Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Parasites: Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Host Specificity: The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.Parasite Load: Measure of the number of the PARASITES present in a host organism.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Life Cycle Stages: The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Native Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis: Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under conditions in which the components, such as PROTEINS, being separated can remain in their naturally folded state.Neospora: A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Its species are parasitic in dogs, cattle, goats, and sheep, among others. N. caninum, a species that mainly infects dogs, is intracellular in neural and other cells of the body, multiplies by endodyogeny, has no parasitophorous vacuole, and has numerous rhoptries. It is known to cause lesions in many tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord as well as abortion in the expectant mother.Coccidiosis: Protozoan infection found in animals and man. It is caused by several different genera of COCCIDIA.Toxoplasma: A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Snails: Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.Metastrongyloidea: A superfamily of nematodes of the order STRONGYLIDA. Characteristics include a fluid-filled outer layer of cuticle and a reduced mouth and bursa.Angiostrongylus cantonensis: A species of parasitic nematodes distributed throughout the Pacific islands that infests the lungs of domestic rats. Human infection, caused by consumption of raw slugs and land snails, results in eosinophilic meningitis.Gastropoda: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SNAILS and slugs. The former have coiled external shells and the latter usually lack shells.Strongylida: An order of nematodes of the subclass SECERNENTEA. Characteristics include an H-shaped excretory system with two subventral glands.Mucus: The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.Hemocytes: Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.Tardigrada: A phylum of microscopic ecdysozoan invertebrates, closely related to ARTHROPODS. Members exhibit anabiosis and cryptobiosis, dormant states where metabolic activity is reduced or absent, thus making them tolerant to extreme environmental conditions. They are distributed worldwide and most are semi-aquatic.Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.Arthropods: Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.Desiccation: Removal of moisture from a substance (chemical, food, tissue, etc.).Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Awards and PrizesAuthorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Clinical Medicine: The study and practice of medicine by direct examination of the patient.Societies, Scientific: Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Trichostrongyloidea: A superfamily of nematodes. Most are intestinal parasites of ruminants and accidentally in humans. This superfamily includes seven genera: DICTYOCAULUS; HAEMONCHUS; Cooperia, OSTERTAGIA; Nematodirus, TRICHOSTRONGYLUS; and Hyostrongylus.Trichostrongyloidiasis: Infection by roundworms of the superfamily TRICHOSTRONGYLOIDEA, including the genera TRICHOSTRONGYLUS; OSTERTAGIA; Cooperia, HAEMONCHUS; Nematodirus, Hyostrongylus, and DICTYOCAULUS.Ostertagia: A genus of parasitic nematodes occurring in the stomach of ruminants.Ostertagiasis: A disease of herbivorous mammals, particularly cattle and sheep, caused by stomach worms of the genus OSTERTAGIA.Abomasum: The fourth stomach of ruminating animals. It is also called the "true" stomach. It is an elongated pear-shaped sac lying on the floor of the abdomen, on the right-hand side, and roughly between the seventh and twelfth ribs. It leads to the beginning of the small intestine. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Nematode Infections: Infections by nematodes, general or unspecified.Sheep Diseases: Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Geological Phenomena: The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.Venus: The second planet in order from the sun. It has no known natural satellites. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the solar system.Wharton Jelly: Jelly-like connective tissue of the UMBILICAL CORD that contains MESENCHYMAL STROMAL CELLS.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.

*Trichobilharzia regenti

For its unique neurotropic behaviour in vertebrate hosts, the host-parasite interactions are extensively studied in terms of ... When cercariae of T. regenti find either avian or mammalian host, they penetrate its skin. For this purpose, they are equipped ... Once in water, the miracidia swim using their cilia and actively search for a proper molluscan intermediate host (Radix lagotis ... Several parasite antigens recognized specifically by host IgY are considered as candidates for immunodiagnostics. The infection ...

*Leishmania braziliensis

... , like other species of Leishmania rely on asexual reproduction in the intermediate mammalian host to ... "Betulin derivatives impair Leishmania braziliensis viability and host-parasite interaction". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. ... of the mammalian host, with the macrophages being the target white blood cell of the parasite. Recently, it has been ... At this time, the parasite causes oral and nasal lesions causing severe damage to the mucus membranes. Pentostam, Liposomal and ...

*Tyrosine-tRNA ligase

Interaction of the enzyme with the tyrosyl adenylate intermediate". Journal of Molecular Biology. 208 (1): 83-98. PMID 2504923 ... Pf-YARS is expressed in all asexual parasite stages (rings, trophozoites and schizonts) and is exported to the host erythrocyte ... a mammalian cytokine). Although full-length, native YARS has no cell-signaling activity, the enzyme is secreted during ... The interaction between Pf-YARS and macrophages augments expression of adherence-linked host endothelial receptors ICAm-1 and ...

*Glutathione reductase

... reductase of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum has a significantly different protein fold than that of mammalian ... Buchholz K, Schirmer RH, Eubel JK, Akoachere MB, Dandekar T, Becker K, Gromer S (January 2008). "Interactions of methylene blue ... "Glutathione reductase facilitates host defense by sustaining phagocytic oxidative burst and promoting the development of ... "The catalytic mechanism of glutathione reductase as derived from x-ray diffraction analyses of reaction intermediates". J. Biol ...

*ADAM10

Sheddase' helps the malaria parasite invade red blood cells". Archived from the original on 2008-04-12. Liu PC, Liu X, Li Y, et ... As electrons move down from the oxygen atom to re-form the double bond, the tetrahedral intermediate collapses to products with ... But once attached to host blood cells, the parasites need to shed the 'sticky' surface proteins that would otherwise interfere ... 1996). "Molecular cloning of MADM: a catalytically active mammalian disintegrin-metalloprotease expressed in various cell types ...

*Gammaretrovirus

The gammaretrovirus will act as a parasite to use cellular host factors to deliver genome into a host's cell nucleus, where ... Because it is a single-stranded RNA(+) with a DNA intermediate genome, it has the ability to copy it's viral RNA genome ... The restriction of the virus depends on the interaction of the protein and the invading virus. Viralzone: Gammaretrovirus ... Gammaretroviruses are considered zoonotic viruses because they are found in many different mammalian species, such as mice, ...

*Serotonin

The intermediate in the synthesis from tryptophan to serotonin, 5-hydroxytryptophan, was not found. Serotonin functions as a ... When they enter a new host, they multiply in the gut, and become more virulent as the enterochromaffine cells get provoked by ... The gastrointestinal parasite Entamoeba histolytica secretes serotonin, causing a sustained secretory diarrhea in some people. ... The newer selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have fewer side-effects and fewer interactions with other drugs. ...

*Giraffe

... s host numerous species of internal parasite and are susceptible to various diseases. They were victims of the (now ... Such interactions between males have been found to be more frequent than heterosexual coupling. In one study, up to 94 percent ... Harrison, D. F. N. (1995). The Anatomy and Physiology of the Mammalian Larynx. Cambridge University Press. p. 165. ISBN 0-521- ... Samotherium was a particularly important transitional fossil in the giraffe lineage as its cervical vertebrae was intermediate ...

*Fish disease and parasites

"Phenotypic manipulation by the cestode parasite Schistocephalus solidus of its intermediate host, Gasterosteus aculeatus, the ... Much like the mammalian immune system, teleost erythrocytes, neutrophils and granulocytes are believed to reside in the spleen ... The high biodiversity of coral reefs increases the complexity of the interactions between parasites and their various and ... or the natural variability in host defensive strategies may suffice to keep host populations viable. Parasite infections can ...

*Garden warbler

ISBN 1-4053-6709-1. Dolnik, Olga (2003). Some aspects of the biology and host-parasite interactions of Isospora spp. (Protozoa ... and its eggs and nestlings are taken by a variety of mammalian and avian predators. It may be host to various fleas, mites and ... Intermediate birds occur where the recognised forms meet and interbreed, and have sometimes been given subspecies status, ... The garden warbler is a host of the common cuckoo, a brood parasite. The blackcap has a much lower level of parasitism than its ...

*Variant surface glycoprotein

... a parasite causing the covering sickness in horses, These proteins allow the parasite to efficiently evade the host animal's ... VSG allows the trypanosomatid parasites to evade the mammalian host's immune system by extensive antigenic variation. VSG has ... To dimerize, VSG N-terminal domains form a bundle of four alpha helices directed by hydrophobic interactions, around which hang ... which are specialised expression loci found at the telomeres of some of the large and intermediate chromosomes. Each ES is a ...

*Retrovirus

A retrovirus is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus with a DNA intermediate and, as an obligate parasite, targets a host ... 2010). Lentiviruses and Macrophages: Molecular and Cellular Interactions. Caister Academic. ISBN 978-1-904455-60-8. Rutherford ... "Impact of transposable elements on the evolution of mammalian gene regulation". Cytogenet Genome Res. 110 (1-4): 342-52. doi: ... The host cell then treats the viral DNA as part of its own genome, transcribing and translating the viral genes along with the ...

*Babesia

... selfishly persists long-term in the host's system: the host gains no benefit from the parasite invasion but rather ... These are the sporozoites the infected tick introduces when it bites an intermediate host. Even as an incidental host, the ... Many species of Babesia only infect nonhuman mammalian hosts, most commonly cattle, horses, and sheep. B. microti and B. ... adaptation to long-lasting interactions as a way to achieve efficient transmission". Veterinary Research. 40 (2): 1-18. doi: ...

*Fasciola hepatica

"Dynamics of host-parasite interactions: the example of population biology of the liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica)". Microbes and ... The life cycle of F. hepatica goes through the intermediate host and several environmental larval stages. Intermediate hosts of ... The mammalian host then eats this vegetation and can become infected. Humans can often acquire these infections through eating ... Inside the duodenum of the mammalian host, the metacercariae are released from within their cysts. From the duodenum, they ...

*Plant tolerance to herbivory

"Shared control of epidemiological traits in a coevolutionary model of host-parasite interactions". The American Naturalist, 161 ... 2010). Models have shown that intermediate levels of resistance and tolerance are evolutionary stable as long as the benefits ... Tolerance and resistance may not be redundant strategies since tolerance could be necessary for damage from large mammalian ... There may then be selection for decreased virulence in the pathogens, so that their plant host will survive long enough to ...

*Atrazine

Koprivnikar, Janet; Forbes, Mark R.; Baker, Robert L. (2007). "Contaminant Effects on Host-Parasite Interactions: Atrazine, ... In fact, the most common pathway for atrazine degradation involves the intermediate, cyanuric acid, in which carbon is fully ... A 2011 review of the mammalian reproductive toxicology of atrazine jointly conducted by the World Health Organization and the ...

*Noncoding DNA

Non-coding DNA has been found to be involved in epigenetic activity and complex networks of genetic interactions, and is being ... Over 10% of 32 mammalian genomes may function through the formation of specific RNA secondary structures. The study used ... Orgel LE, Crick FH; Crick (April 1980). "Selfish DNA: the ultimate parasite". Nature. 284 (5757): 604-7. Bibcode:1980Natur.284 ... Pseudogenes resulting from the retrotransposition of an RNA intermediate are known as processed pseudogenes; pseudogenes that ...

*Infection

The host harbors and agent in a mature, or sexually active stage phase called the definitive host. The intermediate host comes ... Under disease invasion, when a parasite invades a new host species, it may become pathogenic in the new host. Several human ... In epidemics, there are often extensive interactions within hubs or groups of infected individuals and other interactions ... Mammalian hosts react to infections with an innate response, often involving inflammation, followed by an adaptive response. ...

*Tasmanian devil

The Tasmanian devil has the most powerful bite relative to body size of any living mammalian carnivore, exerting a force of 553 ... This allows the disease to be able to spread throughout a population without being threatened by the host's own immune system, ... The following year, Trichinella spiralis, a parasite which kills animals and can infect humans, was found in devils and minor ... The extinct Glaucodon ballaratensis of the Pliocene age has been dubbed an intermediate species between the quoll and devil. ...
Gilbert, Michael A., "Epidemiology and host -parasite interactions between Myxobolus cerebralis the causative agent of salmonid whirling disease and its oligochaete host Tubifex tubifex" (2002). Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers. 9441 ...
BACKGROUND: Animal and plant species can harbour microbes that provide them with protection against enemies. These beneficial microbes can be a significant component of host defence that complement or replaces a repertoire of immunity, but they can also be costly. Given their impact on host and parasite fitness, defensive microbes have the potential to influence host-parasite interactions on an evolutionary timescale. RESULTS: Using a phenotypic framework, we explore the evolutionary and coevolutionary dynamics of a host-parasite interaction in the presence of defensive microbes. We show that costs of host-defensive microbe systems are critical in determining whether a defensive microbe based system or an immune system provides better host ...
This short article carefully formulate a simple SI model for a parasite-host interaction through the basic birth and death processes analysis. This model reveals and corrects an error in similar models studied recently by various authors. Complete mathematical investigation of this simple model shows that the host extinction dynamics can happen and the outcomes may depend on the initial conditions. We also present biological implications of our findings.
Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are closely related obligatory intracellular apicomplexan parasites that invade and multiply in almost all mammalian host cells. They cause disease in immunocompromised animals, abortion in the intermediates host and great economic losses to the farming industry. However, there are several biological differences between these parasites, including host range, zoonotic capacity, transmission, virulence and definitive host. What causes these biological differences is not well understood. To fully understand these biological differences, the host-parasite interactions of these parasites have been investigated in this study using several different approaches at the molecular level. Due to ...
article{9cc27631-773b-4625-add5-aeb353c7d0cb, abstract = {,p,Parasite diversity and abundance (parasite load) vary greatly among host species. However, the influence of host traits on variation in parasitism remains poorly understood. Comparative studies of parasite load have largely examined measures of parasite species richness and are predominantly based on records obtained from published data. Consequently, little is known about the relationships between host traits and other aspects of parasite load, such as parasite abundance, prevalence and aggregation. Meanwhile, understanding of parasite species richness may be clouded by limitations associated with data collation from multiple independent sources. We conducted a field study of Lake Tanganyika cichlid fishes and their helminth ...
Host genotype - parasite genotype co-evolutionary dynamics are influenced by local biotic and abiotic environmental conditions. This results in spatially heterogeneous selection among host populations. How such heterogeneous selection influences host resistance, parasite infectivity and virulence remains largely unknown. We hypothesized that different co-evolutionary trajectories of a vertebrate host-parasite association result in specific virulence patterns when assessed on a large geographic scale. We used two reference host populations of three-spined sticklebacks and nine strains of their specific cestode parasite Schistocephalus solidus from across the Northern Hemisphere for controlled infection experiments. Host and ...
This report describes a bacteria-free culture unit to be used in large numbers for detailed analysis of host-parasite relationships of Meloidogyne sp. The unit consists of an excised tomato root growing in agar medium in a test tube to which one nematode larva has been added. Almost every nematode which penetrates induces a gall; a high proportion of these galls have eggs externally after 3 weeks of incubation at 28° C. Galls appear from the 1st to the 9th day, eggs from the 18th to the 26th day, and larvae from the 25th to the 32nd day after inoculation. Infectivity of Meloidogyne incognita acrita was 53%. Variations in nutrient composition had no marked effects except that high potassium stimulated egg production without affecting incidence of gall formation; high concentrations of iodine increased brown discoloration of galls. Addition of juice from a resistant plant (Cornus florida) depressed the infectivity of M. incognita acrita for tomato roots. A ...
Parasitism is s form of symbiosis in which one organism (called parasite) benefits at the expense of another organism usually of different species (called host). This host-parasite association may eventuate to the injury of the host. Parasites can cause harm or disease to their host. They are generally much smaller than their hosts. Examples of parasites are tapeworms, flukes, lice, ticks, etc. Parasites may be classified into different categories. For instance, parasites may be macroparasites or microparasites based on their size. Macroparasites are those that are bigger in size and visible to an unaided eye. Microparasites are those that are small and can be detected ...
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Author Summary Coevolution between hosts and parasites is believed to be central to a number of biological phenomena, most notably the observed patterns of biodiversity and the origins of sexual reproduction. However, classical mathematical models of host-parasite coevolution account neither for the hosts use of bacterial symbionts for protection from parasites, nor for the potential and observed complexity of genetic interactions between the coevolving species. In this article we address both challenges by simulating a large number of models of host-symbiont-parasite coevolution based on randomly generated genotype interaction patterns. We demonstrate that the degree of
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wptabs style="ui-lightness" mode="vertical" type="accordion"]. [wptabtitle]10. Adaptation in heterogeneous environments: insights from host-parasite systems. Nicolas Rode, Florence Débarre[/wptabtitle]. [wptabcontent]. Adaptation in heterogeneous environments: insights from host-parasite systems. Understanding how species adapt to heterogeneous environments is a major challenge of evolutionary biology. In host-parasite systems, antagonistic coevolution generates highly heterogeneous selective pressures, both in time and space.. Recently, much progress has been made to characterize the process of coevolution in natural (e.g., plant-pathogen, invited speaker ALL) and laboratory (e.g., phage-bacteria, invited speaker AH) populations, showing that the strong and changing selective pressures generated by antagonistic coevolution can play an important role in the ...
Plant infestation with parasitic weeds like Cuscuta reflexa induces morphological as well as biochemical changes in the host and the parasite. These modifications could be caused by a change in protein or gene activity. Using a comparative macroarray approach Cuscuta genes specifically upregulated at the host attachment site were identified. One of the infestation specific Cuscuta genes encodes a cysteine protease. The protein and its intrinsic inhibitory peptide were heterologously expressed, purified and biochemically characterized. The haustoria specific enzyme was named cuscutain in accordance with similar proteins from other plants, e.g. papaya. The role of cuscutain and its inhibitor during the host parasite interaction was studied by external application of an inhibitor suspension, which induced a significant reduction of successful infection events. The study ...
Ali, khan Z., "Host-parasite relationship in echinococcosis. I. Parasite biomass and antibody response in three strains of inbred mice against graded doses of echinococcus multilocularis cysts." (1974). Subject Strain Bibliography 1974. 1006 ...
Some parasites may modify the behavior of their hosts. Altered behaviors may: 1) benefit the host in that they defend against the pathogen, 2) benefit the pathogen and represent manipulations of the host response, and 3) benefit neither the host or the pathogen and simply be a product of the host response to infection. In this thesis I examine four host/parasite systems. For each system, I explore host/parasite behavioral interactions, and examine them with regard to selective pressures that may be acting on both the host and the parasite. I test the Hamilton and Zuk hypothese in 26 species of lizards. I find an inverse relationship between a lizard species ...
Parasites pose a very real risk to to fish. All fish are potential hosts to many different species of parasites. Small numbers of parasites are common and probably do little harm. However, all parasites have tremendous reproductive potential and can, under ideal conditions, quickly overwhelm fish in the confines of a tank or pond.. Types of parasites. We can broadly class parasites into two groups. Ectoparasites are found on the external surfaces such as skin, fins and gills, while endoparasites are found in the internal tissues and organs.. Endoparasites are uncommon in ornamental fish. However, there is a wide diversity of blood parasites, worms that colonize the intestines and other parasites that can invade various organs and tissues. Many require an intermediate ...
Parasitoids were initially recognized from the order Hymenoptera, but later research showed that a number of families in the Diptera order and one in the Coleoptera order also contain true parasitoids. In describing parasitic insects, the term "parasitoid" was first used in Reuter 1913. His definition referred to an organism that goes through complete metamorphosis and whose larvae are parasitic but whose adults are free living (see Defining Parasitoids). Since that time, the term has been greatly refined to accommodate the plethora of life-history strategies that are found in parasitoids. Some of the most important pioneering research on host-parasitoid interactions was performed by George Salt (Salt 1941) and Stanley Flanders (Flanders 1942 and Flanders 1950), whose early works on development and reproduction are still considered to be of profound importance today. Their studies also influenced later generations of entomologists working on parasitoids. ...
Biogeography has renewed its concepts and methods following important recent advances in phylogenetics, macroecology, and geographic information systems. In parallel, the evolutionary ecology of host-parasite interactions has attracted the interests of numerous studies dealing with life-history traits evolution, community ecology, and evolutionary epidemiology.
Biogeography has renewed its concepts and methods following important recent advances in phylogenetics, macroecology, and geographic information systems. In parallel, the evolutionary ecology of host-parasite interactions has attracted the interests of numerous studies dealing with life-history traits evolution, community ecology, and evolutionary epidemiology.
This posting is no longer current. Please check out our Events & Meetings for the latest postings.. August 5-10, 2018. Mt. Sterling, Ohio USA. Tree Resistance to Insects and Diseases: Putting Promise into Practice. The 6th International Workshop on the Genetics of Host-Parasite Interactions in Forestry. Space is limited. More details at: https://treeresistance2018.ca.uky.edu/. ...
No one can doubt that disease played a major role in human history and still continues to impact human health. Also, many human diseases, such as HIV, Ebola and malaria, have been acquired from our close primate relatives. The potential transmission of infectious agents from monkeys and apes to humans is why the study of primate parasites is so significant. The present work, which is divided into several Parts, consists of 25 chapters authored by one or more of 62 contributors.. Part 1 deals with methods used in studying primate parasite interactions. It begins with a chapter on collecting and diagnosing primate parasites. This is followed with a chapter on extracting and identifying minute nematodes, mostly pin worms, recovered from fecal samples. The next chapter discusses the use of molecular methods for comparing populations of stomach worms (Oesophagostomum). This is followed by a discussion on the use of endocrinological analyses to ...
A social parasite uses workers of another social insect species to rear its own progeny. They are often so closely related to their hosts that it has been suggested that they could have evolved sympatrically from them. To address the question of whether social parasites evolved from their hosts we present a partial sequence of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene for nine species of Polistes, comprising all known species of social parasites, their hosts and two outgroups. Parsimony and maximum-likelihood analyses of the data support monophyly for these social parasites. The trees supporting monophyly are significantly shorter than the trees supporting sympatric speciation of parasites from their hosts. These data support the hypothesis that speciation occurred allopatrically and independently of ...
Trypanosoma brucei, i.e. the causative agent of sleeping sickness in humans and of nagana in cattle can undergo apoptosis in the mammalian bloodstream form (BSF) [20, 21] and the procyclic form within the midgut of the tsetse fly [22, 23]. In the mammalian bloodstream, parasitemia of T. brucei increases and decreases periodically and this is partially due to effective antibody-mediated immune responses of the host and antigenic variation of the major surface glycoprotein of the parasite. However, the cell density of T. brucei is also regulated in axenic cultures in the absence of any host-derived immune effectors. After reaching a cell density-dependent threshold, further expansion of the cell population is restricted by differentiation from the replicating long slender (LS) form to the non-dividing short stumpy (SS) form [24]. Subsequently, the parasite ...
1. Parasites and infectious diseases have become a major concern in conservation biology, in part because they can trigger or accelerate species or population declines. Focusing on primates as a well-studied host clade, we tested whether the species richness and prevalence of parasites differed between threatened and non-threatened host species.. 2. We collated data on 386 species of parasites (including viruses, bacteria, protozoa, helminths and arthropods) reported to infect wild populations of 36 threatened and 81 non-threatened primate species. Analyses controlled for uneven sampling effort and host phylogeny.. 3. Results showed that total parasite species richness was lower among threatened primates, supporting the prediction that small, isolated host populations harbour fewer parasite ...
The spatial ecology of host-parasite communities. Parasite transmission occurs through contacts between susceptible individuals and the infective stages of parasites. Standard models of the epidemiological spread of infections typically assume random mixing of these contacts (the mass action assumption) typical of density-dependent transmission, which assumes contacts and transmission simply increase with the density of infected individuals in the total population (McCallum et al 2001; Begon et al 2002; Fenton et al 2002). In reality, however, these contacts are likely to show varying degrees of non-random structure, arising from the spatial arrangement of individuals, environmental heterogeneity and social or behavioural constraints that restrict individual movement.. Obviously, the mode of transmission of a parasite will affect its spatial dynamics of transmission. Many parasites transmit ...
Determining the effect of an invasive species on enzootic pathogen dynamics is critical for understanding both human epidemics and wildlife epizootics. Theoretical models suggest that when a naive species enters an established host-parasite system, the new host may either reduce (dilute) or increase (spillback) pathogen transmission to native hosts. There are few empirical data to evaluate these possibilities, especially for animal pathogens. Buggy Creek virus (BCRV) is an arthropod-borne alphavirus that is enzootically transmitted by the swallow bug (Oeciacus vicarius) to colonially nesting cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota). In western Nebraska, introduced house sparrows (Passer domesticus) invaded cliff swallow colonies approximately 40 years ago and were exposed to BCRV. We evaluated how the addition of house sparrows to this ...
Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan pathogen that produces severe disease in humans and animals. This obligate intracellular parasite provides an excellent model for the study of how such pathogens are able to invade, survive, and replicate intracellularly. DNA encoding chloramphenicol acetyltransferase was introduced into T. gondii and transiently expressed with the use of three vectors based on different Toxoplasma genes. The ability to introduce genes and have them efficiently and faithfully expressed is an essential tool for understanding the structure-function relation of genes and their products. ...
Virulence is often under selection during host-parasite coevolution. In order to increase fitness, parasites are predicted to circumvent and overcome host immunity. A particular challenge for pathogens are external immune systems, chemical defence systems comprised of potent antimicrobial compounds released by prospective hosts into the environment. We carried out an evolution experiment, allowing for coevolution to occur, with the entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana, and the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, which has a well-documented external immune system with strong inhibitory effects against B. bassiana. After just seven transfers of experimental evolution we saw a significant increase in parasite induced host mortality, a proxy for virulence, in all B. bassiana lines. This apparent virulence increase was ...
The adult lifespan of a generalist secondary parasitoid at the top of an aphid-parasitoid food web tended to decrease when oviposition and larval development took place in hosts experiencing the endophyte environment. Female A. vulgaris improved their host choice with progressing age and oviposition experience through selection of more hosts from the endophyte-free environment compared with younger and less experienced females. Offspring performance in endophyte-free hosts was only improved in terms of lifespan and no effects on developmental time, sex ratio or weight were detected. Asaphes vulgaris parasitoids are long lived and synovigenic, maturing their eggs during adulthood. Under such conditions, a reduced lifespan will most likely result in a shorter reproductive time and thus reduced fitness. Similar fitness penalties of endophytes are known for predators and primary ...
RESUMO Um número crescente de casos de angiostrongilíase abdominal tem sido detectado no sul do Brasil. O principal hospedeiro do Angiostrongylus costaricensis na América Central, o rato do algodão (Sigmodon hispidus), não ocorre na América do Sul, exceto no norte do Peru, Colômbia e Venezuela. Foram realizadas capturas na área endêmica do Rio Grande do Sul (RS), visando identificar hospedeiros para obtenção de vermes em laboratório e produção de antígeno. Pela primeira vez no Brasil foi constatada a infecção em roedores: Oryzomys nigripes e Oryzomys ratticeps. O. nigripes é um roedor silvestre de pequeno porte e parece ser o principal hospedeiro definitivo do A. costaricensis na região serrana do RS. Unitermos: Angiostrongylus costaricensis; Oryzomys nigripes, Oryzomys ratticeps; angiostrongilíase abdominal; zoonoses por helmintos; helmintíases. ...
The Institute of Parasitology is seeking candidates for two Faculty Positions. The Institute of Parasitology is one of the oldest recognized centres of interdisciplinary research in Canada. We focus on parasitic organisms, the relationship with their host and the means to limit the impact of parasitic disease on heath and wellbeing.. The Institute of Parasitology is part of the Quebec Centre for Host Parasite Interaction (CHPI), funded by the FQRNT régroupement strategique program and is one of the longest standing research centres of its type, beginning in 1973. The CHPI supports the interaction of more than 30 research labs throughout Quebec that focus on parasite research.. The Institute maintains a close working relationship with the McGill Centre for Tropical Diseases, the Montreal General Hospital Research Clinic, the Faculties of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Medicine, and Science of McGill ...
The unprecedented expansion in human population and industry, since the industrial revolution in the late 1700s, has led to increased anthropogenic activities which have indisputably impacted freshwater ecosystems and biological communities therein, including fish. Although this has understandably been the focus, under natural aquatic conditions, no organism is only affected by pollution. Parasites have also been shown in a number of interdisciplinary studies to affect the health of aquatic hosts (amphibians, crustaceans, fish, and mammals). This is illustrated in a number of comprehensive studies the detrimental effects parasites exacerbate when their hosts (fish) are stressed. Therefore, the ability of parasites to interact with anthropogenic stressors, as well as effects they have on the genetic, cellular or tissue level of their host is crucial in ...
Parasite increased trophic transmission (PITT) is a mode of parasite transmission in which the parasite manipulates the behavior of its host to increase transmission success to higher trophic levels. Parasites that use PITT have complex life cycles, requiring more than one host species to procreate. Sexual reproduction is typically limited to a definitive host, high in the trophic levels. Parasite progeny sequentially infect one or more intermediate hosts, inside which they may undergo asexual reproduction and physiological changes. Trophic transmission often relies on predator-prey relationships, where the parasite can only be transmitted if the host is eaten by a later stage host. ...
Despite the fact that most host populations are infected by a community of different parasite species, the majority of empirical studies have focused on the interaction between the host and a single parasite species. Here, we explore the hypothesis that host population dynamics are affected both by single parasite species and by the whole parasite community. We monitored population density and breeding productivity of two populations of willow ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus) in northern Norway for 8 and 11 years, respectively, and sampled eukaryotic endoparasites. We found that increasing abundances of the cestode Hymenolepis microps was associated with increased breeding mortality and reduced annual growth rate of the host population in both areas, and reduced ...
The evolutionary arms race of hosts and parasites often results in adaptations, which may differ between populations. Investigation of such local adaptation becomes increasingly important to understand dynamics of host-parasite interactions and co-evolution. To this end we performed an infection experiment involving pairs of three-spined sticklebacks and their tapeworm parasite Schistocephalus solidus from three geographically separated origins (Germany, Spain and Iceland) in a fully-crossed design for sympatric and allopatric host/parasite combinations. We hypothesized that local adaptation of the hosts results in differences in parasite resistance with variation in parasite infection rates and leukocyte activation, whereas parasites from ...
Imaging Infection and Immunity in vivo.. My research applies advanced imaging techniques to enhance our understanding of the basic biology of the immune system in real time, in vivo. Working with my long term collaborator Paul Garside, we have applied these approaches to understand how cellular interactions govern the magnitude and phenotype of developing immune responses. We apply these approaches to understanding the host parasite interaction in immunity to infection as well as the host immune response against self in autoimmune diseases such as Rheumatoid Arthritis. To enable this work, we have established state of the art, multiphoton microscopy at the University of Glasgow, which allows us to image on more channels, faster and deeper than previously possible. We collaborate with physicists, mathematicians and chemists to continue development of novel, non-invasive and translational cell-imaging ...
mRNA-Seq and microarray development for the Grooved carpet shell clam, Ruditapes decussatus: a functional approach to unravel host -parasite interaction +, The database of genomic variants: a curated collection of structural variation in the human genome +, Meta-analysis of 74,046 individuals identifies 11 new susceptibility loci for Alzheimers disease +, … ...
Matrajt, M.; Donald, R.G.K.; Singh, U.; Roos, D.S., 2002: Identification and characterization of differentiation mutants in the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii
Researchers have uncovered new knowledge related to host-parasite interaction in severe malaria, concerning how malaria parasites are able to bind to cells in the brain and cause cerebral malaria - the most lethal form of the disease.
Parasites vary widely in size and types. Almost 70% of the parasites cannot be seen with naked eyes, for example, malarial parasite, but some worm parasites can reach up to 30 meters in length. The parasite is not a disease itself, but it can spread diseases in hosts. Different parasites have different effects. Unlike predators, parasites do not kill the hosts directly or do not kill it at all. But there is a form of parasitism in which the parasite directly kills its host. This type is called parasitoids. Its example is some species of wasps parasitizing on spiders. This type of relationship is a transient between parasitism and predation. Depending on the relationship between the parasite and its host concerning time and ...
Parasites are thought to play an important role in sexual selection and the evolution of mating strategies, which in turn are likely to be critical to the transmission and therefore the evolution of parasites. Despite this clear interdependence we have little understanding of parasite-mediated sexual selection in the context of reciprocal parasite evolution. Here we develop a general coevolutionary model between host mate preference and the virulence of a sexually transmitted parasite. We show when the characteristics of both the host and parasite lead to coevolutionarily stable strategies or runaway selection, and when coevolutionary cycling between high and low levels of host mate choosiness and virulence is possible. A prominent argument against parasites being involved in sexual ...
The author retains copyright ownership and moral rights in this thesis. Neither the thesis nor substantial extracts from it may be printed or otherwise reproduced without the authors permission ...
In oral candidiasis, many keratinized epithelial cells and cells of Candida albicans are shed. Scales from patients with oral candidiasis were used for electron microscopic study of the epithelial-fungal relationship. Scales, scraped from the tongue and oral mucosa, were fixed for fungi. Electron microscopic observations showed cells of C. albicans outside, penetrating, or within the epithelial cells. Extracellular fungi possessed a floccular material adherent to the outer surface of the cell wall. Intracellular fungi lacked the floccular material which appeared to detach as fungi invaded the epithelial cells. Large vacuoles, which sometimes contained myelin figures, occupied the cytoplasm of fungal cells. Epithelial cells frequently contained several fungi. Discontinuous plasma membranes marked sites of fungal entry. Cytoplasmic areas devoid of fungi showed many tonofibrils, but the cytoplasm adjacent to fungi often lacked tonofibrils. Micrographs suggested that fungal cells lysed the ...
This book examines recent research into the molecular biology, genomics and transcriptomics of, and novel control strategies for, flatworm parasites. These include Cestodes (tapeworms) and Trematodes (flukes, schistosomes etc), which are the cause of a number of diseases of medical and veterinary importance. The book explores three main areas: phylogeny, genetics and transcriptomes; immunobiology, host-parasite interaction and control; and protein function, metabolism and physiology. Where appropriate, comparisons are made between different parasitic flatworms and between parasitic and free-living species. The book concludes by exploring future avenues for research. Contributors to the book include leading authorities from Europe, North and South America, and Australia ...
Mark Armitage wrote: , , Dear All, , Does anyone have any references on parasites which alter intermediate , host behavior in order to increase chances of predation upon the , host? This is not very detailed, but I did hear that there was some type of parasite that would enter a pill bug (rolly polly), cause it to lose its adversion to light, and thusly increase the chances of it being comsumed by a bird. hope this helped a little, teresa ...
Several species of bumble bees are declining in the United States; these declining populations often show higher prevalence of Nosema bombi, a microsporidian pathogen. To date, surveys of bumble bee pathogens in the United States have only been conducted on workers and males, yet the health of a population is ultimately dependent on the success of colony-founding queens. We conducted a molecular-diagnostic survey of the prevalence of N. bombi and trypanosomatids, such as Crithidia bombi, in six species of spring queens (n = 142) collected in 2011 and 2013 at three sites in central Kansas. Nosema bombi was found in 27% of Bombus pensylvanicus and 13% of B. auricomus but was not found in the other species sampled. Trypanosomatids were only found in B. pensylvanicus (9%) during the May 2013 sampling period. The high prevalence of N. bombi in B. pensylvanicus is consistent with other surveys for this pathogen in other castes, but the high prevalence of N. bombi in B. auricomus is a novel finding. ...
The patterns of immunity conferred by host sex or age represent two sources of host heterogeneity that can potentially shape the evolutionary trajectory of disease. With each host sex or age encountered, a pathogens optimal exploitative strategy may change, leading to considerable variation in expression of pathogen transmission and virulence. To date, these host characteristics have been studied in the context of host fitness alone, overlooking the effects of host sex and age on the fundamental virulence-transmission trade-off faced by pathogens. Here we explicitly address the interaction of these characteristics and find that host sex and age at exposure to a pathogen affect age-specific patterns of mortality and the balance between pathogen transmission and virulence. ...
Some disease-causing parasites are known to favor one sex over the other in their host species, and such differences between the sexes have generally been attributed to differences in immune responses or behavior. But in a new article, published February 28 in the magazine section of the online, open-access journal PLoS Biology, David Duneau from Cornell University and Dieter Ebert from the University of Basel now propose that all sorts of characteristics that differ between the sexes of the host species can influence a parasites adaptation.. These characteristics, such as morphology, physiology, behavior, diet and life history traits can, in fact, pose very different challenges and opportunities to the parasites, and may result in the parasite adapting more to one host sex than the other. Sex-specific adaptations in ...
The existence of adaptive host manipulation by parasites has received increasing empirical support in recent years. Here I develop an optimality model of the extent of host manipulation, incorporating within-host group size, relatedness and a range of realistic cost-benefit functions. The model highlights the cooperative nature of host manipulation, and the potential for cheating this entails. When relatedness in parasite groups is minimal, manipulation is suppressed, but not eradicated, reflecting the importance of interhost selection. A distinctive threshold phenomenon is predicted for a wide range of parameter values. Below the group size threshold, manipulation is zero. Above the threshold, the predicted behaviour depends critically on the biological details of the individual-group interaction. The ...
In Plasmodium falciparum infections the parasite transmission stages, the gametocytes, mature in 10 days sequestered in internal organs. Recent studies suggest that cell mechanical properties rather than adhesive interactions play a role in sequestration during gametocyte maturation. It remains instead obscure how sequestration is established, and how the earliest sexual stages, morphologically similar to asexual trophozoites, modify the infected erythrocytes and their cytoadhesive properties at the onset of gametocytogenesis. Here, purified P. falciparum early gametocytes were used to ultrastructurally and biochemically analyse parasite-induced modifications on the red blood cell surface and to measure their functional consequences on adhesion to human endothelial cells. This work revealed that stage I gametocytes are able to deform the infected erythrocytes like asexual parasites, but do not modify its surface with adhesive knob structures ...
The highly prevalent parasite Toxoplasma gondii manipulates its hosts behavior. In infected rodents, the behavioral changes increase the likelihood that the parasite will be transmitted back to its definitive cat host, an essential step in completion of the parasites life cycle. The mechanism(s) responsible for behavioral changes in the host is unknown but two lines of published evidence suggest that the parasite alters neurotransmitter signal transduction: the disruption of the parasite-induced behavioral changes with medications used to treat psychiatric disease (specifically dopamine antagonists) and identification of a tyrosine hydroxylase encoded in the parasite genome. In this study, infection of mammalian dopaminergic cells with T. gondii enhanced the levels of K+-induced release of ...
In parasite-host interactions, there may be many lines of defence. As a NERC-funded Post-doctoral Research Associate with Prof. Nick Davies, we investigated how interactions between individuals can protect the hosts reproductive investment. Cuckoos (Cuculus canorus) use visual signals to mimic the Sparrowhawk, a host predator, but reed warblers (Acrocephalus scirpaceus) use social information from their neighbours to tell the difference. Our results show that this in turn has selected for another cuckoo trick; cuckoo females are polymorphic to beat these host defences. Cuckoos are declining rapidly so we are now investigating how offences and defences vary in our changing world. (4) Plant signals and animal pollination. I am also interested in interactions at the interface of plants and animals. Sandra ...
My research interests are in the broad area of parasite ecology. Ecology is the study of interactions of organisms with each other and with their environment. A parasites lives on, or in, a living host during some part of its life. A host, therefore, is both another organism and the parasites environment. Consequently, there are many fascinating ecological questions to be addressed surrounding host-parasite relationships. Both hosts and parasites vary widely in their biological characteristics. Some parasites have complex life cycles involving multiple hosts while others have direct life cycles. In any case, one of the main challenges to success as a parasite is successful transmission of offspring into new ...
Alien parasitic wasps, including accidental introductions and purposefully released biological control agents, have been implicated in the decline of native Hawaiian Lepidoptera. Understanding the potential impacts of alien wasps requires knowledge of ecological parameters that influence parasitism rates for species in their new environment. Sophora seed-feeding Cydia spp. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) were surveyed for larval parasitoids to determine how native and alien wasps are partitioned over an elevation gradient (2200-2800 m) on Hawaii Island, Hawaii. Parasitism rate of native Euderus metallicus (Eulophidae) increased with increased elevation, while parasitism rate by immigrant Calliephialtes grapholithae (Ichneumonidae) decreased. Parasitism by Pristomerus hawaiiensis (Ichneumonidae), origins uncertain, also decreased with increased elevation. Two other species, Diadegma blackburni (Ichneumonidae), origins uncertain, and Brasema cushmani (Eupelmidae), a purposefully introduced biological control
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Disease transmission networks are key for understanding parasite epidemiology. Within the social insects, structured contact networks have been suggested to limit the spread of diseases to vulnerable members of their society, such as the queen or brood. However, even these complex social structures do not provide complete protection, as some diseases, which are transmitted by workers during brood care, can still infect the brood. Given the high rate of feeding interactions that occur in a social insect colony, larvae may act as disease transmission hubs. Here we use the bumblebee Bombus terrestris and its parasite Crithidia bombi to determine the role of brood in bumblebee disease transmission networks. Larvae that were artificially inoculated with C. bombi showed no signs of infection seven days after inoculation. However, larvae that received either an artificial inoculation or a contaminated feed from brood-caring workers were able to transmit the ...
Schistosoma bovis is a ruminant pathogen that is poorly known at a molecular level. With an aim of identifying the parasite proteins involved in host-parasite interplay, we studied two protein extracts that contain, respectively, the proteins excreted/secreted by the adult worm (ES) and the tegumental proteins exposed to the host (TG). The 2-DE, 2-D immunoblot and MS were employed to separate and identify the antigenic proteins and the most abundant non-antigenic proteins in each extract. There were some 400 and 600 spots detected in the ES and the TG extracts, respectively. Ninety-six spots were subjected to MS analysis and 64 of them were identified. Overall, we identified 18 S. bovis proteins located at the host-parasite interface, 16 of which have not been identified previously in this parasite, and one of which -lysozyme- has never been ...
The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne chitwoodisecretes effector proteins into the cells of host plants to manipulate plant-derived processes in order to achieve successful parasitism. Mc1194 is a M. chitwoodieffector that is highly expressed in pre-parasitic second-stage juvenile nematodes. Yeast two-hybrid assays revealed Mc1194 specifically interacts with a papain-like cysteine protease (PLCP), RD21A in Arabidopsis thaliana. Mc1194 interacts with both the protease and granulin domains of RD21A. PLCPs are targeted by effectors secreted by bacterial, fungal and oomycete pathogens and the hypersusceptibility of rd21-1mutants to M. chitwoodiindicates RD21A plays a role in plant-parasitic nematode infection.
Ad Injection:top--,. Parasites are microorganisms that live of other organisms and everyone is at risk of developing parasite. Hence, a lot of people already have parasites in their body without knowing it. Additionally, some parasites can be the direct cause of a disease, whereas others cause diseases with their toxin production. There are several types of parasites such as: pinworms, lambia, hookworms, tapeworms, trichinella, and dientamoeva fragillis. Additionally, some of the parasites survive on the food a person eats, others by lying eggs in the body, and there are also parasites that feed on the red blood cells. Usually, parasites penetrate the body through the skin or mouth and infestation happens when a person is exposed to areas with parasites, that is, travelling to places with parasite infestations, consumption of contaminated ...
There are over 1000 different species of parasites that can invade the bodies of our pets where they can cause pain, discomfort, disease and sometimes even death. What is a parasite you may ask? The dictionary states that a parasite is a plant or animal that lives in or on another plant or animal at the expense of that host. We most commonly think of parasites as "worms", and there are many kinds, but parasites may also include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa, which are single celled organisms. The list of parasites also include lice, ticks, fleas, and even insects. Parasites can invade every part of the bodies of our pets, including every organ, the muscles, the intestinal tract, and even the brain. Many parasites consume the food in the digestive tract that was intended for the pet, which leaves the scraps for the pet. Obviously ...
The gene-for-gene relationship was discovered by the late Harold Henry Flor who was working with rust (Melampsora lini) of flax (Linum usitatissimum). Flor showed that the inheritance of both resistance in the host and parasite ability to cause disease is controlled by pairs of matching genes. One is a plant gene called the resistance (R) gene. The other is a parasite gene called the avirulence (Avr) gene. Plants producing a specific R gene product are resistant towards a pathogen that produces the corresponding Avr gene product. Gene-for-gene relationships are a widespread and very important aspect of plant disease resistance. An example can be seen with Lactuca serriola. Clayton Oscar Person was the first scientist to study plant pathosystem ratios rather than genetics ratios in host-parasite systems. In doing so, he discovered the differential interaction that is common to all ...
Arzul, I. and J.P. Joly. 2011. EURL (European Union Reference Laboratory) for Molluscs Diseases: Bonamia sp. Web page hosted by Ifremer. URL: http://wwz.ifremer.fr/crlmollusc/Main-activities/Tutorials/Bonamia-sp.. Arzul, I., B. Chollet, C. Garcia, M. Robert, J.-P. Joly, L. Miossec and F. Berthe. 2005a. Ostrea conchaphila: a natural host of Bonamia ostreae? Journal of Shellfish Research 24: 638-639. (Abstract).. Arzul, I., L. Miossec, E. Blanchet, C. Garcia, J.P. Joly, C. Francois and F. Berthe. 2005b. A long term study of bonamiosis in Quiberon Bay, France. In: 8th International Conference on Shellfish Restoration. (Brest, France). (For Open Access version of presentation see http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00000/3314/).. Arzul, I., L. Miossec, E. Blanchet, C. Garcia, C. Francois and J.P. Joly. 2006. Bonamia ostreae and Ostrea edulis: a stable host-parasite system in France? In: Proceedings ...
Two root-knot nematode species, Me/oidogyne incognita and M.javanica, were studied with regard to their seasonal population fluctuations on grapevines growing in two vastly different climatic areas. Regular observations on reproduction and numbers of larvae in the soil were compared with patterns of root growth, soil temperature and moisture. Population fluctuations of the two species showed similar trends in spite of the climatic differences in the two areas, but M. incognita in the northern Cape reached higher populations. Larvae populations in the soil declined in summer in both areas and increased during autumn to reach peaks in winter. With the onset of root growth in spring, larvae numbers decreased in the soil, as a result of large scale root penetration.. ...
Resistance to root-knot nematodes [ Meloidogyne arenaria (Neal) Chitwood] is needed for cultivation of peanut in major peanut-growing areas, but significant resistance is lacking in the cultivated spe
The human disease schistosomiasis (or bilharzia) is caused by the helminth blood fluke parasite Schistosoma mansoni, which requires an intermediate host, the freshwater gastropod snail Biomphalaria glabrata (the most common intermediate host). The free-swimming parasite miracidia utilises an excellent chemosensory sense to detect and locate an appropriate host. This study investigated the biomolecules released by the snail that stimulate changes in the behaviour of the aquatic S. mansoni miracidia. To achieve this, we have performed an integrated analysis of the snail-conditioned water, through chromatography and bioassay-guided behaviour observations, followed by mass spectrometry. A single fraction containing multiple putative peptides could stimulate extreme swimming behaviour modifications (e.g. velocity, angular variation) similar to ...
In this study, we investigated global changes in miRNAs of Meloidogyne incognita throughout its life cycle. Small RNA sequencing resulted in approximately 62, 38, 38, 35, and 39 Mb reads in the egg, J2, J3, J4, and female stages, respectively. Overall, we identified 2724 known and 383 novel miRNAs (read count > 10) from all stages, of which 169 known and 13 novel miRNA were common to all the five stages. Among the stage-specific miRNAs, miR-286 was highly expressed in eggs, miR-2401 in J2, miR-8 and miR-187 in J3, miR-6736 in J4, and miR-17 in the female stages. These miRNAs are reported to be involved in embryo and neural development, muscular function, and control of apoptosis. Cluster analysis indicated the presence of 91 miRNA clusters, of which 36 clusters were novel and identified in this study. Comparison of miRNA families with other nematodes showed 17 families to be commonly absent in animal parasitic nematodes and M. incognita. Validation of 43 predicted common and stage-specific miRNA by
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pleiotropic effect due to targeted depletion of secretory rhoptry protein ROP2 in Toxoplasma gondii. AU - Nakaar, Valerian. AU - Ngô, Huân M.. AU - Aaronson, Emily P.. AU - Coppens, Isabelle. AU - Stedman, Timothy T.. AU - Joiner, Keith A. PY - 2003/6/1. Y1 - 2003/6/1. N2 - Long after their discovery, the function and biogenesis of rhoptries remain enigmatic. In Apicomplexan parasites, these organelles discharge and their contents are exocytosed at the time of host cell invasion, and are thus proposed to play an essential role in establishing the parasitophorous vacuole. In Toxoplasma gondii, ROP2 is suspected to serve as the molecular link between host cell mitochondria and parasitophorous vacuole membrane. In this study we addressed the function of ROP2. Targeted depletion of ROP2 using a ribozyme-modified antisense RNA strategy resulted in multiple effects on parasite morphology because of ...
Roth, O., Keller, I., Landis, S. H., Salzburger, W. and Reusch, T. B.H. (2012), HOSTS ARE AHEAD IN A MARINE HOST-PARASITE COEVOLUTIONARY ARMS RACE: INNATE IMMUNE SYSTEM ADAPTATION IN PIPEFISH SYNGNATHUS TYPHLE AGAINST VIBRIO PHYLOTYPES. Evolution, 66: 2528-2539. doi: 10.1111/j.1558-5646.2012.01614.x ...
Females in various species typically avoid males infected with parasites, while parasite-free males advertise their status through conspicuous phenotypic traits. This process selects for heritable resistance and reduces direct exposure of the female to parasites. Coevolving parasites are likely to attempt to circumvent this obstacle. In this paper, we demonstrate a case of parasitic manipulation of host mate choice. We report that Toxoplasma gondii, a sexually transmitted infection of brown rats, enhances sexual attractiveness of infected males. Thus under some evolutionary niches, parasites can indeed manipulate host sexual signaling to their own advantage ...
Toxoplasma gondii, the protozoan parasite that causes toxoplasmosis, initiates invasion of its host cells by inducing the assembly of a parasite-cell junction. Concomitantly, the plasma membrane of the host cell invaginates around the parasite to form a parasitophorous vacuole (PV). The parasite then propels itself through the junction and multiplies in its host cell within the PV. Given the size of the parasite, PV formation and parasite internalization are likely to require local loosening of the host cell cortical actin barrier, but how is this achieved? On page 4333, Isabelle Tardieux, colleagues and collaborators propose that toxofilin, an actin binding protein secreted by T. gondii, facilitates parasite invasion by regulating ...
Parasites likely outnumber free-living species and play important roles in communities and ecosystems. These include regulating host populations, altering species interactions, and adding to food web complexity. Changes in host-parasite-environment interactions can have many possible consequences ...
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Although host manipulation is likely to be costly for parasites, we still have a poor understanding of the energetic aspects underlying this strategy. It is traditionally assumed that physiological costs are inevitably associated with mechanisms evolved by parasites to induce the required changes in host behaviours. While most energetic expenditures of parasites relate primarily to bringing about the altered behaviours, manipulative parasites also have to consider the condition of their host during the manipulation. Here, we suggest that because of this trade-off, the energy required to accomplish parasite-induced behaviours may represent a key energetic constraint for parasites. Depending on the energetic expenditures specific to each type of manipulation, parasites should undergo selection ...
Here is the situation: Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the worst pest of soybeans in the U. S. A. including Missouri.Fortunately, this pest can be managed, but farmers must take steps before planting soybean this year to protect against soybean cyst nematode.The first step is to test the soil for SCN.
Anindo Choudhury, professor or biology and environmental sciences, is the associate editor for the parasitic flatworms section of the Journal of Parasitology, the official journal of the American Society of Parasitologists. In addition, Choudhury serves on the editorial board of Folia Parasitologica, the parasitology journal of the Czech Academy of Sciences, and is on the editorial board of Acta Parasitologica, the parasitology journal of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Choudhurys research on host-parasite relationships, which spans North and Central America, has resulted in 42 peer-reviewed journal articles, 7 book chapters, 5 technical reports and manuals, and 41 conference presentations.﻽. ...
Transgenerational immune priming occurs when an adult is exposed to a parasite or other pathogen and then transmits information to its offspring through protective phenotypes to cope with the same pathogen (Moret, 2006). There has been evidence for transgenerational immune priming in various invertebrates (Tidbury et al. 2011). Here we tested for the presence of transgenerational immune priming in the Biomphalaria glabrata snails when challenged by exposure to the Schistosoma mansoni parasite. The experimental parent generation was challenged with a parasitic environment, while the control parent generation was not. The results were then determined based on the resistance or susceptibility of the F1 offspring generation. We found that parental challenge did not enhance offspring immunity through transgenerational immune priming ...
... was born in Long Branch, NJ, in 1958. He received his B.S. degree in plant science from the University of Rhode Island in 1980 and his Ph.D. degree in nematology/entomology from the University of Florida in 1988. After postdoctoral research positions in the USDA in Orlando and at the University of Georgia, he joined the plant pathology faculty at North Carolina State University in 1993. His primary research program focuses on the mechanisms of pathogenicity utilized by two groups of unique, plant-parasitic nematodes. He has made pioneering contributions in the understanding of the host-parasite relationships between cyst (Heterodera glycines and Globodera spp.) and root-knot (Meloidogyne spp.) nematodes and the major crop plants that they attack. The focus of his research at North Carolina State University has been on esophageal gland-cell proteins and their involvement in plant pathogenesis. Dr. Davis generated a panel of monoclonal and polyclonal ...
Appearance: Root-knot nematodes are about one-tenth the size of a pinhead and are typically embedded inside roots. They are impossible to see with the naked eye. Juvenile root-knot nematodes (both males and females), as well as adult males, are vermiform (i.e., worm-shaped) and live in the soil. Adult females are spherical in shape and live inside roots. Both males and females possess a thin, tube-like structure called a stylet that they use for penetrating root tissue.. Symptoms and Effects: When root-knot nematodes enter roots, they release chemicals that cause nearby root cells to enlarge. This leads to the formation of swollen, distorted areas in roots known as galls or knots. The number and size of galls varies depending on plant species and cultivar, and the number of root-knot nematodes in the soil. On some hosts (e.g., grasses) root swelling can be very difficult to detect. Nematode feeding interferes with proper root function (e.g., water and nutrient movement). ...
Gene expression is known to vary significantly during the Leishmania life-cycle. Its monitoring might allow identification of molecular changes associated with the infective stages (metacyclics and amastigotes) and contribute to the understanding of the complex host-parasite relationships. So far, very few studies have been done on Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, one of the most pathogenic species. Such studies require, first of all, reference molecular markers. In the present work, we applied differential display analysis (DD analysis) in order to identify transcripts that might be (i) candidate markers of metacyclics and intracellular amastigotes of L. (V.) braziliensis or (ii) potential controls, i.e. constitutively expressed. In total, 48 DNA fragments gave reliable sequencing data, 29 of them being potential markers of infective stages and 12 potential controls. Eight sequences could be identified with reported genes. Validation of the results of DD ...
The quote above, from Carl Zimmers excellent book, Parasite Rex, just hints at the complexity and adaptability of parasites both internal and external. Parasites drive their hosts in ways biologists and medical researchers are just beginning to understand, despite decades of research. Regardless of whose definition of parasite one uses, there are far more parasites on (and in) Earth than there are nonparasitic species. When defined as an organism that invades a host and sets up housekeeping, the term parasites includes bacteria and viruses.. Parasites are being found to affect everything from color to reproduction and can, as in Hollywoods best (and worst) horror flicks, take over their host and cause them to behave in ways that, while ensuring the death of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular cloning of a myoD-like gene from the parasitic nematode, Trichinella spiralis. AU - Connolly, Bernadette. AU - Trenholme, K. AU - Smith, D F. PY - 1996/10/30. Y1 - 1996/10/30. N2 - The infective larval stage of the nematode Trichinella spiralis is an intracellular parasite of skeletal muscle cells. Infection with T. spiralis results in dedifferentiation of the host cell and the formation of a host/parasite complex. A gene encoding a T. spiralis Helix-Loop-helix (HLH) protein with homology to the myogenic transcription factor, MyoD, and to the Caenorhabditis elegans protein, CeMyoD, has been identified and partially characterized. The tsmyd-1 gene is expressed constitutively during the muscle-larval and adult stages. A purified recombinant Tsmyd-1 protein, expressed in Escherichia coli, binds to a high affinity mouse MyoD DNA binding site in vitro. The present study describes the ...
Iowa crop producers and agronomists are well aware of soybean cyst nematode (SCN), the plant-parasitic nematode that is widespread through the Midwest and can seriously reduce soybean yields. And many people are aware of other plant-parasitic nematodes that can cause significant yield reductions on corn. But most crop professionals probably are unaware that there is a corn cyst nematode that has been in the northeastern United States since 1981. And just recently, a new cyst nematode species that reproduces on corn was discovered in Tennessee.
Brood parasitic birds lay their eggs in other birds nests, leaving hosts to raise their offspring. To understand parasite-host coevolutionary arms races, many studies have examined host responses to experimentally introduced eggs. However, attending parents often need to be flushed from their nests to add experimental eggs. If these birds witness parasitism events, they may recognize and reject foreign eggs more readily than parents who did not. We found that, after being flushed, female blackbirds, Turdus merula, remained close to their nests. Flushed females were more likely to eject foreign eggs and did so more quickly than females that were not flushed during experimentation. In contrast, flushing did not predict responses and latency to responses to parasitism by song thrush, Turdus philomelos, which flew farther from their nests and likely did not witness experimental parasitism. When ...
Multitrophic interactions are likely to be altered by climate change but there is little empirical evidence relating the responses of herbivores and parasitoids to abiotic factors. Here we investigated the effects of drought on an above/belowground system comprising a generalist and a specialist aphid species (foliar herbivores), their parasitoids, and a dipteran species (root herbivore).We tested the hypotheses that: (1) high levels of drought stress and below-ground herbivory interact to reduce the performance of parasitoids developing in aphids; (2) drought stress and root herbivory change the profile of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) emitted by the host plant; (3) parasitoids avoid ovipositing in aphids feeding on plants under drought stress and root herbivory. We examined the effect of drought, with and without root herbivory, on the olfactory response of parasitoids (preference), plant volatile emissions, parasitism success (performance), and the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Functional and biophysical analyses of the class XIV Toxoplasma gondii Myosin D. AU - Herm-Götz, Angelika. AU - Delbac, Frêdêric. AU - Weiss, Stefan. AU - Nyitrai, Miklos. AU - Stratmann, Rolf. AU - Tomavo, Stanislas. AU - Sibley, L. David. AU - Geeves, Michael A.. AU - Soldati, Dominique. PY - 2006/2/1. Y1 - 2006/2/1. N2 - The obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii uses gliding motility to migrate across the biological barriers of the host and to invade cells. This unique form of locomotion requires an intact actin cytoskeleton and involves at least one motor protein (TgMyoA) that belongs to the class XIV of the myosin superfamily. TgMyoA is anchored in the inner membrane complex and is essential for the gliding motion, host cell invasion and egress of T. gondii tachyzoites. TgMyoD is the smallest T. gondii myosin and is structurally very closely related to TgMyoA. We show here that TgMyoD ...
In topical and systemic plant treatment, in three host-parasite systems, i.e. Vicia faba - Uromyces appendiculatus, Vicia faba - Aphis fabae and Triticum aestivum - Rhopalosiphum padi the culture filtrate and supernatant of Bacillus subtilis (FZB24, FZB37 and FZB38 from FZB Biotechnik Berlin) was shown to inhibit the development of urediospores produced by Uromyces appendiculatus. The performance of Aphis fabae and Rhopalosiphum padi was evaluated using life table tests where the aphids development time (tD), pre-reproduction time (td), relative growth rate (RGR) and intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) were assessed. A wide range of antibiosis effects in Aphis fabae and Rhopalosiphum padi was observed when the supernatant of Bacillus subtilis was used as foliar topical treatment. The tested aphids presented longer development and pre-reproduction time; conversely a lower relative growth rate and intrinsic rate of natural increase was observed. The ...
In topical and systemic plant treatment, in three host-parasite systems, i.e. Vicia faba - Uromyces appendiculatus, Vicia faba - Aphis fabae and Triticum aestivum - Rhopalosiphum padi the culture filtrate and supernatant of Bacillus subtilis (FZB24, FZB37 and FZB38 from FZB Biotechnik Berlin) was shown to inhibit the development of urediospores produced by Uromyces appendiculatus. The performance of Aphis fabae and Rhopalosiphum padi was evaluated using life table tests where the aphids development time (tD), pre-reproduction time (td), relative growth rate (RGR) and intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) were assessed. A wide range of antibiosis effects in Aphis fabae and Rhopalosiphum padi was observed when the supernatant of Bacillus subtilis was used as foliar topical treatment. The tested aphids presented longer development and pre-reproduction time; conversely a lower relative growth rate and intrinsic rate of natural increase was observed. The ...
Genetic diversity can benefit social insects by providing variability in immune defences against parasites and pathogens. However, social parasites of ants infest colonies and not individuals, and for them a different relationship between genetic diversity and resistance may exist. Here, we investigate the genetic variation, assessed using up to 12 microsatellite loci, of workers in 91 Formica lemani colonies in relation to their infestation by the specialist social parasite Microdon mutabilis. At the main study site, workers in infested colonies exhibited lower relatedness and higher estimated queen numbers, on average, than uninfested ones. Additionally, estimated queen numbers were negatively correlated with estimated average numbers of mates per queen within infested colonies. At another site, infested colonies also exhibited significantly lower worker relatedness, and estimated queen numbers were comparable in trend. In contrast, in two populations of ...
Core modules include: parasitology and entomology; analysis and design of research studies. Optional modules include: critical skills for tropical medicine; molecular biology; advanced immunology; designing disease control programmes in developing countries; epidemiology and control of malaria; molecular biology and recombinant DNA techniques; advanced diagnostic parasitology; advanced immunology; design and analysis of epidemiological studies; statistical methods in epidemiology; advanced training in molecular biology; spatial epidemiology in public health; tropical environmental health; vector sampling, identification and incrimination; epidemiology and control of communicable diseases; genetic epidemiology; immunology of parasitic infection (principles); molecular biology research progress and applications; vector biology and vector parasite interaction; AIDS; antimicrobial chemotherapy; immunology of parasitic infection (practice); integrated vector management; molecular cell biology and ...
Ecology of Onchocerca volvulus:. O. volvulus cannot survive in the outside environment; therefore it constantly remains within a host, whether it be the black fly or a human. This parasite causes no harm to the intermediate host and only causes harm to its primary host after the parasites death. Upon dying the parasite causes inflammation in various areas of the human body, producing nodules that protrude from the skin. This inflammatory response also causes damage to the optical nerves, causing blindness, which is the origin of the diseases name. As previously stated, there is no preventative vaccine or cure for the disease caused by this parasite, but medicine can be taken to temporarily alleviate the pain. [2]. An example of Onchcerca volvulus tranmission and relation to slavery:. O. volvulus is transmitted from human to ...
Eukaryotic parasites are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet little is known about the genetic basis of their virulence. Here, we present a forward genetic screen to study pathogenesis in the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. By using modified signature-tagged mutagenesis, the growth of 6,300 T. gondii insertional mutants was compared in cell culture and murine infection to identify genes required specifically in vivo. One of the 39 avirulent mutants is disrupted in a divergent ortholog of the regulator of chromosome condensation 1 (RCC1), which is critical for nuclear trafficking in model systems. Although this RCC1 mutant grows similar to wild type in standard tissue culture conditions, it is growth-impaired under nutrient limitation. Genetic complementation of mutant parasites with the T. gondii RCC1 gene fully restores both virulence in mice and growth under low-nutrient conditions. Further analysis shows that there is a ...
All major crops are thought to be infected by at least one species of plant-parasitic nematode, which causes damage valued at over $80 billion each year [1]. The majority of these economic losses are attributable to the sedentary endoparasitic nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne (root-knot nematodes) and the genera Heterodera and Globodera (cyst nematodes). These sedentary endoparasites have complex biotrophic interactions with their hosts that include induction of specific feeding sites and long residence times within or on their host(s).. Potato cyst nematodes (PCN) are economically important pathogens of potato, with two major species: the white PCN Globodera pallida and the yellow PCN G. rostochiensis. These nematodes originate in South America [2, 3] and have subsequently been introduced into all major potato-growing regions of the world. Europe has acted as a secondary distribution hub for PCN; ...
There is a question as to why the majority of the hosts of brood parasites care for the nestlings of their parasites. Not only do these brood parasites usually differ significantly in size and appearance, but it is also highly probable that they reduce the reproductive success of their hosts. The "mafia hypothesis" evolved through studies in an attempt to answer this question. This hypothesis revolves around host manipulations induced by behaviors of the brood parasite. Upon the detection and rejection of a brood parasites egg, the hosts nest is depredated upon, its nest destroyed and nestlings injured or killed. This threatening response indirectly enhances selective pressures favoring aggressive parasite behavior that may result in positive feedback between mafia-like ...
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are obligate root symbionts that can protect their host plant against biotic stress factors such as plant-parasitic nematode (PPN) infection. PPN consist of a wide range of species with different life styles that can cause major damage in many important crops worldwide. Various mechanisms have been proposed to play a role in the biocontrol effect of AMF against PPN. This review presents an overview of the different mechanisms that have been proposed, and discusses into more detail the plausibility of their involvement in the biocontrol against PPN specifically. The proposed mechanisms include enhanced plant tolerance, direct competition for nutrients and space, induced systemic resistance (ISR) and altered rhizosphere interactions. Recent studies have emphasized the importance of ISR in biocontrol and are increasingly placing rhizosphere effects on the foreground as well, both of which will be the focal point of this ...
Anderson et al. [51,52] reported that the presence of localized bacterial food source (Escherichia coli) acting as a chemo-attractant caused the movements of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans on a homogeneous layer of nutrient agar in a Petri dish to become straighter and more directed. These movements approximate to a straight line, which is, of course, the shortest possible route to the source of the chemo-attractant. The results of our numerical simulations build upon the study of Anderson et al. [51,52] and provide a provocative answer to the question of how plant-parasitic nematodes locate distant sources of chemo-attractant. They indicate that chemotaxis can take a nematode to the source of a pure chemo-attractant by the shortest, most direct route through the labyrinth of air-filled or water-filled channels within a soil through which the attractant diffuses. Previously, this remarkable consequence of chemotaxis had gone unnoticed. Searching strategies and maze-solving algorithms are ...
Parasites of the genus Leishmania cause a variety of devastating and often fatal diseases, ranging from cutaneous ulcerative lesions to fatal visceralizing infections that affect an estimated 12 million people worldwide. Unfortunately, vaccines are not available and the cturent arsenal of drugs used to treat leishmaniasis is far from ideal. Thus the need for new therapeutic targets and a better understanding of host-parasite interactions is urgent. One biochemical pathway that has been successfully exploited for the treatment of a related parasitic disease, African trypanosomiasis, is the polyamine biosynthetic pathway. In order to elucidate the polyamine biosynthetic pathway and to explore its potential as a therapeutic target in Leishmania, we have generated and characterized gene deletion mutants and polyamine enzyme overproducer strains. These studies revealed that the polyamine pathway in Leishmania is significantly ...
Journal of Parasitology Research is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies in all areas of basic and applied parasitology. Articles covering host-parasite relationships and parasitic diseases will be considered, as well as studies on disease vectors. Articles highlighting social and economic issues around the impact of parasites are also encouraged. As an international, Open Access publication, Journal of Parasitology Research aims to foster learning and collaboration between countries and communities.
article{914d9e2c-3c9b-4351-8914-f4d9ab597cb6, abstract = {Research in avian blood parasites has seen a remarkable increase since the introduction of polymerase chain reaction-based methods for parasite identification. New data are revealing complex multihost-multiparasite systems which are difficult to understand without good knowledge of the host range and geographical distribution of the parasite lineages. However, such information is currently difficult to obtain from the literature, or from general repositories such as GenBank, mainly because (i) different research groups use different parasite lineage names, (ii) GenBank entries frequently refer only to the first host and locality at which each parasite was sampled, and (iii) different researchers use different gene fragments to identify ...
... was born in Edinburgh, Scotland. He was awarded the B.S. degree with honors from the University of Edinburgh, and the Ph.D. degree from the University of Adelaide. Dr. Kerr spent most of his exemplary career as a phytopathologist at the University of Adelaide. His previous honors include the Ruth Alen and E. C. Stakman awards, the Walter Burfitt Prize of the Royal Society of New South Wales, and the inaugural Ausralia Prize. He was elected a Fellow of the Australasian Plant Pathology Society, the Australian Academy of Science, and the Royal Society, a Foreign Associate of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, and an officer of the Order of Australia. Dr. Kerrs early research was on the soilborne fungi Rhizoctonia, Fusarium, and Pythium, with special reference to host-parasite relationships, interactions among pathogens, and influence of soil moisture on infection. During his tenure at the Tea Research Institute in Sir Lanka, he studied ...
Citation: N/A Interpretive Summary: The mite Varroa jacobsoni is a serious pest of honey bees and a threat to the vitality of the U.S. beekeeping industry. We have examined a nutritional aspect of the host-parasite interaction in an effort to uncover biochemical differences between the mite and the bee. Our results indicate that the use of sterol inhibitors in a mite control program are unlikely to be effective. This information will be used by those involved in finding a control for parasitic bee mites and will benefit the U.S. beekeeping industry. Technical Abstract: The neutral sterols of the parasitic mite Varroa jacobsoni were compared with Apis mellifera carnica drone pupae. Analysis by GLC-mass spectrometry indicated mite sterols were reflective of the sterol composition of the drones; 24-methylenecholesterol was the major sterol in both species, with lesser amounts of sitosterol and isofucosterol. Cholesterol accounted for less than 1% of the total ...

OPUS Würzburg | SearchOPUS Würzburg | Search

Infections are initiated through establishment of parasite larvae within the intermediate hosts liver, where high ... We also characterized a second insulin receptor family member, EmIR2, and demonstrated interaction of its ligand binding domain ... multilocularis and its mammalian hosts, thus appears to be important in the pathology of alveolar echinococcosis. This ... Conclusions Our data indicate that host insulin acts as a stimulant for parasite development within the host liver and that E. ...
more infohttps://opus.bibliothek.uni-wuerzburg.de/solrsearch/index/search/searchtype/all/rows/10/institutefq/Theodor-Boveri-Institut+f%C3%BCr+Biowissenschaften/belongs_to_bibliographyfq/true/start/0/author_facetfq/Dandekar%2C+Thomas/sortfield/author/sortorder/asc

British Library EThOS: A comparison of host-parasite interactions between Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninumBritish Library EThOS: A comparison of host-parasite interactions between Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum

They cause disease in immunocompromised animals, abortion in the intermediates host and great economic losses to the farming ... are closely related obligatory intracellular apicomplexan parasites that invade and multiply in almost all mammalian host cells ... TgGRA2 was successfully purified by HPLC and attempts have been made to study its role in host-parasite interactions using a ... A comparison of host-parasite interactions between Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum ...
more infohttp://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.677498

Structural and Population Polymorphism of RT-Like Sequences in Avian Schistosomes Trichobilharzia szidati (Platyhelminthes:...Structural and Population Polymorphism of RT-Like Sequences in Avian Schistosomes Trichobilharzia szidati (Platyhelminthes:...

F. Liu, Y. Zhou, Z.-Q. Wang et al., "The Schistosoma japonicum genome reveals features of host-parasite interplay," Nature, vol ... It is necessary to add that processes of snail-parasite interactions, occurring during the development or change of the ... intermediate snail host, also have a significant role in the genetic differentiation of schistosomes [25]. During the ... We found no significant similarity of T. szidati nucleotide sequences in Groups I and II with extended sequences of mammalian ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/315312/

The Ramazzini Institute 13-week pilot study on glyphosate and Roundup administered at human-equivalent dose to Sprague Dawley...The Ramazzini Institute 13-week pilot study on glyphosate and Roundup administered at human-equivalent dose to Sprague Dawley...

... interactions between the host and its microbiome are starting to provide mechanistic insights into these interactions. The ... Glyphosate appears to occupy a binding site of MurA, mimicking an intermediate state of the ternary enzyme-substrates complex [ ... In fact, glyphosate formulation has been patented as anti-parasite drug [10]. However, several emerging evidence suggested that ... Possible alterations of the mammalian gut microbiota and its metabolites by environmental concentrations of GBHs in early ...
more infohttps://ehjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12940-018-0394-x

Gastropod-derived haemocyte extracellular traps entrap metastrongyloid larval stages of Angiostrongylus vasorum,...Gastropod-derived haemocyte extracellular traps entrap metastrongyloid larval stages of Angiostrongylus vasorum,...

These findings will contribute to the better understanding on complex parasite-intermediate host interactions since different ... Overall, as reported for mammalian-derived ETs, different types of InEPTs were here observed, i.e. aggregated, spread and ... the first report on metastrongyloid lungworm-triggered ETosis in gastropods thereby providing evidence of early mollusc host ... These results are also in accordance to reports on parasite-triggered ETosis in the mammalian system, which demonstrated ...
more infohttps://parasitesandvectors.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13071-016-1961-z

The Ultrastructural Dynamics of Parasite-Host Cell Interactions as demonstrated in Besnoitia besnoiti (Apicomplexa, Protozoa)The Ultrastructural Dynamics of Parasite-Host Cell Interactions as demonstrated in Besnoitia besnoiti (Apicomplexa, Protozoa)

The parasite exhibits two forms in its intermediate hosts; the rapidly multiplying proliferative forms (merozoites, tachyzoites ... The parasites can be maintained continuously in vitro in a variety of mammalian cell lines and their requirements for growth ... The Ultrastructural Dynamics of Parasite-Host Cell Interactions as demonstrated in Besnoitia besnoiti (Apicomplexa, Protozoa): ... To understand the sequential interactions between B. besnoiti and the host cell, transmission electron microscopic examinations ...
more infohttp://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke:8080/xmlui/handle/11295/34112

Lymphokine Stimulated Macrophages Inhibit Intracellular Chlamydia Psittaci Replication by Mechanisms Distinct from...Lymphokine Stimulated Macrophages Inhibit Intracellular Chlamydia Psittaci Replication by Mechanisms Distinct from...

Chlamydia and Toxoplasma are obligate intracellular parasites that replicate within macrophages and other eucaryotic host cells ... Fries, R.P. (1972). Interaction of L cells and Chlamydia psittaci: entry of the parasite and host response to its development. ... The interaction between Toxoplasma gondii and mammalian cells. I. Mechanism of entry and intracellular fate of the parasite. J ... The role of oxygen intermediates. J. Exp. Med. 150:950-964.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4684-4481-0_34

Mucus Achatina in psoriazisMucus Achatina in psoriazis

These findings will contribute to the better understanding on complex parasite-intermediate host interactions since different ... These results are also in accordance to reports on parasite-triggered ETosis in the mammalian system, which demonstrated ... Given that the experiment was performed already 10 min after the first contact between parasite and intermediate host mucus ... Lungworm parasites are known to infect a broad panel of gastropod intermediate host mucus Achatina in psoriazis. In order to ...
more infohttp://climateexchangeplc.com/mucus-achatina-in-psoriazis.php

Scientists uncover transfer of genetic material between blood-sucking insect and mammalsScientists uncover transfer of genetic material between blood-sucking insect and mammals

Data on the insect and the snail provide strong evidence for the previously hypothesized role of host-parasite interactions in ... a pond snail that acts as an intermediate host for trematode worms, a parasite to a wide range of mammals. ... Mobile DNA elements in woolly mammoth genome give new clues to mammalian evolution. Jun 08, 2009 ... Millions of years ago, tranposons jumped sideways into several mammalian species. The transposon integrated itself into the ...
more infohttps://phys.org/news/2010-05-scientists-uncover-genetic-material-blood-sucking.html

OPUS Würzburg | Host insulin stimulates Echinococcus multilocularis insulin signalling pathways and larval developmentOPUS Würzburg | Host insulin stimulates Echinococcus multilocularis insulin signalling pathways and larval development

Infections are initiated through establishment of parasite larvae within the intermediate hosts liver, where high ... We also characterized a second insulin receptor family member, EmIR2, and demonstrated interaction of its ligand binding domain ... multilocularis and its mammalian hosts, thus appears to be important in the pathology of alveolar echinococcosis. This ... Conclusions Our data indicate that host insulin acts as a stimulant for parasite development within the host liver and that E. ...
more infohttps://opus.bibliothek.uni-wuerzburg.de/frontdoor/index/index/searchtype/authorsearch/author/%22Hemphill%2C+Andrew%22/start/0/rows/10/subjectfq/Kinase+inhibitor/author_facetfq/Hemer%2C+Sarah/docId/11035

Innate Immune Activation and Subversion of Mammalian Functions by Leishmania LipophosphoglycanInnate Immune Activation and Subversion of Mammalian Functions by Leishmania Lipophosphoglycan

Articles covering host-parasite relationships and parasitic diseases will be considered, as well as studies on disease vectors ... D. Sacks and S. Kamhawi, "Molecular aspects of parasite-vector and vector-host interactions in Leishmaniasis," Annual Review of ... NF-κB in turn induces innate immune mechanisms such as the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates, chemokine/ ... 5. The Role of LPG in Parasite Invasion and Survival in Macrophages. After being inoculated into the mammalian host by the sand ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/jpr/2012/165126/

Professor Joanne Webster - Our People - About - Royal Veterinary College, RVCProfessor Joanne Webster - Our People - About - Royal Veterinary College, RVC

Webster, J.P. (2009). Natural history of Host-Parasite Interactions. Advances in Parasitology, 68. xiii-xviii. IF 6.226 ... a case of parasite manipulation of its mammalian host. Proceedings of the Royal Society (London), Series B. 267, 1591-1594 IF ... Joseph Hoffman: Population molecular genetics of the Schistosoma mansoni intermediate host (Biomphalaria pfeifferi) snails.* ... Lu, D-B., Wang, T-P., Rudge, J.W., Donnelly, C.A., Fang, G-R. & Webster, J.P. (2009) Evolution in a multi-host parasite?: ...
more infohttps://www.rvc.ac.uk/about/our-people/joanne-webster

Trichobilharzia regenti - WikipediaTrichobilharzia regenti - Wikipedia

For its unique neurotropic behaviour in vertebrate hosts, the host-parasite interactions are extensively studied in terms of ... When cercariae of T. regenti find either avian or mammalian host, they penetrate its skin. For this purpose, they are equipped ... Once in water, the miracidia swim using their cilia and actively search for a proper molluscan intermediate host (Radix lagotis ... Several parasite antigens recognized specifically by host IgY are considered as candidates for immunodiagnostics. The infection ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trichobilharzia_regenti

Search Results -   - 295 Results - Digital LibrarySearch Results - - 295 Results - Digital Library

The five sessions focused on basic mechanism, regulation, biodiversity, host-parasite interactions, and practical applications ... Characterization of the mammalian DNA polymerase gene(s) and enzyme(s). Annual progress report Description: Two Genes for DNA ... Smooth brome and intermediate wheatgrass accounted for 93% of the relative foliar cover and 96% of the biomass in the ... Methods were developed to clone these genes in expression vector and host systems. The role of the two genes in DNA replication ...
more infohttps://digital.library.unt.edu/search/?q5=%22Species%20Diversity%22&t5=dc_subject&searchType=advanced

Assessment of tegumental damage to Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium after in vitro exposure to ferrocenyl, ruthenocenyl...Assessment of tegumental damage to Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium after in vitro exposure to ferrocenyl, ruthenocenyl...

The cytoskeleton and motor proteins of human schistosomes and their roles in surface maintenance and host-parasite interactions ... and the use of molluscicides to control the intermediate host is difficult to conduct, the most commonly used strategy to ... haematobium and in mammalian cells, but differences in the interaction in the active site prevent the activation of the ... Considering the importance of the tegument for schistosomes, which allows them to evade the immune response of the host, SEM is ...
more infohttps://parasitesandvectors.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13071-018-3132-x

Host insulin stimulates Echinococcus multilocularisinsulin signalling pathways and larval development | BMC Biology | Full TextHost insulin stimulates Echinococcus multilocularisinsulin signalling pathways and larval development | BMC Biology | Full Text

Vuitton DA, Gottstein B: Echinococcus multilocularis and its intermediate host: a model of parasite-host interplay. J Biomed ... Brehm K: Echinococcus multilocularis as an experimental model in stem cell research and molecular host-parasite interaction. ... Of particular interest in the case of E. multilocularis are possible effects of host-derived insulin since, in mammalian hosts ... Hence, similar to the situation in intermediate host hepatocytes, insulin also regulates glucose uptake by parasite cells.. ...
more infohttps://preview-bmcbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1741-7007-12-5

Leishmania braziliensis - WikipediaLeishmania braziliensis - Wikipedia

Leishmania braziliensis, like other species of Leishmania rely on asexual reproduction in the intermediate mammalian host to ... "Betulin derivatives impair Leishmania braziliensis viability and host-parasite interaction". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. ... of the mammalian host, with the macrophages being the target white blood cell of the parasite. Recently, it has been ... At this time, the parasite causes oral and nasal lesions causing severe damage to the mucus membranes. Pentostam, Liposomal and ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leishmania_braziliensis

ERC FUNDED PROJECTS | ERC: European Research CouncilERC FUNDED PROJECTS | ERC: European Research Council

Summary Studying host-pathogen interactions by focusing on the interaction of a single pathogen with the host has defined our ... Since our discovery that mammalian adipose tissue is enriched for iNKT cells, we have identified a critical role for iNKT cells ... It is the site of several metabolic pathways essential for the parasites survival, and thus an important drug target. Like ... How are misfolded proteins distinguished from folding intermediates? How are proteins moved across the membrane? How is the ...
more infohttps://erc.europa.eu/projects-figures/erc-funded-projects/results?f%5B0%5D=funding_scheme%3AStarting%20Grant%20%28StG%29&f%5B1%5D=call_year%3A2015&f%5B2%5D=tid%253Aparents_all%3A77&f%5B3%5D=tid%253Aparents_all%3A72&%3Bf%5B1%5D=call_year%3A2017&%3Bamp%3Bf%5B1%5D=xml_domain%3ALS&%3Bamp%3Bf%5B2%5D=tid%253Aparents_all%3A64&%3Bamp%3Bf%5B3%5D=tid%253Aparents_all%3A86

Cryo-soft X-ray tomography: using soft X-rays to explore the ultrastructure of whole cells | Emerging Topics in Life SciencesCryo-soft X-ray tomography: using soft X-rays to explore the ultrastructure of whole cells | Emerging Topics in Life Sciences

... virus-host interactions, cell motility, parasite life cycle, and lymphocyte activation and function (Table 1B). ... 2012) Towards an atlas of mammalian cell ultrastructure by cryo soft X-ray tomography. J. Struct. Biol. 177, 179-192 doi: ... Cryo-SXT is a 3D imaging method for the visualisation of cellular ultrastructure at an intermediate resolution [5] and ... 2017) Biochemistry of malaria parasite infected red blood cells by X-ray microscopy. Sci. Rep. 7, 802 doi:10.1038/s41598-017- ...
more infohttp://www.emergtoplifesci.org/content/2/1/81

Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Theodore G. AndreadisProtocols and Video Articles Authored by Theodore G. Andreadis

Findings suggest a degree of host-parasite co-speciation with host switching occurring occasionally when the "normal" host is ... We investigated vector-host interactions and host-feeding patterns of 531 blood-engorged mosquitoes in four competent mosquito ... On the other hand, a single species of copepod can serve as an intermediate host to several Amblyospora species and some ... and mammalian-derived blood meals. However, Cx. pipiens form pipiens with mammalian- (including human-) derived blood meals had ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/author/Theodore+G._Andreadis

Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Theodore G. Andreadis (Translated to Turkish)Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Theodore G. Andreadis (Translated to Turkish)

Findings suggest a degree of host-parasite co-speciation with host switching occurring occasionally when the "normal" host is ... We investigated vector-host interactions and host-feeding patterns of 531 blood-engorged mosquitoes in four competent mosquito ... On the other hand, a single species of copepod can serve as an intermediate host to several Amblyospora species and some ... and mammalian-derived blood meals. However, Cx. pipiens form pipiens with mammalian- (including human-) derived blood meals had ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/author/Theodore+G._Andreadis?language=Turkish

Comparative study of excretory-secretory proteins released by Schistosoma mansoni-resistant, susceptible and naïve Biomphalaria...Comparative study of excretory-secretory proteins released by Schistosoma mansoni-resistant, susceptible and naïve Biomphalaria...

... which is prominent in host-parasite interactions [26, 79]. Combined with cysteine peptidases, G3PDH is essential in the ... As a member of the class Trematoda, Schistosoma must infect an intermediate molluscan host [19]. Molluscan hosts are infected ... Gene expression patterns in larval Schistosoma mansoni associated with infection of the mammalian host. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. ... Theron A, Rognon A, Gourbal B, Mitta G. Multi-parasite host susceptibility and multi-host parasite infectivity: a new approach ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/article/10.1186%2Fs13071-019-3708-0

Rabbit polyclonal to TdT. | Discovery of gene expression-based pharmacodynamic biomarkerRabbit polyclonal to TdT. | Discovery of gene expression-based pharmacodynamic biomarker

The protozoan parasite exists as extracellular promastigotes in its vector whereas. March 10, 2017. Rabbit polyclonal to TdT. ... In addition, the co-culture model was utilized for RNA removal of dental fibroblasts to assess gene appearance of web host ... 9 10 12 Beside their part in Th1 immune system response Compact disc40-Compact disc40L interactions had been also proven to ... As CD40-L binds to CD40 it triggers the signal through several signaling intermediates [14] to result in mitogen-activated ...
more infohttp://www.thebiotechdictionary.com/index.php/tag/rabbit-polyclonal-to-tdt/

Niche-specific gene expression in a parasitic nematode; increased expression of immunomodulators in Teladorsagia circumcincta...Niche-specific gene expression in a parasitic nematode; increased expression of immunomodulators in Teladorsagia circumcincta...

... analysis of parasite transcriptomes to identify parasite molecules of potential importance for survival within the host. ... In this study, we compared the transcriptome of two fourth-stage larval populations of the nematode parasite, Teladorsagia ... identification of the molecules critical for parasite survival within these niches has largely depended on comparative ... transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of different developmental stages of the parasite; however, changes may reflect ...
more infohttps://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-07092-0?error=cookies_not_supported&code=852196e3-9a96-4c75-b6f1-13fe61d54f2b

Frontiers | Microtus arvalis and Arvicola scherman: Key Players in the Echinococcus multilocularis Life Cycle | Veterinary...Frontiers | Microtus arvalis and Arvicola scherman: Key Players in the Echinococcus multilocularis Life Cycle | Veterinary...

The parasite prevalence in Microtus arvalis (11.0%, CI 8.9 - 13.4) was significantly higher than in Arvicola scherman (5.3%, ... scherman can be regarded as key intermediate hosts in Western and Central European high endemic regions whereas M. glareolus ... The parasite prevalence in Microtus arvalis (11.0%, CI 8.9 - 13.4) was significantly higher than in Arvicola scherman (5.3%, ... However, little is known about the relative contribution of these species for parasite reproduction and the maintenance of its ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fvets.2017.00216/full
  • The infected blood-sucking triatomine, causes Chagas disease by passing trypanosomes (parasitic protozoa) to its host. (phys.org)
  • It allows the observation of biological events on a range of scales, with imaging of details as fine as the internal structure of larger viruses and bacteria to the ultrastructure of yeast, protozoa and mammalian cells ( Table 1A ) and their associated components such as the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, parts of the cytoskeleton and more [ 47 ]. (emergtoplifesci.org)
  • This contributes to a closer understanding of organ tropism and parasite persistence in larval cestode infections. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • All larval developmental transitions of E. multilocularis as well as proliferation of metacestode tissue take place in close contact with the intermediate host's endocrine and paracrine systems, which involve numerous evolutionarily conserved hormones, such as insulin or cytokines of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) and the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) families. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we compared the transcriptome of two fourth-stage larval populations of the nematode parasite, Teladorsagia circumcincta , which were of the same developmental stage but differed in their location within the abomasum, being either mucosal-dwelling (MD) or lumen-dwelling (LD). (nature.com)
  • In the economically-important strongylid nematode Teladorsagia circumcincta , this transition from the infective third larval stage (L3) on pasture to the fourth larval stage (L4) which resides in the abomasum (true stomach) of sheep, is associated with the upregulation of suites of genes involved in nutrition, growth, host immunomodulation and respiration in a micro-aerobic environment 6 . (nature.com)
  • The parasites can be maintained continuously in vitro in a variety of mammalian cell lines and their requirements for growth have been previously established. (ac.ke)
  • To fully understand these biological differences, the host-parasite interactions of these parasites have been investigated in this study using several different approaches at the molecular level. (bl.uk)
  • The differences in the host cell phosphoproteome indicated that these parasites interact with the host cell differently. (bl.uk)
  • Several interesting differences in host-parasite interactions at both the qualitative and quantitative levels were identified. (bl.uk)
  • These differences comprised in particular metabolic and information processing genes as well as genes known to be involved in host-damage such as the nitrite reductase and numerous LOS biosynthesis genes. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • As a consequence, differences with the trancriptome and proteome between these two populations are more likely to represent transient adaptations to mucosal or luminal environments, rather than reflecting the more substantial differences associated with transition between individual developmental stages of the parasite lifecycle. (nature.com)
  • phosphopeptide enrichment, combined with LC MS/MS has been used to study the global response in the host signalling pathway through protein phosphorylation and signal transduction in response to infection with T. gondii and N. caninum. (bl.uk)
  • Approximately 21 % of the phospho-motifs were found differentially enriched between host cells infected with T. gondii compared to N. caninum infection and finally the pathway analysis showed that a few pathways were differentially enriched between infections with these parasites, such as glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and mTOR signalling pathway in infection with T. gondii Abstract vi but not with N. caninum. (bl.uk)
  • Several interesting complexes were identified in N. caninum tachyzoites and include mitochondrial complexes, proteasome, glideosome and moving junction molecules that play an important role in the physiology and invasion of host cells. (bl.uk)
  • Of these lipophosphoglycan (LPG) is the most abundant, and along with other phosphoglycan-bearing molecules, plays important roles in parasite infectivity and pathogenesis in both the sand fly and the mammalian host. (hindawi.com)
  • One notable feature distinguishing the Leishmania surface from that of the host is that most parasite molecules are linked to the parasite surface through glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) lipid anchors [ 4 - 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Our study demonstrates the utility of niche- rather than stage-specific analysis of parasite transcriptomes to identify parasite molecules of potential importance for survival within the host. (nature.com)
  • Cryo-SXT is a 3D imaging method for the visualisation of cellular ultrastructure at an intermediate resolution [ 5 ] and specifically addresses the need for detailed, 3D information on cellular features in thick specimens, such as whole cells, with little or no chemical or mechanical modification ( Figure 2 ). (emergtoplifesci.org)
  • Life Cycle, Ultrastructure and Molecular Phylogeny of Hyalinocysta Chapmani (Microsporidia: Thelohaniidae), a Parasite of Culiseta Melanura (Diptera: Culicidae) and Orthocyclops Modestus (Copepoda: Cyclopidae) The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. (jove.com)
  • Data analyses showed that host cells produce more proteins in response to infection with T. gondii than with N. caninum after 36 hours post infection (p.i. (bl.uk)
  • Proteomic technique advances enable sophisticated comparative analyses between infected and naïve snail host proteins. (springer.com)
  • Thus, filamentous influenza virus formation requires the interaction of viral specific components with host cell components, presumably actin or actin-associated proteins. (biology-online.org)
  • This review will cover only cysteine proteases, papain family enzymes which are involved in multiple functions such as extracellular matrix turnover, antigen presentation, processing events, digestion, immune invasion, hemoglobin hydrolysis, parasite invasion, parasite egress, and processing surface proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • The parasite prevalence in Microtus arvalis [11.0%, confidence intervals (CI) 8.9-13.was significantly higher than in Arvicola scherman (5.3%, 3.9-7.1) and Myodes glareolus (3.9%, 2.0-6.7). (frontiersin.org)
  • The researchers also identified members of what Feschotte calls space invader transposons in the genome of Lymnaea stagnalis, a pond snail that acts as an intermediate host for trematode worms, a parasite to a wide range of mammals. (phys.org)
  • Proteolytic enzymes are crucial for a variety of biological processes in organisms ranging from lower (virus, bacteria, and parasite) to the higher organisms (mammals). (frontiersin.org)
  • This article presents the ultrastructural dynamics of host cell invasion and intracellular survival of Besnoitia besnoiti. (ac.ke)
  • I. Mechanism of entry and intracellular fate of the parasite. (springer.com)
  • In: Eisenstein T.K., Actor P., Friedman H. (eds) Host Defenses to Intracellular Pathogens. (springer.com)
  • It has been considered to play important roles in host defense, since lactoferrin shows broad spectrum of anti-bacterial and anti-viral activities, arising from its iron-chelating property. (stanford.edu)
  • Many key cellular processes have been investigated to date with cryo-SXT such as chromatin rearrangement, virus-host interactions, cell motility, parasite life cycle, and lymphocyte activation and function ( Table 1B ). (emergtoplifesci.org)
  • Cysteine protease inhibitors are available that can block the active site but no such inhibitor available yet that can be targeted to block the pro-mature domain interactions and prevent it activation. (frontiersin.org)
  • As a means of understanding the broader host response to infection with these parasites at the systems biology level, integrated data analyses were performed on quantitative data from the transcriptome, proteome and phosphoproteome of host cells infected with the two parasites. (bl.uk)
  • Protein-protein interaction (PPI) analyses based on published studies (including experiments, co-expression, text-mining and gene fusion) identified S. mansoni and B. glabrata protein interaction. (springer.com)
  • Further targeted research on specific ESPs identified in this study could help inhibit B. glabrata and S. mansoni interactions and stop human schistosomiasis. (springer.com)
  • 2006). The pathogenicity from the types is related to important virulence factors, such as for example adherence to areas (on both tissue and medical gadgets), biofilm formation, evasion of web host immune body's defence mechanism, and secretion of proteolytic enzymes, such as for example secreted aspartyl proteases (types (Ramage et al. (thebiotechdictionary.com)
  • a pull-down assay has been used to elucidate the binding partners of expressed recombinant GRA2 and GRA7 in both parasites within the host cell lysate. (bl.uk)
  • Evolutionary theory suggests that the selection pressure on parasites to maximize their transmission determines their optimal host exploitation strategies and thus their virulence. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We found some evidence supporting the hypothesis that there is an adaptive basis correlating virulence (as defined by host mortality) and transmission success in malaria parasites. (biomedcentral.com)
  • about one-third of the phosphoproteomes of the host cell in response to infection by T. gondii and N. caninum was different. (bl.uk)
  • The establishment of the infection begins with the inoculation by the sand fly vector's bite of metacyclic promastigotes into the vertebrate host. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, in T. gondii the microneme MIC1/6 complex was found migrated and/or co-associated with the important surface antigen glycoprotein SAG1, which is critical in the initial interaction with host surface peptidoglycan. (bl.uk)
  • In addition, the co-culture model was utilized for RNA removal of dental fibroblasts to assess gene appearance of web host inflammatory cytokines, using quantitative real-time PCR. (thebiotechdictionary.com)
  • Evidence of active host cell penetration has been presented in scanning electron microscopic studies. (ac.ke)
  • However, such surface observations do not reveal much information on the dynamics of penetration and the manipulation of the host cell by the parasite. (ac.ke)
  • Establishing the adaptive basis to parasite life history traits has important consequences for predicting parasite responses to public health interventions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The GPI anchor which links LPG at surface of the parasite is constituted by a 1- O -alkyl-2- lyso -phosphatidyl( myo )inositol lipid anchor with a heptasaccharide glycan core, to which is joined a long PG polymer composed of 15-30 [6-Gal( β 1,4)Man( α 1)-PO 4 −] repeating units, and terminated by a capping oligosaccharide (Figure 1 ). (hindawi.com)
  • Pubmed ID: 12188227 The complete life cycle of the microsporidium Hyalinocysta chapmani is described from the primary mosquito host Culiseta melanura and the intermediate copepod host Orthocyclops modestus. (jove.com)