Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Thematic Apperception Test: A projective technique which focuses primarily on the dynamics of interpersonal relationships. It consists of a series of 31 pictures that depict various social situations and interpersonal relations. A subset is selected by the examiner and presented to the subject who is asked to tell a story about each picture. The stories are interpreted in terms of the subject's relations to authority figures, to contemporaries of both sexes, and in terms of the compromises between external demands and the needs of the id, the ego, and the superego. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.DNA Transformation Competence: The ability of bacterial cells to take up exogenous DNA and be genetically transformed by it.Education, Special: Education of the individual who markedly deviates intellectually, physically, socially, or emotionally from those considered to be normal, thus requiring special instruction.Medicine in ArtCompetency-Based Education: Educational programs designed to ensure that students attain prespecified levels of competence in a given field or training activity. Emphasis is on achievement or specified objectives.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Norethandrolone: A synthetic hormone with anabolic and androgenic properties and moderate progestational activity.Veterinary Drugs: Drugs used by veterinarians in the treatment of animal diseases. The veterinarian's pharmacological armamentarium is the counterpart of drugs treating human diseases, with dosage and administration adjusted to the size, weight, disease, and idiosyncrasies of the species. In the United States most drugs are subject to federal regulations with special reference to the safety of drugs and residues in edible animal products.Health Systems Plans: Statements of goals for the delivery of health services pertaining to the Health Systems Agency service area, established under PL 93-641, and consistent with national guidelines for health planning.Methandrostenolone: A synthetic steroid with anabolic properties that are more pronounced than its androgenic effects. It has little progestational activity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1188)Budgets: Detailed financial plans for carrying out specific activities for a certain period of time. They include proposed income and expenditures.Refuse Disposal: The discarding or destroying of garbage, sewage, or other waste matter or its transformation into something useful or innocuous.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Medical Waste Disposal: Management, removal, and elimination of biologic, infectious, pathologic, and dental waste. The concept includes blood, mucus, tissue removed at surgery or autopsy, soiled surgical dressings, and other materials requiring special control and handling. Disposal may take place where the waste is generated or elsewhere.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Eritrea: A country of eastern Africa, west of the Red Sea, bordered west and northwest by SUDAN, and south by ETHIOPIA. Its capital is Asmara.New Zealand: A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)Blogging: Using an INTERNET based personal journal which may consist of reflections, comments, and often hyperlinks.Dental Instruments: Hand-held tools or implements especially used by dental professionals for the performance of clinical tasks.Root Canal Preparation: Preparatory activities in ROOT CANAL THERAPY by partial or complete extirpation of diseased pulp, cleaning and sterilization of the empty canal, enlarging and shaping the canal to receive the sealing material. The cavity may be prepared by mechanical, sonic, chemical, or other means. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1700)Dental Pulp Cavity: The space in a tooth bounded by the dentin and containing the dental pulp. The portion of the cavity within the crown of the tooth is the pulp chamber; the portion within the root is the pulp canal or root canal.Chlamydia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.Chlamydia trachomatis: Type species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases.Chlamydia: A genus of the family CHLAMYDIACEAE whose species cause a variety of diseases in vertebrates including humans, mice, and swine. Chlamydia species are gram-negative and produce glycogen. The type species is CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.EuropeChlamydia muridarum: Species of CHLAMYDIA causing pneumonitis in mice and hamsters. These isolates formerly belonged to CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.Chlamydophila psittaci: A genus of CHLAMYDOPHILA infecting primarily birds. It contains eight known serovars, some of which infect more than one type of host, including humans.JapanReference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Abdomen: That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.Ultrasonics: A subfield of acoustics dealing in the radio frequency range higher than acoustic SOUND waves (approximately above 20 kilohertz). Ultrasonic radiation is used therapeutically (DIATHERMY and ULTRASONIC THERAPY) to generate HEAT and to selectively destroy tissues. It is also used in diagnostics, for example, ULTRASONOGRAPHY; ECHOENCEPHALOGRAPHY; and ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, to visually display echoes received from irradiated tissues.Liver Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Judicial Role: The kind of action or activity proper to the judiciary, particularly its responsibility for decision making.Warfarin: An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide.BrazilPorcupines: Common name for large, quilled rodents (RODENTIA) comprised of two families: Old World porcupines (Hystricidae) and New World porcupines (Erethizontidae).Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Liability, Legal: Accountability and responsibility to another, enforceable by civil or criminal sanctions.Professional Corporations: Legally authorized corporations owned and managed by one or more professionals (medical, dental, legal) in which the income is ascribed primarily to the professional activities of the owners or stockholders.Europe, EasternBooksPeriodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.PeriodicalsPeriodical IndexUser-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.

Selecting subjects for participation in clinical research: one sphere of justice. (1/1337)

Recent guidelines from the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) mandate the inclusion of adequate numbers of women in clinical trials. Ought such standards to apply internationally? Walzer's theory of justice is brought to bear on the problem, the first use of the theory in research ethics, and it argues for broad application of the principle of adequate representation. A number of practical conclusions for research ethics committees (RECs) are outlined. Eligibility criteria in clinical trials ought to be justified by trial designers. Research ethics committees ought to question criteria that seem to exclude unnecessarily women from research participation. The issue of adequate representation should be construed broadly, so as to include consideration of the representation of the elderly, persons with HIV, mental illness and substance abuse disorders in clinical research.  (+info)

International developments in abortion law from 1988 to 1998. (2/1337)

OBJECTIVES: In 2 successive decades since 1967, legal accommodation of abortion has grown in many countries. The objective of this study was to assess whether liberalizing trends have been maintained in the last decade and whether increased protection of women's human rights has influenced legal reform. METHODS: A worldwide review was conducted of legislation and judicial rulings affecting abortion, and legal reforms were measured against governmental commitments made under international human rights treaties and at United Nations conferences. RESULTS: Since 1987, 26 jurisdictions have extended grounds for lawful abortion, and 4 countries have restricted grounds. Additional limits on access to legal abortion services include restrictions on funding of services, mandatory counseling and reflection delay requirements, third-party authorizations, and blockades of abortion clinics. CONCLUSIONS: Progressive liberalization has moved abortion laws from a focus on punishment toward concern with women's health and welfare and with their human rights. However, widespread maternal mortality and morbidity show that reform must be accompanied by accessible abortion services and improved contraceptive care and information.  (+info)

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis and the 'new' eugenics. (3/1337)

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PID) is often seen as an improvement upon prenatal testing. I argue that PID may exacerbate the eugenic features of prenatal testing and make possible an expanded form of free-market eugenics. The current practice of prenatal testing is eugenic in that its aim is to reduce the numbers of people with genetic disorders. Due to social pressures and eugenic attitudes held by clinical geneticists in most countries, it results in eugenic outcomes even though no state coercion is involved. I argue that technological advances may soon make PID widely accessible. Because abortion is not involved, and multiple embryos are available, PID is radically more effective as a tool of genetic selection. It will also make possible selection on the basis of non-pathological characteristics, leading, potentially, to a full-blown free-market eugenics. For these reasons, I argue that PID should be strictly regulated.  (+info)

Can we learn from eugenics? (4/1337)

Eugenics casts a long shadow over contemporary genetics. Any measure, whether in clinical genetics or biotechnology, which is suspected of eugenic intent is likely to be opposed on that ground. Yet there is little consensus on what this word signifies, and often only a remote connection to the very complex set of social movements which took that name. After a brief historical summary of eugenics, this essay attempts to locate any wrongs inherent in eugenic doctrines. Four candidates are examined and rejected. The moral challenge posed by eugenics for genetics in our own time, I argue, is to achieve social justice.  (+info)

Genetic screening with the DNA chip: a new Pandora's box? (5/1337)

The ethically controversial option of genetic population screening used to be restricted to a small number of rather rare diseases by methodological limitations which are now about to be overcome. With the new technology of DNA microarrays ("DNA chip"), emerging from the synthesis of microelectronics and molecular biology, methods are now at hand for the development of mass screening programmes for a wide spectrum of genetic traits. Thus, the DNA chip may be the key technology for a refined preventive medicine as well as a new dimension of eugenics. The forthcoming introduction of the DNA chip technology into medical practice urgently requires an internationally consistent framework of ethical standards and legal limitations if we do not want it to become a new Pandora's box.  (+info)

Indigenous peoples and the morality of the Human Genome Diversity Project. (6/1337)

In addition to the aim of mapping and sequencing one human's genome, the Human Genome Project also intends to characterise the genetic diversity of the world's peoples. The Human Genome Diversity Project raises political, economic and ethical issues. These intersect clearly when the genomes under study are those of indigenous peoples who are already subject to serious economic, legal and/or social disadvantage and discrimination. The fact that some individuals associated with the project have made dismissive comments about indigenous peoples has confused rather than illuminated the deeper issues involved, as well as causing much antagonism among indigenous peoples. There are more serious ethical issues raised by the project for all geneticists, including those who are sympathetic to the problems of indigenous peoples. With particular attention to the history and attitudes of Australian indigenous peoples, we argue that the Human Genome Diversity Project can only proceed if those who further its objectives simultaneously: respect the cultural beliefs of indigenous peoples; publicly support the efforts of indigenous peoples to achieve respect and equality; express respect by a rigorous understanding of the meaning of equitable negotiation of consent, and ensure that both immediate and long term economic benefits from the research flow back to the groups taking part.  (+info)

Most deaths related to abortion occur in the developing world.(7/1337)

 (+info)

Performance of research ethics committees in Spain. A prospective study of 100 applications for clinical trial protocols on medicines. (8/1337)

OBJECTIVES: To review the characteristics and performance of research ethics committees in Spain in the evaluation of multicentre clinical trial drug protocols. DESIGN: A prospective study of 100 applications. SETTING: Forty-one committees reviewing clinical trial protocols, involving 50 hospitals in 25 cities. MAIN MEASURES: Protocol-related features, characteristics of research ethics committees and evaluation dynamics. RESULTS: The 100 applications involved 15 protocols (of which 12 were multinational) with 12 drugs. Committees met monthly (except one). They had a mean number of 12 members, requested a mean of six complete dossiers and nine additional copies of the protocol with a mean deadline of 14 days before the meeting. All applications were approved except three (two of the three were open-label long-term safety trials rejected by the same committee), which were approved by the other committees involved. The mean time from submission to approval was 64 days. The mean time from submission to arrival of the approval document at our offices was 85 days. Twenty-five committees raised queries for 38 of the 97 finally approved applications. Impact of evaluation fee, number of members, queries raised and experience of committees on timings were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Obtaining ethical approval is time-consuming. There is much diversity in the research ethics committees' performance. A remarkable delay (> 20 days) exists between the decision and the arrival of the written approval, suggesting administrative or organisational problems.  (+info)

  • Internationality embeds education, staff and student competences development, research and development actions as well as expertise services. (karelia.fi)
  • Politicians' and economists' explanations for this development differ: While politicians are more likely to argue with the start-up difficulties, the lack of large-scale research firms and the break-up of the East German markets, scientists have brought lack of investment in education and research, the lack of internationality and insufficient innovations - and thus future-oriented arguments - to the forefront. (iwh-halle.de)
  • Wissenschaft weltoffen is a publication containing the latest data and facts on the internationality of study and research in Germany. (daad.de)
  • Strong in research, attractive course offers, growing internationality! (uni-ulm.de)
  • Internationality is an integral part of the School's doctoral education in both recruiting and educating doctoral students. (aalto.fi)
  • Flughafen Wien AG offers qualified apprenticeship training programmes with a focus on internationality and personal development. (viennaairport.com)
  • The high number of degrees being awarded and the internationality of the program were deemed particularly noteworthy. (fu-berlin.de)
  • Based on internationality, excellent communication, real team spirit, a long customer experience and a strong focus we are happy to present ourselves as a successful and growing company. (bionity.com)
  • Especially MAHASSA's internationality and networks provide excellent conditions. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • Internationality is present in everything that Karelia University of Applied Science (UAS) does. (karelia.fi)
  • The JGU Center for Intercultural Studies and the Faculty of Translation Studies, Linguistics, and Cultural Studies organize events to reflect on internationality and interculturality. (uni-mainz.de)
  • Particularly as a result of a abroad, students will acquire internationality, intercultural expertise, linguistic and regional expertise. (uni-marburg.de)
  • Internationality is part of everyday life at the School. (uef.fi)
  • Internationality and multilingualism are part of everyday life in the business metropolis, as Frankfurt Airport connects the city with the whole world via direct flights. (goethe.de)
  • Reports can use any language in the world and even multiple languages simultaneously, maintaining true internationality! (qbssoftware.com)
  • Internationality is integrated as a natural part of the degree programme. (samk.fi)
  • Internationality is reality regardless of the future profession or job description. (jamk.fi)
  • Internationality competence manifests itself as language skills, interactive skills and cultural competence. (samk.fi)
  • The internationality of the programme was definitely a huge advantage. (gu.se)
  • This programme creates an atmosphere of internationality through its students and its universities, which provides both a learning experience for its scholars and a desirable trait for future employers. (lumsa.it)
  • As President of the Max Planck Society, I am deeply convinced that science and scientific progress rest, above all, on internationality, openness and the free exchange of ideas and knowledge, transcending boundaries between countries and cultures as well as between scientific disciplines and schools of thought. (mpg.de)
  • Our performance reflects our track record of delivering positive outcomes to our students while prioritizing accessibility and internationality, key factors for our continued success. (prnewswire.com)
  • Workshops, presentations and discussions on internationality: The "Day for International Teaching and Learning" on 9 April 2018 offers a program that's chock-full. (uni-freiburg.de)
  • EQUIS acreditation is very demanding with regard to the international ambitions and performance of schools - it is impossible to receive it if the school does not have a strong vision and mission on internationality. (rsm.nl)
  • Smaller culture splashes organized by the internationality sector include international poetry days, movie nights and international theme days in Kipsari . (tokyo.fi)
  • Laurea Journal is Laurea's own online magazine that features articles dealing with project work, student collaboration and internationality from various perspectives. (laurea.fi)
  • Evaluar la repercusión global de la adopción de las medidas de control del tabaco de alto nivel MPOWER en diferentes países y territorios desde el año 2007 al 2010. (nih.gov)
  • Internationality, the advancement of high-calibre top scientists, their exemption from teaching duty, interdisciplinary cooperation and bridging traditional disciplinary boundaries are all central principles of the modern MPS that have been carried down from the era of the first KWS President, Adolph von Harnack. (mpg.de)
  • CABANA's internationality and uniquely broad range of activities will address the training needs of Latin America's diverse biological and biomedical sciences communities. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Country group exhibits from Austria, China, Germany, Japan and Singapore contributed to the increased internationality of the exhibition. (exhibitcitynews.com)
  • Especially the internationality of the working group of Prof. Dr. Madelaine Böhme, in which he carried out parts of his doctorate, is valuable to him. (senckenberg.de)
  • Internationality and integration into the European Research Area are essential for the future of excellent research in Switzerland. (snf.ch)
  • Moreover, Musikmesse continues to be extremely reliable in terms of trade- visitor internationality and we welcomed distributors and retailers from all around the world, including Asia, East Europe and Africa, to our exhibition stand. (messefrankfurt.com)
  • I never felt unwelcome since I moved here and I love the internationality the city has to offer! (clujlife.com)
  • Before long, the local community becomes a productive cross roads of competition and collaboration, commonality and differentiation, praise and disdain, tradition and departure, locality and internationality of influence. (cultureby.com)
  • Evaluating and identifying "Internationality" of peer reviewed journals is a hotly debated topic. (jscires.org)
  • Internationality was already among WU's key values at WU's founding in 1898 as an Export Academy. (wu.ac.at)