The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.
International organizations which provide health-related or other cooperative services.
The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
System established by the World Health Organization and the International Committee on Thrombosis and Hemostasis for monitoring and reporting blood coagulation tests. Under this system, results are standardized using the International Sensitivity Index for the particular test reagent/instrument combination used.
A system of categories to which morbid entries are assigned according to established criteria. Included is the entire range of conditions in a manageable number of categories, grouped to facilitate mortality reporting. It is produced by the World Health Organization (From ICD-10, p1). The Clinical Modifications, produced by the UNITED STATES DEPT. OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, are larger extensions used for morbidity and general epidemiological purposes, primarily in the U.S.
The exchange of students or professional personnel between countries done under the auspices of an organization for the purpose of further education.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.
Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
Physicians who hold degrees from medical schools in countries other than the ones in which they practice.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The World Health Organization's classification categories of health and health-related domains. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) consists of two lists: a list of body functions and structure, and a list of domains of activity and participation. The ICF also includes a list of environmental factors.
A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.
A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.
The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)
Countries that have reached a level of economic achievement through an increase of production, per capita income and consumption, and utilization of natural and human resources.
An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.
Aspects of health and disease related to travel.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
General agreement or collective opinion; the judgment arrived at by most of those concerned.
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.
An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.
Clotting time of PLASMA recalcified in the presence of excess TISSUE THROMBOPLASTIN. Factors measured are FIBRINOGEN; PROTHROMBIN; FACTOR V; FACTOR VII; and FACTOR X. It is used for monitoring anticoagulant therapy with COUMARINS.
Agents that prevent clotting.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.
Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.
A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Presentations of summary statements representing the majority agreement of physicians, scientists, and other professionals convening for the purpose of reaching a consensus--often with findings and recommendations--on a subject of interest. The Conference, consisting of participants representing the scientific and lay viewpoints, is a significant means of evaluating current medical thought and reflects the latest advances in research for the respective field being addressed.
Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.
The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
Organizations composed of members with common interests and whose professions may be similar.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
Persons who have acquired academic or specialized training in countries other than that in which they are working. The concept excludes physicians for which FOREIGN MEDICAL GRADUATES is the likely heading.
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
An international professional organization composed of one association per country for the purpose of improving and developing nursing's contribution to the promotion of health and care of the sick.
Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.
An iterative questionnaire designed to measure consensus among individual responses. In the classic Delphi approach, there is no interaction between responder and interviewer.
A weight-carrying structure for navigation of the air that is supported either by its own buoyancy or by the dynamic action of the air against its surfaces. (Webster, 1973)
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)
Administration and functional structures for the purpose of collectively systematizing activities for a particular goal.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The inability in the male to have a PENILE ERECTION due to psychological or organ dysfunction.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.
Process of substituting a symbol or code for a term such as a diagnosis or procedure. (from Slee's Health Care Terms, 3d ed.)
Terminal facilities used for aircraft takeoff and landing and including facilities for handling passengers. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed.)
The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.
The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.
The intentional infliction of physical or mental suffering upon an individual or individuals, including the torture of animals.
The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.
Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Travel beyond the earth's atmosphere.
The moral obligations governing the conduct of research. Used for discussions of research ethics as a general topic.
Authoritative treatises on drugs and preparations, their description, formulation, analytic composition, physical constants, main chemical properties used in identification, standards for strength, purity, and dosage, chemical tests for determining identity and purity, etc. They are usually published under governmental jurisdiction (e.g., USP, the United States Pharmacopoeia; BP, British Pharmacopoeia; P. Helv., the Swiss Pharmacopoeia). They differ from FORMULARIES in that they are far more complete: formularies tend to be mere listings of formulas and prescriptions.
Voluntary acceptance of a child of other parents to be as one's own child, usually with legal confirmation.
Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
Travel to another country for the purpose of medical treatment.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
An independent Federal agency established in 1961 as the focal point for economic matters affecting U.S. relations with developing countries.
Regulations to assure protection of property and equipment.
Australia, New Zealand and neighboring islands in the South Pacific Ocean. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed.)
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
Control which is exerted by the more stable organizations of society, such as established institutions and the law. They are ordinarily embodied in definite codes, usually written.
Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.
The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
The field of nursing care concerned with the promotion, maintenance, and restoration of health.
A medical specialty concerned with the use of physical agents, mechanical apparatus, and manipulation in rehabilitating physically diseased or injured patients.
Works about controlled studies which are planned and carried out by several cooperating institutions to assess certain variables and outcomes in specific patient populations, for example, a multicenter study of congenital anomalies in children.
That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Assistance, such as money, food, or shelter, given to the needy, aged, or victims of disaster. It is usually granted on a temporary basis. (From The American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed)
Criminal acts committed during, or in connection with, war, e.g., maltreatment of prisoners, willful killing of civilians, etc.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.
The process of observing, recording, or detecting the effects of a chemical substance administered to an individual therapeutically or diagnostically.
Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.
Malignant lymphoma composed of large B lymphoid cells whose nuclear size can exceed normal macrophage nuclei, or more than twice the size of a normal lymphocyte. The pattern is predominantly diffuse. Most of these lymphomas represent the malignant counterpart of B-lymphocytes at midstage in the process of differentiation.
Members of spacecraft crew including those who travel in space, and those in training for space flight. (From Webster, 10th ed; Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)
Persons with physical or mental disabilities that affect or limit their activities of daily living and that may require special accommodations.
Organizational development including enhancement of management structures, processes and procedures, within organizations and among different organizations and sectors to meet present and future needs.
Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.
A course or method of action selected to guide and determine present and future decisions.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
All organized methods of funding.
The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).
Method of measuring performance against established standards of best practice.
The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.
Created as the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes in 1918. Yugoslavia became the official name in 1929. BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA; CROATIA; and SLOVENIA formed independent countries 7 April 1992. Macedonia became independent 8 February 1994 as the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (MACEDONIA REPUBLIC).
Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.
An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)
Those individuals engaged in research.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Organizations which are not operated for a profit and may be supported by endowments or private contributions.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.
A branch of applied ethics that studies the value implications of practices and developments in life sciences, medicine, and health care.
Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.
Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
Hostile conflict between organized groups of people.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a product or its container or wrapper. It includes purpose, effect, description, directions, hazards, warnings, and other relevant information.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
An international agreement of the World Medical Association which offers guidelines for conducting experiments using human subjects. It was adopted in 1962 and revised by the 18th World Medical Assembly at Helsinki, Finland in 1964. Subsequent revisions were made in 1975, 1983, 1989, and 1996. (From Encyclopedia of Bioethics, rev ed, 1995)
Acquisition of knowledge as a result of instruction in a formal course of study.
The circulation or wide dispersal of information.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
A class of disabling primary headache disorders, characterized by recurrent unilateral pulsatile headaches. The two major subtypes are common migraine (without aura) and classic migraine (with aura or neurological symptoms). (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)
Measuring and weighing systems and processes.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Design, development, manufacture, and operation of heavier-than-air AIRCRAFT.
Groups set up to advise governmental bodies, societies, or other institutions on policy. (Bioethics Thesaurus)
The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.
Financial support of research activities.
The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Deliberate maltreatment of groups of humans beings including violations of generally-accepted fundamental rights as stated by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted and proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly resolution 217 A (III) of 10 December 1948.
Clusters of topics that fall within the domain of BIOETHICS, the field of study concerned with value questions that arise in biomedicine and health care delivery.
The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.
The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
An independent state consisting of three islands in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Sicily. Its capital is Valetta. The major island is Malta, the two smaller islands are Comino and Gozo. It was a Phoenician and Carthaginian colony, captured by the Romans in 218 B.C. It was overrun by Saracens in 870, taken by the Normans in 1090, and subsequently held by the French and later the British who allotted them a dominion government in 1921. It became a crown colony in 1933, achieving independence in 1964. The name possibly comes from a pre-Indoeuropean root mel, high, referring to its rocks, but a more picturesque origin derives the name from the Greek melitta or melissa, honey, with reference to its early fame for its honey production. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p719 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p330)

Warfarin therapy: evolving strategies in anticoagulation. (1/544)

Warfarin is the oral anticoagulant most frequently used to control and prevent thromboembolic disorders. Prescribing the dose that both avoids hemorrhagic complications and achieves sufficient suppression of thrombosis requires a thorough understanding of the drug's unique pharmacology. Warfarin has a complex dose-response relationship that makes safe and effective use a challenge. For most indications, the dose is adjusted to maintain the patient's International Normalized Ratio (INR) at 2 to 3. Because of the delay in factor II (prothrombin) suppression, heparin is administered concurrently for four to five days to prevent thrombus propagation. Loading doses of warfarin are not warranted and may result in bleeding complications. Interactions with other drugs must be considered, and therapy in elderly patients requires careful management. Current dosing recommendations are reviewed, and practical guidelines for the optimal use of warfarin are provided.  (+info)

A comparison of three months of anticoagulation with extended anticoagulation for a first episode of idiopathic venous thromboembolism. (2/544)

BACKGROUND: Patients who have a first episode of venous thromboembolism in the absence of known risk factors for thrombosis (idiopathic thrombosis) are often treated with anticoagulant therapy for three months. Such patients may benefit from longer treatment, however, because they appear to have an increased risk of recurrence after anticoagulant therapy is stopped. METHODS: In this double-blind study, we randomly assigned patients who had completed 3 months of anticoagulant therapy for a first episode of idiopathic venous thromboembolism to continue receiving warfarin, with the dose adjusted to achieve an international normalized ratio of 2.0 to 3.0, or to receive placebo for a further 24 months. Our goal was to determine the effects of extended anticoagulant therapy on rates of recurrent symptomatic venous thromboembolism and bleeding. RESULTS: A prespecified interim analysis of efficacy led to the early termination of the trial after 162 patients had been enrolled and followed for an average of 10 months. Of 83 patients assigned to continue to receive placebo, 17 had a recurrent episode of venous thromboembolism (27.4 percent per patient-year), as compared with 1 of 79 patients assigned to receive warfarin (1.3 percent per patient-year, P<0.001). Warfarin resulted in a 95 percent reduction in the risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism (95 percent confidence interval, 63 to 99 percent). Three patients assigned to the warfarin group had nonfatal major bleeding (two had gastrointestinal bleeding and one genitourinary bleeding), as compared with none of those assigned to the placebo group (3.8 vs. 0 percent per patient-year, P=0.09). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with a first episode of idiopathic venous thromboembolism should be treated with anticoagulant agents for longer than three months.  (+info)

Dose-dependent fetal complications of warfarin in pregnant women with mechanical heart valves. (3/544)

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of warfarin fetal complications and whether they are dose-dependent. BACKGROUND: Gravid patients with mechanical heart valves require long-term anticoagulant therapy. Controversy exists concerning the appropriate treatment of these patients. METHODS: Forty-three women on warfarin carrying out 58 pregnancies were studied. For each patient with full-term pregnancy a caesarian section was scheduled for the 38th week during brief warfarin discontinuation. Maternal and fetal complications were evaluated. Fetal complications were divided according to the warfarin dosage < or = 5 mg and > 5 mg necessary to keep an international normalized ratio (INR) of 2.5 to 3.5, and analyzed subsequently. RESULTS: A total of 58 pregnancies were observed: 31 healthy babies (30 full term, 1 premature) and 27 fetal complications (22 spontaneous abortions, 2 warfarin embryopathies, 1 stillbirth, 1 ventricular septal defect, 1 growth retardation) were recorded. Two maternal valve thromboses occurred. No fetal or maternal bleeding was observed during caesarian sections or premature vaginal delivery. Patients whose warfarin doses during pregnancy were > 5 mg had 22 fetal complications, whereas those taking a dose < or = 5 mg had only five fetal complications (p = 0.0001). For an increase of the warfarin dose there was a substantially increased probability of fetal complications (p < 0.0001; p < 0.7316). CONCLUSIONS: There is a close dependency between warfarin dosage and fetal complications. Patients on warfarin anticoagulation may be delivered by planned caesarian section at the 38th week while briefly interrupting anticoagulation.  (+info)

Prediction of the international normalized ratio and maintenance dose during the initiation of warfarin therapy. (4/544)

AIMS: A pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model, with Bayesian parameter estimation, was used to retrospectively predict the daily International Normalized Ratios (INRs) and the maintenance doses during the initiation of warfarin therapy in 74 inpatients. METHODS: INRs and maintenance doses predicted by the model were compared with the actual INRs and the eventual maintenance dose. Cases with drugs or medical conditions interacting with warfarin or receiving concurrent heparin therapy were not excluded. As the study was retrospective, model predictions of the maintenance dose were not those that were administered. Mean prediction error (MPE) and percentage absolute prediction errors (PAPE) were used to assess the model predictions. RESULTS: INR MPE ranged from -0.07 to 0.06 and median PAPE from 10% to 20%. Dose MPE ranged from -0.7 to 0.17 mg and median PAPE from 16.7% to 37.5%. Accurate and precise dose predictions were obtained after 3 or more INR feedback's. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that the model can accurately predict daily INRs and the maintenance dose in this sample of cases. The model can be incorporated into computer decision-support systems for warfarin therapy and may lead to improvement in the initiation of warfarin therapy.  (+info)

Home prophylactic warfarin anticoagulation program after hip and knee arthroplasty. (5/544)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficiency of a program designed to maintain prophylactic oral anticoagulation within a target range for 6 weeks after hip and knee arthroplasty. DESIGN: A prospective continuous quality improvement indicator. SETTING: A tertiary care university hospital. PATIENTS: Patients who underwent hip and knee arthroplasty and had no indications for routine anticoagulation other than postoperative thromboembolism prophylaxis. INTERVENTION: An outpatient warfarin prophylaxis program, which included an information letter given to the patient. Home Care coordinated community laboratory services, communication with and anticoagulant dosage adjustment by the patient's personal family physician. OUTCOME MEASURES: The proportion of international normalized ratio (INR) values within, below and above the target range of 2.0 to 3.0. RESULTS: Sixty-two patients were enrolled over a 3-month period. On the day of hospital discharge, 64% of patients had INR values that were within the target range, 31% were below and 5% were above. After hospital discharge, 42% of the INR values were within the target range, 48% were below and 10% were above. CONCLUSION: Despite a program designed to address patient information, physician communication and laboratory testing, tight control of home INR values could not be achieved with the existing resources of Home Care and family physicians.  (+info)

Analysis of warfarin therapy in pediatric patients: A prospective cohort study of 319 patients. (6/544)

This study details warfarin use in a large pediatric population followed in a central anticoagulation clinic. A prospective, consecutive cohort of nonselected children were studied. Patients were divided into groups by age, target international normalized ratio (INR) range, disease, medications, and vitamin K supplemented enteral nutrition use. Groups were analyzed on multiple aspects of warfarin therapy using multivariate methods. A total of 319 patients received 352 warfarin courses representing 391 treatment years. Age independently influenced all aspects of therapy. When compared with all older children, the +info)

Interference of lupus anticoagulants in prothrombin time assays: implications for selection of adequate methods to optimize the management of thrombosis in the antiphospholipid-antibody syndrome. (7/544)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Prolonged anticoagulation aiming at International Normalized Ratio (INR) values > 3.0 has been recommended for patients with thrombosis and the antiphospholipid-antibody syndrome. We evaluated the influence of anticoagulant antibodies in two different prothrombin time (PT) assays carried out on plasma from lupus anticoagulant patients on oral anticoagulation. DESIGN AND METHODS: INR values obtained with a combined (final test plasma dilution 1:20) and a recombinant (final test plasma dilution 1:3) thromboplastin were compared in 17 patients with persistent lupus anticoagulants (LA) receiving oral anticoagulant treatment and monitored for 69.8 patient-years. Doses of anticoagulant drugs were always assigned based on the results obtained with the combined thromboplastin, aiming at a target INR of 2.5 or 3.0 for patients with venous or arterial thromboembolic disease. Paired determinations with both reagents were also obtained throughout the study period in 150 patients on stable oral anticoagulation but free of antiphospholipid antibodies. Total IgG fractions were purified from selected patients to evaluate effect in the two PT assay systems. RESULTS: No patient experienced recurrence of thrombosis or major bleeding complications (95% confidence interval: 0.1-6.5 per 100 patient-years). INR values with the recombinant reagent were significantly higher than with the combined reagent in 8 LA patients (mean DINR ranging from 0.17 to 0.54) of the degree of anticoagulation was overestimated in all but one LA patients with the recombinant reagent when compared to the DINR observed in non-LA patients (-0.64 +/- 0.42). The anti-cardiolipin IgG titer (r(2) = 0.43, p = 0.004) and the anti-b(2)GPI IgG titer (r(2) = 0.30, p = 0.023) were positively associated with the mean deltaINR observed in LA patients. When added to plasmas with different levels of vitamin K-dependent factors, total IgG fractions from 6 LA patients with significant overestimation of the INR with the recombinant reagent (mean DINR ranging from 0.17 to 0.54, group 1) and from 7 LA patients with mean deltaINR < or = 0.0 (ranging from -0.25 to 0.04, group 2) reproduced the effects observed ex vivo in the two assay systems. However, when total IgG fractions were tested at the same final concentration in the two PT assay systems, there was no difference in the clotting times determined with total IgG fractions from group 1 and group 2 LA patients. Addition of negatively charged liposomes (0.4 and 0.8 mg/mL final concentrations) to platelet free plasma from LA-free patients on stable oral anticoagulation caused a 20% to 48% prolongation of the prothrombin time determined with the recombinant reagent. In contrast, no significant prolongation of the prothrombin time determined with the recombinant reagent was observed upon addition of negatively charged liposomes to plasma from group 1 LA patients. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: These results confirm previous suggestions of assay-dependency of INR values in LA patients on oral anticoagulation. For these patients, accurate INR values may be obtained using combined thromboplastin reagents that permit testing at high plasma dilution.  (+info)

Is the international normalised ratio (INR) reliable? A trial of comparative measurements in hospital laboratory and primary care settings. (8/544)

AIM: To determine the reliability of international normalised ratio (INR) measurement in primary care by practice nurses using near patient testing (NPT), in comparison with results obtained within hospital laboratories by varied methods. METHODS: As part of an MRC funded study into primary care oral anticoagulation management, INR measurements obtained in general practice were validated against values on the same samples obtained in hospital laboratories. A prospective comparative trial was undertaken between three hospital laboratories and nine general practices. All patients attending general practice based anticoagulant clinics had parallel INR estimations performed in general practice and in a hospital laboratory. RESULTS: 405 tests were performed. Comparison between results obtained in the practices and those in the reference hospital laboratory (gold standard), which used the same method of testing for INR, showed a correlation coefficient of 0.96. Correlation coefficients comparing the results with the various standard laboratory techniques ranged from 0.86 to 0.92. It was estimated that up to 53% of tests would have resulted in clinically significant differences (change in warfarin dose) depending upon the site and method of testing. The practice derived results showed a positive bias ranging from 0.28 to 1.55, depending upon the site and method of testing. CONCLUSIONS: No technical problems associated with INR testing within primary care were uncovered. Discrepant INR results are as problematic in hospital settings as they are in primary care. These data highlight the failings of the INR to standardise when different techniques and reagents are used, an issue which needs to be resolved. For primary care to become more involved in therapeutic oral anticoagulation monitoring, close links are needed between hospital laboratories and practices, particularly with regard to training and quality assurance.  (+info)

Second, except for patients who have bileaflet mechanical aortic valvesand do not have atrial fibrillation, the recommended target INR range for patients with mechanical heart valves (2.5-3.5) is higher than the corresponding target INR range for the treatment of acute venous thromboembolism (2.0-3.0), suggesting that more intense antithrombotic therapyis appropriate.Further, although warfarin, with a target INR of 2.0 to 3.0, is highly effective in the long-term treatment of acute venous thromboembolism, even with the use of a more intense warfarin regimen (INR of 2.5-3.5), theaddition of aspirin to the warfarin regimen improves efficacy for patients with mechanical heart valves (albeit at the cost of an increase in the rate of minor bleeding).Given this information, we recommend that if subcutaneous UFH is used to prevent thrombosis in pregnant women with mechanical heart valves, the starting dose should be high(17500-20000 U every 12 hours) and adjusted aggressively to achieve a mid-interval ...
Maintaining oral anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists remains one of the more challenging aspects of medicine. To meet this challenge, the use of both anticoagulation clinics and point-of-care monitors by providers has clearly improved anticoagulation control. Just as diabetic patients have learned that self-monitoring can improve control of their disease, patients undergoing anticoagulation and their providers have learned that self-monitoring using point-of-care prothrombin time devices can improve anticoagulation control (1). Well over 100 000 Europeans and an increasing number of Americans are self-monitoring their oral anticoagulation. Heneghan and colleagues reviewed 14 RCTs of self-monitoring compared with care provided by anticoagulation clinics or the patients primary care physician. Self-monitoring resulted in increased time of INR in the therapeutic range, fewer bleeding and thromboembolic events, and lower mortality. Fewer complications occurred whether patients self-tested ...
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The creation of optimal devices for patient self-testing protocols for anticoagulation management is an area of active medical research. The current pilot study represents the initial step in the development of a new customized device for this purpose, the vMetrics - Anticoagulation Monitoring System. The v-Metrics Anticoagulation Monitoring System (vMetrics AMS) is defined by: 1. A PT/INR home monitoring unit which interfaces to FDA approved PT/INR home monitors such as the Hemosense INRatio device, and 2. an anticoagulation clinic patient management application which manages patient communications, database of prior test results, testing schedules, and communication to an EMR.. The INR home-monitoring system to be tested in this study will address several of the limitations of currently available technologies and practices for standard and home INR self-testing. The proposed project will develop a self-testing device that maximizes safety and efficiency for both the patient and the health care ...
Our data indicate that standardization for control of warfarin anticoagulant therapy may be less secure than anticipated. Individuals with similar INR values have very different TF threshold responses to coagulation. Even a single individual studied over the course of anticoagulant therapy is highly variable. The data show the wide range of anticoagulation that can be achieved without clinical complications, suggesting that bleeding risks still present are due to preexisting vascular anomalies.. The TF concentration chosen to evaluate the PT was selected to produce a CT of 11 to 15 seconds.21 The high concentration of thromboplastin reagent used was chosen to avoid competition from the contact activation pathway. However, the in vitro concentrations of thromboplastin reagents used in these assays are massive compared with the concentrations likely encountered during pathological vascular challenge. It should be recalled that PT is also not influenced by platelets or blood cells, FVIII, FIX, and ...
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As this page from the eMedTV site explains, an INR value of 2 or 3 is typically an appropriate range for people taking blood-thinning medications. This article explains what an INR test is and describes what may happen if the value is too high or too low.
The CoaguChek XS PT test strips work with the CoaguChek XS system to test coagulation levels. The strips require a minute blood sample and the strips allow dosing from either side for quick and simple application process. Results are ready in approximately one minute. A code chip is included in every box of CoaguChek XS PT test… ...
METHODS AND RESULTS: From 2000 to 2015, 540 consecutive adults < 65 years (mean age 53±8 years, 67% male) underwent elective isolated mechanical AVR. Patients with infective endocarditis, associated procedures and previous cardiac surgeries were excluded. Eighty-nine percent had a target INR of 2.5-3.5 and 25% were also taking aspirin at the time of last follow-up. Only 10.5% of patients used home anticoagulation management. Primary outcomes of interest were hemorrhagic events during follow-up and quality of life (QoL) using a valve-specific questionnaire. Secondary outcomes were survival and freedom from major adverse prosthetic events (MAPE). Bleeding events were reported using the International Society of Thrombosis and Hemostasis definitions. Mean follow-up was 11.3 ± 4.5 years and was 96% complete. Early mortality was 2% (n=11). A total of 48 patients experiencing major bleeding events were reported (8.9%), of which 17% (n=8) had recurrences. Freedom from major bleeding events at 5, 10 ...
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Not surprisingly, my obgyn experienced traveled to Italy 2 times prior. Right after watchful imagined and conversations, they made a decision to do purely natural start. Soon after providing my daughter, I had been straight away placed on Coumadin and Lovinox shots. After 6 months on the blood thinners, I was taken off for three weeks. I had been to return to his to check my PT /INR levels and operate about nine or 10 blood checks. These exams were to see if it had been one thing hereditary or When the pregnancy prompted it. Last but not least, I went back to see the doctor immediately after he received the effects. I used to be diagnosed with Leiden Variable 5. It is just a hereditary sickness that I experienced contracted. Im now presently needing to take blood thinners for the rest of my lifetime. I am among the list of youngest individuals in Middle Ga to acquire contracted a blood clot at such a more info young age ...
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Now you can measure you blood clotting levels at home or on the go with the innovative technology of our INR testing machines. Keep your PT/INR in control and get your home INR testing kit from our range.
Page 2 - Ive had several pts with multiple different diagnoses and admitting problems whose INR continued to increase daily despite holding Lovenox, Coumadin, etc. One pt had daily INRs of 6.3, then 7.1,
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Pt had a critical lab value of INR... 5.4 I believe. Does a bolus of NS help decrease this value? If not, what is usually ordered? Thanks.
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Results-From 212 patients (mean age, 74±14 years; 50% men) studied, 14 (6.5%) had prior warfarin use. After adjusting for age, baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, and stroke subtype, warfarin-treated patients had significantly increased risks of developing symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (adjusted OR, 14.7; 95% CI, 1.3 to 54.3). A trend for poorer stroke recovery and increased mortality was observed in warfarin-treated patients on univariate, but not on multivariable, analyses.. ...
Atrial fibrillation (AF) patients frequently require anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) to prevent thromboembolic events, but their use increases the risk of hemorrhage. We evaluated time spent in therapeutic range (TTR), proportion of international normalized ratio (INR) measurements in range (PINRR), adverse events in relation to INR, and predictors of INR control in AF patients using VKAs. We searched MEDLINE, CENTRAL and EMBASE (1990-June 2013) for studies of AF patients receiving adjusted-dose VKAs that reported INR control measures (TTR and PINRR) and/or reported an INR measurement coinciding with thromboembolic or hemorrhagic events. Random-effects meta-analyses and meta-regression were performed. Ninety-five articles were included. Sixty-eight VKA-treated study groups reported measures of INR control, while 43 studies reported an INR around the time of the adverse event. Patients spent 61% (95% CI, 59-62%), 25% (95% CI, 23-27%) and 14% (95% CI, 13-15%) of their time within, below
Health care professionals (HCP) are known key elements of effective patients counselling and education. For patients taking warfarin, education about the dose, side effects, and toxicity is clearly identified as a cornerstone of achieving improved health and quality of life. The study objective was to evaluate the patients knowledge about warfarin and assess the impact of the health care professionals counselling in enhancing patients knowledge in achieving warfarin therapeutic outcomes. A six-month prospective multicentered study was conducted in three hospitals, enrolling 300 patients admitted to the cardiac care unit and internal medicine departments. Patients warfarin knowledge and INR levels were assessed before and after the clinical pharmacist counselling. The main therapeutic outcome was the impact of the clinical pharmacist-physician counselling on improving patients education and achieving therapeutic INR level. A higher mean knowledge about warfarin score was found after counselling as
Bruce Rutter is a marketing professor at Penn State University, a position he has been able to retain thanks to Mount Nittany Medical Centers Outpatient Anticoagulation Clinic.. I havent had a blood clot in the past six years, said Rutter. Since I started going to the Anticoagulation Clinic, I havent had any difficulties. The clinic saved my life.. Rutter had good health up until about twelve years ago when he experienced three blood clots within five years. His doctor thought the fluctuations in his INR levels, which assess the degree of clotting in blood, could be taken care of and monitored more efficiently at the Anticoagulation Clinic.. Rutter now visits the Anticoagulation Clinic at Mount Nittany Medical Center once every two or three weeks for appointments lasting about one half hour. While he has had many positive visits with instant results and no bloodletting, Rutter says the people are the highlight of his experiences.. The pharmacists are some of the finest people I have met. ...
The study was stopped early because of clear evidence of superiority of oral anticoagulation therapy. There were 165 primary events in patients on oral anticoagulation therapy (annual risk 3·93%) and 234 in those on clopidogrel plus aspirin (annual risk 5·60%; relative risk 1·44 (1·18-1.76; p=0.0003). Patients on oral anticoagulation therapy who were already receiving this treatment at study entry had a trend towards a greater reduction in vascular events (relative risk 1·50, 95% CI 1·19-1·89) and a significantly (p=0·03 for interaction) lower risk of major bleeding with oral anticoagulation therapy (1.30; 0.94-1.79) than patients not on this treatment at study entry (1·27, 0·85-1·89 and 0·59, 0·32-1·08, respectively ...
The Anticoagulation Management Clinical Topic Collection gathers the latest guidelines, news, JACC articles, education, meetings and clinical images pertaining to its cardiovascular topical area - all in one place for your convenience.
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The introduction of drug-eluting stents (DES) was associated not only with a widening of the indication for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) but also with longer antithrombotic therapy duration. Dual antiplatelet therapy with ASA and a thienopyridine is very efficient in preventing adverse events after coronary stenting but it is inferior to oral anticoagulation (OAC) to reduce the risk of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. OAC is also superior to antiplatelet therapy in patients with mechanical heart valves and the therapy of choice for the treatment of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. OAC is also administered for left ventricular thrombi and low ejection fraction. There is an increasing number of patients undergoing coronary stenting who are in need of life-long anticoagulation therapy and would therefore require a triple therapy consisting of aspirin, clopidogrel and oral anticoagulation. As oral anticoagulation and antithrombotic therapy impair primary and ...
The results of this study suggest that this pharmacist-managed anticoagulation clinic is associated with high levels of both patient and physician satisfaction. Both patients and physicians appear to be satisfied with the pharmacists ability to provide accurate and timely information regarding coagulation status. Patients also stated they preferred the fingerstick method of obtaining blood samples to traditional venipuncture.. The results of this study are consistent with a previously reported study examining pharmacist managed anticoagulation clinics.12 In that study, Schueler and Kaden reported that patient satisfaction of a pharmacist managed anticoagulation clinic in a tertiary medical center was favorable, although more specific results were not reported. Other studies of satisfaction with pharmacists suggest that offering personal service and convenience are important to consumers.13,14 Because the anticoagulation pharmacist in the current study had sufficient time to spend with ...
The results of this study suggest that this pharmacist-managed anticoagulation clinic is associated with high levels of both patient and physician satisfaction. Both patients and physicians appear to be satisfied with the pharmacists ability to provide accurate and timely information regarding coagulation status. Patients also stated they preferred the fingerstick method of obtaining blood samples to traditional venipuncture.. The results of this study are consistent with a previously reported study examining pharmacist managed anticoagulation clinics.12 In that study, Schueler and Kaden reported that patient satisfaction of a pharmacist managed anticoagulation clinic in a tertiary medical center was favorable, although more specific results were not reported. Other studies of satisfaction with pharmacists suggest that offering personal service and convenience are important to consumers.13,14 Because the anticoagulation pharmacist in the current study had sufficient time to spend with ...
Results In this group of patients CYP2C9*1 allele and CYP2C9*3 were detected, The frequency of *1 allele and *3 allele was 96% and 4%, respectively. Two genotypes were detected as well. CYP2C9*1/*1 was the most common genotype, with the frequency of 92%. The frequency of CYP2C9*1/*3 was 4% in these 100 patients. To achieve similar target INR range (2.0-3.0), variant CYP2C9*1/*3 homozygotes or heterozygotes required lower daily mean maintain doses (2.14±0. 55 mg) than wild-type CYP2C9*1/*1 patients did (3. 17±0. 74 mg).. ...
Prothrombin time (PT) is the leading test for monitoring oral anticoagulation therapy (OAT). We sought to determine INR taking into account only active coagulation factors FII, FVII and FX without inhibition in patient plasmas and calibrator kits.. We measured PT using a combined thromboplastin reagent. The calculation was based on a new PT method, which measures active coagulation factors (F II, F VII, FX) and corrects the errors caused by inactive coagulation factors.. On this basis, an INR result with and without inhibition for individual patient samples was also calculated and applied to 200 plasma samples obtained from OAT patients. Conspicuous variation in inhibition between the four calibration kits was noted. The kinetics of this inhibition was closest to a noncompetitive pattern.. The need of correction for INRs of single patients increases with higher INRs. At the same level of patient INRs the coagulation inhibiton varies markedly.. It has been known that different thromboplastin ...
PT test results used to be given in seconds, along with a control value. The control value usually varied somewhat from day to day because the reagents used varied. The patients PT value was supposed to be approximately equal to the control value. Some laboratories used to report PT values as percentages of normal activity, because the patients results were compared with a curve representing normal clotting time. A normal PT result was 85% to 100%.. To have uniform PT results for physicians in different parts of the country and the world, the World Health Organization has recommended that PT results now include the use of the international normalized ratio (INR) value. The reported INR results are independent of the reagents or methods used. Many hospitals are now reporting PT times in both absolute and INR numbers. Factors such as weight, body mass index, age, diet, and concurrent medications are known to affect warfarin dose requirements during anticoagulation therapy. Warfarin interferes ...
There is no evidence of increased risk for major bleeding as a result of falls in hospitalized patients taking warfarin (strength of recommendation [SOR]: B, based on retrospective cohort studies). In the average patient taking warfarin for atrial fibrillation, the risk of intracranial hemorrhage from a fall is much smaller than the benefit gained from reducing risk of stroke (SOR: A, based on decision analysis of systematic reviews with sensitivity analysis ...
Research Abstract Purpose: Intraosseous (IO) vascular access is useful for fluid and medication delivery and blood sampling when intravenous access is difficult or impossible. Serum lactate is a potentially useful biomarker when managing patients with severe sepsis or trauma. IO blood values correlate with peripheral intravenous (IV) blood values for a number of laboratory tests, with little clinical data for the suitability of IO blood for determining lactate and PT/INR levels. The objective was to add to available data comparing IO marrow/blood (initial 1 mL aspirate), IO blood (subsequent aspirate), and IV and capillary blood to determine if there is a correlation between specimens for serum lactate and PT/INR levels. Design: Study data presented was collected from two-single center prospective studies. Setting: The studies were conducted at a teaching institution associated with a local university. Participants/Subjects: Healthy, non-pregnant female and male volunteers 21 years or older with ...
Stephan Moll, MD writes… A new drug for the urgent reversal of warfarin was approved by the FDA today, April 29th, 2013, (announcement by the FDA is here), called Kcentra. The drug is derived from the plasma of multiple healthy blood donors and contains the clotting factors that are low in warfarin-treated patients, i.e. factors II, VII, IX, and X. It is also referred to as a 4-factor concentrate, or non-activated Prothrombin Complex Concentrate (PCC). The drug prescribing information (package insert) is here.. Up until now only 3-factor concentrates (PCC) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) were available in the U.S., in addition to vitamin K, to treat major bleeding in warfarin-treated patients or reverse warfarin in case major surgery was urgently needed. The new drug is a welcome addition to the armamentarium when having to treat warfarin-associated major bleeding. Where until now I used to give 3-factor PCCs, I will from now on give the 4-factor PCC, Kcentra.. Bleeding and the new oral ...
Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is the most feared and devastating complication of oral anticoagulant therapy. When an ICH occurs, the patients situation hinges on the balance between how great is the embolic risk while not receiving anticoagulants, and how big is the threat of the hemorrhage if the anticoagulant effect is not reversed promptly. Although several studies which compared the use of different reversal agents failed to demonstrate any improvement in prognosis and survival, at the present moment the consensus seem to be that anticoagulation should be rapidly reversed after an ICH. The second question to be answered is whether and when should be oral anticoagulation treatment restarted. Although the risk of thromboembolism in patients off anticoagulation seems to be higher than the risk of ICH recurrence, there is a marked paucity of prospective large studies on the real risk of ICH recurrence when OAC is resumed, paucity that probably emphasizes the ethical challenge of prescribing ...
A potential drug interaction exists between oral corticosteroids and warfarin, but there is limited evidence to document it. A recent retrospective review of 387 medical records of patients followed in an anticoagulation clinic demonstrated an increase in international normalized ratio (INR) in the majority of patients who had corticosteroids added to their warfarin therapy. Patients were included in the study if they were stable on warfarin therapy and were prescribed a shortterm course of corticosteroids. They were excluded if they were prescribed an antibiotic or any other medication that had a probable interaction with warfarin at the same time the corticosteroids were started. Thirty-two patients met the criteria. The primary outcome assessed was the difference between pre-and poststeroid INR values. Secondary end points included bleeding events, emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and warfarin dose modifications. Ninety-seven percent of the 32 patients studied had changes in ...
We generated network plots of comparisons to illustrate which interventions had been compared within randomised trials (direct comparisons). Different doses or frequencies of administration (once daily or twice daily) of DOACs were analysed separately and hence appear as separate points in network plots. We defined two independent nodes for warfarin interventions, labelled as warfarin (INR 2.0-3.0) and warfarin (INR 3.0-4.0) respectively. The first of these formed the reference treatment across all networks. We also included in warfarin (INR 2.0-3.0) some interventions with an INR range of 2.5-3.5 or 2.0-4.5. In some trials the INR range for some patients in the warfarin arm was subtherapeutic (below 2.0), so that the total INR range was 1.6-3.0. These interventions were excluded from the main analysis, but merged with the INR 2.0-3.0 node in a sensitivity analysis.. We considered two separate nodes for antiplatelets, less than 150 mg once daily and 150 mg or more once daily. The dose range ...
BioAssay record AID 1341208 submitted by ChEMBL: Reduction in plasma cholesterol in LP-remnants plus LDL/HDL ratio level in LDL receptor/ApoE deficient mouse at 80 to 100 mg/kg/day mixed with R3 chow diet by FPLC method relative to untreated control.
Coaguchek device is a device for self-monitoring of INR, blood coagulation test. Used by patients on oral anticoagution therapy (Warfarin, Coumadin).
Previous reports of discrepancies in international normalised ratio (INR) measurement between centres have focused on hospital based methodologies.1-3 Previously, we have demonstrated differences in derived INR values for the same sample tested in primary care and in one of three different haematology laboratories.4 Our present study is an extension of the previous one, investigating comparative results based on contemporaneous samples measured in one primary care centre and in two hospital laboratories using a variety of techniques.. Venous blood was drawn from patients in one primary care centre over a three month period. The sample was tested on site for INR estimation using the Thrombotrak NPT and Thrombotest reagent. The remainder of the venous sample was placed in a citrated collection bottle and sent to two reference laboratories routinely used by the general practitioner to measure INR values (laboratories 1 and 2). Laboratory 1 determined INR values using three separate methods: a ...
Bulgular: Hastalarda terap tik INR ye ula mak i in gerekli total warfarin dozu (50,7 17,6 mg) kontrollerin dozu (41,2 17,7 mg) ile kar la t r ld nda y ksekti. Terap tik INR ye ula mak i in gerekli total g n say s hastalarda 8,9 3,5 g n olup kontrollerde 6,8 2,9 g n idi. Her iki kar la t rmada da istatistiksel farkl l k anlaml bulundu (p,0,001 ...
Platelets and Taking Warfarin - posted in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: I guess this question is for Trey, unless somebody else has had a blood clot DVT along with their Leukemia. I just got my blood work back today for my regular 3 month check. Everything was very good, but I noticed that my Platelets have gone up to 196 which I know is very much in range. My question is that I have been holding around 127 for over 4 years in my count. Now this is the first test since I started on Warfar...
Question - Blood in semen and have an enlarged prostate. Taking warfarin. Is medication the cause?. Ask a Doctor about when and why Blood test is advised, Ask a Urologist
Medical practitioners suggests there are certain Foods to Avoid When Taking Warfarin. Find out what these offending foods are and what you can actually eat.
UC San Diego Health Anticoagulation Clinic is a group of physicians, pharmacists, nurses and support staff established to provide excellent care by managing and monitoring the medication warfarin.
Warfarin Guide offers three resources essential for systematic and careful evidence-based anticoagulation with Warfarin. First it reviews the latest recommendations on indications, INR targets, and treatment duration from the American College of Chest Physicians 8th Edition guidelines on Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Therapy from 2008, updated for the 2012 guideline. Second it offers a protocol for Warfarin dose adjustment depending upon INR result. And third is a discussion of protocols for the initiation of Warfarin. These resources come from point of care guides on these topics in the family medicine literature as well as the 2012 ACCP guideline. The app also alludes to guidance for management of peri-operative Warfarin by directing the user to our PreOpEval iPhone app.. ...
Listen, Im in a fortunate position to have the chance to win trophies many others can only dream about and yes, I will make sure Ill be a little more careful in the ...
For many years now, INRS has worked with European and international networks involved in occupational safety and health issues. This co-operation has enabled all of the divisions of INRS to exchange research and survey results, methodologies, and
Context: Role of youngsters in voluntary blood donation (VBD) is crucial to meet the demand of safe blood. Therefore understanding the various factors contributing to knowledge, attitude, and practice of VBD among college students is important. Aims: The present study aims to assess the level of knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding blood donation among the health care students. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study done at Anand from July 2012 to December 2013. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1000 health care medical students at Anand, Gujarat, India using a structured survey questionnaire. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were tabulated, and master chart was prepared. Analysis was performed by using the percentage. Results: Overall knowledge on blood donation among respondents was 37.3%, majority of the participants (78.7%) never donated blood in which 43.7% of the nondonors had negative attitude like blood donation leads to weakness (10.2%), ...
Medical experts stress the importance of doing your self-testing in consultation with your doctor, working in conjunction with an IDTF. While the cost of testing through an IDTF varies depending on your insurance coverage, most plans typically cover the services provided by an IDTF, including patient training with the device, providing the equipment and supplies for monitoring your INR, and reporting your test results to your doctor. However, you can purchase PT/INR devices for home testing on your own. For example, on the Internet the devices can be acquired from some online medical supply companies and from more widely recognized online retailers, such as Amazon. The price for the devices ranges widely, from $600 to more than $3,000, and the price for test strips ranges from $7 to $18 per test. You should note that in some cases the online retailers of these devices have... Full article: ...
Geothermal energy is a promising solution for reducing greenhouse gases and providing a local source of heat in the northern areas. However, the drilling required to install geothermal systems presents technological challenges that are undermining the development of this energy sector. With the new open laboratory for geothermal energy, professor Jasmin Raymond of INRS Centre Eau Terre Environnement will have new experimental capabilities to investigate solutions that reduce dependence on fossil fuels. ...
Ting, C.; Sylvester, K.W.; Schurr, J.W., 2018: Time in the Therapeutic Range for Assessing Anticoagulation Quality in Patients Receiving Continuous Unfractionated Heparin
No effective treatment for delayed radiation-induced neurotoxicity has been established. Its natural course is highly variable, but spontaneous recovery has been well documented. Here we report our experience with therapeutic anticoagulation in patients with cerebral lesions (n = 3), cranial nerve lesions (n = 1) or myelopathy (n = 4) attributed to irradiation. Two of three patients with cerebral lesions and the patient with cranial nerve lesions showed a minor improvement of clinical symptoms. In contrast, none of the patients with radiation myelopathy improved. No patient suffered hemorrhage or other adverse effects of anticoagulation. Overall, anticoagulation therapy demonstrates only modest activity for delayed radiation-induced neurotoxicity in this small case series. « ...
An International Normalized Ratio of 2.0 to 3.0 is the acceptable range for most people taking warfarin according to Mayo Clinic. However, the desired INR target range may be slightly lower or higher...
MAC54 Coagulometer Test Method: Dispersion light nephelometric analysis Test Principle: The highest point on first order differentiation, Percentage analysis
INR test meter is a portable, battery-operated meter, used to monitor patient response to warfarin, a blood thinner prescribed to prevent and treat blood clots.
Young Living Essential Oils is currently looking for Part Time Inbound Member Services Representatives (MSR) to offer support and services to Young Livings…. More ,,. ...
Dunn A. In AF or VTE, warfarin dosing by genotype improved time in therapeutic range but not clinical outcomes. Ann Intern Med. 2014;160:JC9. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-160-6-201403180-02009. Download citation file:. ...
Read ECAT Assay Procedures A Manual of Laboratory Techniques European Concerted Action on Thrombosis and Disabilities of the Commission of the European Communities by with Rakuten Kobo. This book offers a description of current and recently developed laboratory assays in the field of haemostasis and throm...
Testing your INR is an important step for maintaining a healthy dose of Warfarin. In this video we will be discussing the different ways of INR testing, how to record your results, and how to maintain an accurate logbook to ensure your INR values stay in range.. ...
For services furnished on or after March 19, 2008, Medicare will cover the use of home prothrombin time tests adjusted to the International Normalized Rati
An INR of 9.5 is considered high and can impact your Warfarin therapy. Use this interactive INR Tool to find out the causes and treatment for a 9.5 INR.
An INR of 6.7 is considered high and can impact your Warfarin therapy. Use this interactive INR Tool to find out the causes and treatment for a 6.7 INR.
The risk of bleeding may be increased if: prothrombin time > 21 seconds international normalized ratio > 1.6 platelet count < ...
The results of the study Effect of Home Testing of International Normalized Ratio on Clinical Events (2010), comparing whether ... International Normalized Ratio) levels themselves, rather than at a clinic. People who self-monitor their INR levels use a ... International normalized ratio (INR) which is a derivative of prothrombin time is a measurement of blood coagulation in the ... and qLabs International Normalized Ratio Warfarin "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-03-03. Retrieved 2014-02- ...
Tinzaparin does not affect the international normalized ratio (INR), prothrombin time (PT).[citation needed] Anti-factor Xa ...
The prothrombin time (PT) - along with its derived measures of prothrombin ratio (PR) and international normalized ratio (INR ... Correction of displayed international normalized ratio on two point-of-care test whole-blood prothrombin time monitors ( ... "Medicare expands coverage for home blood testing of prothrombin time international normalized ratio". The Centers for Medicare ... Horsti J, Uppa H, Vilpo JA (March 2005). "Poor agreement among prothrombin time international normalized ratio methods: ...
"Hemopericardium and Cardiac Tamponade in a Patient with an Elevated International Normalized Ratio". The Western Journal of ...
The increasing liver damage also changes biochemical markers of liver function; International normalized ratio (INR) and the ...
Vitamin K antagonists require frequent dose adjustment and monitoring of the international normalized ratio (INR). In PE, INRs ... to the international normalized ratio, a test that determines the dose. In terms of injectable treatments, LMWH may reduce ...
The international normalized ratio should be ≥ 2.0 for 24 hours minimum, but if the ratio is > 3.0, then the parenteral ... Warfarin is taken to maintain an international normalized ratio (INR) of 2.0-3.0, with 2.5 as the target. The benefit of taking ... Häggström, M (January 2019). "Subsartorial vessels as replacement names for superficial femoral vessels" (PDF). International ... Ärzteblatt International. 114 (14): 244-249. doi:10.3238/arztebl.2017.0244. PMC 5415909. PMID 28446351. Faller N, Limacher A, ...
In prolonged cases the international normalized ratio (INR) may change due to a decrease in vitamin K absorption. (It is the ...
International Normalized Ratio. This is a blood clotting test.. LFT. Liver Function Test. This test reveals the levels of waste ... Level of "good cholesterol" in the blood (ratio of HDL:LDL is usually more significant than actual values). ... Level of "bad cholesterol" in the blood (ratio of HDL:LDL is usually more significant than actual values). ...
... with or without chondroitin elevates the international normalized ratio (INR) in individuals who are taking the ... "Potential glucosamine-warfarin interaction resulting in increased international normalized ratio: case report and review of the ... International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 2002. Retrieved 2012-09-10. Murray, Michael T. (2012). "Chapter 94: ... "UDP-N-acetylglucosamine Biosynthesis". Recommendations of the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry ...
international normalized ratio (INR) , 2. *Disseminated intravascular coagulation. *Kidney dysfunction *serum creatinine ≥ 2 ... Lungs: acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (PaO2/FiO2 ratio, 300), different ratio in pediatric acute respiratory ... the ratio of the arterial partial-pressure of oxygen to the fraction of oxygen in the gases inspired (PaO2/FiO2) , 300 (the ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) version 9, which was in use in the ...
2007). "Risk of warfarin-related bleeding events and supratherapeutic international normalized ratios associated with ... Fresh ginger can be substituted for ground ginger at a ratio of six to one, although the flavours of fresh and dried ginger are ... Production of dry ginger proves to have a higher benefit-cost ratio, as well as ginger cultivated in intercropping systems ... plane or boat to reach its final international destination where it will arrive to a local retail market and finally reach the ...
For people with an international normalized ratio (INR) between 4.5 and 10.0, a small dose (about 1000 mcg = one milligram) of ... "Oral vitamin K lowers the international normalized ratio more rapidly than subcutaneous vitamin K in the treatment of warfarin- ... International consensus guidelines prepared by International Self-Monitoring Association for Oral Anticoagulation" (PDF). ... International guidelines on home testing were published in 2005. The guidelines stated: "The consensus agrees that patient self ...
... including the international normalized ratio, and decreased fibrinogen. Frank disseminated intravascular coagulation, or DIC, ... An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 101 (5): 387-91. doi:10.1111/j.1471-0528.1994.tb11909.x. PMID 8018608. ...
As a side effect of any anticoagulant, the risk of bleeding is increased, so the international normalized ratio of blood is ... International Journal of Stroke. 10 (2): 143-152. doi:10.1111/ijs.12434. ISSN 1747-4930. PMID 25598025. Ho, Andrew Fu Wah; Jun ... International Journal of Cardiology. 271: 352-358. doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2018.04.070. ISSN 1874-1754. PMID 30223374. Faria, ...
MELD uses the patient's values for serum bilirubin, serum creatinine, and the international normalized ratio for prothrombin ...
PELD uses the patient's values for serum bilirubin, serum albumin, the international normalized ratio for prothrombin time (INR ... It is calculated from the patient's albumin, bilirubin, and international normalized ratio (INR) together with the patient's ...
... international normalized ratio). In people with fatty liver with associated inflammatory injury (steatohepatitis) blood tests ... An international study showed that people with NAFLD had a 10-year survival rate of 81.5%. NAFLD is a risk factor for fibrosis ... The ratio of the transaminase liver enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to platelets in the blood, known as the AST/ ... Peleg, Noam; Issachar, Assaf; Sneh-Arbib, Orly; Shlomai, Amir (October 2017). "AST to Platelet Ratio Index and fibrosis 4 ...
Prothrombin time (PT) was above 100 s, partial thromboplastin time (PTT) was above 200 s and international normalized ratio ( ...
... four-factor prothrombin complex concentrate reduces international normalized ratio (INR) decreases bleeding during surgery ...
This would have set it apart from warfarin and heparin, which require monitoring of the international normalized ratio (INR) ...
One anticoagulation protocol example targets the therapeutic window of coumadin of an International Normalized Ratio (INR) goal ...
international normalized ratio (INR) , 2. *Disseminated intravascular coagulation. *Kidney dysfunction *serum creatinine ≥ 2 ... Lungs: acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (PaO2/FiO2 ratio, 300), different ratio in pediatric acute respiratory ... the ratio of the arterial partial-pressure of oxygen to the fraction of oxygen in the gases inspired (PaO2/FiO2) , 300 (the ... A large international collaboration entitled the "Surviving Sepsis Campaign" was established in 2002[113] to educate people ...
The monitoring of warfarin and keeping the international normalized ratio (INR) between 2.0 and 3.0, along with avoiding over ...
... international normalized ratio (INR), partial thromboplastin time (PTT), serum amylase and total bilirubin (TBIL). If late- ...
... or Inr may refer to: Initiator element, a core promoter in genetics International normalized ratio of prothrombin time of ... FAA identifier International Railway (New Brunswick) A former rail line in the province of New Brunswick, in Canada This ...
... a more robust assessment of the coagulation cascade compared to traditional methods of measuring international normalized ratio ... They compared administration a higher ratio of plasma and platelets (1:1:1) compared to a lower ratio (1:1:2). The patients ... Debate has gone back and forth as to the correct ratio that should be used; however, recently Holcomb and colleagues published ... Jaunoo SS, Harji DP (April 2009). "Damage control surgery". International Journal of Surgery (London, England). 7 (2): 110-3. ...
All three of an international normalized ratio (INR) of greater than 6.5, serum creatinine of greater than 300 micromoles per ...
Thus, the ratio of P (measured power) to P0 (reference power) is represented by LP, that ratio expressed in decibels,[18] which ... "Letter symbols to be used in electrical technology". International Standard CEI-IEC 27-3. International Electrotechnical ... for anything normalized by the EM wavelength), or otherwise a general attribute or identifier about the nature of the quantity ... Reporting large ratiosEdit. The logarithmic scale nature of the decibel means that a very large range of ratios can be ...
International Bureau of Weights and Measures (2006), The International System of Units (SI) (PDF) (8th ed.), p. 126, ISBN 92- ... The related quantity relative molecular mass, as defined by IUPAC, is the ratio of the mass of a molecule to the unified atomic ... "Accurate Molecular Weight Determination of Small Molecules via DOSY-NMR by Using External Calibration Curves with Normalized ... International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (1980). "Atomic Weights of the Elements 1979" (PDF). Pure Appl. Chem. 52 (10 ...
The matter-radiation ratio is raised while keeping all other parameters fixed". University of Chicago. Archived from the ... Though the universe might in theory have a longer history, the International Astronomical Union[5] presently use "age of the ... which normalizes the results based upon the priors (i.e. the model).[13] This quantifies any uncertainty in the accuracy of a ... International Journal of Modern Physics D. 14 (5): 775-796. arXiv:astro-ph/0409245. Bibcode:2005IJMPD..14..775C. doi:10.1142/ ...
"2008 Third International Conference on Electric Utility Deregulation and Restructuring and Power Technologies. pp. 1586-1591. ... Student's t distribution, the distribution of the ratio of a standard normal variable and the square root of a scaled chi ... Relative frequency distribution: A frequency distribution where each value has been divided (normalized) by a number of ... F-distribution, the distribution of the ratio of two scaled chi squared variables; useful e.g. for inferences that involve ...
"International Journal of Epidemiology. 31 (6): 1246-1252. doi:10.1093/ije/31.6.1246. PMID 12540730.. ... Most, if not all, record linkage strategies would result in more accurate linkage if these values were first normalized or ... Frequency ratio. Weight Match. m = 0.95. u ≈ 0.083. m/u ≈ 11.4. ln(m/u)/ln(2) ≈ 3.51 ... Proceedings of International Joint Conference on Neural Networks. San Jose, California, USA.. ...
Length ratio , 1: Honeycomb meshes of low length ratio can be used on vehicles front grille. Beside the aesthetic reasons, ... "International Journal of Mechanical Sciences. 40 (1): 71-82. doi:10.1016/s0020-7403(97)00031-3. ISSN 0020-7403.. ... the density of the honeycomb normalized by that of the solid, ρ*/ρs).[30][31] The elastic moduli of low-density honeycombs have ... Length ratio ,, 1: Honeycomb meshes of large length ratio reduce lateral turbulence and eddies of the flow. Early wind tunnels ...
The resulting normalized color matching functions are then scaled in the r:g:b ratio of 1:4.5907:0.0601 for source luminance ... The CIE 1931 RGB color space and CIE 1931 XYZ color space were created by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) in ... To calculate the mixing ratio of the component colors x1,y1 and x2,y2 that results in a certain xmix,ymix on this line segment ... Also note that, in accordance with the remarks concerning the formulas for xmix and ymix, the mixing ratio L1/L2 may well be ...
"1977 2nd International Topical Conference on Electron Beam Research Technology. 2: 703-716.. ... is the normalized beta.) In many cases MHD stability represents the primary limitation on beta and thus on fusion power density ... The benefits of discharge shaping and low aspect ratio for ideal MHD stability have been clearly demonstrated in tokamaks and ... The new ST experiments provide an opportunity to test predictions that a low aspect ratio yields improved stability to tearing ...
"Oral vitamin K lowers the international normalized ratio more rapidly than subcutaneous vitamin K in the treatment of warfarin- ... 47.0 47.1 Kanai, T (1997). "Serum vitamin K level and bone mineral density in post-menopausal women". International Journal of ...
It is a normalized measure of how many times the theoretical capacity of a battery can be used over its lifetime. A higher ... International Seminar on Double Layer Capacitors And Hybrid Energy Storage Devices. Redox Engineering, LLC. pp. 195-207. ... Capacity tests showed that after 270 cycles, the UltraBattery capacity ratio was equal to or greater than 103%, compared to 93 ...
... uses the reflectance of visible and infrared radiation to calculate a normalized difference snow index, which is a ratio of ... 2009), The International Classification for Seasonal Snow on the Ground (PDF), IHP-VII Technical Documents in Hydrology, 83, ... The International Classification for Seasonal Snow on the Ground defines "height of new snow" as the depth of freshly fallen ... Hudson, Simon (2000). Snow Business: A Study of the International Ski Industry. Tourism (Cassell). Cengage Learning EMEA. p. ...
The bicarbonate buffer system regulates the ratio of carbonic acid to bicarbonate to be equal to 1:20, at which ratio the blood ... Boron WF, Boulpaep EL (2009). Medical physiology: a cellular and molecular approach (2nd International ed.). Philadelphia, PA: ... The kidneys respond by excreting sodium ions into the urine, thereby normalizing the plasma sodium ion concentration. The low ... This restores the normal ratio between bicarbonate and the partial pressure of carbon dioxide and therefore the plasma pH. The ...
is simply the ratio of the probabilities of the two events. When arbitrarily many events A. {\displaystyle A}. are of interest ... Gao, J.Z.; Fong, D.; Liu, X. (April 2011). "Mathematical analyses of casino rebate systems for VIP gambling". International ... The product of the prior and the likelihood, normalized, results in a posterior probability distribution that incorporates all ... The sixteenth century Italian polymath Gerolamo Cardano demonstrated the efficacy of defining odds as the ratio of favourable ...
More singular vectors and singular values can be found by maximizing σ(u, v) over normalized u, v which are orthogonal to u1 ... In this special case, the singular values are φ and 1/φ where φ is the golden ratio. V∗ is a (counter clockwise) rotation by an ... "IJACSA, International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications. Vol. 3 (No. 7): 26-34. arXiv:1211.7102. doi: ... are two left-singular vectors which both correspond to the singular value σ, then any normalized linear combination of the two ...
Ratio of luminous flux to radiant flux or power consumption, depending on context. ... Luminous efficacy normalized by the maximum possible efficacy. See also: SI · Photometry · Radiometry. ... IEC International System of Units zone. Retrieved from " ...
Report of the International Review Mission on the Radiation Safety Aspects of a Proposed Rare Earths Processing Facility (Lynas ... However, other normalizing standards can be applied depending on the purpose of the study. Normalization to a standard ... Some versions provide concentrates containing about 65% yttrium oxide, with the HREE being present in ratios reflecting the ... A rare-earth element (REE) or rare-earth metal (REM), as defined by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, is ...
The onset of turbulence can be, to some extent, predicted by the Reynolds number, which is the ratio of inertial forces to ... Integral scales are highly anisotropic and are defined in terms of the normalized two-point flow velocity correlations. The ... International Congress of Mathematicians. 3: 116-124.. ... international CFD database iCFDdatabase. *Turbulent flow in a ... The onset of turbulence can be predicted by the dimensionless Reynolds number, the ratio of kinetic energy to viscous damping ...
"International Journal of Nanomedicine. 3 (2): 133-149. doi:10.2147/ijn.s596. PMC 2527668. PMID 18686775.. ... Scanners are characterized by their sensitivity, which is the ratio of piezo movement to piezo voltage, i.e., by how much the ... the difference between the photodiode signals normalized by their sum), which is proportional to the deflection of the ...
Ratio of luminous flux to power consumption Luminous efficiency, luminous coefficient V 1 Luminous efficacy normalized by the ... By the International Lighting Vocabulary, the definition of light is: "Any radiation capable of causing a visual sensation ... Ratio of luminous flux to radiant flux Luminous efficacy (of a source) η[nb 8] lumen per watt lm/W M−1L−2T3J ... CIE (1987). International Lighting Vocabulary Archived 27 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Number 17.4. CIE, 4th edition. ...
The ratio of the spindle speed and the feed rate controls how aggressive the cut is, and the nature of the swarf formed. ... It is expressed as a percentage or a normalized value. The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) determined machinability ... "Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: TriboBR, First International Brazilian Conference on Tribology.. Cite journal requires ,journal=. (help ...
BUN-to-creatinine ratio: A BUN to creatinine ratio is used to predict various conditions. A high BUN/creatinine ratio can occur ... "Deutsches Arzteblatt international. 110 (25): 432-9; quiz 440. doi:10.3238/arztebl.2013.0432. PMC 3705204 . PMID 23840288.. ... and the heart normalizes in size over weeks to months, with recovery.[126] Atrophy of the heart muscle is a marker of the ... A low BUN/creatinine ratio can indicate a low protein diet, celiac disease, rhabdomyolysis, or cirrhosis of the liver.[90][91] ...
This will normalize the data set and make it easier to analyze trends using the slope of the line.[22] Before analyzing data ... 1984). "The gaits of bipedal and quadrupedal animals". The International Journal of Robotics Research. 3 (2): 49-59. doi: ... Two objects of different size, but common shape, will have their dimensions in the same ratio. Take, for example, a biological ... The metabolic scope for an animal is the ratio of resting and maximum rate of metabolism for that particular species as ...
International Archive of Applied Sciences and Technology. 1: 1-12.. *^ Hurlbut, Cornelius S. Jr, & Kammerling, Robert C., 1991 ... 2 ratio) of flag is dark green representing Muslim majority (98% of total population) while a white vertical bar (3:1 ratio) at ... B: Normalized to [0-255] (byte). You may need rendering support to display the Persian text in this article correctly. ... The flag of the international constructed language Esperanto has a green field and a green star in a white area. The green ...
International Normalized Ratio), de jümmer mehr an de Steed vun den Quicktest kummt. De INR is beter to verglieken twüschen ...
More specifically Gage showed that the isoperimetric ratio (the ratio of squared curve length to area, a number that is 4π for ... White, Brian (2002), "Evolution of curves and surfaces by mean curvature", Proceedings of the International Congress of ... Resample the current curve by placing new sample points at a uniform spacing, as measured by normalized arc length. ... Sapiro, Guillermo; Tannenbaum, Allen (1993), "Affine invariant scale-space", International Journal of Computer Vision, 11 (1): ...
International Normalized Ratio).[108] In general, vitamin K is most commonly used in order to reverse the effect of warfarin in ... An International Normalised Ratio (INR) test would be recommended, to confirm the overdose so that the dosage can be adjusted ... "Deutsches Ärzteblatt International. 110 (31-32): 523-4. doi:10.3238/arztebl.2013.0523. PMC 3782018. PMID 24069072. Things have ... The observational multicenter PLECTRUM study". International Journal of Cardiology. 267: 68-73. doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2018.04. ...
The probability of a planetary orbital plane being directly on the line-of-sight to a star is the ratio of the diameter of the ... The transit depth (δ) of a transiting light curve describes the decrease in the normalized flux of the star during a transit. ... Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union. 9: 359-362. arXiv:1310.6907. Bibcode:2014IAUS..302..359A. doi:10.1017/ ... In addition, the planet distorts the shape of the star more if it has a low semi-major axis to stellar radius ratio and the ...
Springer International Publishing. pp. 64-70.. *^ Hauschild, Michael Z., Ralph K. Rosenbaum, & Stig Irving Olsen (2018). Life ... The ISO LCA Standard aims to normalize this; however, the guidelines are not overly restrictive and 10 different answers may ... a value ratio may be arbitrarily assigned (e.g., that an input joule of electricity is 2.6-times more valuable than a joule of ... International Journal of Nuclear Governance, Economy and Ecology. 2 (1): 113-130. doi:10.1504/IJNGEE.2008.017358.. ...
In this study we have analysed the pattern of FFP usage in liver diseases and its effect on International normalized ratio (INR ... Hshieh TT, Kaung A, Hussain S, Curry MP, Sundaram V (2015) The international normalized ratio does not reflect bleeding risk in ... Effect of FFP Transfusion on International Normalized Ratio in Liver Disease Patients. ... An audit of fresh frozen plasma usage and effect of fresh frozen plasma on the pre-transfusion international normalized ratio. ...
The effects of anticoagulation therapy and elevated international normalized ratio (INR) values on the risk of aneurysmal ... unweighted odds ratio, 22.78; 95% CI, 10.85-47.81 and weighted odds ratio, 28.16; 95% CI, 12.44-63.77). In anticoagulated ...
Low-dose oral vitamin K to normalize the international normalized ratio prior to surgery in patients who require temporary ... Does Low Dose Oral Vitamin K Improve International Normalized Ratio (INR) Stability? (OVWAC VII). The safety and scientific ... Low-dose oral vitamin K therapy for the management of asymptomatic patients with elevated international normalized ratios: a ... study of supplemental vitamin K therapy in patients on oral anticoagulants with unstable international normalized ratios. J ...
Assessment of International Normalized Ratio (INR) Prolongation in Patients Treated Simultaneously With Warfarin and ... Assessment of International Normalized Ratio (INR) Prolongation in Patients Treated Simultaneously With Warfarin and ...
Remote Home Prothrombin Time (PT)/International Normalized Ratio (INR) Monitoring and Patient Management System (vMetrics-AMS) ... Dosage is controlled by periodic determinations of the prothrombin time (PT)/International Normalized Ratio (INR). Under ...
Low-dose oral vitamin K therapy for the management of asymptomatic patients with elevated international normalized ratios: a ... Low-dose oral vitamin K therapy for the management of asymptomatic patients with elevated international normalized ratios: a ... Low-dose oral vitamin K therapy for the management of asymptomatic patients with elevated international normalized ratios: a ... Low-dose oral vitamin K therapy for the management of asymptomatic patients with elevated international normalized ratios: a ...
Patients with an international normalized ratio (INR) between 4.5 and 10.0.. Intervention:. Warfarin therapy was withheld, and ... Oral Vitamin K Lowers the International Normalized Ratio More Rapidly Than Subcutaneous Vitamin K in the Treatment of Warfarin- ... Oral Vitamin K Lowers the International Normalized Ratio More Rapidly Than Subcutaneous Vitamin K in the Treatment of Warfarin- ... odds ratio, 4.32 [95% CI, 1.13 to 17.44]). ...
International Normalized Ratio (INR) increase in patients taking oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT) and using sildenafil (Viagra) ... International Normalized Ratio (INR) increase in patients taking oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT) and using sildenafil (Viagra) ... International Normalized Ratio (INR) increase in patients taking oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT) and using sildenafil (Viagra) ...
Subtherapeutic International Normalized Ratio in Warfarin-Treated Patients Increases the Risk for Symptomatic Intracerebral ... Subtherapeutic International Normalized Ratio in Warfarin-Treated Patients Increases the Risk for Symptomatic Intracerebral ... Subtherapeutic International Normalized Ratio in Warfarin-Treated Patients Increases the Risk for Symptomatic Intracerebral ... Subtherapeutic International Normalized Ratio in Warfarin-Treated Patients Increases the Risk for Symptomatic Intracerebral ...
The international normalized ratio (INR) is a standardized number thats figured out in the lab. If you take blood thinners, ... International Normalized Ratio Does this test have other names? INR, standardized prothrombin time What is this test? This ... The international normalized ratio (INR) is a standardized number thats figured out in the lab. If you take blood thinners, ... International Normalized Ratio. Does this test have other names?. INR, standardized prothrombin time ...
Parra D, Beckey NP, Stevens GR (2007) The effect of acetaminophen on the international normalized ratio in patients stabilized ... Hughes GJ, Patel PN, Saxena N (2011) Effect of acetaminophen on international normalized ratio in patients receiving warfarin ... 2000) Acetaminophen causes an increased International Normalized Ratio by reducing functional factor VII. Ther Drug Monit 22: ... Citation: Dakheel S (2015) Low Doses of Acetaminophen Prolonged Prothrombin Time and Increased International Normalized Ratio ...
... potential predictors of high-quality oral anticoagulation assessed by time in therapeutic international normalized ratio range ... SAMeTT(2)R(2) does not predict time in therapeutic range of the international normalized ratio in patients attending a high- ... Time in Therapeutic Range and Percentage of International Normalized Ratio in the Therapeutic Range as a Measure of Quality of ... Point-of-Care International Normalized Ratio (INR) Monitoring Devices for Patients on Long-term Oral Anticoagulation Therapy: ...
International Normalized Ratio) in Sydney. Check out patient reviews, addresses and book a visit! ... INR (International Normalized Ratio) in Arncliffe INR (International Normalized Ratio) in Baulkham Hills ... INR (International Normalized Ratio) in Bondi INR (International Normalized Ratio) in Bondi Junction ... INR (International Normalized Ratio) in Mosman INR (International Normalized Ratio) in Rose Bay ...
Prothrombin time-international normalized ratio is a useful marker for edoxaban efficacy in preventing venous thromboembolism ... Our hypothesis was that prothrombin time-international normalized ratio (PT-INR) on the third postoperative day could predict ... METHODS: 121 postarthroplasty patients given warfarin thromboprophylaxis were reviewed for international normalized ratio (INR ... international normalized ratio, and activated partial thromboplastin time were proportional to plasma edoxaban concentration... ...
ISSN: Print -0975-3583, Online - 0976-2833] is a double-blind peer-reviewed, open access international circulating professional ... Summon by Serial Solutions and Ulrichs International Periodical Directory ...
Prothrombin Time and International Normalized Ratio answers are found in the Daviss Lab & Diagnostic Tests powered by Unbound ... Normalized_Ratio. Bladh ML, Van Leeuwen AM. Prothrombin Time and International Normalized Ratio. Daviss Lab & Diagnostic Tests ... Normalized_Ratio. Bladh ML, Van Leeuwen AM. Prothrombin Time and International Normalized Ratio [Internet]. In: Daviss Lab & ... Ratio. Accessed August 4, 2020.. Bladh, M. L., & Van Leeuwen, A. M. (2017). Prothrombin Time and International Normalized Ratio ...
The 2 patients had experienced dramatic increase of international normalized ratio (INR) to 4.69â ¼4.86 within 24â hours and ... Transient increase in international normalized ratio (INR) and bleeding risk following Alendronate sodium in elderly patients ... Transient increase in international normalized ratio (INR) and bleeding risk following Ale ...
Prothrombin Time and International Normalized Ratio Your doctor has sent you for a test called a Prothrombin Time (PT) and ... The lipid profile will also include an HDL/Cholesterol ratio or a risk score based on test results, age, sex and other risk ...
Prothrombin Time and International Normalized Ratio. Your doctor has sent you for a test called a Prothrombin Time (PT) and ... The lipid profile will also include an HDL/Cholesterol ratio or a risk score based on test results, age, sex and other risk ...
international normalized ratio (INR) , 2. *Disseminated intravascular coagulation. *Kidney dysfunction *serum creatinine ≥ 2 ... Lungs: acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (PaO2/FiO2 ratio, 300), different ratio in pediatric acute respiratory ... the ratio of the arterial partial-pressure of oxygen to the fraction of oxygen in the gases inspired (PaO2/FiO2) , 300 (the ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) version 9, which was in use in the ...
Association between HNF4A mutations and bleeding complications in patients with stable international normalized ratio.. Kim W1 ... polymorphisms and bleeding complications in patients on warfarin with international normalized ratios between 2.0 and 3.0 after ...
The international normalized ratio goal and duration of treatment with warfarin vary depending on indication and risk. Warfarin ... The heparin product or fondaparinux should be continued for at least five days and until the patients international normalized ... ratio is at least 2.0 for two consecutive days. ... The international normalized ratio goal and duration of ... When warfarin is initiated, the international normalized ratio (INR) may begin to respond after two to three days because of ...
International normalized ratio. 0.9-1.2. NA. 1.9. 2.0. 1.6. 1.7. 1.9. 1.4. 2.2. NA. ...
International normalized ratio. 52. 1.3 (0.2). 0.8-1.2. Bilirubin (mg/dL). 53 ... the International Co-Operative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS) and the Rating Scale for Dystonia (RSD). However, these scales are ... Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http:// ...
International Normalized Ratio (INR) testing. Liver disease and/or bleeding disorders. Low-density Lipoprotein (LDL) testing. ... International Normalized Ratio (INR) testing. Liver disease and/or bleeding disorders. Low-density Lipoprotein (LDL) testing. ...
Elevated international normalized ratios (INRs; ≥2.0) or abnormal coagulation profile (e.g., prothrombin time in absence of INR ... during the preceding 2 weeks with unexplained bleeding and high international normalized ratios (INRs; range from 5 to ,20 [ ...
International Normalized Ratio (INR) testing. Liver disease and/or bleeding disorders. Low-density Lipoprotein (LDL) testing. ... The Applicable Percentage Table and the Section 36B Required Contribution Percentage are adjusted annually by the ratio of ... and may be further adjusted to reflect updates to the data and data sources used to compute the ratio of premium growth to ...
5.9 Increased Risk of Elevated International Normalized Ratio (INR) with Warfarin 5.10 Embryofetal Toxicity 6 ADVERSE REACTIONS ... 5.9 Increased Risk of Elevated International Normalized Ratio (INR) with Warfarin. Clinically significant elevations in ...
  • These data raise safety concerns of thrombolytic treatment in warfarin-treated patients with subtherapeutic international normalized ratio. (
  • In patients who are receiving warfarin and have an international normalized ratio (INR) value between 4.5 and 10.0, does low-dose vitamin K lower the INR better than placebo? (
  • In patients who are receiving warfarin and have an international normalized ratio (INR) value between 4.5 and 10.0, low-dose vitamin K lowered the INR to between 1.8 and 3.2 the day after administration. (
  • Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze the difference in duration of anticoagulation and dose of warfarin required to reach a therapeutic international normalized ratio [(INR) of 2 to 3] in patients with hypercoagulable conditions as compared to controls. (
  • Transient increase in international normalized ratio (INR) and bleeding risk following Alendronate sodium in elderly patients on warfarin: Two case reports. (
  • This study aimed to determine the association between hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4A) polymorphisms and bleeding complications in patients on warfarin with international normalized ratios between 2.0 and 3.0 after cardiac valve replacement. (
  • The international normalized ratio goal and duration of treatment with warfarin vary depending on indication and risk. (
  • Compared with usual clinic-based care, patient self-testing for international normalized ratios, with or without self-dosing of warfarin, is associated with significantly fewer deaths and thromboembolic complications without any increase in bleeding complications for a selected group of motivated patients who have completed appropriate training. (
  • Here, we report the case of a patient with advanced colon cancer, who experienced elevated prothrombin time/international normalized ratio (PT/INR) with concurrent use of regorafenib and warfarin. (
  • Background The effects of warfarin are measured with the international normalized ratio (INR). (
  • Efficacy and safety of apixaban compared with warfarin at different levels of predicted international normalized ratio control for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: The benefits of apixaban compared with warfarin for stroke or systemic embolism, bleeding, and mortality appear similar across the range of centers' and patients' predicted quality of international normalized ratio control. (
  • We report the case of a 50-year-old man who showed changes in the prothrombin time - international normalized ratio (PT- INR ) after coadministration of erlotinib and warfarin . (
  • Theory-based pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of S- and R-warfarin and effects on international normalized ratio: influence of body size, comp. (
  • Theory-based pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of S- and R-warfarin and effects on international normalized ratio: influence of body size, composition and genotype in cardiac surgery patients. (
  • Postdischarge international normalized ratio testing and long-term clinical outcomes of patients with heart failure receiving warfarin: findings from the ADHERE registry linked to Medicare claims. (
  • BACKGROUND: Effective warfarin thromboprophylaxis requires maintaining anticoagulation within the recommended international normalized ratio (INR) range. (
  • Methods and Results: Of 7,406 patients with NVAF, 1,002 did not receive warfarin (non-warfarin group), and the remaining patients receiving warfarin were divided into 5 groups based on their baseline international normalized ratio (INR) of prothrombin time (≤1.59, 1.6-1.99, 2.0-2.59, 2.6-2.99, and ≥3.0). (
  • The ACCP guidelines recommend short-term warfarin therapy, with the goal of maintaining an International Normalized Ratio (INR) of 2.5 ± 0.5, after major orthopedic surgery. (
  • For treatment of acute deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, warfarin should be started with unfractionated heparin or LMWH for at least five days and until a therapeutic International Normalized Ratio (2.5 ± 0.5) is achieved. (
  • Our hypothesis was that prothrombin time-international normalized ratio (PT-INR) on the third postoperative day could predict the incidence of DVT following TKA. (
  • Here, we elucidated the relationship between prothrombin time-international normalized ratio (PT-INR) values on admission and clinical outcomes in patients with acute cardioembolic stroke. (
  • Ratios that are moderately higher than this therapeutic range appear safe and more effective than subtherapeutic ratios. (
  • The effect of dabigatran on the international normalized ratio (INR), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), thrombin time (TT), and fibrinogen requires clarification. (
  • Interestingly, NOACs seem to normalize the differences between males and females both in terms of safety and efficacy, whereas residual higher stroke risk and systemic embolism persist in AF women treated with vitamin K antagonist anticoagulants VKA with optimal time in therapeutic range. (
  • Hshieh TT, Kaung A, Hussain S, Curry MP, Sundaram V (2015) The international normalized ratio does not reflect bleeding risk in esophageal variceal hemorrhage. (
  • The effects of anticoagulation therapy and elevated international normalized ratio (INR) values on the risk of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage are unknown. (
  • ASYMPTOMATIC ELEVATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL normalized ratio (INR) is a common problem associated with hemorrhage. (
  • The risk of hemorrhage always exists in anticoagulated patients with an elevated international normalized ratio (INR), a risk that must be measured against the necessity for surgical procedures. (
  • The risk of hemorrhage increased significantly at high international normalized ratios. (
  • The risks of hemorrhage and thromboemboli are minimized at international normalized ratios of 2-3. (
  • International normalized ratio (INR) = 0.9 to 1.1 for patients not receiving anticoagulation therapy. (
  • Moreover, according to the International Self-Monitoring Association of Oral Anticoagulated Patients (ISMAAP), nearly four milion people are under oral anticoagulant therapy in Europe and need to monitor their coagulation time daily to self-adjust the dosage of their treatment and thus maintain the optimal therapeutic range. (
  • INR self-monitoring is used by patients on long-term and on lifetime anti-coagulation therapy to measure their INR (International Normalized Ratio) levels themselves, rather than at a clinic. (
  • Coagulation Failure in Patients With Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure and Decompensated Cirrhosis: Beyond the International Normalized Ratio. (
  • Tripodi, A 2008, ' How to implement the modified international normalized ratio for cirrhosis (INRliver) for model for end-stage liver disease calculation ', Hepatology , vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 1423-1424. (
  • Results of previous studies revealed an increased risk of bleeding among patients whose ratios exceeded 4, an increased risk of stroke among patients whose ratios were 1.5-2 and a decreased risk of stroke at a ratio of 2.4. (
  • 3). We included studies irrespective of therapeutic indication, target range of international normalized ratios, duration of anticoagulant use, type of anticoagulant used or treatment setting. (
  • The indexes including AST-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), γ-GT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were independent risk factors for SALI. (
  • Several studies indicated that PLT is a prognostic predictor for sepsis in severe burns ( 8 ), and mean platelet volume (MPV) to PLT ratio (MPV/PLT) is a promising predictor of early mortality in severe sepsis ( 9 ). (
  • We sought to determine whether the risk of hemorrhagic and thromboembolic events is minimized at an international normalized ratio of 2-3 among patients taking anticoagulants. (
  • Moreover, the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to PLT ratio, named as APRI, was an effective non-invasive assessment of hepatic fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease or hepatitis C-related fibrosis ( 12 , 13 ). (
  • Does Low Dose Oral Vitamin K Improve International Normalized Ratio (INR) Stability? (
  • From international consensus guidelines prepared by the International Self-Monitoring Association for Oral Anti-coagulation. (
  • Patients with an international normalized ratio (INR) between 4.5 and 10.0. (
  • the risk of bleeding was increased (adjusted odds ratios, 1.4-2.2), but confidence intervals were wide and differences between groups were not statistically significant. (
  • The heparin product or fondaparinux should be continued for at least five days and until the patient's international normalized ratio is at least 2.0 for two consecutive days. (
  • Odds ratios of patient characteristics were calculated as an estimate of relative risk for the development of a high INR. (
  • We reviewed the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and CINAHL databases to identify studies involving patients taking anticoagulants that reported person-years of observation and the number of hemorrhages or thromboemboli in 3 or more discrete ranges of international normalized ratios. (
  • Association between HNF4A mutations and bleeding complications in patients with stable international normalized ratio. (
  • A CBC counts your red and white blood cells, hemoglobin (a blood protein), platelets (tiny cells that clump together to make a blood clot), and hematocrit (the ratio of blood cells to liquid plasma in your blood). (
  • Future prospective randomized control trails are required for understanding the risk benefit ratio better and formulating plasma transfusion guidelines in liver diseases. (
  • Dosage is controlled by periodic determinations of the prothrombin time (PT)/International Normalized Ratio (INR). (
  • The INR is a ratio, so it's just a number, not a number tied to time or another value. (
  • The primary end point of this study was to evaluate the chronic effect of acetaminophen on Prothrombin Time (PT) and International Normalized Ratio (INR) parameters. (
  • International normalized ratio(INR) takes results from a prothrombin time test and standardizes it regardless of collection method. (
  • Prothrombin Time and International Normalized Ratio is a topic covered in the Davis's Lab & Diagnostic Tests . (
  • Nursing Central , (
  • Your doctor has sent you for a test called a Prothrombin Time (PT) and International Normalized Ratio (INR). (
  • Francisco Bay Area, coincident with the abundant rainfall and normalized ratio (INR) (standardized prothrombin time) recent warm weather. (
  • Most of the time, results are given as what is called INR (international normalized ratio). (
  • Prothrombin time (PT) and international normalized ratio (INR) - blood. (
  • In addition, it has been observed that patients spend more time with a ratio below 2 than above 3. (
  • A sequential population PK parameter with data method was used to describe the international normalized ratio (INR) time course. (
  • Minimal model Pred Corrected visual predictive checks of international normalized ratio time course over 28 days and 12 weeks. (
  • citation needed] International normalized ratio (INR) which is a derivative of prothrombin time is a measurement of blood coagulation in the circulatory system. (
  • It is a ratio of the recipient's prothombin time (PT) compared to a normal PT. (
  • Elevated international normalized ratio (INR) and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) were associated with complicated appendicitis ( p = 0.001). (
  • The dog's previous history included occasional generalized seizures of unknown etiology beginning 4 years prior to presentation, suspected inflammatory bowel disease, proteinuria [urine protein:creatinine ratio (UPC) 1.25], and decreased hepatic function. (
  • The age-bilirubin-international normalized ratio-creatinine (ABIC) score, which is a predictive model commonly used for alcoholic hepatitis, has not yet been studied in acute-on-chronic hepatitis B liver failure (HBV-ACLF). (
  • The lipid profile will also include an HDL/Cholesterol ratio or a risk score based on test results, age, sex and other risk factors. (
  • However, the optimal international normalized ratio (INR) levels during RFA have not been defined. (
  • In our institution, intracranial procedures are often deferred until an international normalized ratio (INR) of less than 1.4 is achieved. (
  • International normalized ratio (INR) is blood-clotting test. (