Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Cell surface proteins that bind interleukins and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A cytokine produced by bone marrow stromal cells that promotes the growth of B-LYMPHOCYTE precursors and is co-mitogenic with INTERLEUKIN-2 for mature T-LYMPHOCYTE activation.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Cytokine that stimulates the proliferation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and shares biological activities with IL-2. IL-15 also can induce proliferation and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-5. They are heterodimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-5 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT. Signaling from interleukin-5 receptors can occur through interaction of their cytoplasmic domains with SYNTENINS.
A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A multilineage cell growth factor secreted by LYMPHOCYTES; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and ASTROCYTES which stimulates clonal proliferation and differentiation of various types of blood and tissue cells.
A lymphohematopoietic cytokine that plays a role in regulating the proliferation of ERYTHROID PRECURSOR CELLS. It induces maturation of MEGAKARYOCYTES which results in increased production of BLOOD PLATELETS. Interleukin-11 was also initially described as an inhibitor of ADIPOGENESIS of cultured preadipocytes.
Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A cytokine which resembles IL-1 structurally and IL-12 functionally. It enhances the cytotoxic activity of NK CELLS and CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES, and appears to play a role both as neuroimmunomodulator and in the induction of mucosal immunity.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
An acidic glycoprotein of MW 23 kDa with internal disulfide bonds. The protein is produced in response to a number of inflammatory mediators by mesenchymal cells present in the hemopoietic environment and at peripheral sites of inflammation. GM-CSF is able to stimulate the production of neutrophilic granulocytes, macrophages, and mixed granulocyte-macrophage colonies from bone marrow cells and can stimulate the formation of eosinophil colonies from fetal liver progenitor cells. GM-CSF can also stimulate some functional activities in mature granulocytes and macrophages.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.

Reciprocal control of T helper cell and dendritic cell differentiation. (1/3668)

It is not known whether subsets of dendritic cells provide different cytokine microenvironments that determine the differentiation of either type-1 T helper (TH1) or TH2 cells. Human monocyte (pDC1)-derived dendritic cells (DC1) were found to induce TH1 differentiation, whereas dendritic cells (DC2) derived from CD4+CD3-CD11c- plasmacytoid cells (pDC2) induced TH2 differentiation by use of a mechanism unaffected by interleukin-4 (IL-4) or IL-12. The TH2 cytokine IL-4 enhanced DC1 maturation and killed pDC2, an effect potentiated by IL-10 but blocked by CD40 ligand and interferon-gamma. Thus, a negative feedback loop from the mature T helper cells may selectively inhibit prolonged TH1 or TH2 responses by regulating survival of the appropriate dendritic cell subset.  (+info)

Interaction of lipopolysaccharide with human small intestinal lamina propria fibroblasts favors neutrophil migration and peripheral blood mononuclear cell adhesion by the production of proinflammatory mediators and adhesion molecules. (2/3668)

Fibroblasts are important effector cells having a potential role in augmenting the inflammatory responses in various diseases. In infantile diarrhea caused by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), the mechanism of inflammatory reactions at the mucosal site remains unknown. Although the potential involvement of fibroblasts in the pathogenesis of cryptococcus-induced diarrhea in pigs has been suggested, the precise role of lamina propria fibroblasts in the cellular pathogenesis of intestinal infection and inflammation caused by EPEC requires elucidation. Earlier we reported the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cell proliferation, and collagen synthesis and downregulation of nitric oxide in lamina propria fibroblasts. In this report, we present the profile of cytokines and adhesion molecules in the cultured and characterized human small intestinal lamina propria fibroblasts in relation to neutrophil migration and adhesion in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extracted from EPEC 055:B5. Upon interaction with LPS (1-10 micrograms/ml), lamina propria fibroblasts produced a high level of proinflammatory mediators, interleukin (IL)-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and cell adhesion molecules (CAM) such as intercellular cell adhesion molecule (ICAM), A-CAM, N-CAM and vitronectin in a time-dependent manner. LPS induced cell-associated IL-1alpha and IL-1beta, and IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-alpha as soluble form in the supernatant. Apart from ICAM, vitronectin, A-CAM, and N-CAM proteins were strongly induced in lamina propria fibroblasts by LPS. Adhesion of PBMC to LPS-treated lamina propria fibroblasts was ICAM-dependent. LPS-induced ICAM expression in lamina propria fibroblasts was modulated by whole blood, PBMC and neutrophils. Conditioned medium of LPS-treated lamina propria fibroblasts remarkably enhanced the neutrophil migration. The migration of neutrophils was inhibited by anti-IL-8 antibody. Co-culture of fibroblasts with neutrophils using polycarbonate membrane filters exhibited time-dependent migration of neutrophils. These findings indicate that the coordinate production of proinflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules in lamina propria fibroblasts which do not classically belong to the immune system can influence the local inflammatory reactions at the intestinal mucosal site during bacterial infections and can influence the immune cell population residing in the lamina propria.  (+info)

Th1 and Th2 cytokine mRNA profiles in childhood nephrotic syndrome: evidence for increased IL-13 mRNA expression in relapse. (3/3668)

Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome of childhood is thought to be associated with T lymphocyte dysfunction often triggered by viral infections, with the production of circulating factor(s) resulting in proteinuria. In view of the conflicting evidence of T cell activation and Th1 or Th2 pattern of cytokine synthesis in this disease, this study examined the mRNA expression of interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-gamma, IL-4, and IL-13 from CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in steroid-responsive nephrotic patients in relapse and remission. Fifty-five children with steroid-responsive nephrotic syndrome were included in this study, together with 34 normal controls and 24 patient controls with viral infections. RNA was isolated from purified CD4+ or CD8+ cells from peripheral blood and subjected to reverse transcription-PCR. Cytokine mRNA expression was measured semiquantitatively, and a cytokine index was derived from densitometric readings, with cyclophilin as the housekeeping gene. Both cross-sectional and paired data showed an increased CD4+ and CD8+ IL-13 mRNA expression in patients with nephrotic relapse as compared to remission, normal, and patient controls (P < 0.008). This was also associated with increased cytoplasmic IL-13 expression in phorbol myristate acetate/ionomycin-activated CD3+ cells (6.66+/-3.39%) from patients with nephrotic relapse compared to remission (2.59+/-1.35%) (P < 0.0001). However, there was no significant difference in CD4+ or CD8+ IL-2, interferon-gamma and IL-4 mRNA expression. IL-13 is an important T cell cytokine with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory functions on B cells and monocytes. It is conceivable that IL-13 may act on monocytes to produce vascular permeability factor(s) involved in the pathogenesis of proteinuria in patients with relapse nephrotic syndrome.  (+info)

Enhanced capacity of a widespread strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to grow in human macrophages. (4/3668)

To determine whether the extent of spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in the community correlated with their capacity to replicate in human macrophages, intracellular growth rates of M. tuberculosis patient isolates were measured. Strain 210 caused disease in 43 patients in central Los Angeles, 3 "small-cluster" strains caused disease in 8-23 patients, and 5 "unique" strains each caused disease in only 1 patient who was positive by sputum acid-fast smear and spent substantial amounts of time at homeless shelters that were tuberculosis transmission sites. Strain 210 isolates grew significantly more rapidly than small-cluster and unique strains in macrophages. All strains elicited production of similar amounts of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and IL-12 and were equally susceptible to reactive nitrogen intermediates. It was concluded that the extensive spread of an M. tuberculosis strain correlated with its capacity to replicate rapidly in human macrophages, which may be a marker of virulence.  (+info)

Macrophages are a significant source of type 1 cytokines during mycobacterial infection. (5/3668)

T-helper 1 (Th1) cells are believed to be the major producer of the type 1 cytokine interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in cell-mediated immunity against intracellular infection. We have investigated the ability of macrophages to release type 1 cytokines and their regulatory mechanisms using both in vivo and in vitro models of pulmonary mycobacterial infection. During pulmonary infection by live Mycobacterium bovis bacilli Calmette-Guerin (BCG) in wild-type mice, lung macrophages released interleukin-12 (IL-12), IFN-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and expressed surface activation markers. However, macrophages in infected IL-12(-/-) mice released TNF-alpha but not IFN-gamma and lacked surface activation makers. In freshly isolated lung macrophages from naive IL-2(-/-) mice, mycobacteria alone released TNF-alpha but not IFN-gamma, whereas exogenously added IL-12 alone released a minimum of IFN-gamma. However, these macrophages released large quantities of IFN-gamma upon stimulation with both mycobacteria and IL-12. In contrast, mycobacteria and exogenous IFN-gamma released only a minimum of endogenous IFN-gamma. Endogenous IL-18 (IFN-gamma-inducing factor) played little role in IFN-gamma responses by macrophages stimulated by mycobacteria and IL-12. Our data reveal that macrophages are a significant source of type 1 cytokines during mycobacterial infection and that both IL-12 and intracellular pathogens are required for the release of IFN-gamma but not TNF-alpha. These findings suggest that macrophages regulate cell-mediated immunity by releasing not only IL-12 and TNF-alpha but also IFN-gamma and that full activation of IFN-gamma response in macrophages is tightly regulated.  (+info)

Regulation of TH1- and TH2-type cytokine expression and action in atopic asthmatic sensitized airway smooth muscle. (6/3668)

CD4(+) T helper (TH)1- and TH2-type cytokines reportedly play an important role in the pathobiology of asthma. Recent evidence suggests that proasthmatic changes in airway smooth muscle (ASM) responsiveness may be induced by the autocrine release of certain proinflammatory cytokines by the ASM itself. We examined whether TH1- and TH2-type cytokines are expressed by atopic asthmatic sensitized ASM and serve to autologously regulate the proasthmatic phenotype in the sensitized ASM. Expression of these cytokines and their receptors was examined in isolated rabbit and human ASM tissues and cultured cells passively sensitized with sera from atopic asthmatic patients or control subjects. Relative to controls, atopic sensitized ASM cells exhibited an early increased mRNA expression of the TH2-type cytokines, interleukin-5 (IL-5) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and their receptors. This was later followed by enhanced mRNA expression of the TH1-type cytokines, IL-2, IL-12, and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), as well as their respective receptors. In experiments on isolated ASM tissue segments (a) exogenous administration of IL-2 and IFN-gamma to atopic asthmatic serum-sensitized ASM ablated both their enhanced constrictor responsiveness to acetylcholine (ACh) and their attenuated relaxation responsiveness to beta-adrenoceptor stimulation with isoproterenol, and (b) administration of IL-5 and GM-CSF to naive ASM induced significant increases in their contractility to ACh and impaired their relaxant responsiveness to isoproterenol. Collectively, these observations provide new evidence demonstrating that human ASM endogenously expresses both TH1- and TH2-type cytokines and their receptors, that these molecules are sequentially upregulated in the atopic asthmatic sensitized state, and that they act to downregulate and upregulate proasthmatic perturbations in ASM responsiveness, respectively.  (+info)

A fatal cytokine-induced systemic inflammatory response reveals a critical role for NK cells. (7/3668)

The mechanism of cytokine-induced shock remains poorly understood. The combination of IL-2 and IL-12 has synergistic antitumor activity in vivo, yet has been associated with significant toxicity. We examined the effects of IL-2 plus IL-12 in a murine model and found that the daily, simultaneous administration of IL-2 and IL-12 resulted in shock and 100% mortality within 4 to 12 days depending on the strain employed. Mice treated with IL-2 plus IL-12 exhibited NK cell apoptosis, pulmonary edema, degenerative lesions of the gastrointestinal tract, and elevated serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines and acute phase reactants. The actions of TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, macrophage-inflammatory protein-1alpha, IL-1, IL-1-converting enzyme, Fas, perforin, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and STAT1 did not contribute to the observed toxicity, nor did B or T cells. However, toxicity and death from treatment with IL-2 plus IL-12 could be completely abrogated by elimination of NK cells. These results suggest that the fatal systemic inflammatory response induced by this cytokine treatment is critically dependent upon NK cells, but does not appear to be mediated by the known effector molecules of this cellular compartment. These data may provide insight into the pathogenesis of cytokine-induced shock in humans.  (+info)

Levels of IL-12 in the sera of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)--relation to Th1- and Th2-derived cytokines. (8/3668)

IL-12 is a cytokine that induces Th1-derived cytokines (interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and IL-2). The significance of IL-12 in human autoimmunity is no clear, and the serum levels of IL-12 in SLE are not clearly established. Therefore, we examined the levels of IL-12 in 39 patients with active SLE, with sandwich ELISA. The levels of IL-12 in patients were significantly higher than in normal subjects. Patients with high levels of IL-12 also had high levels of IFN-gamma, while their levels of IL-13 were significantly lower than in patients with normal levels of IL-12. Patients with pulmonary involvement had high levels of IL-12, and steroid therapy decreased the IL-12 level in three patients. In a retrospective study of seven patients, various changes of IL-12 and IL-13 were recognized before disease flare. Thus, in SLE patients, the level of IL-12 was increased and this increase was related to the change of Th1- or Th2-derived cytokines with some organ involvement.  (+info)

There are several key features of inflammation:

1. Increased blood flow: Blood vessels in the affected area dilate, allowing more blood to flow into the tissue and bringing with it immune cells, nutrients, and other signaling molecules.
2. Leukocyte migration: White blood cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes, migrate towards the site of inflammation in response to chemical signals.
3. Release of mediators: Inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines, are released by immune cells and other cells in the affected tissue. These molecules help to coordinate the immune response and attract more immune cells to the site of inflammation.
4. Activation of immune cells: Immune cells, such as macrophages and T cells, become activated and start to phagocytose (engulf) pathogens or damaged tissue.
5. Increased heat production: Inflammation can cause an increase in metabolic activity in the affected tissue, leading to increased heat production.
6. Redness and swelling: Increased blood flow and leakiness of blood vessels can cause redness and swelling in the affected area.
7. Pain: Inflammation can cause pain through the activation of nociceptors (pain-sensing neurons) and the release of pro-inflammatory mediators.

Inflammation can be acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is a short-term response to injury or infection, which helps to resolve the issue quickly. Chronic inflammation is a long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases such as arthritis, asthma, and cancer.

There are several types of inflammation, including:

1. Acute inflammation: A short-term response to injury or infection.
2. Chronic inflammation: A long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases.
3. Autoimmune inflammation: An inappropriate immune response against the body's own tissues.
4. Allergic inflammation: An immune response to a harmless substance, such as pollen or dust mites.
5. Parasitic inflammation: An immune response to parasites, such as worms or fungi.
6. Bacterial inflammation: An immune response to bacteria.
7. Viral inflammation: An immune response to viruses.
8. Fungal inflammation: An immune response to fungi.

There are several ways to reduce inflammation, including:

1. Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs).
2. Lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management, and getting enough sleep.
3. Alternative therapies, such as acupuncture, herbal supplements, and mind-body practices.
4. Addressing underlying conditions, such as hormonal imbalances, gut health issues, and chronic infections.
5. Using anti-inflammatory compounds found in certain foods, such as omega-3 fatty acids, turmeric, and ginger.

It's important to note that chronic inflammation can lead to a range of health problems, including:

1. Arthritis
2. Diabetes
3. Heart disease
4. Cancer
5. Alzheimer's disease
6. Parkinson's disease
7. Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.

Therefore, it's important to manage inflammation effectively to prevent these complications and improve overall health and well-being.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

... 1 alpha and interleukin 1 beta (IL1 alpha and IL1 beta) are cytokines that participate in the regulation of immune ... Gately MK, Renzetti LM, Magram J, Stern AS, Adorini L, Gubler U, Presky DH (1998). "The interleukin-12/interleukin-12-receptor ... Recombinant expression enables cells to process precursor Interleukin 1 Beta to the mature form of the enzyme. Interleukin 1 ... di Giovine FS, Duff GW (Jan 1990). "Interleukin 1: the first interleukin". Immunology Today. 11 (1): 13-20. doi:10.1016/0167- ...
Interleukin-25 (IL-25) - also known as interleukin-17E (IL-17E) - is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL25 gene on ... "Entrez Gene: IL25 interleukin 25". Moseley TA, Haudenschild DR, Rose L, Reddi AH (April 2003). "Interleukin-17 family and IL-17 ... "Interleukin-17B Antagonizes Interleukin-25-Mediated Mucosal Inflammation". Immunity. 42 (4): 692-703. doi:10.1016/j.immuni. ... Identification of an interleukin (IL)-25-dependent cell population that provides IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 at the onset of helminth ...
... is an interleukin, a type of biological signal (cytokine) that can improve the body's natural response to disease ... Tabira T, Chui DH, Fan JP, Shirabe T, Konishi Y (1998). "Interleukin-3 and interleukin-3 receptors in the brain". Ann. N. Y. ... Interleukin 3 has been shown to interact with IL3RA. Interleukin GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000164399 - Ensembl, May ... interleukin-3 (IL-3), and interleukin-5 (IL-5) receptor complexes to chromosome 22q13.1". Human Genetics. 93 (2): 198-200. doi: ...
As a signaling molecule, interleukin 11 has a variety of functions associated with its receptor interleukin 11 receptor alpha; ... Interleukin 11 (IL-11) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL11 gene. IL-11 is a cytokine and first isolated in 1990 ... Interleukin 11 is manufactured using recombinant DNA technology and is marketed as a protein therapeutic called oprelvekin, for ... Chen HF, Lin CY, Chao KH, Wu MY, Yang YS, Ho HN (May 2002). "Defective production of interleukin-11 by decidua and chorionic ...
... is a pro-inflammatory pleiotropic cytokine. It's precursor, pro-interleukin-16 is a protein that in humans is ... Interleukin 16 (IL-16) is released by a variety of cells (including lymphocytes and some epithelial cells) that has been ... Interleukin 16 has been shown to interact with: GRIN2A, GRIN2D, KCNJ10, KCNJ15, Kir2.1, PPP1R12A, and PPP1R12B. GRCh38: Ensembl ... "Entrez Gene: IL16 interleukin 16 (lymphocyte chemoattractant factor)". Cruikshank W, Center DM (June 1982). "Modulation of ...
... (IL-6) is an interleukin that acts as both a pro-inflammatory cytokine and an anti-inflammatory myokine. In ... Interleukin-6 has been shown to interact with interleukin-6 receptor, glycoprotein 130, and Galectin-3. There is considerable ... Other cytokines that signal through receptors containing gp130 are Interleukin 11 (IL-11), Interleukin 27 (IL-27), ciliary ... "Direct determination of the interleukin-6 binding epitope of the interleukin-6 receptor by NMR spectroscopy". The Journal of ...
... (IL-38) is a member of the interleukin-1 (IL-1) family and the interleukin-36 (IL-36) subfamily. It is important ... Jung, MY; Kang, SW; Kim, SK; Kim, H-J; Yun, DH; Yim, S-V; Hong, SJ; Chung, J-H (2010-02-09). "The interleukin-1 family gene ... Yuan, X. L.; Li, Y.; Pan, X. H.; Zhou, M.; Gao, Q. Y.; Li, M. C. (May 2016). "Production of recombinant human interleukin-38 ... Also serum levels of IL-17 and interleukin-22 were lower in these mice what approves in vitro observation that IL-38 could ...
Interleukin-28 (IL-28) is a cytokine that comes in two isoforms, IL-28A and IL-28B, and plays a role in immune defense against ... 2004). "Interleukin-28 and 29 (IL-28 and IL-29): new cytokines with anti-viral activities". International Journal of ... Protein pages needing a picture, Genes on human chromosome 19, Interleukins). ...
Zurawski G, de Vries JE (January 1994). "Interleukin 13, an interleukin 4-like cytokine that acts on monocytes and B cells, but ... Interleukin 13 (IL-13) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL13 gene. IL-13 was first cloned in 1993 and is located ... Interleukin-13 has a critical role in goblet cell metaplasia. Goblet cells are filled with mucin (MUC). MUC5AC Mucin 5AC is a ... Interleukin-13 induces goblet cell differentiation and allows for the production of MUC5AC in tracheal epithelium. 15- ...
... (IL-30) forms one chain of the heterodimeric cytokine called interleukin 27 (IL-27), thus it is also called IL27 ... September 2006). "Interleukin 27 negatively regulates the development of interleukin 17-producing T helper cells during chronic ... Catalan-Dibene J, McIntyre LL, Zlotnik A (October 2018). "Interleukin 30 to Interleukin 40". Journal of Interferon & Cytokine ... Catalan-Dibene J, McIntyre LL, Zlotnik A (October 2018). "Interleukin 30 to Interleukin 40". Journal of Interferon & Cytokine ...
Interleukin-19 is a cytokine that belongs to the IL-10 family of cytokines along with several other interleukins including IL- ... Interleukin 19 (IL-19) is an immunosuppressive protein that belongs to the IL-10 cytokine subfamily. Human IL-19 is encoded by ... "IL19 interleukin 19 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". Retrieved 2022-03-01. Leigh T, Scalia RG, ... 2011-11-15). "Interleukin-19: a constituent of the regulome that controls antigen presenting cells in the lungs and airway ...
... (IL-24) is a protein in the interleukin family, a type of cytokine signaling molecule in the immune system. In ... This interleukin is also known as melanoma differentiation-associated 7 (mda-7) due to its discovery as a tumour suppressing ... March 2016). "The interleukin-20 receptor axis in early rheumatoid arthritis: novel links between disease-associated ... Wang M, Tan Z, Zhang R, Kotenko SV, Liang P (March 2002). "Interleukin 24 (MDA-7/MOB-5) signals through two heterodimeric ...
... , also known as IL-9, is a pleiotropic cytokine (cell signalling molecule) belonging to the group of interleukins ... Renauld J (1995). "Interleukin-9: Structural characteristics and biologic properties". Cytokines: Interleukins and Their ... Interleukin 33 (IL-33) induces IL-9 expression and secretion in T cells, which was confirmed by the results obtained in mice by ... Interleukin-9 has also shown to inhibit melanoma growth in mice. Additionally, it gives rise to the multiplication of ...
Interleukin-29 (IL-29) is a cytokine and it belongs to type III interferons group, also termed interferons λ (IFN-λ). IL-29 ( ... "Entrez Gene: interleukin 29 (interferon". Wang JM, Huang AF, Xu WD, Su LC (December 2019). "Insights into IL-29: Emerging role ... Pagliaccetti NE, Eduardo R, Kleinstein SH, Mu XJ, Bandi P, Robek MD (October 2008). "Interleukin-29 functions cooperatively ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Genes on human chromosome 19, Interleukins, Cytokines, ...
Interleukin-1 family Interleukin 18 Interleukin 18 receptor Interleukin 18 binding protein Inflammation Carcinogenesis GRCh38: ... Interleukin 37 (IL-37), also known as Interleukin-1 family member 7 (IL-1F7), is an anti-inflammatory cytokine important for ... April 2018). "The Role, Involvement and Function(s) of Interleukin-35 and Interleukin-37 in Disease Pathogenesis". ... interleukin-1 beta, and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist genes". Genomics. 19 (2): 382-384. doi:10.1006/geno.1994.1076. PMID ...
Together with Interleukin-2 (IL-2), Interleukin-4 (IL-4), Interleukin-7 (IL-7), Interleukin-9 (IL-9), granulocyte colony- ... Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is a cytokine with structural similarity to Interleukin-2 (IL-2). Like IL-2, IL-15 binds to and signals ... February 2014). "Identification of a gene for an ancient cytokine, interleukin 15-like, in mammals; interleukins 2 and 15 co- ... Liew FY, McInnes IB (November 2002). "Role of interleukin 15 and interleukin 18 in inflammatory response". Annals of the ...
"Entrez Gene: IL7 interleukin 7". Noguchi M, Nakamura Y, Russell SM, et al. (1994). "Interleukin-2 receptor gamma chain: a ... Aspinall R, Henson S, Pido-Lopez J, Ngom PT (2004). "Interleukin-7: an interleukin for rejuvenating the immune system". Ann. N ... "Human follicular dendritic cells and vascular cells produce interleukin-7: a potential role for interleukin-7 in the germinal ... Interleukin 7 (IL-7) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL7 gene. IL-7 is a hematopoietic growth factor secreted by ...
... (IL32) is proinflammatory cytokine that in humans is encoded by the IL32 gene. Interleukin 32 can be found in ... "Entrez Gene: Interleukin 32". Sloot YJ, Smit JW, Joosten LA, Netea-Maier RT (August 2018). "Insights into the role of IL-32 in ... Interleukin 32 (IL-32) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that can induce cells of the immune system (such as monocytes and ... Interleukin 32 is connected with several diseases, including cancer. This gene encodes a member of the cytokine family. The ...
February 2003). "Interleukin-23 rather than interleukin-12 is the critical cytokine for autoimmune inflammation of the brain". ... Cauli A, Piga M, Floris A, Mathieu A (2015-10-01). "Current perspective on the role of the interleukin-23/interleukin-17 axis ... Interleukin 23 (IL-23) is a heterodimeric cytokine composed of an IL-12B (IL-12p40) subunit (which is shared with IL-12) and an ... March 2013). "Interleukin 23 regulates proliferation of lung cancer cells in a concentration-dependent way in association with ...
Interleukin-18 (IL-18), also known as interferon-gamma inducing factor) is a protein which in humans is encoded by the IL18 ... Liu Z, Wang H, Xiao W, Wang C, Liu G, Hong T (October 2010). "Thyrocyte interleukin-18 expression is up-regulated by interferon ... This interleukin was also significantly elevated in patients with microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria when it was compared ... Nolan KF, Greaves DR, Waldmann H (July 1998). "The human interleukin 18 gene IL18 maps to 11q22.2-q22.3, closely linked to the ...
"The T-cell lymphokine interleukin-26 targets epithelial cells through the interleukin-20 receptor 1 and interleukin-10 receptor ... Interleukin-26 (IL-26) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL26 gene. IL-26 is the most recently identified member of ... Interleukin 26 (IL-26) is an inflammatory mediator and a driver of chronic inflammation due to its ability to act as a carrier ... "Entrez Gene: interleukin 26". Knappe A, Hör S, Wittmann S, Fickenscher H (April 2000). "Induction of a novel cellular homolog ...
... (IL-21) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL21 gene. Interleukin-21 is a cytokine that has potent ... "Entrez Gene: IL21 interleukin 21". Parrish-Novak J, Foster DC, Holly RD, Clegg CH (November 2002). "Interleukin-21 and the IL- ... Interleukin-21 is also produced by Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) cancer cells (which is surprising because IL-21 was thought to be ... Zhang SQ, Chen B, Luo X, Xu CZ (July 2004). "[Cloning and expression of human interleukin-21 cDNA in E.coli]". Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi ...
Interleukin-31 (IL-31) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL31 gene that resides on chromosome 12. IL-31 is an ... "Entrez Gene: interleukin 31". Dillon SR, Sprecher C, Hammond A, Bilsborough J, Rosenfeld-Franklin M, Presnell SR, et al. (July ... Interleukin 31 is an inflammatory cytokine produced by activated CD4+ T lymphocytes, in particular activated TH2 helper cells, ... The receptor for IL-31 is a heterodimer of the interleukin 31 receptor alpha (IL-31RA) and OSMR. IL-31RA was originally ...
"IL36B interleukin 36 beta [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". Retrieved 2022-09-09. "IL36G interleukin ... Interleukin 36, or IL-36, is a group of cytokines in the IL-1 family with pro-inflammatory effects. The role of IL-36 in ... "IL36A interleukin 36 alpha [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". Retrieved 2022-09-09. " ... Towne, Jennifer E.; Garka, Kirsten E.; Renshaw, Blair R.; Virca, G. Duke; Sims, John E. (2004-04-02). "Interleukin (IL)-1F6, IL ...
... (IL-33) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL33 gene. Interleukin 33 is a member of the IL-1 family ... Interleukin 33 (IL-33) is a cytokine belonging to the IL-1 superfamily. IL-33 induces helper T cells, mast cells, eosinophils ... "Entrez Gene: Interleukin 33". Yagami A, Orihara K, Morita H, Futamura K, Hashimoto N, Matsumoto K, et al. (November 2010). "IL- ... Casciaro M, Cardia R, Di Salvo E, Tuccari G, Ieni A, Gangemi S (May 2019). "Interleukin-33 Involvement in Nonsmall Cell Lung ...
... interleukin 1, interleukin 6 and some members of the colony-stimulating factor family. IL-17F can also induce expression of ... Interleukin 17F (IL-17F) is signaling protein that is in human is encoded by the IL17F gene and is considered a pro- ... The interleukin 17 family members are among the effector cytokines of Th17 immune response. This immune response protects hosts ... IL-17F is highly (55%) homologous to interleukin-17A (IL-17A). These two molecules bind to the same receptors and are very ...
Moore KW, de Waal Malefyt R, Coffman RL, O'Garra A (2001). "Interleukin-10 and the interleukin-10 receptor". Annual Review of ... Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is protein that in humans is encoded by the IL22 gene. IL-22 is an α-helical cytokine. IL-22 binds to a ... October 2000). "Interleukin (IL)-22, a novel human cytokine that signals through the interferon receptor-related proteins CRF2- ... Pestka S, Krause CD, Sarkar D, Walter MR, Shi Y, Fisher PB (2004). "Interleukin-10 and related cytokines and receptors". Annual ...
... (IL5) is an interleukin produced by type-2 T helper cells and mast cells. Through binding to the interleukin-5 ... Interleukin 5 has been shown to interact with Interleukin 5 receptor alpha subunit. The IL-5 receptor is composed of an α and a ... Interleukin-5 is also expressed by eosinophils and has been observed in the mast cells of asthmatic airways by ... Interleukin-5 has long been associated with the cause of several allergic diseases including allergic rhinitis and asthma, ...
... (IL-27) is a member of the IL-12 cytokine family. It is a heterodimeric cytokine that is encoded by two distinct ... Iwasaki Y, Fujio K, Okamura T, Yamamoto K (January 2015). "Interleukin-27 in T cell immunity". International Journal of ... Yoshida H, Hunter CA (April 2015). "The immunobiology of interleukin-27". Annual Review of Immunology. 33 (1): 417-43. doi: ... Aparicio-Siegmund S, Garbers C (October 2015). "The biology of interleukin-27 reveals unique pro- and anti-inflammatory ...
... (IL-34) is a protein belonging to a group of cytokines called interleukins. It was originally identified in ... Interleukin-34 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) v t e (Articles with short description, ... Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: Q6ZMJ4 (Human Interleukin-34) at the PDBe-KB. ... Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: Q8R1R4 (Mouse Interleukin-34) at the PDBe-KB. ...
SEARCH RESULTS for: Interleukin-5 Antagonist [Drug Class] (2 results) *Share : JavaScript needed for Sharing tools. Bookmark & ...
Deficiency of interleukin-18 in mice leads to hyperphagia, obesity and insulin resistance. *Mihai G Netea. 1,2 na1, ... Neutralization of interleukin-18 reduces neutrophil tissue accumulation and protects mice against lethal Escherichia coli and ... Netea, M., Joosten, L., Lewis, E. et al. Deficiency of interleukin-18 in mice leads to hyperphagia, obesity and insulin ... Interleukin-18 binding protein: a novel modulator of the Th1 cytokine response. Immunity 10, 127-136 (1999). ...
View mouse Il1b Chr2:129206490-129213059 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
Shear stress increases the release of interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 by aortic endothelial cells. Sterpetti, A.V., Cucina, A ... Role of interleukin 6 (IL-6)/IL-6R-induced signal tranducers and activators of transcription and mitogen-activated protein ... Stimulation by interleukin-6 and inhibition by tumor necrosis factor of cortisol release from bovine adrenal zona fasciculata ... Lipopolysaccharide-mediated induction of the bovine interleukin-6 gene in monocytes requires both NF-kappa B and C/EBP binding ...
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Interleukin 27 (IL-27) was first characterized as a proinflammatory cytokine with T helper type 1-inducing activity. However, ... Interleukin 27 limits autoimmune encephalomyelitis by suppressing the development of interleukin 17-producing T cells Nat ... Interleukin 27 (IL-27) was first characterized as a proinflammatory cytokine with T helper type 1-inducing activity. However, ...
Serum interleukin-18 in patients with chronic ordinary urticaria: association with disease activity. Download Prime PubMed App ... AdultBiomarkersCase-Control StudiesChronic DiseaseFemaleHumansInterleukin-18MaleMiddle AgedSkin TestsUrticaria ... Serum Interleukin-18 in Patients With Chronic Ordinary Urticaria: Association With Disease Activity. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2007;32 ... Interleukin (IL)-18 is a pleiotropic cytokine, which may play a role in autoimmune and allergic disorders. Serum IL-18 levels ...
Recombinant Macaca mulatta Interleukin-10 (IL10) from Cusabio. Cat Number: CSB-YP011580MOW. USA, UK & Europe Distribution. ... Recombinant Macaca mulatta Interleukin-10 (IL10) , CSB-YP011580MOW. (No reviews yet) Write a Review Write a Review. ... Recombinant Macaca mulatta Interleukin-10 (IL10) , CSB-YP011580MOW Cusabio Macaca mulatta Recombinants ... Recombinant Macaca mulatta Interleukin-10 (IL10) , CSB-YP011580MOW. Rating Required Select Rating. 1 star (worst). 2 stars. 3 ...
Interleukin-2 (IL-2), originally described as a growth factor required for sustained proliferation of T cells in vitro is a ... Recombinant interleukin-2 directly augments the cytotoxicity of human monocytes.. Malkovský M, Loveland B, North M, Asherson GL ...
Peera M, Smith A. Palmoplantar pompholyx secondary to interleukin 17A inhibitor therapy for psoriasis: A case series. JAAD Case ...
Interleukin (IL)-11, a pleiotropic, cationic cytokine, contributes to numerous biological processes, including adipogenesis, ... Interleukin-11 Receptor Subunit Alpha-1 is Required for Maximal Airway Responsiveness to Methacholine After Acute Exposure to ... Interleukin-11 receptor subunit alpha-1 is required for maximal airway responsiveness to methacholine after acute exposure to ... Interleukin (IL)-11, a pleiotropic, cationic cytokine, contributes to numerous biological processes, including adipogenesis, ...
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) structural pathway (WP2637). Homo sapiens. Open in new tab Open in NDEx ... Increased expression of interleukin-1 receptor type 1 in active endometriotic lesions. Lawson C, Al-Akoum M, Maheux R, Akoum A ... The structural pathway of interleukin 1 (IL-1) initiated signaling reveals mechanisms of oncogenic mutations and SNPs in ...
... Apr 1, 2009 , ... The incorporation of immunostimulatory genes such as interleukin-12 (IL-12) in these viruses may overcome some of their ...
However, interleukin-4 (IL-4), a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine, is barely produced by MSCs, and MSC therapy suffers from ... Interleukin-4 Gene Transfection and Spheroid Formation Potentiate Therapeutic Efficacy of Mesenchymal Stem Cells for ... Interleukin-4 Gene Transfection and Spheroid Formation Potentiate Therapeutic Efficacy of Mesenchymal Stem Cells for ... Interleukin-4 Gene Transfection and Spheroid Formation Potentiate Therapeutic Efficacy of Mesenchymal Stem Cells for ...
Mesenchymal Stem Cells Inhibit the Differentiation of CD4+ T Cells into Interleukin-17-Secreting T Cells Subject Area: ... Mesenchymal Stem Cells Inhibit the Differentiation of CD4+ T Cells into Interleukin-17-Secreting T Cells. Acta Haematol 1 ...
Interleukin-10 receptor blockade enhances neuroinflammation in Theilers murine encephalomyelitis Meeting Abstract ... In the present study the influence of interleukin (IL)-10 pathway modulation upon neuropathology was investigated in TME virus- ...
Cardiac death in a patient with adult-onset Stills disease treated with the interleukin 1 receptor inhibitor anakinra ... Cardiac death in a patient with adult-onset Stills disease treated with the interleukin 1 receptor inhibitor anakinra ...
IL-1β is a well-established inducer of both insulin resistance and impaired pancreatic islet function. Despite this, findings examining IL-1 receptor deficiency or antagonism in in vivo animal models, as well as in clinical studies of type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients, have led to conflicting results, suggesting that the actions of IL-1β on glycemic control may be pleiotropic in nature. In the present work, we find that the ability of IL-1β to amplify glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from human islets correlates with donor BMI. Islets from obese donors are sensitized to the insulinotropic effects of this cytokine, whereas the stimulatory effects of IL-1β are lost in islets from obese T2D patients, suggesting a role for IL-1 signaling in islet compensation. Indeed, mice deficient in IL-1 receptor type I become glucose intolerant more rapidly than their WT littermates and have impaired secretory responses during the acute stages of inflammatory and metabolic stress induced by LPS and high-fat ...
Interleukins 12 and 13 levels among beta-thalassaemia major patients ... Increased plasma levels of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 in beta-thalassaemia major. Haematologia, 2001, 31:237-244. ... Increased plasma levels of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 in beta-thalassaemia major. Haematologia, 2001, 31:237-244. ... Plasma interleukin-3 (IL-3) and IL-7 concentrations in children with homozygous beta-thalassemia. Journal of Tropical ...
The ERS-education website provides centralised access to all educational material produced by the European Respiratory Society. It is the worlds largest CME collection for lung diseases and treatment offering high quality e-learning and teaching resources for respiratory specialists. This distance learning portal contains up-to-date study material for the state-of-the-art in Pulmonology.
Deeper analysis of the phenotype of these populations revealed enrichment of CD8- CD4- CD161+ iNKTs producing interleukin-22 ( ... IL22), and CD4+ CD161+ T-cells producing interleukin-13 (IL13) and IL22. Surprisingly, pCD and idiopathic fistulas displayed ... OP20 Perianal fistulas are characterised by expansion of interleukin-22 producing invariant natural killer T-cells and CD4+ T- ...
Background To research whether monosodium urate (MSU) crystals induce interleukin (IL)-1. Background To research whether ... monosodium urate (MSU) crystals induce interleukin (IL)-1 in individual fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS), and if the NLRP3 ...
Brain Extracellular Interleukin-6 Levels Decrease Following Antipyretic Therapy with Diclofenac in Patients with Spontaneous ... In patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), increased brain extracellular interleukin (IL)-6 levels measured by ...
Interleukin-6 and D-dimer levels at seroconversion as predictors of HIV-1 disease progression. AIDS (2014), 28 (6): 869-874.. ... The prognostic value of interleukin-6 and D-dimer levels in primary HIV infection. 24 March 2014. Related: Basic science and ... In SMART, levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and D-dimer in plasma at study entry were highly predictive of disease progression or ... The prognostic value of interleukin-6 and D-dimer levels in primary HIV infection. ...
interleukin 11 and lung fibrosis interleukin 11 antibodies interleukin 11 drug interleukin 11 function interleukin 11 il11 ... interleukin 11 and lung fibrosis interleukin 11 antibodies interleukin 11 drug interleukin 11 function interleukin 11 il11 ... interleukin 11 indication interleukin 11 inhibitor interleukin 11 platelets interleukin 11 review interleukin 11 ... interleukin 11 indication interleukin 11 inhibitor interleukin 11 platelets interleukin 11 review interleukin 11 ...
interleukiny, interleukin-12 - podjednotka p35, interleukin-12 - podjednotka p40, buněčná imunita, ustekinumab, adjuvancia ... Your search - interleukin-12 - did not match any resources. Skip to content ... Performing a fuzzy search may retrieve terms with similar spellings: interleukin-12~. ...
Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a prototypic multifunctional cytokine and can affect almost every cell type during Mycoplasma ... Kim, S., Park, M., Leon, A.E. et al. Development and validation of a house finch interleukin-1β (HfIL-1β) ELISA system. BMC Vet ... Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a prototypic multifunctional cytokine and can affect almost every cell type during Mycoplasma ... Effect of interleukin-1 (IL-1) blockade on cytokine synthesis: I. IL-1 receptor antagonist inhibits IL-1-induced cytokine ...
Immune Cell Activation in Melioidosis: Increased Serum Levels of Interferon- and Soluble Interleukin-2 Receptors without Change ... Immune Cell Activation in Melioidosis: Increased Serum Levels of Interferon- and Soluble Interleukin-2 Receptors without Change ...
  • Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) is the signature cytokine of the recently identified T helper 17 (Th17) cell subset. (
  • Interleukin-18 binding protein: a novel modulator of the Th1 cytokine response. (
  • This cytokine is a ligand for interleukin 4 receptor. (
  • The interleukin 4 receptor also binds to IL13, which may contribute to many overlapping functions of this cytokine and IL13. (
  • Interleukin 13 ( IL-13 ) is a cytokine secreted by many cell types, but especially T helper type 2 (Th2) cells [1] , that is an important mediator of allergic inflammation and disease. (
  • Interleukin-1, the first named Interleukin, is experiencing a true renaissance and many recent studies have uncovered yet new pivotal roles of this cytokine family in the regulation of inflammation and tissue homeostasis. (
  • Interleukin (IL)-18 is a pleiotropic cytokine, which may play a role in autoimmune and allergic disorders. (
  • AU - Tedeschi,A, AU - Lorini,M, AU - Suli,C, AU - Asero,R, Y1 - 2007/05/16/ PY - 2007/5/19/pubmed PY - 2008/2/26/medline PY - 2007/5/19/entrez SP - 568 EP - 70 JF - Clinical and experimental dermatology JO - Clin Exp Dermatol VL - 32 IS - 5 N2 - Interleukin (IL)-18 is a pleiotropic cytokine, which may play a role in autoimmune and allergic disorders. (
  • Interleukin (IL)-6 is a pleiotropic, proinflammatory cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including lymphocytes, monocytes, and fibroblasts. (
  • Interleukin-21 is a T-helper cytokine that regulates humoral immunity and cell-mediated anti-tumour responses. (
  • Interleukin (IL)- 37 is a newly discovered anti-inflammatory member of the IL-1 cytokine family and has been shown to be regulated in inflammatory disease. (
  • Elevated levels of interleukin-18 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in serum of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: relationship with diabetic nephropathy. (
  • The interleukin-2 receptors: insights into a complex signalling mechanism. (
  • Interleukin 2 and interleukin 2 receptors]. (
  • Receptors, Interleukin-21" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • Cell surface receptors for interleukin 21. (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Receptors, Interleukin-21" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Receptors, Interleukin-21" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Receptors, Interleukin-21" by people in Profiles. (
  • In this context, cytokines of the interleukin (IL)-1 family play an important role in initiating inflammation and innate immunity, as well as in polarizing appropriate adaptive immune responses. (
  • In the advanced stage of COVID-19, numerous inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukins (ILs), TNF and chemokines, are released and attack the immune organs and tissues ( 3-5 ). (
  • Possible mechanism for the alpha subunit of the interleukin-2 receptor (CD25) to influence interleukin-2 receptor signal transduction. (
  • In the present retrospective case‑control study, the potential therapeutic effect of recombinant human interleukin‑2 (rIL‑2) in patients with severe COVID‑19 was demonstrated. (
  • Recombinant interleukin-2 directly augments the cytotoxicity of human monocytes. (
  • Anti-CD20-interleukin-21 fusokine targets malignant B cells via direct apoptosis and NK-cell-dependent cytotoxicity. (
  • Direct and immune-mediated cytotoxicity of interleukin-21 contributes to antitumor effects in mantle cell lymphoma. (
  • The creation of mice with a specific defect in the interleukin-2 gene has given us a clearer idea of its role in vivo. (
  • Neutralization of interleukin-18 reduces neutrophil tissue accumulation and protects mice against lethal Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium endotoxemia. (
  • This drug is an interleukin (IL-23) inhibitor that's very effective and works long-term to control the symptoms of psoriasis. (
  • With the availability of tildrakizumab (Ilumya), an interleukin-23 (IL-23) inhibitor, dermatologists are very optimistic about the continued success of this biologic drug used to treat psoriasis patients. (
  • Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene. (
  • The structural pathway of interleukin 1 (IL-1) initiated signaling reveals mechanisms of oncogenic mutations and SNPs in inflammation and cancer. (
  • Mutation of Asp20 of human interleukin-2 reveals a dual role of the p55 alpha chain of the interleukin-2 receptor. (
  • Hier sind Interleukin 17a ELISA Kits für eine Vielzahl von Species wie anti-Human Interleukin 17a, anti-Mouse Interleukin 17a, anti-Cow Interleukin 17a zu finden. (
  • Caption: Researchers used artificial intelligence to map hundreds of new protein structures, including this 3D view of human interleukin-12 (blue) bound to its receptor (purple). (
  • Its role in the activation of T cells by antigen-presenting cells, the structure-activity relationships between interleukin-2 and its receptor and the subsequent signaling have all become clearer. (
  • Interleukin-2 (IL-2), originally described as a growth factor required for sustained proliferation of T cells in vitro is a glycoprotein hormone of known structure which appears to be important for the generation of immune responses in vivo. (
  • In this study production levels of interleukins (IL)-12 and IL-13 were measured by commercial ELISA in culture supernatants of mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 30 non-splenectomized beta-thalassaemia cases with iron overload and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. (
  • Inhibition of interleukins 4 and 13 with dupilumab in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) has shown to decrease polyp burden and improve symptoms. (
  • Interleukin 21 - its potential role in the therapy of B-cell lymphomas. (
  • Increased expression of interleukin-1 receptor type 1 in active endometriotic lesions. (
  • Research has shown high levels of effectiveness are maintained for 5 years and beyond with tildrakizumab (Ilumya), an interleukin-23 (IL-23) inhibitor. (
  • In the past year there have been significant advances in understanding the role of interleukin-2. (
  • Recent studies also suggest that interleukin-2 may finally find a role in immunotherapy. (
  • Central role for interleukin-2 in type 1 diabetes. (
  • This Symposium is offering presentations on new emerging aspects of the Interleukin-1 family biology by extramural and intramural investigators, some of which have been among the pioneers of this field of research. (
  • Interleukin-13: central mediator of allergic asthma. (
  • The Foundation is pleased to announce its partnership with Provention Bio to provide clinical trial recruitment for its Phase 2b PROACTIVE Celiac Study for PRV-015 (an anti-interleukin-15 monoclonal antibody). (
  • The team identified T-cell growth factor (TCFG), now known as interleukin-2 (IL-2). (
  • Disclosed a sandwich method and a kit for assaying interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) in a sample. (
  • Recently, several of the interleukin receptor antagonists have been assessed as therapy of the advanced hyperinflammatory state of severe COVID-19. (
  • The interleukin receptor antagonists have been associated with rare instances of clinically apparent liver injury that is generally mild and resolves with discontinuation. (
  • A greater understanding of the immunology of asthma and of the role of interleukins has led to new targeted therapies. (
  • This article provides an extensive review of the role of interleukins in asthma. (
  • This is a complex area and there are many different interleukins that are involved in the immunology of asthma. (
  • Nevertheless, animal models and in vitro work have shown that many different interleukins play an important role in asthma and that their modulation can alter airway inflammation, hyper-responsiveness and airway remodeling. (
  • Interleukins involved in asthma clinical trials. (
  • Title : Interleukin (IL)-33 Immunobiology in Asthma and Airway Inflammatory Diseases Personal Author(s) : Gaurav, Rohit;Poole, Jill A. (
  • Carefully selecting patient groups that may respond to novel biologic agents is vital in identifying whether specific interleukin modulation is beneficial. (
  • As discussed, we are yet to see the development of an interleukin-modulating agent that has successfully progressed to clinical use. (
  • Review Unveiling the Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of Anti-Interleukin-1 Treatment in Monogenic and Multifactorial Autoinflammatory Diseases. (
  • Review Targeting interleukin-6 in inflammatory autoimmune diseases and cancers. (
  • ITHURTS- anti-interleukin-1.alpha. (
  • Review Interleukin-1 antagonists in the treatment of autoinflammatory syndromes, including cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome. (
  • Adjunctive treatment with interleukin-2 (IL-2 [Proleukin S, Novartis Pharma GmbH, Nuremberg, Germany]) was administered subcutaneously (4.5 × 10 6 IU) on 3 occasions in September, October, and November 2008. (
  • In this study production levels of interleukins (IL)-12 and IL-13 were measured by commercial ELISA in culture supernatants of mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 30 non-splenectomized beta-thalassaemia cases with iron overload and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. (
  • Dans la présente étude, les taux de production des interleukines 12 et 13 (IL-12 et IL-13) ont été mesurés à l'aide de la méthode ELISA dans les surnageants de culture de cellules mononucléées de sang périphérique stimulées par des mitogènes chez 30 cas de bêta-thalassémie non splénectomisés présentant une surcharge martiale ainsi que chez 20 individus en bonne santé appariés pour l'âge et le sexe. (