The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)

Selecting subjects for participation in clinical research: one sphere of justice. (1/1337)

Recent guidelines from the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) mandate the inclusion of adequate numbers of women in clinical trials. Ought such standards to apply internationally? Walzer's theory of justice is brought to bear on the problem, the first use of the theory in research ethics, and it argues for broad application of the principle of adequate representation. A number of practical conclusions for research ethics committees (RECs) are outlined. Eligibility criteria in clinical trials ought to be justified by trial designers. Research ethics committees ought to question criteria that seem to exclude unnecessarily women from research participation. The issue of adequate representation should be construed broadly, so as to include consideration of the representation of the elderly, persons with HIV, mental illness and substance abuse disorders in clinical research.  (+info)

International developments in abortion law from 1988 to 1998. (2/1337)

OBJECTIVES: In 2 successive decades since 1967, legal accommodation of abortion has grown in many countries. The objective of this study was to assess whether liberalizing trends have been maintained in the last decade and whether increased protection of women's human rights has influenced legal reform. METHODS: A worldwide review was conducted of legislation and judicial rulings affecting abortion, and legal reforms were measured against governmental commitments made under international human rights treaties and at United Nations conferences. RESULTS: Since 1987, 26 jurisdictions have extended grounds for lawful abortion, and 4 countries have restricted grounds. Additional limits on access to legal abortion services include restrictions on funding of services, mandatory counseling and reflection delay requirements, third-party authorizations, and blockades of abortion clinics. CONCLUSIONS: Progressive liberalization has moved abortion laws from a focus on punishment toward concern with women's health and welfare and with their human rights. However, widespread maternal mortality and morbidity show that reform must be accompanied by accessible abortion services and improved contraceptive care and information.  (+info)

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis and the 'new' eugenics. (3/1337)

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PID) is often seen as an improvement upon prenatal testing. I argue that PID may exacerbate the eugenic features of prenatal testing and make possible an expanded form of free-market eugenics. The current practice of prenatal testing is eugenic in that its aim is to reduce the numbers of people with genetic disorders. Due to social pressures and eugenic attitudes held by clinical geneticists in most countries, it results in eugenic outcomes even though no state coercion is involved. I argue that technological advances may soon make PID widely accessible. Because abortion is not involved, and multiple embryos are available, PID is radically more effective as a tool of genetic selection. It will also make possible selection on the basis of non-pathological characteristics, leading, potentially, to a full-blown free-market eugenics. For these reasons, I argue that PID should be strictly regulated.  (+info)

Can we learn from eugenics? (4/1337)

Eugenics casts a long shadow over contemporary genetics. Any measure, whether in clinical genetics or biotechnology, which is suspected of eugenic intent is likely to be opposed on that ground. Yet there is little consensus on what this word signifies, and often only a remote connection to the very complex set of social movements which took that name. After a brief historical summary of eugenics, this essay attempts to locate any wrongs inherent in eugenic doctrines. Four candidates are examined and rejected. The moral challenge posed by eugenics for genetics in our own time, I argue, is to achieve social justice.  (+info)

Genetic screening with the DNA chip: a new Pandora's box? (5/1337)

The ethically controversial option of genetic population screening used to be restricted to a small number of rather rare diseases by methodological limitations which are now about to be overcome. With the new technology of DNA microarrays ("DNA chip"), emerging from the synthesis of microelectronics and molecular biology, methods are now at hand for the development of mass screening programmes for a wide spectrum of genetic traits. Thus, the DNA chip may be the key technology for a refined preventive medicine as well as a new dimension of eugenics. The forthcoming introduction of the DNA chip technology into medical practice urgently requires an internationally consistent framework of ethical standards and legal limitations if we do not want it to become a new Pandora's box.  (+info)

Indigenous peoples and the morality of the Human Genome Diversity Project. (6/1337)

In addition to the aim of mapping and sequencing one human's genome, the Human Genome Project also intends to characterise the genetic diversity of the world's peoples. The Human Genome Diversity Project raises political, economic and ethical issues. These intersect clearly when the genomes under study are those of indigenous peoples who are already subject to serious economic, legal and/or social disadvantage and discrimination. The fact that some individuals associated with the project have made dismissive comments about indigenous peoples has confused rather than illuminated the deeper issues involved, as well as causing much antagonism among indigenous peoples. There are more serious ethical issues raised by the project for all geneticists, including those who are sympathetic to the problems of indigenous peoples. With particular attention to the history and attitudes of Australian indigenous peoples, we argue that the Human Genome Diversity Project can only proceed if those who further its objectives simultaneously: respect the cultural beliefs of indigenous peoples; publicly support the efforts of indigenous peoples to achieve respect and equality; express respect by a rigorous understanding of the meaning of equitable negotiation of consent, and ensure that both immediate and long term economic benefits from the research flow back to the groups taking part.  (+info)

Most deaths related to abortion occur in the developing world.(7/1337)

 (+info)

Performance of research ethics committees in Spain. A prospective study of 100 applications for clinical trial protocols on medicines. (8/1337)

OBJECTIVES: To review the characteristics and performance of research ethics committees in Spain in the evaluation of multicentre clinical trial drug protocols. DESIGN: A prospective study of 100 applications. SETTING: Forty-one committees reviewing clinical trial protocols, involving 50 hospitals in 25 cities. MAIN MEASURES: Protocol-related features, characteristics of research ethics committees and evaluation dynamics. RESULTS: The 100 applications involved 15 protocols (of which 12 were multinational) with 12 drugs. Committees met monthly (except one). They had a mean number of 12 members, requested a mean of six complete dossiers and nine additional copies of the protocol with a mean deadline of 14 days before the meeting. All applications were approved except three (two of the three were open-label long-term safety trials rejected by the same committee), which were approved by the other committees involved. The mean time from submission to approval was 64 days. The mean time from submission to arrival of the approval document at our offices was 85 days. Twenty-five committees raised queries for 38 of the 97 finally approved applications. Impact of evaluation fee, number of members, queries raised and experience of committees on timings were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Obtaining ethical approval is time-consuming. There is much diversity in the research ethics committees' performance. A remarkable delay (> 20 days) exists between the decision and the arrival of the written approval, suggesting administrative or organisational problems.  (+info)

I must apologize, but there seems to be a misunderstanding. The term "internationality" is not a commonly used medical term with a specific definition in the field of medicine or healthcare. It is a more general term that can refer to the quality or state of being international or global in scope, relevance, or application. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help clarify those for you.

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"Internationality , International , İstanbul Bilgi University". www.bilgi.edu.tr. Retrieved 2020-02-10. webteam. "Memberships - ...
"Supo - Internationality". www.supo.fi. Archived from the original on 2017-06-18. Retrieved 2017-10-23. Jensen-Eriksen, Niklas ( ...
The Internationality of National Literatures in either America: British America and the United States, 1770s-1850s (Göttingen: ... Together with Professor Armin Paul Frank, Mueller-Vollmer authored a volume of studies on the internationality of literature in ... Towards that end Mueller-Vollmer participated in various conferences at the University of Göttingen on the internationality of ... 1998-1999: Participant in Research Project of the "Center for the Advanced Study in the Internationality of National ...
SYK is noted for its internationality. It is one of the 15 schools in Finland to offer the IB Diploma Programme in the ...
Steinke, Hubert; Lang, Yves (October 2011). "Parochialism or Self-Consciousness? Internationality in Medical History Journals ...
"Internationality: The partner universities of EBS Universität". www.ebs.edu. "EBS Universität für Wirtschaft und Recht: Dual ...
"Internationality", Sisters of St Joseph of Lyon". Archived from the original on 2015-03-04. Retrieved 2015-04-23. U.S. ...
For the Fatherland, for the Republic, for Internationality". On the morning of August 4, Jaurès was officially buried. A ...
". "FIBAA" - [1] "BTC" Inter-nationality & Internationalisation "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017 ...
Internationality from the VAG (1800) to the Astronomische Gesellschaft. Official website Portals: Germany Astronomy Stars ...
... not submergence in internationality, but sustainment in triumphant nationality. Warren G. Harding, speech before the Home ...
... not submergence in internationality, but sustainment in triumphant nationality. The 1920 election was the first in which women ...
Internationality is an overarching theme in value chain management. Therefore, it is argued here that collective international ...
Today, the main foci centre on multidisciplinarity, internationality, and mentoring. The university is home to the Max Weber ...
ISBN 978-0-313-33770-3. Frank, Armin Paul; Essmann, Helga (1999). The Internationality of National Literatures in Either ...
In the areas of internationality, work life counselling, internship, and thesis, SeAMK reached the second highest place. In ... The Seinäjoki University of Applied Sciences specialises in entrepreneurship, food and internationality. The aim of the ...
Russian was the language of public business, the official language of 'internationality communication.' See the essay on ... "language of internationality communication" (Russian: язык межнационального общения). In 1923 a new school statute and ...
ISBN 978-3-11-056028-2. [1] Perler, Dominik (ed.) (2001), Ancient and Medieval Theories of Internationality, Leiden, Brill. ...
In the categories "Teaching" and "Internationality" it reaches first place in 2021[BM2] . Constructor University is one of the ...
Internationality is emphasized in all education offered at Kajaani University of Applied Sciences. It is possible to complete ...
It also symbolizes the world and reflects the internationality of the Aga Khan University. At the centre of the seal is a star ...
Acta Historica Astronomiae ; 14). Thun ; Frankfurt am Main: Deutsch, 2002, 243 p., ISBN 3-8171-1667-5 Internationality from the ...
Munich International Summer University: MISU at LMU Annual Report 2019, 2019, p. 8. LMU Munich: Internationality of LMU Munich ... A central aim of MISU is to boost the internationality of the LMU Munich in terms of research and teaching. Compared to ...
In the teaching technology, internationality, self-expression and entrepreneurship are used as basic tools. The school has a ...
Along with that, the school promotes the sense of community and internationality of education. The historical and cultural ... The College participates in different national and international projects, focused on strengthening the internationality of ...
In a 2007 interview, when asked about the "internationality" in Supreeme's music, Girvan explains, "...growing up with my ...
The school's values are justice, truth, sincerity, freedom, joy, and more recently excellence and internationality. At the ...
Internationality, multilingualism and multiculturalism are an integral part of teaching and everyday activities at VAMK. Yearly ...
In addition, the courses gain internationality and authenticity through trainers with individual and concrete UN experience. ...
Internationality is the concept of something "involving more than a single country", and may suggest interaction between or ... Comparative studies show that at least two concepts of internationality coexist in most countries: a legal concept and an ... consisted in their Internationality". In politics, "The International" may refer to a political international, specifically ... here was a well-established tradition at the Hague Conference on Private International Law of not defining internationality. ...
Internationality is one of the most important aspects of İstanbul Bilgi University. The motto of our university is Learning ... Internationality. Internationality is one of the most important aspects of İstanbul Bilgi University. The motto of our ... principles that BİLGİ cherishes consist of 14 core principles and 7 of them emphasize or are connected to internationality. ...
QS at Fruit Logistica 2020: More internationality and even better traceability. 30/01/2020 , Production , Wholesale , ...
Tianjin Haoye Technology Co., Ltd. was established in 2013 and belongs to Taihua Group. It is a scientific and technological enterprise specializing in R&D and production of underwater equipment supporting products, to develop and sell underwater thrusters, underwater DC brushless motor etc.. Our mission is to use the spirit of perfectionist craftsmanship to create first-class underwater equipment supporting products with user experience and to provide the best solution for the underwater equipment industry ...
internationality - The Coatinc Company is committed to continued growth in order to extend our range of services in surface ...
Twinsnetwork is an international network of companies, reference point in research, design and production of components in the furniture sector
And, finally, the issue of internationality was addressed with the Bitcoin Foundations new international chapter program. ...
Internationality and regional interconnection The University of Konstanz supports the international collaborations of its ...
Tag: inter-nationality marriage in Seychelles. Seychelles Marriage for Foreigners: Can we marry in Seychelles if we are of ...
Diversity and inclusion is firmly anchored in our corporate culture and is a key driver of our business success.
Methodological advances in cross-national surveys of education achievement / Board on International Comparative Studies in Education ; Andrew C. Porter and Adam Gamoran, editors. by Porter, Andrew C , Gamoran, Adam , National Research Council (U.S.). Board on International Comparative Studies in Education , National Research Council (U.S.). Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Board on Testing andAssessment , National Academy Press (U.S.).. Material type: ...
... When thinking about internationality and studies, usually the ... Each of these offers a great way to get more internationality in your own life: you just have to find the best match for you! ... And that is totally fine - but if you are still interested of internationality and making new friends from other cultures, ... Other ways to increase internationality during your studies are for example a friend program run by ESN Lapland, café lingua - ...
3. Rankings and internationality Not only nationally, but also in international rankings, TU Darmstadt is highly visible. Moiz ...
Internationality * Coming to Finland from abroad * Application Process for residence permit applications for an employed person ...
This paper aims to fill this gap by providing empirical evidence of the impact interdisciplinarity and internationality have on ... The effects of interdisciplinarity and internationality of group compositions in student fieldwork final.docx(81.18 KB). ... This paper aims to fill this gap by providing empirical evidence of the impact interdisciplinarity and internationality have on ... Arnold, H., Felgentreff, C., Franz, M. and Higgs, B. (2022) The effects of interdisciplinarity and internationality of group ...
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"Intertextile Apparel is Asias largest trade fair, with high internationality and a strong influence in the industry. The ... Intertextile Apparel concludes: digital, sustainable and functional trends shine amidst boost in internationality. By ...
There are three things that make a Replyer: drive for innovation, enthusiasm for technology and the ability to work in a team. In our international network, we learn from each other and grow together. We make our customers goals our own in order to move forward together. What unites us all is our passion for what we do. Does that suit you? Then youll fit in with us! ...
Internationality "The ProWein is fantastic because the nationalities are splittet in different sections, so its very easy for ...
Intertextile Apparel concludes: digital, sustainable and functional trends shine amidst boost in internationality ... "Intertextile Apparel is Asias largest trade fair, with high internationality and a strong influence in the industry. The ...
Internationality & Specialization: Marketing or Finance. We offer two thematic specializations: Marketing or Finance. This ...
Internationality * Middle Aged * Nurses / psychology* Grants and funding * R01NR04513-11/NR/NINR NIH HHS/United States ...
Internationality * Personal Autonomy * Persons * Pregnancy * Pregnancy Complications, Infectious / drug therapy* * Pregnant ...
Read more about the publication in Research.fi.
Read more about the publication in Research.fi.
Internationality. Studying at Munich Business School is an international experience, because internationality is not only ...
EuroShop 2020 Final Press Release: High Degree of Internationality confirms Global Leading Function for Retail. Leave a Comment ...
  • This paper aims to fill this gap by providing empirical evidence of the impact interdisciplinarity and internationality have on student learning while carrying out fieldwork. (ucc.ie)
  • trainLSE' is notable for its interdisciplinarity and internationality. (idw-online.de)
  • Optimal Outlook For Techtextil And Texprocess 2024: A High Level Of Demand And Internationality. (textileworld.com)
  • The employees of TU Dresden contribute substantially to the internationality and welcome culture on campus. (tu-dresden.de)
  • As the United Nations noted in its Yearbook of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law: [T]here was a well-established tradition at the Hague Conference on Private International Law of not defining internationality. (wikipedia.org)
  • And, finally, the issue of internationality was addressed with the Bitcoin Foundation's new international chapter program. (bt.cx)
  • Other ways to increase internationality during your studies are for example a friend program run by ESN Lapland, café lingua -language groups, becoming an international tutor and shorter exchange periods or internships abroad. (blogspot.com)
  • Surrounded by internationality, culture and gastronomy, we focus on our cooperation and optimal service provision. (basf.com)
  • Comparative studies show that at least two concepts of internationality coexist in most countries: a legal concept and an economic concept. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intertextile Apparel is Asia's largest trade fair, with high internationality and a strong influence in the industry. (textilesouthasia.com)
  • Internationality is the concept of something "involving more than a single country", and may suggest interaction between or encompassing more than one nation, or generally beyond national boundaries. (wikipedia.org)
  • The internationality of exhibitors and visitors reached a new high. (messe-muenchen.de)
  • Internationality is already inherent in the idea of science. (tu-dresden.de)
  • La prise en charge institutionnelle des personnes handicapées est désormais assurée en commun avec le programme de services communautaires de réadaptation. (who.int)
  • And that is totally fine - but if you are still interested of internationality and making new friends from other cultures, there are multiple other options as well! (blogspot.com)
  • Düsseldorf stands for internationality, diversity and openness. (duesseldorf.de)
  • FH Kufstein Tirol stands for internationality - the international orientation of all studies ist one of the most important objective. (fh-kufstein.ac.at)
  • Internationality and versatility are among the strengths that differentiate the program on a global basis. (aalto.fi)
  • Comparative studies show that at least two concepts of internationality coexist in most countries: a legal concept and an economic concept. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Audit's main focus lies on assessing and analysing the university's internationality (i.e. its current situation and the status quo of its internationalisation measures) and developing recommendations for the development of the amendment of an institutional internationalisation strategy on this basis. (hrk.de)