Low molecular weight, calcium binding muscle proteins. Their physiological function is possibly related to the contractile process.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
A calbindin protein that is differentially expressed in distinct populations of NEURONS throughout the vertebrate and invertebrate NERVOUS SYSTEM, and modulates intrinsic neuronal excitability and influences LONG-TERM POTENTIATION. It is also found in LUNG, TESTIS, OVARY, KIDNEY, and BREAST, and is expressed in many tumor types found in these tissues. It is often used as an immunohistochemical marker for MESOTHELIOMA.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The largest portion of the CEREBRAL CORTEX in which the NEURONS are arranged in six layers in the mammalian brain: molecular, external granular, external pyramidal, internal granular, internal pyramidal and multiform layers.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID.
Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.
Hyperpolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during NEUROTRANSMISSION. They are local changes which diminish responsiveness to excitatory signals.
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC 4.1.1.15.
Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.
Calcium-binding proteins that are found in DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES, INTESTINES, BRAIN, and other tissues where they bind, buffer and transport cytoplasmic calcium. Calbindins possess a variable number of EF-HAND MOTIFS which contain calcium-binding sites. Some isoforms are regulated by VITAMIN D.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.
The anterior subdivision of the embryonic PROSENCEPHALON or the corresponding part of the adult prosencephalon that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.
GRAY MATTER situated above the GYRUS HIPPOCAMPI. It is composed of three layers. The molecular layer is continuous with the HIPPOCAMPUS in the hippocampal fissure. The granular layer consists of closely arranged spherical or oval neurons, called GRANULE CELLS, whose AXONS pass through the polymorphic layer ending on the DENDRITES of PYRAMIDAL CELLS in the hippocampus.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Annelids of the class Hirudinea. Some species, the bloodsuckers, may become temporarily parasitic upon animals, including man. Medicinal leeches (HIRUDO MEDICINALIS) have been used therapeutically for drawing blood since ancient times.
The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
A genus of marine sea slugs in the family Glaucidae, superorder GASTROPODA, found on the Pacific coast of North America. They are used in behavioral and neurological laboratory studies.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
MOTOR NEURONS in the anterior (ventral) horn of the SPINAL CORD which project to SKELETAL MUSCLES.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC 2.3.1.6.
A subclass of LIM domain proteins that include an additional centrally-located homeodomain region that binds AT-rich sites on DNA. Many LIM-homeodomain proteins play a role as transcriptional regulators that direct cell fate.
One of four subsections of the hippocampus described by Lorente de No, located furthest from the DENTATE GYRUS.
A vesicular glutamate transporter protein that is predominately expressed in the DIENCEPHALON and lower brainstem regions of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
The voltages across pre- or post-SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES.
The family Gryllidae consists of the common house cricket, Acheta domesticus, which is used in neurological and physiological studies. Other genera include Gryllotalpa (mole cricket); Gryllus (field cricket); and Oecanthus (tree cricket).
Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.
An isoquinoline alkaloid obtained from Dicentra cucullaria and other plants. It is a competitive antagonist for GABA-A receptors.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
A noncompetitive antagonist at GABA-A receptors and thus a convulsant. Picrotoxin blocks the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride ionophore. Although it is most often used as a research tool, it has been used as a CNS stimulant and an antidote in poisoning by CNS depressants, especially the barbiturates.
The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
A family of vesicular neurotransmitter transporter proteins that sequester the inhibitory neurotransmitters GLYCINE; GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID; and possibly GAMMA-HYDROXYBUTYRATE into SECRETORY VESICLES.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.
A subsection of the hippocampus, described by Lorente de No, that is located between the HIPPOCAMPUS CA2 FIELD and the DENTATE GYRUS.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE.
A potent excitatory amino acid antagonist with a preference for non-NMDA iontropic receptors. It is used primarily as a research tool.
Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.
Brain waves characterized by a frequency of 4-7 Hz, usually observed in the temporal lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed and sleepy.
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Techniques used to add in exogenous gene sequence such as mutated genes; REPORTER GENES, to study mechanisms of gene expression; or regulatory control sequences, to study effects of temporal changes to GENE EXPRESSION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.
Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.
Common name for the only family (Petromyzontidae) of eellike fish in the order Petromyzontiformes. They are jawless but have a sucking mouth with horny teeth.
A superfamily of various freshwater CRUSTACEA, in the infraorder Astacidea, comprising the crayfish. Common genera include Astacus and Procambarus. Crayfish resemble lobsters, but are usually much smaller.
The combination of genetic and optical methods in controlling specific events with temporal precision in targeted cells of a functioning intact biological system.
A vesicular glutamate transporter protein that is predominately expressed in TELENCEPHALON of the BRAIN.
Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A subset of GABA RECEPTORS that signal through their interaction with HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA-A RECEPTORS thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous GABA-A RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.
Neurons in the SPINAL CORD DORSAL HORN whose cell bodies and processes are confined entirely to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They receive collateral or direct terminations of dorsal root fibers. They send their axons either directly to ANTERIOR HORN CELLS or to the WHITE MATTER ascending and descending longitudinal fibers.
Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.
An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.
The superficial GRAY MATTER of the CEREBELLUM. It consists of two main layers, the stratum moleculare and the stratum granulosum.
Raised area at the infundibular region of the HYPOTHALAMUS at the floor of the BRAIN, ventral to the THIRD VENTRICLE and adjacent to the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS. It contains the terminals of hypothalamic neurons and the capillary network of hypophyseal portal system, thus serving as a neuroendocrine link between the brain and the PITUITARY GLAND.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
A genus of dextrally coiled freshwater snails that includes some species of importance as intermediate hosts of parasitic flukes.
Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors.
A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on GABAergic systems. GABAergic agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation or uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
(2S-(2 alpha,3 beta,4 beta))-2-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid. Ascaricide obtained from the red alga Digenea simplex. It is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist at some types of excitatory amino acid receptors and has been used to discriminate among receptor types. Like many excitatory amino acid agonists it can cause neurotoxicity and has been used experimentally for that purpose.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA).
Cell surface proteins that bind glutamate and act through G-proteins to influence second messenger systems. Several types of metabotropic glutamate receptors have been cloned. They differ in pharmacology, distribution, and mechanisms of action.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for KAINIC ACID.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
Cell-surface proteins that bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID with high affinity and trigger changes that influence the behavior of cells. GABA-A receptors control chloride channels formed by the receptor complex itself. They are blocked by bicuculline and usually have modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and barbiturates. GABA-B receptors act through G-proteins on several effector systems, are insensitive to bicuculline, and have a high affinity for L-baclofen.
Any drug used for its actions on cholinergic systems. Included here are agonists and antagonists, drugs that affect the life cycle of ACETYLCHOLINE, and drugs that affect the survival of cholinergic neurons. The term cholinergic agents is sometimes still used in the narrower sense of MUSCARINIC AGONISTS, although most modern texts discourage that usage.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A subsection of the hippocampus, described by Lorente de No, that is located between the HIPPOCAMPUS CA1 FIELD and the HIPPOCAMPUS CA3 FIELD.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
Fibers that arise from cell groups within the spinal cord and pass directly to the cerebellum. They include the anterior, posterior, and rostral spinocerebellar tracts, and the cuneocerebellar tract. (From Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p607)
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
Inorganic or organic derivatives of phosphinic acid, H2PO(OH). They include phosphinates and phosphinic acid esters.
Axons of certain cells in the DENTATE GYRUS. They project to the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus and to the proximal dendrites of PYRAMIDAL CELLS of the HIPPOCAMPUS. These mossy fibers should not be confused with mossy fibers that are cerebellar afferents (see NERVE FIBERS).
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
A member of the NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR subfamily of the LIGAND-GATED ION CHANNEL family. It consists entirely of pentameric a7 subunits expressed in the CNS, autonomic nervous system, vascular system, lymphocytes and spleen.
The electrical properties, characteristics of living organisms, and the processes of organisms or their parts that are involved in generating and responding to electrical charges.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.
The measurement of frequency or oscillation changes.
The D-enantiomer is a potent and specific antagonist of NMDA glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). The L form is inactive at NMDA receptors but may affect the AP4 (2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate; APB) excitatory amino acid receptors.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
A species of European freshwater LEECHES used for BLOODLETTING in ancient times and also for LEECHING in modern times.
An alkaloid found in the seeds of STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA. It is a competitive antagonist at glycine receptors and thus a convulsant. It has been used as an analeptic, in the treatment of nonketotic hyperglycinemia and sleep apnea, and as a rat poison.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.
Stereotyped patterns of response, characteristic of a given species, that have been phylogenetically adapted to a specific type of situation.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.
A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA-B RECEPTORS thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous GABA-B RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Networks of nerve cells that control the firing patterns of MOTOR NEURONS to produce rhythmic movements such as MASTICATION; WALKING; SWIMMING; RESPIRATION; and PERISTALSIS.
Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.
A subclass of serotonin receptors that form cation channels and mediate signal transduction by depolarizing the cell membrane. The cation channels are formed from 5 receptor subunits. When stimulated the receptors allow the selective passage of SODIUM; POTASSIUM; and CALCIUM.
Fibers that arise from cells within the cerebral cortex, pass through the medullary pyramid, and descend in the spinal cord. Many authorities say the pyramidal tracts include both the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts.
An opisthobranch mollusk of the order Anaspidea. It is used frequently in studies of nervous system development because of its large identifiable neurons. Aplysiatoxin and its derivatives are not biosynthesized by Aplysia, but acquired by ingestion of Lyngbya (seaweed) species.
Transference of brain tissue, either from a fetus or from a born individual, between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on glycinergic systems. Glycinergic agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation or uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.
Drugs that bind to nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC) and block the actions of acetylcholine or cholinergic agonists. Nicotinic antagonists block synaptic transmission at autonomic ganglia, the skeletal neuromuscular junction, and at central nervous system nicotinic synapses.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
Cavity in each of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES derived from the cavity of the embryonic NEURAL TUBE. They are separated from each other by the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM, and each communicates with the THIRD VENTRICLE by the foramen of Monro, through which also the choroid plexuses (CHOROID PLEXUS) of the lateral ventricles become continuous with that of the third ventricle.
Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Dihydro analog of beta-erythroidine, which is isolated from the seeds and other plant parts of Erythrina sp. Leguminosae. It is an alkaloid with curarimimetic properties.
A paired box transcription factor that is essential for ORGANOGENESIS of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and KIDNEY.
One of the POTASSIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS, with secondary effect on calcium currents, which is used mainly as a research tool and to characterize channel subtypes.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Physical forces and actions in living things.
Paired sense organs connected to the anterior segments of ARTHROPODS that help them navigate through the environment.
An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
INTERNEURONS of the vertebrate RETINA. They integrate, modulate, and interpose a temporal domain in the visual message presented to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS, with which they synapse in the inner plexiform layer.
An order of insects comprising two suborders: Caelifera and Ensifera. They consist of GRASSHOPPERS, locusts, and crickets (GRYLLIDAE).
A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.
Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.
A subclass of cannabinoid receptor found primarily on central and peripheral NEURONS where it may play a role modulating NEUROTRANSMITTER release.
Cell-surface proteins that bind glutamate and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors include ionotropic receptors (AMPA, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors), which directly control ion channels, and metabotropic receptors which act through second messenger systems. Glutamate receptors are the most common mediators of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. They have also been implicated in the mechanisms of memory and of many diseases.
An alpha-adrenergic sympathomimetic amine, biosynthesized from tyramine in the CNS and platelets and also in invertebrate nervous systems. It is used to treat hypotension and as a cardiotonic. The natural D(-) form is more potent than the L(+) form in producing cardiovascular adrenergic responses. It is also a neurotransmitter in some invertebrates.
A genus of large marine sea slugs in the family Tritoniidae found in the northern Pacific Ocean. They are used in neurological research.
A family of vesicular neurotransmitter transporter proteins that were originally characterized as sodium dependent inorganic phosphate cotransporters. Vesicular glutamate transport proteins sequester the excitatory neurotransmitter GLUTAMATE from the CYTOPLASM into SECRETORY VESICLES in exchange for lumenal PROTONS.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
A technique in which electric pulses of intensity in kilovolts per centimeter and of microsecond-to-millisecond duration cause a temporary loss of the semipermeability of CELL MEMBRANES, thus leading to ion leakage, escape of metabolites, and increased uptake by cells of drugs, molecular probes, and DNA.
Cerebral cortex region on the medial aspect of the PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS, immediately caudal to the OLFACTORY CORTEX of the uncus. The entorhinal cortex is the origin of the major neural fiber system afferent to the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the so-called PERFORANT PATHWAY.
In invertebrate zoology, a lateral lobe of the FOREBRAIN in certain ARTHROPODS. In vertebrate zoology, either of the corpora bigemina of non-mammalian VERTEBRATES. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1329)
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
Drugs used for their actions on any aspect of excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter systems. Included are drugs that act on excitatory amino acid receptors, affect the life cycle of excitatory amino acid transmitters, or affect the survival of neurons using excitatory amino acids.
An amino acid formed by cyclization of leucine. It has cytostatic, immunosuppressive and antineoplastic activities.
Mice which carry mutant genes for neurologic defects or abnormalities.
A subtype of dopamine D1 receptors that has higher affinity for DOPAMINE and differentially couples to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
Neurotransmitter receptors located on or near presynaptic terminals or varicosities. Presynaptic receptors which bind transmitter molecules released by the terminal itself are termed AUTORECEPTORS.
Postsynaptic potentials generated from a release of neurotransmitters from a presynaptic nerve terminal in the absence of an ACTION POTENTIAL. They may be m.e.p.p.s (miniature EXCITATORY POSTSYNAPTIC POTENTIALS) or m.i.p.p.s (miniature INHIBITORY POSTSYNAPTIC POTENTIALS).
A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional repressors.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.

Ringo, Doty, Demeter and Simard, Cerebral Cortex 1994;4:331-343: a proof of the need for the spatial clustering of interneuronal connections to enhance cortical computation. (1/3683)

It has been argued that an important principle driving the organization of the cerebral cortex towards local processing has been the need to decrease time lost to interneuronal conduction delay. In this paper, I show for a simplified model of the cerebral cortex, using analytical means, that if interneuronal conduction time increases proportional to interneuronal distance, then the only way to increase the numbers of synaptic events occurring in a fixed finite time period is to spatially cluster interneuronal connections.  (+info)

Developmental synaptic changes increase the range of integrative capabilities of an identified excitatory neocortical connection. (2/3683)

Excitatory synaptic transmission between pyramidal cells and fast-spiking (FS) interneurons of layer V of the motor cortex was investigated in acute slices by using paired recordings at 30 degrees C combined with morphological analysis. The presynaptic and postsynaptic properties at these identified central synapses were compared between 3- and 5-week-old rats. At these two postnatal developmental stages, unitary EPSCs were mediated by the activation of AMPA receptors with fast kinetics at a holding potential of -72 mV. The amplitude distribution analysis of the EPSCs indicates that, at both stages, pyramidal-FS connections consisted of multiple functional release sites. The apparent quantal size obtained by decreasing the external calcium ([Ca2+]e) varied from 11 to 29 pA near resting membrane potential. In young rats, pairs of presynaptic action potentials elicited unitary synaptic responses that displayed paired-pulse depression at all tested frequencies. In older animals, inputs from different pyramidal cells onto the same FS interneuron had different paired-pulse response characteristics and, at most of these connections, a switch from depression to facilitation occurred when decreasing the rate of presynaptic stimulation. The balance between facilitation and depression endows pyramidal-FS connections from 5-week-old animals with wide integrative capabilities and confers unique functional properties to each synapse.  (+info)

Activity-dependent metaplasticity of inhibitory and excitatory synaptic transmission in the lamprey spinal cord locomotor network. (3/3683)

Paired intracellular recordings have been used to examine the activity-dependent plasticity and neuromodulator-induced metaplasticity of synaptic inputs from identified inhibitory and excitatory interneurons in the lamprey spinal cord. Trains of spikes at 5-20 Hz were used to mimic the frequency of spiking that occurs in network interneurons during NMDA or brainstem-evoked locomotor activity. Inputs from inhibitory and excitatory interneurons exhibited similar activity-dependent changes, with synaptic depression developing during the spike train. The level of depression reached was greater with lower stimulation frequencies. Significant activity-dependent depression of inputs from excitatory interneurons and inhibitory crossed caudal interneurons, which are central elements in the patterning of network activity, usually developed between the fifth and tenth spikes in the train. Because these interneurons typically fire bursts of up to five spikes during locomotor activity, this activity-dependent plasticity will presumably not contribute to the patterning of network activity. However, in the presence of the neuromodulators substance P and 5-HT, significant activity-dependent metaplasticity of these inputs developed over the first five spikes in the train. Substance P induced significant activity-dependent depression of inhibitory but potentiation of excitatory interneuron inputs, whereas 5-HT induced significant activity-dependent potentiation of both inhibitory and excitatory interneuron inputs. Because these metaplastic effects are consistent with the substance P and 5-HT-induced modulation of the network output, activity-dependent metaplasticity could be a potential mechanism underlying the coordination and modulation of rhythmic network activity.  (+info)

Somatic recording of GABAergic autoreceptor current in cerebellar stellate and basket cells. (4/3683)

Patch-clamp recordings were performed from stellate and basket cells in rat cerebellar slices. Under somatic voltage clamp, short depolarizing pulses were applied to elicit action potentials in the axon. After the action potential, a bicuculline- and Cd2+-sensitive current transient was observed. A similar response was obtained when eliciting axonal firing by extracellular stimulation. With an isotonic internal Cl- solution, the peak amplitude of this current varied linearly with the holding potential, yielding an extrapolated reversal potential of -20 to 0 mV. Unlike synaptic or autaptic GABAergic currents obtained in the same preparation, the current transient had a slow rise-time and a low variability between trials. This current was blocked when 10 mM BAPTA was included in the recording solution. In some experiments, the current transient elicited axonal action potentials. The current transient was reliably observed in animals aged 12-15 d, with a mean amplitude of 82 pA at -70 mV, but was small and rare in the age group 29-49 d. Numerical simulations could account for all properties of the current transient by assuming that an action potential activates a distributed GABAergic conductance in the axon. The actual conductance is probably restricted to release sites, with an estimated mean presynaptic current response of 10 pA per site (-70 mV, age 12-15 d). We conclude that in developing rats, stellate and basket cell axons have a high density of GABAergic autoreceptors and that a sizable fraction of the corresponding current can be measured from the soma.  (+info)

Neural mapping of direction and frequency in the cricket cercal sensory system. (5/3683)

Primary mechanosensory receptors and interneurons in the cricket cercal sensory system are sensitive to the direction and frequency of air current stimuli. Receptors innervating long mechanoreceptor hairs (>1000 microm) are most sensitive to low-frequency air currents (<150 Hz); receptors innervating medium-length hairs (900-500 microm) are most sensitive to higher frequency ranges (150-400 Hz). Previous studies demonstrated that the projection pattern of the synaptic arborizations of long hair receptor afferents form a continuous map of air current direction within the terminal abdominal ganglion (). We demonstrate here that the projection pattern of the medium-length hair afferents also forms a continuous map of stimulus direction. However, the afferents from the long and medium-length hair afferents show very little spatial segregation with respect to their frequency sensitivity. The possible functional significance of this small degree of spatial segregation was investigated, by calculating the relative overlap between the long and medium-length hair afferents with the dendrites of two interneurons that are known to have different frequency sensitivities. Both interneurons were shown to have nearly equal anatomical overlap with long and medium hair afferents. Thus, the differential overlap of these interneurons with the two different classes of afferents was not adequate to explain the observed frequency selectivity of the interneurons. Other mechanisms such as selective connectivity between subsets of afferents and interneurons and/or differences in interneuron biophysical properties must play a role in establishing the frequency selectivities of these interneurons.  (+info)

Neural changes after operant conditioning of the aerial respiratory behavior in Lymnaea stagnalis. (6/3683)

In this study, we demonstrate neural changes that occurred during operant conditioning of the aerial respiratory behavior of Lymnaea stagnalis. Aerial respiration in Lymnaea occurs at the water interface and is achieved by opening and closing movements of its respiratory orifice, the pneumostome. This behavior is controlled by a central pattern generator (CPG), the neurons of which, as well as the motoneurons innervating the pneumostome, have previously been identified and their synaptic connections well characterized. The respiratory behavior was operantly conditioned by applying a mechanical stimulus to the open pneumostome whenever the animal attempted to breathe. This negative reinforcement to the open pneumostome resulted in its immediate closure and a significant reduction in the overall respiratory activity. Electrophysiological recordings from the isolated CNSs after operant conditioning showed that the spontaneous patterned respiratory activity of the CPG neurons was significantly reduced. This included reduced spontaneous activity of the CPG interneuron involved in pneumostome opening (input 3 interneuron) and a reduced frequency of spontaneous tonic activity of the CPG interneuron [right pedal dorsal 1 (RPeD1)]. The ability to trigger the patterned respiratory activity by electrical stimulation of RPeD1 was also significantly reduced after operant conditioning. This study therefore demonstrates significant changes within a CPG that are associated with changes in a rhythmic homeostatic behavior after operant conditioning.  (+info)

GABAergic excitatory synapses and electrical coupling sustain prolonged discharges in the prey capture neural network of Clione limacina. (7/3683)

Afterdischarges represent a prominent characteristic of the neural network that controls prey capture reactions in the carnivorous mollusc Clione limacina. Their main functional implication is transformation of a brief sensory input from a prey into a lasting prey capture response. The present study, which focuses on the neuronal mechanisms of afterdischarges, demonstrates that a single pair of interneurons [cerebral A interneuron (Cr-Aint)] is responsible for afterdischarge generation in the network. Cr-Aint neurons are electrically coupled to all other neurons in the network and produce slow excitatory synaptic inputs to them. This excitatory transmission is found to be GABAergic, which is demonstrated by the use of GABA antagonists, uptake inhibitors, and double-labeling experiments showing that Cr-Aint neurons are GABA-immunoreactive. The Cr-Aint neurons organize three different pathways in the prey capture network, which provide positive feedback necessary for sustaining prolonged spike activity. The first pathway includes electrical coupling and slow chemical transmission from the Cr-Aint neurons to all other neurons in the network. The second feedback is based on excitatory reciprocal connections between contralateral interneurons. Recurrent excitation via the contralateral cell can sustain prolonged interneuron firing, which then drives the activity of all other cells in the network. The third positive feedback is represented by prominent afterdepolarizing potentials after individual spikes in the Cr-Aint neurons. Afterdepolarizations apparently represent recurrent GABAergic excitatory inputs. It is suggested here that these afterdepolarizing potentials are produced by GABAergic excitatory autapses.  (+info)

Actions of a pair of identified cerebral-buccal interneurons (CBI-8/9) in Aplysia that contain the peptide myomodulin. (8/3683)

A combination of biocytin back-fills of the cerebral-buccal connectives and immunocytochemistry of the cerebral ganglion demonstrated that of the 13 bilateral pairs of cerebral-buccal interneurons in the cerebral ganglion, a subpopulation of 3 are immunopositive for the peptide myomodulin. The present paper describes the properties of two of these cells, which we have termed CBI-8 and CBI-9. CBI-8 and CBI-9 were found to be dye coupled and electrically coupled. The cells have virtually identical properties, and consequently we consider them to be "twin" pairs and refer to them as CBI-8/9. CBI-8/9 were identified by electrophysiological criteria and then labeled with dye. Labeled cells were found to be immunopositive for myomodulin, and, using high pressure liquid chromatography, the cells were shown to contain authentic myomodulin. CBI-8/9 were found to receive synaptic input after mechanical stimulation of the tentacles. They also received excitatory input from C-PR, a neuron involved in neck lengthening, and received a slow inhibitory input from CC5, a cell involved in neck shortening, suggesting that CBI-8/9 may be active during forward movements of the head or buccal mass. Firing of CBI-8 or CBI-9 resulted in the activation of a relatively small number of buccal neurons as evidenced by extracellular recordings from buccal nerves. Firing also produced local movements of the buccal mass, in particular a strong contraction of the I7 muscle, which mediates radula opening. CBI-8/9 were found to produce a slow depolarization and rhythmic activity of B48, the motor neuron for the I7 muscle. The data provide continuing evidence that the small population of cerebral buccal interneurons is composed of neurons that are highly diverse in their functional roles. CBI-8/9 may function as a type of premotor neuron, or perhaps as a peptidergic modulatory neuron, the functions of which are dependent on the coactivity of other neurons.  (+info)

Some interneurons of the hippocampus exhibit NMDA receptor-independent long-term potentiation (LTP) that is induced by presynaptic glutamate release when the postsynaptic membrane potential is hyperpolarized. This anti-Hebbian form of LTP is prevented by postsynaptic depolarization or by blocking AMPA and kainate receptors. Although both AMPA and kainate receptors are expressed in hippocampal interneurons, their relative roles in anti-Hebbian LTP are not known. Because interneuron diversity potentially conceals simple rules underlying different forms of plasticity, we focus on glutamatergic synapses onto a subset of interneurons with dendrites in stratum oriens and a main ascending axon that projects to stratum lacunosum moleculare, the oriens-lacunosum moleculare (O-LM) cells. We show that anti-Hebbian LTP in O-LM interneurons has consistent induction and expression properties, and is prevented by selective inhibition of AMPA receptors. The majority of the ionotropic glutamatergic synaptic current in
TY - JOUR. T1 - Activation of interneurons at the stratum oriens/alveus border suppresses excitatory transmission to apical dendrites in the CA1 area of the mouse hippocampus. AU - Yanovsky, Y.. AU - Sergeeva, O. A.. AU - Freund, T.. AU - Haas, H. L.. PY - 1997/1/6. Y1 - 1997/1/6. N2 - The consequences of activation or inactivation of interneurons at the CA1 stratum oriens/alveus border for signal transmission at the apical dendritic region of pyramidal cells were investigated in slices from mice submerged in a perfusion chamber. A characteristic subpopulation of interneurons with a horizontal dendritic tree in this region, which sends a GABAergic projection to the apical dendrites of CA1 pyramidal cells is strongly excited by metabotropic glutamate receptor activation and receives GABAergic input from vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-containing interneurons. Pressure ejection of glutamate or the metabotropic agonist 1s,3r-aminocyclopentane dicarboxylic acid from micropipettes onto the stratum ...
Regional and cell-type specification during embryogenesis are often coupled to expression of TFs that are restricted to specific progenitor domains. Here, we found that Nkx2-1 restricts the expression of Coup-TF1/2 in the MGE to an arc that extended from a small rostrodorsal domain to a larger caudoventral domain (Fig. 1; Fig. S1B,D,H,K,L). The Coup-TF1/2+ MGE domain was complementary to an Otx2+ domain (Fig. S1B-E), where Otx2 represses Coup-TF1 MGE expression (Hoch et al., 2015a,b).. Our data support a model in which the Coup-TF1/2+ MGE domain is biased towards generating SST+ CINs (Fig. 2; Fig. S3A-C), as well as cholinergic and pallidal neurons (Fig. S4). These conclusions differ from other publications regarding the major location for the origin of SST+ interneurons, and provide evidence for a Coup-TF1/2-dependent activation of Sox6 expression that promotes SST+ interneuron development.. Multiple lines of evidence show that Coup-TF1/2 have key roles in promoting SST+ interneuron ...
Several different populations of interneurons in the murine cortex, including somatostatin (SST)- or parvalbumin (PV)-expressing cells, are born in the ventral ganglionic eminences during mid-gestation and then migrate tangentially to the cortex. SST is expressed by some interneuron progenitors in the cerebral cortex and in migrating populations in the ventrolateral cortex at birth. However, PV (also known as PVALB) is not expressed by interneurons until the second postnatal week after reaching the cortex, suggesting that molecular cues in the cerebral cortex might be involved in the differentiation process. BMP4 is expressed at high levels in the somatosensory cortex at the time when the PV(+) interneurons differentiate. Treatment of cortical cultures containing interneuron precursors is sufficient to generate PV(+) interneurons prematurely and inhibit SST differentiation. Furthermore, overexpression of BMP4 in vivo increases the number of interneurons expressing PV, with a reduction in the number of
The mechanism underlying a hypercholinergic state in Parkinsons disease (PD) remains uncertain. Here, we show that disruption of the K(v)1 channel-mediated function causes hyperexcitability of striatal cholinergic interneurons in a mouse model of PD. Specifically, our data reveal that Kv1 channels containing K(v)1.3 subunits contribute significantly to the orphan potassium current known as I-sAHP in striatal cholinergic interneurons. Typically, this Kv1 current provides negative feedback to depolarization that limits burst firing and slows the tonic activity of cholinergic interneurons. However, such inhibitory control of cholinergic interneuron excitability by K(v)1.3-mediated current is markedly diminished in the parkinsonian striatum, suggesting that targeting Kv1.3 subunits and their regulatory pathways may have therapeutic potential in PD therapy. These studies reveal unexpected roles of Kv1.3 subunit-containing channels in the regulation of firing patterns of striatal cholinergic ...
This review addresses the question of interrelations between spinal interneuronal networks. On the basis of electrophysiological, pharmacological, morphological and immunohistochemical analysis of interneurones mediating various reflex actions from muscle receptors and of reticulospinal neurones a considerable degree of interweaving between networks of these neurones has been established. The coupling has been found to occur at the level of several sites of these networks but the review focuses on two of these sites. The first is between dorsal horn interneurones with group II input and their target ipsilaterally and contralaterally projecting intermediate zone and commissural interneurones. The second is between commissural interneurones with input from reticulospinal neurones and their target interneurones. Several ways of both strengthening and weakening of coupling between various interneuronal networks are also briefly reviewed. ...
Mammalian interneurons are crucial for cortical function, and are formed by progenitors located in the ganglionic eminences. Mutations in exon junction complex (EJC) components are associated with a raft of human neurological disorders known to affect interneuron neurogenesis, but these links, as well as our general understanding of interneuron generation and survival, are still incompletely understood. Now, Debra Silver and colleagues analyse the role of Magoh, an EJC component, in murine interneuron development. Magoh is highly expressed in the ganglionic eminences during interneuron neurogenesis, and conditional Magoh depletion in interneuron progenitors (but not in post-mitotic migrating interneurons) reduces cortical interneuron number in a dose-dependent manner. Magoh-depleted progenitors divide less (with over one-third of progenitors failing to divide entirely) and die more. One-third of all progenitor daughter cells also undergo apoptosis, and there is a bias towards interneurons at the ...
Inhibitory interneurons are essential components of the neural circuits underlying various brain functions. In the neocortex, a large diversity of GABAergic interneurons have been identified based on their morphology, molecular markers, biophysical properties, and innervation pattern 1,2,3 . However, how the activity of each subtype of interneurons contributes to sensory processing remains unclear. Here we show that optogenetic activation of parvalbumin-positive (PV+) interneurons in mouse V1 sharpens neuronal feature selectivity and improves perceptual discrimination. Using multichannel recording with silicon probes 4,5 and channelrhodopsin 2 (ChR2)-mediated optical activation 6 , we found that elevated spiking of PV+ interneurons markedly sharpened orientation tuning and enhanced direction selectivity of nearby neurons. These effects were caused by the activation of inhibitory neurons rather than decreased spiking of excitatory neurons, since
Clearance of extracellular glutamate is essential for limiting the activity of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) at excitatory synapses; however, the relative contribution of transporters found in neuronal and glial membranes to this uptake is poorly understood. Hippocampalinterneurons located at the oriens-alveus border express mGluR1alpha, a metabotropic glutamate receptor that regulates excitability and synaptic plasticity. To determine which glutamate transporters are essential for removing glutamate at these excitatory synapses, we recorded mGluR1-mediated EPSCs from oriens-lacunosum moleculare (O-LM) interneurons in acute hippocampal slices. Stimulation in stratum oriens reliably elicited a slow mGluR1-mediated current in O-LM interneurons if they were briefly depolarized to allow Ca2+ entry before stimulation. Selective inhibition of GLT-1 [for glutamate transporter; EAAT2 (for excitatory amino acid transporter)] with dihydrokainate increased the amplitude of these responses ...
Oriens-lacunosum moleculare (OLM) cells are hippocampal inhibitory interneurons that have been implicated in regulation of information flow and synaptic plasticity in the CA1 circuit. Since anatomical evidence indicates that OLM cells express metabotopic cholinergic (mAChR) and glutamatergic (mGluR) receptors, such modulation of these cells may contribute to switching between functional modes of the hippocampus. Using a transgenic mouse line to identify the Chrna2-positive OLM cells, we investigated metabotropic neuromodulation of intrinsic properties of OLM cells. We found that both mAChR and mGluR activation increased the spontaneous action potential rate and caused the cells to exhibit long-lasting depolarizing plateau potentials following evoked spike trains. Both the mAChR- and mGluR-induced increased spontaneous firing rate and plateau potentials were dependent on intracellular calcium, and were eliminated by blocking Ca2+-dependent transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels. At ...
GABA is the key inhibitory neurotransmitter in the cortex but regulation of its synthesis during forebrain development is poorly understood. In the telencephalon, members of the distal-less (Dlx) homeobox gene family are expressed in, and regulate the...
Our analysis indicates that interneuron firing, in the entorhinal cortex, can trigger rebound firing of their targets, which are mostly other interneurons, in a brain state dependent manner. The entire inhibition-excitation sequence representing PIR typically occurred within 5 ms after the firing of the presynaptic interneuron. The inhibition lasted for 1-2 ms, which is the characteristic timescale of monosynaptic interactions in vivo (Fujisawa et al., 2008), followed by a rebound that lasted for 2-3 ms. Interestingly, studies performed in vitro report that hyperpolarization-induced rebound excitation occurs tens to hundreds of milliseconds after the beginning of the hyperpolarization (Harris-Warrick et al., 1995a,b; Bertrand and Cazalets, 1998). In contrast, our in vivo data suggest that PIR is a very fast event, commensurate with the timescales of other monosynaptic interactions observed in vivo.. The evidence for the PIR from pairwise cross-correlograms is indirect, however, reliable (Moore ...
The cellular diversity of interneurons in the neocortex is thought to reflect subtype-specific roles of cortical inhibition. Here we ask whether perturbations to two subtypes-parvalbumin-positive (PV+) and somatostatin-positive (SST+) interneurons-can be compensated for with respect to their contributions to cortical development. We use a genetic cell fate switch to delete both PV+ and SST+ interneurons selectively in cortical layers 2-4 without numerically changing the total interneuron population. This manipulation is compensated for at the level of synaptic currents and receptive fields (RFs) in the somatosensory cortex. By contrast, we identify a deficit in inhibitory synchronization in vitro and a large reduction in cortical gamma oscillations in vivo. This reveals that, while the roles of inhibition in establishing cortical inhibitory/excitatory balance and RFs can be subserved by multiple interneuron subtypes, gamma oscillations depend on cellular properties that cannot be compensated ...
The long-term goal of our research program is to understand the neural circuit mechanisms underlying motivated behavior. The exquisite neural architecture of mi...
To determine whether autaptic inhibition plays a functional role in the adult hippocampus, the action potential afterhyperpolarisations (spike AHPs) of CA1 interneurones were investigated in 25 basket, three bistratified and eight axo-axonic cells. The spike AHPs showed two minima in all regular-spiking (5), burst-firing (3) and in many fast-spiking cells (17:28). The fast component had a time-to-peak (TTP) of 1.2 ± 0.5 ms, the slower TTP was very variable (range of 3.3-103 ms). The AHP width at half-amplitude (HW) was 12.5 ± 5.7 ms in fast-spiking, 29.3 ± 18 ms in regular-spiking and 99.7 ± 42 ms in burst-firing cells. Axo-axonic cells never establish autapses, and the fast-spiking variety showed narrow (HW: 3.9 ± 0.7 ms) spike AHPs with only one AHP minimum (TTP: 0.9 ± 0.1 ms). When challenged with GABAA receptor modulators, spike AHPs in basket and bistratified cells were enhanced by zolpidem (HW by 18.4 ± 6.2 % in 10:15 cells tested), diazepam (45.2 ± 0.5 %, 6:7), etomidate (43.9 ± ...
In vivo studies indicate that coherent firing among cortical neurons may be related to sensory stimulation and behavioral states (1-4). However, how postsynaptic cells read out the pattern of activity of their presynaptic axons and how spike synchrony among input axons may be detected by the cortical network remain poorly understood (3, 5).. Studies in intact animals as well as theoretical work suggest that inhibitory interneurons may coordinate neuronal activity in cortical networks (6-11). Fast-spiking (FS) cells are a prominent subtype of GABA-releasing (GABAergic) interneurons (12), exerting powerful inhibitory control of both excitatory and inhibitory cortical cells (13-17). The properties of excitatory synapses at FS cells (13, 18), as well as their voltage-dependent conductances (19-21), suggest that these cells may be particularly sensitive to the timing of their inputs, as has been shown for hippocampal interneurons (22,23). Moreover, cortical networks of FS cells are interconnected by ...
Exposure to addictive and non-addictive drugs during adolescence increases susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders. GABA interneurons mediate maturation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus during adolescence. Recent findings indicate that these drugs disrupt GABA interneurons in the maturing PFC, but effects on hippocampus are unknown. For my thesis, I investigated three such drugs for effects on hippocampal GABA interneurons in adolescent rats. I found developmental disregulation of GABA interneurons to cocaine and a glutamate agonist, but not to a marijuana-mimic. This research was performed in Dr. Kuei Yuan Tsengs Laboratory at Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science.
Primates and rodents, which descended from a common ancestor around 90 million years ago1, exhibit profound differences in behaviour and cognitive capacity; the cellular basis for these differences is unknown. Here we use single-nucleus RNA sequencing to profile RNA expression in 188,776 individual interneurons across homologous brain regions from three primates (human, macaque and marmoset), a rodent (mouse) and a weasel (ferret). Homologous interneuron types-which were readily identified by their RNA-expression patterns-varied in abundance and RNA expression among ferrets, mice and primates, but varied less among primates. Only a modest fraction of the genes identified as markers of specific interneuron subtypes in any one species had this property in another species. In the primate neocortex, dozens of genes showed spatial expression gradients among interneurons of the same type, which suggests that regional variation in cortical contexts shapes the RNA expression patterns of adult neocortical
Molecular definitions of neural cell types largely depend on the expression of RNAs or proteins as assessed by in situ hybridization, RNA array and sequencing,...
Video articles in JoVE about pyramidal cells include Multi-photon Intracellular Sodium Imaging Combined with UV-mediated Focal Uncaging of Glutamate in CA1 Pyramidal Neurons, Whole Cell Recording from an Organotypic Slice Preparation of Neocortex, Inhibitory Synapse Formation in a Co-culture Model Incorporating GABAergic Medium Spiny Neurons and HEK293 Cells Stably Expressing GABAA Receptors, Real-time Electrophysiology: Using Closed-loop Protocols to Probe Neuronal Dynamics and Beyond, Tuning in the Hippocampal Theta Band In Vitro: Methodologies for Recording from the Isolated Rodent Septohippocampal Circuit, Ex Utero Electroporation and Organotypic Slice Cultures of Embryonic Mouse Brains for Live-Imaging of Migrating GABAergic Interneurons, Paired Whole Cell Recordings in Organotypic Hippocampal Slices, Investigating Long-term Synaptic Plasticity in Interlamellar Hippocampus CA1 by Electrophysiological Field Recording, Homochronic Transplantation of Interneuron Precursors into
The diversity of premotor interneurons in the mammalian spinal cord is generated from a few phylogenetically conserved embryonic classes of interneurons (V0, V1, V2, V3). Their mechanisms of diversification remain unresolved, although these are clearly important to understand motor circuit assembly in the spinal cord. Some Ia inhibitory interneurons (IaINs) and all Renshaw cells (RCs) derive from embryonic V1 interneurons; however, in adult they display distinct functional properties and synaptic inputs, for example proprioceptive inputs preferentially target IaINs, while motor axons target RCs. Previously, we found that both inputs converge on RCs in neonates, raising the possibility that proprioceptive (VGLUT1-positive) and motor axon synapses (VAChT-positive) initially target several different V1 interneurons populations and then become selected or deselected postnatally. Alternatively, specific inputs might precisely connect only with predefined groups of V1 interneurons. To test these hypotheses we
Nerve cells are organized into complex networks that comprise the building blocks of our nervous system. Neurons communicate by transmitting messenger molecules released from synaptic vesicles. Alterations in neuronal circuitry and synaptic signaling contribute to a wide range of neurological conditions, often with consequences for movement. Intrinsic neuronal networks in the spinal cord serve to coordinate vital rhythmic motor functions. In spite of extensive efforts to address the organization of these neural circuits, much remains to be revealed regarding the identity and function of specific interneuron cell types and how neuromodulation tune network activity. In this thesis, two novel genes initially identified as markers for spinal neuronal populations were investigated: Slc10a4 and Dmrt3.. The orphan transporter SLC10A4 was found to be expressed on synaptic vesicles of the cholinergic system, including motor neurons, as well as in the monoaminergic system, including dopaminergic, ...
Neuronal firing sequences that occur during behavioral tasks are precisely reactivated in the neocortex and the hippocampus during rest and sleep. These precise firing sequences are likely to reflect latent memory traces, and their reactivation is believed to be essential for memory consolidation an …
Renshaw cell properties have been studied extensively for over 50 years, making them a uniquely well-defined class of spinal interneuron. Recent work has revealed novel ways to identify Renshaw cells in situ and this in turn has promoted a range of studies that have determined their ontogeny and organization of synaptic inputs in unprecedented detail. In this review we illustrate how mature Renshaw cell properties and connectivity arise through a combination of activity-dependent and genetically specified mechanisms. These new insights should aid the development of experimental strategies to manipulate Renshaw cells in spinal circuits and clarify their role in modulating motor output.
This is a model network of prefrontal cortical microcircuit based primarily on rodent data. It includes 16 pyramidal model neurons, 2 fast spiking interneuron models, 1 regular spiking interneuron model and 1 irregular spiking interneuron model. The goal of the paper was to use this model network to determine the role of specific interneuron subtypes in persistent activity ...
A detailed electrophysiological analysis reveals a new principle for how commissural excitatory interneurons are organised in an adult vertebrate.
GABA Regulates the Multidirectional Tangential Migration of GABAergic Interneurons in Living Neonatal Mice. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
COMMENT Sodium current for the soma References: 1. Martina, M., Vida, I., and Jonas, P. Distal initiation and active propagation of action potentials in interneuron dendrites, Science, 287:295-300, 2000. soma axon-lacking dend axon-bearing dend Na+ gmax 107 ps/um2 117 ps/um2 107 ps/um2 slope 10.9 mV/e 11.2 mV/e 11.2 mV/e V1/2 -37.8 mV -45.6 mV -45.6 mV 2. Marina, M. and Jonas, P. Functional differences in Na+ channel gating between fast-spiking interneurons and principal neurones of rat hippocampus, J. Physiol., 505.3:593-603, 1997. *Note* The interneurons here are basket cells from the dentate gyrus. Na+ Activation V1/2 -25.1 mV slope 11.5 Activation t (-20 mV) 0.16 ms Deactivation t (-40 mV) 0.13 ms Inactivation V1/2 -58.3 mV slope 6.7 onset of inactivation t (-20 mV) 1.34 ms onset of inactivation t (-55 mV) 18.6 ms recovery from inactivation t 2.0 ms (30 ms conditioning pulse) recovery from inactivation t 2.7 ms (300 ms conditioning pulse) ENDCOMMENT UNITS { (mA) = (milliamp) (mV) = ...
Our immunohistochemical studies suggest that similar populations of local and pcs interneurons may also be present in the rat BLA. GAD immunostaining revealed sparsely distributed local interneurons throughout the BLA as well as dense clusters localized to the lateral and medial borders of this brain region. It is noteworthy that PV staining was observed among the local interneurons but was not detected in the GAD-positive cells located within the dense clusters along the border of the BLA. Moreover, in the presence of glutamate receptor antagonists, GABAA IPSCs onto BLA pyramidal neurons could be evoked by stimulating electrodes placed distally, within the external capsule or locally, proximal to the cell being recorded. In addition, using a dual stimulation protocol, we demonstrated that a locally evoked conditioning IPSC significantly depressed the amplitude of a subsequent local test IPSC, evoked 250 ms later. In contrast, a distal conditioning IPSC, evoked by stimulating within the external ...
What are interneurons and how do they affect our brains ability to function, to change, and to learn? Research scientist Dr. Scott Owen explains the latest findings. The post #222: What are
On January 15, FSIS announced the availability of the agencys draft Establishment-Specific Data Release Strategic Plan (the draft plan) for sharing data on federally inspected meat and poultry establishments with the public. FSIS developed the plan in response to memoranda released by President Obama and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) that called for ...
2021, Miuli A, Sepede G, Stigliano G, Mosca A, Di Carlo F, dAndrea G, Lalli A, Spano MC, Pettorruso M, Martinotti G, di Giannantonio M ...
J:60594 Lee KJ, Dietrich P, Jessell TM, Genetic ablation reveals that the roof plate is essential for dorsal interneuron specification [see comments]. Nature. 2000 Feb 17;403(6771):734-40 ...
Article: Submillisecond firing synchrony between different subtypes of cortical interneurons connected chemically but not electrically. ...
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In the hippocampal CA1 area, a relatively homogenous population of pyramidal cells is accompanied by a diversity of GABAergic interneurons. Previously, we found that parvalbumin-expressing basket, axo-axonic, bistratified, and oriens-lacunosum moleculare cells, innervating different domains of pyramidal cells, have distinct firing patterns during network oscillations in vivo. A second family of interneurons, expressing cholecystokinin but not parvalbumin, is known to target the same domains of pyramidal cells as do the parvalbumin cells. To test the temporal activity of these independent and parallel GABAergic inputs, we recorded the precise spike timing of identified cholecystokinin interneurons during hippocampal network oscillations in anesthetized rats and determined their molecular expression profiles and synaptic targets. The cells were cannabinoid receptor type 1 immunopositive. Contrary to the stereotyped firing of parvalbumin interneurons, cholecystokinin-expressing basket and dendrite
To date, unequivocal neuroanatomical features have been demonstrated neither for sporadic nor for familial schizophrenia. Here, we investigated the neuroanatomical changes in a transgenic rat model for a subset of sporadic chronic mental illness (CMI), which modestly overexpresses human full-length, non-mutant Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), and for which aberrant dopamine homeostasis consistent with some schizophrenia phenotypes has previously been reported. Neuroanatomical analysis revealed a reduced density of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and reduced dopaminergic fibres in the striatum. Parvalbumin-positive interneuron occurrence in the somatosensory cortex was shifted from layers II/III to V/VI, and the number of calbindin-positive interneurons was slightly decreased. Reduced corpus callosum thickness confirmed trend-level observations from in vivo MRI and voxel-wise tensor based morphometry. These neuroanatomical changes help explain functional phenotypes of this ...
GABAergic internereurons are crucial components of the neocortical network, and the functional characterization of the neocortex has been greatly hindered by the lack of consensus regarding the way they should be classified. Interneurons differentiate from an electrophysiological, and a morphological point of view, as well as by the expression of molecular markers, and it remains debated if the combination of these features delineates separate classes, or if it defines a phenotypical continuum. During my PhD, I proposed myself to study the diversity of neocortical interneurons, while taking all these criterions into account. Patch-clamp recordings coupled to single-cell RT-PCR have been performed in mouse, on a sample of more than 300 neocortical interneurons, and the arborization of nearly 200 of them has been reconstructed in 3 dimensions. The electrophysiological, morphological and molecular phenotypes of sampled neurons have been quantified through a set of 56 parameters. Using this sample, we first
Perisomatic inhibition provided by a subgroup of GABAergic interneurons plays a critical role in timing the output of pyramidal cells. To test their contribution at the network and the behavioral level, we generated genetically modified mice in which the excitatory drive was selectively reduced either by the knockout of the GluR-D or by conditional ablation of the GluR-A subunit in parvalbumin-positive cells. Comparable cell type-specific reductions of AMPA-mediated currents were obtained. Kainate-induced gamma oscillations exhibited reduced power in hippocampal slices from GluR-D-/- and GluR-A(PVCre-/-) mice. Experimental and modeling data indicated that this alteration could be accounted for by imprecise spike timing of fast-spiking cells (FS) caused by smaller interneuronal EPSPs. GluR-D-/- and GluR-A(PVCre-/-) mice exhibited similar impairments in hippocampus-dependent tasks. These findings directly show the effects of insufficient recruitment of fast-spiking cells at the network and behavioral
Perisomatic inhibition provided by a subgroup of GABAergic interneurons plays a critical role in timing the output of pyramidal cells. To test their contribution at the network and the behavioral level, we generated genetically modified mice in which the excitatory drive was selectively reduced either by the knockout of the GluR-D or by conditional ablation of the GluR-A subunit in parvalbumin-positive cells. Comparable cell type-specific reductions of AMPA-mediated currents were obtained. Kainate-induced gamma oscillations exhibited reduced power in hippocampal slices from GluR-D-/- and GluR-A(PVCre-/-) mice. Experimental and modeling data indicated that this alteration could be accounted for by imprecise spike timing of fast-spiking cells (FS) caused by smaller interneuronal EPSPs. GluR-D-/- and GluR-A(PVCre-/-) mice exhibited similar impairments in hippocampus-dependent tasks. These findings directly show the effects of insufficient recruitment of fast-spiking cells at the network and behavioral
Difference between revisions of Parvalbumin-expressing interneurons coordinate hippocampal network dynamics required for memory consolidation ...
Neocortical GABAergic interneuron migration and thalamo-cortical axon (TCA) pathfinding follow similar trajectories and timing, suggesting they may be interdependent. The mechanisms that regulate the radial dispersion of neocortical interneurons are incompletely understood. In this new study we report that disruption of TCA innervation, or TCA-derived glutamate, affected the laminar distribution of GABAergic interneurons in mouse neocortex, resulting in abnormal accumulation in deep layers of interneurons that failed to switch from tangential to radial orientation. Expression of the KCC2 cotransporter was elevated in interneurons of denervated cortex, and KCC2 deletion restored normal interneuron lamination in the absence of TCAs. Disruption of interneuron NMDA receptors or pharmacological inhibition of calpain also led to increased KCC2 expression and defective radial dispersion of interneurons. Thus, although TCAs are not required to guide the tangential migration of GABAergic interneurons, ...
Exposure to propofol (30g or 60 mg/kg) on P7 produced significant c-Fos expression in the deep layers of the piriform cortex on P8. Double immunofluorescence of c-Fos with interneuron markers in the piriform cortex revealed that c-Fos was specifically induced in calbindin (CB)-positive interneurons. Repeated propofol exposure from P7 to P9 induced behavioral deficits in adult mice, such as olfactory function deficit in a buried food test, decreased sociability in a three-chambered choice task, and impaired recognitive ability of learning and memory in novel object recognition tests. However, locomotor activity in the open-field test was not generally affected. Propofol treatment also significantly decreased the number of CB-positive interneurons in the piriform cortex of mice on P21 and adulthood.. ...
In this study, we classified oriens-alveus interneurons into four subtypes. This classification is based on the size of the ACPD-induced inward current and the action potential firing pattern. Type I interneurons are located at the oriens-alveus border and have large, horizontally located cell bodies. Their dendritic trees run horizontally, and their axons run vertically toward stratum lacunosum-moleculare (Fig. 2 A). These interneurons contain somatostatin (Fig. 2 B). Therefore, these interneurons appear identical to the horizontal O-LM cells (Freund and Buzsáki, 1996; Katona et al., 1999). Type III interneurons have vertically oriented dendritic trees, and their axons terminate exlusively in stratum pyramidale (Fig. 2 A). Together with the characteristic high-frequency spiking pattern (Fig.1 C) and the immunoreactivity for parvalbumin (Fig.2 C), these interneurons are putative basket or chandelier cells (Freund and Buzsáki, 1996). Type II and type IV interneurons represent a heterogeneous ...
To investigate the electrophysiological properties, synaptic connections, and anatomy of individual parvalbumin-immunoreactive (PV-IR) and cholecystokinin-immunoreactive (CCK-IR) interneurones in CA1, dual intracellular recordings using biocytin-filled microelectrodes in slices of adult rat hippocampus were combined with fluorescence labelling of PV- and CCK-containing cells. Of 36 PV-IR cells, 29 were basket cells, with most of their axonal arbours in the stratum pyramidale (SP). Six were bistratified cells with axons ramifying throughout stratum oriens (SO) and stratum radiatum (SR). One was a putative axo-axonic cell with an axonal arbour confined to half of the SP and a narrow adjacent region of the SO. Of 27 CCK-IR neurones, 13 were basket cells, with most of their axonal arbours in the SP, and included basket cells with somata in the SP (6), SO (3), and SR (2) and at the border between the stratum lacunosum-moleculare (SLM) and the SR (2). In addition, several dendrite-targeting cell ...
β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation is described as a hallmark of Alzheimers disease (AD). Aβ perturbs a number of synaptic components including nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing α7 subunits (α7-nAChRs), which are abundantly expressed in the hippocampus and found on GABAergic interneurons. We have previously demonstrated the existence of a novel, heteromeric α7β2-nAChR in basal forebrain cholinergic neurons that exhibits high sensitivity to acute Aβ exposure. To extend our previous work, we evaluated the expression and pharmacology of α7β2-nAChRs in hippocampal interneurons and their sensitivity to Aβ. GABAergic interneurons in the CA1 subregion of the hippocampus expressed functional α7β2-nAChRs, which were characterized by relatively slow whole-cell current kinetics, pharmacological sensitivity to dihydro-β-erythroidine (DHβE), a nAChR β2* subunit selective blocker, and α7 and β2 subunit interaction using immunoprecipitation assay. In addition, α7β2-nAChRs were sensitive to 1
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Regionalized loss of parvalbumin interneurons in the cerebral cortex of mice with deficits in GFRα1 signaling. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Chandelier (or axo-axonic) cells are one of the most distinctive types of GABAergic interneurons in the cortex. Although they have traditionally been considered inhibitory neurons, data from rat and human neocortical preparations suggest that chandelier cells have a depolarizing effect on pyramidal neurons at resting membrane potential, and could even activate synaptic chains of neurons. At the same time, recent results from rat hippocampal chandeliers indicate a predominantly inhibitory effect on their postsynaptic targets. To better understand the function of chandelier neurons, we generated Nkx2.1Cre MADM mice, a strain of genetically engineered animals that, by expressing GFP in a subset of neocortical interneurons, enable the identification and targeting of chandelier cells in living brain slices. Using these mice, we characterized the basic electrophysiological properties of a homogeneous population of chandelier neurons from upper layers of somatosensory cortical slices. These chandelier cells
TY - JOUR. T1 - Electrophysiological analysis of GABAergic local circuit neurons in the central nervous system.. AU - Alger, B. E.. AU - Jahr, C. E.. AU - Nicoll, R. A.. PY - 1981/1/1. Y1 - 1981/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0019399076&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0019399076&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 7457236. AN - SCOPUS:0019399076. VL - 26. SP - 77. EP - 91. JO - Advances in biochemical psychopharmacology. JF - Advances in biochemical psychopharmacology. SN - 0065-2229. ER - ...
Epileptic seizures are characterized by periods of hypersynchronous, hyperexcitability within brain networks. Most seizures involve two stages: an initial tonic phase, followed by a longer clonic phase that is characterized by rhythmic bouts of synchronized network activity called afterdischarges (ADs). Here we investigate the cellular and network mechanisms underlying hippocampal ADs in an effort to understand how they maintain seizure activity. Using in vitro hippocampal slice models from rats and mice, we performed electrophysiological recordings from CA3 pyramidal neurons to monitor network activity and changes in GABAergic signaling during epileptiform activity. First, we show that the highest synchrony occurs during clonic ADs, consistent with the idea that specific circuit dynamics underlie this phase of the epileptiform activity. We then show that ADs require intact GABAergic synaptic transmission, which becomes excitatory as a result of a transient collapse in the chloride (Cl(-)) reversal
Fuchs EC, Zivkovic AR, Cunningham MO, Middleton S, Le Beau FEN, Bannerman DM, Rozov A, Whittington MA, Traub RD, Rawlins JNP, Monyer ...
The primary subdivisions of the forebrain, including the neocortex and the basal ganglia, have distinct molecular and cellular properties (1,2). Previous evidence suggests that these subdivisions develop from separate proliferative zones that do not intermix (3). Here we show that cell migration occurs between the primordia of the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortex. Our results suggest that many neocortical interneurons are generated by the proliferative zone of the basal ganglia.. Neocortical neurons include two types: the excitatory pyramidal neurons and the inhibitory (GABA-containing) interneurons. During development, neocortical neurons were thought to derive from the proliferative zone of the neocortical primordium. However, studies of neuronal migration in vitro indicate that cells migrate from the lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) (4), which is the primordium of the striatum (5), into the neocortex. Other evidence suggests that these cells might be interneurons. For example, clonally ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Receptor subtypes involved in the presynaptic and postsynaptic actions of dopamine on striatal interneurons. AU - Centonze, Diego. AU - Grande, Cristina. AU - Usiello, Alessandro. AU - Gubellini, Paolo. AU - Erbs, Eric. AU - Martín, Ana B.. AU - Pisani, Antonio. AU - Tognazzi, Nadia. AU - Bernardi, Giorgio. AU - Moratalla, Rosario. AU - Borrelli, Emiliana. AU - Calabresi, Paolo. PY - 2003/7/16. Y1 - 2003/7/16. N2 - By stimulating distinct receptor subtypes, dopamine (DA) exerts presynaptic and postsynaptic actions on both large aspiny (LA) cholinergic and fast-spiking (FS) parvalbumin-positive interneurons of the striatum. Lack of receptor- and isoform-specific pharmacological agents, however, has hampered the progress toward a detailed identification of the specific DA receptors involved in these actions. To overcome this issue, in the present study we used four different mutant mice in which the expression of specific DA receptors was ablated. In D1 receptor null mice, DIR-/-, ...
Appropriate growth and synaptic integration of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons are essential for functional neural circuits in the brain. Here, we demonstrate that disruption of primary cilia function following the selective loss of ciliary GTPase Arl13b in interneurons impairs interneuronal morphology and synaptic connectivity, leading to altered excitatory/inhibitory activity balance. The altered morphology and connectivity of cilia mutant interneurons and the functional deficits are rescued by either chemogenetic activation of ciliary G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling or the selective induction of Sstr3, a ciliary GPCR, in Arl13b-deficient cilia. Our results thus define a specific requirement for primary cilia-mediated GPCR signaling in interneuronal connectivity and inhibitory circuit formation ...
Unravelling how neurons are guided during vertebrate embryonic development has wide implications for understanding the assembly of the nervous system. During embryogenesis, migration of neuronal cell bodies and axons occurs simultaneously, but to what degree they influence each others development remains obscure. We show here that within the mouse embryonic spinal cord, commissural axons bisect, delimit or preconfigure ventral interneuron cell body position. Furthermore, genetic disruption of commissural axons results in abnormal ventral interneuron cell body positioning. These data suggest that commissural axonal fascicles instruct cell body position by acting either as border landmarks (axon-restricted migration), which to our knowledge has not been previously addressed, or acting as cellular guides. This study in the developing spinal cord highlights an important function for the interaction of cell bodies and axons, and provides a conceptual proof of principle that is likely to have ...
Perturbations in fast-spiking parvalbumin (PV) interneurons are hypothesized to be a major component of various neuropsychiatric disorders; however, the mechanisms regulating PV interneurons remain mostly unknown. Recently, cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) has been shown to function as a major regul …
This group studies various aspects of gabaergic synaptic transmission in cerebellar slices.. The cerebellar interneuron network Interneurons (stellate and basket cells) of the molecular layer are interconnected by chemical (gabaergic) synapses, as well as by electrical synapses. This network is functionally isolated in slice preparations because excitatory inputs are inactive. In the past we have been studying this network in detail, notably focusing on interactions of chemical synapses with the excitability of interneurons (Chavas and Marty, 2003). Current work focuses on the role of electrical synapses as well as the effects exerted by interneurons on Purkinje cells (Oldfield et al., 2010).. Autoreceptors and presynaptic receptors We have shown that, following the release of GABA from interneuron terminals, GABA binds to axonal receptors located on the releasing cell and elicits GABAA (bicuculline-sensitive) currents (Pouzat and Marty, 1999). These autoreceptor currents enhance the ...
Because there are no known perfectly exclusive markers of all amacrine cells, the absence of other cell type-specific genes was useful to establish that a profiled cell belonged to the amacrine cell class. Markers of rod (Rho and Gcap2), bipolar (Cabp5 and Og9x), Müller glial (ApoE and Aqp4), ganglion (Nefl and Pou4f2), and progenitor (Sfrp2 and Fgf15) cells were analyzed for expression in the single amacrine cells and, as a positive control, in previously profiled single cells representing each of these classes (Fig. 2A) (8, 10-12). Markers of horizontal (Lim1) and cone (Opmw) cells were also analyzed, although these cell types were not available for comparison. In the majority of the amacrine cells there was no expression of these markers. In rare cases, where one of these genes was found to be expressed at low levels, no other markers of that same cell class were observed. Notably, 2 amacrine cells expressed Fgf15, a marker of retinal progenitor cells. Kurose et al. have reported expression ...
article{3127253, abstract = {GABAergic interneurons mainly originate in the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) of the embryonic ventral telencephalon (VT) and migrate tangentially to the cortex, guided by membrane-bound and secreted factors. We found that Sip1 (Zfhx1b, Zeb2), a transcription factor enriched in migrating cortical interneurons, is required for their proper differentiation and correct guidance. The majority of Sip1 knockout interneurons fail to migrate to the neocortex and stall in the VT. RNA sequencing reveals that Sip1 knockout interneurons do not acquire a fully mature cortical interneuron identity and contain increased levels of the repulsive receptor Unc5b. Focal electroporation of Unc5b-encoding vectors in the MGE of wild-type brain slices disturbs migration to the neocortex, whereas reducing Unc5b levels in Sip1 knockout slices and brains rescues the migration defect. Our results reveal that Sip1, through tuning of Unc5b levels, is essential for cortical interneuron ...
Movement coordination between opposite body sides relies on neuronal circuits capable of controlling muscle contractions according to motor commands. Trunk and limb muscles engage in distinctly lateralized behaviors, yet how regulatory spinal circuitry differs is less clear. Here, we intersect virus technology and mouse genetics to unravel striking distribution differences of interneurons connected to functionally distinct motor neurons. We find that premotor interneurons conveying information to axial motor neurons reside in symmetrically balanced locations while mostly ipsilateral premotor interneurons synapse with limb-innervating motor neurons, especially those innervating more distal muscles. We show that observed distribution differences reflect specific premotor interneuron subpopulations defined by genetic and neurotransmitter identity. Synaptic input across the midline reaches axial motor neurons preferentially through commissural axon arborization, and to a lesser extent, through ...
Video articles in JoVE about gabaergic neurons include Vibrodissociation of Neurons from Rodent Brain Slices to Study Synaptic Transmission and Image Presynaptic Terminals, Reliable Identification of Living Dopaminergic Neurons in Midbrain Cultures Using RNA Sequencing and TH-promoter-driven eGFP Expression, The Neuroblast Assay: An Assay for the Generation and Enrichment of Neuronal Progenitor Cells from Differentiating Neural Stem Cell Progeny Using Flow Cytometry, Viral-mediated Labeling and Transplantation of Medial Ganglionic Eminence (MGE) Cells for In Vivo Studies, Inhibitory Synapse Formation in a Co-culture Model Incorporating GABAergic Medium Spiny Neurons and HEK293 Cells Stably Expressing GABAA Receptors, Intracortical Inhibition Within the Primary Motor Cortex Can Be Modulated by Changing the Focus of Attention, Protocol for the Differentiation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells into Mixed Cultures of Neurons and Glia for Neurotoxicity Testing, Tuning in the
Truncated Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (Disc 1) ablates signaling of parvalbumin-expressing interneurons in the prefrontal cortex and underlies depression-related behaviour in mice.
At a recent symposium, researcher Francis McMahon provided electrophysiological evidence that several different types of rapid-acting antidepressants-low-dose ketamine, scopolamine, and rapastinel (a partial agonist of the neurotransmitter NMDA)-act by decreasing the inhibitory effects of GABAergic interneurons on excitatory neurons called pyramidal cells, thus increasing synaptic firing.. Researcher Ronald Duman further dissected these effects, showing that ketamine and its active metabolite norketamine reduce the steady firing rate of GABA interneurons by blocking NMDA receptors, while the partial agonist rapastinel acts on the glutamate neurons directly, and both increase the effects of a type of glutamate receptors known as AMPA. These effects were demonstrated using a virus to selectively knock out GluN2B glutamate receptor subunits in either GABA interneurons or glutamate neurons.. Increasing AMPA activity increases synapse number and function and also increases network connectivity, which ...
Neural circuits, governed by a complex interplay between excitatory and inhibitory neurons, are the substrate for information processing, and the organization of synaptic connectivity in neural network is an important determinant of circuit function. Here, we analyzed the fine structure of connectivity in hippocampal CA1 excitatory and inhibitory neurons innervated by Schaffer collaterals (SCs) using mGRASP in male mice. Our previous study revealed spatially structured synaptic connectivity between CA3-CA1 pyramidal cells (PCs). Surprisingly, parvalbumin-positive interneurons (PVs) showed a significantly more random pattern spatial structure. Notably, application of Peters Rule for synapse prediction by random overlap between axons and dendrites enhanced structured connectivity in PCs, but, by contrast, made the connectivity pattern in PVs more random. In addition, PCs in a deep sublayer of striatum pyramidale appeared more highly structured than PCs in superficial layers, and little or no ...
For study of ventral neurons, we recorded from CaP and three ventral interneurons types, VeLD, KA and KA, because the axonal tracks of CaP-like cells are often similar to those of VeLDs, KAs and KAs (Figure 1). Moreover, previous work indicates that single ventral spinal cord precursor cells can give rise to a PMN as well as a VeLD or KA, demonstrating a shared lineage for two of these ventral interneurons[45-48]. Furthermore, Islet1 knock-down leads to the appearance of a novel population of ventral neurons with somas in PMN-like positions but positive for markers of GABAergic neurons, such VeLDs, KAs and KAs[13, 49].. We used the Tg(mnx1:gfp)ml2 line to record from CaP and VeLD in control embryos and CaP-like cells in E3 morphants (Figure 1; Additional file1). We included AlexaFluor 594 in the pipette solution to allow for dye filling of the recorded neuron and visualization of its morphology as an additional test of cell identification (for example, Figure 1C; see Methods). ...
A population of intersegmental interneurones with axons extending from the meso- to the metathoracic ganglion of the locust is described. They receive specific mechanosensory inputs from one mesothoracic leg. Their cell bodies are in group at the posterior of the mesothoracic ganglion, lying over the lateral base of each connective, and their primary neurites emerge in one of four bundles. Their mesothoracic branches are ipsilateral to the cell bodies and the leg from which they receive inputs. Each interneurone has two to six mesothoracic secondary neurites that divide and form a dense field of arborizations in specific regions of the neuropil so that each individual interneurone has a characteristic shape that is an elaboration of a basic and common plan. An interneurone excited by tibial campaniform sensilla and tarsal hair afferents branches in the intermediate neuropil and the ventral association center where the afferents from these receptors also project. An interneurone excited by proprioceptive
Rhythm generating neurons are thought to be ipsilaterally-projecting excitatory neurons in the thoracolumbar mammalian spinal cord. Recently, a subset of Shox2 interneurons (Shox2 non-V2a INs) was found to fulfill these criteria and make up a fraction of the rhythm-generating population. Here we use Hb9::Cre mice to genetically manipulate Hb9::Cre-derived excitatory interneurons (INs) in order to determine the role of these INs in rhythm generation. We demonstrate that this line captures a consistent population of spinal INs which is mixed with respect to neurotransmitter phenotype and progenitor domain, but does not overlap with the Shox2 non-V2a population. We also show that Hb9::Cre-derived INs include the comparatively small medial population of INs which continues to express Hb9 postnatally. When excitatory neurotransmission is selectively blocked by deleting Vglut2 from Hb9::Cre-derived INs, there is no difference in left-right and/or flexor-extensor phasing between these cords and ...
Since the discovery of interneurons that normally do not produce action potentials (nonspiking interneurons) (for reviews, see Roberts and Bush, 1981), the question of why such neurons should exist...
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DeFelipe, J., López-Cruz, P. L., Benavides-Piccione, R., Bielza, C., Larrañaga, P., Anderson, S., Burkhalter, A., Cauli, B., Fairén, A., Feldmeyer, D., Fishell, G., Fitzpatrick, D., Freund, T. F., González-Burgos, G., Hestrin, S., Hill, S., Hof, P. R., Huang, J., Jones, E. G., Kawaguchi, Y., Kisvárday, Z., Kubota, Y., Lewis, D. A., Marín, O., Markram, H., McBain, C. J., Meyer, H. S., Monyer, H., Nelson, S. B., Rockland, K., Rossier, J., Rubenstein, J. L. R., Rudy, B., Scanziani, M., Shepherd, G. M., Sherwood, C. C., Staiger, J. F., Tamás, G., Thomson, A., Wang, Y., Yuste, R., Ascoli, G. A. (March 2013) New insights into the classification and nomenclature of cortical GABAergic interneurons. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 14 (3). pp. 202-216. ISSN 1471003X (ISSN) Di Cristo, G., Chattopadhyaya, B., Kuhlman, S. J., Fu, Y., Belanger, M-C., Wu, C. Z., Rutishauser, U., Maffei, L., Huang, Z. J. (December 2007) Activity-dependent PSA expression regulates inhibitory maturation and onset of critical ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Long-term depression in hippocampal interneurons: Joint requirement for pre- and postsynaptic events. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Interneurons: Cells that form connections between neurons and whose processes are limited to a single local area in the brain ... Unipolar brush cells: Are excitatory glutamatergic interneurons that have a single short dendrite terminating in a brush-like ... They are the major neuron type in the CNS and include interneurons and motor neurons. ...
These induce sensory interneurons by activating Sr/Thr kinases and altering SMAD transcription factor levels. ... Most interneurons migrate tangentially through multiple modes of migration to reach their appropriate location in the cortex. ... An example of tangential migration is the movement of interneurons from the ganglionic eminence to the cerebral cortex. One ... At low concentrations it forms ventral interneurons, at higher concentrations it induces motor neuron development, and at ...
Apoptotic mechanisms in the CNS are still not well understood, yet it is thought that apoptosis of interneurons is a self- ... In the neocortex, a 4:1 ratio of excitatory to inhibitory interneurons is maintained by apoptotic machinery that appears to be ... Transplanted cells died at the age of two weeks, the same age at which endogenous interneurons undergo apoptosis. Regardless of ... Supporting evidence came from an experiment where interneuron progenitors were either transplanted into the mouse neocortex or ...
Transcytosis from the axon into the inhibitory interneurons. Action. *Temperature and pH mediated translocation of the light ... The next step, transcytosis from the axon into the CNS inhibitory interneuron, is one of the least understood parts of TeNT ... Transport to the CNS inhibitory interneurons begins with the B-chain mediating the neurospecific binding of TeNT to the nerve ... Once the vesicle is in the inhibitory interneuron its translocation is mediated by pH and temperature, specifically a low or ...
The inhibitory interneuron fires spontaneously.[7] The C fiber's synapse would inhibit the inhibitory interneuron, indirectly ... The inhibitory interneuron decreases the chances that the projection neuron will fire. Firing of C fibers inhibits the ... The Aβ fiber, on the other hand, forms an excitatory connection with the inhibitory interneuron, thus decreasing the projection ... Firing of the Aβ fibers activates the inhibitory interneuron, reducing the chances that the projection neuron will fire, even ...
Benes FM, Berretta S (2001). "GABAergic interneurons: implications for understanding schizophrenia and bipolar disorder". ...
Some of the branches of the I-a axons synapse with inhibitory interneurons in the spinal cord. These, in turn, synapse with ... By inhibiting the flexor, these interneurons aid contraction of the extensor.. *Still other branches of the I-a axons synapse ... with interneurons leading to brain centers, e.g., the cerebellum, that coordinate body movements.[16] ...
The interneurons in the external plexiform layer perform feedback inhibition on the mitral cells to control back propagation. ... Interneurons in the external plexiform layer are responsive to pre-synaptic action potentials and exhibit both excitatory ... The basal dendrites of mitral cells are connected to interneurons known as granule cells, which by some theories produce ... Numerous interneuron types exist in the olfactory bulb including periglomerular cells which synapse within and between ...
In the cerebellar cortex there are a variety of inhibitory neurons (interneurons). The only excitatory neurons present in the ... Mugnaini E, Osen KK, Dahl AL, Friedrich VL Jr, Korte G (1980). "Fine structure of granule cells and related interneurons ( ... The dorsal cochlear granule cells are small excitatory interneurons which are developmentally related and thus resemble the ... granule cells excite Purkinje cells but also excite GABAergic interneurons that inhibit Purkinje cells. ...
... silencing of oxytocin receptor interneurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of female mice resulted in loss of social ... "Oxytocin modulates female sociosexual behavior through a specific class of prefrontal cortical interneurons". Cell. 159 (2): ...
Thalamic interneurons process sensory information and signal different regions of the thalamic nuclei. These nuclei extend to ... role in top down processing and regulation of thalamic activity than do the processes originating in thalamic interneurons. ...
... interneurons, RA-projecting cells (HVCRA), and X-projecting cells (HVCX)[7] ...
Interneurons commanding swimmeret movements in the crayfish, Procambarus clarkii (Girard) Comparative Biochemistry and ... Stimulation of the command neuron triggers a lower level central pattern generator whose motorneurons and interneurons produce ... The term command neuron first appeared in a 1964 paper "Interneurons Commanding Swimmeret Movements in the Crayfish" by CAG ...
Interneurons connect neurons within the central nervous system.. By function[change , change source]. Sensory neurons carry ... There are three classes of neurons: afferent neurons, efferent neurons, and interneurons. ...
In humans there are also a small number (about 7.5%) of GABAergic interneurons that participate in the local circuitry; however ... Lévesque JC, Parent A (May 2005). "GABAergic interneurons in human subthalamic nucleus". Movement Disorders. 20 (5): 574-84. ...
It is released by cholinergic interneurons. In humans, non-human primates and rodents, these interneurons respond to salient ... "Spontaneous firing and evoked pauses in the tonically active cholinergic interneurons of the striatum". Neuroscience. 198: 27- ...
When interneurons are activated by metabotropic acetylcholine receptors in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices, a theta ... Chavas J, Marty A (March 2003). "Coexistence of excitatory and inhibitory GABA synapses in the cerebellar interneuron network ...
Southwell, D.G. (November 2012). "Intrinsically determined cell death of developing cortical interneurons". Nature 491 (7422): ...
"Performance of fly visual interneurons during object fixation". The Journal of Neuroscience 20 (16): 6256-66. PMID 10934276 ...
... neurotrophic factor attenuates alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated responses in hippocampal interneurons". The ...
GABAergic interneurons mature faster in the hippocampus and the GABA signalling machinery appears earlier than glutamatergic ...
The pre-Bötzinger complex is a cluster of interneurons involved in the respiratory function of the medulla. ...
Ketamine appears to bind preferentially to the NMDA receptors on GABAergic interneurons, which may partially explain its ...
Helms AW, Johnson JE (Mar 1998). "Progenitors of dorsal commissural interneurons are defined by MATH1 expression". Development ...
Jankowska E, Hammar I, Chojnicka B, Hedén CH (2000). "Effects of monoamines on interneurons in four spinal reflex pathways from ...
... receptors located on glutamatergic interneurons". Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology. 361 (1): 33-8. doi:10.1007/ ...
Some interneurons that can be found in more superficial layers can also be found here, including basket cells, bistratified ... This stratum also contains the cell bodies of many interneurons, including axo-axonic cells, bistratified cells, and radial ... Sik, Attila; Penttonen, Markku; Buzsáki, György (March 1997). "Interneurons in the Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus: an In Vivo ... and they terminate on both principal cells and interneurons.[28][29] A weak commissural projection connects both CA1 regions ...
Among their many roles, interneurons synapse on α-MNs to create more complex reflex circuitry. One type of interneuron is the ... The most extensive input to α-MNs is from local interneurons, which are the most numerous type of neuron in the spinal cord. ... Other fibers from α-MNs synapse on Renshaw cells, i.e. inhibitory interneurons that synapse on the α-MN and limit its activity ... Alpha motor neurons receive input from a number of sources, including upper motor neurons, sensory neurons, and interneurons. ...
The Ia afferent signal is also transmitted polysynaptically through interneurons (Ia inhibitory interneurons), which inhibit ... Hypertonia may be the result of over-sensitivity of alpha motoneurons and interneurons to the Ia and II afferent signals.[8] ...
Interneurons connect neurons to other neurons within the brain and spinal cord. Neurons respond to stimuli, and communicate the ...
... called an interneuron. (All neurons are capable of conducting an impulse, which is a brief change in the electrical charge on ... Other articles where Interneuron is discussed: nervous system: Nervous systems: …to an adjustor, ... the spinal gray matter contain interneurons, which connect various cell groups. Many interneurons have short axons distributed ... transmit information to interneurons located within the Auerbach and the Meissner plexi, and the interneurons relay the ...
Title: Interneuron Issue 4.2, Author: theinterneuron, Name: Interneuron Issue 4.2, Length: 23 pages, Page: 1, Published: 2017- ... GET INVOLVED! Interneuron is always looking for contributors! If you are interested in joining us as a writer, artist, or ... Send us an email: interneuron[email protected] Images from http://icons.iconarchive.com/icon s/custom-icon-design/flatastic- ...
The interneurons constitute one of the three basic classes of neuron,neurons. They receive input only from neurons, either ... Interneurons make up all of the brain and most of the spinal cord, and number close to a hundred billion by some estimates. ... The interneurons constitute one of the three basic classes of neurons. They receive input only from neurons, either sensory ... The interneurons that make up the brains cerebral cortex alone include pyramidal, spiny stellate, chandelier,and basket ...
Parvalbumin-expressing interneurons CCK-expressing interneurons VIP-expressing interneurons SOM-expressing interneurons ... interneurons Calretinin-expressing interneurons Nitric oxide synthase-expressing interneurons Interneurons in the CNS are ... Interneurons can be further broken down into two groups: local interneurons and relay interneurons.[need quotation to verify] ... However, excitatory interneurons using glutamate in the CNS also exist, as do interneurons releasing neuromodulators like ...
Although several interneuron populations are known to target other interneurons to varying degrees, little is known about ... VIP interneurons inhibit Som and Pv interneurons in ACx and mPFC in vitro ... Cortical interneurons that specialize in disinhibitory control.. Pi HJ1, Hangya B, Kvitsiani D, Sanders JI, Huang ZJ, Kepecs A. ... d, Photostimulation-evoked spike probability of a VIP interneuron. (left) Raster plot. (right) Firing probability as a function ...
These interneurons expressed a unique combination of genes that encode transcription factors, receptors and neuropeptides and ... Only a modest fraction of the genes identified as markers of specific interneuron subtypes in any one species had this ... We found that an interneuron type that was previously associated with the mouse hippocampus-the ivy cell, which has ... Here we use single-nucleus RNA sequencing to profile RNA expression in 188,776 individual interneurons across homologous brain ...
The spinal interneuron called Ia inhibitory interneuron is responsible for this inhibition of the antagonist muscle. The Ia ... Different classes of spinal interneurons are involved in the process of sensory-motor integration. Most interneurons are found ... Renshaw cells are among the first identified interneurons. This type of interneuron projects onto α-motoneurons, where it ... These afferent fibers project onto the spinal cord and synapse with the spinal interneurons called Ib inhibitory interneurons. ...
Four GABAergic interneurons impose feeding restraint in Drosophila.. Pool AH1, Kvello P2, Mann K1, Cheung SK1, Gordon MD1, Wang ... Here, we identify four GABAergic interneurons in the Drosophila brain that establish a central feeding threshold which is ... DSOG1 neurons are GABAergic interneurons that do not respond to gustatory stimulation or satiety state ...
V2a interneuron protocol specifically increases V2a interneuron population. (A) Timeline contrasting the motor neuron and V2a ... Single-cell RNAseq of V2a interneuron cultures. (A) tSNE plot of V2a interneuron cultures indicating seven clusters. (B) CHX10 ... V2a interneuron protocol robustly increases hPSC neurogenesis. (A) Gene expression throughout V2a interneuron differentiation ... Long-Term Culture Increases the Maturation Profile of V2a Interneurons.. To examine the maturation of V2a interneurons, ...
EphA4 defines a class of excitatory locomotor-related interneurons Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from PNAS ... EphA4 defines a class of excitatory locomotor-related interneurons. Simon J. B. Butt, Line Lundfald, and Ole Kiehn ... In this study, we have performed whole-cell patch clamp on EphA4-positive interneurons in the flexor region (L2) of the ... We provide evidence that although EphA4 positive interneurons are not entirely a homogeneous population, most of them fire in a ...
Scientists in China are reporting that by transplanting mouse embryonic interneurons into the brains of mice and combining that ... "We also need to determine the exact subtype of transplanted interneurons and the exact subregion in the amygdala that are ... "We found that although the transplanted interneurons did not alter the formation of fear memories, they reduced recovery and ... Scientists in China are reporting that by transplanting mouse embryonic interneurons into the brains of mice and combining that ...
... nonspiking interneurons) (for reviews, see Roberts and Bush, 1981), the question of why such neurons should exist... ... Since the discovery of interneurons that normally do not produce action potentials ( ... Since the discovery of interneurons that normally do not produce action potentials (nonspiking interneurons) (for reviews, see ... Burrows, M. and Siegler, M. V. S., 1982, Spiking local interneurons mediate local reflexes, Science 217:650-652.PubMedCrossRef ...
... 11.06.2015. Researchers from the MRC Centre for Developmental Neurobiology (MRC ... MGE-derived interneurons are shown expressing EphB3 (red) and Nkx2-1 (green) migrating to the striatum. ... While most research studies have focused on the migration of interneurons to the cortex, very little is known about the ... Both cortical and striatal interneurons can be attracted by Nrg1 sources present in the cerebral cortex and the striatum. ...
... a marker of interneurons (arrows). (c) Staining by parvalbumin antibody show intact (arrowheads) and degenerating interneurons ... a marker of interneurons (arrows). (c) Staining by parvalbumin antibody show intact (arrowheads) and degenerating interneurons ...
Fast depolarizing inhibition among interneurons has been recently shown to act as a synchronizing signal in interneurons (Vida ... Interneurons Provide Circuit-Specific Depolarization and Hyperpolarization. Jonas-Frederic Sauer, Michael Strüber, Marlene ... Interneurons Provide Circuit-Specific Depolarization and Hyperpolarization. Jonas-Frederic Sauer, Michael Strüber, Marlene ... Interneurons Provide Circuit-Specific Depolarization and Hyperpolarization Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ...
interneuron, OLM, somatostatin, hippocampus, Chrna2 National Category Neurosciences Identifiers. URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-259200 ... In this thesis I present compelling in vitro and in vivo evidence that a subpopulation of OLM interneurons (defined by the ... 1. On the Mechanisms Behind Hippocampal Theta Oscillations: The role of OLMα2 interneurons. Open this publication in new window ... hippocampus, interneuron, optogenetics, theta oscillations, anxiety National Category Neurosciences Identifiers. urn:nbn:se:uu: ...
... 14.05.2008. A new study published in Biological Psychiatry ... A decreased number of these same interneurons is "one of the most consistent findings in schizophrenia and psychotic disorders ... hyperactivity that is correlated with a lack of parvalbumin-positive and somatostatin-positive inhibitory interneurons in the ...
... and by local interneurons. Cholinergic interneurons (CINs) provide the main source of acetylcholine (ACh) to the striatum ( ... 2007) Cholinergic interneurons control the excitatory input to the striatum. J Neurosci 27:391-400, doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3709- ... 2010) Cholinergic interneurons control local circuit activity and cocaine conditioning. Science 330:1677-1681, doi:10.1126/ ... 2010) Distinct roles of GABAergic interneurons in the regulation of striatal output pathways. J Neurosci 30:2223-2234, doi: ...
Here, using murine genetic models and cell ablation strategies, we have demonstrated that a subset of retinal interneurons, the ... These findings demonstrate that specific retinal interneurons and the intraretinal vasculature are highly interdependent, and ...
The interneuron and motor neuron activity bursts occurred in unison, confirming to the authors that the interneurons were ... Could interneurons also be a valid target for ALS therapies? Jiang speculated that riluzole, the only approved drug for the ... The work moves up one rung on the ladder-from motor neurons to interneurons-but leaves open the question of what causes the ... In some animals in the later stages of disease, drugs were not even necessary to induce firing of interneurons and motor ...
... Neuron. 2013 Feb 6;77(3):388-405. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron. ... During the course of development, GABAergic interneurons contribute to key aspects of the functional maturation of the cortex ... we provide an overview of the maturation of GABAergic neurotransmission and discuss the role of GABAergic interneurons in ...
Interneurons Reach Far and Wide. Interneurons in the brain have been garnering increasing attention. Southwell et al. (10.1126/ ... Cortical interneurons are a heterogeneous population, and little is known about how distinct subtypes of interneurons function ... It is unknown how transplanted interneurons modify disease phenotypes. While transplanted interneurons likely exert therapeutic ... and even some sorts of chronic pain either involve interneurons or may respond to transplanted interneurons. ...
... BilZ0r BilZ0r at TAKETHISOUThotmail.com Thu Apr 1 19:31:48 EST 2004 *Previous message ...
... Cell Tissue Res. 2006 Oct;326(1):1-24. doi: 10.1007/s00441-006-0210-8. ... With a few notable exceptions, most of the neuropeptides have been demonstrated in brain interneurons of various types. The ... We describe the distribution of neuropeptides in brain interneurons of a few well-studied insect species. Emphasis has been ... placed upon interneurons innervating specific brain areas, such as the optic lobes, accessory medulla, antennal lobes, central ...
These findings demonstrate that GluN2B-NMDARs on GABA interneurons are the initial cellular trigger for the rapid ... interneurons, as well as subtypes expressing somatostatin (Sst) or parvalbumin (Pvalb), but not glutamate principle neurons in ... Further analysis of GABA subtypes showed that cell-specific knockdown or deletion of GluN2B in Sst interneurons blocked or ...
... but not in post-mitotic migrating interneurons) reduces cortical interneuron number in a dose-dependent manner. Magoh-depleted ... Mammalian interneurons are crucial for cortical function, and are formed by progenitors located in the ganglionic eminences. ... Now, Debra Silver and colleagues analyse the role of Magoh, an EJC component, in murine interneuron development. Magoh is ... One-third of all progenitor daughter cells also undergo apoptosis, and there is a bias towards interneurons at the expense of ...
This Research Topic will cover the different aspects of cortical NO interneurons, from their diversity, embryonic origins to ... the identity and the roles of several subpopulations of GABAergic interneurons remain elusive. Presumably, because of their ... the functional importance of NO-producing GABAergic interneurons is particularly enigmatic. ... and physiology rely on a delicate interplay between glutamatergic excitatory neurons and GABAergic inhibitory interneurons in a ...
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... types influence PC activity including excitatory input from parallel fibers and inhibition from molecular layer interneurons ( ... Interneurons Is the Subject Area "Interneurons" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
Synchrony detection in interneuron networks. The temporal precision of spike transmission that we describe here may allow ... Spike Transmission and Synchrony Detection in Networks of GABAergic Interneurons Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a ... Studies in intact animals as well as theoretical work suggest that inhibitory interneurons may coordinate neuronal activity in ... at hippocampal interneurons, the EPSPs time course is relatively insensitive to membrane depolarization (23). Thus, we compared ...
  • The motor and learning functions of the striatum are critically dependent on synaptic transmission from midbrain dopamine neurons and striatal cholinergic interneurons (CINs). (jneurosci.org)
  • 34 degrees C) were generated at multiple synaptic contacts established on the interneuron dendrites close to the soma. (nih.gov)
  • One example of interneurons are inhibitory interneurons in the neocortex which selectively inhibit sections of the thalamus based on synaptic input both from other parts of the neocortex and from the thalamus itself. (wikidoc.org)
  • An example of interneurons is inhibitory interneurons in the neocortex which selectively inhibit sections of the thalamus based on synaptic input both from other parts of the neocortex and from the thalamus itself. (statemaster.com)
  • Bartos M, Vida I, Jonas P (2007) Synaptic mechanisms of synchronized gamma oscillations in inhibitory interneuron networks. (springer.com)
  • Interneurons exhibit very diverse morphology, electrophysiology, molecular content and post synaptic targets (Cauli et al. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • [4,9,10] This suggests that halothane also may modulate the synaptic recruitment and the excitability of GABAergic interneurons. (asahq.org)
  • [14] Thus understanding the effects of volatile anesthetics on synaptic responses and membrane properties of interneurons is important for the development of a comprehensive view of the central nervous system effects of this class of general anesthetics. (asahq.org)
  • The main objective of the project was to characterize a population of inhibitory CR interneurons in the superficial dorsal horn (SDH) and their synaptic connection with CMrgD primary afferent fibres. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Transplanted interneurons also augment synaptic inhibition and alter recipient neural network synchrony, two physiological processes disrupted in various epilepsies. (cureepilepsy.org)
  • Multicompartment models of crayfish nonspiking interneurons were developed in order to investigate how the synaptic input to interneurons could be converted into the synaptic output to motoneurons. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Simulation of synaptic activities on the interneuron model revealed that the synaptic potential in the interneuron was smoothed during the electrotonic spread over the dendrite more effectively than in the motoneurons. (nii.ac.jp)
  • It is concluded that the nonspiking interneurons function as an extended dendrites of motoneurons by gathering synaptic inputs from spatially wider range of presynaptic cells and processing them in such a way that the general excitability of motoneurons can be adjusted in a more delicate way through the continuous membrane potential change meicated by the interneuron. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Further, upon disruption of the early Martinotti interneurons network, the synaptic maturation of thalamocortical inputs onto parvalbumin interneurons is arrested. (maxplanckflorida.org)
  • These results suggest that Martinotti interneurons function as a pioneer population whose transient early synaptic connectivity is essential for the establishment of thalamic recruitment of feed-forward inhibition mediated by parvalbumin interneurons. (maxplanckflorida.org)
  • By using the endogenous muscarinic receptor to detect the synaptic release of ACh in the striatum, this proposal will define the how muscarinic receptors in striatal output neurons encode firing patterns of cholinergic interneurons, identify the role of glutamate co-release in shaping muscarinic transmission, and identify how neuromodulatory striatonigral inputs regulate ACh output. (neurodegenerationresearch.eu)
  • The proposed studies are expected to be significant in that they have to potential to be the first examination of a muscarinic mediated synaptic event in the striatum driven the release of ACh from the firing of cholinergic interneurons. (neurodegenerationresearch.eu)
  • Furthermore, developmental ketamine treatment resulted in an increased NMDA:AMPA ratio in evoked synaptic currents and larger amplitudes of spontaneous NMDAR currents, indicating a homeostatic upregulation of NMDARs in PV interneurons. (ovid.com)
  • The T interneurons receive synaptic input from the Mauthner neuron, from unidentified axons in the mlf, and perhaps from trigeminal sensory fibers. (zfin.org)
  • An effective means of identifying coetaneous interneurons is neuronal birthdating. (wikipedia.org)
  • The scientists reasoned that motor neurons could be receiving above-normal inputs from two possible sources: peripheral sensory neurons in the short-latency reflex pathway, or spinal interneurons that transmit signals from the neuronal network. (alzforum.org)
  • After migrating from their origins across the developing brain, young interneurons reach the cortex and differentiate into various inhibitory neuronal cell types. (sciencemag.org)
  • Neuronal processing and physiology rely on a delicate interplay between glutamatergic excitatory neurons and GABAergic inhibitory interneurons in a spatially, temporally and cell-type specific manner. (frontiersin.org)
  • Although recent advances have significantly improved our knowledge of its neuronal types, the identity and the roles of several subpopulations of GABAergic interneurons remain elusive. (frontiersin.org)
  • Studies in intact animals as well as theoretical work suggest that inhibitory interneurons may coordinate neuronal activity in cortical networks ( 6-11 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • In summation, this thesis provides new insight into how regulating interneuron activity can be homeostatic for neuronal networks, and reveals potential implications for development and preservation of brain function. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Relying on the neuronal capacitance, cell body size and arborization of dendrites and axons, the three types of interneurons correspond to three stages of development with non-innervated neurons and interneurons with GABA A and glutamatergic synapses being, respectively, the least and the most developed. (wiley.com)
  • We investigated neuronal transmission from cercal sensory afferent neurons to ascending giant interneurons (GIs). (bioone.org)
  • Pharmacological treatment with 500 μM acetylcholine (ACh) increased neuronal activities of ascending interneurons with cell bodies located in the TAG. (bioone.org)
  • Taken together, we demonstrate MATH1 expression in a differentiating population of neuronal precursors in the dorsal neural tube that appear to give rise specifically to dorsal commissural interneurons. (biologists.org)
  • Here we examined how the activity of the V0v interneurons - an important commissural neuronal class - varies with the locomotor speed in adult zebrafish. (elifesciences.org)
  • The V0 interneurons, which originate from the p0 progenitor domain, represent a major commissural neuronal population controlling the left-right alternation of locomotor movements. (elifesciences.org)
  • Our findings demonstrate that Evx1 is a postmitotic determinant of V0 interneuron identity and reveal a critical postmitotic phase for neuronal determination in the developing spinal cord. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Such processing depends on specific neuronal connectivity, and the reliable activation of inhibitory interneurons. (bl.uk)
  • Therefore, interneuron classifications often differ and it is unclear which set of descriptors are the most relevant to determine a neuronal class and, more generally, how many classes of interneurons actually exist. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Inhibitory interneurons are instrumental in the synchronization of neuronal activity in the hippocampus [11,12] and may contribute to the generation of hippocampal high-frequency [13] and cortical 40-Hz oscillations implicated in cognitive function. (asahq.org)
  • The information is interpreted by neuronal circuits involving excitatory and inhibitory interneurons that lie in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Together, our results demonstrate that chemogenetically induced neuronal activity increases the myelination of neocortical PV+ interneurons mediated at least in part by an elaboration of their axonal morphology. (eur.nl)
  • New olfactory bulb granule cells (GCs) are GABAergic interneurons continuously arising from neuronal progenitors and integrating into preexisting bulbar circuits. (uzh.ch)
  • Neuronal udvikling reguleres af en kompleks kombination af miljømæssige og genetiske faktorer. (jove.com)
  • Funktionen af neuronal netværk er afhængig af eksistensen af en afbalanceret supplement af excitatoriske projektion neuroner og hæmmende interneuroner. (jove.com)
  • Interneuron gap junctions enhance synchrony of γ oscillations (25-70 Hz) in isolated interneuron networks and also in networks containing both interneurons and principal cells, as shown in mice with a knockout of the neuronal (primarily interneuronal) connexin36. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Only a modest fraction of the genes identified as 'markers' of specific interneuron subtypes in any one species had this property in another species. (nature.com)
  • The results demonstrated that the antidepressant actions of ketamine were blocked by GluN2B-NMDAR knockdown on GABA (Gad1) interneurons, as well as subtypes expressing somatostatin (Sst) or parvalbumin (Pvalb), but not glutamate principle neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). (jci.org)
  • Further analysis of GABA subtypes showed that cell-specific knockdown or deletion of GluN2B in Sst interneurons blocked or occluded the antidepressant actions of ketamine and revealed sex-specific differences that are associated with excitatory postsynaptic currents on mPFC principle neurons. (jci.org)
  • In cerebellar cortex, molecular layer GABAergic interneuron (MLGI) circuit comprises two subtypes: the Basket and the Stellate cells. (europa.eu)
  • In addition, the observed heterogeneity suggests that distinct CRH interneuron subtypes may have specific functional roles in the both physiological and pathophysiological hippocampal processes. (springer.com)
  • During the outgoing phase, we will use 2-photon calcium imaging together with fluorescent labeled interneurons and optogenetics technologies to dissect out, in the mouse V1, the specific role of two interneurons subtypes (parvalbumin- (PV+) and calretinin-expressing (CR+)) in the orientation tuning and the emergence of simple-like receptive fields in pyramidal cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • GABAergic interneurons contribute most of the morphological, electrophysiological and molecular diversity of the cortex, yet interneuron subtypes are still not well defined. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These different morphological and electrophysiological characteristics could make each of these three interneuron subtypes particularly suited for a different function within the cortical circuit. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Throughout life, neural stem cells (NSCs) in different domains of the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) of the adult rodent brain generate several subtypes of interneurons that regulate the function of the olfactory bulb (OB). (harvard.edu)
  • Here, we report the generation of at least four previously unknown OB interneuron subtypes that are produced in finely patterned progenitor domains in the anterior ventral V-SVZ of both the neonatal and adult brain. (harvard.edu)
  • Origins of cortical interneuron subtypes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Work from my laboratory over the past decade has sought to understand both how interneuron diversity is generated and how various interneuron subtypes become precisely embedded in the broad swath of circuits in which they are required. (maxplanckflorida.org)
  • We have proposed a working model of how this is achieved that involves a initial step where "Cardinal" classes of interneurons are genetically specified into a relatively small number of subtypes, each of which represent interneurons that possess similar intrinsic properties, morphologies and propensities as to both the cell types (excitatory or inhibitory) and cellular compartments (dendritic, somal or axonal) that they innervate. (maxplanckflorida.org)
  • We found that an interneuron type that was previously associated with the mouse hippocampus-the 'ivy cell', which has neurogliaform characteristics-has become abundant across the neocortex of humans, macaques and marmosets but not mice or ferrets. (nature.com)
  • c) Staining by parvalbumin antibody show intact (arrowheads) and degenerating interneurons (arrows) in the hippocampus of aged FTLD mice. (eurekalert.org)
  • In this thesis I present compelling in vitro and in vivo evidence that a subpopulation of OLM interneurons (defined by the Chrna2-cre line) distinctively enriched in the CA1 region of the ventral hippocampus is implicated in LTP function (paper I,II), information control (paper V) and the induction of theta activity that is under cholinergic control (paper IV). (diva-portal.org)
  • I thought you might be interested in this item at http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/76562245 Title: Potassium channels for high-frequency action potential generation in GABAergic interneurons of rat hippocampus Author: Cheng-Chang Lien Publisher: [S.l.] : [s.n.], 2003. (worldcat.org)
  • Interneurons are the source and the target of the first synapses formed in the hippocampus and are thus in a position to modulate the development of the hippocampus in the foetal stage. (wiley.com)
  • Transmission electron micrograph using immuno-gold labeling to show the location of PSD-95 in 3 glutamatergic synapses on an interneuron dendrite from the CA1 stratum radiatum of the hippocampus of an adult male rat (postnatal day 37). (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • Focusing on CA1 strata pyramidale and radiatum of mouse hippocampus, CRH interneurons were found to exhibit a heterogeneous neurochemical phenotype with parvalbumin, cholecystokinin and calretinin co-expression observed to varying degrees. (springer.com)
  • Examination of the progenitors of these glutamatergic interneurons allowed us to determine the sequential expression of transcription factors in these cells that are thought to be hallmarks of glutamatergic neurogenesis in the developing cerebral cortex and adult hippocampus. (uzh.ch)
  • Our investigations in adult mice with acquired temporal lobe epilepsy examine whether transplants of a major inhibitory cell in the brain, the GABAergic interneuron, can suppress seizures by repairing dysfunctional neural circuits in the hippocampus. (cureepilepsy.org)
  • 1 . Minneci F, Janahmadi M, Migliore M, Dragicevic N, Avossa D, Cherubini E (2007) Signaling properties of stratum oriens interneurons in the hippocampus of transgenic mice expressing EGFP in a subset of somatostatin-containing cells. (yale.edu)
  • In the first portion of my talk, I will present lineage data indicating that specific lineages give rise to interneurons that population broad structures within the telencephalon and are both spatially dispersed and unrestricted by functional boundaries between areas as discrete as the cortex, the hippocampus and the striatum. (maxplanckflorida.org)
  • Electrical coupling between pyramidal cell axons, and between interneuron dendrites, have both been described in the hippocampus. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Fig. 3: Cortical LHX6 + LAMP5 + interneurons are much more numerous in primates and are molecularly similar to conserved hippocampal interneurons. (nature.com)
  • The properties of excitatory synapses at FS cells ( 13 , 18 ), as well as their voltage-dependent conductances ( 19-21 ), suggest that these cells may be particularly sensitive to the timing of their inputs, as has been shown for hippocampal interneurons ( 22 , 23 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Understanding the mechanisms guiding interneuron development is a central aspect of the current research on cortical/hippocampal interneurons, which is highly relevant to brain function and pathology. (frontiersin.org)
  • Rather our findings suggest that CRH is likely co-expressed in subpopulations of previously described hippocampal interneurons. (springer.com)
  • Also - hippocampal interneurons can be identified by the presence of a hyperpolarization activated current (Ih) that can be measured with a hyperpolarizing I-V protocol. (scientistsolutions.com)
  • Parvalbumin interneurons in the dorsomedial striatum, but not in the dorsolateral striatum, receive afferent glutamatergic input from cingulate cortex. (broadinstitute.org)
  • bodies, unmyelinated motor-neuron fibres, and interneurons connecting the two sides of the cord. (britannica.com)
  • Even the simplest of neural behavior, the reflex arc , involves at least one interneuron that connects an afferent neuron to an efferent neuron. (everything2.com)
  • Our knee-jerk reflex, more formally known as the patellar reflex , is an example of a reflex arc in which a single interneuron in the spinal cord links a sensory neuron to a motor neuron. (everything2.com)
  • Interneurons main function is to provide a neural circuit, conducting flow of signals or information between a sensory neuron and or motor neuron[citation needed]. (wikipedia.org)
  • Having eliminated one source of motor neuron excitotoxicity, the researchers turned to interneuron input. (alzforum.org)
  • The interneuron and motor neuron activity bursts occurred in unison, confirming to the authors that the interneurons were stimulating the motor neurons. (alzforum.org)
  • The mSOD1 spinal cord preparations were more likely to show this interneuron/motor neuron synchronized firing than non-transgenic tissue, and they had higher proportions of sub-bursts-multiple firings with one action potential starting before the previous has completed. (alzforum.org)
  • Submillisecond AMPA receptor-mediated signaling at a principal neuron-interneuron synapse. (nih.gov)
  • Glutamatergic transmission at a principal neuron-interneuron synapse was investigated by dual whole-cell patch-clamp recording in rat hippocampal slices combined with morphological analysis. (nih.gov)
  • Simulations based on a compartmental model of the interneuron indicated that the rapid postsynaptic conductance change determines the shape and the somatodendritic integration of EPSPs, thus enabling interneurons to detect synchronous principal neuron activity. (nih.gov)
  • An interneuron (also called relay neuron , association neuron or bipolar neuron ) is a term used to describe a neuron which has two different common meanings. (wikidoc.org)
  • In the peripheral nervous system , an interneuron is a neuron that communicates only to other neurons. (wikidoc.org)
  • Deficits in these different genes may converge to alter similar neuron cell types, as loss of PTEN or CASPR2 alters the numbers of specific types of interneurons in the cortex. (sfari.org)
  • An interneuron (also called association neuron or bipolar neuron ) is a sensory neuron in neural pathways like the motor neurons their bodies cells are always located in the CNS . (statemaster.com)
  • Spiking activity of other neuron types (i.e. pyramidal neurons, dendritic-targeting interneurons and interneuron-selective interneurons) had no significant effect on sharp wave incidence. (bl.uk)
  • Interneuron as part of a three-neuron reflex arc in the spinal cord. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • I want to be recording from the principal neurons and examining their responses to AMPA and NMDA agonists - how can I double check if the neuron I have patched is a pricipal neuron or interneuron? (scientistsolutions.com)
  • Central nervous system, neuron: interneuron, pyramidal cell. (asahq.org)
  • Nicotine is known to differentially regulate cortical interneuron and pyramidal neuron activities in the neocortex, while the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been well studied. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Nicotine differentially affected subset of genes in Sst- and Thy1- neurons, which might contribute to the distinct effect of nicotine on interneuron and pyramidal neuron activities. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Emerging evidence has shown that nicotine differentially regulates interneuron and pyramidal neuron activities. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we show that a class of interneurons that express vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) mediates disinhibitory control in multiple areas of neocortex and is recruited by reinforcement signals. (nih.gov)
  • In the primate neocortex, dozens of genes showed spatial expression gradients among interneurons of the same type, which suggests that regional variation in cortical contexts shapes the RNA expression patterns of adult neocortical interneurons. (nature.com)
  • In the neocortex (making up about 80% of the human brain), approximately 20-30% of neurons are interneurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Müller Smith and colleagues demonstrate that mice lacking the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) display profound, non-habituating hyperactivity that is correlated with a lack of parvalbumin-positive and somatostatin-positive inhibitory interneurons in the neocortex. (innovations-report.com)
  • In contrast, SOM cell inactivation had minimal impact on sensory responses in a non-adapted neocortex, supporting the prediction that this class of interneurons is only recruited when the network is in an activated state. (mit.edu)
  • Inhibitory GABAergic interneurons of the mouse neocortex are a highly heterogeneous population of neurons that originate from the ventral telencephalon and migrate tangentially up into the developing cortical plate. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Layer specification of transplanted interneurons in developing mouse neocortex. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The majority of Sip1 knockout interneurons fail to migrate to the neocortex and stall in the VT. (ugent.be)
  • Here, we report the directed differentiation of CHX10 + V2a interneurons from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). (pnas.org)
  • In the recipient, transplanted interneurons follow cell-intrinsic programs that normally regulate their survival and differentiation in the embryo. (sciencemag.org)
  • These cultures enriched in interneurons may allow the investigation of the migratory behavior of interneuron precursors and their differentiation in vitro , up to the formation of morphologically identifiable GABAergic synapses. (frontiersin.org)
  • The differentiation and maturation of interneurons therefore involve sequential processes including migration, the outgrowth, and branching of axons and dendrites, and finally the formation of inhibitory synapses. (frontiersin.org)
  • The molecular mechanisms of differentiation of the V0 interneurons display striking similarities between zebrafish and mice. (elifesciences.org)
  • Conversely, misexpression of Evx1 represses En1, suggesting that Evx1 may suppress the V1 interneuron differentiation program. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We found that Sip1 (Zfhx1b, Zeb2), a transcription factor enriched in migrating cortical interneurons, is required for their proper differentiation and correct guidance. (ugent.be)
  • This type of interneuron projects onto α-motoneurons, where it establishes inhibition by expressing its inhibitory neurotransmitter glycine. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the cerebral cortex, excitation and inhibition are mediated by two cell types born in distinct areas of the embryo: excitatory projection neurons, which are generated in the developing cortex, and inhibitory interneurons, which are produced outside the cortex in the ventral forebrain. (sciencemag.org)
  • GABA-ergic interneurons involved in transcallosal inhibition of the visual cortices in vivo in mice," Physiology & Behavior , vol. 151, Article ID 11000, pp. 502-508, 2015. (hindawi.com)
  • The neurophysiological measure short-latency intracortical inhibition (SICI) is believed to be mediated by these inhibitory interneurons. (statemaster.com)
  • Parvalbumin (PV) interneurons are a major source of striatal inhibition and are usually considered as a homogeneous population in the entire dorsal striatum. (broadinstitute.org)
  • The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic interneurons are modulators of brain function essential to keep the balance between excitation and inhibition ( Gelman and Marín, 2010 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • We integrated optogenetics, freely moving mammalian behavior, in vivo electrophysiology, and slice physiology to probe the cholinergic interneurons of the nucleus accumbens by direct excitation or inhibition. (ca.gov)
  • Striatal fast spiking (FS) interneurons provide inhibition to each other as well as to medium spiny projection (SP) neurons. (diva-portal.org)
  • GluR5 kainate receptor activation in interneurons increases tonic inhibition of pyramidal cells. (inserm.fr)
  • Four GABAergic interneurons impose feeding restraint in Drosophila. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we identify four GABAergic interneurons in the Drosophila brain that establish a central feeding threshold which is required to inhibit consumption. (nih.gov)
  • During the course of development, GABAergic interneurons contribute to key aspects of the functional maturation of the cortex in different ways, from exerting a trophic role to pacing immature neural networks. (nih.gov)
  • In this review, we provide an overview of the maturation of GABAergic neurotransmission and discuss the role of GABAergic interneurons in cortical wiring, plasticity, and network activity during pre- and postnatal development. (nih.gov)
  • Presumably, because of their apparent paucity, their diversity, the highly labile nature of nitric oxide (NO) as well as its pleiotropic actions, the functional importance of NO-producing GABAergic interneurons is particularly enigmatic. (frontiersin.org)
  • Fast-spiking (FS) cells are a prominent subtype of GABA-releasing (GABAergic) interneurons ( 12 ), exerting powerful inhibitory control of both excitatory and inhibitory cortical cells ( 13-17 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Petilla terminology: nomenclature of features of GABAergic interneurons of the cerebral cortex," Nature Reviews Neuroscience , vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 557-568, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • New insights into the classification and nomenclature of cortical GABAergic interneurons," Nature Reviews Neuroscience , vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 202-216, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • Basket cells are inhibitory GABAergic interneurons found in the molecular layer of the cerebellum. (statemaster.com)
  • Most MGE-derived precursors develop into polarized GABAergic interneurons as determined by axonal, dendritic, and GABAergic markers. (frontiersin.org)
  • GABAergic interneurons represent about 20% of cortical/hippocampal neurons. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, we observed a striking reduction in GABAergic interneurons. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Among GABAergic interneurons, those expressing the neuropeptide somatostatin (SOM) are particularly heterogeneous in their molecular, morphological and electrophysiological features (Sabo and Sceniak, 2006 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The adult mouse subependymal zone (SEZ) harbors neural stem cells that are thought to exclusively generate GABAergic interneurons of the olfactory bulb. (uzh.ch)
  • We are particularly interested in understanding the molecular underpinnings behind the fate determination of subclasses of GABAergic interneurons implicated in the neuropathology of autism and schizophrenia. (wisc.edu)
  • GABAergic interneurons mainly originate in the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) of the embryonic ventral telencephalon (VT) and migrate tangentially to the cortex, guided by membrane-bound and secreted factors. (ugent.be)
  • Following transplantation of stem cell-derived GABAergic interneurons into the dentate gyrus, we will use optogenetics to study whether the transplanted cells suppress spontaneous seizures and prevent axonal sprouting by making strong inhibitory synapses onto newborn hyperexcitable granule neurons. (cureepilepsy.org)
  • The N -methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA)-hypofunction theory of schizophrenia suggests that schizophrenia is associated with a loss of NMDA receptors, specifically on corticolimbic parvalbumin (PV)-expressing GABAergic interneurons, leading to disinhibition of pyramidal cells and cortical desynchronization. (ovid.com)
  • Parvalbumin-expressing interneurons CCK-expressing interneurons VIP-expressing interneurons SOM-expressing interneurons Molecular layer (basket cells, stellate cells) Golgi cells Granule cells Lugaro cells Unipolar brush cells Parvalbumin-expressing interneurons Cholinergic interneurons Tyrosine hydroxylase-expressing interneurons Calretinin-expressing interneurons Nitric oxide synthase-expressing interneurons Interneurons in the CNS are primarily inhibitory, and use the neurotransmitter GABA or glycine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different neurotransmitters are released from different interneurons, but the two most common neurotransmitters are GABA, the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter and glutamate, the primary excitatory neurotransmitter. (wikipedia.org)
  • These findings demonstrate that GluN2B-NMDARs on GABA interneurons are the initial cellular trigger for the rapid antidepressant actions of ketamine and show sex-specific adaptive mechanisms to GluN2B modulation. (jci.org)
  • CNS interneurons are typically inhibitory, and use the neurotransmitter GABA or glycine . (statemaster.com)
  • Therefore, interneurons follow the same GABA-glutamate sequence of synapse formation but earlier than the principal cells. (wiley.com)
  • Microscope images of SST+ interneurons from a control brain (left) and a mutant brain with the GABA receptor disabled (right). (psu.edu)
  • Molecular identification of vesicular glutamate transporter 3 and cholecystokinin expressing cortical interneurons (CCK + VGluT3 + INTs) has prompted speculation of GABA/glutamate corelease from these cells for almost two decades despite a lack of direct evidence. (elifesciences.org)
  • Vurdering af den relative bidrag af hver komponent er en kompliceret opgave, som er særligt vanskeligt med hensyn til udviklingen af γ-aminosmørsyre (GABA) erge kortikale interneuroner (CIs). (jove.com)
  • Cholinergic interneurons (CINs) provide the main source of acetylcholine (ACh) to the striatum ( Bolam, 1984 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Cholinergic interneurons control local circuit activity and cocaine conditioning. (ca.gov)
  • Home › About CIRM › Our Publications › Grantee publications › Cholinergic interneurons control local circuit activity and cocaine conditioning. (ca.gov)
  • Furthermore, these neurons could be activated by cocaine, and silencing this drug-induced activity during cocaine exposure (despite the fact that the manipulation of the cholinergic interneurons was not aversive by itself) blocked cocaine conditioning in freely moving mammals. (ca.gov)
  • Recent technical advances however, have brought this view into question suggesting that the two systems work rather in concert with the cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) driving dopamine release. (lu.se)
  • We also found a notable subcortical innovation: an abundant striatal interneuron type in primates that had no molecularly homologous counterpart in mice or ferrets. (nature.com)
  • These interneurons expressed a unique combination of genes that encode transcription factors, receptors and neuropeptides and constituted around 30% of striatal interneurons in marmosets and humans. (nature.com)
  • Fig. 4: A primate striatal interneuron type not observed in mouse or ferret. (nature.com)
  • These results, published in Journal of Neuroscience in collaboration with investigators from the Instituto de Neurociencias in Alicante (Spain), also reveal the molecule nature of the cues regulating the migration of striatal interneurons. (innovations-report.com)
  • During development, the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE), a transitory brain structure, produces several populations of GABAergic inhibitory neurons, including cortical and striatal interneurons. (innovations-report.com)
  • Both cortical and striatal interneurons can be attracted by Nrg1 sources present in the cerebral cortex and the striatum. (innovations-report.com)
  • Experiments carried out by the group of Prof. Marín demonstrated that striatal interneurons are repelled by the cerebral cortex through a mechanism that involves Eph/ephrins signalling. (innovations-report.com)
  • This new study also showed that responsiveness of MGE-derived striatal interneurons to attractive and repulsive cues is at least in part controlled by the postmitotic activity of the transcription factor Nkx2-1. (innovations-report.com)
  • Marín O. (2015) Molecular Mechanisims Controlling the Migration of Striatal Interneurons . (innovations-report.com)
  • Striatal PV interneurons in medial and lateral regions differ significantly in their intrinsic excitability. (broadinstitute.org)
  • Therefore, the results of the present study demonstrate the importance of considering region specific parvalbumin interneuron populations when studying dorsal striatal function. (broadinstitute.org)
  • Excitatory interneurons that relay signals from the brain to neural networks throughout the spinal cord, including glutamatergic V2a interneurons that coordinate respiration and locomotion, are lost after SCI. (pnas.org)
  • Its activity is controlled by glutamatergic afferents from cortex and thalamus, by dopaminergic inputs from the ventral midbrain, and by local interneurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • Staining your slice for GABAergic markers or glutamatergic markers after you have done your recording will help you identify interneurons from CA1 neurons. (scientistsolutions.com)
  • However, the presumed changes in glutamatergic inputs onto PV interneurons have not been tested directly. (ovid.com)
  • The interneurons that make up the brain's cerebral cortex alone include pyramidal , spiny stellate , chandelier ,and basket neurons , and perhaps hundreds of other kinds. (everything2.com)
  • While most research studies have focused on the migration of interneurons to the cortex, very little is known about the mechanisms through which interneurons colonise the striatum. (innovations-report.com)
  • These results reveal parallel mechanisms of target chemoattraction and off-target chemorepulsion for the migration of interneurons to the cortex and striatum. (innovations-report.com)
  • Precursors of inhibitory interneurons transplanted from the medial ganglionic eminence of the ventral embryonic forebrain into the juvenile or adult rodent cortex migrate from the graft site and become dispersed throughout the recipient tissue (shown as small red dots in the transplanted hemisphere in a cross section of the rodent brain, upper left). (sciencemag.org)
  • We also found that PV interneurons in the dorsomedial region, but not in the dorsolateral striatum region, receive short-latency excitatory inputs from cingulate cortex. (broadinstitute.org)
  • I sought to examine the expression of CP-AMPARs at synapses onto the two major classes of inhibitory interneuron in layer 5 of the mouse visual cortex, Basket cells (BCs) and Martinotti cells (MCs). (bl.uk)
  • Addgene: A MicroRNA-Based Gene-Targeting Tool for Virally Labeling Interneurons in the Rodent Cortex. (addgene.org)
  • Subgroups of parvalbumin-expressing interneurons in layers 2/3 of the visual cortex. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Here, we used cell-type-specific Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) in adult mice to activate a sparse population of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) PV+ interneurons. (eur.nl)
  • We use mouse genetics, forebrain slice and dissociated culture techniques, as well as mouse and human pluripotent stem cells in cell culture and transplantation experiments to study the fate determination of interneurons of the cerebral cortex. (wisc.edu)
  • Her præsenterer vi en protokol, designet til at bruge kemo genetiske værktøjer til at manipulere aktiviteten af kortikale interneuron forfædre transplanteres i cortex af tidlige postnatale mus. (jove.com)
  • Interneuron forfædre isoleret fra embryonale ganglioniske to er i stand til at overleve, sprede og integrere sig i værtsnetværket ved transplantation i cortex 7 , 8 . (jove.com)
  • Here we used BAC transgenic mice expressing a tau-sapphire green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the transcriptional control of the neuropeptide Y (NPY) genomic sequence to characterize morphological and electrophysiological properties of NPY-GFP interneurons of the mouse juvenile primary somatosensory cortex. (inserm.fr)
  • Laclef, C. & Métin, C. Conserved rules in embryonic development of cortical interneurons. (nature.com)
  • Scientists in China are reporting that by transplanting mouse embryonic interneurons into the brains of mice and combining that procedure with training to lessen fear, they can help to reduce the fear response. (eurekalert.org)
  • This Research Topic will cover the different aspects of cortical NO interneurons, from their diversity, embryonic origins to their functions in the cortical circuit and physiology. (frontiersin.org)
  • The majority of cortical interneurons arise from a transient embryonic structure known as the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE), but how the remarkable diversity is specified in this region is not known. (semanticscholar.org)
  • During locomotion, the sum of convergent inputs from the central pattern generator (CPG), sensory feedback, descending commands and other intrinsic properties turned on by different neuromodulators give rise to the activity of the interneurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • We found that PV interneurons located at the dorsomedial striatum region have increased intrinsic excitability compared to PV interneurons in dorsolateral region. (broadinstitute.org)
  • 75) These findings together indicate cooperation between intrinsic and extrinsic factors when terminating interneuron motility. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • However, it remains unknown whether the myelination of PV+ interneurons is also modulated by intrinsic activity. (eur.nl)
  • Finally, the morphological defects observed in NPY-GFP interneurons appeared to be associated with alterations of their electrophysiological intrinsic properties. (inserm.fr)
  • Many interneurons have short axons distributed locally, but some have axons that extend for several spinal segments. (britannica.com)
  • need quotation to verify] Local interneurons have short axons and form circuits with nearby neurons to analyze small pieces of information. (wikipedia.org)
  • Relay interneurons have long axons and connect circuits of neurons in one region of the brain with those in other regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • V3 neurons are excitatory commissural interneurons that extend caudally projecting primary axons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The V1 neurons are inhibitory interneurons with axons that project ipsilaterally and rostrally. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Evx1 mutant embryos, the majority of V0 interneurons fail to extend commissural axons. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • PCA and cluster analysis of morphological variables revealed three groups of cells: one comprised of Martinotti cells, and two other groups of interneurons with short asymmetric axons targeting layers 2/3 and bending medially. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Although several interneuron populations are known to target other interneurons to varying degrees, little is known about interneurons specializing in disinhibition and their in vivo function. (nih.gov)
  • A potential avenue of research is to identify genetic markers specific to interneuron populations that will assist further exploration of the role of these cells in the network. (pnas.org)
  • Therefore, the segregation of these two populations of interneurons must depend on repulsive signals that prevent the colonization of regions outside their final target. (innovations-report.com)
  • Interneurons expressing parvalbumin (PV) and somatostatin (SOM) form two non-overlapping populations. (mit.edu)
  • Dichotomous parvalbumin interneuron populations in dorsolateral and dorsomedial striatum. (broadinstitute.org)
  • There are two electrophysiological dichotomous populations of parvalbumin (PV) interneurons located in the dorsal striatum. (broadinstitute.org)
  • In the present study, we recorded PV interneurons in dorsal striatum slices from wild-type male mice and suggest the existence of two electrophysiological dichotomous populations. (broadinstitute.org)
  • Several neurochemical markers are largely restricted to excitatory interneuron populations, but we have limited knowledge about the size of these populations or their overlap. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The neurotensin, PPTB and GRP-EGFP populations showed very limited overlap, and we estimate that between them they account for ∼40% of the excitatory interneurons in laminae I-II. (nii.ac.jp)
  • SST which is expressed by ∼60% of excitatory interneurons in this region, was found in each of these populations, as well as in cells that did not express any of the other peptides. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Instead, they adopt an En1-like ipsilateral axonal projection and ectopically express En1, indicating that V0 interneurons are transfated to a V1 identity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Interneurons were distinguished using laser scanning two-photon microscopy to characterize their defining patterns of axonal arborisation, and voltage recording to determine their characteristic firing properties. (bl.uk)
  • Using single-cell axonal reconstructions, we found that DREADD-stimulated PV+ interneurons exhibited a nearly two-fold increase in total length of myelination, predominantly mediated by a parallel increase of axonal arborization and number of internodes. (eur.nl)
  • We observed that 91% of the reconstructed NPY-GFP interneurons had developed an atypical axonal swelling from which emerge numerous ramifications. (inserm.fr)
  • Altogether, these results demonstrate that NPY-GFP interneurons developed dystrophic axonal swellings and severe morphological and electrophysiological defects that could be due to the overexpression of tau-coupled reporter constructs. (inserm.fr)
  • Mammalian interneurons are crucial for cortical function, and are formed by progenitors located in the ganglionic eminences. (biologists.org)
  • Magoh is highly expressed in the ganglionic eminences during interneuron neurogenesis, and conditional Magoh depletion in interneuron progenitors (but not in post-mitotic migrating interneurons) reduces cortical interneuron number in a dose-dependent manner. (biologists.org)
  • One-third of all progenitor daughter cells also undergo apoptosis, and there is a bias towards interneurons at the expense of new progenitors in the surviving daughters. (biologists.org)
  • But while deletion of p53 in Magoh haploinsufficient progenitors completely rescues cortical interneuron number, it does not in Magoh homozygous progenitors, which still show delayed mitosis. (biologists.org)
  • Analysis of cell-type-specific markers showed a specific loss of V2 interneurons in the brain and spinal cord, likely arising from mis-specification of neural progenitors. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Progenitors of these novel interneurons are responsive to sonic hedgehog (SHH) and are organized into microdomains that correlate with the expression domains of the Nkx6.2 and Zic family of transcription factors. (harvard.edu)
  • Classification of neocortical interneurons is a crucial step in understanding cortical circuits as each subtype of interneuron likely has a different function. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Alberto Bacci's team aims at gaining more detailed information on the properties of neocortical interneurons, using a combination of electrophysiological, cellular, biochemical and morphological techniques. (institut-vision.org)
  • neurons are recognized: sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. (britannica.com)
  • Sensory neurons, activated by either mechanical or chemical stimulation of the innermost surface of the gut, transmit information to interneurons located within the Auerbach and the Meissner plexi, and the interneurons relay the information to motor neurons. (britannica.com)
  • They receive input only from neurons, either sensory neurons or other interneurons, and they output only to other neurons, which may be other interneurons, sensory neurons, or motor neurons . (everything2.com)
  • Interneurons (also called internuncial neurons, relay neurons, association neurons, connector neurons, intermediate neurons or local circuit neurons) are neurons that connect two brain regions, i.e. not direct motor neurons or sensory neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • A spinal interneuron, found in the spinal cord, relays signals between (afferent) sensory neurons, and (efferent) motor neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different classes of spinal interneurons are involved in the process of sensory-motor integration. (wikipedia.org)
  • The grey column of the spinal cord appears to have groups of small neurons, often referred to as spinal interneurons, that are neither primary sensory cells nor motor neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The versatile properties of these spinal interneurons cover a wide range of activities. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, the cell bodies of the spinal interneurons are found in the grey matter of the spinal cord, which also contains the motor neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research on cat's spinal cord has shown that at the spinal cord level sensory afferents and descending motor pathways converge onto common spinal interneurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers at the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine in Chicago, Illinois, report that the gung-ho motor neurons may be responding to excess input from spinal interneurons, upstream middle managers that induce motor neurons to fire. (alzforum.org)
  • In motor control, the general view is still that spinal interneurons mainly contribute to reflexes and automatic movements. (diva-portal.org)
  • The question raised here is whether spinal interneurons can mediate the cortical command for independent finger movements, like a precision grip between the thumb and index finger in the macaque monkey, or if this function depends exclusively on a direct corticomotoneuronal pathway. (diva-portal.org)
  • citation needed] Interneurons can be further broken down into two groups: local interneurons and relay interneurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the mouse's dorsal alar plate, six progenitor domains give rise to dI1-dI6 neurons and two classes of dorsal interneurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The early differentiating MATH1-expressing cells in the dorsal neural tube co-express TAG-1, DCC-1 and LH2, markers of dorsal commissural interneurons. (biologists.org)
  • Expression of the MATH1/lacZ transgene persists in differentiated dorsal commissural interneurons. (biologists.org)
  • To achieve this several transgenic mouse lines that labelled inhibitory interneurons in the dorsal horn were used including lines in which Nociceptin and RorB transgenes were either expressed under the control of the regulatory elements of the Nociceptin gene or knocked into the RorB locus, respectively. (gla.ac.uk)
  • eGFP mice it was found that 93% of the cells that expressed eGFP were positive for Pax2 thus showed that these animals labelled inhibitory interneurons in the dorsal horn. (gla.ac.uk)
  • eGFP mice, this project was then continued with a knock-in mouse line, RorBeGFP mouse that also labelled inhibitory interneurons in the dorsal horn. (gla.ac.uk)
  • This showed that CR represent another neurochemically distinct group of inhibitory interneurons in the dorsal horn. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Further studies indicated that the transplanted immature interneurons reactivated a juvenile-like plasticity in the mature amygdala. (eurekalert.org)
  • Thus we begin with a normative approach, deriving a plasticity rule that regulates the activity of interneurons to minimise network-wide deviations from that set-point. (hu-berlin.de)
  • In addition, 18 types of commissural interneurons have been identified on the basis of morphology and location. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the locomotor rhythm is generated by ipsilateral excitatory interneurons, less is known about the commissural excitatory interneurons. (elifesciences.org)
  • Thus we uncover, in an adult vertebrate, a novel organizational principle for a key class of commissural interneurons and their recruitment pattern as a function of locomotor speed. (elifesciences.org)
  • In this study, we show that Evx1 V0 interneurons are locally projecting intersegmental commissural neurons. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • pax2 .1 was expressed in CoPA commissural neurons and CiA interneurons at 26 hpf. (xenbase.org)
  • To quantitatively identify classes of interneurons, 59 GFP-positive interneurons from a somatostatin-positive mouse line were characterized by whole-cell recordings and anatomical reconstructions. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The sensory information that is transmitted to the spinal cord is modulated by a complex network of excitatory and inhibitory interneurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • By combining optogenetic activation with single-cell recordings, we examined the functional role of VIP interneurons in awake mice, and investigated the underlying circuit mechanisms in vitro in auditory and medial prefrontal cortices. (nih.gov)
  • Homologous interneuron types-which were readily identified by their RNA-expression patterns-varied in abundance and RNA expression among ferrets, mice and primates, but varied less among primates. (nature.com)
  • To determine the contribution that transplanting immature interneurons into the amygdala--a brain structure known to be involved in processing of fear and other emotions--could have on fear extinction training, they inserted medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) cells taken from embryos into the amygdala regions of mature mice. (eurekalert.org)
  • In newborn mice, a pattern of recruitment of the V0 interneurons has been proposed based on results from genetic ablations of the inhibitory (V0d) or the excitatory (V0v) interneurons. (elifesciences.org)
  • When the V2a interneurons were injected into the spinal cord of the mice, the new cells integrated with the existing cells. (alexanderlaw.com)
  • In this study, RNA-sequencing was performed in acutely isolated cortical somatostatin (Sst)- positive interneurons and pyramidal neurons (Thy1) from mice treated with systemic nicotine for 14 days. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we acutely isolated cortical somatostatin (Sst) labeled interneurons and thymus cell antigen 1 (Thy1) labeled pyramidal neurons in mice treated with saline and systemic nicotine for 14 days, and the transcriptome profiling was compared in Sst- and Thy1-neuons with or without nicotine. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study describes the generation of V2a interneurons from human pluripotent stem cells, using developmentally relevant morphogenic signaling pathways. (pnas.org)
  • Diversity and overlap of parvalbumin and somatostatin expressing interneurons in mouse presubiculum," Frontiers in Neural Circuits , vol. 9, article 20, 2015. (hindawi.com)
  • Thus, transplantation of V2a interneurons after SCI could provide a novel therapy to restore functional connections between the brain and spared downstream neurons. (pnas.org)
  • The culture enriched in interneurons described here represents a useful experimental system to examine in a relatively easy and fast way the morpho-functional properties of these cells under physiological or pathological conditions, providing a powerful tool to complement the studies in vivo . (frontiersin.org)
  • Recordings from both pyramidal neurons and interneurons in foetuses (E18-20) revealed that the majority of interneurons (65%) had functional synapses whereas nearly 90% of pyramidal neurons were quiescent. (wiley.com)
  • Transplanted immature interneurons have been found to disperse in the recipient's functional brain tissue, where they develop elaborate structural morphologies, express histochemical markers of mature interneurons, and form functional inhibitory synapses onto recipient neurons. (cureepilepsy.org)
  • Los investigadores descubrieron que este diálogo celular controla el incremento de la corteza cerebral y que su debilitación lleva una malformación cortical se asoció previamente a autismo en ratones. (news-medical.net)
  • La corteza cerebral contiene interneurons excitadores e inhibitorios. (news-medical.net)
  • Interneurons nace en regiones distantes de la corteza cerebral y emigra a lo largo de los corredores tangenciales por el desplazamiento o saltos relativos a la danza. (news-medical.net)
  • Esta heterogeneidad del movimiento regula el flujo de los interneurons que alcanzan la corteza cerebral que se convierte, limitando el número de células que entablen diálogo con las células madres que generan las neuronas excitadoras. (news-medical.net)
  • However, excitatory interneurons using glutamate in the CNS also exist, as do interneurons releasing neuromodulators like acetylcholine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that often activates interneurons by binding to a receptor on the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unexpectedly, we observed that the erasure of fear memory is facilitated only by transplanted immature interneurons--two weeks after transplantation," he adds. (eurekalert.org)
  • The embryologic programs that guide interneuron migration, survival, and circuit integration are also executed by these young neurons after their transplantation into the juvenile and adult nervous systems. (sciencemag.org)
  • Rubenstein and his team aim to use a cell transplantation method to investigate in vivo autonomous functions of PTEN and CASPR2 in developing cortical interneurons. (sfari.org)
  • The transplantation of inhibitory cortical interneurons represents a novel neurobiological method for modifying recipient neural circuits in a physiologically corrective manner. (cureepilepsy.org)
  • In rodent models of epilepsy, interneuron transplantation corrects recipient seizure phenotypes and associated behavioral abnormalities. (cureepilepsy.org)
  • As such, interneuron transplantation may represent a novel neurobiological approach to the surgical treatment of human epilepsy. (cureepilepsy.org)
  • Here, the authors describe the preclinical basis for applying interneuron transplantation to human epilepsy, discuss its potential clinical applications, and consider the translational hurdles to its development as a surgical therapy. (cureepilepsy.org)
  • One can use this assay to study the effect of mutations on the structure, molecular properties and function of cortical interneurons. (sfari.org)
  • In neuroscience, stellate cells are inhibitory interneurons found within the molecular layer of the cerebellum. (statemaster.com)
  • Los investigadores del laboratorio para la regla molecular de Neurogenesis dentro del GIGA investigan (universidad de Liège), dirigido por el Dr. Laurent NGUYEN, han determinado el papel fisiológico de la migración relativa a la danza de interneurons. (news-medical.net)
  • To address this issue it is planned to perform paired recordings between interneurons of the molecular layers of the cerebellum. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • In addition, to facilitate the classification of interneurons, a standardized nomenclature for morphological, physiological and molecular features was agreed upon by the Petilla Interneuron Nomenclature Group (Ascoli et al. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • While nAChRs enhance AMPA receptor mediated current and firing rate in interneurons [ 14 , 15 ], they cause a sustained reduction of NMDA receptor mediated currents in pyramidal neurons [ 16 ], suggesting an involvement of different molecular mechanisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Nrgl is a family of extracellular growth factors that requires the expression of the ErbB receptor on the interneuron cell surface during migration. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Studiet af CI udvikling er udfordrende, fordi CIs er genereret i forbigående embryonale strukturer, der er svære at få adgang til, og de følger en lang tangentielle migration, før de når pallium og udvikle deres modne anatomiske og fysiologiske ejendomme 3 . (jove.com)
  • This second step we believe occurs post-migration when interneurons have attained their final position within the brain and is characterized by local cues including activity and trophic signals impinging on immature neurons to determine their appropriate and precise afferent and efferent connectivity within given brain regions. (maxplanckflorida.org)
  • It is the fantastically complex network of interneurons and their specialization into morphologically distinct areas within the brain and other parts of the central nervous system, such as the cerebrum , the thalamus , the cerebellum , the brainstem and various nerve plexuses around the body that allow for truly complex and intelligent behavior . (everything2.com)
  • In the interest of biological plausibility we also provide two approximations, both of which make each interneuron responsive to the excitatory population it inhibits, and show that all three variants exhibit comparable though distinct homeostatic capabilities. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Together, these findings indicate that CRH-expressing interneurons do not segregate into any single distinct subtype of interneuron using conventional criteria. (springer.com)
  • Physiologically distinct temporal cohorts of cortical interneurons arise from telencephalic Olig2-expressing precursors. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The rhythmically active heart interneuron HN(5) in the medicinal leech exhibits two distinct activity states, which have been associated with different coordination states of the two hearts. (biologists.org)
  • The number, location and morphology of intersegmental descending interneurons, which connect pro- and mesothoracic ganglia with the matathoracic ganglion in the cockroach Periplaneta americana , were investigated herein using a retrograde nickel chloride tracing through one of the connectives that link meso- and metathoracic ganglia. (springer.com)
  • Cell type-specific inhibitory inputs to dendritic and somatic compartments of parvalbumin-expressing neocortical interneuron," The Journal of Neuroscience , vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 544-555, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • Genetic fate mapping reveals that the caudal ganglionic eminence produces a large and diverse population of superficial cortical interneurons," The Journal of Neuroscience , vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 1582-1594, 2010. (hindawi.com)
  • Thirdly, single perisomatic-targeting interneurons were activated. (bl.uk)
  • In conclusion, these results suggest a new role for perisomatic-targeting interneurons in controlling the local initiation of sharp waves by selectively suppressing and subsequently enhancing recruitment of a subpopulation of pyramidal neurons. (bl.uk)
  • Morphological analyses of NPY-GFP interneurons also indicated that their somata were smaller, their entire dendritic tree was thickened and presented a restricted spatial distribution in comparison with WT NPY interneurons. (inserm.fr)
  • interneuron dendritic gap junctions exert a modulatory effect. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Transfer of graded potentials at the photoreceptor-interneuron synapse. (rupress.org)
  • Therefore, we have obtained tight-seal, whole-cell recordings from visually identified interneurons in adult mouse hippocampal slices. (asahq.org)
  • The present study also demonstrates that perindopril is effective against MPTP-induced degeneration of the nigral neurons and interneurons. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Here, we aimed to characterize a population of interneurons that express the stress-related neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) within existing interneuronal categories through the use of combined electrophysiological and immunocytochemical approaches. (springer.com)
  • I will then focus on a particular early born population of interneurons, the Layer 5/6 Martinotti neurons that are generated at E10.5. (maxplanckflorida.org)
  • Moreover, a subset of these interneurons provide direct excitation to ipsilateral motor neurons as determined by spike-triggered averaging of the local ventral root DC trace. (pnas.org)
  • Interneurons are the central nodes of neural circuits, enabling communication between sensory or motor neurons and the central nervous system (CNS). (wikipedia.org)
  • Additional experiments are required to determine how these transplanted immature interneurons rejuvenate the mature circuits. (eurekalert.org)
  • As interneurons are generated before pyramidal cells, we have tested the hypothesis that the GABAergic interneuronal network is operative before glutamate pyramidal neurons and provides the initial patterns of activity. (wiley.com)
  • Meanwhile, the altered transcripts associated with mitochondrial activity were found between interneurons and pyramidal neurons after chronic nicotine. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Electrical stimulation of excitatory afferents generates kainate receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) and action potentials in identified interneurons that project to the dendrites and somata of pyramidal neurons. (inserm.fr)
  • The class V1 neurons give rise to two local circuit inhibitory neurons known as Renshaw cells and Ia inhibitory interneurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interneurons make up all of the brain and most of the spinal cord , and number close to a hundred billion by some estimates. (everything2.com)
  • Here we use single-nucleus RNA sequencing to profile RNA expression in 188,776 individual interneurons across homologous brain regions from three primates (human, macaque and marmoset), a rodent (mouse) and a weasel (ferret). (nature.com)
  • The interaction between interneurons allow the brain to perform complex functions such as learning, and decision-making. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers from the MRC Centre for Developmental Neurobiology (MRC CDN) at King´s College London, led by Prof. Oscar Marín, have identified the mechanisms guiding interneurons to the striatum, a major brain centre involved in the coordination of body movement and motivation. (innovations-report.com)
  • With a few notable exceptions, most of the neuropeptides have been demonstrated in brain interneurons of various types. (nih.gov)
  • We describe the distribution of neuropeptides in brain interneurons of a few well-studied insect species. (nih.gov)
  • Emphasis has been placed upon interneurons innervating specific brain areas, such as the optic lobes, accessory medulla, antennal lobes, central body, and mushroom bodies. (nih.gov)
  • Inhibitory interneurons play a key role in both computation and homeostasis within the brain. (hu-berlin.de)
  • According to the PNS definition, the neurons of the central nervous system , including the brain, are all interneurons. (wikidoc.org)
  • A human brain contains about 100 billion interneurons. (wikidoc.org)
  • Inhibitory interneurons display a remarkable degree of heterogeneity and play an integral role in shaping the flow of information through all brain areas. (maxplanckflorida.org)