Intermediate Filament Proteins: Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.Intermediate Filaments: Cytoplasmic filaments intermediate in diameter (about 10 nanometers) between the microfilaments and the microtubules. They may be composed of any of a number of different proteins and form a ring around the cell nucleus.Vimentin: An intermediate filament protein found in most differentiating cells, in cells grown in tissue culture, and in certain fully differentiated cells. Its insolubility suggests that it serves a structural function in the cytoplasm. MW 52,000.Desmin: An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Peripherins: Type III intermediate filament proteins expressed mainly in neurons of the peripheral and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS. Peripherins are implicated in neurite elongation during development and axonal regeneration after injury.Nestin: A type VI intermediate filament protein expressed mostly in nerve cells where it is associated with the survival, renewal and mitogen-stimulated proliferation of neural progenitor cells.Keratin-8: A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-18 in simple, or predominately single layered, internal epithelia.Lamins: Nuclear matrix proteins that are structural components of the NUCLEAR LAMINA. They are found in most multicellular organisms.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Keratin-17: A type I keratin found associated with KERATIN-6 in rapidly proliferating squamous epithelial tissue. Mutations in the gene for keratin-17 have been associated with PACHYONYCHIA CONGENITA, TYPE 2.Neurofilament Proteins: Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)Lamin Type A: A subclass of developmentally regulated lamins having a neutral isoelectric point. They are found to disassociate from nuclear membranes during mitosis.Lamin Type B: A subclass of ubiquitously-expressed lamins having an acidic isoelectric point. They are found to remain bound to nuclear membranes during mitosis.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Keratin-18: A type I keratin found associated with KERATIN-8 in simple, or predominately single layered, internal epithelia.Nerve Tissue ProteinsMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Nuclear Lamina: A lattice of fibrils which covers the entire inner surface of the nuclear envelope and interlinks nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).Plectin: A cytoskeletal linker protein with a molecular weight of greater than 500 kDa. It binds INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS; MICROTUBULES; and ACTIN CYTOSKELETON and plays a central role in the organization and stability of the CYTOSKELETON. Plectin is phosphorylated by CALMODULIN KINASE; PROTEIN KINASE A; and PROTEIN KINASE C.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Actin Cytoskeleton: Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.Alexander Disease: Rare leukoencephalopathy with infantile-onset accumulation of Rosenthal fibers in the subpial, periventricular, and subependymal zones of the brain. Rosenthal fibers are GLIAL FIBRILLARY ACIDIC PROTEIN aggregates found in ASTROCYTES. Juvenile- and adult-onset types show progressive atrophy of the lower brainstem instead. De novo mutations in the GFAP gene are associated with the disease with propensity for paternal inheritance.Lens, Crystalline: A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Ependyma: A thin membrane that lines the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES and the central canal of the SPINAL CORD.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Helix (Snails): A genus of chiefly Eurasian and African land snails including the principal edible snails as well as several pests of cultivated plants.Nuclear Envelope: The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).Epithelioid Cells: Characteristic cells of granulomatous hypersensitivity. They appear as large, flattened cells with increased endoplasmic reticulum. They are believed to be activated macrophages that have differentiated as a result of prolonged antigenic stimulation. Further differentiation or fusion of epithelioid cells is thought to produce multinucleated giant cells (GIANT CELLS).Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Desmosomes: A type of junction that attaches one cell to its neighbor. One of a number of differentiated regions which occur, for example, where the cytoplasmic membranes of adjacent epithelial cells are closely apposed. It consists of a circular region of each membrane together with associated intracellular microfilaments and an intercellular material which may include, for example, mucopolysaccharides. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Tropomyosin: A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Eye ProteinsIsoelectric Point: The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Nuclear Matrix: The residual framework structure of the CELL NUCLEUS that maintains many of the overall architectural features of the cell nucleus including the nuclear lamina with NUCLEAR PORE complex structures, residual CELL NUCLEOLI and an extensive fibrogranular structure in the nuclear interior. (Advan. Enzyme Regul. 2002; 42:39-52)Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Desmoplakins: Desmoplakins are cytoskeletal linker proteins that anchor INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS to the PLASMA MEMBRANE at DESMOSOMES.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Carcinoma, Ehrlich Tumor: A transplantable, poorly differentiated malignant tumor which appeared originally as a spontaneous breast carcinoma in a mouse. It grows in both solid and ascitic forms.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Microfilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Muscular Diseases: Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Myosins: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Sarcomeres: The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Myofibrils: The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Dipodomys: A genus of the family Heteromyidae which contains 22 species. Their physiology is adapted for the conservation of water, and they seldom drink water. They are found in arid or desert habitats and travel by hopping on their hind limbs.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex: A form of epidermolysis bullosa characterized by serous bullae that heal without scarring. Mutations in the genes that encode KERATIN-5 and KERATIN-14 have been associated with several subtypes of epidermolysis bullosa simplex.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Connectin: A giant elastic protein of molecular mass ranging from 2,993 kDa (cardiac), 3,300 kDa (psoas), to 3,700 kDa (soleus) having a kinase domain. The amino- terminal is involved in a Z line binding, and the carboxy-terminal region is bound to the myosin filament with an overlap between the counter-connectin filaments at the M line.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Demecolcine: An alkaloid isolated from Colchicum autumnale L. and used as an antineoplastic.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Plakins: A family of related proteins that associate with cytoskeletal elements and junctional complexes at INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS. Plakins share a common plakin domain or a plakin repeat domain.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Mice, Inbred C57BLBlotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Phalloidine: Very toxic polypeptide isolated mainly from AMANITA phalloides (Agaricaceae) or death cup; causes fatal liver, kidney and CNS damage in mushroom poisoning; used in the study of liver damage.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Actinin: A protein factor that regulates the length of R-actin. It is chemically similar, but immunochemically distinguishable from actin.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Inclusion Bodies: A generic term for any circumscribed mass of foreign (e.g., lead or viruses) or metabolically inactive materials (e.g., ceroid or MALLORY BODIES), within the cytoplasm or nucleus of a cell. Inclusion bodies are in cells infected with certain filtrable viruses, observed especially in nerve, epithelial, or endothelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Desmogleins: A group of desmosomal cadherins with cytoplasmic tails that resemble those of classical CADHERINS.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Gelsolin: A 90-kDa protein produced by macrophages that severs ACTIN filaments and forms a cap on the newly exposed filament end. Gelsolin is activated by CALCIUM ions and participates in the assembly and disassembly of actin, thereby increasing the motility of some CELLS.Keratin-1: A type II keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-10 in terminally differentiated epidermal cells such as those that form the stratum corneum. Mutations in the genes that encode keratin-1 have been associated with HYPERKERATOSIS, EPIDERMOLYTIC.gamma Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that is highly homologous to BETA CATENIN. Gamma catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It is also found in DESMOSOMES where it mediates the link between DESMOSOMAL CADHERINS and DESMOPLAKIN.Cytochalasin D: A fungal metabolite that blocks cytoplasmic cleavage by blocking formation of contractile microfilament structures resulting in multinucleated cell formation, reversible inhibition of cell movement, and the induction of cellular extrusion. Additional reported effects include the inhibition of actin polymerization, DNA synthesis, sperm motility, glucose transport, thyroid secretion, and growth hormone release.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Keratin-14: A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-5 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Mutations in the gene for keratin-14 are associated with EPIDERMOLYSIS BULLOSA SIMPLEX.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Immunochemistry: Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.
Molecular chaperones: small heat shock proteins in the limelight. (1/2086)Small heat shock proteins have been the Cinderellas of the molecular chaperone world, but now the crystal structure of a small heat shock protein has been solved and mutation of two human homologues implicated in genetic disease. Intermediate filaments appear to be one of the key targets of their chaperone activity. (+info)
Specific and innervation-regulated expression of the intermediate filament protein nestin at neuromuscular and myotendinous junctions in skeletal muscle. (2/2086)The intermediate filament proteins nestin, vimentin, and desmin show a specific temporal expression pattern during the development of myofibers from myogenic precursor cells. Nestin and vimentin are actively expressed during early developmental stages to be later down-regulated, vimentin completely and nestin to minimal levels, whereas desmin expression begins later and is maintained in mature myofibers, in which desmin participates in maintaining structural integrity. In this study we have analyzed the expression levels and distribution pattern of nestin in intact and denervated muscle in rat and in human. Nestin immunoreactivity was specifically and focally localized in the sarcoplasm underneath neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) and in the vicinity of the myotendinous junctions (MTJs), ie, in regions associated with acetylcholine receptors (AChRs). This association prompted us to analyze nestin in neurogenically and myogenically denervated muscle. Immunoblot analysis disclosed a marked overall increase of accumulated nestin protein. Similar to the extrajunctional redistribution of AChRs in denervated myofibers, nestin immunoreactivity extended widely beyond the NMJ region. Re-innervation caused complete reversion of these changes. Our study demonstrates that the expression levels and distribution pattern of nestin are regulated by innervation, ie, signal transduction into myofibers. (+info)
Plectin is a linker of intermediate filaments to Z-discs in skeletal muscle fibers. (3/2086)Plectin is a versatile linker protein which is associated with various types of cytoskeletal components and/or filaments including intermediate filaments, and its deficiency causes the disruption of myofibrils, or muscular dystrophy. To better understand the functional role of plectin in skeletal muscle fibers, we have examined the topological and structural relationships of plectin to intermediate filaments and Z-discs in rat diaphragm muscles by confocal and immunoelectron microscopy. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that plectin was colocalized with desmin at the periphery of Z-discs. This plectin localization around Z-discs was constantly maintained irrespective of the contracted or extended state of the muscle fibers, suggesting either direct or indirect association of plectin with Z-discs. Immunogold labeling in skinned muscle fibers clearly demonstrated that plectin-labeled fine threads linked desmin intermediate filaments to Z-discs and connected intermediate filaments to each other. These results indicate that through plectin threads desmin intermediate filaments form lateral linkages among adjacent Z-discs, preventing individual myofibrils from disruptive contraction and ensuring effective force generation. (+info)
Distinct neural stem cells proliferate in response to EGF and FGF in the developing mouse telencephalon. (4/2086)Multipotent, self-renewing neural stem cells reside in the embryonic mouse telencephalic germinal zone. Using an in vitro neurosphere assay for neural stem cell proliferation, we demonstrate that FGF-responsive neural stem cells are present as early as E8.5 in the anterior neural plate, but EGF-responsive neural stem cells emerge later in development in a temporally and spatially specific manner. By separately blocking EGF and FGF2 signaling, we also show that EGF alone and FGF2 alone can independently elicit neural stem cell proliferation and at relatively high cell densities separate cell nonautonomous effects can substantially enhance the mitogen-induced proliferation. At lower cell densities, neural stem cell proliferation is additive in the presence of EGF and FGF2 combined, revealing two different stem cell populations. However, both FGF-responsive and EGF-responsive neural stem cells retain their self-renewal and multilineage potential, regardless of growth factor conditions. These results support a model in which separate, lineage-related EGF- and FGF-responsive neural stem cells are present in the embryonic telencephalic germinal zone. (+info)
Molecular genetic study of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa in Lithuanian patients. (5/2086)Lithuanian patients with visual problems were clinically examined for retinitis pigmentosa (RP). A total of 33 unrelated families with autosomal dominant RP (adRP) were identified. Screening for mutations in the rhodopsin (RHO) and peripherin/RDS (RDS) genes was performed using DNA heteroduplex analysis. Direct DNA sequencing in the cases of heteroduplex formation showed the presence of the following mutations and polymorphisms in 14 adRP patients: RHO gene - Lys248Arg (1 case), and Pro347Leu (2 cases); RDS gene - Glu304Gln (12 cases), Lys310Arg (5 cases), and Gly338Asp (12 cases). The presence of these mutations (except Lys248Arg in the RHO gene) was confirmed by relevant restriction enzyme digestion. The frequency of the RDS gene mutations Glu304Gln and Gly338Asp was estimated to be 36.4%, while mutation Lys310Arg was less frequent (15.2%). These 3 RDS gene mutations appear to be polypeptide polymorphisms not related to adRP. (+info)
The beta4 integrin interactor p27(BBP/eIF6) is an essential nuclear matrix protein involved in 60S ribosomal subunit assembly. (6/2086)p27(BBP/eIF6) is an evolutionarily conserved protein that was originally identified as p27(BBP), an interactor of the cytoplasmic domain of integrin beta4 and, independently, as the putative translation initiation factor eIF6. To establish the in vivo function of p27(BBP/eIF6), its topographical distribution was investigated in mammalian cells and the effects of disrupting the corresponding gene was studied in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In epithelial cells containing beta4 integrin, p27(BBP/eIF6) is present in the cytoplasm and enriched at hemidesmosomes with a pattern similar to that of beta4 integrin. Surprisingly, in the absence and in the presence of the beta4 integrin subunit, p27(BBP/eIF6) is in the nucleolus and associated with the nuclear matrix. Deletion of the IIH S. cerevisiae gene, encoding the yeast p27(BBP/eIF6) homologue, is lethal, and depletion of the corresponding gene product is associated with a dramatic decrease of the level of free ribosomal 60S subunit. Furthermore, human p27(BBP/eIF6) can rescue the lethal effect of the iihDelta yeast mutation. The data obtained in vivo suggest an evolutionarily conserved function of p27(BBP/eIF6) in ribosome biogenesis or assembly rather than in translation. A further function related to the beta4 integrin subunit may have evolved specifically in higher eukaryotic cells. (+info)
A high molecular weight intermediate filament-associated protein in BHK-21 cells is nestin, a type VI intermediate filament protein. Limited co-assembly in vitro to form heteropolymers with type III vimentin and type IV alpha-internexin. (7/2086)BHK-21 fibroblasts contain type III vimentin/desmin intermediate filament (IF) proteins that typically co-isolate and co-cycle in in vitro experiments with certain high molecular weight proteins. Here, we report purification of one of these and demonstrate that it is in fact the type VI IF protein nestin. Nestin is expressed in several fibroblastic but not epithelioid cell lines. We show that nestin forms homodimers and homotetramers but does not form IF by itself in vitro. In mixtures, nestin preferentially co-assembles with purified vimentin or the type IV IF protein alpha-internexin to form heterodimer coiled-coil molecules. These molecules may co-assemble into 10 nm IF provided that the total amount of nestin does not exceed about 25%. However, nestin does not dimerize with types I/II keratin IF chains. The bulk of the nestin protein consists of a long carboxyl-terminal tail composed of various highly charged peptide repeats. By analogy with the larger neurofilament chains, we postulate that these sequences serve as cross-bridgers or spacers between IF and/or other cytoskeletal constituents. In this way, we propose that direct incorporation of modest amounts of nestin into the backbone of cytoplasmic types III and IV IFs affords a simple yet flexible method for the regulation of their dynamic supramolecular organization and function in cells. (+info)
Plectin is concentrated at intercellular junctions and at the nuclear surface in morphologically differentiated rat Sertoli cells. (8/2086)Intermediate filaments in Sertoli cells have a well-defined pattern of distribution. They form a basally situated perinuclear network from which filaments extend peripherally to adhesion plaques at the plasma membrane and to sites of codistribution with other major elements of the cytoskeleton, particularly with microtubules. Although the general pattern of intermediate filament distribution is known, the molecular components involved with linking the filaments to organelles and attachment plaques in these cells have not been identified. One candidate for such a linking element is plectin. In this study we test for the presence of, and determine the distribution of, plectin in Sertoli cells of the rat testis. Fixed frozen sections and fixed epithelial fragments of rat testis were probed for plectin and vimentin using antibodies. Tissue was evaluated using standard fluorescence microscopy and confocal microscopy. Plectin in Sertoli cells was concentrated in a narrow zone surrounding the nucleus, and at focal sites, presumably desmosome-like plaques, at interfaces with adjacent cells. Plectin was also concentrated at sites where intermediate filament bundles project into specialized actin-filament containing plaques at sites of attachment to elongate spermatids. Plectin in Sertoli cells is concentrated at the nuclear surface and in junction plaques associated with the plasma membrane. The pattern of distribution is consistent with plectin being involved with linking intermediate filaments centrally (basally) to the nucleus and peripherally to intercellular attachment sites. (+info)
Identification and developmental expression of a novel low molecular weight neuronal intermediate filament protein expressed in...
JNeurosci Print ISSN: 0270-6474 Online ISSN: 1529-2401. The ideas and opinions expressed in JNeurosci do not necessarily reflect those of SfN or the JNeurosci Editorial Board. Publication of an advertisement or other product mention in JNeurosci should not be construed as an endorsement of the manufacturers claims. SfN does not assume any responsibility for any injury and/or damage to persons or property arising from or related to any use of any material contained in JNeurosci.. ...
The 47-kD lens-specific protein phakinin is a tailless intermediate filament protein and an assembly partner of filensin. | JCB
In previous studies we have characterized a lens-specific intermediate filament (IF) protein, termed filensin. Filensin does not self-assemble into regular IFs but is known to associate with another 47-kD lens-specific protein which has been suggested to represent its assembly partner. To address this possibility, we cloned and sequenced the cDNA coding for the bovine 47-kD protein which we have termed phakinin (from the greek phi alpha kappa omicron sigma = phakos = lens). The predicted sequence comprises 406 amino acids and shows significant similarity (31.3% identity over 358 residues) to type I cytokeratins. Phakinin possesses a 95-residue, non-helical domain (head) and a 311 amino acid long alpha-helical domain punctuated with heptad repeats (rod). Similar to cytokeratin 19, phakinin lacks a COOH-terminal tail domain and it therefore represents the second known example of a naturally tailless IF protein. Confocal microscopy on frozen lens sections reveals that phakinin colocalizes with ...
Intermediate Filament Proteins | Profiles RNS
May R, Sureban SM, Lightfoot SA, Hoskins AB, Brackett DJ, Postier RG, Ramanujam R, Rao CV, Wyche JH, Anant S, Houchen CW. Identification of a novel putative pancreatic stem/progenitor cell marker DCAMKL-1 in normal mouse pancreas. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2010 Aug; 299(2):G303-10 ...
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Cytoplasmic processing of human profilaggrin by active mu-calpain
The differentiation of keratinocytes involves numerous steps including the formation of the cornified envelope and the aggregation of keratin filaments by filaggrin monomer molecules. In this study, we investigated whether mu-calpain is involved in the processing of profilaggrin to filaggrin monomer …
SYNC Gene - GeneCards | SYNCI Protein | SYNCI Antibody
Cytokeratin 5 | Antibody - Product: Leica Biosystems
Immunohistochemistry Catalog - Name mezővel rendelkező, 'D' betűvel kezdődő bejegyzések - Immunológiai és Biotechnológiai...
Desmin is an intermediate filament protein of both smooth and striated muscles. E18-reacts with striated (skeletal V and cardiac) as well as smooth muscle cells. In skeletal and cardiac muscles, the staining is confined to the Z-bands giving a characteristic striated appearance. Useful in indication of tumors of myogenic origin. It reacts with leimyosarcomas, as well as, rhadbomyosarcomas (striated muscle). ...
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Filaggrin antibody | acris-antibodies.com
1) TECHNICAL & ENGINEERING - PDF
Expression of the neural intermediate filament proteins peripherin and neurofilament-66/α-internexin in neuroblastoma<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of the neural intermediate filament proteins peripherin and neurofilament-66/α-internexin in neuroblastoma. AU - Foley, John. AU - Witte, D.. AU - Chiu, F. C.. AU - Parysek, L. M.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - BACKGROUND: Peripherin and neurofilament (NF)-66/α-internexin are recently characterized, neuron-specific intermediate filament proteins that are expressed in the developing peripheral nervous system. Peripherin, in particular, is highly enriched in neuronal derivatives of the neural crest. We speculated that these intermediate filament proteins would be expressed in neuroblastoma (NB), a neural crest-derived tumor with many neuronal features. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: By use of antibodies specific to peripherin and NF- 66/α-internexin, we detected these proteins on Western blots of NB tissue extracts and in paraffin sections of NBs. RESULTS: Western blotting indicated that NB tumor extracts contained immunoreactive proteins that co-migrated with rat peripherin and ...
Intermediate filament-like protein syncoilin in normal and myopathic striated muscle. - Nuffield Department of Clinical...
The intermediate filament-like protein syncoilin is a member of the dystrophin protein complex, and links the complex to the cytoskeleton through binding alpha-dystrobrevin and desmin in muscle. Here, we identify further sites of syncoilin location in normal muscle: at the perinuclear space, myotendinous junction, and enrichment in the sarcolemma and sarcoplasm of oxidative muscle fibers in mice. To understand the importance of the dystrophin protein complex-syncoilin-cytoskeletal link and its implication to disease, we analyzed syncoilin in mice null for alpha-dystrobrevin (adbn-/-) and desmin (des-/-). Syncoilin was upregulated in dystrophic muscles of adbn-/- mice, without alteration in its subcellular location. In des-/- mice, syncoilin was severely reduced in skeletal muscle; lost from sarcomeric Z-lines and neuromuscular junctions, and redistributed from the sub-sarcolemmal cytoskeleton to the cytoplasm. The data show that absence of alpha-dystrobrevin or desmin leads to dynamic changes in
In Utero Exposure to 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin Causes Accelerated Terminal Differentiation in Fetal Mouse Skin :...
2,3,7,8 Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a ubiquitous environmental toxin, has been shown to cause a human skin pathology called chloracne. The majority of laboratory mouse strains, with the exception of mice bearing a mutation in thehairless gene, fail to display overt signs of chloracne upon exposure to TCDD. As a result, only minimal data exist on the effects of TCDD in adult haired mice and no data exist on the effects of TCDD in developing mouse skin. Here we report that TCDD affects the temporal expression of protein markers of keratinocyte terminal differentiation during murine skin morphogenesis. Immunohistochemical analysis of E16 mice reveals accelerated expression of the intermediate filament-associated protein filaggrin in response to TCDD. At a later developmental time and after birth, expression of filaggrin and loricrin is indistinguishable between treatment and control groups. At E16 expression of keratins 5, 6, and 10 are unaltered in TCDD-exposed individuals and TUNEL ...
Anti-Neurofilament M/H Antibody | Anti-Neurofilament Antibody | NF-M Antibody | NF-H Antibody
Neurofilaments (NF) are a key component of the neuronal cytoskeleton, and are responsible for providing structural support to the axon and regulating axon diameter. Mammalian neurofilaments are composed of three major subunits, classified based on molecular weight in SDS-PAGE: light (NF-L), 68-70 kDa; medium (NF-M), 145-160 kDa; and heavy (NF-H), 200-220 kDa. In humans, these proteins are encoded by the NEFL, NEFM, and NEFH genes, respectively. NF-M is also known as neurofilament, medium polypeptide; neurofilament, medium polypeptide 160kDa; NEF3, neurofilament 3, neurofilament triplet M protein, and 160 kDa neurofilament protein. NF-H is also known as neurofilament, heavy polypeptide; neurofilament, heavy polypeptide 200kDa; KIAA0845, neurofilament triplet H protein, and 200 kDa neurofilament protein.. ...
Peripherin - wikidoc
Peripherin was discovered as being the major intermediate filament in neuroblastoma cell lines and in rat pheochromocytoma cells. It is classified by gene structure and coding sequence as a type III intermediate filament protein because of its homology with vimentin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and desmin. All intermediate filament proteins share a common secondary structure consisting of three main domains, the most conserved of which is the central α-helical rod domain. This central coil is capped by non-helical head (N-terminal) and tail (C-terminal) domains. The α-helical rod domain contains repeating segments of hydrophobic amino acids, such that the first and fourth residues of every set of seven amino acids are usually nonpolar. This specific structure enables two intermediate filament polypeptides to coil together and create a "hydrophobic seal". The rod also contains specific placement of alternating acidic and basic residues, many of which are spaced 4 amino acids apart. ...
Efficient degradation in vitro of all intermediate filament subunit proteins by the Ca2+-activated neutral thiol proteinase...
Vimentin, desmin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, neurofilament triplet proteins, and a mixture of cytokeratins were digested with Ca2+-activated neutral thiol proteinase isolated from Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) cells and porcine kidney. All intermediate filament proteins were degraded by the proteinase, although with different rates and Ca2+ optima. These results are in part at variance with our previous statement that the Ca2+-activated proteinase from EAT cells is specific for vimentin and desmin.. ...
Podocytopathy by Z.-H. Liu, J.C. He, C. Ronco - Stowarzyszenie Books
4 Vasmant D, Maurice M, Feldman G: Cytoskeleton ultrastructure of podocytes and glomerular endothelial cells in rat and man. Anat Rec 1984;210: 17-24. 5 Drenckhahn D, Franke RP: Ultrastructural organization of contractile and cytoskeletal proteins in glomerular podocytes of chicken, rat, and man. Lab Invest 1988; 59:673-682. 6 Stamenkovic I, Skalli O, Gabbiani G: Distribution of intermediate filament proteins in normal and diseased human glomeruli. Am J Pathol 1986;125: 465-475. 7 Chen J, Boyle S, Zhao M, Su W, Takahashi K, Davis L, et al: Differential expression of the intermediate filament protein nestin during renal development and its localization in adult podocytes. IF proteins that are expressed in mature podocytes include vimentin , desmin  and nestin . The presence of vimentin in differentiated podocytes underlines their mesenchymal features. Most likely, IF fibers confer stability to the cell body that is constantly floating in the filtrate and exposed to immense mechanical ...
September 2013 Altered barrier integrity and enhanced sensitization by filaggrin deficiency « Experimental Animal Division ...
Filaggrin is a structural protein in the stratum corneum (SC) that is produced as the ~500-kDa precursor protein profilaggrin. Profilaggrin is the major component of keratohyalin granules within the granular layer. Individual filaggrin monomers are released proteolytically during epidermal differentiation, and they contribute to macrofibril generation and the mechanical strength and integrity of the SC. Filaggrin monomers are finally degraded into natural moisturizing factors, which are believed to maintain hydration of the upper SC.Mutations in the filaggrin gene were reported to cause ichthyosis vulgaris  and were also identified as a major predisposing factor for atopic dermatitis (AD) . Disruption of the SC barrier caused by filaggrin deficiency may lead to percutaneous allergenic sensitization, a primary event in the pathogenesis of AD [3, 4]. Although various reports have suggested a role for filaggrin in SC barrier formation, the absence of mice specifically lacking filaggrin has ...
Anti-68kDa Neurofilament 抗体 (ab113854) | アブカム
Anti-68kDa Neurofilament 抗体 [2F11], prediluted (ab74592)
Filaggrin - definition of filaggrin by The Free Dictionary
Pesquisa | Portal Regional da BVS
Nestin, an intermediate filament protein widely used as a marker of neural progenitors, was recently found to be expressed transiently in developing cortical neurons in culture and in developing mouse cortex. In young cortical cultures, nestin regulates axonal growth cone morphology. In addition, nestin, which is known to bind the neuronal cdk5/p35 kinase, affects responses to axon guidance cues upstream of cdk5, specifically, to Sema3a. Changes in growth cone morphology require rearrangements of cytoskeletal networks, and changes in microtubules and actin filaments are well studied. In contrast, the roles of intermediate filament proteins in this process are poorly understood, even in cultured neurons. Here, we investigate the molecular mechanism by which nestin affects growth cone morphology and Sema3a sensitivity. We find that nestin selectively facilitates the phosphorylation of the lissencephaly-linked protein doublecortin (DCX) by cdk5/p35, but the phosphorylation of other cdk5 substrates ...
Tissue type-specific expression of intermediate filament proteins in a cultured epithelial cell line from bovine mammary gland ...
Different clonal cell lines have been isolated from cultures of mammary gland epithelium of lactating cows udder and have been grown in culture media containing high concentrations of hydrocortisone, insulin, and prolactin. These cell (BMGE+H), which grow in monolayers of typical epithelial appearance, are not tightly packed, but leave intercellular spaces spanned by desmosomal bridges. The cells contain extended arrays of cytokeratin fibrils, arranged in bundles attached to desmosomes. Gel electophoresis show that they synthesize cytokeratins similar, if not identical, to those found in bovine epidermis and udder, including two large (mol wt 58,500 and 59,000) and basic (pH range: 7-8) and two small (mol wt 45,500 and 50,000) and acidic (pH 5.32 and 5.36) components that also occur in phosphorylated forms. Two further cytokeratins of mol wts 44,000 (approximately pH 5.7) and 53,000 (pH 6.3) are detected as minor cytokeratins in some cell clones. BMGE+H cells do not produce vimentin filaments ...
GMS | 128. Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Chirurgie | Nestin-positive cells in experimental rat renal grafts...
Introduction: Chronic allograft nephropathy is characterized by arterial remodeling, tubular atrophy, graft fibrosis, and renal dysfunction. Its pathogenesis is poorly understood and no therapies are available. Nestin, a constituent of intermediate filaments, is a marker of progenitor cells which may contribute to chronic allograft remodeling. Here, we test the hypothesis, that Nestin is over-expressed in renal allografts during the development of chronic nephropathy.. Materials and methods: Renal transplantation was performed in the allogeneic Fischer 344 to Lewis rat strain combination. Isogeneic transplantation was done in the Lewis rat and untreated Lewis rats served as controls. Nestin-expression was investigated by real-time RT-PCR, Westernblotting and immunohistochemistry in controls and in grafts on days 9 and 42 post-transplantation (n = 4 per group).. Results: On histological sections of untreated control kidneys, Nestin-immunoreactivity was detected in all glomeruli and in very few ...
Contributions of the structural domains of filensin in polymer formation and filament distribution | Journal of Cell Science
Filensin and phakinin constitute the subunits of a heteropolymeric, lens-specific intermediate filament (IF) system known as the beaded-chain filaments (BFs). Since the rod of filensin is four heptads shorter than the rods of all other IF proteins, we decided to examine the specific contribution of this protein in filament assembly. For these purposes, we constructed chimeric proteins in which regions of filensin were exchanged with the equivalent ones of vimentin, a self-polymerizing IF protein. Our in vitro studies show that the filensin rod domain does not allow homopolymeric filament elongation. However, the filensin rod is necessary for co-polymerization of filensin with phakinin and seems to counteract the inherent tendency of the latter protein to homopolymerize into large, laterally associated filament bundles. Apart from the rod domain, the presence of an authentic or substituted tail domain in filensin is also essential for co-assembly with the naturally tail-less phakinin and ...
Measurements of neuron-specific (neurotypic) and glia-specific (gliotypic) proteins were used to characterize the toxic effects of triethyltin (TET) on the developing central nervous system. Six proteins, each of which is associated with specific aspects of neuronal and glial development, were evaluated as follows: 1) neurofilament-200, an intermediate filament protein of the neuronal cytoskeleton; 2) synapsin I, a synapse specific, synaptic vesicle localized protein; 3) p38, another synaptic-vesicle localized protein; 4) myelin basic protein, a protein unique to myelin-forming oligodendroglia; 5) glial fibrillary acidic protein, the intermediate filament protein of astrocytes; and 6) beta-tubulin, a constituent primarily of neuronal microtubules. The amount of each protein in homogenates of hippocampus, forebrain and cerebellum, brain regions with different developmental profiles, was determined by radioimmunoassay. After a single administration on postnatal day 5, TET (3 or 6 mg/kg i.p.) ...
what is the difference between microtubles, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments?Determine if the each of the following...
Get an answer for what is the difference between microtubles, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments?Determine if the each of the following is true of microtubules, microfilaments, or intermediate filaments. Use the key below to indicate your answers. MT = Microtubules; MF = Microfilaments; IF = Intermediate filaments ______ Straight, hollow tubes ______ Made of tubulin ______ Involved in cell transport ______ Provides tracts for organelle movement ______ Make up spindle fibers, centrioles, cilia, a
Anti-Nestin Antibody [2C1.3A11]- Neural Stem Cell Marker | Immuquest
Glial Filament Protein (GFAP) Standard
Genes coding for intermediate filament proteins: common features and unexpected differences in the genomes of humans and the...
Marian Blanca Ramírez from the CSIC in Spain has been studying the effects of LRRK2, a protein associated with Parkinsons disease, on cell motility. A Travelling Fellowship from Journal of Cell Science allowed her to spend time in Prof Maddy Parsons lab at Kings College London, learning new cell migration assays and analysing fibroblasts cultured from individuals with Parkinsons. Read more on her story here. Where could your research take you? The deadline to apply for the current round of Travelling Fellowships is 30 Nov 2017. Apply now!. ...
Recombinant Human Vimentin (Carrier-Free) - Tonbo Biosciences
Vimentin is a class III intermediate filament protein predominantly found in cells of mesenchymal origins, such as vascular endothelium and blood cells, where it functions as a major cytoskeletal component. Due to its importance and abundance in the cytoskeletal structure of mesenchymally-derived cells, vimentin is fre
A novel intermediate in transcription initiation by human mitochondrial RNA polymerase
The mitochondrial genome is transcribed by a single-subunit T7 phage-like RNA polymerase (mtRNAP), structurally unrelated to cellular RNAPs. In higher eukaryotes, mtRNAP requires two transcription factors for efficient initiation-TFAM, a major nucleoid protein, and TFB2M, a transient component of mt …
BFSP1 Full-Length MS Protein Standard - Creative Proteomics
BFSP1 Full-Length MS Protein Standard (NP_001186), Labeled with [U- 13C6, 15N4]-L-Arginine and [U- 13C6, 15N2]-L-Lysine, was produced in human 293 cells (HEK293) with fully chemically defined cell culture medium to obtain incorporation efficiency at Creative-Proteomics. This gene encodes a lens-specific intermediate filament-like protein named filensin. The encoded protein is expressed in lens fiber cells after differentiation has begun. This protein functions as a component of the beaded filament which is a cytoskeletal structure found in lens fiber cells. Mutations in this gene are the cause of autosomal recessive cortical juvenile-onset cataract. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants.
Anti-Rat Nestin Antibody, Clone Rat401
Cytoskeleton-associated plectin: in situ localization, in vitro reconstitution, and binding to immobilized intermediate...
The association and interaction of plectin (Mr 300,000) with intermediate filaments and filament subunit proteins were studied. Immunoelectron microscopy of whole mount cytoskeletons from various cultured cell lines (rat glioma C6, mouse BALB/c 3T3, and Chinese hamster ovary) and quick-frozen, deep-etched replicas of Triton X-100-extracted rat embryo fibroblast cells revealed that plectin was primarily located at junction sites and branching points of intermediate filaments. These results were corroborated by in vitro recombination studies using vimentin and plectin purified from C6 cells. Filaments assembled from mixtures of both proteins were extensively crosslinked by oligomeric plectin structures, as demonstrated by electron microscopy of negatively stained and rotary-shadowed specimens as well as by immunoelectron microscopy; the binding of plectin structures on the surface of filaments and cross-link formation occurred without apparent periodicity. Plectins cross-linking of reconstituted ...
Nestin anti-Human Antibody
Intermediate Filaments - The WikiPremed MCAT Course
Novel Redox Intermediates | Science Signaling
Understanding how oxidation of proteins leads to reversible alterations in protein function is relevant for proteins involved in cellular signaling processes, including protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). Two groups, Salmeen et al. and van Montfort et al., show that PTP1B is reversibly oxidized by such chemicals as hydrogen peroxide or 2-phenyl-isoxazalidine-3,5-dione and forms a previously uncharacterized sulfenyl-amide because of oxidation of the catalytic site cysteine. Both groups analyzed the crystal structure of PTP1B after exposure to oxidizing conditions and identified the formation of the sulfenyl-amide, which caused large changes in the conformation of the active site. Salmeen et al. reported inhibition of substrate binding in the peroxide-exposed PTP1B, consistent with the structural changes blocking substrate recognition. This novel intermediate may effectively protect PTP1B from irreversible inactivation that would result from the formation of sulfinic or sulfonic acids.. A. ...
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Isolation of a new high molecular weight protein associated with desmin and vimentin filaments from avian embryonic skeletal...
Filaments with a diameter of 80-120 Å have been prepared from 14-d-old chick embryonic skeletal muscle, using a physiological salt solution and gel filtration chromatography. The filaments obtained are composed of the two known muscle intermediate-filament proteins, vimentin and desmin, as well as the vimentin- and desmin-associated high molecular weight protein, synemin (230,000 mol. wt). In addition, they contain a previously unidentified high molecular weight protein (280,000 mol wt) which differs from synemin by isoelectric point, molecular weight, and immunological reactivity. Immunofluorescence on cultured myogenic cells,using antisera to the 280,000-dalton polypeptide, has revealed that this protein has the same spatial distribution as desmin, vimentin, and synemin in both early myotubes, where it associates with cytoplasmic filaments, and late in myotubes, where it is associated with myofibril Z lines. Examination by immunofluorescence of frozen sections of developing embryonic skeletal ...
"Truncation, cross-linking and interaction of crystallins and intermedi" by Roger J. Truscott, Jason D. McArthur et al.
The optical properties of the lens are dependent upon the integrity of proteins within the fiber cells. During aging, crystallins, the major intra-cellular structural proteins of the lens, aggregate and become water-insoluble. Modifications to crystallins and the lens intermediate filaments have been implicated in this phenomenon. In this study, we examined changes to, and interactions between, human lens crystallins and intermediate filament proteins in lenses from a variety of age groups (0-86 years). Among the lens-specific intermediate filament proteins, filensin was extensively cleaved in all postnatal lenses, with truncated products of various sizes being found in both the lens cortical and nuclear extracts. Phakinin was also truncated and was not detected in the lens nucleus. The third major intermediate filament protein, vimentin, remained intact in lens cortical fiber cells across the age range except for an 86 year lens, where a single ~ 49 kDa breakdown product was observed. An ¿B-crystallin
JCI - "IF-pathies": a broad spectrum of intermediate filament-associated diseases
The six types of IFs (types I-VI) are shown. To simplify the schematic, not all epithelial and nonepithelial tissues are displayed. Different keratin pairs are found primarily in unique epithelial cell types in a differentiation state-selective and/or cell type-specific distribution (e.g., K4/K13 in the esophagus, K20 in suprabasal but not in basal crypt enterocytes). The complexity of IF expression in tissues is exemplified in the intestine, in which epithelial cells express different compliments of simple epithelial keratins, the vasculature and other resident mesenchymal cells express vimentin, the smooth muscle layer expresses desmin, and neural elements of the enteric nervous system express neurofilaments. Numbers in parentheses indicate the type of IF. Bfsp1, beaded filament structural protein 1 (previously known as CP115 and filensin); Bfsp2 was previously known as CP49 and phakinin. NFH, high-molecular-weight neurofilament subunit; NFL, low-molecular-weight neurofilament subunit; NFM, ...
Bleomycin hydrolase downregulation in lesional skin of adult atopic dermatitis patients is independent of FLG gene mutations |...
2,3 It is synthesized as 400 kDa precursor named profilaggrin. During the late keratinocyte differentiation, profilaggrin is cleaved by proteases, including calpain-1. The produced filaggrin monomers associate with keratin filaments and promote their aggregation. Then, the monomers are proteolyzed into hygroscopic free amino acids by caspase-14, bleomycin hydrolase (BLMH), and calpain-1. The consequences of FLG nonsense mutations are increased photosensitivity of the lower keratinocytes, enhanced outside-in permeability of the SC, and exacerbated percutaneous immune response. 4,5 Other mechanisms beyond FLG mutations certainly are important in the development of AD. Filaggrin expression is downregulated in the epidermis of adult AD patients independently of FLG mutations through the action of proinflammatory cytokines. 6 Also an enhancement of the profilaggrin/filaggrin ratio has been observed in some patients, 6,7 suggesting decreased profilaggrin processing or increased filaggrin degradation. ...
A comprehensive immunofluorescence and lectin binding analysis of vibrissal follicle sinus complex innervation in the mystacial...
The innervation of the vibrissal follicle sinus complexes (FSCs) in the mystacial pad of the rat was examined by lectin binding histofluorescence with the B subunit of Griffonia simplicifolia (GSA) and by immunofluorescence with a wide variety of antibodies for neuronal related structural proteins, enzymes, and peptides. Only anti-protein gene product 9.5 labeled all sets of innervation. Several types of mechanoreceptors were distributed to specific different targets by medium to large caliber myelinated axons. All were positive for 200 kDa neurofilament subunit, peripherin, and carbonic anhydrase. Their endings expressed synaptophysin. Labeling for the 160 kDa neurofilament subunit, calbindin, and parvalbumin varied. Anti-Schwann cell protein S100 was completely co-extensive with the axons, terminal arbors, and endings of the mechanoreceptor afferents including Merkel innervation. At least 15 different sets of unmyelinated innervation were evident based upon distribution and labeling ...
"Perinuclear localization and insulin responsiveness of GLUT4 requires " by Adilson L. Guilherme, Masahiro Emoto et al.
The GLUT4 glucose transporter resides mostly in perinuclear membranes in unstimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and is acutely translocated to the cell surface in response to insulin. Using a novel method to purify intracellular GLUT4-enriched membranes, we identified by mass spectrometry the intermediate filament protein vimentin and the microtubule protein alpha-tubulin as components of these membranes. Immunoelectron microscopy of the GLUT4-containing membranes also revealed their association with these cytoskeletal proteins. Disruption of intermediate filaments and microtubules in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by microinjection of a vimentin-derived peptide of the helix initiation 1A domain caused marked dispersion of perinuclear GLUT4 to peripheral regions of the cells. Inhibition of the microtubule-based motor dynein by brief cytoplasmic acidification of cultured adipocytes also dispersed perinuclear GLUT4 and inhibited insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation to the cell surface. Insulin sensitivity was restored as
Two Drosophila melanogaster proteins related to intermediate filament proteins of vertebrate cells - Semantic Scholar
Monoclonal antibodies were prepared against a 46,000 mol wt major cytoplasmic protein from Drosophila melanogaster Kc cells. These antibodies reacted with the 46,000 and a 40,000 mol wt protein from Kc cells. Some antibodies showed cross-reaction with 55,000 (vimentin) and 52,000 mol wt (desmin) proteins from baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells that form intermediate sized filaments in vertebrate cells. In indirect immunofluorescence, the group of cross reacting antibodies stained a filamentous meshwork in the cytoplasm of vertebrate cells. In Kc cells the fluorescence seemed to be localized in a filamentous meshwork that became more obvious after the cells had flattened out on a surface. These cytoskeletal structures are heat-labile; the proteins in Kc or BHK cells rearrange after a brief heat shock, forming juxtanuclear cap structures.
GFAP (Astrocyte & Neural Stem Cell Marker) Antibody - With BSA and Azide - Purified Mouse Monoclonal Antibody WB, IHC, IF, FC,...
Anti-Occludin antibody - Neural Stem Cell Marker (ab168986) | Abcam
Tag: metastasis | Highlight HEALTH
A study published in the journal Cancer Research last month suggests that the principle treatment for advanced prostate cancer may actually encourage prostate cancer cells to metastasize . Researchers at The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine focused on a gene called Nestin, which encodes an intermediate filament protein. Intermediate filaments are cytoskeletal or scaffolding structures found in cells that, in addition to maintaining cell shape, control a variety of cellular processes including proliferation, migration and survival . Nestin gene expression also distinguishes stem cells from differentiated cells and has been shown to be activated in pediatric brain tumors and rhabdomyosarcomas (cancers that develop from skeletal muscle), central nervous system tumors and gastrointestinal stromal tumors [3-6].. ...
Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy on Keratin
Metabolism ceases, and the cells are almost completely filled by keratin. During the process of epithelial differentiation, cells become cornified as keratin protein is incorporated into longer keratin intermediate filaments. Eventually the nucleus and cytoplasmic organelles disappear, metabolism ceases and cells undergo a programmed death as they become fully keratinized. In many other cell types, such as cells of the dermis, keratin filaments and other intermediate filaments function as part of the cytoskeleton to mechanically stabilize the cell against physical stress. It does this through connections to desmosomes, cell-cell junctional plaques, and hemidesmosomes, cell-basement membrane adhesive structures.. Cells in the epidermis contain a structural matrix of keratin, which makes this outermost layer of the skin almost waterproof, and along with collagen and elastin, gives skin its strength. Rubbing and pressure cause thickening of the outer, cornified layer of the epidermis and form ...
Neurofilament-L, NF-L or70 kDa Neurofilament Light Antibody
Research proven, mouse monoclonal NeurofilamentL antibody. Useful as a marker for neurons and neurogenesis. NF-L antibody can also be useful in the diagnostics of neurofilament accumulations seen in many neurological diseases, such as Lou Gehrigs disease or Alzheimers disease. Excellent for immunohistochemistry, immunofluorecence, western blotting and related applications. IF and WB images available.
dermatology - What is the mechanism of eczema? - Medical Sciences Stack Exchange
1] Jungersted, J. M. and Agner, T. (2013), Eczema and ceramides: an update. Contact Dermatitis, 69:65-71. doi:10.1111/cod.12073.  Palmer, C. N. A. et al. (2006), Common loss-of-function variants of the epidermal barrier protein filaggrin are a major predisposing factor for atopic dermatitis. Nature Genetics, 38:441-446. doi:10.1038/ng1767.  Weidinger, S. et al. (2006), Loss-of-function variations within the filaggrin gene predispose for atopic dermatitis with allergic sensitizations. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 118(1):214-219. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2006.05.004.  Werfel, T. and Wittmann, M. (2008), Regulatory Role of T Lymphocytes in Atopic Dermatitis. Chem Immunol Allergy, 94:101-111. doi:10.1159/000154935.  Simon, D. et al. (2008), Anti-CD20 (rituximab) treatment improves atopic eczema. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 121(1):122-128. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2007.11.016.  McDonald, B. S. et al. (2015), Rituximab as a treatment for severe atopic eczema: failure to improve in three consecutive ...
Persistence of immunoreactive neurofilament protein breakdown products in transected rat sciatic nerve. - Semantic Scholar
Alterations occurring in nerve proteins of transected nerves were studied in rat sciatic nerves using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to identify and monitor neurofilament (NF) epitopes among nerve proteins following their electrophoresis and transfer to nitrocellulose paper. Immunoblot methods identified NF epitopes in NF triplet proteins (Mr 200,000, 150,000, and 68,000) and in NF nontriplet proteins (all other immunobands below Mr 200,000 and above Mr 40,000). NF triplet and nontriplet proteins were Triton-insoluble in both untransected and transected nerves. Extensive loss of NF triplet and most nontriplet proteins occurred during the 24-48-h period following nerve transection and was attributed to proteolytic degradation. Loss of protease-labile NF proteins led to a markedly reduced level of NF immunoreactivity in 2-day transected nerve. NF proteins which survived the 2-day posttransectional period were considered to represent protease-stable NF fragments. These fragments persisted in
US3300488A - Nu, nu'-bis [4-halogenated-5-alkyl-3-isoxazolylsulfamoyl)-phenyl]-ureas - Google Patents
United States Patent M 3,300,488 N,N-BIS[4-(4-HALOGENATED-5-ALKYL-3-ISOXA- ZOLYLSULFAMOYL)-PHENYL]-UREAS Hiroshi Onoue, Nishinomiya-shi, Japan, assignor to Shionogi & Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan N0 Drawing. Filed Nov. 12, 1964, Ser. No. 410,754 Claims priority, application Japan, Dec. 23, 1963, 38/ 69,570 2 Claims. (Cl. 260239.9) The present invention relates to novel intermediates in a process for preparing isoxazole derivatives of sulfanilamide. More particularly, it relates to novel intermediates in an improved process for preparing 4-halogenated or unhalogenated 3-sulfanilamido-S-alkylisoxazoles. The aforesaid process comprises (1) condensing a 4- halogenated or unhalogenated 3-amino-5-alkylisoxazole (hereinafter referred to as aminoisoxazole) represented by the formula: X 1l-NH2 wherein R is a lower alkyl group (e.g. methyl, ethyl, propyl) and X is a holagen atom (e.g. chlorine, bromine, iodine) with an N,N-bis(halogenosulfonylphenyl)-urea (hereinafter referred to as bisphenylurea) represented ...
Filaggrin gene mutations and new SNPs in asthmatic patients: a cross-sectional study in a Spanish population / دانلود فایل
Abstract Background Several null-mutations in the FLG gene that produce a decrease or absence of filaggrin in the skin and predispose to atopic dermatitis and ichthyosis vulgaris have been described. The relationship with asthma is less clear and may be due to the influence of atopy in patients with associated asthma. Methods Four hundred individuals were included, 300 patients diagnosed with asthma divided into two groups according to their phenotype (allergic and non-allergic asthma) and 100 strictly characterized controls. The coding region and flanking regions of the FLG gene were amplified by PCR. We proceeded to the characterization of potential gene variants in that region by RFLP and sequencing and analysed their association with lung function parameters, asthma control and severity, and quality of life. Results We identified two null-mutations (R501X and 2282del4), seven SNPs previously described in databases and three SNPs that had not been previously described. One of the SNP ...
Anti-GFAP antibodies, human, mouse, rat - Primary antibodies - Antibodies - MACS Flow Cytometry - Products - Miltenyi Biotec -...
Clone REA335 recognizes the human, mouse, and rat glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), the main intermediate filament protein in mature astrocytes and an important component of the cytoskeleton in astrocytes during development. GFAP is expressed exclusively in astrocytes in the central nervous system. It has been shown to be involved in astrocyte functions, which are important during regeneration, synaptic plasticity, and reactive gliosis. Moreover, different subpopulations of astrocytes have been identified, which are likely to have distinctive tasks in brain physiology and pathology, and which are not only classified by their spatial and temporal appearance, but also by their specific expression of intermediate filaments, including distinct GFAP isoforms. Additional information: Clone REA335 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Österreich
Keratin 18 - wikidoc
Keratin 18 is a type I cytokeratin. It is, together with its filament partner keratin 8, perhaps the most commonly found products of the intermediate filament gene family. They are expressed in single layer epithelial tissues of the body. Mutations in this gene have been linked to cryptogenic cirrhosis. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. Keratin 18 is often used together with keratin 8 and keratin 19 to differentiate cells of epithelial origin from hematopoietic cells in tests that enumerate circulating tumor cells in blood. ...
When our protective armor shows weakness
In a large study on more than 3000 school-children scientists of the Helmholtz Zentrum München and the Technische Universität München found that about 8% of the German population carry variations of the filaggrin gene, which raise the risk to develop atopic dermatitis more than threefold. In addition, these genetic variations predispose to hay fever and asthma in those with atopic dermatitis.. Allergic diseases have increased considerably in the past decades in most industrial countries. A combination of genetic and environmentally related factors is said to be the cause. In recent years, several genes were examined for a role in allergic diseases, and one of them actually turned out to be a key player. This gene encodes filaggrin, an essential protein in the horny layer of the skin. If this protein is reduced or lacking due to a genetic defect, the natural cornification is impeded and the natural barrier function of the skin is limited.. In 2006 filaggrin mutations could be identified as ...
JCI - Influences on allergic mechanisms through gut, lung, and skin microbiome exposures
Several different but interdependent factors seem to predispose patients to AD. First, in contrast to healthy skin, the barrier function of AD patients skin is impaired (15). A number of genetic risk factors have been identified that directly affect barrier integrity, like loss-of-function mutations in the protein filaggrin, which is important for the development of the stratum corneum, or mutations that affect skin immune responses (39, 40). Mice with a filaggrin loss-of-function mutation develop AD-like skin inflammation, underscoring the importance of this protein (41). Second, dysbiosis of the skin microbiota with decreased colonization of beneficial commensals (42, 43) and an increased presence of the potentially pathogenic commensal Staphylococcus aureus is a common phenomenon in both patients with AD and murine models of disease (44-46). The exact cause and timing of when particular predisposing factors come into play are not completely understood. While overgrowth of S. aureus sometimes ...
Cytokeratin (Hair Cortex) - BM4538 | acris-antibodies.com
Mouse Monoclonal Antibody to KRT13 - BidScientific.com
Supplier: ProMab Technologies Type of Product: Monoclonal Antibody Description: The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the keratin gene family. The keratins are intermediate filament proteins responsible for the structural integrity of epithelial cells and are subdivided into cytokeratins and hair keratins. Mo
July 25, 2017 | emailexporter.com
and CNTF using real 1662274 time RT-PCR. IL-6, LIF and CNTF were all expressed in human NPCs. However, TNF-a specifically increased the mRNA expression of LIF and IL6 in a time dependent manner (Figure 2A, B), but not CNTF (data not shown). We also detected LIF and IL-6 protein levels in TNFa-treated NPC supernatant by ELISA. TNF-a modestly increased IL-6 and LIF production at 6 h, and significantly increased IL-6 and LIF production at 24 h, but not at 30 min (Figure 2C, D). These data indicate that TNF-a induces IL-6 and LIF production via transcriptional regulation, but not through direct secretion. To confirm that LIF is produced by human NPCs, we further assess the protein levels of LIF expression by immunocytochemistry. Human NPCs were treated with TNF-a (20 ng/ml) for 14 h. As shown in Figure 3, TNF-a increased the expression of LIF in the cytoplasm of nestin-positive cells. The co-localization of LIF with nestin suggests that LIF is indeed produced by human NPCs following TNF-a ...
Rare Genetic Disorder: Cause (2/5).....
Keratins 5 and 14 combine to form intermediate filaments in basal keratinocytes. Keratins contain a central alpha-helical rod with several nonhelical interruptions, as well as nonhelical carboxyterminal and aminoterminal regions. The regions of highest conservation between the keratins are located on the ends of the keratin rod in the helix boundary motifs. Keratin intermediate filaments insert upon electron-dense structures termed hemidesmosomes ...
Rapid Displacement of Vimentin Intermediate Filaments in Living Endothelial Cells Exposed to Flow | Circulation Research
These experiments represent the first spatiotemporal measurements of cytoskeletal motion in response to a controlled mechanical environment with physiological relevance (flow). The decentralization model of mechanotransduction2 proposes that the dynamic response of the cytoskeleton to an instantaneous change in the distribution of extracellular applied forces plays a key role in the integration of fast signaling responses. The early changes in IF displacement observed in response to shear stress suggest that 3D force redistribution throughout the cell acts rapidly at sites micrometers away from the luminal surface.. ECs contain an extensive interconnecting cytoplasmic network of vimentin IFs. Several physiological roles for IFs have been proposed,26 including determination and maintenance of cell shape, transmission of mechanical stress, targeting of molecules between the nucleus and cytoplasm, and regulation of nuclear position and morphology. The network has traditionally been regarded as a ...
Isolation and characterization of the highly phosphorylated repeat domain of distinct heavy neurofilament subunit (NF-H)...
Kataoka N et al. (2000), Pre-mRNA splicing imprints mRNA in the nucleus ... - Xenbase Paper
We describe a novel RNA binding protein, Y14, a predominantly nuclear nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein. Interestingly, Y14 associates preferentially with mRNAs produced by splicing but not with pre-mRNAs, introns, or mRNAs produced from intronless cDNAs. Y14 associates with both nuclear mRNAs and newly exported cytoplasmic mRNAs. Splicing of a single intron is sufficient for Y14 association. Y14-containing nuclear complexes are different from general hnRNP complexes. They contain hnRNP proteins and several unique proteins including the mRNA export factor TAP. Thus, Y14 defines novel intermediates in the pathway of gene expression, postsplicing nuclear preexport mRNPs, and newly exported cytoplasmic mRNPs, whose composition is established by splicing. These findings suggest that pre-mRNA splicing imprints mRNA with a unique set of proteins that persists in the cytoplasm and thereby communicates the history of the transcript ...
Patent US4263219 - Production of substituted phenylurea - Google Patents
A compound of the formula: ##STR1## which is useful as a herbicide, is effectively produced by reacting a compound of the formula: ##STR2## with dimethyl sulfate in a two phase reaction medium consisting of water and a hydrophobic organic solvent in the presence of a phase transfer catalyst, or produced through a novel intermediate of the formula: ##STR3##
Wool Biology - Fibre - Woolwise
Each intermediate filament consists of large numbers of so-called low-sulfur protein molecules, which are single protein chains, arranged in a specific manner. The individual low-sulfur protein molecules interact with each other to form pairs of protein chains or dimers. In turn, the dimers interact with each other to form tetramers. Within the intermediate filament large numbers of tetramers are arranged end to end thereby constituting a long subfilament; the tetramer, with its four constituent protein chains, is regarded as the repeating unit in the longitudinal direction. A small number of subfilaments, probably eight, are bundled together side by side in a cylindrical arrangement, with a certain stagger between them in the longitudinal direction, to form the intermediate filament.. This module contains a number of questions and answers to test the understanding of the structure of the mammalian hard a-keratins which is covered by information contained in the modules "Keratin Structure", "The ...
Neglected cellular organelles...
I have some questions regarding your email. 1) You claim virtually all animal cells contain glycosome. I wonder is it exists only in certain tissue, e.g. liver. I wonder some cells, e.g. epithelial cells, have glycosome. 2) what kind of intermediate filaments are associated with glycosome, since there are so many different kinds of intermediate filaments in different kinds of tissure cells in animal. Hong Qin U of Chicago ...
An analysis of the changes in rat hepatocyte intermediate filaments during primary culture | Biochemical Society Transactions
Role of Intermediate Filaments in Cell Locomotion
Noninvasive Detection of Filaggrin Molecules by Raman Spectroscopy | SpringerLink
Ni(II) assisted hydrolysis of filaggrin protein - Radcliffe Department of Medicine
CiNii Articles - MORIMOTO Michio
Grey) - Filaments PS-PLA-175-0750-DG PrimaSelect PLA Filament, 1.75 mm, 750 g, Dark Grey Prima (Dark npjvxg3867-New toy - www...
Helium Leak Detector Filaments and Santovac 5 | Fil-Tech
Extreme Sebaceous Filament Extraction (probably Best Not To Try It Yourself)
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Keratins are the intermediate filament proteins that form a dense meshwork of filaments throughout the cytoplasm of epithelial ... "Intermediate filament proteins". Protein Profile. 2 (8): 795-952. PMID 8771189. Wilson NJ, Messenger AG, Leachman SA, O'Toole ... Keratin 6C (protein name K6C; gene name KRT6C), is a type II cytokeratin, one of a number of isoforms of keratin 6 encoded by ... The keratin proteins of epithelial tissues are commonly known as "keratins" or are sometimes referred to as "epithelial ...
... is an intermediate filament (IF) family member. IF proteins are cytoskeletal proteins that confer resistance to ... intermediate filament protein". Garcia-Pelagio KP, Muriel J, O'Neill A, Desmond P, Lovering R, Lund L, Bond M, Bloch R (Mar ... an intermediate filament protein that interacts with alpha -dystrobrevin and desmin". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... "Human synemin gene generates splice variants encoding two distinct intermediate filament proteins". European Journal of ...
... proteins. Keratins are heteropolymeric structural proteins which form the intermediate filament. These filaments, along with ... Keratin-10 is a member of the type I (acidic) cytokeratin family, which belongs to the superfamily of intermediate filament (IF ... 1988). "The complete sequence of the human intermediate filament chain keratin 10. Subdomainal divisions and model for folding ... 1993). "Microsequences of 145 proteins recorded in the two-dimensional gel protein database of normal human epidermal ...
Intermediate filament Nuclear lamina Laminopathies Inner nuclear membrane proteins Dechat, Thomas; Adam, Stephen A.; Taimen, ... This sequence is lost in later forms of IF proteins, suggesting that the structure of later intermediate filaments diverged. ... Nuclear lamins, also known as Class V intermediate filaments, are fibrous proteins providing structural function and ... The structure of lamins is composed of three units that are common among intermediate filaments: a central α-helical rod domain ...
Pancreatic stellate cell
PaSCs express the intermediate filament proteins desmin and glial fibrillary acidic protein. The expression of a diverse range ... of intermediate filament proteins enables the PaSC to harbour contractile abilities. Cellular extensions also enable the cells ... Protein kinases such as MAPKs are primary mediators of activating signals initiated by the growth factors, angiotensin II and ... Matri-cellular proteins may therefore directly contribute to the development of pancreatic cancer through stimulating cancer ...
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia
Desmin is an intermediate filament protein, which is linked to the desmosomes. Different DES muations cause an abnormal ... The desmosomes are composed of several proteins, and many of those proteins can have harmful mutations. The disease is a type ... Novel studies showed that mutations (point mutations) in genes encoding for desmosomal proteins (see intercalated disc) are the ... Woolly hair nevus List of conditions caused by problems with junctional proteins Freedberg, et al. (2003). Fitzpatrick's ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DES gene. Desmin is a muscle-specific, type III intermediate filament that ... Paulin D, Li Z (November 2004). "Desmin: a major intermediate filament protein essential for the structural integrity and ... molecular interactions and putative functions of the muscle intermediate filament protein". Brazilian Journal of Medical and ... Desmin, as all intermediate filaments, shows no polarity when assembled. The rod domain consists of 308 amino acids with ...
Alternatively, these proteins can interact with keratin intermediate filaments. Filaggrin undergoes further processing in the ... Filaggrin (filament aggregating protein) is a filament-associated protein that binds to keratin fibers in epithelial cells. Ten ... In humans, profilaggrin is encoded by the FLG gene, which is part of the S100 fused-type protein (SFTP) family within the ... Filaggrin monomers are tandemly clustered into a large, 350kDa protein precursor known as profilaggrin. In the epidermis, these ...
... and participate in linking cadherins to intermediate filaments in the cytoskeleton. This protein may be involved in molecular ... "Interaction of plakophilins with desmoplakin and intermediate filament proteins: an in vitro analysis". J. Cell Sci. 113. ( Pt ... "Interaction of plakophilins with desmoplakin and intermediate filament proteins: an in vitro analysis". J. Cell Sci. 113. ( Pt ... Smith EA, Fuchs E (1998). "Defining the interactions between intermediate filaments and desmosomes". J. Cell Biol. 141 (5): ...
... many of these cells express the intermediate filament glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Several forms of astrocytes exist ... Zerlin M, Levison SW, Goldman JE (1995). "Early patterns of migration, morphogenesis, and intermediate filament expression of ... astrocytes were generated by exposing human glial precursor cells to bone morphogenetic protein (Bone morphogenetic protein is ... In response to nerve damage, heat shock proteins (HSP) are released and can bind to their respective TLRs, leading to further ...
The desmosomal protein, desmoplakin, is the core constituent of the plaque which anchors intermediate filaments to the ... "Interaction of plakophilins with desmoplakin and intermediate filament proteins: an in vitro analysis". J. Cell Sci. 113 (13): ... Plakophilin 2 is expressed in skin and cardiac muscle, where it functions to link cadherins to intermediate filaments in the ... Plakophilin 2 functions to link cadherins to intermediate filaments in the cytoskeleton. In cardiomyocytes, plakophilin-2 is ...
... and participate in linking cadherins to intermediate filaments in the cytoskeleton. This protein may act in cellular desmosome- ... "Interaction of plakophilins with desmoplakin and intermediate filament proteins: an in vitro analysis". J. Cell Sci. 113 (13): ... "Identification of the junctional plaque protein plakophilin 3 in cytoplasmic particles containing RNA-binding proteins and the ... Plakophilin-3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PKP3 gene. This gene encodes a member of the arm-repeat (armadillo ...
"Dissection of protein linkage between keratins and pinin, a protein with dual location at desmosome-intermediate filament ... a protein with dual location at desmosome-intermediate filament complex and in the nucleus". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (20): 14910-5. ... a novel protein associated with the desmosome-intermediate filament complex". J Cell Biol. 135 (4): 1027-42. doi:10.1083/jcb. ... "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. England. 3 (1): 89. doi: ...
"Ubiquitin-related proteins regulate interaction of vimentin intermediate filaments with the plasma membrane". Mol. Cell. 4 (4 ... 1997). "Interaction of DA41, a DAN-binding protein, with the epidermal growth factor-like protein, S(1-5)". Biochem. Biophys. ... 2001). "Toward a Catalog of Human Genes and Proteins: Sequencing and Analysis of 500 Novel Complete Protein Coding Human cDNAs ... 2000). "The hPLIC proteins may provide a link between the ubiquitination machinery and the proteasome". Mol. Cell. 6 (2): 409- ...
"Interaction of plakophilins with desmoplakin and intermediate filament proteins: an in vitro analysis". J. Cell Sci. 113 (13): ... direct binding between keratin intermediate filaments and desmosomal proteins". J. Cell Biol. 127 (4): 1049-60. doi:10.1083/jcb ... displacement of the desmosomal plaque protein desmoplakin from cell-cell interfaces disrupts anchorage of intermediate filament ... Both types of intermediate filaments attach in a lateral fashion to desmoplakin to form the plaque. In cardiac muscle, ...
It is composed of intermediate filaments and membrane associated proteins. Besides providing mechanical support, the nuclear ... Type V intermediate filaments differ from cytoplasmic intermediate filaments in the way that they have an extended rod domain ( ... The lamins are type V intermediate filaments which can be categorized as either A-type (lamin A, C) or B-type(lamin B1, B2) ... The nuclear lamin-associated membrane proteins are either integral or peripheral membrane proteins. The most important are ...
Large-cell lung carcinoma with rhabdoid phenotype
Vimentin, an intermediate filament protein usually found in sarcoma, is ubiquitously (nearly 100%) expressed diffusely ... an intermediate filament protein usually associated with non-carcinomatous tumors (i.e. sarcoma), is ubiquitous in rhabdoid ... "Rhabdoid tumors of the kidney contain mesenchymal specific and epithelial specific intermediate filament proteins". Lab. Invest ... of the malignant tumor cells must contain distinctive structures composed of tangled intermediate filaments that displace the ...
... , like other members of the keratin family, is an intermediate filament protein. These polypeptides are characterized ... of the intermediate filaments. K5/K14 intermediate filaments are anchored to the desmosomes of basal cells via desmoplakin and ... direct binding between keratin intermediate filaments and desmosomal proteins". The Journal of Cell Biology. 127 (4): 1049-60. ... Keratin intermediate filaments make up the cytoskeletal scaffold within epithelial cells, which contributes to the cell ...
The diverse properties of intermediate filaments, compared with the conserved microtubule and actin filament proteins, could be ... Interactions between intermediate filaments and other proteins are also being pursued. Peripherin has been shown to associate ... Peripherin is a type III Intermediate filament (IF) protein expressed mainly in neurons of the peripheral nervous system (PNS ... Spheroids, specifically, which are protein aggregates of neuronal intermediate filaments, have been found in patients with ALS ...
This protein is known to interact with intermediate filaments, specifically keratins. It is synthesized as a giant Precursor ... protein, profilaggrin (>400 kDA in humans). When the filaggrin binds to keratin intermediate filaments, it causes aggregation ... Tonofilaments are keratin intermediate filaments that makes up tonofibrils in the epithelial tissue. In epithelial cells, ... The protein filaggrin is believed to have an important role in holding them together as tonofibrils. ...
... is a member of the type I keratin family of intermediate filament proteins. Keratin 14 was the first type I keratin ... the absence of K14 leads to severe epidermolysis bullosa simplex and a function for an intermediate filament protein". Genes & ... divergence of sequence but conservation of structure among intermediate filament proteins". Cell. 31 (1): 243-52. doi:10.1016/ ... divergence of sequence but conservation of structure among intermediate filament proteins". Cell. 31 (1): 243-52. doi:10.1016/ ...
It binds to intermediate filament protein, vimentin by covalently modifying its highly conserved cysteine residue in alpha- ... 2007). "The tumor inhibitor and antiangiogenic agent Withaferin A targets the intermediate filament protein Vimentin". ... This dual property of withaferin on heat shock protein might be due to the concentration of withaferin and cellular content. ... This finding has augmented the therapeutic potential of the pro-apoptotic protein Par-4 in cancer. Researchers have shown that ...
By computerized analysis of amino acid sequences he predicted that the central rod domain of intermediate filament proteins is ... Later crystallographic studies have confirmed this as a general model for intermediate filament protein structure. During his ... divergence of sequence but conservation of structure among intermediate filament proteins". Cell. 31 (1): 243-252. doi:10.1016/ ... These proteins are located on the inner mitochondrial membrane. Israel reconstituted this system using proteins he purified, ...
Tubulin-like, actin-like, Walker A cytoskeletal ATPases (WACA-proteins), and intermediate filaments. Tubulin-like proteins are ... Different intermediate filaments are: made of vimentins. Vimentin intermediate filaments are in general present in mesenchymal ... In those animals that express cytoplasmic intermediate filaments, these are tissue specific. Keratin intermediate filaments in ... and intermediate filaments. Each cytoskeletal filament type is formed by polymerization of a distinct type of protein subunit ...
... linking intermediate filament proteins to the dystrophin-associated protein complex". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (5): 3433-9. doi: ... Syncoilin is a muscle-specific intermediate filament, first isolated as a binding partner to α-dystrobrevin, as determined by a ... a novel member of the intermediate filament superfamily that interacts with alpha-dystrobrevin in skeletal muscle". J. Biol. ... and the dystrophin-associated protein complex (where α-dystrobrevin is localized). However, the specific in vivo functions of ...
Nestin is an intermediate filament (IF) protein that assists with IF polymerization and macromolecule stability. Intermediate ... and increase synthesis of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). GFAP is an important intermediate filament protein that ... CDK is a cell-cycle promoting protein, which along with other pro-growth proteins is abnormally activated during glial scar ... Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a cytosolic protein that is not secreted. CNTF has been shown to promote the survival of ...
Alzheimer type II astrocyte
This acts as a neuroprotective event by upregulating intermediate filament proteins for structural cellular support. One of ... these proteins, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) can be used as a marker for reactive gliosis in damaged tissue. ... associated phenotypic changes in appearances occur in the cells as well as regulation of gene expression for proteins ...
In muscle, plectin binds to the periphery of Z-discs, and along with the intermediate filament protein desmin, may form lateral ... "Plectin interacts with the rod domain of type III intermediate filament proteins desmin and vimentin". European Journal of Cell ... Hijikata T, Murakami T, Imamura M, Fujimaki N, Ishikawa H (Mar 1999). "Plectin is a linker of intermediate filaments to Z-discs ... The subdomain between regions five and six of this domain is known to connect to the intermediate filaments cytokeratin and ...
LMNA - 维基百科，自由的百科全书
lamin filament. · nuclear lamina. · nucleoplasm. · cytoplasm. · cytosol. · intermediate filament. · perinuclear region of ... endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response. · protein localization to nucleus. · sterol regulatory element binding protein ... It stays associated with the membrane through protein-protein interactions of itself and other membrane associated proteins, ... activation of signaling protein activity involved in unfolded protein response. · mitotic nuclear envelope disassembly. · ...
The diseases and parasites that affect octopuses have been little studied, but cephalopods are known to be the intermediate or ... Editing is concentrated in the nervous system and affects proteins involved in neural excitability and neuronal morphology. ... also lacks tentacles but has sensory filaments. ... the proteins that guide the connections neurons make with each ... Octopus blood contains the copper-rich protein haemocyanin to transport oxygen. This makes the blood very viscous and it ...
... an intermediate filament-like function in cell shape". Cell. 115 (6): 705-13. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(03)00935-8. PMID 14675535 ... Cell development involves many such proteins working together. Fig#1 shows how TipN interact with two other polar proteins : ... The DnaA protein acts at the origin of replication to initiate the replication of the chromosome. The CtrA protein, in contrast ... These five proteins directly control the timing of expression of over 200 genes. The five master regulatory proteins are ...
Unlike other proteins involved in DNA metabolism, the RecA/Rad51 family forms a helical nucleoprotein filament on DNA. ... and the RAD51 paralogs cooperate to load RAD51 onto ssDNA coated with RPA to form the essential recombination intermediate, the ... protein C-terminus binding. • protein binding. • four-way junction DNA binding. • identical protein binding. • ... This protein can interact with the ssDNA-binding protein RPA, BRCA2, PALB2 and RAD52. ...
Tolstonog GV, Mothes E, Shoeman RL, Traub P (2001). "Isolation of SDS-stable complexes of the intermediate filament protein ... Cyclin-T2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNT2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly ... Kwak YT, Ivanov D, Guo J, Nee E, Gaynor RB (1999). "Role of the human and murine cyclin T proteins in regulating HIV-1 tat- ... Jang MK, Mochizuki K, Zhou M, Jeong HS, Brady JN, Ozato K (2005). "The bromodomain protein Brd4 is a positive regulatory ...
Proteins do not have to unfold to be imported into the peroxisome. The protein receptors, the peroxins PEX5 and PEX7, accompany ... Intermediate filament. *Microtubule. *Prokaryotic cytoskeleton. *Microtubule organizing center *Centrosome. *Centriole. *Basal ... The protein content of peroxisomes varies across species or organism, but the presence of proteins common to many species has ... of peroxisomal matrix proteins signals them to be imported into the organelle. There are at least 32 known peroxisomal proteins ...
Intermediate filaments. Type 1/2. (Keratin,. Cytokeratin). Epithelial keratins. (soft alpha-keratins). *type I/chromosome 17 * ... identical protein binding. • protein binding. • actin binding. • RNA binding. • cadherin binding. Cellular component. • ... Filamin B, beta (FLNB), also known as Filamin B, beta (actin binding protein 278), is a cytoplasmic protein which in humans is ... "Cloning from the thyroid of a protein related to actin binding protein that is recognized by Graves disease immunoglobulins". ...
WIPI2, a PtdIns(3)P binding protein of the WIPI (WD-repeat protein interacting with phosphoinositides) protein family, was ... Intermediate filaments. *Microtubules. *Prokaryotic cytoskeleton. *MTOCs *Centrosome. *Centriole. *Basal body. *Spindle pole ... Without efficient autophagy, neurons gather ubiquitinated protein aggregates and degrade. Ubiquitinated proteins are proteins ... This allows unneeded proteins to be degraded and the amino acids recycled for the synthesis of proteins that are essential for ...
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein
Intermediate filaments. Type 1/2. (Keratin,. Cytokeratin). Epithelial keratins. (soft alpha-keratins). *type I/chromosome 17 * ... protein binding. • identical protein binding. • actin binding. • protein kinase binding. • small GTPase binding. • Rac GTPase ... protein complex assembly. • actin filament organization. • negative regulation of cell motility. • blood coagulation. • ... "The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein-interacting protein (WIP) binds to the adaptor protein Nck". The Journal of Biological ...
Strok bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
GFAP merupakan monomeric intermediate filament protein yang terdapat di astrosit dan sel ependimal otak yang berfungsi sebagai ... Protein khas CNS seperti pancortin-2 akan berinteraksi dengan protein modulator aktin, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein ... Myelin basic protein (MBP)[sunting , sunting sumber]. Bagian ini tidak memiliki referensi atau sumber tepercaya sehingga isinya ... Protein tau (TP)[sunting , sunting sumber]. Bagian ini tidak memiliki referensi atau sumber tepercaya sehingga isinya tidak ...
... green fluorescent protein with the protein of interest).. Techniques used for horizontal scanning. Four types of confocal ... Hugely magnified intermediate images, due to a 1-2 meter long beam path, allowed the use of a conventional iris diaphragm as a ... Example of a stack of confocal microscope images showing the distribution of actin filaments throughout a cell. ... GFP fusion protein being expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana. The fluorescence is visible by confocal microscopy. ...
... toxic basic protein and cationic protein (e.g., cathepsin); receptors that bind to IgE are used to help with this task. ... Multiple intermediate cell types exist in this differentiation process, including myeloblasts and promyelocytes. ... and the chromatin filaments that connect them are not very visible. Basophils have receptors that can bind to IgE, IgG, ... The intracellular granules of the human neutrophil have long been recognized for their protein-destroying and bactericidal ...
An intermediate form with partial degradation of the nuclear envelope is called a "semiopen" mitosis. With respesct to the ... Motor proteins then push the centrosomes along these microtubules to opposite sides of the cell. Although centrosomes help ... preprophase is characterized by the formation of a ring of microtubules and actin filaments (called preprophase band) ... Volume 15 of Protein Reviews. Berlin: Springer Science & Business Media. p. 15. ISBN 9781461405146.. ...
For example, the term protozoa is used to refer to heterotrophic species of protists that do not form filaments. ... Plattner, H. (2018). Evolutionary cell biology of proteins from protists to humans and plants. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 65(2): ... which act as secondary or intermediate host - but can undergo sexual reproduction only in the primary or definitive host (for ...
Neurofilament light polypeptide
intermediate filament organization. • response to sodium arsenite. • neuron projection morphogenesis. • protein polymerization ... postsynaptic intermediate-filament cytoskeleton. • presynaptic intermediate filament cytoskeleton. Biological process. • ... protein C-terminus binding. • protein binding. • identical protein binding. • protein heterodimerization activity. • Ras guanyl ... protein domain specific binding. • phospholipase binding. • structural constituent of postsynaptic intermediate filament ...
Thick filaments consist primarily of the protein myosin. Each thick filament is approximately 15 nm in diameter, and each is ... Intermediate filaments. Type 1/2. (Keratin,. Cytokeratin). Epithelial keratins. (soft alpha-keratins). *type I/chromosome 17 *9 ... The contractile nature of this protein complex is based on the structure of the thick and thin filaments. The thick filament, ... the thin filament. The filaments of actin and myosin then form linkages. After binding, myosin pulls actin filaments toward ...
... and intermediate filament protein K7". J. Cell. Biochem. 80 (4): 483-90. doi:10.1002/1097-4644(20010315)80:4,483::AID-JCB1002, ... Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit A (eIF3a) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EIF3A gene. ... "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. 3: 89. doi:10.1038/msb4100134 ... protein binding. • structural molecule activity. • translation initiation factor activity. • receptor tyrosine kinase binding. ...
... and intermediate filament proteins in the adult hippocampus CA1 following neonatal exposure to the nonprotein amino acid BMAA" ... "The Non-Protein Amino Acid BMAA Is Misincorporated into Human Proteins in Place of l-Serine Causing Protein Misfolding and ... BMAA can be misincorporated into nascent proteins in place of L-serine, possibly causing protein misfolding and aggregation, ... Neurotoxic non-protein amino acid BMAA in brain from patients dying with ALS and Alzheimer's disease[permanent dead link] ...
Intermediate filament. *Microtubule. *Prokaryotic cytoskeleton. *Microtubule organizing center *Centrosome. *Centriole. *Basal ... The enzymes and proteins listed above serve to reinforce the glycocalyx barrier against vascular and other diseases. Another ... The glycocalyx also consists of a wide range of enzymes and proteins that regulate leukocyte and thrombocyte adherence, since ... and includes enzymes secreted by the absorptive cells that are essential for the final steps of digestion of proteins and ...
The green fluorescent protein (GFP) is often used in genetics as a marker. Many substances, such as proteins, have significant ... Medium-wave, mostly absorbed by the ozone layer: intermediate UV Ultraviolet C UVC 100-280 4.43-12.4. (0.710-1.987) Short-wave ... Due to its black-body spectrum a filament light bulb is a very inefficient ultraviolet source, emitting only a fraction of a ... Many enzymes and proteins involved in modern mitosis and meiosis are similar to repair enzymes, and are believed to be evolved ...
Protein characterizationEdit. Main article: Protein mass spectrometry. Mass spectrometry is an important method for the ... This stream of separated compounds is fed online into the ion source, a metallic filament to which voltage is applied. This ... 46] A third approach is also beginning to be used, this intermediate "middle-down" approach involves analyzing proteolytic ... The top-down approach however is largely limited to low-throughput single-protein studies. In the second, proteins are ...
Since assembly of kinetochore proteins at centromeres is affected by the methylation of cytosine and histone proteins, a ... Intermediate filaments. *Microtubules. *Prokaryotic cytoskeleton. *MTOCs *Centrosome. *Centriole. *Basal body. *Spindle pole ... irregularities in kinetochore proteins or their assembly, dysfunctional spindle apparatus, or flawed anaphase checkpoint genes. ...
actin filament organization. • negative regulation of protein complex assembly. • epithelial-mesenchymal cell signaling. • ... Miki H, Yamaguchi H, Suetsugu S, Takenawa T (December 2000). "IRSp53 is an essential intermediate between Rac and WAVE in the ... protein binding. • thioesterase binding. • protein kinase binding. • nucleotide binding. • GTP binding. • identical protein ... "Protein Data Bank in Europe. EMBL-EBI. Retrieved 2016-04-22.. *^ "CDC42 (cell division cycle 42 (GTP binding protein, 25kDa))" ...
... already in 1975 Unwin and Henderson had determined the first membrane protein structure at intermediate resolution (7 Ångström ... Yonekura, Koji; Maki-Yonekura, Saori; Namba, Keiichi (August 2003). "Complete atomic model of the bacterial flagellar filament ... Protein structures determined by electron crystallography. The first electron crystallographic protein structure to ... and proteins, such as membrane proteins, that cannot easily form the large 3-dimensional crystals required for that process. ...
Zerlin M, Levison SW, Goldman JE (1995). "Early patterns of migration, morphogenesis, and intermediate filament expression of ... Muroyama, Y; Fujiwara, Y; Orkin, SH; Rowitch, DH (2005). "Specification of astrocytes by bHLH protein SCL in a restricted ... Astrociti klasično sr identificiraju pomoću histološke analize; mnoge od ovih ćelija ispoljavaju intermedijerni filament ... Umjesto toga, uzrokuje da astrociti luče inhibitorni faktor citokina leukemije (LIF), regulatorni protein koji podstiče ...
A cold cathode is a cathode that is not electrically heated by a filament. A cathode may be considered "cold" if it emits more ... The action spectra of chlorophyll molecules are slightly modified in vivo depending on specific pigment-protein interactions. ... as some prefer long days and short nights and others prefer the opposite or intermediate "day lengths". ... The other type of cathode is a hot cathode, which is heated by electric current passing through a filament. A cold cathode does ...
The tumor suppressor protein Lgl1 also inhibits the ability of NM IIA to assemble into filaments in vitro. In addition ... Intermediate filaments. Type 1/2. (Keratin,. Cytokeratin). Epithelial keratins. (soft alpha-keratins). *type I/chromosome 17 * ... actin filament binding. • microtubule motor activity. • microtubule binding. Cellular component. • myosin II filament. • cell ... protein binding. • ADP binding. • protein membrane anchor. • actin-dependent ATPase activity. • calmodulin binding. • ATPase ...
actin filament binding. • LIM domain binding. • integrin binding. • protein binding. • vinculin binding. • protein complex ... Intermediate filaments. Type 1/2. (Keratin,. Cytokeratin). Epithelial keratins. (soft alpha-keratins). *type I/chromosome 17 * ... "Protein sequence of human TLN1 (Uniprot ID: Q9Y490)". Cardiac Organellar Protein Atlas Knowledgebase (COPaKB). Retrieved 7 July ... Talin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TLN1 gene. Talin-1 is ubiquitously expressed, and is localized to ...
DesminGenesGFAPNeurofilamentKeratinsCytoplasmIntracellularInteractsNeurofilamentsActin microfilamentsNestinDystrophin-associaNucleusMicrotubules and intermediate filamentsPlectinGeneRecombinant proteinsEpithelial cellsCytoskeletal filamentsMicrofilaments and microtubulesCytokeratinsNovel intermediate filament-associated proteinMolecularAntibodiesExpressionOrganizationPeptidesAstrocytesTransmembrane proteinsMutationsKeratin intermediate filamentsMethods in EnzymolHeteropolymericMRNAVarious intermediate filamentNervous systemBundlesTubulinTripletCellIsolated and characterized a novelVimentin intermediateImportant cellular stress proteinsNuclear envelopeDiameterEpidermis
- The cephalochordate Branchiostoma genome contains 26 intermediate filament (IF) genes: implications for evolution of chordate IF proteins. (semanticscholar.org)
- Indeed, one can only marvel at the number of different IF polypeptides, their associated proteins (IFAP) and, consequently, the number of genes involved in encoding the multiple constituents of the various IF networks found in different cell types. (booktopia.com.au)
- The chapters have been divided into five major sections which are concerned with the subcellular organization of IF, the molecular structure of IF, the differential expression of IF genes, descriptions of associ- ated proteins involved in the intracellular organization of IF, and finally an analysis of the changes seen in IF in pathological conditions. (booktopia.com.au)
- Differential Expression of Intermediate Filament Genes. (booktopia.com.au)
- 13. Neural Intermediate Filament (Neurofilament) Genes. (booktopia.com.au)
- 14. The Structure, Complexity, and Evolution of Intermediate Filament Genes. (booktopia.com.au)
- There are about 70 different genes coding for various intermediate filament proteins. (wikipedia.org)
- The list of ALS-related genes is continuously growing, however, SOD1 , chromosome open reading frame 72 (C9orf72), TARDBP (transactive response DNA-binding protein) and FUS (fused in sarcoma) are the most well-studied, mainly because they account for the majority of both fALS and sALS cases ( Brown and Al-Chalabi, 2017 ). (frontiersin.org)
- The keratins are intermediate filament proteins and are important for integrity and mechanical stability of epithelial cells with the largest number of keratin genes expressed in skin. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Generation of a biological association network evidenced several genes, such as connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (Timp1), galanin (Gal), synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1), growth factor receptor bound protein 2 (Grb2), actin gamma 2 (Actg2) and smooth muscle alpha actin (Acta2), as highly interconnected nodes of the resulting network. (biomedcentral.com)
- Food components play a role in influencing, either directly or indirectly (through hormonal regulation), the expression of genes encoding for proteins involved in energy metabolism, cell differentiation and growth and immune responses. (biomedcentral.com)
- Intermediate filament genes are regulated in a tissue-and cell type-specific manner and their polymerized protein products protects the cells and tissue they are part of against a variety of mechanical and nonmechanical stresses. (researchandmarkets.com)
- Both mammalian and non-mammalian systems and animal models are covered, making this book a must-have for any investigator wishing to study IF genes or their protein products. (researchandmarkets.com)
- Mutations in intermediate filament genes lead to a host of rather uncommon diseases. (fsu.edu)
- Based on a better understanding of the basement membrane zone (BMZ) and the genes responsible for its components, newer treatments (eg, gene or protein therapy) may provide solutions to the skin fragility found in patients with epidermolysis bullosa. (medscape.com)
- GFAP is a 51-kDa intermediate filament protein found in the astrocytes, neuroglia end-feet and processes. (thefreedictionary.com)
- 200-210 kD polypeptides, of nerves and human brain, not cytokeratins, GFAP or any other cytoskeletal proteins or intermediate filaments. (alzforum.org)
- The unconjugated antibody GFAP (GA5) Mouse mAb #3670 reacts with human, mouse and rat GFAP protein. (cellsignal.com)
- GFAP and vimentin form intermediate filaments in astroglial cells and modulate their motility and shape (1). (cellsignal.com)
- In particular, vimentin filaments are present at early developmental stages, while GFAP filaments are characteristic of differentiated and mature brain astrocytes. (cellsignal.com)
- In addition, GFAP intermediate filaments are also present in nonmyelin-forming Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system (3). (cellsignal.com)
- The filensin tail contains 6 1/2 tandem repeats which match analogous motifs of mammalian neurofilament M and H proteins. (elsevier.com)
- Neurofilament light polypeptide ( NFL ), also known as neurofilament light chain , is a neurofilament protein that in humans is encoded by the NEFL gene . (wikipedia.org)
- BACKGROUND: Peripherin and neurofilament (NF)-66/α-internexin are recently characterized, neuron-specific intermediate filament proteins that are expressed in the developing peripheral nervous system. (elsevier.com)
- Acidic and basic keratins bind each other to form acidic-basic heterodimers and these heterodimers then associate to make a keratin filament. (wikipedia.org)
- Keratins are the intermediate filament proteins that form a dense meshwork of filaments throughout the cytoplasm of epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
- Keratins are generally expressed in particular pairs of type I and type II keratin proteins in a tissue-specific and cellular differentiation-specific manner. (wikipedia.org)
- Trichocyte keratins are similar in their gene and protein structure to keratins except that they are especially rich in the sulfur-containing amino acid cysteine, which facilitates chemical cross-linking of the assembled hard keratins to form a more structurally resilient material. (wikipedia.org)
- Keratins are a well known group of intermediate filament proteins. (ebi.ac.uk)
- Like actin filaments, keratins are flexible but provide a firm cell skeleton. (ebi.ac.uk)
- Type I keratins are a group of acidic intermediate filament proteins that exist as chains of hetero-dimers with basic type II keratins. (ebi.ac.uk)
- Keratins are a class of structural proteins widely represented in biological structures, especially in epithelial tissues of higher vertebrates. (google.com)
- Keratins are heteropolymeric structural proteins which form the intermediate filament. (fishersci.com)
- Keratins 5 and 14 combine to form intermediate filaments in basal keratinocytes. (medscape.com)
- Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. (ouhsc.edu)
- We now know that intermediate filaments (IF) are ubiquitous constituents of virtually all differentiated eukaryotic cells and are present in both the nucleus (as the nuclear lamina) and cytoplasm (as 10- to 15-nm-diameter filaments). (springer.com)
- The outside surface of the envelope is directly connected to the endoplasmic reticulum of the cytoplasm and is surrounded by a network of cytoplasmic intermediate filaments. (encyclopedia.com)
- In the lack of androgens, AR is normally localized mainly in the cytoplasm and continues to be within an inactive condition and interacts with high temperature surprise proteins (HSP90, HSP70, HSP56, and HSP27) [23, which stops it from getting into the nucleus [25C (antibodyassay.com)
- Although all eukaryotes contain the common cytoskeletal elements actin and tubulin (both free in the cytoplasm and polymerized in the form of microfilaments and microtubules), intermediate filaments are found only in some metazoan species, including vertebrates, nematodes, and molluscs. (fsu.edu)
- Many scientists believe that nuclear lamins are the evolutionary ancestor of cytoplasmic intermediate filaments, which evolved through duplication and translocation of the gene product to the cytoplasm. (fsu.edu)
- Neutral thiol proteinases (calpains), activated by calcium are involved in the intracellular turnover of intermediate filaments but the precise position of the cleavage points has remained unknown. (nih.gov)
- Cells overexpressing ORP4-S had a 40% reduction in the esterification of low-density-lipoprotein-derived cholesterol, demonstrating that ORP4 interaction with intermediate filaments inhibits an intracellular cholesterol-transport pathway mediated by vimentin. (biochemj.org)
- These structures contain intracellular proteins, including plectin and BP230. (medscape.com)
- Hemidesmosomes also contain the intracellular portions of the transmembrane proteins collagen XVII (BP180) and alpha-6-beta-4 integrin. (medscape.com)
- Solid-phase binding to proteolytically degraded vimentin fragments suggested that plectin interacts with the helical rod domain of vimentin, a highly conserved structural element of all intermediate filament proteins. (rupress.org)
- Oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) is the prototypical member of a class of phospholipid and oxysterol-binding proteins that interacts with the Golgi apparatus and regulates lipid and cholesterol metabolism. (biochemj.org)
- On the nuclear side the LINC complex interacts with transmembrane proteins of the INM and the nuclear lamina, which may in turn respond by directly or indirectly change chromatin organization and gene activity and or sequester transcription factors. (su.se)
- The beta-4 integrin subunit performs a central role in hemidesmosome formation and contains an especially large cytoplasmic domain, which interacts with other proteins of the hemidesmosomal plaque. (medscape.com)
- Collagen XVII is a transmembrane collagenous protein that interacts with alpha-4 integrin and BP230 intracellularly and with laminin-332 extracellularly. (medscape.com)
- Fluorescence light micrograph of a neuroblastoma cell (brain cancer cell) showing neurofilaments (intermediate filament protein) fluorescently stained using a vimentin antibody. (sciencephoto.com)
- Neurofilaments are phosphorylated under oxidative stress, leading to the formation of protein aggregates reminiscent of those seen in neurodegenerative diseases. (mdpi.com)
- Neurofilaments are the major intermediate filaments found in neurons and consist of light (NFL), medium (NFM), and heavy (NFH) subunits (1). (cellsignal.com)
- Similar in structure to other intermediate filament proteins, neurofilaments have a globular amino-terminal head, a central α-helical rod domain, and a carboxy-terminal tail. (cellsignal.com)
- Initially designated 'intermediate' because their average diameter (10 nm) is between those of narrower microfilaments (actin) and wider myosin filaments found in muscle cells, the diameter of Intermediate filaments is now commonly compared to actin microfilaments (7 nm) and microtubules (25 nm). (wikipedia.org)
- This finding suggests that some plakins form cross-links between actin microfilaments and intermediate filaments. (alpfmedical.info)
- Note the nucleus in the centre of the surrounded by thin intermediate filaments. (sciencephoto.com)
- Interaction of Drosophila 27,000 Mr heat-shock protein with the nucleus of heat-shocked and ecdysone-stimulated culture cells. (semanticscholar.org)
- 5. The Nuclear Lamina: An Intermediate Filament Protein Structure of the Cell Nucleus. (booktopia.com.au)
- Although vimentin filaments in colchicine-treated cells remain intact, they clump into disorganized bundles near the nucleus. (alpfmedical.info)
- Although the interior of the nucleus does not contain any membrane-bound subcompartments, its contents are not uniform, and a number of subnuclear bodies exist, made up of unique proteins, RNA molecules, and particular parts of the chromosomes. (wikibooks.org)
- The NPCs are responsible for import and export of proteins and RNA molecules in and out of the nucleus. (su.se)
- see Figure 1), intermediate filaments function as tension-bearing elements to help maintain cell shape and rigidity, and serve to anchor in place several organelles, including the nucleus and desmosomes. (fsu.edu)
- Intermediate filaments are also involved in formation of the nuclear lamina , a net-like meshwork array that lines the inner nuclear membrane and governs the shape of the nucleus. (fsu.edu)
- The nucleus was counterstained with a blue dye to note its location in relation to the intermediate filament network. (fsu.edu)
Microtubules and intermediate filaments1
- The association and interaction of plectin (Mr 300,000) with intermediate filaments and filament subunit proteins were studied. (rupress.org)
- Immunoelectron microscopy of whole mount cytoskeletons from various cultured cell lines (rat glioma C6, mouse BALB/c 3T3, and Chinese hamster ovary) and quick-frozen, deep-etched replicas of Triton X-100-extracted rat embryo fibroblast cells revealed that plectin was primarily located at junction sites and branching points of intermediate filaments. (rupress.org)
- the binding of plectin structures on the surface of filaments and cross-link formation occurred without apparent periodicity. (rupress.org)
- As revealed by the rotary-shadowing technique, filament-bound plectin structures were oligomeric and predominantly consisted of a central globular core region of 30-50 nm with extending filaments or filamentous loops. (rupress.org)
- These results suggest that plectin is a cross-linker of vimentin filaments and possibly also of other intermediate filament types. (rupress.org)
- EXPERIMENTAL FIGURE 19-35 Gold-labeled antibody allows visualization of plectin cross-links between intermediate filaments and microtubules. (alpfmedical.info)
- The N-terminus of plectin and other plakins contains a calponin-homology (CH) domain similar to that in fimbrin and other actin cross-linking proteins. (alpfmedical.info)
- Illustration depicting a mammalian epithelial cell model, where the three key cytoskeletal filament systems, microfilaments ( MFs ), microtubules ( MTs ) and intermediate filaments ( IFs ), are connected to each other by plakin‐type linker molecules, such as plectin. (els.net)
- The PLEC gene provides instructions for making a protein called plectin. (medlineplus.gov)
- Plectin attaches (cross-links) intermediate filaments to one another and to the cell membrane. (medlineplus.gov)
- The mutation responsible for the Ogna type of epidermolysis bullosa simplex changes a single protein building block (amino acid) in the plectin protein. (medlineplus.gov)
- Plectin contains intermediate filament and actin binding domains and is in the plakin family of proteins. (medscape.com)
- Plectin (HD1) is a 500-kd protein that binds intermediate filaments. (medscape.com)
- BP230, also termed BPAG1, is a 230-kd protein that has homology to both desmoplakin and plectin. (medscape.com)
- BP230, like plectin, functions in the connection between hemidesmosomes and intermediate filaments. (medscape.com)
- This gene encodes a member of the intermediate filament family which contains an N-terminal head domain, followed by a central coiled-coil region and a short C-terminal tail. (genecards.org)
- SYNC (Syncoilin, Intermediate Filament Protein) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
- Tagging of gene items with fluorescent proteins has revolutionized all parts of biosciences, starting from primary biochemistry to medical oncology, to environmental examine. (gilltimbers.com)
- However, recent research has rapidly expanded the knowledge of the functions of IF proteins, and the view of this complex gene family is progressively changing, as a multitude of diseases have been revealed to be associated with IF mutations. (els.net)
- This gene encodes a member of the keratin family, the most diverse group of intermediate filaments. (genecards.org)
- KRT14 (Keratin 14) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
- Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include structural molecule activity and keratin filament binding . (genecards.org)
- It coordinates the cell's activities, which include growth, intermediary metabolism, protein synthesis and cell division by regulating gene expression. (scribd.com)
- AR is certainly a 919-amino-acid proteins encoded from a ~180 kb gene that's located at chromosome Xq11-12. (antibodyassay.com)
- This gene encodes a member of the type I (acidic) keratin family, which belongs to the superfamily of intermediate filament (IF) proteins. (fishersci.com)
- The book provides user-friendly advice and protocols covering all aspects of intermediate filaments including protein isolation and structure, protein and gene regulation, relationship to disease and apoptosis, and associated proteins. (researchandmarkets.com)
- The protein encoded by this gene is an intermediate filament (IF) family member. (bio-rad.com)
- Mutations in the selenocysteine insertion sequence-binding protein 2 gene lead to a multisystem selenoprotein deficiency disorder in humans. (medscape.com)
- Immunoblotting of expressed recombinant proteins with the monoclonal 08L antibody localized the 08L epitope to the carboxyl end of the protein. (rupress.org)
- The coexpression of C and D in all epidermal cells and the obligatory heteropolymeric IF assembly of the recombinant proteins argue for keratin orthologs, but the sequences do not directly reveal which protein behaves as a keratin I or II ortholog. (semanticscholar.org)
- We cloned five cytoplasmic intermediate filament (IF) cDNAs and made specific antibodies to the recombinant proteins. (mpg.de)
- Immunofluorescence staining revealed that the expressed pinin protein was assembled to the lateral boundaries of the cells in contact, which is consistent with the staining pattern of pinin in epithelial cells. (rupress.org)
- The proteins are expressed in epithelial cells, but are developmentally regulated. (thermofisher.com)
Microfilaments and microtubules1
- By contrast, BMGE-H cells, which have emerged from the same original culture but have been grown without hormones added, are not only morphologically different, but also contain vimentin filaments and a different set of cytokeratins, the most striking difference being the absence of the two acidic cytokeratins of mol wt 50,000 and 45,500. (rupress.org)
Novel intermediate filament-associated protein1
- By use of an antiserum to the 57 kDa protein, a cross-reacting antigen (of identical molecular weight) was detected on immunoblots of IF preparations and by immunofluorescence of various rat tissues. (jneurosci.org)
- Intermediate filaments: structure, assembly and molecular interactions. (ebi.ac.uk)
- Molecular architecture of intermediate filaments. (ebi.ac.uk)
- Cellular and Molecular Biology of Intermediate Filaments by Robert D. Goldman, 9780306433177. (booktopia.com.au)
- 7. Primary and Secondary Structure of IF Protein Chains and Modes of Molecular Aggregation. (booktopia.com.au)
- 4) Among the various families and sub-families of intermediate filament proteins, keratin is an important type due to its high molecular diversity. (thefreedictionary.com)
- 1992): "The molecular biology of intermediate filament proteins", en International Review of Cytology 134: 243-279. (thefreedictionary.com)
- In this chapter, first I will briefly describe the molecular properties of titin and nebulin - two extremely large, myofibrillar proteins -- and discuss their distribution and organization in the sarcomere. (springer.com)
- Protein distribution/characterization in body tissues and fluids, in health as well as in disease, is the basis of the use of proteomic technologies for molecular diagnostics. (researchandmarkets.com)
- The keratin material is preferably S-sulfonated and enriched in intermediate filament proteins of high molecular weight. (google.com)
- Polyclonal antibodies directed against fusion proteins immunoidentified the 140-kD protein in tissue extracts. (rupress.org)
- EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: By use of antibodies specific to peripherin and NF- 66/α-internexin, we detected these proteins on Western blots of NB tissue extracts and in paraffin sections of NBs. (elsevier.com)
- RESULTS: Western blotting indicated that NB tumor extracts contained immunoreactive proteins that co-migrated with rat peripherin and human NF-66/α-internexin from normal tissues, thus establishing the specificity of the antibodies for these proteins in tumors. (elsevier.com)
- The extensive intertwined network was labeled with primary antibodies to several cytokeratin proteins, which were then stained with secondary antibodies containing a green fluorescent dye. (fsu.edu)
- Two ORP4 cDNAs were identified: a full-length ORP4 containing a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain and an oxysterol-binding region (designated ORP4-L), and a splice variant in which the PH domain and part of the oxysterol-binding domain were deleted (designated ORP4-S). ORP4 mRNA and protein expression overlapped partially with OSBP and were restricted to brain, heart, muscle and kidney. (biochemj.org)
- Our results further show that, during culturing, different cell clones with different cytoskeletal composition can emerge from the same cell population and suggest that the presence of certain hormones may have an influence on the expression of intermediate filament proteins. (rupress.org)
- 17. Expression, Organization, and Involvement of Intermediate Filaments in Disease Processes. (booktopia.com.au)
- This shift in phenotype is accompanied by a change in expression of intermediate filament (IF) proteins. (ox.ac.uk)
- Ciment, G 1990, ' Precocious expression of NAPA-73, an intermediate filament-associated protein, during nervous system and heart development in the chicken embryo ', Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences , vol. 588, pp. 225-235. (elsevier.com)
- Intermediate filament expression in mesotheliomas: Leimyoid mesotheliomas are not uncommon. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Intermediate filaments (IFs) represent a diverse group of evolutionary conserved cytoskeletal structures, with context‐, tissue‐ and cell type‐dependent expression patterns and properties. (els.net)
- Toxicoproteomics, i.e. the evaluation of protein expression for understanding of toxic events, is an important application of proteomics in preclinical drug safety. (researchandmarkets.com)
- Many tumors also express these proteins and their expression can help identify the origin of a neoplasm. (thermofisher.com)
- These cytoskeletal components are regulated through changes in expression levels, post-translational modifications and the effects of the binding of partner proteins. (mdpi.com)
- Among them, lamin-A/C isoform 3 and PARP-1 were further confirmed using mRNA and protein expression study. (hindawi.com)
- In this report, we review data that corroborate the view that IFs function as highly specialized cytoskeletal stress proteins that promote cellular organization and homeostasis. (nih.gov)
- I. The Subcellular Organization of Intermediate Filaments. (booktopia.com.au)
- Accessory Proteins Involved in Regulating the Organization of Intermediate Filaments. (booktopia.com.au)
- Only a few IFAPs have been identified to date, but many more will undoubtedly be discovered as researchers focus attention on the proteins that control IF organization and assembly. (alpfmedical.info)
- This finding demonstrates that the organization of vimentin filaments is dependent on intact micro-tubules and suggests the presence of proteins linking the two types of filaments. (alpfmedical.info)
- As a result of these discoveries it has now been realized that proteins of the NE orchestrate a much larger repertoire of functions than previously realized, both in cell signaling, chromatin organization and in the mitotic machinery. (su.se)
- We are focusing on investigating the function(s) of specific networks of interactions between proteins in the NE and their role in cellular signaling and chromatin organization. (su.se)
- Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-MS) has become a widely used method for determination of biomolecules including peptides, proteins. (researchandmarkets.com)
- As illustrated in Figure 1, intermediate filament monomer peptides are an elongated fibrous class of proteins with a central alpha -helical region capped with globular ends at both the amino and carboxylic acid termini. (fsu.edu)
- Each tightly coiled intermediate filament cross section reveals 32 individual alpha -helical peptides, which renders the filament easy to bend but quite difficult to break, thus accounting for the extreme structural rigidity. (fsu.edu)
- Anti-49,000-dalton serum bound to astrocytes in sections of the cerebellum, and cultured astrocytes had filaments that stained, whereas other cell types did not. (rupress.org)
- We have also shown that the intermediate filament system of astrocytes is an important regulator of this process. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Astrocytes are present in the CNS of the mutant mice, but contain a severely reduced number of intermediate filaments. (pnas.org)
- A few mutations add or remove two amino acids in the protein. (medlineplus.gov)
- Individual or multiple mutations of an intermediate filament (IF) molecule can affect different biophysical properties of the filaments (purple boxes), which in turn can interfere with distinct cellular activities (green boxes). (els.net)
- Most cases are due to dominantly acting mutations in either keratin 14 (K14) or K5, the type I and II intermediate filament (IF) proteins tasked with forming a pancytoplasmic network of 10-nm filaments in basal keratinocytes of the epidermis and in other stratified epithelia. (jci.org)
- My laboratory is particularly interested in the effects of inherited mutations and polymorphisms on the function of proteins implicated in these diseases. (cardiff.ac.uk)
Keratin intermediate filaments1
Methods in Enzymol2
- Intermediate Filament Proteins , the latest volume in the Methods in Enzymology series covers all the intermediate filaments in vertebrates and invertebrates, providing a unique understanding of the multiple different tissue-specific intermediate filaments. (ebooks.com)
- Intermediate Filament linked Proteins , the newest quantity within the Methods in Enzymology sequence, keeps the legacy of this ultimate serial with caliber chapters authored through leaders within the box. (gilltimbers.com)
- There are four proteins classed as type III IF proteins, which may form homo- or heteropolymeric proteins. (wikipedia.org)
- Confirming and extending previous studies in Styela, we found that Ciona protein IF-A is expressed in muscle and forms homopolymeric filaments while proteins IF-C and IF-D, which form only obligatory heteropolymeric filaments, resemble a keratin pair exclusively found in the entire epidermis. (mpg.de)
Various intermediate filament1
- Peripherin, a triton-insoluble protein, is 57-kDa type III neuronal intermediate filament (nIF), particularly expressed in peripheral nervous system. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Oxidative stress is a key mechanism causing protein aggregation, cell death and neurodegeneration in the nervous system. (mdpi.com)
- Also, unlike actin or tubulin, intermediate filaments do not contain a binding site for a nucleoside triphosphate. (wikipedia.org)
- Microtubules appear particularly susceptible to damage, with oxidative stress downregulating key microtubule-associated proteins [MAPs] and affecting tubulin through aberrant post-translational modifications. (mdpi.com)
- It will be an important companion for any experimentalist interesting in studying this protein family in their cell or organism model system. (ebooks.com)
- The complement of desmosomal plaque proteins in different cell types. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Marian Blanca Ramírez from the CSIC in Spain has been studying the effects of LRRK2, a protein associated with Parkinson's disease, on cell motility. (biologists.org)
- 6. Interaction of Intermediate Filaments with the Cell Surface. (booktopia.com.au)
- Our studies show that IF proteins could prove very useful markers in the study of cell fate determination in Ciona. (mpg.de)
- IFs differentially regulate cell locomotion, depending on the particular IF protein, the cell type, the cellular context and the mode of cell migration. (els.net)
- In general, vimentin filaments promote and keratin filaments inhibit cell locomotion. (els.net)
- Key effects of intermediate filaments (IFs) and IF‐coupled adhesion complexes on cell locomotion. (els.net)
- Intermediate filaments comprise a diverse protein family expressed in a differentiation stage‐, cell‐ and tissue‐specific manner. (els.net)
- Intermediate filaments are modulators of cell signalling and transcription. (els.net)
- Representative organisation of intermediate filaments in a mammalian cell. (els.net)
- IFs are also coupled to IF‐anchoring plaques of cell-cell junctions (desmosomes) and to cell-matrix junctions (hemidesmosomes) by these plakin‐type protein complexes. (els.net)
- We investigated whether the lack of IF proteins would affect cell survival in a retinal ischemia-reperfusion model. (gu.se)
- This is a cyclin dependant protein kinase called cyclin B-cdc2 (cdk1) kinase (cyclins are regulatory proteins that mediate the enzymatic activity of protein kinases) that plays a major role in the regulation of cell cycle. (scribd.com)
- Shearing forces may directly deform the cell surface 10 to generate local biochemical responses arising from undefined sensor proteins 11 and/or deformation of the lipid bilayer. (ahajournals.org)
- In addition, a whole new concept in cell signaling bypassing the nuclear pores is provided by the recently discovered LINC complexes (Fig.1), which are built up by specific proteins in the inner and outer nuclear membranes. (su.se)
- Signals from the cell surface may reach the nuclear interior via import of signaling proteins through the nuclear pores (Arabi et al. (su.se)
- Presented in Figure 2 is a digital image of the keratin intermediate network found in a rat kangaroo ( PtK2 line) epithelial cell as seen through a fluorescence optical microscope. (fsu.edu)
- It also serves as a scaffolding platform for proteins involved in cell signaling. (medscape.com)
- Anchoring filaments extend from the basal cell plasma membrane into the extracellular environment and span the lamina lucida, connecting hemidesmosomes with the lamina densa. (medscape.com)
Isolated and characterized a novel1
Important cellular stress proteins2
- We are now coming to understand that these common elements point to IFs as important cellular stress proteins with some roles akin to those already well-characterized for HSPs. (nih.gov)
- Intermediate filaments are important cellular stress proteins that help in maintaining the cellular organisation and homoeostasis on injury. (els.net)
- Nesprin‐3, nuclear envelope spectrin repeat protein 3 and Sun, Sad1 and UNC‐84. (els.net)
- On the inner side of the nuclear envelope, nuclear IF proteins, lamins, are depicted as being concentrated in the lamina and also distributed throughout the nucleoplasm. (els.net)
- Inhibition of protein synthesis by cycloheximide in late G2 phase has no apparent affect on nuclear assembly in telophase indicating that no new protein synthesis is required for reassembly of the nuclear envelope. (scribd.com)
- Each chromosome is specifically anchored through its telomeres to a discrete place on the nuclear envelope by the proteins of the nuclear lamina. (encyclopedia.com)
- ULFs anneal longitudinally to form nonpolar filaments, which then undergo radial compaction to form mature cytoplasmic IFs of ∼10‐nm diameter. (els.net)
- Nuclear lamins are composed of tetrameric filaments of ∼3.5‐nm diameter. (els.net)
- f) Filaments have radially compacted to a diameter of approximately 11 nm of mature IFs . (els.net)
- There are specialized intermediate filaments (IF) 10-18nm in diameter, built of electrically conductive polypeptides. (pubfacts.com)
- In the absence of SUMO, IFB-1 formed ectopic filaments and protein aggregates in the lateral epidermis. (nih.gov)
- Protein IF-A is expressed in muscle from larval stages, whereas proteins IF-C and IF-D are found only in the tail epidermis. (mpg.de)
- Introduction to the epidermis, keratin filaments, and EB simplex. (jci.org)