Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.
Cytoplasmic filaments intermediate in diameter (about 10 nanometers) between the microfilaments and the microtubules. They may be composed of any of a number of different proteins and form a ring around the cell nucleus.
An intermediate filament protein found in most differentiating cells, in cells grown in tissue culture, and in certain fully differentiated cells. Its insolubility suggests that it serves a structural function in the cytoplasm. MW 52,000.
An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.
Type III intermediate filament proteins expressed mainly in neurons of the peripheral and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS. Peripherins are implicated in neurite elongation during development and axonal regeneration after injury.
A type VI intermediate filament protein expressed mostly in nerve cells where it is associated with the survival, renewal and mitogen-stimulated proliferation of neural progenitor cells.
A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-18 in simple, or predominately single layered, internal epithelia.
Nuclear matrix proteins that are structural components of the NUCLEAR LAMINA. They are found in most multicellular organisms.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.
A type I keratin found associated with KERATIN-6 in rapidly proliferating squamous epithelial tissue. Mutations in the gene for keratin-17 have been associated with PACHYONYCHIA CONGENITA, TYPE 2.
Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)
A subclass of developmentally regulated lamins having a neutral isoelectric point. They are found to disassociate from nuclear membranes during mitosis.
A subclass of ubiquitously-expressed lamins having an acidic isoelectric point. They are found to remain bound to nuclear membranes during mitosis.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A type I keratin found associated with KERATIN-8 in simple, or predominately single layered, internal epithelia.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
A lattice of fibrils which covers the entire inner surface of the nuclear envelope and interlinks nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).
A cytoskeletal linker protein with a molecular weight of greater than 500 kDa. It binds INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS; MICROTUBULES; and ACTIN CYTOSKELETON and plays a central role in the organization and stability of the CYTOSKELETON. Plectin is phosphorylated by CALMODULIN KINASE; PROTEIN KINASE A; and PROTEIN KINASE C.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.
Rare leukoencephalopathy with infantile-onset accumulation of Rosenthal fibers in the subpial, periventricular, and subependymal zones of the brain. Rosenthal fibers are GLIAL FIBRILLARY ACIDIC PROTEIN aggregates found in ASTROCYTES. Juvenile- and adult-onset types show progressive atrophy of the lower brainstem instead. De novo mutations in the GFAP gene are associated with the disease with propensity for paternal inheritance.
A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A thin membrane that lines the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES and the central canal of the SPINAL CORD.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A genus of chiefly Eurasian and African land snails including the principal edible snails as well as several pests of cultivated plants.
The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).
Characteristic cells of granulomatous hypersensitivity. They appear as large, flattened cells with increased endoplasmic reticulum. They are believed to be activated macrophages that have differentiated as a result of prolonged antigenic stimulation. Further differentiation or fusion of epithelioid cells is thought to produce multinucleated giant cells (GIANT CELLS).
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A type of junction that attaches one cell to its neighbor. One of a number of differentiated regions which occur, for example, where the cytoplasmic membranes of adjacent epithelial cells are closely apposed. It consists of a circular region of each membrane together with associated intracellular microfilaments and an intercellular material which may include, for example, mucopolysaccharides. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).
The residual framework structure of the CELL NUCLEUS that maintains many of the overall architectural features of the cell nucleus including the nuclear lamina with NUCLEAR PORE complex structures, residual CELL NUCLEOLI and an extensive fibrogranular structure in the nuclear interior. (Advan. Enzyme Regul. 2002; 42:39-52)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Desmoplakins are cytoskeletal linker proteins that anchor INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS to the PLASMA MEMBRANE at DESMOSOMES.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
A transplantable, poorly differentiated malignant tumor which appeared originally as a spontaneous breast carcinoma in a mouse. It grows in both solid and ascitic forms.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A genus of the family Heteromyidae which contains 22 species. Their physiology is adapted for the conservation of water, and they seldom drink water. They are found in arid or desert habitats and travel by hopping on their hind limbs.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A form of epidermolysis bullosa characterized by serous bullae that heal without scarring. Mutations in the genes that encode KERATIN-5 and KERATIN-14 have been associated with several subtypes of epidermolysis bullosa simplex.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A giant elastic protein of molecular mass ranging from 2,993 kDa (cardiac), 3,300 kDa (psoas), to 3,700 kDa (soleus) having a kinase domain. The amino- terminal is involved in a Z line binding, and the carboxy-terminal region is bound to the myosin filament with an overlap between the counter-connectin filaments at the M line.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
An alkaloid isolated from Colchicum autumnale L. and used as an antineoplastic.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A family of related proteins that associate with cytoskeletal elements and junctional complexes at INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS. Plakins share a common plakin domain or a plakin repeat domain.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Very toxic polypeptide isolated mainly from AMANITA phalloides (Agaricaceae) or death cup; causes fatal liver, kidney and CNS damage in mushroom poisoning; used in the study of liver damage.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
A protein factor that regulates the length of R-actin. It is chemically similar, but immunochemically distinguishable from actin.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A generic term for any circumscribed mass of foreign (e.g., lead or viruses) or metabolically inactive materials (e.g., ceroid or MALLORY BODIES), within the cytoplasm or nucleus of a cell. Inclusion bodies are in cells infected with certain filtrable viruses, observed especially in nerve, epithelial, or endothelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A group of desmosomal cadherins with cytoplasmic tails that resemble those of classical CADHERINS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A 90-kDa protein produced by macrophages that severs ACTIN filaments and forms a cap on the newly exposed filament end. Gelsolin is activated by CALCIUM ions and participates in the assembly and disassembly of actin, thereby increasing the motility of some CELLS.
A type II keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-10 in terminally differentiated epidermal cells such as those that form the stratum corneum. Mutations in the genes that encode keratin-1 have been associated with HYPERKERATOSIS, EPIDERMOLYTIC.
A multi-functional catenin that is highly homologous to BETA CATENIN. Gamma catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It is also found in DESMOSOMES where it mediates the link between DESMOSOMAL CADHERINS and DESMOPLAKIN.
A fungal metabolite that blocks cytoplasmic cleavage by blocking formation of contractile microfilament structures resulting in multinucleated cell formation, reversible inhibition of cell movement, and the induction of cellular extrusion. Additional reported effects include the inhibition of actin polymerization, DNA synthesis, sperm motility, glucose transport, thyroid secretion, and growth hormone release.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-5 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Mutations in the gene for keratin-14 are associated with EPIDERMOLYSIS BULLOSA SIMPLEX.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.

Molecular chaperones: small heat shock proteins in the limelight. (1/2086)

Small heat shock proteins have been the Cinderellas of the molecular chaperone world, but now the crystal structure of a small heat shock protein has been solved and mutation of two human homologues implicated in genetic disease. Intermediate filaments appear to be one of the key targets of their chaperone activity.  (+info)

Specific and innervation-regulated expression of the intermediate filament protein nestin at neuromuscular and myotendinous junctions in skeletal muscle. (2/2086)

The intermediate filament proteins nestin, vimentin, and desmin show a specific temporal expression pattern during the development of myofibers from myogenic precursor cells. Nestin and vimentin are actively expressed during early developmental stages to be later down-regulated, vimentin completely and nestin to minimal levels, whereas desmin expression begins later and is maintained in mature myofibers, in which desmin participates in maintaining structural integrity. In this study we have analyzed the expression levels and distribution pattern of nestin in intact and denervated muscle in rat and in human. Nestin immunoreactivity was specifically and focally localized in the sarcoplasm underneath neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) and in the vicinity of the myotendinous junctions (MTJs), ie, in regions associated with acetylcholine receptors (AChRs). This association prompted us to analyze nestin in neurogenically and myogenically denervated muscle. Immunoblot analysis disclosed a marked overall increase of accumulated nestin protein. Similar to the extrajunctional redistribution of AChRs in denervated myofibers, nestin immunoreactivity extended widely beyond the NMJ region. Re-innervation caused complete reversion of these changes. Our study demonstrates that the expression levels and distribution pattern of nestin are regulated by innervation, ie, signal transduction into myofibers.  (+info)

Plectin is a linker of intermediate filaments to Z-discs in skeletal muscle fibers. (3/2086)

Plectin is a versatile linker protein which is associated with various types of cytoskeletal components and/or filaments including intermediate filaments, and its deficiency causes the disruption of myofibrils, or muscular dystrophy. To better understand the functional role of plectin in skeletal muscle fibers, we have examined the topological and structural relationships of plectin to intermediate filaments and Z-discs in rat diaphragm muscles by confocal and immunoelectron microscopy. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that plectin was colocalized with desmin at the periphery of Z-discs. This plectin localization around Z-discs was constantly maintained irrespective of the contracted or extended state of the muscle fibers, suggesting either direct or indirect association of plectin with Z-discs. Immunogold labeling in skinned muscle fibers clearly demonstrated that plectin-labeled fine threads linked desmin intermediate filaments to Z-discs and connected intermediate filaments to each other. These results indicate that through plectin threads desmin intermediate filaments form lateral linkages among adjacent Z-discs, preventing individual myofibrils from disruptive contraction and ensuring effective force generation.  (+info)

Distinct neural stem cells proliferate in response to EGF and FGF in the developing mouse telencephalon. (4/2086)

Multipotent, self-renewing neural stem cells reside in the embryonic mouse telencephalic germinal zone. Using an in vitro neurosphere assay for neural stem cell proliferation, we demonstrate that FGF-responsive neural stem cells are present as early as E8.5 in the anterior neural plate, but EGF-responsive neural stem cells emerge later in development in a temporally and spatially specific manner. By separately blocking EGF and FGF2 signaling, we also show that EGF alone and FGF2 alone can independently elicit neural stem cell proliferation and at relatively high cell densities separate cell nonautonomous effects can substantially enhance the mitogen-induced proliferation. At lower cell densities, neural stem cell proliferation is additive in the presence of EGF and FGF2 combined, revealing two different stem cell populations. However, both FGF-responsive and EGF-responsive neural stem cells retain their self-renewal and multilineage potential, regardless of growth factor conditions. These results support a model in which separate, lineage-related EGF- and FGF-responsive neural stem cells are present in the embryonic telencephalic germinal zone.  (+info)

Molecular genetic study of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa in Lithuanian patients. (5/2086)

Lithuanian patients with visual problems were clinically examined for retinitis pigmentosa (RP). A total of 33 unrelated families with autosomal dominant RP (adRP) were identified. Screening for mutations in the rhodopsin (RHO) and peripherin/RDS (RDS) genes was performed using DNA heteroduplex analysis. Direct DNA sequencing in the cases of heteroduplex formation showed the presence of the following mutations and polymorphisms in 14 adRP patients: RHO gene - Lys248Arg (1 case), and Pro347Leu (2 cases); RDS gene - Glu304Gln (12 cases), Lys310Arg (5 cases), and Gly338Asp (12 cases). The presence of these mutations (except Lys248Arg in the RHO gene) was confirmed by relevant restriction enzyme digestion. The frequency of the RDS gene mutations Glu304Gln and Gly338Asp was estimated to be 36.4%, while mutation Lys310Arg was less frequent (15.2%). These 3 RDS gene mutations appear to be polypeptide polymorphisms not related to adRP.  (+info)

The beta4 integrin interactor p27(BBP/eIF6) is an essential nuclear matrix protein involved in 60S ribosomal subunit assembly. (6/2086)

p27(BBP/eIF6) is an evolutionarily conserved protein that was originally identified as p27(BBP), an interactor of the cytoplasmic domain of integrin beta4 and, independently, as the putative translation initiation factor eIF6. To establish the in vivo function of p27(BBP/eIF6), its topographical distribution was investigated in mammalian cells and the effects of disrupting the corresponding gene was studied in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In epithelial cells containing beta4 integrin, p27(BBP/eIF6) is present in the cytoplasm and enriched at hemidesmosomes with a pattern similar to that of beta4 integrin. Surprisingly, in the absence and in the presence of the beta4 integrin subunit, p27(BBP/eIF6) is in the nucleolus and associated with the nuclear matrix. Deletion of the IIH S. cerevisiae gene, encoding the yeast p27(BBP/eIF6) homologue, is lethal, and depletion of the corresponding gene product is associated with a dramatic decrease of the level of free ribosomal 60S subunit. Furthermore, human p27(BBP/eIF6) can rescue the lethal effect of the iihDelta yeast mutation. The data obtained in vivo suggest an evolutionarily conserved function of p27(BBP/eIF6) in ribosome biogenesis or assembly rather than in translation. A further function related to the beta4 integrin subunit may have evolved specifically in higher eukaryotic cells.  (+info)

A high molecular weight intermediate filament-associated protein in BHK-21 cells is nestin, a type VI intermediate filament protein. Limited co-assembly in vitro to form heteropolymers with type III vimentin and type IV alpha-internexin. (7/2086)

BHK-21 fibroblasts contain type III vimentin/desmin intermediate filament (IF) proteins that typically co-isolate and co-cycle in in vitro experiments with certain high molecular weight proteins. Here, we report purification of one of these and demonstrate that it is in fact the type VI IF protein nestin. Nestin is expressed in several fibroblastic but not epithelioid cell lines. We show that nestin forms homodimers and homotetramers but does not form IF by itself in vitro. In mixtures, nestin preferentially co-assembles with purified vimentin or the type IV IF protein alpha-internexin to form heterodimer coiled-coil molecules. These molecules may co-assemble into 10 nm IF provided that the total amount of nestin does not exceed about 25%. However, nestin does not dimerize with types I/II keratin IF chains. The bulk of the nestin protein consists of a long carboxyl-terminal tail composed of various highly charged peptide repeats. By analogy with the larger neurofilament chains, we postulate that these sequences serve as cross-bridgers or spacers between IF and/or other cytoskeletal constituents. In this way, we propose that direct incorporation of modest amounts of nestin into the backbone of cytoplasmic types III and IV IFs affords a simple yet flexible method for the regulation of their dynamic supramolecular organization and function in cells.  (+info)

Plectin is concentrated at intercellular junctions and at the nuclear surface in morphologically differentiated rat Sertoli cells. (8/2086)

Intermediate filaments in Sertoli cells have a well-defined pattern of distribution. They form a basally situated perinuclear network from which filaments extend peripherally to adhesion plaques at the plasma membrane and to sites of codistribution with other major elements of the cytoskeleton, particularly with microtubules. Although the general pattern of intermediate filament distribution is known, the molecular components involved with linking the filaments to organelles and attachment plaques in these cells have not been identified. One candidate for such a linking element is plectin. In this study we test for the presence of, and determine the distribution of, plectin in Sertoli cells of the rat testis. Fixed frozen sections and fixed epithelial fragments of rat testis were probed for plectin and vimentin using antibodies. Tissue was evaluated using standard fluorescence microscopy and confocal microscopy. Plectin in Sertoli cells was concentrated in a narrow zone surrounding the nucleus, and at focal sites, presumably desmosome-like plaques, at interfaces with adjacent cells. Plectin was also concentrated at sites where intermediate filament bundles project into specialized actin-filament containing plaques at sites of attachment to elongate spermatids. Plectin in Sertoli cells is concentrated at the nuclear surface and in junction plaques associated with the plasma membrane. The pattern of distribution is consistent with plectin being involved with linking intermediate filaments centrally (basally) to the nucleus and peripherally to intercellular attachment sites.  (+info)

Looking for online definition of intermediate filament-associated protein in the Medical Dictionary? intermediate filament-associated protein explanation free. What is intermediate filament-associated protein? Meaning of intermediate filament-associated protein medical term. What does intermediate filament-associated protein mean?
JNeurosci Print ISSN: 0270-6474 Online ISSN: 1529-2401. The ideas and opinions expressed in JNeurosci do not necessarily reflect those of SfN or the JNeurosci Editorial Board. Publication of an advertisement or other product mention in JNeurosci should not be construed as an endorsement of the manufacturers claims. SfN does not assume any responsibility for any injury and/or damage to persons or property arising from or related to any use of any material contained in JNeurosci.. ...
Oncogenesis in breast cancer is often associated with excess estrogen receptor α(ERα) activation and overexpression of its coactivators. LRP16 is both an ERα target gene and an ERα coactivator, and plays a crucial role in ERα activation and proliferation of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. However, the regulation of the functional availability of this coactivator protein is not yet clear. Yeast two-hybrid screening, GST pulldown and coimmunoprecipitation (CoIP) identified the cytoplasmic intermediate filament protein keratin 18 (K18) as a novel LRP16-interacting protein. Fluorescence analysis revealed that GFP-tagged LRP16 was primarily localized in the nuclei of mock-transfected MCF-7 cells but was predominantly present in the cytoplasm of K18-transfected cells. Immunoblotting analysis demonstrated that the amount of cytoplasmic LRP16 was markedly increased in cells overexpressing K18 whereas nuclear levels were depressed. Conversely, knockdown of endogenous K18 expression in MCF-7 cells significantly
In previous studies we have characterized a lens-specific intermediate filament (IF) protein, termed filensin. Filensin does not self-assemble into regular IFs but is known to associate with another 47-kD lens-specific protein which has been suggested to represent its assembly partner. To address this possibility, we cloned and sequenced the cDNA coding for the bovine 47-kD protein which we have termed phakinin (from the greek phi alpha kappa omicron sigma = phakos = lens). The predicted sequence comprises 406 amino acids and shows significant similarity (31.3% identity over 358 residues) to type I cytokeratins. Phakinin possesses a 95-residue, non-helical domain (head) and a 311 amino acid long alpha-helical domain punctuated with heptad repeats (rod). Similar to cytokeratin 19, phakinin lacks a COOH-terminal tail domain and it therefore represents the second known example of a naturally tailless IF protein. Confocal microscopy on frozen lens sections reveals that phakinin colocalizes with ...
May R, Sureban SM, Lightfoot SA, Hoskins AB, Brackett DJ, Postier RG, Ramanujam R, Rao CV, Wyche JH, Anant S, Houchen CW. Identification of a novel putative pancreatic stem/progenitor cell marker DCAMKL-1 in normal mouse pancreas. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2010 Aug; 299(2):G303-10 ...
Inhibitors,Activator,Agonist,antagonist,API,Aurora,Metabolic Disease,VEGFR-PDGFR,Other Intermediate,Others,MOF Chemicals,,Active Biopharma Corp
The differentiation of keratinocytes involves numerous steps including the formation of the cornified envelope and the aggregation of keratin filaments by filaggrin monomer molecules. In this study, we investigated whether mu-calpain is involved in the processing of profilaggrin to filaggrin monomer …
Complete information for SYNC gene (Protein Coding), Syncoilin, Intermediate Filament Protein, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Cytokeratin 5 is a 58 kD protein that is closely related to cytokeratin 6. Clone XM26 is specific for the 58 kD intermediate filament protein known as cytokeratin 5.
Desmin is an intermediate filament protein of both smooth and striated muscles. E18-reacts with striated (skeletal V and cardiac) as well as smooth muscle cells. In skeletal and cardiac muscles, the staining is confined to the Z-bands giving a characteristic striated appearance. Useful in indication of tumors of myogenic origin. It reacts with leimyosarcomas, as well as, rhadbomyosarcomas (striated muscle). ...
Inhibitors,Activator,Agonist,antagonist,API,Aurora,Metabolic Disease,VEGFR-PDGFR,Other Intermediate,Others,MOF Chemicals,,Active Biopharma Corp
Kit Component:- KN219792G1, FLG gRNA vector 1 in pCas-Guide vector- KN219792G2, FLG gRNA vector 2 in pCas-Guide vector- KN219792D, donor vector…
आमची विविध रासायनिक उत्पादने औषध निर्मितीसाठी फार्मास्युटिकल इंडस्ट्रीला लागणारा दर्जा जपून आहेत. कच्चा माल जमवण, औषध निर्मिती, त्यांची पॅकिंग आणि डिस्ट्रिब्युशन अशा प्रत्येक टप्प्यात आम्ही दर्जेदार सोयी येतो. आमची उत्पादने थेट औषध म्हणून घेण्यासाठी किंवा औषधाचातील महत्त्वाचा घटक औषध निर्मिती मध्ये वापरण्यात येतात.. ...
1) Helpdesk Specialist-HDS01 / Helpdesk Leader-HDS01 (On-site Shatin / Tung Chung) Prvide 1st / 2nd level supprt, handle and prcess all in-cming service calls and enquiries frm user fllws published
TY - JOUR. T1 - The expression of intermediate filament protein nestin as related to vimentin and desmin in regenerating skeletal muscle. AU - Vaittinen, null. AU - Lukka, null. AU - Sahlgren, Cecilia. AU - Hurme, null. AU - Rantanen, null. AU - Lendahl, null. AU - Eriksson, John. AU - Kalimo, null. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Intermediate filament (IF) proteins show specific spatial and temporal expression during development of skeletal muscle. Nestin, the least known muscle IF, has an important role in neuronal regeneration. Therefore, we analyzed the expression pattern of nestin as related to that of vimentin and desmin during skeletal muscle regeneration. Nestin and vimentin appear at 6 h post-injury in myoblasts, with maximum expression around day 3-5 post-injury. Thereafter, vimentin expression ceases completely, whereas that of nestin is downregulated to remain only in the sarcoplasm next to neuromuscular and myotendinous junctions. Desmin appears at 6-12 h post-injury and becomes the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of the neural intermediate filament proteins peripherin and neurofilament-66/α-internexin in neuroblastoma. AU - Foley, John. AU - Witte, D.. AU - Chiu, F. C.. AU - Parysek, L. M.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - BACKGROUND: Peripherin and neurofilament (NF)-66/α-internexin are recently characterized, neuron-specific intermediate filament proteins that are expressed in the developing peripheral nervous system. Peripherin, in particular, is highly enriched in neuronal derivatives of the neural crest. We speculated that these intermediate filament proteins would be expressed in neuroblastoma (NB), a neural crest-derived tumor with many neuronal features. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: By use of antibodies specific to peripherin and NF- 66/α-internexin, we detected these proteins on Western blots of NB tissue extracts and in paraffin sections of NBs. RESULTS: Western blotting indicated that NB tumor extracts contained immunoreactive proteins that co-migrated with rat peripherin and ...
The intermediate filament-like protein syncoilin is a member of the dystrophin protein complex, and links the complex to the cytoskeleton through binding alpha-dystrobrevin and desmin in muscle. Here, we identify further sites of syncoilin location in normal muscle: at the perinuclear space, myotendinous junction, and enrichment in the sarcolemma and sarcoplasm of oxidative muscle fibers in mice. To understand the importance of the dystrophin protein complex-syncoilin-cytoskeletal link and its implication to disease, we analyzed syncoilin in mice null for alpha-dystrobrevin (adbn-/-) and desmin (des-/-). Syncoilin was upregulated in dystrophic muscles of adbn-/- mice, without alteration in its subcellular location. In des-/- mice, syncoilin was severely reduced in skeletal muscle; lost from sarcomeric Z-lines and neuromuscular junctions, and redistributed from the sub-sarcolemmal cytoskeleton to the cytoplasm. The data show that absence of alpha-dystrobrevin or desmin leads to dynamic changes in
The intermediate filament-like protein syncoilin is a member of the dystrophin protein complex, and links the complex to the cytoskeleton through binding alpha-dystrobrevin and desmin in muscle. Here, we identify further sites of syncoilin location in normal muscle: at the perinuclear space, myotendinous junction, and enrichment in the sarcolemma and sarcoplasm of oxidative muscle fibers in mice. To understand the importance of the dystrophin protein complex-syncoilin-cytoskeletal link and its implication to disease, we analyzed syncoilin in mice null for alpha-dystrobrevin (adbn-/-) and desmin (des-/-). Syncoilin was upregulated in dystrophic muscles of adbn-/- mice, without alteration in its subcellular location. In des-/- mice, syncoilin was severely reduced in skeletal muscle; lost from sarcomeric Z-lines and neuromuscular junctions, and redistributed from the sub-sarcolemmal cytoskeleton to the cytoplasm. The data show that absence of alpha-dystrobrevin or desmin leads to dynamic changes in
2,3,7,8 Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a ubiquitous environmental toxin, has been shown to cause a human skin pathology called chloracne. The majority of laboratory mouse strains, with the exception of mice bearing a mutation in thehairless gene, fail to display overt signs of chloracne upon exposure to TCDD. As a result, only minimal data exist on the effects of TCDD in adult haired mice and no data exist on the effects of TCDD in developing mouse skin. Here we report that TCDD affects the temporal expression of protein markers of keratinocyte terminal differentiation during murine skin morphogenesis. Immunohistochemical analysis of E16 mice reveals accelerated expression of the intermediate filament-associated protein filaggrin in response to TCDD. At a later developmental time and after birth, expression of filaggrin and loricrin is indistinguishable between treatment and control groups. At E16 expression of keratins 5, 6, and 10 are unaltered in TCDD-exposed individuals and TUNEL ...
Neurofilaments (NF) are a key component of the neuronal cytoskeleton, and are responsible for providing structural support to the axon and regulating axon diameter. Mammalian neurofilaments are composed of three major subunits, classified based on molecular weight in SDS-PAGE: light (NF-L), 68-70 kDa; medium (NF-M), 145-160 kDa; and heavy (NF-H), 200-220 kDa. In humans, these proteins are encoded by the NEFL, NEFM, and NEFH genes, respectively. NF-M is also known as neurofilament, medium polypeptide; neurofilament, medium polypeptide 160kDa; NEF3, neurofilament 3, neurofilament triplet M protein, and 160 kDa neurofilament protein. NF-H is also known as neurofilament, heavy polypeptide; neurofilament, heavy polypeptide 200kDa; KIAA0845, neurofilament triplet H protein, and 200 kDa neurofilament protein.. ...
Peripherin was discovered as being the major intermediate filament in neuroblastoma cell lines and in rat pheochromocytoma cells. It is classified by gene structure and coding sequence as a type III intermediate filament protein because of its homology with vimentin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and desmin.[5] All intermediate filament proteins share a common secondary structure consisting of three main domains, the most conserved of which is the central α-helical rod domain. This central coil is capped by non-helical head (N-terminal) and tail (C-terminal) domains. The α-helical rod domain contains repeating segments of hydrophobic amino acids, such that the first and fourth residues of every set of seven amino acids are usually nonpolar. This specific structure enables two intermediate filament polypeptides to coil together and create a hydrophobic seal.[6] The rod also contains specific placement of alternating acidic and basic residues, many of which are spaced 4 amino acids apart. ...
Vimentin, desmin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, neurofilament triplet proteins, and a mixture of cytokeratins were digested with Ca2+-activated neutral thiol proteinase isolated from Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) cells and porcine kidney. All intermediate filament proteins were degraded by the proteinase, although with different rates and Ca2+ optima. These results are in part at variance with our previous statement that the Ca2+-activated proteinase from EAT cells is specific for vimentin and desmin.. ...
4 Vasmant D, Maurice M, Feldman G: Cytoskeleton ultrastructure of podocytes and glomerular endothelial cells in rat and man. Anat Rec 1984;210: 17-24. 5 Drenckhahn D, Franke RP: Ultrastructural organization of contractile and cytoskeletal proteins in glomerular podocytes of chicken, rat, and man. Lab Invest 1988; 59:673-682. 6 Stamenkovic I, Skalli O, Gabbiani G: Distribution of intermediate filament proteins in normal and diseased human glomeruli. Am J Pathol 1986;125: 465-475. 7 Chen J, Boyle S, Zhao M, Su W, Takahashi K, Davis L, et al: Differential expression of the intermediate filament protein nestin during renal development and its localization in adult podocytes. IF proteins that are expressed in mature podocytes include vimentin [5], desmin [6] and nestin [7]. The presence of vimentin in differentiated podocytes underlines their mesenchymal features. Most likely, IF fibers confer stability to the cell body that is constantly floating in the filtrate and exposed to immense mechanical ...
Cell cycle-dependent changes in the organization of an intermediate filament-associated protein: correlation with phosphorylation by p34cdc2.. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 89:11959-11963. 1992 ...
Filaggrin is a structural protein in the stratum corneum (SC) that is produced as the ~500-kDa precursor protein profilaggrin. Profilaggrin is the major component of keratohyalin granules within the granular layer. Individual filaggrin monomers are released proteolytically during epidermal differentiation, and they contribute to macrofibril generation and the mechanical strength and integrity of the SC. Filaggrin monomers are finally degraded into natural moisturizing factors, which are believed to maintain hydration of the upper SC.Mutations in the filaggrin gene were reported to cause ichthyosis vulgaris [1] and were also identified as a major predisposing factor for atopic dermatitis (AD) [2]. Disruption of the SC barrier caused by filaggrin deficiency may lead to percutaneous allergenic sensitization, a primary event in the pathogenesis of AD [3, 4]. Although various reports have suggested a role for filaggrin in SC barrier formation, the absence of mice specifically lacking filaggrin has ...
Intermediate filaments are critical for the extreme structural specialisations of neurons, providing integrity in dynamic environments and efficient communication along axons a metre or more in length. As neurons mature, an initial expression of nestin and vimentin gives way to the neurofilament triplet proteins and α-internexin, substituted by peripherin in axons outside the CNS, which physically consolidate axons as they elongate and find their targets. Once connection is established, these proteins are transported, assembled, stabilised and modified, structurally transforming axons and dendrites as they acquire their full function. The interaction between these neurons and myelinating glial cells optimises the structure of axons for peak functional efficiency, a property retained across their lifespan. This finely calibrated structural regulation allows the nervous system to maintain timing precision and efficient control across large distances throughout somatic growth and, in maturity, as ...
マウス・モノクローナル抗体 ab74592 交差種: Ms,Rat,Rb,Cat,Hu 適用: WB,IHC-P…68kDa Neurofilament抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody…
ウサギ・ポリクローナル抗体 ab113854 交差種: Ms,Rat,Hu 適用: WB…68kDa Neurofilament抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody 製品。国内在庫と品質保証制度も充実。
Objectives: Unilateral middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) is an established rat model for stoke studies. It induces focal cerebral ischemia, prior to necrotic and apoptotic loss of tissue in a circumscribed cortical area, paralleled by temporary motor impairment.. Methods: Here we examined tissue samples from the peri-infarct zone of rats that had survived unilateral MCAO for up to 90 min. With immunohistochemistry we stained sections for proliferation markers Ki 67 and PCNA and for intermediate filament protein nestin. Electron microscopy was employed to assess ultrastructural changes.. Results: All MCAO animals developed pronounced lesions in the motor cortex. Numerous cells in the immediate peri-infarct area and scattered cells which seem to have migrated into the infarcted lesion stained positively for Ki 67 and PCNA. Electron microscopy revealed that cells in the lesion site proliferate along the blood vessels. Most of these cells had the ultrastructural features of fibrillary ...
Define filaggrin. filaggrin synonyms, filaggrin pronunciation, filaggrin translation, English dictionary definition of filaggrin. n a protein found in skin cells Noun 1. filaggrin - the main protein of the keratohyalin granules; the specific target of the immune response in rheumatoid...
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Nestin, an intermediate filament protein widely used as a marker of neural progenitors, was recently found to be expressed transiently in developing cortical neurons in culture and in developing mouse cortex. In young cortical cultures, nestin regulates axonal growth cone morphology. In addition, nestin, which is known to bind the neuronal cdk5/p35 kinase, affects responses to axon guidance cues upstream of cdk5, specifically, to Sema3a. Changes in growth cone morphology require rearrangements of cytoskeletal networks, and changes in microtubules and actin filaments are well studied. In contrast, the roles of intermediate filament proteins in this process are poorly understood, even in cultured neurons. Here, we investigate the molecular mechanism by which nestin affects growth cone morphology and Sema3a sensitivity. We find that nestin selectively facilitates the phosphorylation of the lissencephaly-linked protein doublecortin (DCX) by cdk5/p35, but the phosphorylation of other cdk5 substrates ...
Different clonal cell lines have been isolated from cultures of mammary gland epithelium of lactating cows udder and have been grown in culture media containing high concentrations of hydrocortisone, insulin, and prolactin. These cell (BMGE+H), which grow in monolayers of typical epithelial appearance, are not tightly packed, but leave intercellular spaces spanned by desmosomal bridges. The cells contain extended arrays of cytokeratin fibrils, arranged in bundles attached to desmosomes. Gel electophoresis show that they synthesize cytokeratins similar, if not identical, to those found in bovine epidermis and udder, including two large (mol wt 58,500 and 59,000) and basic (pH range: 7-8) and two small (mol wt 45,500 and 50,000) and acidic (pH 5.32 and 5.36) components that also occur in phosphorylated forms. Two further cytokeratins of mol wts 44,000 (approximately pH 5.7) and 53,000 (pH 6.3) are detected as minor cytokeratins in some cell clones. BMGE+H cells do not produce vimentin filaments ...
Introduction: Chronic allograft nephropathy is characterized by arterial remodeling, tubular atrophy, graft fibrosis, and renal dysfunction. Its pathogenesis is poorly understood and no therapies are available. Nestin, a constituent of intermediate filaments, is a marker of progenitor cells which may contribute to chronic allograft remodeling. Here, we test the hypothesis, that Nestin is over-expressed in renal allografts during the development of chronic nephropathy.. Materials and methods: Renal transplantation was performed in the allogeneic Fischer 344 to Lewis rat strain combination. Isogeneic transplantation was done in the Lewis rat and untreated Lewis rats served as controls. Nestin-expression was investigated by real-time RT-PCR, Westernblotting and immunohistochemistry in controls and in grafts on days 9 and 42 post-transplantation (n = 4 per group).. Results: On histological sections of untreated control kidneys, Nestin-immunoreactivity was detected in all glomeruli and in very few ...
Filensin and phakinin constitute the subunits of a heteropolymeric, lens-specific intermediate filament (IF) system known as the beaded-chain filaments (BFs). Since the rod of filensin is four heptads shorter than the rods of all other IF proteins, we decided to examine the specific contribution of this protein in filament assembly. For these purposes, we constructed chimeric proteins in which regions of filensin were exchanged with the equivalent ones of vimentin, a self-polymerizing IF protein. Our in vitro studies show that the filensin rod domain does not allow homopolymeric filament elongation. However, the filensin rod is necessary for co-polymerization of filensin with phakinin and seems to counteract the inherent tendency of the latter protein to homopolymerize into large, laterally associated filament bundles. Apart from the rod domain, the presence of an authentic or substituted tail domain in filensin is also essential for co-assembly with the naturally tail-less phakinin and ...
Measurements of neuron-specific (neurotypic) and glia-specific (gliotypic) proteins were used to characterize the toxic effects of triethyltin (TET) on the developing central nervous system. Six proteins, each of which is associated with specific aspects of neuronal and glial development, were evaluated as follows: 1) neurofilament-200, an intermediate filament protein of the neuronal cytoskeleton; 2) synapsin I, a synapse specific, synaptic vesicle localized protein; 3) p38, another synaptic-vesicle localized protein; 4) myelin basic protein, a protein unique to myelin-forming oligodendroglia; 5) glial fibrillary acidic protein, the intermediate filament protein of astrocytes; and 6) beta-tubulin, a constituent primarily of neuronal microtubules. The amount of each protein in homogenates of hippocampus, forebrain and cerebellum, brain regions with different developmental profiles, was determined by radioimmunoassay. After a single administration on postnatal day 5, TET (3 or 6 mg/kg i.p.) ...
Get an answer for what is the difference between microtubles, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments?Determine if the each of the following is true of microtubules, microfilaments, or intermediate filaments. Use the key below to indicate your answers. MT = Microtubules; MF = Microfilaments; IF = Intermediate filaments ______ Straight, hollow tubes ______ Made of tubulin ______ Involved in cell transport ______ Provides tracts for organelle movement ______ Make up spindle fibers, centrioles, cilia, a
Purchase Nestin Antibody [2C1.3A11]- Neural Stem Cell Marker directly from Immuquest. Validated for WB, ICC/IF, Flow Cyt, IHC-P, IP in Human
Glial Filament Protein (GFAP) standard for immunization and immunoblotting. Inquire now to order your Glial Filament Protein (GFAP) standard and excel in research.
Marian Blanca Ramírez from the CSIC in Spain has been studying the effects of LRRK2, a protein associated with Parkinsons disease, on cell motility. A Travelling Fellowship from Journal of Cell Science allowed her to spend time in Prof Maddy Parsons lab at Kings College London, learning new cell migration assays and analysing fibroblasts cultured from individuals with Parkinsons. Read more on her story here. Where could your research take you? The deadline to apply for the current round of Travelling Fellowships is 30 Nov 2017. Apply now!. ...
Vimentin is a class III intermediate filament protein predominantly found in cells of mesenchymal origins, such as vascular endothelium and blood cells, where it functions as a major cytoskeletal component. Due to its importance and abundance in the cytoskeletal structure of mesenchymally-derived cells, vimentin is fre
The mitochondrial genome is transcribed by a single-subunit T7 phage-like RNA polymerase (mtRNAP), structurally unrelated to cellular RNAPs. In higher eukaryotes, mtRNAP requires two transcription factors for efficient initiation-TFAM, a major nucleoid protein, and TFB2M, a transient component of mt …
BFSP1 Full-Length MS Protein Standard (NP_001186), Labeled with [U- 13C6, 15N4]-L-Arginine and [U- 13C6, 15N2]-L-Lysine, was produced in human 293 cells (HEK293) with fully chemically defined cell culture medium to obtain incorporation efficiency at Creative-Proteomics. This gene encodes a lens-specific intermediate filament-like protein named filensin. The encoded protein is expressed in lens fiber cells after differentiation has begun. This protein functions as a component of the beaded filament which is a cytoskeletal structure found in lens fiber cells. Mutations in this gene are the cause of autosomal recessive cortical juvenile-onset cataract. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants.
Nestin is an intermediate filament protein needed for survival, renewal & proliferation of neural progenitors. Rat401 reacts with rat & mouse nestin.
The association and interaction of plectin (Mr 300,000) with intermediate filaments and filament subunit proteins were studied. Immunoelectron microscopy of whole mount cytoskeletons from various cultured cell lines (rat glioma C6, mouse BALB/c 3T3, and Chinese hamster ovary) and quick-frozen, deep-etched replicas of Triton X-100-extracted rat embryo fibroblast cells revealed that plectin was primarily located at junction sites and branching points of intermediate filaments. These results were corroborated by in vitro recombination studies using vimentin and plectin purified from C6 cells. Filaments assembled from mixtures of both proteins were extensively crosslinked by oligomeric plectin structures, as demonstrated by electron microscopy of negatively stained and rotary-shadowed specimens as well as by immunoelectron microscopy; the binding of plectin structures on the surface of filaments and cross-link formation occurred without apparent periodicity. Plectins cross-linking of reconstituted ...
Nestin is a class VI intermediate filament protein expressed in stem cells of the developing central nervous system (CNS) but not in mature CNS cells.
Export GlyConnect protein list related to cell_components with id 182 O14639 # id : 2904 Actin-binding LIM protein 1 Homo sapiens P19527 # id : 431 Neurofilament triplet l protein Rattus norvegicus P12839 # id : 432 Neurofilament triplet m protein Rattus norvegicus ...
A page within the free MCAT Learning Program produced by Wisebridge Learning Systems. The topic under discussion here is Intermediate Filaments - The WikiPremed MCAT Course
The Peviva M65 EpiRat™ ELISA is a one-step in vitro immunoassay for the quantitative determination of soluble keratin 18 in rat serum and plasma. The Peviva M65 EpiRat™ ELISA is based on the M5 and M6 antibodies, which bind to the biomarker Keratin-18 (K18). K18 is an intermediate filament protein found in epithelial cells. The concentration of K18 reflects the amount of overall cell death, both apoptosis and necrosis, in K18 positive cells. Levels of K18 are commonly elevated when the liver endures damage, through disease or toxicological effects.. Peviva M65 EpiRat™ ELISA is suitable for use in research, pre-clinical trials, and toxicological studies.. The Peviva M65 EpiRat™ ELISA is optimized as a rat specific assay and represents the final piece of the puzzle to complete our portfolio K18 assays, making the Peviva product line available and valuable in all stages of drug development.. ...
Understanding how oxidation of proteins leads to reversible alterations in protein function is relevant for proteins involved in cellular signaling processes, including protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). Two groups, Salmeen et al. and van Montfort et al., show that PTP1B is reversibly oxidized by such chemicals as hydrogen peroxide or 2-phenyl-isoxazalidine-3,5-dione and forms a previously uncharacterized sulfenyl-amide because of oxidation of the catalytic site cysteine. Both groups analyzed the crystal structure of PTP1B after exposure to oxidizing conditions and identified the formation of the sulfenyl-amide, which caused large changes in the conformation of the active site. Salmeen et al. reported inhibition of substrate binding in the peroxide-exposed PTP1B, consistent with the structural changes blocking substrate recognition. This novel intermediate may effectively protect PTP1B from irreversible inactivation that would result from the formation of sulfinic or sulfonic acids.. A. ...
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The spirochete endoflagellum is a unique motility apparatus among bacteria. Despite its critical importance for pathogenesis, the full composition of the
The aim of process industries is to produce products and intermediates from raw materials and other intermediates. Inevitably, there are waste products to be disposed of and if these are of no use, they must be returned ...
Share of intermediate goods in total production cost continued to grow, with purchased services and agricultural chemicals growing much faster than other intermediate inputs between 1948 and ...
Intermediate filaments (IFs) are composed of one or more members of a large family of cytoskeletal proteins, whose expression is cell-and tissue type-specific ...
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Characterization of an intermediate filament protein from the platyhelminth, Dugesia japonica. In: Protein and Peptide Letters ... Characterization of an intermediate filament protein from the platyhelminth, Dugesia japonica. Protein and Peptide Letters. ... Characterization of an intermediate filament protein from the platyhelminth, Dugesia japonica. Protein and Peptide Letters, 27( ... Characterization of an intermediate filament protein from the platyhelminth, Dugesia japonica, Protein and Peptide Letters, ...
The GFAP gene provides instructions for making a protein called glial fibrillary acidic protein. Learn about this gene and ... This protein is a member of the intermediate filament family of proteins. Intermediate filaments form networks that provide ... The altered protein probably disturbs the formation of normal intermediate filaments. As a result, the abnormal glial ... Intermediate filament proteins and their associated diseases. N Engl J Med. 2004 Nov 11;351(20):2087-100. doi: 10.1056/ ...
Keratin intermediate filament proteins protect epithelial cells from mechanical and non-mechanical stresses29. Krt76 is a type ... but predicted interactions retrieved other keratins or intermediate filament-associated proteins such as Tchp, Krt77, Krt86 and ... STRING v9.1: protein-protein interaction networks, with increased coverage and integration. Nucleic Acids Res. 41, D808-D815 ( ... Large numbers of proteins were significantly enriched for GO terms corresponding to catalytic (28%; log10 P value, −13.7356) ...
... an intermediate filament protein; (3) alpha-enolase; (4) calreticulin, a Ca2+ -binding chaperon indispensable for cardiac ... Three of the cytokines, interleukin 8, macrophage inflammatory protein 1-alpha, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, were ... Furthermore, levels of antibodies to matrilin 1, an extracellular matrix protein predominantly expressed in tracheal cartilage ... Using proteomic surveillance to identify ubiquitous cellular proteins in patients with relapsing polychondritis, researchers ...
Intermediate Filament Proteins * Membrane Glycoproteins * Nerve Tissue Proteins * PRPH protein, human * PRPH2 protein, human ...
Association of syncollin and desmin: Linking intermediate filament proteins to the dystrophin-associated protein complex. ... Association of syncollin and desmin: Linking intermediate filament proteins to the dystrophin-associated protein complex. ...
In vivo and in vitro evidence that the four essential intermediate filament (IF) proteins A1, A2, A3 and B1 of the nematode ... In vivo and in vitro evidence that the four essential intermediate filament (IF) proteins A1, A2, A3 and B1 of the nematode ... In vivo and in vitro evidence that the four essential intermediate filament (IF) proteins A1, A2, A3 and B1 of the nematode ...
Categories: Intermediate Filament Proteins Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
They are members of the intermediate filament (IF) protein family. Lamins differ from cytoplasmic IF proteins by the presence ... Gb: Gigabases; GPCR: G protein-coupled receptor; HSP: heat shock protein; LINEs: long interspersed elements; LTR: Long Terminal ... protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) proteins, Zinc-finger of C2H2 type, heat shock ... able generation of high‐quality protein multiple sequence alignments usi. ng Clustal Omega. Molecular systems biology. 2011;7 1 ...
Three of these proteins, heat shock protein, an intermediate filament protein, and galectin 1, represent potential markers for ... 12 derived from the Lec-5 protein. In contrast, 34 proteins were exclusively present in the Angiostrongylus extracts and ... Each CVH metric was given a score of 0, 1, or 2 representing poor, intermediate, or ideal health, respectively. Scores of the 6 ... We also characterized proteins isolated from different cellular sources of A. cantonensis, Toxocara canis, Schistosoma mansoni ...
a type III intermediate filament structural protein, characteristic of mesenchymal cells.. Zeb1/2. zinc-finger E-box-binding ... fibroblast-specific protein 1; a cytoplasmic calcium-binding protein primarily expressed in fibroblasts. As a member of the ... tumor protein p53; a tumor suppressor that regulates the cell cycle and is frequently mutated in cancer. ... Twist-related protein 1/2; basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors. Cells undergoing EMT demonstrate increased expression ...
Characteristics of intermediate filament proteins. Definition. 1. Middle has the chemical capacity to make more of itself. 2. ... Intermediate Filaments. Microtubules. Definition. Microfilaments - actin. Intermediate filaments - various. Microtubules - ... Characteristics of Intermediate Filaments. Definition. 1. Mainly for structure support. 2. Toughest and most durable. 3. Span ... Capping microtubule proteins does two things... Definition. 1. Create polarity of the cell. 2. Stimulates growth in a direction ...
Omary, M. B., Coulombe, P. A. & McLean, W. H. I. Intermediate filament proteins and their associated diseases. N. Engl. J. Med ... Fuchs, E. & Cleveland, D. W. A structural scaffolding of intermediate filaments in health and disease. Science 279, 514-519 ( ... Semi-wet peptide/protein array using supramolecular hydrogel. Nature Mater. 3, 58-64 (2004). ...
L3ir and L3i have similar transcription profiles for genes that encode highly immunogenic proteins, antioxidants and cuticle ... 165 genes were up-regulated in L3ir relative to L3c; these genes encode highly immunogenic proteins and proteins involved in ... AAS92593.1, excretory/secretory protein Juv-p120 bmif (1) BMC07029 3.1 P23730,IFEA_ASCSU Intermediate filament protein A ... zinc finger protein (1) BMC11725 2.2 CAA34357.1, zinc finger protein Gated Ion channel (1) AI856833 5.5 NP_001023062.1, C43F9.9 ...
The structural proteins of the cytoplasmic intermediate filaments (IFs) arise in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans from eight ... Essential roles for four cytoplasmic intermediate filament proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans development ...
Cytokeratin 8: The Dominant Type II Intermediate Filament Protein in Lung Cancer By Nobuhiro Kanaji, Akihito Kubo, Shuji Bandoh ...
... protein GFAP. This disease is characterized by excessive accumulation of GFAP, known as Rosenthal fibers, within astrocytes. ... is a primary genetic disorder of astrocytes caused by dominant mutations in the gene encoding the intermediate filament (IF) ... The role of gigaxonin in the degradation of the glial-specific intermediate filament protein GFAP. Mol. Biol. Cell 2016;27:3980 ... with a particular focus on astrocytes and their major intermediate filament protein, GFAP. Main strategies involve genetic ...
As it turned out, some of the antibodies Wes generated recognized the intermediate filament nestin, a protein localized ... 2007). Regulation of the intermediate filament protein nestin at rodent neuromuscular junctions by innervation and activity. J ... 2004). Fluorescent proteins expressed in mouse transgenic lines mark subsets of glia, neurons, macrophages, and dendritic cells ... fluorescent protein (Feng et al., 2000), mice with fluorescent SCs allowed repeated vital imaging of motor axons and terminal ...
The GMMe cell line is an epithelial line that tests positive for the intermediate filament proteins cytokeratin and vimentin, ... The fibroblast-like GMMs cells are positive for the intermediate filament protein vimentin and the enzyme alkaline phosphatase ... PtK2 cells exhibit epithelial morphology and stain positive for the intermediate filament protein keratin. PtK2 cells ... but are negative for glial fibrillary acidic protein and myelin basis protein. By culturing the cortical neuronal cells with a ...
Monoclonal antibodies to human intermediate filament proteins. II. Distribution of filament proteins in normal human tissues: A ...
A Whole-Mount Immunocytochemical Analysis of the Expression of the Intermediate Filament Protein Vimentin in Xenopus. ... In most cases, FL cells exhibit the t(14;18) translocation leading to the expression of the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein. It is ... Although this gave us a better understanding of the influence of spatial organization on gene and protein expression, drug ...
We then investigated the IR and the distribution of peripherin, a type III neuronal intermediate filament (IF) protein, after ... Tar DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43), a DNA/RNA-binding 43 kDa protein, has been implicated in ALS (Arai et al., 2006; Neumann ... Ubiquitin, another protein involved in injury (Yamauchi et al., 2008), was also examined for its expression levels. In normal ... Tar DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) mislocalization and aggregation is a hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and ...
Involved in the interaction of plaque proteins and intermediate filaments mediating cell-cell adhesion. ... Proteins and Peptides. By product type. Proteomics tools. Agonists, activators, antagonists and inhibitors. Cell lines and ... This protein is found in epidermis, tongue, tonsil, esophagus and carcinomas, so any of those tissues would be good positive ... The Universal Protein Resource (UniProt) in 2010. Nucleic Acids Res. 38:D142-D148 (2010) . ...
... is an intermediate filament (IF) protein that is expressed by numerous cell types of the central nervous system (CNS) including ... the type I and II intermediate filaments; in cells that express both proteins, two separate intermediate filament networks form ... Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is an intermediate filament (IF) protein that is expressed by numerous cell types of the ... which are the basic subunits of an intermediate filament. The non-helical head and tail domains are necessary for filament ...
Lens intermediate filament proteins.. Sandilands, A., Masaki, S. & Quinlan, R. A., 1 Jan 1998, In: Sub-cellular biochemistry. ... Identification of regulatory phosphorylation sites in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-activated protein kinase-1a/p90( ... HMG box proteins bind to four-way DNA junctions in their open conformation. Pöhler, J. R. G., Norman, D. G., Bramham, J., ...
... of the astrocyte intermediate filament protein, GFAP. GFAP mRNA can now be reliably quantified, as well, using Taqman ...
Intermediate filaments constitute a class of cytoskeletal proteins in metazoan cells, however, different from actin ... Center for Research on Cardiac Intermediate Filaments The CRCIF was established to foster collaborative efforts aimed at ... To achieve a comprehensive understanding, they are studying cytoplasmic protein-protein interactions involved in regulation of ... 2. Translate structural and mechanistic information on protein:protein interactions at the cytoplasmic level into preventive ...
Keratins are a family of structurally related proteins that form the intermediate filament cytoskeleton in epithelial cells. ... CK-5 is highly similar to other type II keratins and less similar to type I keratins and other intermediate filament proteins. ... Disclaimer note: The observed molecular weight of the protein may vary from the listed predicted molecular weight due to post ... mRNA and protein are shown to be expressed in normal mammary epithelial cells in culture and are absent from tumor-derived cell ...

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