Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Cell surface proteins that bind interleukins and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A cytokine produced by bone marrow stromal cells that promotes the growth of B-LYMPHOCYTE precursors and is co-mitogenic with INTERLEUKIN-2 for mature T-LYMPHOCYTE activation.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Cytokine that stimulates the proliferation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and shares biological activities with IL-2. IL-15 also can induce proliferation and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-5. They are heterodimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-5 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT. Signaling from interleukin-5 receptors can occur through interaction of their cytoplasmic domains with SYNTENINS.
A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A multilineage cell growth factor secreted by LYMPHOCYTES; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and ASTROCYTES which stimulates clonal proliferation and differentiation of various types of blood and tissue cells.
A lymphohematopoietic cytokine that plays a role in regulating the proliferation of ERYTHROID PRECURSOR CELLS. It induces maturation of MEGAKARYOCYTES which results in increased production of BLOOD PLATELETS. Interleukin-11 was also initially described as an inhibitor of ADIPOGENESIS of cultured preadipocytes.
Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A cytokine which resembles IL-1 structurally and IL-12 functionally. It enhances the cytotoxic activity of NK CELLS and CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES, and appears to play a role both as neuroimmunomodulator and in the induction of mucosal immunity.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
An acidic glycoprotein of MW 23 kDa with internal disulfide bonds. The protein is produced in response to a number of inflammatory mediators by mesenchymal cells present in the hemopoietic environment and at peripheral sites of inflammation. GM-CSF is able to stimulate the production of neutrophilic granulocytes, macrophages, and mixed granulocyte-macrophage colonies from bone marrow cells and can stimulate the formation of eosinophil colonies from fetal liver progenitor cells. GM-CSF can also stimulate some functional activities in mature granulocytes and macrophages.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.

Reciprocal control of T helper cell and dendritic cell differentiation. (1/3668)

It is not known whether subsets of dendritic cells provide different cytokine microenvironments that determine the differentiation of either type-1 T helper (TH1) or TH2 cells. Human monocyte (pDC1)-derived dendritic cells (DC1) were found to induce TH1 differentiation, whereas dendritic cells (DC2) derived from CD4+CD3-CD11c- plasmacytoid cells (pDC2) induced TH2 differentiation by use of a mechanism unaffected by interleukin-4 (IL-4) or IL-12. The TH2 cytokine IL-4 enhanced DC1 maturation and killed pDC2, an effect potentiated by IL-10 but blocked by CD40 ligand and interferon-gamma. Thus, a negative feedback loop from the mature T helper cells may selectively inhibit prolonged TH1 or TH2 responses by regulating survival of the appropriate dendritic cell subset.  (+info)

Interaction of lipopolysaccharide with human small intestinal lamina propria fibroblasts favors neutrophil migration and peripheral blood mononuclear cell adhesion by the production of proinflammatory mediators and adhesion molecules. (2/3668)

Fibroblasts are important effector cells having a potential role in augmenting the inflammatory responses in various diseases. In infantile diarrhea caused by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), the mechanism of inflammatory reactions at the mucosal site remains unknown. Although the potential involvement of fibroblasts in the pathogenesis of cryptococcus-induced diarrhea in pigs has been suggested, the precise role of lamina propria fibroblasts in the cellular pathogenesis of intestinal infection and inflammation caused by EPEC requires elucidation. Earlier we reported the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cell proliferation, and collagen synthesis and downregulation of nitric oxide in lamina propria fibroblasts. In this report, we present the profile of cytokines and adhesion molecules in the cultured and characterized human small intestinal lamina propria fibroblasts in relation to neutrophil migration and adhesion in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extracted from EPEC 055:B5. Upon interaction with LPS (1-10 micrograms/ml), lamina propria fibroblasts produced a high level of proinflammatory mediators, interleukin (IL)-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and cell adhesion molecules (CAM) such as intercellular cell adhesion molecule (ICAM), A-CAM, N-CAM and vitronectin in a time-dependent manner. LPS induced cell-associated IL-1alpha and IL-1beta, and IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-alpha as soluble form in the supernatant. Apart from ICAM, vitronectin, A-CAM, and N-CAM proteins were strongly induced in lamina propria fibroblasts by LPS. Adhesion of PBMC to LPS-treated lamina propria fibroblasts was ICAM-dependent. LPS-induced ICAM expression in lamina propria fibroblasts was modulated by whole blood, PBMC and neutrophils. Conditioned medium of LPS-treated lamina propria fibroblasts remarkably enhanced the neutrophil migration. The migration of neutrophils was inhibited by anti-IL-8 antibody. Co-culture of fibroblasts with neutrophils using polycarbonate membrane filters exhibited time-dependent migration of neutrophils. These findings indicate that the coordinate production of proinflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules in lamina propria fibroblasts which do not classically belong to the immune system can influence the local inflammatory reactions at the intestinal mucosal site during bacterial infections and can influence the immune cell population residing in the lamina propria.  (+info)

Th1 and Th2 cytokine mRNA profiles in childhood nephrotic syndrome: evidence for increased IL-13 mRNA expression in relapse. (3/3668)

Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome of childhood is thought to be associated with T lymphocyte dysfunction often triggered by viral infections, with the production of circulating factor(s) resulting in proteinuria. In view of the conflicting evidence of T cell activation and Th1 or Th2 pattern of cytokine synthesis in this disease, this study examined the mRNA expression of interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-gamma, IL-4, and IL-13 from CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in steroid-responsive nephrotic patients in relapse and remission. Fifty-five children with steroid-responsive nephrotic syndrome were included in this study, together with 34 normal controls and 24 patient controls with viral infections. RNA was isolated from purified CD4+ or CD8+ cells from peripheral blood and subjected to reverse transcription-PCR. Cytokine mRNA expression was measured semiquantitatively, and a cytokine index was derived from densitometric readings, with cyclophilin as the housekeeping gene. Both cross-sectional and paired data showed an increased CD4+ and CD8+ IL-13 mRNA expression in patients with nephrotic relapse as compared to remission, normal, and patient controls (P < 0.008). This was also associated with increased cytoplasmic IL-13 expression in phorbol myristate acetate/ionomycin-activated CD3+ cells (6.66+/-3.39%) from patients with nephrotic relapse compared to remission (2.59+/-1.35%) (P < 0.0001). However, there was no significant difference in CD4+ or CD8+ IL-2, interferon-gamma and IL-4 mRNA expression. IL-13 is an important T cell cytokine with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory functions on B cells and monocytes. It is conceivable that IL-13 may act on monocytes to produce vascular permeability factor(s) involved in the pathogenesis of proteinuria in patients with relapse nephrotic syndrome.  (+info)

Enhanced capacity of a widespread strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to grow in human macrophages. (4/3668)

To determine whether the extent of spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in the community correlated with their capacity to replicate in human macrophages, intracellular growth rates of M. tuberculosis patient isolates were measured. Strain 210 caused disease in 43 patients in central Los Angeles, 3 "small-cluster" strains caused disease in 8-23 patients, and 5 "unique" strains each caused disease in only 1 patient who was positive by sputum acid-fast smear and spent substantial amounts of time at homeless shelters that were tuberculosis transmission sites. Strain 210 isolates grew significantly more rapidly than small-cluster and unique strains in macrophages. All strains elicited production of similar amounts of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and IL-12 and were equally susceptible to reactive nitrogen intermediates. It was concluded that the extensive spread of an M. tuberculosis strain correlated with its capacity to replicate rapidly in human macrophages, which may be a marker of virulence.  (+info)

Macrophages are a significant source of type 1 cytokines during mycobacterial infection. (5/3668)

T-helper 1 (Th1) cells are believed to be the major producer of the type 1 cytokine interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in cell-mediated immunity against intracellular infection. We have investigated the ability of macrophages to release type 1 cytokines and their regulatory mechanisms using both in vivo and in vitro models of pulmonary mycobacterial infection. During pulmonary infection by live Mycobacterium bovis bacilli Calmette-Guerin (BCG) in wild-type mice, lung macrophages released interleukin-12 (IL-12), IFN-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and expressed surface activation markers. However, macrophages in infected IL-12(-/-) mice released TNF-alpha but not IFN-gamma and lacked surface activation makers. In freshly isolated lung macrophages from naive IL-2(-/-) mice, mycobacteria alone released TNF-alpha but not IFN-gamma, whereas exogenously added IL-12 alone released a minimum of IFN-gamma. However, these macrophages released large quantities of IFN-gamma upon stimulation with both mycobacteria and IL-12. In contrast, mycobacteria and exogenous IFN-gamma released only a minimum of endogenous IFN-gamma. Endogenous IL-18 (IFN-gamma-inducing factor) played little role in IFN-gamma responses by macrophages stimulated by mycobacteria and IL-12. Our data reveal that macrophages are a significant source of type 1 cytokines during mycobacterial infection and that both IL-12 and intracellular pathogens are required for the release of IFN-gamma but not TNF-alpha. These findings suggest that macrophages regulate cell-mediated immunity by releasing not only IL-12 and TNF-alpha but also IFN-gamma and that full activation of IFN-gamma response in macrophages is tightly regulated.  (+info)

Regulation of TH1- and TH2-type cytokine expression and action in atopic asthmatic sensitized airway smooth muscle. (6/3668)

CD4(+) T helper (TH)1- and TH2-type cytokines reportedly play an important role in the pathobiology of asthma. Recent evidence suggests that proasthmatic changes in airway smooth muscle (ASM) responsiveness may be induced by the autocrine release of certain proinflammatory cytokines by the ASM itself. We examined whether TH1- and TH2-type cytokines are expressed by atopic asthmatic sensitized ASM and serve to autologously regulate the proasthmatic phenotype in the sensitized ASM. Expression of these cytokines and their receptors was examined in isolated rabbit and human ASM tissues and cultured cells passively sensitized with sera from atopic asthmatic patients or control subjects. Relative to controls, atopic sensitized ASM cells exhibited an early increased mRNA expression of the TH2-type cytokines, interleukin-5 (IL-5) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and their receptors. This was later followed by enhanced mRNA expression of the TH1-type cytokines, IL-2, IL-12, and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), as well as their respective receptors. In experiments on isolated ASM tissue segments (a) exogenous administration of IL-2 and IFN-gamma to atopic asthmatic serum-sensitized ASM ablated both their enhanced constrictor responsiveness to acetylcholine (ACh) and their attenuated relaxation responsiveness to beta-adrenoceptor stimulation with isoproterenol, and (b) administration of IL-5 and GM-CSF to naive ASM induced significant increases in their contractility to ACh and impaired their relaxant responsiveness to isoproterenol. Collectively, these observations provide new evidence demonstrating that human ASM endogenously expresses both TH1- and TH2-type cytokines and their receptors, that these molecules are sequentially upregulated in the atopic asthmatic sensitized state, and that they act to downregulate and upregulate proasthmatic perturbations in ASM responsiveness, respectively.  (+info)

A fatal cytokine-induced systemic inflammatory response reveals a critical role for NK cells. (7/3668)

The mechanism of cytokine-induced shock remains poorly understood. The combination of IL-2 and IL-12 has synergistic antitumor activity in vivo, yet has been associated with significant toxicity. We examined the effects of IL-2 plus IL-12 in a murine model and found that the daily, simultaneous administration of IL-2 and IL-12 resulted in shock and 100% mortality within 4 to 12 days depending on the strain employed. Mice treated with IL-2 plus IL-12 exhibited NK cell apoptosis, pulmonary edema, degenerative lesions of the gastrointestinal tract, and elevated serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines and acute phase reactants. The actions of TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, macrophage-inflammatory protein-1alpha, IL-1, IL-1-converting enzyme, Fas, perforin, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and STAT1 did not contribute to the observed toxicity, nor did B or T cells. However, toxicity and death from treatment with IL-2 plus IL-12 could be completely abrogated by elimination of NK cells. These results suggest that the fatal systemic inflammatory response induced by this cytokine treatment is critically dependent upon NK cells, but does not appear to be mediated by the known effector molecules of this cellular compartment. These data may provide insight into the pathogenesis of cytokine-induced shock in humans.  (+info)

Levels of IL-12 in the sera of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)--relation to Th1- and Th2-derived cytokines. (8/3668)

IL-12 is a cytokine that induces Th1-derived cytokines (interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and IL-2). The significance of IL-12 in human autoimmunity is no clear, and the serum levels of IL-12 in SLE are not clearly established. Therefore, we examined the levels of IL-12 in 39 patients with active SLE, with sandwich ELISA. The levels of IL-12 in patients were significantly higher than in normal subjects. Patients with high levels of IL-12 also had high levels of IFN-gamma, while their levels of IL-13 were significantly lower than in patients with normal levels of IL-12. Patients with pulmonary involvement had high levels of IL-12, and steroid therapy decreased the IL-12 level in three patients. In a retrospective study of seven patients, various changes of IL-12 and IL-13 were recognized before disease flare. Thus, in SLE patients, the level of IL-12 was increased and this increase was related to the change of Th1- or Th2-derived cytokines with some organ involvement.  (+info)

Influence of interleukin-28B single-nucleotide polymorphisms on progression to liver cirrhosis in human immunodeficiency virus-hepatitis C virus-coinfected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy.
Type III interferons (IFNs) (or IFN-λ) are the latest addition to the IFN family. Even though they share little protein homology with type I IFN, both exhibit remarkable functional similarities: each can be induced in response to viral infections, and both lead to Janus kinases (JAK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) activation. The JAK/STAT pathway induces antiviral responses and IFN-stimulated gene transcription. However, despite the similarities in their effector functions with type I IFNs, IFN-λ also has a non-redundant role in protecting barrier organs: epithelial cells preferentially produce IFN-λ rather than type I IFNs; and interferon lambda receptor 1 (IFNLR1), the specific receptor for IFN-λ, is highly expressed on cells of epithelial lineage ...
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive cancer that affects millions of patients per year. Conventional therapies combining chemotherapeutic agents with radiation can only extend survival by a few months; therefore, there is a dire need for an effective means of treating this deadly disease. Melanoma differentiation-associated gene-7/interleukin-24 (mda-7/IL-24), currently in the early stages of FDA pre-IND drug trials, has proven to be an effective cancer specific cytokine, able to trigger the onset of mitochondrial dysfunction and/or autophagy. GBMs have mutations that often result in the activation of cytoprotective cell signaling pathways, preventing cancer therapeutics and even MDA-7/IL-24 treatments from being effective. Since the discovery of MDA-7/IL-24 a number of groups have shown toxic effects in a variety of tumor cells. However, the lethality of MDA-7/IL-24 is not enough to eradicate the tumor. We hypothesized two xxiii rationales for this minimalistic effect. First, the MDA-7/IL-24
Background and aims Interferon lambda (IFN-λ) is a novel type of interferon produced by dendritic cells (DC). Despite its binding to a different receptor, IFN-λ shares functional similarities with type I IFN (IFN-I) by upregulating the expression of IFN-stimulated genes. The role of IFN-λ in DC biology and in autoimmunity remains unknown.. ...
Clone REA371 recognizes the mouse IL-27 p28 antigen, a secreted molecule which binds Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 (EBI3) to form the heterodimeric cytokine IL-27. IL-27 is expressed by antigen-presenting cells, including macrophages and dendritic cells, in the early phase after antigen-mediated activation. It can skew T helper cell development, suppress T cell proliferation, stimulate cytotoxic T cell activity, induce isotype switching in B cells, and has diverse effects on innate immune cells. In vivo, its most important role appears to be that of immune regulation, as mice with defects in IL-27 or its receptor display enhanced immune responses in a range of infectious and noninfectious situations. These activities of IL-27 are dependent on simultaneous T cell receptor activation and occur in synergy with IL-12. Another important role of IL-27 is its antitumor activity as well as its antiangiogenic activity with activation of production of antiangiogenic chemokines such as IP-10/CXCL10 and MIG
Interleukins are naturally occurring proteins that help the bodys immune system. The different types of interleukins all serve to...
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Complete information for IFNLR1 gene (Protein Coding), Interferon Lambda Receptor 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Posted by Andreas Carl from IP on March 13, 2012 at 08:37:43:. In Reply to: Interleukins posted by Valery on March 10, 2012 at 16:28:13:. Very interesting question: Nobody can know all the interactions (basically every cell communicates with every other cell during the process of ...
Liu R, Van Kaer L, La Cava A, Price M, Campagnolo DI, Collins M, Young DA, Vollmer TL, Shi FD. Autoreactive T cells mediate NK cell degeneration in autoimmune disease. J Immunol. 2006 May 1;176(9):5247-54. Abstract. ...
有多种机制认为病毒感染与过敏性炎症相互作用,从而导致下呼吸道功能障碍、喘息和哮喘。首先,潜在的过敏性炎症可以直接增强气道对鼻病毒感染的反应性。此外,病毒感染可损害气道上皮的屏障功能,导致气道壁对气传过敏原的吸收增加和炎症反应增强,而潜在的过敏性炎症也可能导致病毒复制增强。值得注意的是,鼻病毒感染和变应原均可促进气道上皮细胞产生IL-33, IL-33是最近发现的一种先天细胞因子,可促进2型气道炎症和重塑。据报道,这种类固醇耐药途径在难以控制哮喘的儿童中上调。有趣的是,IL-33多聚物与中晚期发作的喘息有关,而中晚期发作的喘息与早期生活中的过敏反应密切相关。 另一种先天上皮细胞因子IL-25也由鼻病毒诱导,在过敏患者鼻病毒感染的情况下,IL-25可能加重过敏性气道炎症 ...
Инфламмасома - важный компонент нативного иммунитета. Она представляет собой макромолекулярный комплекс, включающий сенсорные элементы, адапторные белки и зимоген каспазы-1. Под действием продуктов распада тканей и патогенных микроорганизмов инфламмасома активируется и превращает про-IL-1b и про-IL-18 в активные интерлейкины. Активация инфламмасом отмечена при многих воспалительных заболеваниях и служит мишенью для терапевтических воздействий. В настоящем обзоре обсуждается вклад инфламмасом в патогенез социально-значимых заболеваний ...
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Looking for online definition of B cell stimulatory factor II in the Medical Dictionary? B cell stimulatory factor II explanation free. What is B cell stimulatory factor II? Meaning of B cell stimulatory factor II medical term. What does B cell stimulatory factor II mean?
Interleukins are a group of immunomodulatory proteins that mediate a variety of immune reactions in the human body. To investigate the association between interleukin gene polymorphisms and recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), we reviewed 21 studies from MEDLINE, EMBASE, OVID SP and PubMed to evaluate RPL-related interleukin gene polymorphisms. Meta-analysis was performed on 12 of the polymorphisms, and a review included the others. Our integrated results indicated that IL-1β (-511C/T) (P = 0.02, 95% CI 0.77[0.62,0.96]), IL-6 (-634C/G) ( ...
Characterizing genes associated with leukemic cell differentiation may provide help for understanding mechanisms on the leukemia differentiation. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the expression of melanoma differentiation-associated gene-7/interleukin-24 (mda-7/IL-24) could be induced during leukemia differentiation and whether mda-7/IL-24 plays a role in leukemia differentiation. We showed that the expression of mda-7/IL-24 and IL-24 delE5, an mda-7/IL-24 splice variant, was induced in U937 and HL60 cells during 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-mediated monocytic differentiation. Activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway was required for their induction. Knockdown of mda-7/IL-24 and IL-24 delE5 resulted in significant inhibition of the monocytic differentiation induced by TPA. More importantly, ectopic overexpression of mda-7/IL-24 and IL-24 delE5 significantly induced U937 cells, HL60 cells, and blast cells from ...
For two decades the scientific community has sought to understand why some people clear hepatitis C virus (HCV) and others do not. Recently, several large genome-wide association studies have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) linked to interferon lambda 3 (IFNλ3) that are associated with the spontaneous resolution and successful treatment of HCV infection. These observations are generating intense research activity; the hope is that IFNλ3 genetic variants may serve as important predictive biomarkers of treatment outcome and offer new insights into the biological pathways involved in viral control. A pharmacogenomic treatment approach for HCV can now be envisaged, with the incorporation of host genetic variants into a predictive treatment algorithm with other factors. The SNPs associated with the clinical outcome of HCV infection are located some distance from the IFNλ3 gene itself, and causal genetic variants have yet to be clearly defined. Locating these causal variants, mapping in
Interleukin 27 (IL-27) is a member of the IL-12 cytokine family. It is a heterodimeric cytokine that is composed of two distinct genes, Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 (EBI3) and IL-27p28. IL-27 is expressed by antigen presenting cells and interacts with a specific cell-surface receptor complex known as IL-27 receptor (IL-27R). This receptor consists of two proteins, IL-27ɑ and gp130. IL-27 induces differentiation of the diverse populations of T cells in the immune system and also upregulates IL-10. When IL-27 binds to the IL-27 receptor, signaling pathways including JAK-STAT and p38 MAPK pathways are turned on. There are two types of responses, pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory, which involve different types of cells, such as macrophages, dendritic cells, T cells, and B cells. The response that is activated is very much dependent on the external surrounding of IL-27. There are many different subsets of T cells, such as Th1, Th2, Th17, Tr1, and Treg cells; IL-27 is greatly involved in ...
Interleukins (ILs) are biologically active mediators of inflammation and immune response that belong to cytokine family. Around 40 different ILs have been identified so far and are multifaceted with roles in multiple signaling pathways, exhibit diverse roles in immune regulation and cellular networks and target numerous proteins that regulate biological responses. Essential functions of ILs include stimulation of inflammation and immune responses as defence against pathogens. Identification of IL antagonists in as treatment option for autoimmune disorders, cancer and inflammatory disorders is being actively pursued. Antibody and receptor antagonists of interleukins are showing promising results in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and irritable bowel syndrome.Explore our wide selection of high quality recombinant Interleukins and IL receptors from human, mouse, and rat.View our entire offering of
IFNs represent the first line of defense against viral pathogens and act both directly on viral replication and indirectly through activation of host immune response genes.14 The type I interferon, IFN-α, has received particular attention in the treatment of chronic HCV infection, because recombinant IFN-α is a major component of the standard treatment of HCV.15-17 The recent discovery of the type III interferon-lambda (IFN-λ) family, spurred, in large part, by the association between IL28B genotype and HCV treatment response, has opened new avenues of research into a novel mechanism of antiviral activity.18. The IFN-λs or type III IFNs bind to a unique receptor complex,19, 20 but otherwise share many functional characteristics with the type I IFNs.18 This family comprises three members, designated IL28A (IFN-λ2), IL28B (IFN- λ3), and IL29 (IFN- λ1). The nomenclature used to describe the IFN-λ family reflects their structural and functional similarity to both the interleukin family of ...
Environmental changes affecting the relationship between the developing immune system and microbial exposure have been implicated in the epidemic rise of allergic disease in developed countries. While early developmental differences in T cell function are well-recognised, there is now emerging evidence that this is related to developmental differences in innate immune function. In this study we sought to examine if differences associated with innate immunity contribute to the altered immune programming recognised in allergic children. Here, we describe for the first time, the association of carriage of the T allele of the tagging single nucleotide polymorphism rs12979860 3 kb upstream of IL28B, encoding the potent innate immune modulator type III interferon lambda (IFN-λ3), and allergy in children (p = 0.004; OR 4.56). Strikingly, the association between rs12979860 genotype and allergic disease is enhanced in girls. Furthermore, carriage of the T allele at rs12979860 correlates with differences ...
Immune responses must be tightly controlled for dose, location, strength and duration using genetic, epigenetic or biochemical regulation. Among these, the generation of alternatively-spliced transcripts is an efficient and dynamic way to increase transcriptional and proteomic diversity. Specifically, this thesis explains how splice variation dictates the biological functions of interleukin-22 (IL-22) binding protein (IL-22BP) and interferon lambda 4 (IFNλ4), two proteins that participate in key cytokine responses to infection and inflammation. IL-22BP is a soluble receptor for IL-22 that is expressed as three isoforms in humans, IL-22BPi1, IL-22BPi2 and IL-22BPi3. The murine homolog of IL-22BPi2 has been characterized as an antagonist of IL-22 while the physiological relevance of IL-22BPi1 and IL-22BPi3 are unknown. Here, we present findings demonstrating that alternative splicing tailors IL-22BP activity to specific spatiotemporal conditions. Inclusion of a unique third exon renders IL-22BPi1 ...
Other names: IL-6 What are Interleukins? Interleukins are a group of naturally occurring proteins that mediate communication between cells. Interleukins manage cell growth and differentiation. Interleukins are also important in regulating immune responses, such as inflammation. Interleukins are part of a bigger group of messenger molecules called cytokines. They are a part of the inflammatory cascade…
The international team, led by Professor Jacob George and Doctor Mohammed Eslam at the Westmead Institute, has unequivocally shown that variations in the interferon lambda 3 (INLF3) protein are responsible for tissue damage in the liver. The research team had previously identified that the common genetic variations associated with liver fibrosis were located on chromosome…. ...
In this report we describe the generation of mice deficient in IL-13Rα2 to define the role of this receptor chain in IL-13 responses. IL-13Rα2 may act to modulate the effects of IL-13 in vivo in various ways. IL-13Rα2 could enhance IL-13 activities by increasing the strength of IL-13 signaling or attenuate IL-13 effects by negative signaling or simply as a molecular decoy. Attenuating roles of IL-13Rα2 could explain the lack of evidence for IL-13 effects on T cells or an enhancing role could explain the effect of IL-13 effect on airways hyperreactivity and eosinophil survival distinct from IL-4.. Interestingly, we find that the absence of IL-13Rα2 correlates with nearly complete loss of serum IL-13 and an increase in tissue IL-13 in IL-13Rα2−/− mice. The lack of serum IL-13 cannot be explained by a lack of IL-13 production in IL-13Rα2−/− mice as IL-13 is present in tissues of IL-13Rα2−/− and is produced by activated IL-13Rα2−/− immune cells. Serum IL-13Rα2 may act as a ...
Description - Interleukin-27 (IL-27), a heterodimeric cytokine and a relatively new member of the IL-6/IL-12 family, plays an important role in the regulation of Th1 responses. IL-27 consists of two subunits, an EBV-transformed gene 3 (EBI3) subunit and a p28 cytokine subunit. IL-27 activity is mediated by binding to its receptor, IL-27R, comprised of WSX-1 and gp130. Several immune cells co-express both subunits of the IL-27 receptor. IL-27 is expressed by antigen-presenting cells upon antigen activation. IL-27 potently induces the proliferation of naive T cells, and synergistically with IL-12 stimulates the production of IFN-γ by naive CD4+ T cells ...
IL-28A/IFN-lambda 2 Proteins available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our IL-28A/IFN-lambda 2 Protein catalog backed by our Guarantee+.
Here is a very elegant story about IL-17-producing γδ T cells (γδ17 cells), from Haas and colleagues in Prinzs lab.. They undertook very astute and clever approaches and created various original chimeras to demonstrate that there is only a narrowed window of opportunity, which occurs in the fetal thymus, for the development of γδ17 cells. Their generation appears to be TCR independent [once again adding more complexity to the long lasting debate as to the importance of TCR signaling for the emergence of IFNγ- and IL-17-producing γδ cells].. Surprisingly, they show that IL-17 itself may control the development and homeostasis of the γδ17 cells. The idea is that IL-17, which may be produced from αβ thymocytes or innate lymphoid cells (ILC), blocks de novo development of thymic γδ17 cells.. Therefore, this is the first observation that IL-17-secreting γδ cells are produced exclusively in fetal thymus (thus before birth) and that they persist as self-renewing / long lived cells ...
Invitrogen™ eBioscience™ Mouse IL-6 ELISA Ready-SET-Go!™ Kit 2 x 96 tests Invitrogen™ eBioscience™ Mouse IL-6 ELISA...
IL-12/IL-23 p40, Functional Grade, clone: C8.6, eBioscience™ 500μg; Functional Grade IL-12/IL-23 p40, Functional Grade, clone: C8.6, eBioscience™...
摘 要:γδT细胞是一群异质细胞,人和小鼠不同组织部位的γδT细胞亚群表型多变、功能丰富。γδT细胞经过胸腺选择,形成IL-17+γδT细胞、IFN-γ+γδT细胞或IL-4+γδT细胞,它的分化受到很多因素的调控。γδT细胞是炎症介质IL-17的重要来源,IL-17+γδT细胞可以参与多种疾病的诱发和发展,如过敏、自身免疫性疾病,甚至恶性肿瘤。此外,它们也在宿主防御中发挥保护作用,防治传染病和诱导细胞毒性T淋巴细胞对癌症的反应。就IL-17+γδT细胞的发育、分化和调节机制以及在各种疾病中的作用进行综述 ...
Interferon alpha-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IFNA2 gene. Human interferon alpha-2 (IFNα2) is a cytokine belonging to the family of type I IFNs. IFNα2 is a protein secreted by cells infected by a virus and acting on other cells to inhibit viral infection. The first description of IFNs as a cellular agent interfering with viral replication was made by Alick Isaacs and Jean Lindenmann in 1957. The history of this finding was recently reviewed. There are 3 types of IFNs: Interferon type I, Interferon type II and Interferon type III. The type II IFN, also called IFNγ, is produced by specific cells of the immune system. Unlike type I and type III IFNs, IFNγ has only a modest role in directly restricting viral infections. Type I and type III IFNs act similarly. However, the action of type III IFNs, also known as IFNλ, is limited to epithelial cells while type I IFNs act on all bodys cells. Type I IFNs form a family of several proteins: in humans, there are 13 α subtypes, 1 β ...
Predicted to have signaling receptor binding activity. Involved in innate immune response. Localizes to the extracellular space. Human ortholog(s) of this gene implicated in cryoglobulinemia; hepatitis C; liver cirrhosis; and thrombocytopenia. Orthologous to several human genes including IFNL2 (interferon lambda 2) and IFNL3 (interferon lambda 3 ...
In this study, we show that human IL-17F/IL-17A heterodimer, the recently identified member of the IL-17 cytokine family, utilizes the same receptor complex as the IL-17F and IL-17A cytokines. Using various experimental approaches, including surface plasmon resonance and siRNA gene knockdown, we characterized the physical and functional interactions of IL-17F/IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-17A with the IL-17RA and IL-17RC receptors and propose that all three cytokines require both receptors for their biological activity.. Toy et al. demonstrated that human IL-17A or IL-17F could not induce CXCL1 expression in IL-17RA−/− fibroblast cells and that transfection of human IL-17RA did not rescue the expression of CXCL1 as was seen in wild-type cells (26). When the cells were cotransfected with both human IL-17RA and IL-17RC and treated with either human IL-17A or IL-17F, production of CXCL1 was restored, suggesting that a heterodimeric IL-17RA/IL-17RC receptor was required for signaling (26). Recently, it ...
Clone REA285 recognizes both, the free and complexed forms (homodimer p80 and heterodimer p70) of the p40 subunit of interleukin-12 (IL-12) as well as of interleukin-23 (IL-23). IL-12, also known as natural killer cell stimulatory factor (NKSF) or cytotoxic lymphocyte maturation factor (CLMF), is expressed by activated macrophages that serve as an essential inducer of Th1 cells development. It acts as a growth factor for activated T and natural killer cells, and has a broad array of biological activities. IL-12 has been found to be important for sustaining a sufficient number of memory and effector Th1 cells to mediate long-term protection to intracellular pathogens. Overexpression of IL-12 was observed in the central nervous system of patients with multiple sclerosis, suggesting a role of IL-12 in the pathogenesis of the disease. IL-23, a heterodimeric cytokine which functions in innate and adaptive immunity, may constitute with IL-17 an acute response to infection in peripheral tissues. It stimulates
TABLE-US-00002 TABLE 2 Relative expression of interferon-gamma from human NK cells, as determined by Taqman ® real time PCR. Relative Condition expression NK media only 1 1:625 IL-27 1 1:125 IL-27 1 1:25 IL-27 1 1:5 IL-27 1 100 ng/ml IL-27 1 IL-2 only (100 ng/ml) 320 IL-27 + 1:625 IL-2 120 IL-27 + 1:125 IL-2 240 IL-27 + 1:25 IL-2 340 IL-27 + 1:5 IL-2 310 IL-27 + IL-2 (100 ng/ml) 190 IL-12 only (100 ng/ml) 650 IL-27 + 1:625 IL-12 740 IL-27 + 1:125 IL-12 710 IL-27 + 1:25 IL-12 690 IL-27 + 1:5 IL-12 705 IL-27 + IL-12 (100 ng/ml) 820 IL-18 only 1 IL-27 + 1:625 IL-18 1 IL-27 + 1:125 IL-18 1 IL-27 + 1:25 IL-18 1 IL-27 + 1:5 IL-18 1 IL-27 + IL-18 (100 ng/ml) 1 IL-2 + IL-12 2800 IL-27 + 1:625 IL-2 + IL-12 1500 IL-27 + 1:125 IL-2 + IL-12 1600 IL-27 + 1:25 IL-2 + IL-12 1700 IL-27 + 1:5 IL-2 + IL-12 2600 IL-27 + IL-2 (100 ng/ml) + IL-12 2100 IL-2 + IL-18 500 IL-27 + 1:625 IL-2 + IL-18 300 IL-27 + 1:125 IL-2 + IL-18 300 IL-27 + 1:25 IL-2 + IL-18 600 IL-27 + 1:5 IL-2 + IL-18 500 IL-27 + IL-2 (100 ng/ml) + ...
Simoni, Y., Fehlings, M., Kløverpris, H.N. et al.. Animal models have highlighted the importance of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in multiple immune responses. However, technical limitations have hampered adequate characterization of ILCs in humans. Here, we used mass cytometry including a broad range of surface markers and transcription factors to accurately identify and profile ILCs across healthy and inflamed tissue types. High dimensional analysis allowed for clear phenotypic delineation of ILC2 and ILC3 subsets. We were not able to detect ILC1 cells in any of the tissues assessed, however, we identified intra-epithelial (ie)ILC1-like cells that represent a broader category of NK cells in mucosal and non-mucosal pathological tissues. In addition, we have revealed the expression of phenotypic molecules that have not been previously described for ILCs. Our analysis shows that human ILCs are highly heterogeneous cell types between individuals and tissues. It also provides a global, ...
Supplementary MaterialsS1 Fig: Helper T cell flow cytometry gating strategy. helper T cells during pulmonary fungal infections. (A) Proportion of Th cells that communicate Foxp3 in wildtype mice infected and treated with IL-2, IL-2 antibody (JES6-1A12), or IL-2 complex. (B-C) Foxp3-Toxin (DT) Receptor mice received DT every other day time beginning at 5 days post-infection. … Read moreSupplementary MaterialsS1 Fig: Helper T cell flow cytometry gating strategy. ...
Innate Immune Response to Influenza Virus at Single-Cell Resolution in Human Epithelial Cells Revealed Paracrine Induction of Interferon Lambda 1 ...
PUBLICATIONS. Bank, U., K. Deiser, D. Finke, G.J. Hämmerling, B. Arnold, and T. Schüler. 2016. Cutting Edge: Innate Lymphoid Cells Suppress Homeostatic T Cell Expansion in Neonatal Mice. J Immunol. 196:3532-3536. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1501643.. Bank, U., K. Deiser, C. Plaza-Sirvent, L. Osbelt, A. Witte, L. Knop, R. Labrenz, R. Jänsch, F. Richter, A. Biswas, A.C. Zenclussen, E. Vivier, C. Romagnani, A.A. Kühl, I.R. Dunay, T. Strowig, I. Schmitz, and T. Schüler. 2020. c-FLIP is crucial for IL-7/IL-15-dependent NKp46+ ILC development and protection from intestinal inflammation in mice. Nat Commun. 11:1056. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-14782-3.. Deiser, K., D. Stoycheva, U. Bank, T. Blankenstein, and T. Schüler. 2016. Interleukin-7 Modulates Anti-Tumor CD8+ T Cell Responses via Its Action on Host Cells. PLoS One. 11:e0159690. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0159690.. Knop, L., K. Deiser, U. Bank, A. Witte, J. Mohr, L. Philipsen, H.J. Fehling, A.J. Müller, U. Kalinke, and T. Schüler. 2020. IL-7 derived ...
This paper describes the discovery of two novel members of the IL-1 family, termed IL-1δ and IL-1ε. Several recent studies have reported on the cloning and molecular characterization of IL-1δ and IL-1ε (24, 25, 26, 27, 28). However, the present study is the first to report on the expression in human skin-derived cell types, receptor usage, and initial functional characterization of IL-1δ and IL-1ε.. The structurally aided alignment of both the novel and classical IL-1s in Fig. 1⇑A shows the conservation of the core 12 β-strands, making up the β-trefoil structure. The presented sequence of human IL-1δ protein is identical with the reported sequences of IL1Hy1 (24), FIL1δ (25), IL-1RP3 (27), and IL-1L (28). At the amino acid level, human IL-1δ and IL-1ra show a high degree of similarity, which is confirmed by the evolutionary tree analysis (Fig. 1⇑B). With respect to IL-1ε, the presented sequence is identical with the sequences of IL1H1 (26) and IL-1RP2 (27). It is interesting to ...
Supplementary MaterialsTable_1. and migration, but advertised cell apoptosis in breast tumor by down-regulating Cut59. Next, MDA-MB-231 cells had been co-cultured using the exosomes produced from HUCMSCs expressing miR-148b-3p. The outcomes of co-culture tests showed that HUCMSCs-derived exosomes having miR-148b-3p exerted inhibitory results on MDA-MB-231 i-Inositol development experimentation further verified the anti-tumor ramifications of HUCMSCs-derived exosomes … Read moreSupplementary MaterialsTable_1. ...
Mei, Alessandra and Mameli, Giuseppe and Serra, Caterina and Poddighe, Luciana and Uleriand, Elena and Dolei, Antonina (2009) Regulation of human endogenous retroviruses of the W family by type III interferon λ2 and HIV in astrocytes. ...
Recombinant Human IL-29/IFN-lambda 1 is a single non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 181 amino acids. Background: IL-28A, IL-28B, and IL-29, also named interferon-λ2 (IFN-λ2), IFN-λ3, and IFN-λ1, respectively, are newly ident
Structure: MonomerSecreted by: Dendritic Cells, MacrophagesFunctions: T cell proliferationDisease areas: Autoimmune and inflammatory disease
The rise of nanomaterial use in a variety of applications, including biomedical imaging and drug delivery, has led to concern about the potentially hazardous impacts on human health. Mast cells are critical for innate and ...
During the early phase of an inflammatory response, innate cells can use different strategies to sense environmental danger. These include the direct interaction of specific activating receptors with pathogen-encoded/danger molecules or the engagement of cytokine receptors by pro-inflammatory mediat …
TRANCE, a TNF Family Cytokine, Promotes Angiogenesis [Kim, Young-Mi, Kim, Young-Myoung, Lee, You Mie, Kim, Hae-Sun, Choi, Yongwon, Kim, Kyu-Won, Lee, Soo-Young, Kwon, Young-Guen] / 이화여자대학교 세포신호전달연구센터 / ...
CCL4, CCL20, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-16, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-18, MIF, TNSF15, IL-1β, IL-1R, IL-6, IL-7, IL-7R, IL-8, IL-10R, IL-12p35, IL-12p40, IL-3, IL-15, IL-16, IL-21, IL-21R, IL-22, IL-17D, LITAF, NK-lysin, CD25, CD80, CD83, CD86, IFN-α, IFN-r, TGFB4, B-defensin8 ...
Brief summary of the role the IL-33 and its T1/ST2 receptor pathway plays in disease pathology. Commercially availible T1/ST2 monoclonal antibody
Interleukiin-10 ehk IL-10 on paljude selgroogsete loomade mitmete lümfisüsteemi rakkude poolt teatud sündmuste korral vabastatavad endogeensed lühiajalised valgulised signaalmolekulid, mis vahendavad tõenäoliselt põletikuvastaseid jaimmunosupressiivseid toimeid (immuunvastuse pidurdamine) ning mis liigitatakse põletikuvastaste tsütokiinide hulka. IL-10-t toodavad ja vabastavad T- (CD4 T-rakud, CD8 T-rakud jt), B-rakud, monotsüüdid, dendriitrakud ja makrofaagid, aga ka kesknärvisüsteemi liigitatud gliiarakud jpt. Eri tüüpi tsütokiinid kasutavad nn segasignaale, nii näiteks inhibeerib IL-4 ja IL-10 eritamine Th1- tüüpi immuunvastuste supressiooni, vähendamaks makrofaagidelt tuleva IL-12 tootmist. Põletikutoime arvatakse seisnevat põletikutsütokiinide, nagu IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-3, TNFα ja GM-CSF, sünteesi inhibeerimises. Interleukiin-10 on 2. rühma (IL10- perekonna), mis koosneb interleukiin-10, IL-19, IL-20, IL-22, IL-24 (Mda-7) ja IL-26, interferoonidest (IFN-alfa, -beeta, ...
IL-23A/IL-23 P19 Proteins available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our IL-23A/IL-23 P19 Protein catalog backed by our Guarantee+.
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As in the original Irish, Dáil Éireann is typically abbreviated to Dáil, which, unlike the former, is preceded by the definite article. Thus one says: a member of Dáil Éireann; but: a member of the Dáil.. ...
positive regulation of interleukin-6 production. • positive regulation of interleukin-8 biosynthetic process. • I-kappaB kinase ... positive regulation of interleukin-8 production. • intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in response to DNA damage. • positive ... negative regulation of interleukin-6 production. • protein import into nucleus, translocation. • positive regulation of ... It has a number of actions on various organ systems, generally together with IL-1 and Interleukin-6 (IL-6): ...
Interleukin 6. *Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. *Interferon-gamma. References[edit]. *^ Julius M. Cruse; ...
Interleukin receptors *IL2R / IL2RA/IL2RB / IL15R. *IL4R / IL13R / IL13RA1 / IL13RA2. *IL7R / IL7RA ...
Amgen sent a "dear doctor" letter in January 2007 that highlighted results from a recent anemia of cancer trial, and warned doctors to consider use in that off-label indication with caution. Amgen advised the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regarding the results of the DAHANCA 10 clinical trial. The DAHANCA 10 data monitoring committee found that three-year loco-regional cancer control in subjects treated with Aranesp was significantly worse than for those not receiving Aranesp (p=0.01). In response to these advisories, the FDA released a Public Health Advisory[18] on March 9, 2007, and a clinical alert[19] for doctors on February 16, 2007, about the use of erythropoeisis-stimulating agents (ESAs) such as epogen and darbepoetin. The advisory recommended caution in using these agents in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy or off chemotherapy, and indicated a lack of clinical evidence to support improvements in quality of life or transfusion requirements in these settings. In addition, ...
positive regulation of interleukin-4 production. • positive regulation of interleukin-10 production. • positive regulation of T ... positive regulation of interleukin-12 production. • regulation of immunoglobulin secretion. • immunoglobulin secretion. • ...
van Oosten B, Lai M, Hodgkinson S, Barkhof F, Miller D, Moseley I, Thompson A, Rudge P, McDougall A, McLeod J, Adèr HJ, Polman C (1997). "Treatment of multiple sclerosis with the monoclonal anti-CD4 antibody cM-T412: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, MR-monitored phase II trial". Neurology. 49 (2): 351-7. doi:10.1212/wnl.49.2.351. PMID 9270561. S2CID 8294890 ...
Interleukins *IL-1- Cofactor for IL-3 and IL-6. Activates T cells. ...
Interleukin-6 receptor *Tocilizumab. *LFA-1 *Odulimomab. *IL-2 receptor/CD25 *Basiliximab ...
Interleukin. Type I. (grouped by. receptor. subunit). γ chain. *IL2/IL15. *IL4/IL13 ...
Olopade OI, Bohlander SK, Pomykala H, Maltepe E, Van Melle E, Le Beau MM, Diaz MO (Dec 1992). "Mapping of the shortest region of overlap of deletions of the short arm of chromosome 9 associated with human neoplasia". Genomics. 14 (2): 437-43. doi:10.1016/S0888-7543(05)80238-1. PMID 1385305 ...
He and Maureen Howard discovered interleukin 4, while an independent team led by Ellen Vitetta did the same in 1982. Paul ... Howard M, Paul WE (1982). "Interleukins for B lymphocytes". Lymphokine Res. 1 (1): 1-4. PMID 6985399. Roberts, Sam (September ...
Interleukin 8 and Interleukin 17); a promoter of innate immune and autoimmune responses (viz., Interleukin 22); and a cytokine ... Interleukin 5), promote adaptive and allergic immune responses (viz., Interleukin 4), promote allergic responses and tissue ... interleukin 5 and annexin A1). DRESS syndrome: Key elements promoting tissue injury in the DRESS syndrome are: Th2 cells and ... fibrosis (viz., Interleukin 13), promote innate, adaptive, and auto-immune responses (viz., interferon gamma); or cause cell ...
E.g. Interleukin, Galectin. The process by which such secretory proteins gain access to the cell exterior is termed ...
"Biotechnology Report, Medicines in Development, 2006 , Interleukin 2 , Monoclonal Antibody". Scribd. Retrieved 2017-09-25. " ...
... and Interleukin 2 (IL2). A summary of these proteins is shown below with their suspected functions. The HSH2D protein has been ... ". "IL2 Interleukin 2". Clark, Peter (2012). "Bioinformatics analysis reveals transcriptome and microRNA signatures and drug ...
Interleukin-2 interleukin-10 production has been reported in activated Th1 cell.[14] interleukin-4, interleukin-5, interleukin- ... 6, interleukin-9, interleukin-10, interleukin-13 Immune stimulation promoted. Cellular immune system. Maximizes the killing ... while interleukin-10 (IL-10) inhibits a variety of cytokines including interleukin-2 and IFN-γ in helper T cells and IL-12 in ... "Interleukin-10 production by Th1 cells requires interleukin-12-induced STAT4 transcription factor and ERK MAP kinase activation ...
Diphtheria toxin engineered protein combining Interleukin-2 and Diphtheria toxin Interleukin-2 receptor binder ...
... (trade name LeukoScan) is a mouse monoclonal antibody[1] labelled with technetium-99m, a radionuclide, for imaging with a gamma camera. It is approved for the imaging of infections and inflammations in patients with suspected osteomyelitis,[2] and is being investigated for other purposes like the detection of soft tissue infections.[3] ...
A phase 1B clinical trial of durvalumab and tremelimumab showed some activity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).[5] Phase 1 data in advanced metastatic urothelial bladder (Study 1108) has led to FDA breakthrough therapy designation.[3][6] Early results of a phase I trial combining durvalumab and gefitinib in lung cancer patients "showed promise".[7] A Phase 1 clinical trial is currently underway using durvalumab with a TLR 7/8 agonist (MEDI 9197) for solid tumors.[8] A Phase 1b/2a trial is underway combining durvalumab with an HPV DNA vaccine (MEDI 0457) in patients with HPV-associated recurrent/metastatic head and neck cancer.[9] In July 2017, AstraZeneca announced that a phase III trial of durvalumab with tremelimumab as a first-line treatment of non-small cell lung cancer failed to meet its primary endpoint of progression-free survival.[10] In November 2017, the double-blinded phase 3 AstraZeneca PACIFIC clinical trial demonstrated the efficacy of durvalumab in the treatment of stage III ...
Interleukin receptors *IL2R / IL2RA/IL2RB / IL15R. *IL4R / IL13R / IL13RA1 / IL13RA2. *IL7R / IL7RA ...
... is a human monoclonal antibody[1] that inhibits human granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor (GM-CSF-R).[2] Mavrilimumab was discovered as CAM-3001 by Cambridge Antibody Technology and is being developed by MedImmune, Inc.[3] as an investigational drug for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis Mavrilimumab has been studied in a phase 1 dose-ranging trial[2] and a phase 2a clinical trial, both sponsored by Medimmune.[4] The phase 2a trial, which studied mavrilimumab doses of up to 100 mg, reported that 55.7% of subjects met the primary endpoint of a ≥1.2 decrease from baseline in disease activity scores at week 12 (vs. only 34.7% of placebo subjects).[4] As of 2013, two further clinical studies were reported to be underway in rheumatoid arthritis patients to investigate these effects further.[5] In early 2017 the phase IIb study was reported to be showing promising results.[6] ...
cellular response to interleukin-18. • movement of cell or subcellular component. • antigen processing and presentation. • ... positive regulation of interleukin-12 production. • negative regulation of growth of symbiont in host. • positive regulation of ... positive regulation of interleukin-6 biosynthetic process. • neutrophil chemotaxis. • negative regulation of gene expression. • ... positive regulation of interleukin-1 beta secretion. • positive regulation of neuron differentiation. • positive regulation of ...
Interleukin. Type I. (grouped by. receptor. subunit). γ chain. *IL2/IL15. *IL4/IL13 ...
Interleukins/T-cell growth factors (see here instead). *Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) ...
The biosynthesis of cucurbitacin C has been described. Zhang et al. (2014) identified nine cucumber genes in the pathway for biosynthesis of cucurbitacin C and elucidated four catalytic steps.[4] These authors also discovered the transcription factors Bl (Bitter leaf) and Bt (Bitter fruit) that regulate this pathway in leaves and fruits, respectively. The Bi gene confers bitterness to the entire plant and is genetically associated with an operon-like gene cluster, similar to the gene cluster involved in thalianol biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. Fruit bitterness requires both Bi and the dominant Bt (Bitter fruit) gene. Nonbitterness of cultivated cucumber fruit is conferred by bt, an allele selected during domestication. Bi is a member of the oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC) gene family. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Bi is the ortholog of cucurbitadienol synthase gene CPQ in squash (Cucurbita pepo) [4] ...
Interleukin. Type I. (grouped by. receptor. subunit). γ chain. *IL2/IL15. *IL4/IL13 ...
They include interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-12, and IL-18, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interferon gamma (IFNγ), and ... Inflammatory cytokines include interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-12, and IL-18, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interferon gamma ( ... Adipocytes generate TNF-α and other interleukins. Cytokines derived from adipose tissue serve as remote regulators such as ...
... interleukins, and vaccines. In Canada, a Clinical Trial Application (CTA) must be filed with the Health Products and Food ...
Other innate immune mediators include beta-defensin 2, and lipocalin-2; pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukins IL6, and IL8; ...
Interleukin-2 receptor alpha chain (also called CD25) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL2RA gene. The interleukin ... "Entrez Gene: IL2RA interleukin 2 receptor, alpha". Triplett, Todd A.; et al. (July 2012). "Defining a functionally distinct ... Leonard WJ, Donlon TA, Lebo RV, Greene WC (Aug 1985). "Localization of the gene encoding the human interleukin-2 receptor on ... Kuziel WA, Greene WC (June 1990). "Interleukin-2 and the IL-2 receptor: new insights into structure and function". J. Invest. ...
... Hensen, P ... BACKGROUND: The anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 is considered to play a major role in the pathophysiology of ...
cellular response to interleukin-4. • negative regulation of cell migration. • wound healing. • cellular response to ... IL24, C49A, FISP, IL10B, MDA7, MOB5, ST16, IL-24, interleukin 24. External IDs. OMIM: 604136 MGI: 2135548 HomoloGene: 4991 ... This interleukin is also known as melanoma differentiation-associated 7 (mda-7) due to its discovery as a tumour suppressing ... Interleukin 24 (IL-24) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL24 gene. ...
The interleukin-3 receptor (CD123) is a molecule found on cells which helps transmit the signal of interleukin-3, a soluble ... Interleukin-3+Receptor at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Retrieved from "" ...
... within which interleukins play an integral role. Find out more about the potential clinical benefits. ... Table 1. Interleukins involved in asthma clinical trials. Interleukin. Produced by. Receptor. Role in asthma. Current status in ... The Role of Interleukins in Asthma IL-1. IL-1 is a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine produced in response to infection that ... Interleukins are a group of cell-signaling molecules that are produced by a variety of different cell types and have a ...
IL-1g; IL-18; IL1F4; Interferon (IFN) gamma-inducing factor (IGIF) Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a member of the IL-1 family of ... Interleukin-12 and Interleukin-18 synergistically induce murine tumor regression which involves inhibition of angiogenesis. J ... Palma G. (2018) Interleukin-18. In: Choi S. (eds) Encyclopedia of Signaling Molecules. Springer, Cham. * .RIS Papers ... Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a member of the IL-1 family of cytokines. Similar to IL-1β, IL-18 is synthesized as an inactive ...
... and ProteinsPeptidesIntercellular Signaling Peptides and ProteinsCytokinesInterleukinsInterleukin-10 ... and ProteinsProteinsIntercellular Signaling Peptides and ProteinsCytokinesInterleukinsInterleukin-10 ... Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein. ... Interleukin-10. A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and ...
Interleukin-5. from mouse. Sf21 cells. lyophilized powder. -. -. I1145. Interleukin-5. human. Sf21 cells. lyophilized powder. - ... Interleukin-7. human. Escherichia coli lyophilized powder. -. -. I5896. Interleukin-7. from mouse. Escherichia coli lyophilized ... Interleukin-12. human. Sf21 cells. lyophilized powder. -. -. I2276. Interleukin-12. from mouse. Sf21 cells. lyophilized powder ... Interleukin-13. human. Escherichia coli lyophilized powder. -. -. I1771. Interleukin-13. from mouse. Escherichia coli ...
The interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R) is the receptor that IL-6 binds to in order to initiate the bodys responses to inflammation ... Interleukin 6. Image Credit: StudioMolekuul/ In what is referred to as "classical signaling", IL-6 exerts its ... Interleukin 6 Receptor. News-Medical, viewed 01 March 2021, ... Interleukin 6 Receptor. News-Medical. 01 March 2021. ,,. ...
Interleukin-2 (IPR000779). Short name: IL-2 Overlapping homologous superfamilies *Four-helical cytokine-like, core (IPR009079) ... Use of a cDNA expression vector for isolation of mouse interleukin 2 cDNA clones: expression of T-cell growth-factor activity ... Cloning, sequence, and expression of bovine interleukin 2.. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 83 3223-7 1986 ... Cloning, sequence, and expression of bovine interleukin 2.. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 83 3223-7 1986 ...
Interleukin-10 (IPR000098). Short name: IL-10 Overlapping homologous superfamilies *Four-helical cytokine-like, core (IPR009079 ... Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is a secreted 17-21kDa protein that is non- glycosylated in humans but exists as a non-covalent ...
A new smartphone add-on has been demonstrated to detect cancer with 99% accuracy in the lab. The breakthrough could have significant implications for diagnostic capabilities in remote areas or when limited medical services are available. ...
The different types of interleukins all serve to... ... Interleukins are naturally occurring proteins that help the ... The role of interleukins within the immune system has led to their use in fighting some types of cancer and diseases including ... Interleukins are naturally occurring proteins produced by the body that help the bodys immune system. They are not stored ... While dozens of interleukins and their effects have been identified, scientists believe there are many more still to be found. ...
Interleukin 1 alpha and interleukin 1 beta (IL1 alpha and IL1 beta) are cytokines that participate in the regulation of immune ... Gately MK, Renzetti LM, Magram J, Stern AS, Adorini L, Gubler U, Presky DH (1998). "The interleukin-12/interleukin-12-receptor ... Recombinant expression enables cells to process precursor Interleukin 1 Beta to the mature form of the enzyme. Interleukin 1 ... di Giovine FS, Duff GW (Jan 1990). "Interleukin 1: the first interleukin". Immunology Today. 11 (1): 13-20. doi:10.1016/0167- ...
Interleukin-6 receptor subunit alpha The interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R) is a type I transmembrane protein that was cloned and ... CD126; Glycoprotein 80; gp80; IL-6R; IL-6Rα; Interleukin-6 receptor subunit alpha ... Proteolytic cleavage governs interleukin-11 trans-signaling. Cell Rep. 2016;14:1761-73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Cloning and expression of the human interleukin-6 (BSF-2/IFN beta 2) receptor. Science. 1988;241:825-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle ...
Interleukin-1 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that has numerous biological effects, including activation of many inflammatory ... Interleukin-1 and neuronal injury.. Allan SM1, Tyrrell PJ, Rothwell NJ. ... There is now extensive evidence to support the direct involvement of interleukin-1 in the neuronal injury that occurs in both ... This article discusses the key evidence of a role for interleukin-1 in acute neurodegeneration - for example, stroke and brain ...
Interleukin 2 regulates its own receptors. K A Smith and D A Cantrell ... The cell surface density of high-affinity membrane receptors for the T-lymphocytotrophic hormone interleukin 2 (IL-2) ...
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine that is secreted by T cells and macrophages to activate immune responses during ... Immunology - Interleukin 6 (IL6) physiology and IL6 antagonist pharmacology Tocilizumab. Play. Interleukin-6 and fibrogenesis. ... Interleukin-6 and inflammation. Interleukin-6 has been implicated in the pathology of a number of chronic inflammatory ... Interleukin-6 in autoimmunity. Related Stories. *Attenuated virulence and protective immunity in SARS-CoV-2 with a mutation in ...
USA Home > Product Directory > Cell Culture > Reagents and Supplements > Growth Factors and Cytokines > Interleukins (IL) > ... Interleukin-23 human IL-23, recombinant, expressed in HEK 293 cells, HumanKine®, suitable for cell culture * pricing ...
Interleukin-25 (IL-25) - also known as interleukin-17E (IL-17E) - is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL25 gene on ... "Entrez Gene: IL25 interleukin 25". Moseley TA, Haudenschild DR, Rose L, Reddi AH (April 2003). "Interleukin-17 family and IL-17 ... "Interleukin-17B Antagonizes Interleukin-25-Mediated Mucosal Inflammation". Immunity. 42 (4): 692-703. doi:10.1016/j.immuni. ... Identification of an interleukin (IL)-25-dependent cell population that provides IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 at the onset of helminth ...
... secreted by T cells in response to antigen and interleukin 1, that stimulates the proliferation of T cells. See more. ... Origin of interleukin 2. First recorded in 1980-85; see origin at interleukin 1 ... a lymphokine protein, secreted by T cells in response to antigen and interleukin 1, that stimulates the proliferation of T ...
Interleukin 1 is processed and released during apoptosis. K A Hogquist, M A Nett, E R Unanue, and D D Chaplin ... Interleukin (IL-) 1 alpha and 1 beta are synthesized as 31- to 34-kDa pro molecules. They are released from monocytes and ...
H. England, H. R. Summersgill, M. E. Edye, N. J. Rothwell, and D. Brough, "Release of interleukin-1α or interleukin-1β depends ... B. Kim, Y. Lee, E. Kim et al., "The interleukin-1α precursor is biologically active and is likely a key alarmin in the IL-1 ... S. Shrivastava, A. Mukherjee, R. Ray, and R. B. Raya, "Hepatitis C virus induces interleukin-1β (IL-1β)/IL-18 in circulatory ... Y. Gu, K. Kuida, H. Tsutsui et al., "Activation of interferon-γ inducing factor mediated by interleukin-1β converting enzyme," ...
The structure of interleukin-23 reveals the molecular basis of p40 subunit sharing with interleukin-12.. Lupardus, P.J., Garcia ... Interleukin-23 subunit alpha. C, D. 177. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: IL23A, SGRF, UNQ2498/PRO5798. ... Interleukin-12 subunit beta. A, B. 314. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: IL12B, NKSF2. ... Interleukin (IL)-23 is a recently identified member of the IL-12 family of heterodimeric cytokines that modulate subpopulations ...
Interleukin-10. In: Thomson AW, Lotze MT eds. Cytokine Handbook. 4th ed, vol 1. London, UK, and San Diego, Calif: Academic ... Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an important suppressor of immune responses.1-3 In vitro studies indicate that IL-10 directly ... 2. Mosser DM, Zhang X. Interleukin-10: New perspectives on an old cytokine. Immunol Rev. 2008 Dec; 226:205-218. 19161426 ...
Interleukin-2. In: Thomson AW, Lotze MT, eds. Cytokine Handbook. 4th ed, vol 1. London, UK and San Diego, Calif: Academic Press ... Interleukin 2 (IL-2) is a pleiotropic cytokine produced primarily by mitogen- or antigen-activated T lymphocytes.1 IL-2 plays a ...
... ,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in ... Interleukin 2by ELISA. 2. Interleukin 6 by Chemiluminescence. 3. Interleukin 2 Receptorby Chemiluminescence. 4. Interleukin 8by ...
Kanemaki T, Kitade H, Kaibori M, Sakitani K, Hiramatsu Y, Kamiyama Y, Ito S, Okumura T: Interleukin 1beta and interleukin 6, ... Astrocytic alterations in interleukin-6/soluble interleukin-6 receptor α double-transgenic mice. Am J Pathol157 :1485 -1493, ... 174 G/C polymorphism of interleukin-6 to interleukin-6 plasma levels and to length of hospitalization after surgical coronary ... The human interleukin-6 gene (IL6, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man #147620) maps to chromosome 7p21. IL6 has a high degree ...
Together with Interleukin-2 (IL-2), Interleukin-4 (IL-4), Interleukin-7 (IL-7), Interleukin-9 (IL-9), granulocyte colony- ... Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is a cytokine with structural similarity to Interleukin-2 (IL-2). Like IL-2, IL-15 binds to and signals ... "Entrez Gene: IL15 interleukin 15".. *^ Tagaya Y, Kurys G, Thies TA, Losi JM, Azimi N, Hanover JA, Bamford RN, Waldmann TA ( ... "Role of interleukin 15 and interleukin 18 in inflammatory response". Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 61 Suppl 2 (Suppl 2): ...
"Interleukin-23 and interleukin-17: importance in pathogenesis and therapy of psoriasis". Dermatology Online Journal. 18 (10): 1 ... Interleukin 17A (IL-17 or IL-17A) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine. This cytokine is produced by a group of T helper cell known ... "Interleukin-23 promotes a distinct CD4 T cell activation state characterized by the production of interleukin-17". The Journal ... Miossec P, Korn T, Kuchroo VK (Aug 2009). "Interleukin-17 and type 17 helper T cells". The New England Journal of Medicine. 361 ...
... interleukin 2 synonyms, interleukin 2 pronunciation, interleukin 2 translation, English dictionary definition of interleukin 2 ... Related to interleukin 2: Interleukin 4. interleukin 2. n. a T-cell protein that stimulates the production of more T cells and ... Interleukin 2 - definition of interleukin 2 by The Free Dictionary ... More recently, interleukin 2 (IL2) engendered enthusiastic support.. Number 12 steps up to bat; will this immune system ...
  • Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a member of the IL-1 family of cytokines. (
  • Interleukins (ILs) are a group of cytokines (secreted proteins and signal molecules) that were first seen to be expressed by white blood cells (leukocytes). (
  • Some interleukins are classified as lymphokines, lymphocyte-produced cytokines that mediate immune responses. (
  • Interleukin 1 alpha and interleukin 1 beta (IL1 alpha and IL1 beta) are cytokines that participate in the regulation of immune responses, inflammatory reactions, and hematopoiesis. (
  • I am working with differents cytokines using a mouse experimental model, and I am wondering if anyone knows of a Company which carries mouse Interleukin 12. (
  • The IL-6R shares many features with other receptors of the IL-6 family of cytokines, notably the interleukin-11 receptor (IL-11R) and the ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor (CNTFR) (Garbers et al. (
  • Plasticity and cross-talk of interleukin 6-type cytokines. (
  • IL-33, an interleukin-1-like cytokine that signals via the IL-1 receptor-related protein ST2 and induces T helper type 2-associated cytokines," Immunity , vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 479-490, 2005. (
  • The interleukin-1 α precursor is biologically active and is likely a key alarmin in the IL-1 family of cytokines," Frontiers in Immunology , vol. 4, article 391, 2013. (
  • Interleukin (IL)-23 is a recently identified member of the IL-12 family of heterodimeric cytokines that modulate subpopulations of T helper cells, and both IL-12 and IL-23 are attractive targets for therapy of autoimmune diseases. (
  • Mediators of inflammation such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, the IL-6 family of cytokines, IL-18, and certain chemokines have been proposed to be involved in the events causing both forms of diabetes. (
  • The regulation of interleukin 6 (IL-6) is dependent on many factors that include numerous stimuli such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), viruses, and other cytokines. (
  • Interleukin-2 belongs to a family of cytokines, which includes IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, IL-15 and IL-21. (
  • Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13 are two cytokines produced by T helper type 2 cells, mast cells, and basophils. (
  • The hypotension in septicemia is believed to be mediated by the combined action of many modulators including cytokines, and data presented here suggest direct involvement of interleukin-1 in this process. (
  • Cytokines, especially alpha and beta types of IL-1α and IL-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor, have been implicated as primary mediators of the physiological response to septicemia. (
  • Interleukin-19 is a cytokine that belongs to the IL-10 family of cytokines along with several other interleukins including IL-10 , IL-20 , IL-22 , IL-24 , IL-26 , and several virus -encoded cytokines. (
  • Interleukin receptors on astrocytes in the hippocampus are also known to be involved in the development of spatial memories in mice. (
  • However, when mice with this genetic deletion have wild-type neural precursor cells injected into their hippocampus and these cells are allowed to mature into astrocytes containing the interleukin-1 receptors, the mice exhibit normal hippocampal-dependent memory function, and partial restoration of long-term potentiation. (
  • Wolf J, Rose-John S, Garbers C. Interleukin-6 and its receptors: a highly regulated and dynamic system. (
  • The cell surface density of high-affinity membrane receptors for the T-lymphocytotrophic hormone interleukin 2 (IL-2) determines the rate of T-cell-cycle progression. (
  • Welcome to the BioLegend Interleukin Receptors page, where you can find information on Interleukin cytokine receptors including ligands, receptor pairings, diagrammatic structure, Gene ID, research products, and more. (
  • This page only covers receptors for Interleukins, not chemokines, interferons, or other growth factors. (
  • Interleukin 24 (IL-24) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL24 gene . (
  • Study on interleukin-18 gene transfer into human breast cancer cells to prevent tumorigenicity. (
  • Interleukin-25 (IL-25) - also known as interleukin-17E (IL-17E) - is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL25 gene on chromosome 14. (
  • A common variant of the interleukin 6 receptor (IL-6r) gene increases IL-6r and IL-6 levels, without other inflammatory effects. (
  • Gupta, "Molecular cloning and evolution of the gene encoding the precursor of Nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus) interleukin 2 ," DNA Sequence, vol. (
  • Primers were designed manually for first 3 exons of human Interleukin 2 gene sequence deduced from Ensemble Gene Location NCBI36:4:123591475:123597930:-1. (
  • [4] Thus, despite being designated the number 2 interleukin, it was the first interleukin molecule, gene and receptor to be discovered. (
  • Interleukin-6 gene polymorphism and insulin sensitivity. (
  • We aimed to study an interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene polymorphism in relation to insulin sensitivity (IL-6 is the main cytokine involved in an acute-phase response). (
  • have identified a cytokine receptor gene termed novel interleukin receptor (NILR), whose sequence is quite similar to that of the interleukin (IL)-2 receptor beta (IL2Rβ) chain. (
  • Interleukins are a diverse, multifunctional group of proteins that carry out communication between various immune cells and control their gene expression. (
  • In contrast, transcription initiated from a construct that consisted of 4.1 kilobases of renin 5′ flanking sequence fused to a reporter gene (chloramphenicol acetyltransferase) was markedly inhibited by interleukin-1. (
  • On the basis of our findings, we conclude that downregulation of renin synthesis caused by interleukin-1 occurs primarily at the level of transcription and that DNA sequence or sequences mediating that effect are positioned within 4.1 kilobases upstream of the renin gene. (
  • Interleukin 19 (IL19) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL19 gene . (
  • Interleukin 7 ( IL-7 ) is a protein [1] that in humans is encoded by the IL7 gene . (
  • A study of three polymorphisms of the interleukin-1 gene complex (IL-1) and one of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) has found that IL-1 may directly contribute to AD among Spanish Caucasian males. (
  • This interleukin is also known as melanoma differentiation-associated 7 ( mda-7 ) due to its discovery as a tumour suppressing protein. (
  • Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein. (
  • The name "interleukin" was chosen in 1979, to replace the various different names used by different research groups to designate interleukin 1 (lymphocyte activating factor, mitogenic protein, T-cell replacing factor III, B-cell activating factor, B-cell differentiation factor, and "Heidikine") and interleukin 2 (TSF, etc. (
  • Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is a secreted 17-21kDa protein that is non- glycosylated in humans but exists as a non-covalent homodimer. (
  • The interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R) is a type I transmembrane protein that was cloned and described in 1988 (Yamasaki et al. (
  • Association of transcription factor APRF and protein kinase Jak1 with the interleukin-6 signal transducer gp130. (
  • a lymphokine protein, secreted by T cells in response to antigen and interleukin 1 , that stimulates the proliferation of T cells. (
  • interleukin-18, interferon-gamma-inducing factor, IL-18 ) adalah sitokina yang merupakan ekspresi genetik IL18 , [1] dengan prekursor sepanjang 192 AA dan protein aktif sepanjang 157 AA yang meningkatkan respon peradangan tubuh dengan menginduksi sekresi interferon-gamma oleh sel T dan meningkatkan aktivitas sel NK di dalam limpa . (
  • [1] [2] Kod ljudi, interleukin 8 je protein kodiran IL8 genom . (
  • The target antigen refers to the Interleukin 12 protein complex, which comprises multiple genes. (
  • Antibodies, polyclonal and monoclonal, which are capable of specifically binding to a human interleukin-6 receptor. (
  • Also included are monoclonal antibodies which competitively and non-competitively inhibit human interleukin-6, and a method of producing hybridomas of the said monoclonal antibodies capable of specifically binding to a human interleukin-6 receptor. (
  • The following lists a number of Interleukin 12 antibodies from various sources. (
  • Your search returned 1221 Interleukin 12 Antibodies across 43 suppliers. (
  • Your search returned 25 Interleukin 35 (IL35) Antibodies across 7 suppliers. (
  • and interleukin-1 receptor type I mRNA during preimplantation mouse development," Journal of Reproductive Immunology , vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 27-35, 1996. (
  • The humanized anti-interleukin (IL)-6 receptor antibody Tocilizumab is currently in Phase III clinical trials for use in autoimmune conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn's disease. (
  • Use of a cDNA expression vector for isolation of mouse interleukin 2 cDNA clones: expression of T-cell growth-factor activity after transfection of monkey cells. (
  • cDNA cloning of an intracellular form of the human interleukin 1 receptor antagonist associated with epithelium," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , vol. 88, no. 9, pp. 3681-3685, 1991. (
  • [2] The IL-2 molecule was also the first interleukin found to be encoded by a complementary DNA (cDNA), [3] and to mediate its effects via a specific IL-2 receptor . (
  • The interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R) is the receptor that IL-6 binds to in order to initiate the body's responses to inflammation and infection. (
  • The different types of interleukins are responsible for triggering an assortment of infection-fighting immune responses, including pain, fever, inflammation , allergic reactions and cell regeneration. (
  • Chalaris A, Garbers C, Rabe B, Rose-John S, Scheller J. The soluble interleukin 6 receptor: generation and role in inflammation and cancer. (
  • Promoting the inflammation, IL-17 acts in concert with tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 . (
  • Interleukin-6 measured using the automated electrochemiluminescence immunoassay method for the identification of intra-amniotic inflammation in preterm prelabor rupture of membranes. (
  • We aimed to compare the amniotic fluid interleukin (IL)-6 concentrations measured using the automated electrochemiluminescence immunoassay method and ELISA, and to establish an IL-6 concentration cut-off value for intra-amniotic inflammation (IAI) in preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM), which can be used in the automated electrochemiluminescence immunoassay method.A total of 120 women with PPROM were included in this study. (
  • Regulatory cytokine interleukin 10 (IL-10) has been proposed as a key molecule involved in the attenuation of chronic inflammation and the ensuing tolerance for these helminth parasites. (
  • Interleukin Genetics leverages its research, intellectual property, and genetic panel development expertise in metabolism and inflammation to facilitate the emerging personalized healthcare market. (
  • Interleukin-1 inhibitors (canakinumab, rilonacept and anakinra) modify the immune system and reduce inflammation. (
  • Proof-of-concept clinical trials, now supported by robust mechanistic studies, have shown that low-dose interleukin-2 specifically expands and activates T Reg cell populations and thus can control autoimmune diseases and inflammation. (
  • Interleukin 13 ( IL-13 ) is a cytokine secreted by many cell types, but especially T helper type 2 (Th2) cells [1] , that is an important mediator of allergic inflammation and disease. (
  • The human genome encodes more than 50 interleukins and related proteins. (
  • Interleukins are naturally occurring proteins produced by the body that help the body's immune system . (
  • Species specificity of ADAM10 and ADAM17 proteins in interleukin-6 (IL-6) trans-signaling and novel role of ADAM10 in inducible IL-6 receptor shedding. (
  • NEW YORK (GenomeWeb News) - Genetic testing company Interleukin Genetics reported after the close of the market on Wednesday a 45 percent drop year over year in its third-quarter revenues. (
  • Interleukin Genetics Inc. (
  • Interleukin Genetics, Inc. (AMEX:ILI), today announced that Partha P. Paul, Ph.D., has joined the Company as Senior Director, Business Development. (
  • Dr. Paul will be responsible for all business development activities for Interleukin Genetics and will be reporting to the Chief Executive Officer, Lewis Bender. (
  • Prior to joining Interleukin Genetics, Dr. Paul was the Senior Director of Business Development at AtheroGenics, Inc., a publicly traded biotechnology company located in Georgia. (
  • Interleukin Genetics, Inc. (AMEX:ILI), is a genetics-focused personalized health company that develops preventive consumer products and genetic tests for sale to the emerging personalized health market. (
  • Focused on the future of health and medicine, Interleukin Genetics uses its leading genetics research and scientific capabilities to develop and test innovative preventive and therapeutic products. (
  • Interleukin Genetics currently offers an array of Nutraceuticals and OTCeuticals®, including Ginkoba®, Ginsana® and Venastat® which are sold at the nation's largest food, drug and mass retailers, and has commercialized genetic tests for periodontal disease risk assessment, cardiovascular risk assessment, and general nutrition assessment. (
  • Interleukin Genetics is headquartered in Waltham, MA. (
  • For more information about Interleukin Genetics, its products and ongoing programs, please visit . (
  • WALTHAM, Mass., May 10, 2016 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Interleukin Genetics, Inc. (OTCQB:ILIU) announced today that it will host a conference call and webcast on Monday, May 16, 2016, at 8:30 a.m. (
  • Interleukin Genetics, Inc. (OTCQB:ILIU) develops and markets proprietary genetic tests for chronic diseases and health-related conditions. (
  • Interleukin Genetics' lead products include its proprietary PerioPredict ® genetic test for periodontal disease and its Inherent Health® line of genetic tests. (
  • Interleukin Genetics is headquartered in Waltham, MA and operates an on-site, state-of-the-art DNA testing laboratory certified under the Clinical Laboratory Improvements Amendments (CLIA). (
  • 2018 Sep 26;65:1-7 Authors: Xu WD, Su LC, He CS, Huang AF Abstract Previous studies have indicated that interleukin-38 (IL-38) is involved in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). (
  • The interleukin-3 receptor ( CD123 ) is a molecule found on cells which helps transmit the signal of interleukin-3 , a soluble cytokine important in the immune system . (
  • The function of the immune system depends in a large part on interleukins, and rare deficiencies of a number of them have been described, all featuring autoimmune diseases or immune deficiency. (
  • As part of the cytokine family of cell-signaling molecules, interleukins have a major role in the immune system, but they don't actively create the immune response . (
  • The role of interleukins within the immune system has led to their use in fighting some types of cancer and diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn's disease. (
  • Biological therapy using interleukins also can help rebuild an immune system practically eliminated by the sometimes harsh treatments needed to destroy cancerous tumors. (
  • While interleukin therapy that boosts the immune system into overdrive can have major health benefits in some situations, an overactive immune system is believed to be the culprit behind autoimmune diseases including lupus , fibromyalgia and multiple sclerosis. (
  • Another part of the body's immune system makeup - T suppressor cells - are meant to signal an end to fighting once the body has won, and interleukins are critical to getting the word out. (
  • Interleukin (IL)-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine with a key impact on both immunoregulation and nonimmune events in most cell types and tissues outside the immune system ( 7 ). (
  • Interleukin-2 ( IL-2 ) is an interleukin, a type of cytokine immune system signalling molecule, that is instrumental in the body's natural response to microbial infection and in discriminating between foreign (nonself) and self. (
  • Therefore, interleukin network represents an interesting pharmacological target, modulation of which using either biological or small chemical agents could contribute to suppression of excessive activated immune system and successfully treat the diseases that they are involved in. (
  • Interleukin-7 made in the laboratory is used as a biological response modifier to boost the immune system in cancer therapy. (
  • The majority of interleukins are synthesized by helper CD4 T lymphocytes, as well as through monocytes, macrophages, and endothelial cells. (
  • Interleukin 2 (IL-2) is a pleiotropic cytokine produced primarily by mitogen- or antigen-activated T lymphocytes. (
  • Complementary DNA For A Novel Human Interleukin (BSF-2) That Induces B Lymphocytes To Produce Immunoglobulin", Nature, 324:73-76, Nov., 1986. (
  • S Yagel, P K Lala, W A Powell, and R F Casper, "Interleukin-1 stimulates human chorionic gonadotropin secretion by first trimester human trophoblast," The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism , vol. 68, no. 5, pp. 992-995, 1989. (
  • Interleukin-18-induced human coronary artery smooth muscle cell migration is dependent on NF-kappaB- and AP-1-mediated matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression and is inhibited by atorvastatin. (
  • Secondary structure of human interleukin 2 from 3D heteronuclear NMR experiments. (
  • C Simon, G N Piquette, A Frances, and M L Polan, "Localization of interleukin-1 type I receptor and interleukin-1 beta in human endometrium throughout the menstrual cycle," The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism , vol. 77, no. 2, pp. 549-555, 1993. (
  • Interleukin-1 beta regulates human cytotrophoblast metalloproteinase activity and invasion in vitro," The Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 269, no. 25, pp. 17125-17131, 1994. (
  • S W Kauma, "Interleukin-1 beta stimulates colony-stimulating factor-1 production in human term placenta," The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism , vol. 76, no. 3, pp. 701-703, 1993. (
  • Cloning and Expression of the Human Interleukin-6 (BSF-2/IFN.beta.2) Receptor", Science, 241:825-828 1988, Aug. 12). (
  • A recombinant human nonglycosylated interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor antagonist with potential antineoplastic activity. (
  • Production of interleukins in human immunodeficiency virus-1-replicating lymph nodes. (
  • Human interleukin 1. (
  • We have purified human interleukin 1 (IL-1) to homogeneity by a simplified procedure that results in excellent yields of pure material that retains a high level of biological activity. (
  • One of the most common human immunodeficiencies is an X-linked condition arising from mutations of the gamma subunit of the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2Rgamma). (
  • Recombinant human interleukin-3 (hIL-3) Ala20-Phe152 (Accession # NP_000579) was expressed in human 293 cells at Cell Signaling Technology. (
  • Interleukin-2 (IL-2) was discovered as a cytokine that supports the proliferation and differentiation of effector T cells. (
  • Interleukin-4 , abbreviated IL-4 , is a cytokine that induces differentiation of naive helper T cells ( Th0 cells ) to Th2 cells . (
  • Levels of renin mRNA in As4.1 cells are decreased in a dose-dependent manner by the addition of physiological concentrations of cytokine interleukin-1 to the media. (
  • Stability of renin mRNA and initial rates of release of active renin and prorenin were not significantly altered by interleukin-1. (
  • These factors, which include interleukin 2 (IL2), are secreted by lectin- or antigen-stimulated T cells, and have various physiological effects. (
  • Interleukin-13 (IL-13), like IL-4, is a cytokine produced by T H 2 type helper T cells in response to signaling through the T cell antigen receptor and by mast cells and basophils upon cross-linkage of the high-affinity receptor for immunoglobulin E (IgE). (
  • Interleukin-3 receptor (takođe poznat kao CD123 antigen ) je molekul nađen na ćelijama koje pomažu prenos interleukin-3 signala, rastvornog citokina važnog za imunski sistem . (
  • The document addresses the indications for interleukin-17A (IL-17A) monoclonal antibody drugs used in the treatment of adults with active ankylosing spondylitis, moderate to severe plaque psoriasis, or active psoriatic arthritis. (
  • Interleukin-21 (IL-21) is a type I cytokine produced endogenously by activated CD4+ T cells as a polypeptide of 133 amino acids with an approximate molecular weight of 15.6 kDa (Parrish-Novak, et al. (
  • Can personalized tumor vaccines improve interleukin-2 treated metastatic melanoma? (
  • New Rochelle, NY, January 22, 2014--Metastatic melanoma has a poor prognosis, but treatment with high-dose interleukin-2 (IL2) can extend survival. (
  • The interleukin-6 receptor Asp358Ala single nucleotide polymorphism rs2228145 confers increased proteolytic conversion rates by ADAM proteases. (
  • Cellular senescence or EGFR signaling induces interleukin 6 (IL-6) receptor expression controlled by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). (
  • Interleukin-6 induces vascular en. (
  • Recombinant expression enables cells to process precursor Interleukin 1 Beta to the mature form of the enzyme. (
  • Molecular cloning of the Interleukin 1 Beta converting enzyme is generated by the proteolytic cleavage of an inactive precursor molecule. (
  • Antitumor activity of interleukin-18 against the murine T-cell leukemia/lymphoma EL-4 in syngeneic mice. (
  • Interleukin-12 and Interleukin-18 synergistically induce murine tumor regression which involves inhibition of angiogenesis. (
  • Altered cytokine export and apoptosis in mice deficient in interleukin-1beta converting enzyme," Science , vol. 267, no. 5206, pp. 2000-2003, 1995. (
  • Embryonic implantation in mice is blocked by interleukin-1 receptor antagonist [see comments]," Endocrinology , vol. 134, no. 2, pp. 521-528, 1994. (
  • A critical role of interleukin (IL)-17A was demonstrated: mice lacking interferon-γ or IL-4 were protected, but not mice lacking IL-17A receptor or mice with neutrophil depletion. (
  • These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist. (
  • Overall Response Rate (ORR) = 100%(CR + PR/total number of patients receiving Interleukin-2). (
  • Median survival of patients treated with this moderate dose bolus Interleukin-2 schedule. (
  • In an open-label pilot study of 10 patients with refractory acute gout treated with the interleukin (IL)-1 antagonist anakinra, pain was substantially reduced in all patients within 2 days, without side effects. (
  • Figure 3: Effects of interleukin-2 in patients with autoimmune or inflammatory diseases. (
  • Plasma interleukin-38 in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (
  • PURPOSE: Phase I trial to study the effectiveness of interleukin-2 in treating patients who have mycosis fungoides. (
  • Determine the maximum tolerated dose and toxicity of interleukin-2 in patients with stage IIB-IV mycosis fungoides. (
  • Patients receive interleukin-2 (IL-2) subcutaneously on days 1-5 during weeks 1-3 and on days 1-3 and 5 during week 4. (
  • Interleukin-36 (IL-36) ligands require processing for full agonist (IL-36 α , IL-36 β , and IL-36 γ ) or antagonist (IL-36Ra) activity," Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 286, no. 49, pp. 42594-42602, 2011. (
  • phase growth-arresting action of interleukin-1 is independent of p53 and p21/WAF1 function," The Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 273, no. 46, pp. 30517-30523, 1998. (
  • When administered, these high-dose interleukins trigger healthy cells to redouble their efforts in fighting cancerous cells and other threats to the body. (
  • The interleukin-2 infusion (the high dose regimen) can cause a reaction that may include low blood pressure, increased heart rate or arrhythmias, shortness of breath, rash, nausea, diarrhea and joint and muscle stiffness. (
  • Anakinra blocks the action of interleukin 1 (IL-1). (
  • Is the interleukin (IL)-1 antagonist anakinra effective in the treatment of gout? (
  • IL-7 binds to the IL-7 receptor , a heterodimer consisting of Interleukin-7 receptor alpha and common gamma chain receptor . (
  • Interleukin-1-alfa, one form of interleukin-1, is made mainly by one type of white blood cell, the macrophage, and helps another type of white blood cell, the lymphocyte, fight infections. (
  • Interleukin-6 is also thought to play a role in autoimmunity. (
  • Figure 1: Pleiotropic effects of interleukin-2 in controlling autoimmunity. (
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  • The anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 is considered to play a major role in the pathophysiology of psoriasis, which is characterized by an IL-10 deficiency. (
  • Scheller J, Garbers C, Rose-John S. Interleukin-6: from basic biology to selective blockade of pro-inflammatory activities. (
  • Interleukin-6 has been implicated in the pathology of a number of chronic inflammatory conditions. (
  • Interleukin 17A ( IL-17 or IL-17A ) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine . (
  • Cleavage site localization differentially controls interleukin-6 receptor proteolysis by ADAM10 and ADAM17. (
  • Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine secreted by T cells and macrophages to activate immune responses during infection or after trauma. (
  • In the current study, we used a microarray-based approach to investigate genes regulating repair in MS lesions, and identified interleukin-11 (IL-11) as an astrocyte-derived factor that potentiates oligodendrocyte survival and maturation, and myelin formation. (
  • Does interleukin-10 reduce age-related insulin resistance? (