitability within brain networks. Most seizures involve two stages: an initial tonic phase, followed by a longer clonic phase that is characterized by rhythmic bouts of synchronized network activity called afterdischarges (ADs). Here we investigate the cellular and network mechanisms underlying hippocampal ADs in an effort to understand how they maintain seizure activity. Using in vitro hippocampal slice models from rats and mice, we performed electrophysiological recordings from CA3 pyramidal neurons to monitor network activity and changes in GABAergic signaling during epileptiform activity. First, we show that the highest synchrony occurs during clonic ADs, consistent with the idea that specific circuit dynamics underlie this phase of the epileptiform activity. We then show that ADs require intact GABAergic synaptic transmission, which becomes excitatory as a result of a transient collapse in the chloride (Cl(-)) reversal
Fuchs EC, Zivkovic AR, Cunningham MO, Middleton S, Le Beau FEN, Bannerman DM, Rozov A, Whittington MA, Traub RD, Rawlins JNP, Monyer ...
The primary subdivisions of the forebrain, including the neocortex and the basal ganglia, have distinct molecular and cellular properties (1,2). Previous evidence suggests that these subdivisions develop from separate proliferative zones that do not intermix (3). Here we show that cell migration occurs between the primordia of the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortex. Our results suggest that many neocortical interneurons are generated by the proliferative zone of the basal ganglia.. Neocortical neurons include two types: the excitatory pyramidal neurons and the inhibitory (GABA-containing) interneurons. During development, neocortical neurons were thought to derive from the proliferative zone of the neocortical primordium. However, studies of neuronal migration in vitro indicate that cells migrate from the lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) (4), which is the primordium of the striatum (5), into the neocortex. Other evidence suggests that these cells might be interneurons. For example, clonally ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Receptor subtypes involved in the presynaptic and postsynaptic actions of dopamine on striatal interneurons. AU - Centonze, Diego. AU - Grande, Cristina. AU - Usiello, Alessandro. AU - Gubellini, Paolo. AU - Erbs, Eric. AU - Martín, Ana B.. AU - Pisani, Antonio. AU - Tognazzi, Nadia. AU - Bernardi, Giorgio. AU - Moratalla, Rosario. AU - Borrelli, Emiliana. AU - Calabresi, Paolo. PY - 2003/7/16. Y1 - 2003/7/16. N2 - By stimulating distinct receptor subtypes, dopamine (DA) exerts presynaptic and postsynaptic actions on both large aspiny (LA) cholinergic and fast-spiking (FS) parvalbumin-positive interneurons of the striatum. Lack of receptor- and isoform-specific pharmacological agents, however, has hampered the progress toward a detailed identification of the specific DA receptors involved in these actions. To overcome this issue, in the present study we used four different mutant mice in which the expression of specific DA receptors was ablated. In D1 receptor null mice, DIR-/-, ...
Appropriate growth and synaptic integration of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons are essential for functional neural circuits in the brain. Here, we demonstrate that disruption of primary cilia function following the selective loss of ciliary GTPase Arl13b in interneurons impairs interneuronal morphology and synaptic connectivity, leading to altered excitatory/inhibitory activity balance. The altered morphology and connectivity of cilia mutant interneurons and the functional deficits are rescued by either chemogenetic activation of ciliary G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling or the selective induction of Sstr3, a ciliary GPCR, in Arl13b-deficient cilia. Our results thus define a specific requirement for primary cilia-mediated GPCR signaling in interneuronal connectivity and inhibitory circuit formation ...
Unravelling how neurons are guided during vertebrate embryonic development has wide implications for understanding the assembly of the nervous system. During embryogenesis, migration of neuronal cell bodies and axons occurs simultaneously, but to what degree they influence each others development remains obscure. We show here that within the mouse embryonic spinal cord, commissural axons bisect, delimit or preconfigure ventral interneuron cell body position. Furthermore, genetic disruption of commissural axons results in abnormal ventral interneuron cell body positioning. These data suggest that commissural axonal fascicles instruct cell body position by acting either as border landmarks (axon-restricted migration), which to our knowledge has not been previously addressed, or acting as cellular guides. This study in the developing spinal cord highlights an important function for the interaction of cell bodies and axons, and provides a conceptual proof of principle that is likely to have ...
Perturbations in fast-spiking parvalbumin (PV) interneurons are hypothesized to be a major component of various neuropsychiatric disorders; however, the mechanisms regulating PV interneurons remain mostly unknown. Recently, cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) has been shown to function as a major regul …
This group studies various aspects of gabaergic synaptic transmission in cerebellar slices.. The cerebellar interneuron network Interneurons (stellate and basket cells) of the molecular layer are interconnected by chemical (gabaergic) synapses, as well as by electrical synapses. This network is functionally isolated in slice preparations because excitatory inputs are inactive. In the past we have been studying this network in detail, notably focusing on interactions of chemical synapses with the excitability of interneurons (Chavas and Marty, 2003). Current work focuses on the role of electrical synapses as well as the effects exerted by interneurons on Purkinje cells (Oldfield et al., 2010).. Autoreceptors and presynaptic receptors We have shown that, following the release of GABA from interneuron terminals, GABA binds to axonal receptors located on the releasing cell and elicits GABAA (bicuculline-sensitive) currents (Pouzat and Marty, 1999). These autoreceptor currents enhance the ...
Because there are no known perfectly exclusive markers of all amacrine cells, the absence of other cell type-specific genes was useful to establish that a profiled cell belonged to the amacrine cell class. Markers of rod (Rho and Gcap2), bipolar (Cabp5 and Og9x), Müller glial (ApoE and Aqp4), ganglion (Nefl and Pou4f2), and progenitor (Sfrp2 and Fgf15) cells were analyzed for expression in the single amacrine cells and, as a positive control, in previously profiled single cells representing each of these classes (Fig. 2A) (8, 10-12). Markers of horizontal (Lim1) and cone (Opmw) cells were also analyzed, although these cell types were not available for comparison. In the majority of the amacrine cells there was no expression of these markers. In rare cases, where one of these genes was found to be expressed at low levels, no other markers of that same cell class were observed. Notably, 2 amacrine cells expressed Fgf15, a marker of retinal progenitor cells. Kurose et al. have reported expression ...
article{3127253, abstract = {GABAergic interneurons mainly originate in the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) of the embryonic ventral telencephalon (VT) and migrate tangentially to the cortex, guided by membrane-bound and secreted factors. We found that Sip1 (Zfhx1b, Zeb2), a transcription factor enriched in migrating cortical interneurons, is required for their proper differentiation and correct guidance. The majority of Sip1 knockout interneurons fail to migrate to the neocortex and stall in the VT. RNA sequencing reveals that Sip1 knockout interneurons do not acquire a fully mature cortical interneuron identity and contain increased levels of the repulsive receptor Unc5b. Focal electroporation of Unc5b-encoding vectors in the MGE of wild-type brain slices disturbs migration to the neocortex, whereas reducing Unc5b levels in Sip1 knockout slices and brains rescues the migration defect. Our results reveal that Sip1, through tuning of Unc5b levels, is essential for cortical interneuron ...
Movement coordination between opposite body sides relies on neuronal circuits capable of controlling muscle contractions according to motor commands. Trunk and limb muscles engage in distinctly lateralized behaviors, yet how regulatory spinal circuitry differs is less clear. Here, we intersect virus technology and mouse genetics to unravel striking distribution differences of interneurons connected to functionally distinct motor neurons. We find that premotor interneurons conveying information to axial motor neurons reside in symmetrically balanced locations while mostly ipsilateral premotor interneurons synapse with limb-innervating motor neurons, especially those innervating more distal muscles. We show that observed distribution differences reflect specific premotor interneuron subpopulations defined by genetic and neurotransmitter identity. Synaptic input across the midline reaches axial motor neurons preferentially through commissural axon arborization, and to a lesser extent, through ...
Video articles in JoVE about gabaergic neurons include Vibrodissociation of Neurons from Rodent Brain Slices to Study Synaptic Transmission and Image Presynaptic Terminals, Reliable Identification of Living Dopaminergic Neurons in Midbrain Cultures Using RNA Sequencing and TH-promoter-driven eGFP Expression, The Neuroblast Assay: An Assay for the Generation and Enrichment of Neuronal Progenitor Cells from Differentiating Neural Stem Cell Progeny Using Flow Cytometry, Viral-mediated Labeling and Transplantation of Medial Ganglionic Eminence (MGE) Cells for In Vivo Studies, Inhibitory Synapse Formation in a Co-culture Model Incorporating GABAergic Medium Spiny Neurons and HEK293 Cells Stably Expressing GABAA Receptors, Intracortical Inhibition Within the Primary Motor Cortex Can Be Modulated by Changing the Focus of Attention, Protocol for the Differentiation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells into Mixed Cultures of Neurons and Glia for Neurotoxicity Testing, Tuning in the
Truncated Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (Disc 1) ablates signaling of parvalbumin-expressing interneurons in the prefrontal cortex and underlies depression-related behaviour in mice.
At a recent symposium, researcher Francis McMahon provided electrophysiological evidence that several different types of rapid-acting antidepressants-low-dose ketamine, scopolamine, and rapastinel (a partial agonist of the neurotransmitter NMDA)-act by decreasing the inhibitory effects of GABAergic interneurons on excitatory neurons called pyramidal cells, thus increasing synaptic firing.. Researcher Ronald Duman further dissected these effects, showing that ketamine and its active metabolite norketamine reduce the steady firing rate of GABA interneurons by blocking NMDA receptors, while the partial agonist rapastinel acts on the glutamate neurons directly, and both increase the effects of a type of glutamate receptors known as AMPA. These effects were demonstrated using a virus to selectively knock out GluN2B glutamate receptor subunits in either GABA interneurons or glutamate neurons.. Increasing AMPA activity increases synapse number and function and also increases network connectivity, which ...
Neural circuits, governed by a complex interplay between excitatory and inhibitory neurons, are the substrate for information processing, and the organization of synaptic connectivity in neural network is an important determinant of circuit function. Here, we analyzed the fine structure of connectivity in hippocampal CA1 excitatory and inhibitory neurons innervated by Schaffer collaterals (SCs) using mGRASP in male mice. Our previous study revealed spatially structured synaptic connectivity between CA3-CA1 pyramidal cells (PCs). Surprisingly, parvalbumin-positive interneurons (PVs) showed a significantly more random pattern spatial structure. Notably, application of Peters Rule for synapse prediction by random overlap between axons and dendrites enhanced structured connectivity in PCs, but, by contrast, made the connectivity pattern in PVs more random. In addition, PCs in a deep sublayer of striatum pyramidale appeared more highly structured than PCs in superficial layers, and little or no ...
For study of ventral neurons, we recorded from CaP and three ventral interneurons types, VeLD, KA and KA, because the axonal tracks of CaP-like cells are often similar to those of VeLDs, KAs and KAs (Figure 1). Moreover, previous work indicates that single ventral spinal cord precursor cells can give rise to a PMN as well as a VeLD or KA, demonstrating a shared lineage for two of these ventral interneurons[45-48]. Furthermore, Islet1 knock-down leads to the appearance of a novel population of ventral neurons with somas in PMN-like positions but positive for markers of GABAergic neurons, such VeLDs, KAs and KAs[13, 49].. We used the Tg(mnx1:gfp)ml2 line to record from CaP and VeLD in control embryos and CaP-like cells in E3 morphants (Figure 1; Additional file1). We included AlexaFluor 594 in the pipette solution to allow for dye filling of the recorded neuron and visualization of its morphology as an additional test of cell identification (for example, Figure 1C; see Methods). ...
A population of intersegmental interneurones with axons extending from the meso- to the metathoracic ganglion of the locust is described. They receive specific mechanosensory inputs from one mesothoracic leg. Their cell bodies are in group at the posterior of the mesothoracic ganglion, lying over the lateral base of each connective, and their primary neurites emerge in one of four bundles. Their mesothoracic branches are ipsilateral to the cell bodies and the leg from which they receive inputs. Each interneurone has two to six mesothoracic secondary neurites that divide and form a dense field of arborizations in specific regions of the neuropil so that each individual interneurone has a characteristic shape that is an elaboration of a basic and common plan. An interneurone excited by tibial campaniform sensilla and tarsal hair afferents branches in the intermediate neuropil and the ventral association center where the afferents from these receptors also project. An interneurone excited by proprioceptive
Rhythm generating neurons are thought to be ipsilaterally-projecting excitatory neurons in the thoracolumbar mammalian spinal cord. Recently, a subset of Shox2 interneurons (Shox2 non-V2a INs) was found to fulfill these criteria and make up a fraction of the rhythm-generating population. Here we use Hb9::Cre mice to genetically manipulate Hb9::Cre-derived excitatory interneurons (INs) in order to determine the role of these INs in rhythm generation. We demonstrate that this line captures a consistent population of spinal INs which is mixed with respect to neurotransmitter phenotype and progenitor domain, but does not overlap with the Shox2 non-V2a population. We also show that Hb9::Cre-derived INs include the comparatively small medial population of INs which continues to express Hb9 postnatally. When excitatory neurotransmission is selectively blocked by deleting Vglut2 from Hb9::Cre-derived INs, there is no difference in left-right and/or flexor-extensor phasing between these cords and ...
Since the discovery of interneurons that normally do not produce action potentials (nonspiking interneurons) (for reviews, see Roberts and Bush, 1981), the question of why such neurons should exist...
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DeFelipe, J., López-Cruz, P. L., Benavides-Piccione, R., Bielza, C., Larrañaga, P., Anderson, S., Burkhalter, A., Cauli, B., Fairén, A., Feldmeyer, D., Fishell, G., Fitzpatrick, D., Freund, T. F., González-Burgos, G., Hestrin, S., Hill, S., Hof, P. R., Huang, J., Jones, E. G., Kawaguchi, Y., Kisvárday, Z., Kubota, Y., Lewis, D. A., Marín, O., Markram, H., McBain, C. J., Meyer, H. S., Monyer, H., Nelson, S. B., Rockland, K., Rossier, J., Rubenstein, J. L. R., Rudy, B., Scanziani, M., Shepherd, G. M., Sherwood, C. C., Staiger, J. F., Tamás, G., Thomson, A., Wang, Y., Yuste, R., Ascoli, G. A. (March 2013) New insights into the classification and nomenclature of cortical GABAergic interneurons. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 14 (3). pp. 202-216. ISSN 1471003X (ISSN) Di Cristo, G., Chattopadhyaya, B., Kuhlman, S. J., Fu, Y., Belanger, M-C., Wu, C. Z., Rutishauser, U., Maffei, L., Huang, Z. J. (December 2007) Activity-dependent PSA expression regulates inhibitory maturation and onset of critical ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Long-term depression in hippocampal interneurons: Joint requirement for pre- and postsynaptic events. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Parvalbumin-expressing interneurons CCK-expressing interneurons VIP-expressing interneurons SOM-expressing interneurons ... interneurons Calretinin-expressing interneurons Nitric oxide synthase-expressing interneurons Interneurons in the CNS are ... Interneurons can be further broken down into two groups: local interneurons and relay interneurons.[need quotation to verify] ... However, excitatory interneurons using glutamate in the CNS also exist, as do interneurons releasing neuromodulators like ...
The spinal interneuron called Ia inhibitory interneuron is responsible for this inhibition of the antagonist muscle. The Ia ... Different classes of spinal interneurons are involved in the process of sensory-motor integration. Most interneurons are found ... Renshaw cells are among the first identified interneurons. This type of interneuron projects onto α-motoneurons, where it ... These afferent fibers project onto the spinal cord and synapse with the spinal interneurons called Ib inhibitory interneurons. ...
The medial giant interneuron (MG) is an interneuron in the abdominal nerve cord of crayfish. It is part of the system that ... The medial giant interneurons are less well studied than the lateral giant neurons, which trigger a similar escape behavior. ...
The lateral giant interneuron (LG) is an interneuron in the abdominal nerve cord of crayfish, lobsters, shrimp of the order ... Mauthner cell Medial giant interneuron Squid giant axon Edwards, Donald H.; Heitler, William J.; Krasne, Franklin B. (April ...
He was the first to demonstrate the role of GABAergic interneurons in network oscillations. Buzsáki's recognition of the ... Freund, T. F.; Buzsáki, G. (1996). "Interneurons of the hippocampus". Hippocampus. 6 (4): 347-470. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-1063( ...
Interneurons connect neurons to other neurons within the same region of the brain or spinal cord. When multiple neurons are ... Example: interneurons in neurostriatum. Phasic or bursting. Neurons that fire in bursts are called phasic. Fast spiking. Some ... Interneurons connect neurons within specific regions of the central nervous system. Afferent and efferent also refer generally ... Some examples are:[citation needed] Basket cells, interneurons that form a dense plexus of terminals around the soma of target ...
A full feedback loop must be established: Environmental Stimulus > Sensory Transduction > Interneuron Firing > Motor Neuron ...
"Interneurons of the neocortical inhibitory system". Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 5 (10): 793-807. doi:10.1038/nrn1519. (Metrics ...
There are also various groups of GABAergic interneurons and a single group of cholinergic interneurons. These few types are ... The cholinergic interneurons of the primate, are very different from those of non-primates. These are said to be tonically ... The dorsal striatum and the ventral striatum have different populations of the cholinergic interneurons showing a marked ... Levesque, J.C.; Parent, A. (2005). "GABAergic interneurons in human subthalamic nucleus". Mov. Disord. 20 (5): 574-584. doi: ...
Liu YQ, Yu F, Liu WH, He XH, Peng BW (December 2014). "Dysfunction of hippocampal interneurons in epilepsy". Neuroscience ...
They act as non-spiking interneurons. Interneuron Unipolar neuron Pseudounipolar neuron Bipolar neuron Multipolar neuron Al, ... "Physiological and morphological characterization of anaxonic non-spiking interneurons in the crayfish motor control system". ...
In humans there are also a small number (about 7.5%) of GABAergic interneurons that participate in the local circuitry; however ... Lévesque JC, Parent A (May 2005). "GABAergic interneurons in human subthalamic nucleus". Movement Disorders. 20 (5): 574-84. ...
It is released by cholinergic interneurons. In humans, non-human primates and rodents, these interneurons respond to salient ... "Spontaneous firing and evoked pauses in the tonically active cholinergic interneurons of the striatum". Neuroscience. 198: 27- ...
Serotonin serves to inhibit these interneurons. This was studied using transgenic mice in which nitric oxide interneurons were ... These interneurons produce nitric oxide and are modulated by neurotransmitters, specifically serotonin, released from the ... The striatum, a nucleus in the basal ganglia, contains low-threshold spike interneurons. The basal ganglia serve many functions ... When the hyperpolarization of the membrane in these interneurons is maintained at a certain level calcium conductance is ...
2000: Gupta, A.; Wang, Y.; Markram, H. (2000). "Organizing Principles for a Diversity of GABAergic Interneurons and Synapses in ... 2004: Markram, Henry; Toledo-Rodriguez, Maria; Wang, Yun; Gupta, Anirudh; Silberberg, Gilad; Wu, Caizhi (2004). "Interneurons ...
They are local, and one type, the fast-spiking parvalbumin-positive interneuron, has been suggested to play a key role in ... Actual numbers of parvalbumin interneurons have been found to be unchanged in these studies, however, except for a single study ... These reductions were found in only a subset of cortical interneurons. Furthermore, GAD67 mRNA was completely undetectable in a ... Cabungcal JH, Steullet P, Kraftsik R, Cuenod M, Do KQ (March 2013). "Early-life insults impair parvalbumin interneurons via ...
... is expressed in interneurons. NPY exerts most of its effects through Neuropeptide Y receptors, mainly Y1, Y2, Y4 ... Reduction or elimination of NPY released by interneurons decreased cell growth in this brain area. NPY affects neurogenesis by ...
TASK-3 channels are also expressed in the hippocampus; both on pyramidal cells and interneurons. It is thought that these ... "TASK-like conductances are present within hippocampal CA1 stratum oriens interneuron subpopulations". The Journal of ...
Pi HJ, Hangya B, Kvitsiani D, Sanders JI, Huang ZJ, Kepecs A (November 2013). "Cortical interneurons that specialize in ... parvalbumin-positive interneurons (PV cells). Prior to the onset of the critical period, modulation of this circuit is hampered ... of PNNs in critical period closure is further supported by the finding that fast-spiking parvalbulmin-positive interneurons are ...
Kv3.1 channels are important for the high-firing frequency of auditory and fast-spiking GABAergic interneurons, retinal ... cortical and hippocampal interneurons > inferior colliculi, cochlear and vestibular nuclei), and in retinal ganglion cells. ... conductance is necessary and kinetically optimized for high-frequency action potential generation in hippocampal interneurons ...
There are many types of GABAergic interneurons. The best known are parvalbumin expressing interneurons, also known as fast- ... Cholinergic interneurons release acetylcholine, which has a variety of important effects in the striatum. In humans, other ... The large aspiny cholinergic interneurons themselves are affected by dopamine through D5 dopamine receptors. Dopamine also ... Koós, Tibor; Tepper, James M. (May 1999). "Inhibitory control of neostriatal projection neurons by GABAergic interneurons". ...
Lipovsek, Marcela; Browne, Lorcan; Grubb, Matthew S. (December 2020). "Protocol for Patch-Seq of Small Interneurons". STAR ... "Functional specification of CCK+ interneurons by alternative isoforms of Kv4.3 auxiliary subunits". eLife. 9. doi:10.7554/eLife ...
The inhibitory interneuron fires spontaneously. The C fiber's synapse would inhibit the inhibitory interneuron, indirectly ... activation of the inhibitory interneurons varies: large-diameter fibers excite the interneuron, which ultimately reduces ... The same neurons may also form synapses with an inhibitory interneuron that also synapses on the projection neuron, reducing ... The Aβ fiber, on the other hand, forms an excitatory connection with the inhibitory interneuron, thus decreasing the projection ...
Some examples of non-GABAergic interneurons that the GEs guide are dopaminergic interneurons in the olfactory bulb, and ... One example of GABAergic interneurons that the GEs guide are parvalbumin-containing interneurons in the neocortex. ... CGE-derived cells include GABAergic interneurons, spiny interneurons, mossy cells, pyramidal and granule neurons, and even ... It seems that the majority of cells from the CGE were GABAergic interneurons, but depending on where they are located, CGE- ...
... s are interneurons in the retina. They are named from the Greek roots a- ("non"), makr- ("long") and in- ("fiber ... Amacrine cells and other retinal interneuron cells are less likely to be near neighbours of the same subtype than would occur ...
... interneurons, with AL interneurons divided into three types of interneurons based on staining. The initial differentiation ... "Interneurons" is a name used to indicate neurons that are neither sensory neurons nor motory in nature, but function as an ... Modulatory interneurons are neurons that are physically situated next to muscle fibers and innervate the nerve fibers which ... These interneurons are connected to one another via synapses and a minority, approximately 15% of the neurons, exhibit ...
Additionally, other types of GABAergic interneurons make connections with the spiny neurons. These include interneurons that ... The synaptic connections between a particular GABAergic interneuron, the parvalbumin expressing fast-spiking interneuron, and ... There are also interneurons in the striatum which regulate the excitability of the medium spiny neurons. ... Since the fast-spiking interneurons influence is located so closely to this critical gate between the dendrites and the soma, ...
The sensory neuron then synapses with interneurons that connect to motor neurons. Some of these send motor impulses to the ... Interneuron Nociceptor Reflex Solomon; Schmidt (1990). "13". In Carol, Field (ed.). Human Anatomy & physiology (2 ed.). ...
Habit formation is modulated by striatal cholinergic interneurons. Based on the physiopathology of anorexia nervosa, namely in ...
Crayfish Lateral giant interneuron Medial giant interneuron Command neuron Fixed action pattern Central pattern generator ... The aforementioned neuronal fibres consist of a pair of lateral giant interneurons and a pair of medial giant interneurons, and ... These interneurons play important roles in escape swimming. Their large diameter allows for rapid conduction since there is ... In the beta pathway, the signal can then pass a chemical synapse, the information is sent to a sensory interneuron (SI) of ...
Somatostatin interneurons in the prefrontal cortex control affective state discrimination in mice , The prefrontal cortex (PFC ... SOM+), but not of parvalbumin (PV+) interneurons or pyrami-. dal neurons, is a primary substrate for the expression of ... Somatostatin interneurons in the prefrontal cortex control affective state discrimination in mice. *January 2020 ... cell microendoscopic Ca2+ imaging, an increased synchronous activity of mPFC SOM+ interneurons, guiding inhibition of pyra- ...
By stimulating individual interneurons, this plasticity was observed at somatodendritic basket cell synapses, but not at distal ... Here the authors demonstrate that RP is both interneuron input-specific and GABAAreceptor subunit-specific and serves to ... the input and GABAA receptor subunit specificity of inhibitory synaptic plasticity by studying cerebellar interneuron-Purkinje ... Interneuron- and GABAA receptor-specific inhibitory synaptic plasticity in cerebellar Purkinje cells. *Qionger He1 nAff5, ...
Parvalbumin interneuron loss mediates repeated anesthesia-induced memory deficits in mice. Patricia Soriano Roque,1 Carolina ... Each parvalbumin interneuron controls the activity of multiple pyramidal excitatory neurons, thereby regulating neuronal ... Thus, loss of parvalbumin interneurons in postnatal mice following repeated general anesthesia critically contributes to memory ... anesthesia in postnatal mice induces preferential apoptosis and subsequent loss of parvalbumin-positive inhibitory interneurons ...
Neuroscience research articles are provided.. What is neuroscience? Neuroscience is the scientific study of nervous systems. Neuroscience can involve research from many branches of science including those involving neurology, brain science, neurobiology, psychology, computer science, artificial intelligence, statistics, prosthetics, neuroimaging, engineering, medicine, physics, mathematics, pharmacology, electrophysiology, biology, robotics and technology. ...
This approach revealed that interneurons converge upon Purkinje cells over a broad area and that at least seven interneurons ... Animals, Brain Mapping, Electrical Synapses, Interneurons, Mice, Optogenetics, Purkinje Cells, Rhodopsin. Abstract. We used ... The number of converging interneurons was reduced by treatment with gap junction blockers, revealing that electrical synapses ... We conclude that electrical synapse networks spatially coordinate interneurons in the cerebellum and may also serve this ...
Correction for Tiveron et al., Molecular Interaction between Projection Neuron Precursors and Invading Interneurons via Stromal ... Correction for Tiveron et al., Molecular Interaction between Projection Neuron Precursors and Invading Interneurons via Stromal ... Correction for Tiveron et al., Molecular Interaction between Projection Neuron Precursors and Invading Interneurons via Stromal ... Correction for Tiveron et al., Molecular Interaction between Projection Neuron Precursors and Invading Interneurons via Stromal ...
Interneuron Specific 3 Interneuron Model (Guet-McCreight et al, 2016). Interneuron Specific 3 Interneuron Model (Guet-McCreight ... Interneuron Specific 3 Interneuron Model (Guet-McCreight et al, 2016). Interneuron Specific 3 Interneuron Model (Guet-McCreight ... Hippocampus CA1 Interneuron Specific 3 (IS3) in vivo-like virtual NN simulations (Luo et al 2020). Hippocampus CA1 Interneuron ... Hippocampus CA1 Interneuron Specific 3 (IS3) in vivo-like virtual NN simulations (Luo et al 2020). Hippocampus CA1 Interneuron ...
Selective ablation of type 3 adenylyl cyclase in somatostatin-positive interneurons produces anxiety- and depression-like ... We found that selective disruption of AC3 in SST+ but not PV+ interneurons caused anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. ... Somatostatin-positive (SST+) and parvalbumin-positive (PV+) neurons are two major GABAergic interneurons and play roles in ... We hope to know whether AC3 in these two subtypes of interneurons contributes to the pathophysiological process of depression. ...
Science (2014) Interneurons from embryonic development to cell-based therapy. (PubMed: 24723614) ... Cell Stem Cell (2016) Transplanted Human Stem Cell-Derived Interneuron Precursors Mitigate Mouse Bladder Dysfunction and ... We propose to use cell grafts of inhibitory interneurons that we have derived from human stem cells in order to provide a novel ... We have also recently developed methods to create human inhibitory interneurons from embryonic stem cells. This proposal will ...
Interestingly INs can be under control of other interneurons, so-called disinhibitory interneurons. ... Place cells are excitatory cells and their activity is under control of inhibitory interneurons (INs). ... Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide-Expressing Interneurons in the Hippocampus Support Goal-Oriented Spatial Learning. ... The group focused on disinhibitory interneurons that express vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). ...
Glutamate cotransmission from a subset of cortical GABAergic interneurons can promote network hyperexcitability. ... The bottom right panel ill1ustrates a post-hoc recovered O-LM interneuron, the prototypical SOM+ interneuron, that was targeted ... C) Confirmation of VGluT3 signal in a small subset of hippocampal SOM+ interneurons. Upper panels illustrate that delivery of ... Distributions of labelled cells for each interneuron marker within CA1 from s.o. to s.l.m. (stratum lacunosum moleculare) are ...
Interneuron Pharmaceuticals Inc. and Quintiles Inc. and Other Business Contracts, Forms and Agreeements. Competitive ... Upon the termination of this Agreement, Quintiles shall deliver to Interneuron all data and materials provided by Interneuron ... Interneuron. Payment for such services shall be made to Quintiles within thirty (30) days of receipt by Interneuron of invoices ... Quintiles by Interneuron and to written recommendations and written instructions that have been delivered by Interneuron to ...
... inhibitory interneurons and cognition with relevance to schizophrenia ... BDNF-TrkB signaling and inhibitory interneurons are considered part of the pathophysiology but the dynamics between them are ... Three mouse models of altered BDNF-TrkB signaling were used to investigate the interaction with inhibitory interneurons upon ... This thesis supports that BDNF-TrkB signaling and inhibitory interneurons interact with sex to contribute to learning and ...
Thalamic interneuron multicompartment model (Zhu et al. 1999). Download zip file Help downloading and running models *Model ... 1 . Zhu JJ, Uhlrich DJ, Lytton WW (1999) Burst firing in identified rat geniculate interneurons. Neuroscience 91:1445-60 [ ... 2 . Zhu JJ, Lytton WW, Xue JT, Uhlrich DJ (1999) An intrinsic oscillation in interneurons of the rat lateral geniculate nucleus ...
... expressing interneurons. Recently shown to suppress adult quiescent neural stem cell activation, parvalbumin interneuron ... expressing interneurons. Recently shown to suppress adult quiescent neural stem cell activation, parvalbumin interneuron ... expressing interneurons. Recently shown to suppress adult quiescent neural stem cell activation, parvalbumin interneuron ... expressing interneurons. Recently shown to suppress adult quiescent neural stem cell activation, parvalbumin interneuron ...
Usage: Selectively ablated Y1R-expressing interneurons while sparing the central terminals of primary afferents. Rats received ... Summary: This neuroanatomical and behavioral characterization of Y1R-expressing excitatory interneurons provides compelling ... Facilitation of neuropathic pain by the NPY Y1 receptor-expressing subpopulation of excitatory interneurons in the dorsal horn ...
Defining the spatiotemporal origins of GABAergic cortical interneuron subtypes ... Home , Seminars and Events , Defining the spatiotemporal origins of GABAergic cortical interneuron subtypes ...
Title: Interneurons accelerate learning dynamics in recurrent neural networks for statistical adaptation. Authors: David ... Mechanistically, such recurrent communication is often indirect and mediated by local interneurons. In this work, we explore ... Interestingly, the network with interneurons is an overparameterized solution of the whitening objective for the network with ... Our results suggest that interneurons are computationally useful for rapid adaptation to changing input statistics. ...
T, An IMARIS-based reconstruction of the transplanted interneuron from R-T. Arrows, VGAT-ChR2-EYFP interneurons co-expressing ... Zhang W, Yamawaki R, Wen X, Uhl J, Diaz J, Prince DA, Buckmaster PS (2009) Surviving hilar somatostatin interneurons enlarge, ... Xu Q, Cobos I, De La Cruz E, Rubenstein JL, Anderson SA (2004) Origins of cortical interneuron subtypes. J Neurosci 24:2612- ... interneurons in the hippocampus and sprouting of subsets of interneurons, as well as other host brain changes (Peng et al., ...
Inspiratory breathing movements depend on pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC) interneurons that express calcium (Ca 2+ )-activated ... Trpm4 ion channels in pre-bötzinger complex interneurons are essential for breathing motor pattern but not rhythm ... Inspiratory breathing movements depend on pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC) interneurons that express calcium (Ca 2+ )-activated ... Trpm4 ion channels in pre-bötzinger complex interneurons are essential for breathing motor pattern but not rhythm. PLoS Biology ...
1. L3 is an auditory interneuron in the prothoracic ganglion of the cricket, Acheta domesticus. The degree of syllable period ( ... N2 - 1. L3 is an auditory interneuron in the prothoracic ganglion of the cricket, Acheta domesticus. The degree of syllable ... AB - 1. L3 is an auditory interneuron in the prothoracic ganglion of the cricket, Acheta domesticus. The degree of syllable ... abstract = "1. L3 is an auditory interneuron in the prothoracic ganglion of the cricket, Acheta domesticus. The degree of ...
Indeed, we found that mutant mice displayed a reduction in hippocampal GABAergic interneurons. Finally, we also found that ... From: Tau pathology induces loss of GABAergic interneurons leading to altered synaptic plasticity and behavioral impairments ...
... we revealed a persistent activation of a subset of interneurons which emerged from a wider population of interneurons activated ... Extinction of cue-evoked food seeking recruits a GABAergic interneuron ensemble in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex of mice ... Extinction of cue-evoked food seeking recruits a GABAergic interneuron ensemble in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex of mice. ... in recently behaviorally-activated neurons to determine the recruitment of activated pyramidal and GABAergic interneuron mPFC ...
Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, ... "Interneurons" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Interneurons" by people in this website by year, and whether " ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Interneurons" by people in Profiles. ...
Job description The Laboratory of Interneuron Developmental Dynamics (headed by Lynette Lim) at the VIB Center for Brain & ... The Laboratory of Interneuron Developmental Dynamics (headed by Lynette Lim) at the VIB Center for Brain & Disease in KU Leuven ... Postdoctoral Fellow for Laboratory of Interneuron Developmental Dynamics. Leuven VIB-KU Leuven Center for Brain & Disease ... to examine the role of metabolism in driving interneuron diversification. The postdoctoral fellow and research technician will ...
Interneurons can be further broken down into two groups: local interneurons and relay interneurons.[3] Local interneurons have ... Interneuron An interneuron (also called internuncial neuron, relay neuron, association neuron, connector neuron, intermediate ... Nitric oxide synthase-expressing interneurons[14]. Function. Interneurons in the CNS are primarily inhibitory, and use the ... Interneuron. Cartoon of a locust interneuron that integrates information about wind in order to control wing motor neurons ...
Autonomous firing of low-threshold spike interneurons in the striatum. Access & Citations. * 1233 Article Accesses. ...
Furthermore, GABAergic interneurons have a previously unrecognized role in the initiation of hippocampal population bursts, ... The axonal targets of perisomatic targeting interneurons make them ideally suited to synchronize excitatory neurons. As such ... Furthermore, GABAergic interneurons have a previously unrecognized role in the initiation of hippocampal population bursts, ... The axonal targets of perisomatic targeting interneurons make them ideally suited to synchronize excitatory neurons. As such ...
Estimation of self-motion by optic flow processing in single visual interneurons. ... Estimation of self-motion by optic flow processing in single visual interneurons. Krapp, H., & Hengstenberg, R. (1996). ... To investigate how the optic flow is processed at the neuronal level, we recorded intracellularly from identified interneurons ... Estimation of self-motion by optic flow processing in single visual interneurons. Nature, 384(6608), 463-466. doi:10.1038/ ...
  • Specifically, inhibition of mPFC somatostatin (SOM+), but not of parvalbumin (PV+) interneurons, abolishes affective state discrimination. (researchgate.net)
  • As visualized by in vivo single-cell microendoscopic Ca2+ imaging, an increased synchronous activity of mPFC SOM+ interneurons, guiding inhibition of pyramidal neurons, is associated with affective state discrimination. (researchgate.net)
  • Objective: The objective is to propose a novel stimulation procedure able to evaluate the efficacy of inhibition imposed by GABAergic interneurons onto pyramidal cells from evoked responses observed in local field potentials (LFPs). (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Pairwise recordings from the CiA interneurons and postsynaptic cells reveal that the Engrailed-1 neurons produce monosynaptic, strychnine-sensitive inhibition of dorsal sensory interneurons and also inhibit more ventral neurons, including motoneurons and descending interneurons. (elsevier.com)
  • We conclude that Engrailed-1 expression marks a class of inhibitory interneuron that seems to provide all of the ipsilateral glycinergic inhibition in the spinal cord of embryonic and larval fish. (elsevier.com)
  • Cyfip1 Haploinsufficiency Does Not Alter GABA Receptor d-Subunit Expression and Tonic Inhibition in Dentate Gyrus PV Interneurons and Granule Cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Mechanistically, such recurrent communication is often indirect and mediated by local interneurons. (arxiv.org)
  • Interneurons can be further broken down into two groups: local interneurons and relay interneurons. (orange.com)
  • [3] Local interneurons have short axons and form circuits with nearby neurons to analyze small pieces of information. (orange.com)
  • This was based largely on circumstantial evidence, i.e. prominent staining for nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclic guanosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) or soluble guanylyl cyclase, an effector enzyme activated by NO, in local interneurons of the olfactory bulb. (princeton.edu)
  • In 2008, a nomenclature for the features of GABAergic cortical interneurons was proposed, called Petilla terminology . (orange.com)
  • Recent research has highlighted the fact that cerebellar cortical interneurons are a quite more diverse and heterogeneous class of cells than generally appreciated, and have provided novel insights into the mechanisms that underpin the development and histogenetic integration of these cells. (unito.it)
  • We found that Sip1 (Zfhx1b, Zeb2), a transcription factor enriched in migrating cortical interneurons, is required for their proper differentiation and correct guidance. (nyu.edu)
  • The objective of this Development Candidate Feasibility Award is to assess the safety and efficacy of hESC-derived and human fetal inhibitory interneuron precursor cells (MGE cells) in a mouse model of spinal cord injury. (ca.gov)
  • Accordingly, synchronized activation of mPFC SOM+ interneurons selectively induces social discrimination. (researchgate.net)
  • In the hippocampus, disinhibition of principal cells is provided by the interneuron-specific interneurons that express the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP-IS) and innervate selectively inhibitory interneurons. (yale.edu)
  • Usage: Selectively ablated Y1R-expressing interneurons while sparing the central terminals of primary afferents. (atsbio.com)
  • Double in situ hybridization analysis showed that Rhes transcript is selectively localized in striatal cholinergic interneurons (ChIs), but not in GABAergic parvalbumin- or in neuropeptide Y-positive cell populations. (elsevier.com)
  • The group focused on disinhibitory interneurons that express vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). (bruker.com)
  • Furthermore, GABAergic interneurons have a previously unrecognized role in the initiation of hippocampal population bursts, both in the developing and adult hippocampus. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 2016. Enkephalin levels and the number of neuropeptide Y-containing interneurons in the hippocampus are decreased in female cannabinoid-receptor 1 knock-out mice. . (cornell.edu)
  • Additionally, transplants of fetal GABAergic interneurons in the DG of mice with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) result in seizure suppression, but it is unknown whether increasing interneurons with these transplants restores GABAergic innervation to adult-born GCs. (eneuro.org)
  • Channelrhodopsin 2 (ChR2)-enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP)-expressing medial-ganglionic eminence (MGE)-derived GABAergic interneurons from embryonic day (E)13.5 mouse embryos were transplanted into the DG of the TLE mice and GCs with transplant-derived inhibitory post-synaptic currents (IPSCs) were identified by patch-clamp electrophysiology and optogenetic interrogation. (eneuro.org)
  • 2008). "Petilla terminology: Nomenclature of features of GABAergic interneurons of the cerebral cortex" . (orange.com)
  • An ubiquitous finding among these disorders is the disrupted function of inhibitory GABAergic interneurons. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Results: Appropriately-tuned ELBS allows for preferential activation of GABAergic interneurons. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • GABAergic interneurons mainly originate in the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) of the embryonic ventral telencephalon (VT) and migrate tangentially to the cortex, guided by membrane-bound and secreted factors. (nyu.edu)
  • Our results suggest a niche mechanism involving parvalbumin interneurons that couples local circuit activity to the diametric regulation of two critical early phases of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. (elsevier.com)
  • Transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsin-2 exclusively in molecular layer interneurons allowed us to focally photostimulate these neurons, while measuring resulting responses in postsynaptic Purkinje cells. (broadinstitute.org)
  • This approach revealed that interneurons converge upon Purkinje cells over a broad area and that at least seven interneurons form functional synapses with a single Purkinje cell. (broadinstitute.org)
  • During the reporting period, we completed histological analyses for the two-month time point post-injection, and we found that the human MGE cells, derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), appropriately matured into forebrain-type inhibitory interneurons in the rodent spinal cord. (ca.gov)
  • Place cells are excitatory cells and their activity is under control of inhibitory interneurons (INs). (bruker.com)
  • Distributions of labelled cells for each interneuron marker within CA1 from s.o. to s.l.m. (stratum lacunosum moleculare) are plotted for comparison to RFP + cell distributions (right). (elifesciences.org)
  • Computer simulations led to sharp predictions regarding: i) the shape of evoked responses as observed in local field potentials, ii) the type of cells (pyramidal neurons and interneurons) contributing to these field responses and iii) the optimal tuning of stimulation parameters (intensity and frequency) to evoke meaningful responses. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Neuronal differentiation of L2.2 cells was inhibited by bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP2) and enhanced by Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) similar to cortical interneuron progenitors. (elsevier.com)
  • These cells express the glycine transporter 2 gene and are the only known ipsilateral interneurons positive for this marker of inhibitory transmission. (elsevier.com)
  • Researchers at the Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCLA have developed a first-of-its-kind roadmap detailing how stem cells become sensory interneurons-the cells that enable sensations like touch, pain and itch. (lifeboat.com)
  • The study, conducted using embryonic stem cells from mice, also identified a method for producing all types of sensory interneurons in the laboratory. (lifeboat.com)
  • Despite overall variability in dendritic Ca transients (CaTs) across different cells and dendritic branches, we report consistent behavior state-dependent organization of Ca signaling in interneurons. (ulaval.ca)
  • Candelabrum cells are ubiquitous cerebellar cortex interneurons with specialized circuit properties. (bvsalud.org)
  • Candelabrum cells (CCs) are enigmatic interneurons of the cerebellar cortex that have been identified based on their morphology, but their electrophysiological properties, synaptic connections and function remain unknown. (bvsalud.org)
  • A myomodulin peptide has been suggested to mediate the response of the giant glial cells to stimulation of the Leydig interneuron in the central nervous system of the leech Hirudo medicinalis. (boykyo.com.cn)
  • Here, we used in vivo 2-Photon imaging in male Fos-GFP mice that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) in recently behaviorally-activated neurons to determine the recruitment of activated pyramidal and GABAergic interneuron mPFC ensembles during extinction. (sussex.ac.uk)
  • Studies in chicks and mice have suggested that transcription factors mark functional subtypes of interneurons in the developing spinal cord. (elsevier.com)
  • Calcium Dynamics in Dendrites of Hippocampal CA1 Interneurons in Awake Mice. (ulaval.ca)
  • Isoflurane Suppresses Hippocampal High-frequency Ripples by Differentially Modulating Pyramidal Neurons and Interneurons in Mice. (cornell.edu)
  • The many tunes of perisomatic targeting interneurons in the hippocampal network. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The axonal targets of perisomatic targeting interneurons make them ideally suited to synchronize excitatory neurons. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We found that Engrailed-1 expression uniquely marks a class of ascending interneurons, called circumferential ascending (CiA) interneurons, with ipsilateral axonal projections in both motor and sensory regions of spinal cord. (elsevier.com)
  • The dendritic and axonal patterns of some interneurons in this region are also strikingly different from those described previously in CA1 and CA3. (nih.gov)
  • Our data support the view that the subdivision of spinal cord into different regions by transcription factors defines a primitive functional organization of spinal interneurons that formed a developmental and evolutionary foundation on which more complex systems were built. (elsevier.com)
  • Facilitation of neuropathic pain by the NPY Y1 receptor-expressing subpopulation of excitatory interneurons in the dorsal horn. (atsbio.com)
  • Nelson TS, Fu W, Donahue RR, Corder GF, Hökfelt T, Wiley RG, Taylor BK (2019) Facilitation of neuropathic pain by the NPY Y1 receptor-expressing subpopulation of excitatory interneurons in the dorsal horn. (atsbio.com)
  • Interneurons are the central nodes of neural circuits , enabling communication between sensory or motor neurons and the central nervous system (CNS). (orange.com)
  • Interneurons main function is to provide a neural circuit, conducting flow of signals or information between a sensory neuron and or motor neuron. (orange.com)
  • Recently shown to suppress adult quiescent neural stem cell activation, parvalbumin interneuron activation promoted newborn neuronal progeny survival and development. (elsevier.com)
  • Our findings illuminate novel neuronal activation patterns in the dmPFC underlying extinction of food-seeking, and in particular, highlight an important role for interneuron ensembles in this inhibitory form of learning. (sussex.ac.uk)
  • An effective means of identifying coetaneous interneurons is neuronal birthdating. (orange.com)
  • To investigate how the optic flow is processed at the neuronal level, we recorded intracellularly from identified interneurons in the third visual neuropile of the blowfly (8). (mpg.de)
  • Three mouse models of altered BDNF-TrkB signaling were used to investigate the interaction with inhibitory interneurons upon behaviour and molecular markers. (monash.edu)
  • CCs in turn primarily inhibit molecular layer interneurons , which leads to PC disinhibition. (bvsalud.org)
  • Synergism of type 1 metabotropic and ionotropic glutamate receptors in cerebellar molecular layer interneurons in vivo. (ista.ac.at)
  • Here we investigate the input and GABA A receptor subunit specificity of inhibitory synaptic plasticity by studying cerebellar interneuron-Purkinje cell (PC) synapses. (nature.com)
  • Hippocampal inhibitory interneurons exhibit a large diversity of dendritic Ca mechanisms that are involved in the induction of Hebbian and anti-Hebbian synaptic plasticity. (ulaval.ca)
  • 2 . Zhu JJ, Lytton WW, Xue JT, Uhlrich DJ (1999) An intrinsic oscillation in interneurons of the rat lateral geniculate nucleus. (yale.edu)
  • 2021. Relevance of Cortical and Hippocampal Interneuron Functional Diversity to General Anesthetic Mechanisms: A Narrative Review. . (cornell.edu)
  • BDNF-TrkB signaling and inhibitory interneurons are considered part of the pathophysiology but the dynamics between them are not fully understood. (monash.edu)
  • By analyzing the corresponding continuous synaptic dynamics and numerically simulating the networks, we show that the network with interneurons is more robust to initialization than the network with direct recurrent connections in the sense that the convergence time for the synaptic dynamics in the network with interneurons (resp. (arxiv.org)
  • The Laboratory of Interneuron Developmental Dynamics (headed by Lynette Lim) at the VIB Center for Brain & Disease in KU Leuven is located in the University Hospital Campus, Leuven, Belgium. (vib.be)
  • By stimulating individual interneurons, this plasticity was observed at somatodendritic basket cell synapses, but not at distal dendritic stellate cell synapses. (nature.com)
  • However, little is still known about dendritic Ca activity in interneurons during different behavioral states. (ulaval.ca)
  • To this end, we consider two mathematically tractable recurrent neural networks that statistically whiten their inputs -- one with direct recurrent connections and the other with interneurons that mediate recurrent communication. (arxiv.org)
  • 1. L3 is an auditory interneuron in the prothoracic ganglion of the cricket, Acheta domesticus. (elsevier.com)
  • Parvalbumin-expressing inhibitory interneurons in auditory cortex are well-tuned for frequency. (arizona.edu)
  • Gap encoding by parvalbumin-expressing interneurons in auditory cortex. (arizona.edu)
  • An interneuron (also called internuncial neuron , relay neuron , association neuron , connector neuron , intermediate neuron or local circuit neuron ) is a broad class of neurons found in the central nervous system. (orange.com)
  • Using immunohistology, electron microscopy, electrophysiology and optogenetics, we found that proliferating adult mouse hippocampal neural precursors received immature GABAergic synaptic inputs from parvalbumin- expressing interneurons. (elsevier.com)
  • Interestingly, the network with interneurons is an overparameterized solution of the whitening objective for the network with direct recurrent connections, so our results can be viewed as a recurrent neural network analogue of the implicit acceleration phenomenon observed in overparameterized feedforward linear networks. (arxiv.org)
  • Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions. (childrensmercy.org)
  • [4] Relay interneurons have long axons and connect circuits of neurons in one region of the brain with those in other regions. (orange.com)
  • Optogenetic mapping of cerebellar inhibitory circuitry reveals spatially biased coordination of interneurons via electrical synapses. (broadinstitute.org)
  • The number of converging interneurons was reduced by treatment with gap junction blockers, revealing that electrical synapses between interneurons contribute substantially to the spatial convergence. (broadinstitute.org)
  • However, excitatory interneurons using glutamate in the CNS also exist, as do interneurons releasing neuromodulators like acetylcholine . (orange.com)
  • 2006 Primary motoneuron Secondary motoneuron LIM homeodomain Interneuron Spinal motoneuron pMN domain Zebrafish Vertebrate motoneurons innervate muscles in an exquisitely precise pattern. (silverchair.com)
  • In the neocortex (making up about 80% of the human brain), approximately 20-30% of neurons are interneurons. (orange.com)
  • The majority of Sip1 knockout interneurons fail to migrate to the neocortex and stall in the VT. (nyu.edu)
  • Summary: This neuroanatomical and behavioral characterization of Y1R-expressing excitatory interneurons provides compelling evidence for the development of spinally-directed Y1R agonists to reduce chronic neuropathic pain. (atsbio.com)
  • The selected postdoctoral fellow will work jointly with a research technician on an FWO Odysseus grant-funded project (5-year duration) to examine the role of metabolism in driving interneuron diversification. (vib.be)
  • We conclude that electrical synapse networks spatially coordinate interneurons in the cerebellum and may also serve this function in other brain regions. (broadinstitute.org)
  • Key genes were overrepresented in L2/3 and L4 (all upper levels of the cortex) excitatory neurons, as well as VIP- and somatostatin-expressing interneurons, which set daily cellular rhythms and regulate endocrine functions, respectively. (10xgenomics.com)
  • Interneurons relay signals between neurons. (medlineplus.gov)
  • High resolution imaging techniques allowed examining somatic Ca signals and, accordingly, the recruitment of hippocampal interneurons in awake behaving animals. (ulaval.ca)
  • The ARX protein regulates genes that play a role in the migration of specialized neurons (interneurons) to their proper location. (medlineplus.gov)
  • As a result, the ARX protein cannot perform its role regulating the activity of genes important for interneuron migration. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Interneurons" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (childrensmercy.org)
  • Here, we used two-photon Ca imaging in mouse hippocampal CA1 interneurons to reveal Ca signal patterns in interneuron dendrites during animal locomotion and immobility. (ulaval.ca)
  • Dive into the research topics of 'Modulation of the excitability of cockroach giant interneurons during walking - II. (illinois.edu)
  • Estimation of self-motion by optic flow processing in single visual interneurons. (mpg.de)
  • GABAergic inputs from transplanted interneurons correlated with markedly shorter GC dendrites, compared to GCs that were not innervated by the transplants. (eneuro.org)