A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
Cell surface proteins that bind interleukins and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
A ligand that binds to but fails to activate the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR. It plays an inhibitory role in the regulation of INFLAMMATION and FEVER. Several isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-1. Included under this heading are signaling receptors, non-signaling receptors and accessory proteins required for receptor signaling. Signaling from interleukin-1 receptors occurs via interaction with SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as MYELOID DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 88.
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
A multilineage cell growth factor secreted by LYMPHOCYTES; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and ASTROCYTES which stimulates clonal proliferation and differentiation of various types of blood and tissue cells.
A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.
A cytokine which resembles IL-1 structurally and IL-12 functionally. It enhances the cytotoxic activity of NK CELLS and CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES, and appears to play a role both as neuroimmunomodulator and in the induction of mucosal immunity.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Receptors present on a wide variety of hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cell types that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-4. They are involved in signaling a variety of immunological responses related to allergic INFLAMMATION including the differentiation of TH2 CELLS and the regulation of IMMUNOGLOBULIN E production. Two subtypes of receptors exist and are referred to as the TYPE I INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR and the TYPE II INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR. Each receptor subtype is defined by its unique subunit composition.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-6. They are present on T-LYMPHOCYTES, mitogen-activated B-LYMPHOCYTES, and peripheral MONOCYTES. The receptors are heterodimers of the INTERLEUKIN-6 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
A lymphohematopoietic cytokine that plays a role in regulating the proliferation of ERYTHROID PRECURSOR CELLS. It induces maturation of MEGAKARYOCYTES which results in increased production of BLOOD PLATELETS. Interleukin-11 was also initially described as an inhibitor of ADIPOGENESIS of cultured preadipocytes.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Cytokine that stimulates the proliferation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and shares biological activities with IL-2. IL-15 also can induce proliferation and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A cytokine produced by bone marrow stromal cells that promotes the growth of B-LYMPHOCYTE precursors and is co-mitogenic with INTERLEUKIN-2 for mature T-LYMPHOCYTE activation.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
An interleukin receptor subunit with specificity for INTERLEUKIN-13. It dimerizes with the INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT to form the TYPE II INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR which has specificity for both INTERLEUKIN-4 and INTERLEUKIN-13. Signaling of this receptor subunit occurs through the interaction of its cytoplasmic domain with JANUS KINASES such as the TYK2 KINASE.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-13. Included under this heading are the INTERLEUKIN-13 RECEPTOR ALPHA2 which is a monomeric receptor and the INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR TYPE II which has specificity for both INTERLEUKIN-4 and INTERLEUKIN-13.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
Cytolytic lymphocytes with the unique capacity of killing natural killer (NK)-resistant fresh tumor cells. They are INTERLEUKIN-2-activated NK cells that have no MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX restriction or need for antigen stimulation. LAK cells are used for ADOPTIVE IMMUNOTHERAPY in cancer patients.
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
An interleukin-1 subtype that occurs as a membrane-bound pro-protein form that is cleaved by proteases to form a secreted mature form. Unlike INTERLEUKIN-1BETA both membrane-bound and secreted forms of interleukin-1alpha are biologically active.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-23 is comprised of a unique 19 kDa subunit and 40 kDa subunit that is shared with INTERLEUKIN-12. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells
An interleukin-1 receptor subtype that is involved in signaling cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The binding of this receptor to its ligand causes its favorable interaction with INTERLEUKIN-1 RECEPTOR ACCESSORY PROTEIN and the formation of an activated receptor complex.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A cytokine receptor that acts through the formation of oligomeric complexes of itself with a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-5. They are heterodimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-5 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT. Signaling from interleukin-5 receptors can occur through interaction of their cytoplasmic domains with SYNTENINS.
A long pro-domain caspase that has specificity for the precursor form of INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. It plays a role in INFLAMMATION by catalytically converting the inactive forms of CYTOKINES such as interleukin-1beta to their active, secreted form. Caspase 1 is referred as interleukin-1beta converting enzyme and is frequently abbreviated ICE.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-4. Stat6 has been shown to partner with NF-KAPPA B and CCAAT-ENHANCER-BINDING PROTEINS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of interleukin-4 responsive GENES.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-10. They exist as a tetramer of two alpha chains (INTERLEUKIN-10 RECEPTOR ALPHA CHAIN) and two beta chains (INTERLEUKIN-10 RECEPTOR, BETA CHAIN). Signaling from interleukin-10 receptors occurs through their interaction with JANUS KINASES.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-7. They are present on T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTE precursors. The receptors are heterodimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-5 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT.
High affinity receptors for INTERLEUKIN-3. They are found on early HEMATOPOIETIC PROGENITOR CELLS; progenitors of MYELOID CELLS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS. Interleukin-3 receptors are formed by the dimerization of the INTERLEUKIN-3 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT.
A cytokine subunit that is a component of both interleukin-12 and interleukin-23. It binds to the INTERLEUKIN-12 SUBUNIT P35 via a disulfide bond to form interleukin-12 and to INTERLEUKIN-23 SUBUNIT P19 to form interleukin-23.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
A subunit of the interleukin-18 receptor that is responsible of extracellular binding of IL-18.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-18 found on a variety of cell types including MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; NK CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; and SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS. They are formed as a heterodimer of alpha and beta subunits.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A multifunctional cytokine secreted by primarily by activated TH2 CELLS that may play a role as a regulator of allergic INFLAMMATION. It has been shown to enhance the growth and CELL DIFFERENTIATION of MAST CELLS, and can act on a variety of other immune cells.
Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-12. They exist as dimers of beta 1 and beta 2 subunits. Signaling from interleukin-12 receptors occurs through their interaction with JANUS KINASES.
Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Glycoproteins found in a subfraction of normal mammalian plasma and urine. They stimulate the proliferation of bone marrow cells in agar cultures and the formation of colonies of granulocytes and/or macrophages. The factors include INTERLEUKIN-3; (IL-3); GRANULOCYTE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (G-CSF); MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (M-CSF); and GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (GM-CSF).
Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-15. They are widely-distributed heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-15 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2, 15 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.
Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-17. Several subtypes of receptors have been found, each with its own in specificity for interleukin-17 subtype.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.
The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
A low affinity interleukin-11 receptor subunit that combines with the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130 to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-11. Multiple isoforms of this protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its MRNA.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
A cytokine produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that stimulates the migration of CD4-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES and monocytes. It has been reported to suppress HIV replication.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
An early local inflammatory reaction to insult or injury that consists of fever, an increase in inflammatory humoral factors, and an increased synthesis by hepatocytes of a number of proteins or glycoproteins usually found in the plasma.
An INTERLEUKIN-6 related cytokine that exhibits pleiotrophic effects on many physiological systems that involve cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Leukemia inhibitory factor binds to and acts through the lif receptor.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
An interleukin receptor subunit that was originally discovered as a component of the INTERLEUKIN 2 RECEPTOR. It was subsequently found to be a component of several other receptors including the INTERLEUKIN 4 RECEPTOR, the INTERLEUKIN 7 RECEPTOR, the INTERLEUKIN-9 RECEPTOR, the INTERLEUKIN-15 RECEPTOR, and the INTERLEUKIN-21 RECEPTOR. Mutations in the gene for the interleukin receptor common gamma chain have been associated with X-LINKED COMBINED IMMUNODEFICIENCY DISEASES.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.
A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.
Glycoprotein molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes, that react with molecules of antilymphocyte sera, lectins, and other agents which induce blast transformation of lymphocytes.
Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
A Janus kinase subtype that is predominantly expressed in hematopoietic cell. It is involved in signaling from a broad variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS including ones that utilize the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA SUBUNIT.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A cell surface receptor that specifically mediates the biological effects of INTERLEUKIN-9. The functional IL9 receptor signals through interaction of its cytoplasm domain with JANUS KINASES and requires the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA SUBUNIT for activity.
Proteins that are secreted into the blood in increased or decreased quantities by hepatocytes in response to trauma, inflammation, or disease. These proteins can serve as inhibitors or mediators of the inflammatory processes. Certain acute-phase proteins have been used to diagnose and follow the course of diseases or as tumor markers.
A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
An interleukin-1 receptor subtype that competes with the INTERLEUKIN-1 RECEPTOR TYPE I for binding to INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The interleukin-1 type II receptor appears to lack signal transduction capability. Therefore it may act as a "decoy" receptor that modulates the activity of its ligands. Both membrane-bound and soluble forms of the receptor have been identified.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
A cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory actions that depend upon the cellular microenvironment. Oncostatin M is a 28 kDa monomeric glycoprotein that is similar in structure to LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR. Its name derives from the the observation that it inhibited the growth of tumor cells and augmented the growth of normal fibroblasts.
A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Cell surface receptors that bind TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.

Chlamydial and human heat shock protein 60s activate human vascular endothelium, smooth muscle cells, and macrophages. (1/14219)

Both chlamydial and human heat shock protein 60s (HSP 60), which colocalize in human atheroma, may contribute to inflammation during atherogenesis. We tested the hypothesis that chlamydial or human HSP 60 activates human endothelial cells (ECs), smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and monocyte-derived macrophages. We examined the expression of adhesion molecules such as endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (E-selectin), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and the production of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6). We also tested whether either HSP 60 induces nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), which contributes to the gene expression of these molecules. Either chlamydial or human HSP 60 induced E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 expression on ECs similar to levels induced by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Each HSP 60 also significantly induced IL-6 production by ECs, SMCs, and macrophages to an extent similar to that induced by E. coli LPS, as assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In ECs, either HSP 60 triggered activation of NF-kappaB complexes containing p65 and p50 Rel proteins. Heat treatment abolished all these effects, but did not alter the ability of E. coli LPS to induce these functions. Chlamydial and human HSP 60s therefore activate human vascular cell functions relevant to atherogenesis and lesional complications. These findings help to elucidate the mechanisms by which a chronic asymptomatic chlamydial infection might contribute to the pathophysiology of atheroma.  (+info)

Interleukin-6 dependent induction of the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1 is lost during progression of human malignant melanoma. (2/14219)

Human melanoma cell lines derived from early stage primary tumors are particularly sensitive to growth arrest induced by interleukin-6 (IL-6). This response is lost in cell lines derived from advanced lesions, a phenomenon which may contribute to tumor aggressiveness. We sought to determine whether resistance to growth inhibition by IL-6 can be explained by oncogenic alterations in cell cycle regulators or relevant components of intracellular signaling. Our results show that IL-6 treatment of early stage melanoma cell lines caused G1 arrest, which could not be explained by changes in levels of G1 cyclins (D1, E), cdks (cdk4, cdk2) or by loss of cyclin/cdk complex formation. Instead, IL-6 caused a marked induction of the cdk inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1 in three different IL-6 sensitive cell lines, two of which also showed a marked accumulation of the cdk inhibitor p27Kip1. In contrast, IL-6 failed to induce p21WAF1/CIP1 transcript and did not increase p21WAF1/CIP1 or p27kip1 proteins in any of the resistant lines. In fact, of five IL-6 resistant cell lines, only two expressed detectable levels of p21WAF1/CIP1 mRNA and protein, while in three other lines, p21WAF1/CIP1 was undetectable. IL-6 dependent upregulation of p21WAF1/CIP1 was associated with binding of both STAT3 and STAT1 to the p21WAF1/CIP1 promoter. Surprisingly, however, IL-6 stimulated STAT binding to this promoter in both sensitive and resistant cell lines (with one exception), suggesting that gross deregulation of this event is not the unifying cause of the defect in p21WAF1/CIP1 induction in IL-6 resistant cells. In somatic cell hybrids of IL-6 sensitive and resistant cell lines, the resistant phenotype was dominant and IL-6 failed to induce p21WAF1/CIP1. Thus, our results suggest that in early stage human melanoma cells, IL-6 induced growth inhibition involves induction of p21WAF1/CIP1 which is lost in the course of tumor progression presumably as a result of a dominant oncogenic event.  (+info)

Effects of soybean oil emulsion and eicosapentaenoic acid on stress response and immune function after a severely stressful operation. (3/14219)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of soybean oil emulsion and oral or enteral administration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on stress response, cytokine production, protein metabolism, and immune function after surgery for esophageal cancer. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: It has been reported that safflower oil, rich in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-6 PUFA), affects the survival rate of septic animals and decreases the immune function. It has also been reported that the administration of fish oil, in contrast, reduces these stress responses and stress-induced immunosuppression. In humans, the effects of soybean oil emulsion and the administration of EPA on stress response and immune function after surgery have not been established. METHODS: Patients who underwent esophagectomy with thoracotomy were divided into three groups. Seven patients were fed by total parenteral nutrition (TPN) with soybean oil emulsion, which accounted for 20% of total calories. Seven patients were given oral or enteral administration of 1.8 g/day EPA, in addition to TPN with soybean oil emulsion. Nine patients served as the control group; these patients received fat-free TPN. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein, concanavalin A (con A)- or phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation, natural killer cell activity, and stress hormones were measured. RESULTS: The postoperative level of serum IL-6 was significantly higher in the group receiving soybean oil emulsion than in the fat-free group. Oral or enteral supplementation of EPA with soybean oil emulsion significantly reduced the level of serum IL-6 compared with the patients receiving soybean oil emulsion. Con A- or PHA-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation decreased significantly on postoperative day 7 in all groups of patients. The supplementation of EPA with soybean oil emulsion significantly improved the lymphocyte proliferation and natural killer cell activity on postoperative day 21 compared with the group receiving soybean oil emulsion. CONCLUSIONS: Soybean oil emulsion amplifies, and the supplementation of EPA reduces, the stress response and stress-induced immunosuppression.  (+info)

Alpha-toxin and gamma-toxin jointly promote Staphylococcus aureus virulence in murine septic arthritis. (4/14219)

Septic arthritis is a common and feared complication of staphylococcal infections. Staphylococcus aureus produces a number of potential virulence factors including certain adhesins and enterotoxins. In this study we have assessed the roles of cytolytic toxins in the development of septic arthritis by inoculating mice with S. aureus wild-type strain 8325-4 or isogenic mutants differing in the expression of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-toxin production patterns. Mice inoculated with either an alpha- or beta-toxin mutant showed degrees of inflammation, joint damage, and weight decrease similar to wild-type-inoculated mice. In contrast, mice inoculated with either double (alpha- and gamma-toxin-deficient)- or triple (alpha-, beta-, and gamma-toxin-deficient)-mutant S. aureus strains showed lower frequency and severity of arthritis, measured both clinically and histologically, than mice inoculated with the wild-type strain. We conclude that simultaneous production of alpha- and gamma-toxin is a virulence factor in S. aureus arthritis.  (+info)

Effects of lipopolysaccharide on production of interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 by bovine mammary epithelial cells in vitro. (5/14219)

This investigation was performed to determine the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on production of interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6 by bovine mammary epithelial cells in vitro. After confluence, the cells were stimulated with LPS (0.1, 1.0 or 10 micrograms/ml) for 4, 8, 24, and 48 hr. LPS increased production of both IL-1 and IL-6 production from mammary cells in a dose dependent manner. The expression of mRNA for IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) was demonstrated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in bovine mammary epithelial cells.  (+info)

Medroxyprogesterone acetate inhibits interleukin 6 secretion from KPL-4 human breast cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo: a possible mechanism of the anticachectic effect. (6/14219)

Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine. Recent reports suggest that circulating IL-6 secreted from tumour cells plays an important role in cancer-induced cachexia. Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) has been used as an endocrine therapeutic agent for patients with breast cancer. It has been suggested that MPA decreases serum IL-6 levels and preserves the bodyweight of patients with advanced breast cancer. However, the mechanisms of action responsible for the anticachectic effect of MPA have not been elucidated. Therefore, the effects of MPA on IL-6 secretion were studied both in vitro and in vivo using a human breast cancer cell line, KPL-4, which secretes IL-6 into medium and induces cachexia when injected into female nude mice. MPA (10-1000 nM) dose-dependently decreased basal IL-6 secretion into medium, and also suppressed tumour necrosis factor (TNF-alpha)-induced IL-6 secretion. Both basal and TNF-alpha-induced IL-6 mRNA levels were dose-dependently lowered by MPA. Moreover, intramuscular injections of MPA (100 mg kg(-1) twice a week) into nude mice bearing KPL-4 transplanted tumours significantly decreased serum IL-6 levels without affecting tumour growth and preserved the bodyweight of recipient mice. These findings suggest that suppression of IL-6 secretion from tumour cells, at least in part, causes the anticachectic effect of MPA.  (+info)

C5a receptor and interleukin-6 are expressed in tissue macrophages and stimulated keratinocytes but not in pulmonary and intestinal epithelial cells. (7/14219)

The anaphylatoxin derived from the fifth component of the human complement system (C5a) mediates its effects by binding to a single high-affinity receptor (C5aR/CD88), the expression of which has been traditionally thought to be restricted to granulocytes, monocytes, macrophages (Mphi), and cell lines of myeloid origin. Recent immunohistochemical data suggested that human bronchial and alveolar cells express C5aR as well. To reexamine the tissue distribution of human C5aR expression, transcription of the C5aR gene was investigated in normal and pathologically affected human lung (bronchopneumonia, tuberculosis), large intestine (acute appendicitis, Crohn's disease), and skin (pyogenic granuloma, lichen planus) using in situ hybridization. In contrast to previous evidence, C5aR mRNA could not be detected in pulmonary or intestinal epithelial cells, whereas keratinocytes in inflamed but not in normal skin revealed detectable levels of C5aR transcripts. Additionally, it could be documented that only migrating Mphi express C5aR mRNA, whereas sessile Mphi in normal tissues and epithelioid/multinucleated Mphi found in granulomatous lesions do not. Because C5a has been demonstrated to upregulate the expression of interleukin (IL)-6 in human monocytes, we also studied IL-6 gene transcription in parallel to the C5aR. IL-6 mRNA was detectable in many tissue Mphi. Surprisingly, a tight co-expression of C5aR and IL-6 mRNA was observed in keratinocytes from lesions of pyogenic granuloma and lichen planus. These results point to an as yet unknown role for C5a in the pathogenesis of skin disorders beyond its well-defined function as a chemoattractant and activator of leukocytes.  (+info)

Experimental axonal injury triggers interleukin-6 mRNA, protein synthesis and release into cerebrospinal fluid. (8/14219)

Diffuse axonal injury is a frequent pathologic sequel of head trauma, which, despite its devastating consequences for the patients, remains to be fully elucidated. Here we studied the release of interleukin-6 (IL-6) into CSF and serum, as well as the expression of IL-6 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein in a weight drop model of axonal injury in the rat. The IL-6 activity was elevated in CSF within 1 hour and peaked between 2 and 4 hours, reaching maximal values of 82,108 pg/mL, and returned to control values after 24 hours. In serum, the levels of IL-6 remained below increased CSF levels and did not exceed 393 pg/mL. In situ hybridization demonstrated augmented IL-6 mRNA expression in several regions including cortical pyramidal cells, neurons in thalamic nuclei, and macrophages in the basal subarachnoid spaces. A weak constitutive expression of IL-6 protein was shown by immunohistochemical study in control brain. After injury, IL-6 increased at 1 hour and remained elevated through the first 24 hours, returning to normal afterward. Most cells producing IL-6 were cortical, thalamic, and hippocampal neurons as confirmed by staining for the neuronal marker NeuN. These results extend our previous studies showing IL-6 production in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with severe head trauma and demonstrate that neurons are the main source of IL-6 after experimental axonal injury.  (+info)

Background and purpose: The inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) has profound actions in the brain causing neuronal cell death and exacerbating mind damage. barrier model was generated by co-culture of porcine mind microvascular endothelial cells with astrocytes. The mechanisms of transcellular transport of IL-1β and IL-1 receptor antagonist were characterized with this model using endocytosis inhibitors and IL-1 receptor-blocking antibodies. Important results: Transcellular IL-1β and IL-1 receptor DMH-1 antagonist transport was temperature-dependent and IL-1β was transferred with higher affinity than IL-1 receptor antagonist. IL-1β inhibited IL-1 receptor antagonist transport more potently than IL-1 receptor antagonist inhibited IL-1β transport. Transport of IL-1β and IL-1 receptor antagonist was not via adsorptive-mediated endocytosis although inhibition of microtubule assembly significantly attenuated transport of both cytokines. An antibody directed DMH-1 to the type II IL-1 ...
Dumoutier L, Van Roost E, Colau D, Renauld JC. Human interleukin-10-related T cell-derived inducible factor: molecular cloning and functional characterization as an hepatocyte-stimulating factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Aug 29;97(18):10144-9. Full Text. ...
Jen, H.-Y., Chuang, Y.-H., Lin, S.-C., Chiang, B.-L. and Yang, Y.-H. (2011), Increased serum interleukin-17 and peripheral Th17 cells in children with acute Henoch-Schönlein purpura. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, 22: 862-868. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-3038.2011.01198.x ...
CD4 and CD8 T cells are constantly exposed to inflammatory signals that influence diverse functional outcomes during infections and certain autoimmune disorders. One of the signals controlling CD4 and CD8 T cell functions is the inflammatory cytokine IL-12. Previous studies have focused on how IL-12 regulates CD4 and CD8 T cell functions when present during or after the activation of the T cell receptor (TCR). However, based on murine studies, we have only recently begun to appreciate that exposure to inflammatory signals, driven in part by IL-12, could alter how CD4 and CD8 T cells respond to TCR stimulation. Although intriguing, these studies have left several questions unanswered. Does IL-12 similarly regulate the function of human T cells? If so, what is the exact molecular mechanism by which IL-12 mediates these effects? To address these critical questions, we examined how IL-12 pretreatment altered human CD4 and CD8 T cell responses to subsequent TCR stimulation. In CHAPTER III, we examined how
NEX232 Interleukin-1 (IL-1) refers to a group of three polypeptides (interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra)), that play a central role in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses.. IL-1β is a pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in immune defense against infection. ...
Interleukin-8 (IL-8) belongs to the neutrophil-specific CXC family of chemokines. It is one of the initial cytokines released from a variety of cell types, including T cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts, in response to an inflammatory stimulus and acts by recruiting neutrophils, T-cells and basophils to the site of inflammation. Elevated Interleukin-8 levels are associated with the onset of a variety of disease states ...
Patel KK, Vicencio AG, Du Z, Tsirilakis K, Salva PS, Webley WC. 2010. Infectious Chlamydia pneumoniae is associated with elevated interleukin-8 and airway neutrophilia in children with refractory asthma.. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 29(12):1093-8. ...
Interleukin-6 (IL-6), 1 mg. Interleukin-6 is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine primarily produced by activated T cells and an assortment of other cells including endothelial cells and macrophages.
Interleukin-6 (IL-6), 2 µg. Interleukin-6 is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine primarily produced by activated T cells and an assortment of other cells including endothelial cells and macrophages.
When your immune system detects a threat, your white blood cells release interleukin-6. Once secreted, IL-6 triggers what is known as the inflammatory cascade.
Interleukin-16: A cytokine produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that stimulates the migration of CD4-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES and monocytes. It has been reported to suppress HIV replication.
人IL-17 ELISA试剂盒(Interleukin-17) ELISA试剂盒datasheet (ab100556).Abcam抗体、ELISA、激动剂拮抗剂、表观遗传试剂、蛋白多肽,使用效果保证,中国70%以上现货。
人IL-23 ELISA试剂盒(Interleukin-23) ELISA试剂盒datasheet (ab64708).Abcam抗体、ELISA、激动剂拮抗剂、表观遗传试剂、蛋白多肽,使用效果保证,中国70%以上现货。
The Interleukin-1 family (IL-1 family) is a group of 11 cytokines, which plays a central role in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses to infections or sterile insults. Rec. E. coli interleukin-1 for cell culture or antibody production. ...
产品名称:MouseIL-21ELISPOTReady-SET-Go规格:10plates货号:88-7210-88厂商:eBioscience产品介绍:Alsoknownas:Interleukin-21,IL21ReactivityMouseComponentsCaptureAntibody.Pre-titrated,FunctionalGrade(lowendotoxin)purifieda
产品名称:HumanIL-5ELISAReady-SET-Go规格:10plates货号:88-7056-88厂商:eBioscience产品介绍:Alsoknownas:Interleukin-5ReactivityHumanSensitivity4pg/mLStandardCurveRange4-500pg/mLComponentsCaptureAntibody.Pre-titrated,pu
Aberrant monocyte mediator production is pivotal in the development of posttrauma immunosuppression. We have previously shown that immunodepressed trauma patients monocytes produce elevated interleukin-6, suggesting their in vivo preactivation. This study confirms that preactivated patients Mo produce greater levels of IL-6 than normals Mo to the same in the in vitro Fc gamma RI stimulation. We also demonstrate the capacity of interleukin-4 to downregulate the elevated interleukin-6 production of trauma patients in vivo preactivated monocytes. Monocyte interleukin-6 downregulation by interleukin-4 is dose dependent and occurs whether Fc gamma RI cross-linking, muramyl dipeptide, indomethacin plus muramyl dipeptide, or interferon-gamma plus muramyl dipeptide is the interleukin-6 inducing stimulus. Furthermore, interleukin-4-dependent downregulation of monocyte interleukin-6 expression is confirmed at both the supernatant and the mRNA levels. Simultaneous downregulation of posttrauma elevated
Plasma interleukin-38 in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Int Immunopharmacol. 2018 Sep 26;65:1-7 Authors: Xu WD, Su LC, He CS, Huang AF Abstract Previous studies have indicated that interleukin-38 (IL-38) is involved in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The present study aims to assess plasma levels of IL-38 in RA and discuss the potential of IL-38 as a biomarker for RA. Protein...
Accelerated increase in serum interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) starts 6 years before diagnosis of type 2 diabetes: Whitehall II prospective cohort ...
A human IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against interleukin-1 alpha (IL1a) with potential A human IgG1 monoclonal antibody targeting the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 alpha (IL1a) with potential antineoplastic, anti-cachectic and anti-angiogenic activities. Anti-IL1a monoclonal antibody MABp1 targets and binds to IL1a and prevents IL1a activity. This prevents IL1a-mediated tumorigenesis and angiogenesis. In addition, MABp1 abrogates IL1a-mediated cachexia. IL1a, an inflammatory mediator expressed on monocytes, platelets and overexpressed by certain tumors, plays a key role in the promotion of tumor cell growth, metastasis and invasion. In addition, IL1a stimulates metabolic activity in the central nervous system.
Link between inflammation and overexpression of CCL2 suggests potential of anti-inflammatory medications as a breast cancer preventive in some women.
An interleukin-13 receptor subunit that is closely-related to the INTERLEUKIN-13 RECEPTOR ALPHA1 SUBUNIT. The receptor is found as a monomeric protein and has been considered to be a decoy receptor for interleukin-13 due the fact that it lacks cytoplasmic signaling domains.
The Interleukin-6 ELISA Test Kit is now available. The kit is for human serum or plasma. Research use only. Interleukin-6 ELISA. ...
Human CellExp IL-27, human recombinant protein, p28, IL30, IL-27, IL-27A, IL27p28, Interleukin-27, EBI3 validated in (PBV10859r-10), Abgent
The cytokine IL-10 is a key anti-inflammatory mediator ensuring protection of a host from over-exuberant responses to pathogens and microbiota, while playing important roles in other settings as sterile wound healing, autoimmunity, cancer, and homeostasis. Here we discuss our current understanding of the regulation of IL-10 production and of the molecular pathways associated with IL-10 responses. In addition to IL-10s classic inhibitory effects on myeloid cells, we also describe the nonclassic roles attributed to this pleiotropic cytokine, including how IL-10 regulates basic processes of neural and adipose cells and how it promotes CD8 T cell activation, as well as epithelial repair. We further discuss its therapeutic potential in the context of different diseases and the outstanding questions that may help develop an effective application of IL-10 in diverse clinical settings. ...
These findings suggest that soluble products from renal tumors may suppress T-cell responses by blocking both IL-2 production and normal IL-2 receptor signaling.
Read Interleukin-10 in Health and Disease by with Rakuten Kobo. This volume provides a set of reviews dedicated to the biology of Interleukin (IL)-10. It includes chapters on its impor...
Interleukin-7 (IL-7) signaling is essential for the development and peripheral maintenance of several blood cell types. Deficiencies in IL-7 or either component...
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a small quaternary structure|monomeric protein 133 amino acid|amino acids in length. It is a very important cytokine in the immu...
Interleukin-19 in Breast Cancer. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Exclusive to Global Medical Discovery (new Significance Statement and new figure). Interleukin-1 deficiency prolongs ovarian lifespan in mice.
Receptors, Interleukin-4, Type I information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and health issues.
A multifunctional cytokine secreted by primarily by activated TH2 CELLS that may play a role as a regulator of allergic INFLAMMATION. It has been shown to enhance the growth and CELL DIFFERENTIATION of MAST CELLS, and can act on a variety of other immune cells ...
Presky DH, Yang H, Minetti LJ, Chua AO, Nabavi N, Wu CY, Gately MK, Gubler U (1996). A functional interleukin 12 receptor complex is composed of two beta-type cytokine receptor subunits. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93 (24): 14002-14007. doi:10.1073/pnas.93.24.14002. PMC 19484. PMID 8943050 ...
Interleukins are naturally occurring proteins that help the bodys immune system. The different types of interleukins all serve to...
Yang K et al. (2005) Human TLR-7-, -8-, and -9-mediated induction of IFN-alpha/beta and -lambda Is IRAK-4 dependent and redundant for protective immunity to viruses.. ...
Your trusted lab partner for Interleukin-8 (IL-8) Serum testing, Viracor Eurofins delivers your results faster, when it matters most.
As in the original Irish, Dáil Éireann is typically abbreviated to Dáil, which, unlike the former, is preceded by the definite article. Thus one says: a member of Dáil Éireann; but: a member of the Dáil.. ...
Proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6, IL-8, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) have been detected in tumor specimens and primary cell cultures from patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. IL-1α has been reported to play an important role in inducing the expression of cytokines IL-6, IL-8, and GM-CSF during inflammation. We examined whether these cytokines are expressed together in five primary and seven established UM-SCC cell lines, and we also examined the effects of IL-1α, IL-1 receptor antagonist or neutralizing antibody (Ab) upon expression of this repertoire of proinflammatory cytokines in established UM-SCC lines. Secretion of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8, and GM-CSF was detected by ELISA in both the primary and established UM-SCC lines. Constitutive expression of specific mRNAs for these cytokines was confirmed in the UM-SCC lines by reverse transcriptase-PCR and Northern blot analysis. Addition of recombinant IL ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Surge of serum interleukin-2 level in a Japanese patient with cytarabine syndrome. AU - Iida, Yasunori. AU - Yasudo, Hiroki. AU - Fukano, Reiji. AU - Azuma, Yoshihiro. AU - Ichimura, Takuya. AU - Ohga, Shouichi. AU - Hasegawa, Shunji. PY - 2020/3/1. Y1 - 2020/3/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85076929700&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85076929700&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1002/pbc.28131. DO - 10.1002/pbc.28131. M3 - Letter. C2 - 31850653. AN - SCOPUS:85076929700. VL - 67. JO - Pediatric Blood and Cancer. JF - Pediatric Blood and Cancer. SN - 1545-5009. IS - 3. M1 - e28131. ER - ...
Both Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) are substances naturally produced by the bodys immune system. Evidence suggests that TNF-alpha production may be excessive or inappropriate in HIV-infected patients. Elevated TNF-alpha levels can result in increased IL-6 production and possibly increased HIV replication. TNFR:Fc is a modification of a natural substance that binds to TNF-alpha and neutralizes its activity. It is postulated that TNFR:Fc may result in decreased activity of TNF-alpha and lower IL-6 levels. HIV-infected patients who receive Interleukin-2 (IL-2) have been shown to have higher TNF-alpha and IL-6 levels than those who do not receive IL-2. It is thought that these higher levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 may contribute to some of the flu-like symptoms experienced by patients receiving IL-2. By decreasing the amount of IL-6 in the body and by decreasing the action of TNF-alpha in the body, TNFR:Fc may have a role in the treatment of HIV disease or in ...
Both Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) are substances naturally produced by the bodys immune system. Evidence suggests that TNF-alpha production may be excessive or inappropriate in HIV-infected patients. Elevated TNF-alpha levels can result in increased IL-6 production and possibly increased HIV replication. TNFR:Fc is a modification of a natural substance that binds to TNF-alpha and neutralizes its activity. It is postulated that TNFR:Fc may result in decreased activity of TNF-alpha and lower IL-6 levels. HIV-infected patients who receive Interleukin-2 (IL-2) have been shown to have higher TNF-alpha and IL-6 levels than those who do not receive IL-2. It is thought that these higher levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 may contribute to some of the flu-like symptoms experienced by patients receiving IL-2. By decreasing the amount of IL-6 in the body and by decreasing the action of TNF-alpha in the body, TNFR:Fc may have a role in the treatment of HIV disease or in ...
I cannot really say much more than the official ESC statement, he commented. Certainly the Congress will not be cancelled, and we plan to be going full speed in Barcelona next Saturday. I really hope that everybody will come and that we will have a great meeting.. In fact, with 2017s line-up of Hot Line studies plus special programming celebrating 40 years of PCI, the Congress had already been shaping up to be one of the biggest in years.. Kristensen offered TCTMD a few of his predictions for potential blockbusters, some of which are already on the radars of conference-goers following the release of their topline results earlier in the year.. Potential Game-Changers. CANTOS is one of Kristensens top picks. The trial, which enrolled over 10,000 patients with prior MI and elevated level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), is testing canakinumab (Ilaris; Novartis), a drug which inhibits the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β, for the prevention of MACE. Preliminary results, ...
Interleukin-10 also identified as cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (CSIF) that are capable of reducing synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokine such as TNF alpha, IFN gamma ,IL-2 and IL-3 by cell macrophages and regulatory T-cells yet it stimulates certain T-cells and mast cells as well as enhances the survival of B cell and antibody production. Interleukin-10 contains 5 exons and a span of 5.2 kb of genomic DNA that are mainly formed by monocytes and lymphocytes. The expression of IL-10 is nominal on unmotivated tissues that require stimulating factor by commensal micro-flora where it strongly regulated by transcriptional and post-transcriptional point. It also involved in regulation of JAK-STAT signaling pathway and able to block NK-kB activity. Interleukin-10 intervene immunostimulatory that helps to eradicate infectious and noninfectious materials with limited inflammation. It is also a prevailing tool of the central nervous system to avoid hyper inflammatory processes via activation of ...
Cells sense and respond to stimuli through signal transduction pathways, which mediate proliferation, differentiation, and survival. The cytokines interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) are key regulators of the immune system, influencing the expansion and differentiation of T cells. Both synergistic and antagonistic effects of IL-2 and -4 co-stimulation have been shown; the antagonism may arise from the sharing of a common receptor subunit. We have sought to characterize IL-2 and IL-4 signaling at the level of intracellular pathways activated by these receptors. IL-2 receptors are known to activate the Ras/Erk and phosphoinositide (PI) 3-kinase pathways as well as the STAT5 transcription factor. IL-4 is able to activate PI 3-kinase/Akt as well as STAT6, though not Ras/Erk.. We found that IL-4 initially antagonizes, and later synergizes with, IL-2-stimulated HT-2 cell proliferation; a murine T cell line. At a signaling level, IL-4 abates IL-2-stimulated activation levels of Akt, Erk and ...
Interleukin-1 Receptors: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-1. Included under this heading are signaling receptors, non-signaling receptors and accessory proteins required for receptor signaling. Signaling from interleukin-1 receptors occurs via interaction with SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as MYELOID DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 88.
Proinflammatory cytokines are produced predominantly by activated macrophages and are involved in the up-regulation of inflammatory reactions. IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α are the typical proinflammatory cytokines.
Brain tumor news: Cytotoxicity in glioma cells due to interleukin-12 and interleukin-18-stimulated macrophages mediated by interferon-gamma-regulated nitric oxide.
Results Baseline levels of IL-20 were significantly higher in RA patients compared to healthy individuals [73.54 (38.69-172.0)vs. 27.55 (15.42-72.92) pg/ml, p , 0.0024] and decreased after 16 weeks of RTX therapy [from 73.54 (38.69-172.0) to 61.94 (31.48-103.8) pg/ml, p = 0.040]. When analysed separately according to presence of autoantibodies, the decrease in IL-20 after RTX therapy was significant only in seropositive (RF+ and ACPA+, N = 20) patients [from 75.11 (44.70-180.9) to 61.94 (31.48-103.8), p = 0.043], but not in seronegative patients [from 51.53 (7.25-107.8) to 63.35 (23.30-102.9), p = 0.625]. Moreover, baseline IL-20 levels significantly correlated with DAS28 (r = 0.491, p = 0.008), CRP (r = 0.507, p = 0.006), ESR (r = 0.422, p = 0.025) and SJC (r = 0.376, p = 0.049). ...
Rabbit anti Mouse Interleukin-22 antibody recognizes mouse interleukin-22 (IL-22), a regulatory cytokine and member of the IL-10 family, s
Product Name: Mouse mAb anti- human Interleukin-2 (IL-2), Clone 6F11Collection: AntibodySub Category: Monoclonal AntibodyImmunogen: Recombinant human IL-2Host
Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a pleiotropic cytokine that controls inflammatory processes by suppressing the production of proinflammatory cytokines that are known to be transcriptionally regulated by nuclear factor-B (NF-B). Although still controversial, IL-10 has been shown to inhibit NF-B activation through a process that involves proteolytic degradation of inhibitory subunit IB-. What is not known
Background Production of interferon (IFN)-gamma is key to efficient anti-tumor immunity. The present study was set out to investigate effects of IFNgamma on the release of the potent pro-angiogenic mediator IL-8 by human A549 lung carcinoma cells. Methods A549 cells were cultured and stimulated with interleukin (IL)-1beta alone or in combination with IFNgamma. IL-8 production by these cells was analyzed with enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA). mRNA-expression was analyzed by real-time PCR and RNase protection assay (RPA), respectively. Expression of inhibitor-kappaBalpha, cellular IL-8, and cyclooxygenase-2 was analyzed by Western blot analysis. Results Here we demonstrate that IFNgamma efficiently reduced IL-8 secretion under the influence of IL-1beta. Surprisingly, real-time PCR analysis and RPA revealed that the inhibitory effect of IFNgamma on IL-8 was not associated with significant changes in mRNA levels. These observations concurred with lack of a modulatory activity of IFNgamma ...
Product Name: Mouse mAb anti- human Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Clone 9D8Collection: AntibodySub Category: Monoclonal AntibodyImmunogen: Purified recombinant human
JS Friedland, Y Suputtamongkol, DG Remick, W Chaowagul, NJ White, NJ White, GE Griffin; Prolonged Elevation of Interleukin (IL) -8 and IL-6 Plasma Concentrations and Leucocyte mRNA in Septicaemic and Localised Gram Negative Infection. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 March 1992; 82 (s26): 10P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs082010Pa. Download citation file:. ...
Interleukin-17A (IL-17A), also known as CTLA-8, is a pro-inflammatory cytokine member of a six-species family of proteins (IL-17A-17F).
The Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer perspective on regulation of interleukin-6 signaling in COVID-19-related systemic inflammatory response ...
Cytokines are a family of proteins that play important roles in immune cell communication. The best-known example is interleukin-2 (IL-2), which is ...
RATIONALE: Interleukin-2 may stimulate a persons white blood cells to kill tumor cells. Combining white blood cells, which have been activated by a vac
Fisher Scientific - Elicit a range of responses from many cell types Shop Corning™ Interleukin-2 (IL-2), Human Recombinant at Fishersci.co.uk
Combining with interleukin-10 and transmitting the signal from one side of the membrane to the other to initiate a change in cell activity.
IL1F5 Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated, Polypeptide chain containing 155 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 17kDa.
The zebrafish possesses all of the interleukin 2 receptor family except interleukin 2 receptor alpha and removal of the common signalling component interleukin 2 receptor gamma causes a human like severe combined immunodeficiency ...
Several studies have shown a heightened inflammatory state in frail older adults, marked by high serum levels of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein and an increased number of circulating leukocytes. Activation of monocytes ...
Rekombinantes Ratten IL-13, in E.Coli exprimiert, ist ein einzelnes, nichtglykosyliertes Peptid aus 111 Aminosäuren mit der Gesamtmasse von 12192 Dal…
यह सामग्री क्रियेटिव कॉमन्स ऍट्रीब्यूशन/शेयर-अलाइक लाइसेंस के तहत उपलब्ध है; अन्य शर्ते लागू हो सकती हैं। विस्तार से जानकारी हेतु देखें उपयोग की शर्तें ...
Interleukins *IL-1- Cofactor for IL-3 and IL-6. Activates T cells. ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... 6: CD011741. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD011741.pub2. ISSN 1469-493X. PMC 6481523. PMID 28594443.. ... 309 (6): H1029-38. doi:10.1152/ajpheart.00527.2015. PMC 4747916. PMID 26232236.. ...
It binds to interleukin-6. Siltuximab has been investigated for the treatment of neoplastic diseases: metastatic renal cell ... October 2010). "A phase I/II study of siltuximab (CNTO 328), an anti-interleukin-6 monoclonal antibody, in metastatic renal ... Siltuximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to interleukin-6 (IL-6), preventing binding to soluble and membrane ... Kampan NC, Xiang SD, McNally OM, Stephens AN, Quinn MA, Plebanski M (2018). "Immunotherapeutic Interleukin-6 or Interleukin-6 ...
It binds to interleukin 6. Hence acting as an Anti-IL-6 therapeutic aimed at inflammatory disease e.g. rheumatoid arthritis (RA ... Walsh N (6 August 2014). "RheumShorts: IL-6 and RA, Life and Death, Surgery in Lupus". Genovese MC, Fleischmann R, Furst D, ...
Interleukin 6 mediates activation of STAT3. The high level of STAT3 was described in isolated CSCs from liver, bone, cervical ... The activation of NFκB leads to increase not only in production of IL-6, TNF-α and SDF-1 but also in delivery of growth factors ... The main roles have molecules (IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, NFκB, TGF-β, HIF-1α) which can regulate both processes through regulation of ... Generally IL-6 contributes a survival advantage to local stem cells and thus facilitates tumorigenesis. SDF-1α secreted from ...
The inflammatory mediators are: Interleukin 1 beta, Interleukin 6, Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), MMP1, MMP2, MMP9, ... Mutations in interleukin 6 may be protective.[citation needed]. Recently, several genetic loci have been identified as relevant ... A ruptured microaneurysm may cause an intracerebral hemorrhage, presenting as a focal neurological deficit.[6] ... 6] Symptoms of a subarachnoid hemorrhage differ depending on the site and size of the aneurysm.[6] Symptoms of a ruptured ...
Taga T, Hibi M, Hirata Y, Yamasaki K, Yasukawa K, Matsuda T, Hirano T, Kishimoto T (1989). "Interleukin-6 triggers the ... Kishimoto T, Akira S, Narazaki M, Taga T (1995). "Interleukin-6 family of cytokines and gp130". Blood. 86 (4): 1243-1254. doi: ... Haan C, Heinrich PC, Behrmann I (January 2002). "Structural requirements of the interleukin-6 signal transducer gp130 for its ... Barton VA, Hudson KR, Heath JK (1999). "Identification of three distinct receptor binding sites of murine interleukin-11". J. ...
Galiellalactone is additionally a highly selective and potent inhibitor of interleukin-6 (IL-6) signaling in HepG2 cells. IL-6 ... Weidler M, Rether J, Anka T, Erkel G (2000). "Inhibition of interleukin-6 signaling by galiellalactone". FEBS Letters. 48 (1): ... ISBN 978-0-8131-9039-6. Kibby G. (1994). An Illustrated Guide to Mushrooms and Other Fungi of North America. Stamford, ... to interfere with the IL-6 signaling cascade that leads to the expression of genes involved in disease. "Galiella rufa (Schwein ...
Whisman, Mark A.; Sbarra, David A. (2012). "Marital adjustment and interleukin-6 (IL-6)". Journal of Family Psychology. 26 (2 ... 65 (5-6): 297-312. doi:10.1007/s11199-011-9968-6. Holt-Lunstad, Julianne; Smith, Timothy B.; Layton, J. Bradley (2010). Brayne ... 24 (6): 811-38. doi:10.1177/0192513X03254519. Thoits, P. A. (2011). "Mechanisms Linking Social Ties and Support to Physical and ... 47 (6): 478-86. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2009.02.012. PMC 2688957. PMID 19286167. Heyman, Richard E. (2001). "Observation of couple ...
The inflammatory mediators are: interleukin 1 beta, interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), MMP1, MMP2, MMP9, ... Mutations in interleukin 6 may be protective.[citation needed]. Recently, several genetic loci have been identified as relevant ... 34 (6): 1398-1403. doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000073841.88563.E9. PMID 12775880. Campi A, Ramzi N, Molyneux AJ, Summers PE, Kerr RS, ... 62 (6): 1187-202, discussion 1202-03. doi:10.1227/01.neu.0000333291.67362.0b. PMID 18824986. Mitchell P, Kerr R, Mendelow AD, ...
... interleukin-8, and GM-CSF. These activities are G2A-dependent. It is suggested that 9-HODE acts in human skin to block the ... interleukin-6 and keratinocyte chemoattractant, in in vivo studies. G2A is also involved in blood-borne lysophosphatidylcholine ... 6 (9): 2840-56. doi:10.3390/toxins6092840. PMC 4179163. PMID 25251539. Frasch SC, Fernandez-Boyanapalli RF, Berry KZ, Leslie CC ... up-regulate the expression of CCR9 and CXCR4 and abrogate the release of IL-6 in human monocytes". Toxins. ...
It (OPR-003) targets (and blocks) Interleukin-6. It has undergone a number of early stage clinical trails, e.g. for lymphoma ... "WHO Drug Information" (PDF). p11:immunoglobulin G1, anti-(human interleukin 6) (mouse monoclonal B-E8 heavy chain), disulfide ... December 2009). "A high-affinity fully human anti-IL-6 mAb, 1339, for the treatment of multiple myeloma". Clinical Cancer ... It was used as a template to develop a high-affinity, antagonist, fully human anti-IL-6 mAb 1339. " ...
... and Interleukin-10 (IL-10), as well as TNF-alpha and Interleukin-6 (IL-6). Antidepressants have also been shown to suppress TH1 ... Hong, Chen-Jee; Yu, Younger W.-Y.; Chen, Tai-Jui; Tsai, Shih-Jen (2005). "Interleukin-6 Genetic Polymorphism and Chinese Major ... "Effects of serotonin and serotonergic agonists and antagonists on the production of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-6 ... "Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Antidepressants Through Suppression of the Interferon-γ/Interleukin-10 Production Ratio". Journal ...
Yao L, Pan J, Setiadi H, Patel KD, McEver RP (July 1996). "Interleukin 4 or oncostatin M induces a prolonged increase in P- ... Heinrich PC, Horn F, Graeve L, Dittrich E, Kerr I, Müller-Newen G, Grötzinger J, Wollmer A (1998). "Interleukin-6 and related ... OSM is a pleiotropic cytokine that belongs to the interleukin 6 group of cytokines. Of these cytokines it most closely ... Taga T, Kishimoto T (1997). "Gp130 and the interleukin-6 family of cytokines". Annu. Rev. Immunol. 15: 797-819. doi:10.1146/ ...
During both chronic and acute phase sleep deprivation there are increases in the pro-inflammatory cytokine Interleukin-6 (IL-6 ... Observations have been made that there is an association between stress, sleep and Interleukin-6 proposing a possible mechanism ... Rohleder, Nicolas; Aringer, Martin; Boentert, Matthias (2012). "Role of interleukin-6 in stress, sleep, and fatigue". Annals of ... After periods of long sleep deprivation the first post-deprivation sleep shows a marked drop in IL-6 and an increase in slow ...
Rohleder N, Aringer M, Boentert M (July 2012). "Role of interleukin-6 in stress, sleep, and fatigue". Annals of the New York ... Most people with different schedules than the ordinary one (from 8 AM to 6 PM) might have these symptoms but the difference is ... Partial and total sleep deprivation has been linked to an increase of pro-inflammatory markers, such as IL-6, and a decrease in ... 16 (6): 547-559. doi:10.1016/j.smrv.2012.01.005. ISSN 1087-0792. PMID 22401983. Goel, Namni; Rao, Hengyi; Durmer, Jeffrey; ...
In this case, some interleukins bind to a specific receptor, which leads to activation of MAPK/ERK pathway. Consequently, the ... "Interleukin-6 Mediates Angiotensinogen Gene Expression during Liver Regeneration". PLOS ONE. 8 (7): e67868. Bibcode:2013PLoSO ... 24 (6): 290-300. doi:10.1016/j.tem.2013.02.001. PMC 3669669. PMID 23499155. Ham, J; Evans, BA (2012). "An emerging role for ... 6 (1): 60-71. PMC 2853051. PMID 20390049. Geldziler, BD; Marcello, MR; Shakes, D. C.; Singson, A (2011). The genetics and cell ...
Some symptoms of myxoma may be associated with the release of interleukin 6 (IL-6) by the myxoma. High levels of IL-6 may be ... Seino Y, Ikeda U, Shimada K (1993). "Increased expression of interleukin 6 mRNA in cardiac myxomas". Br Heart J. 69 (6): 565-7 ... Jourdan M, Bataille R, Seguin J, Zhang XG, Chaptal PA, Klein B (1990). "Constitutive production of interleukin-6 and ... 1993). "Cardiac myxoma metastasized to the brain: potential role of endogenous interleukin-6". Cardiology. 83 (3): 208-11. doi: ...
Heinrich PC, Behrmann I, Haan S, Hermanns HM, Müller-Newen G, Schaper F (August 2003). "Principles of interleukin (IL)-6-type ... Hermanns HM, Radtke S, Schaper F, Heinrich PC, Behrmann I (December 2000). "Non-redundant signal transduction of interleukin-6- ... This protein heterodimerizes with interleukin 6 signal transducer to form the type II oncostatin M receptor and with ... interleukin 31 receptor A to form the interleukin 31 receptor, and thus transduces oncostatin M and interleukin 31 induced ...
Molecules called pro-inflammatory cytokines, which include interleukin-1 (IL-1), Interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), ... and saw how interleukin-1 was released directly into the brain. Interleukin-1 is the same cytokine released when a macrophage ... Besedovsky, H.; del Rey, A.; Sorkin, E.; Dinarello, C. A. (1986-08-08). "Immunoregulatory feedback between interleukin-1 and ... Papanicolaou DA, Wilder RL, Manolagas SC, Chrousos GP (1998). "The pathophysiologic roles of interleukin-6 in human disease". ...
Interleukin (IL-6) is a signaling protein that has been known to be present during an immune response. The use of the sandwich ... Interleukin (IL-6) can also be bioimmobilized on biosensors. The ability to observe these changes in IL-6 levels is important ... The increase in interleukin levels is directly proportional to the increased death rate in breast cancer patients. PCR paired ... The coupling of site directed mutagenesis and PCR are being utilized to reduce interleukin-6 activity in cancerous cells. The ...
Interleukin 6 and its receptor were discovered and cloned at Osaka University, Japan, by Tadamitsu Kishimoto in the 1980s. In ... September 2011). "Interleukin-6 as a therapeutic target in human ovarian cancer". Clinical Cancer Research. 17 (18): 6083-96. ... It is a humanized monoclonal antibody against the interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R). Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a cytokine that plays ... Ayzenberg I, Kleiter I, Schröder A, Hellwig K, Chan A, Yamamura T, Gold R (March 2013). "Interleukin 6 receptor blockade in ...
Buchan, G., Barrett, K., Turner, M., Chantry, D., Maini, R. N., and Feldmann, M. (1988). "Interleukin 1 and tumour necrosis ... Turner, M., Chantry, D., Buchan, G., Barrett, K., and Feldmann, M. (1989). "Regulation of expression of human interleukin 1 ... "Excessive production of interleukin 6 (BSF-2) in rheumatoid arthritis." Eur. J. Immunol. 18:1797-1801. ... 18(6):683-693. PMID 28394372 Galloway, A., Saveliev, A., Łukasiak, S., Hodson, D.J., Bolland, D., Balmanno, K., Ahlfors, H., ...
Tosato, G; Jones, Kd (March 1990). "Interleukin-1 induces interleukin-6 production in peripheral blood monocytes". Blood. 75 (6 ... Taga, K; Mostowski, H; Tosato, G (June 1993). "Human interleukin-10 can directly inhibit T-cell growth". Blood. 81 (11): 2964- ... Sgadari, C; Angiolillo, Al; Tosato, G (May 1996). "Inhibition of angiogenesis by interleukin-12 is mediated by the interferon- ...
Interleukin-6 Inhibitor Sirukumab (CNTO 136) Phase 2 Data Show Promise in the Treatment of Active Rheumatoid Arthritis A Study ... It acts against the proinflammatory cytokine Interleukin 6 (IL-6). Sirukumab is currently under development by Johnson & ... Dec 2015 IL-6 in RA: What Predicts Non-Progression? - High-risk patients showed most benefit with sirukumab. Jan 2017 ... Anti-IL-6 List of investigational antidepressants "Statement On A Nonproprietary Name Adopted By The USAN Council: Sirukumab" ( ...
... is a cytokine belonging to the interleukin-6 (IL6) family. It is a secreted protein, found predominantly in lymph nodes ... It has been implicated in the induction of IL-1 (via induction of corticosterone and IL-6) and serum amyloid A, and in B cell ... 1999). "Novel neurotrophin-1/B cell-stimulating factor-3: a cytokine of the IL-6 family". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96 (20 ... It induces tyrosine phosphorylation of the IL-6 receptor common subunit glycoprotein 130 (gp130), leukemia inhibitory factor ...
Heinrich PC, Behrmann I, Haan S, Hermanns HM, Müller-Newen G, Schaper F (August 2003). "Principles of interleukin (IL)-6-type ... 35 (Pt 6): 1405-8. doi:10.1042/BST0351405. PMID 18031232. Okubo S, Hara F, Tsuchida Y, Shimotakahara S, Suzuki S, Hatanaka H, ... 22 (6): 783-94. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2006.05.016. PMID 16793547. Munarriz E, Barcaroli D, Stephanou A, Townsend PA, Maisse C, ... 103 (20): 1552-6. doi:10.1093/jnci/djr326. PMID 21862729. Amoyel M, Anderson AM, Bach EA (April 2014). "JAK/STAT pathway ...
This receptor is most closely related to the interleukin-6 receptor. This receptor possesses an unusual attachment to the cell ... 12 (6): 224. doi:10.1186/gb-2011-12-6-224. PMC 3218837. PMID 21722353. Ciliary+Neurotrophic+Factor+Receptor+alpha+Subunit at ...
Pedersen BK, Febbraio MA (October 2008). "Muscle as an endocrine organ: focus on muscle-derived interleukin-6". Physiological ... Bowen, R. (August 6, 2000) Placental Hormones. Colorado State University Nosek, Thomas M. "Section 5/5ch9/s5ch9_13". Essentials ... 45 (6): 505-12. doi:10.1016/0022-4804(88)90137-0. PMID 3184927. Hormonal Therapy Massaro D, Massaro GD (2004). "Estrogen ... 2003). "Searching for the exercise factor: is IL-6 a candidate?". Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility. 24 (2-3): 113-9 ...
September 2003). "Interleukin-6, CD45 and the src-kinases in myeloma cell proliferation". Leukemia & Lymphoma. 44 (9): 1477-81 ... This mouse, dubbed the CD45.1STEM mouse, differs from the C57Bl/6 strain by a single base pair resulting in a single amino acid ... 6 (6): 985-992. doi:10.1016/j.stemcr.2016.04.010. ISSN 2213-6711. PMC 4911492. PMID 27185283. "002014 - B6.SJL-Ptprc Pepc/BoyJ ... Exons 4, 5, and 6 (corresponding to protein regions A, B, and C) are alternatively spliced to generate up to eight different ...
Cui X, Rouhani FN, Hawari F, Levine SJ (2003). "An Aminopeptidase, ARTS-1, Is Required for Interleukin-6 Receptor Shedding". ...
Identification of a coordinate regulator of interleukins 4, 13, and 5 by cross-species sequence comparisons.. Science. 2000, ... 人們之所以能夠出辨認哪些基因序列是調控序列,是因為生物
Instead, plasma cells are identified through flow cytometry by their additional expression of CD138, CD78, the Interleukin-6 ... ISBN 0-471-14295-6. PMID 18770841.. *^ Frigyesi I (Jan 2014). "Robust isolation of malignant plasma cells in multiple myeloma ... 6] For example, plasma cells will likely secrete IgG3 antibodies if they matured in the presence of the cytokine interferon- ... 6] The T cell-dependent processes are subdivided into primary and secondary responses: a primary response (meaning that the T ...
Interleukin-10 determines viral clearance or persistence in vivo. Nature Medicine. November 2006, 12 (11): 1301-9. PMC 2535582 ... Modulation of autoimmune diseases by interleukin (IL)-17 producing regulatory T helper (Th17) cells. The Indian Journal of ... February 2003, 421 (6925): 852-6. Bibcode:2003Natur.421..852J. PMID 12594515. doi:10.1038/nature01441.. ... December 2016, 100 (6): 1239-1254. PMC 5110001. PMID 27671246. doi:10.1189/jlb.4hi0616-255r.. ...
EPO " Interleukin " G-CSF " OM " LIF " IFN " CD " TNF-α " LT " Ligand " TGF " MIF ... C5a " CCL2 " CCL5 " GSM-CSF " LPS " MCP-1 " IL-1 " IL-2 " IL-3 " IL-4 " IL-5 " IL-6 " IL-8 " IL-10 " IL-12 " IL-13 " IL-15 " IL ... AP-1 " C/EBP-α " β " NF-κB " FLIP " STAT " 1 " 2 " 3 " 4 " 5 " 6 ... Kaca iki pungkasan diowah nalika 15.46, 6 Oktober 2018.. *Tèks iki cumepak kanthi Lisènsi Atribusi-DumSaèmper Creative Commons ...
... the Antigen-Presenting Cell causes a response in a TH2 lymphocyte which produce the cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4). The TH2 ... Addiction and dependence glossary[3][4][5][6]. *addiction - a brain disorder characterized by compulsive engagement in ...
6]. Tri-dimenzionalna kristalna struktura ovog hemokina je bila utvrđena u 3 različite grupe uslova u rezoluciji do 1.92 A.[7] ...
positive regulation of interleukin-4 production. • oocyte development. • positive regulation of type IV hypersensitivity. • ... 4 (6): 457-61. doi:10.1038/ncb802. PMID 12021773. S2CID 11575790.. *. Jovine L, Qi H, Williams Z, Litscher ES, Wassarman PM ( ... 100 (26): 15631-6. Bibcode:2003PNAS..10015631D. doi:10.1073/pnas.2635507100. PMC 307619. PMID 14673092.. ... The western clawed frog appears to have two orthologs, and the sea lamprey has seven.[6] ...
Stimulation of interleukin-2 production by substance p". Journal of Neuroimmunology. 37 (1-2): 65-74. doi:10.1016/0165-5728(92) ... 6: e25332. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0025332. PMC 3179504 . PMID 21966499.. *^ Muñoz M, Rosso M, Coveñas R (Jun 2011). "The NK-1 ... 12 (6): 909-21. doi:10.2174/138945011795528796. PMID 21226668.. *^ Seckl MJ, Higgins T, Widmer F, Rozengurt E (Jan 1997). "[D- ... 17 (6): 504-16. doi:10.2174/092986710790416308. PMID 20015033.. *^ Muñoz M, Coveñas R (Oct 2013). "Involvement of substance P ...
The release of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 by activated leukocytes triggered by lipopolysaccharides, ... Maier SF, Wiertelak EP, Martin D, Watkins LR (October 1993). "Interleukin-1 mediates the behavioral hyperalgesia produced by ... doi:10.1016/S0149-7634(88)80004-6. PMID 3050629.. *^ a b Chu LF, Angst MS, Clark D (2008). "Opioid-induced hyperalgesia in ... 6 (7): 521-32. doi:10.1038/nrn1700. PMID 15995723.. *^ de Plater GM, Milburn PJ, Martin RL (March 2001). "Venom from the ...
Interleukins/T-cell growth factors (see here instead). *Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(12)70087-6. PMID 22452896.. *^ Yang JC, Wu YL, Schuler M, Sebastian M, Popat S, Yamamoto N, et al. ( ... It has received regulatory approval for use as a treatment for non-small cell lung cancer,[6][4][7][8] although there is ...
proinflamatorni citokin (IL-1, TNF-alfa) • Th1 (INF-gama i TNF-beta) • Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13) • Th17 (IL-17,IL-22 ... poput IL-6/gp130 koristeći. 6 • 11 • 27 • 30 • 31 (+ne IL Onkostatin M, Inhibitorni faktor leukemije, Cilijarni neurotrofni ... Autoimmun. 6: 21-37. PMID 12408045. doi:10.1159/000066854. *Stohl W (2005). "A therapeutic role for BLyS antagonists.". Lupus ... Immunol. 18 (5): 290-6. PMID 16931038. doi:10.1016/j.smim.2006.06.002. ...
proinflamatorni citokin (IL-1, TNF-alfa) • Th1 (INF-gama i TNF-beta) • Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13) • Th17 (IL-17,IL-22 ... poput IL-6/gp130 koristeći. 6 • 11 • 27 • 30 • 31 (+ne IL Onkostatin M, Inhibitorni faktor leukemije, Cilijarni neurotrofni ...
... associations and interaction with the interleukin-1alpha-889 C/T polymorphism". Hum. Immunol. 65 (6): 622-31. doi:10.1016/j. ... The haplotype begins before the TRIM27 locus approximately 28.8 million nucleotides from the telomere of chromosome 6's shorter ... Biol. (in French). 28 (11): 1173-6. PMID 15657545.. *^ a b c d e Price P, Witt C, Allcock R, et al. (February 1999). "The ... 37 (6): 449-54. doi:10.1007/BF00222469. PMID 8436420.. *^ Bishof NA, Welch TR, Beischel LS, Carson D, Donnelly PA (June 1993 ...
Theorell, T.; Hasselhorn, H.; Vingård, E.; Andersson, B. (2000). "Interleukin 6 and cortisol in acute musculoskeletal disorders ... Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, 32(6), 443-462. *^ Clarkson, G.P., & Hodgkinson, G.P. (2007). What can ... Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, 6, Suppl. 52-59 *^ Joensuu, M. et al. et al. (2012). Differential ... Most workplace assaults are nonfatal, with an annual physical assault rate of 6% in the U.S.[100] Assaultive behavior in the ...
Borges W, Augustine N, Hill H (2000). "Defective interleukin-12/interferon-gamma pathway in patients with ... An IgE level greater than 2,000 IU/mL is often considered diagnostic.[14] However, patients younger than 6 months of age may ...
Soluble[6] β-glucan types[edit]. β-glucans form a natural component of the cell walls of bacteria, fungi, yeast, and cereals ... In oats, β-glucan is found mainly in the endosperm of the oat kernel, especially in the outer layers of that endosperm.[6] ... Yeast and fungal β-glucans contain 1-6 side branches, while cereal β-glucans contain both β-1,3 and β-1,4 backbone bonds. The ... Differences in molecular weight, shape, and structure of β-glucans dictate the differences in biological activity.[6][7] ...
"Polymorphisms of the interleukin-1 beta gene are associated with increased risk of non-small cell lung cancer". International ... 109 (3): 353-6. doi:10.1002/ijc.11695. PMID 14961572.. *^ Hildebrandt P (August 1991). "Subcutaneous absorption of insulin in ... The Pribnow box has a 6 bp region centered around the -10 position and an 8-12 bp sequence around the -35 region that are both ... The TATA-binding protein (TBP) could also be targeted by viruses as a means of viral transcription.[6] ...
... interleukin-5)可促進嗜曙紅顆粒白血球成長及分化。[13] ... 6]。在吞噬結束後,嗜中性顆粒白血球
... and interleukin-1 in modulating progesterone and oestradiol production by human luteinized granulosa cells in culture. Hum. ... 多囊性卵巢會受基因遺傳與環境因素影響[6][7]。其危險因子包含肥胖症、運動量不足或是有家族病史[8]。如果有以下三種症狀中的兩種便可診斷患者有多囊性卵巢:無排卵、雄性激素過高與卵巢囊腫[4]。囊腫可以由超音波影像檢測。其他造成類似症狀的疾病包含先天性腎 ... 2012, 18 (6): 638-51. PMID
negative regulation of interleukin-6 secretion. • negative regulation of neuron death. • negative regulation of matrix ... 6. - P. 3034-3046. - DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.171.6.3034. - PMID 12960329.. *Gerhard D.S., Wagner L., Feingold E.A. et al. The ... DOI:10.1016/S1074-7613(00)00023-6. - PMID 10981966.. *Hoek R.M., Ruuls S.R., Murphy C.A. et al. Down-regulation of the ... 6. - P. x-xi. - DOI:10.1111/j.0022-202X.2005.23978.x. - PMID 16354172. ...
... interleukin 7 receptor chain α deficiency, CD45 deficiency, CD3δ/CD3ε deficiency. T-/B- SCID (both T and B cells absent): RAG 1 ... 124 (6): 1161-78. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2009.10.013. PMC 2797319 . PMID 20004777. Porta F, Forino C, De Martiis D, et al. (June ... This treatment is far quicker and with a substantially higher success rate than the 3-6 months it takes to carry out HSCT on a ... 6 (2): 59-83. doi:10.1016/S1525-1578(10)60493-X. PMC 1867474 . PMID 15096561. Conley ME, Notarangelo LD, Etzioni A (1999). " ...
Interleukins/T-cell growth factors (see here instead). *Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) ... 6 (1): 79-85. doi:10.3758/CABN.6.1.79. PMID 16869232.. *^ a b c d e Baj G, Carlino D, Gardossi L, Tongiorgi E (October 2013). " ... 57 (6): 884-95. doi:10.1007/pl00000731. PMID 10950304. S2CID 29317393.. *^ a b c Stevens RJ, Littleton JT (May 2011). "Synaptic ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), or abrineurin,[5] is a protein[6] that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene.[7][8] ...
An example of an autocrine agent is the cytokine interleukin-1 in monocytes. When interleukin-1 is produced in response to ... Interleukin 6 ACRONYM (IL-6) is a cytokine that is important for many aspects of cellular biology including immune responses, ... 116 (6): 1561-70. doi:10.1172/JCI24652. PMC 1469776 . PMID 16741576. Wilson, Timothy R.; Lee, Diana Y.; Berry, Leanne; Shames, ... 6 (5): 497-506. doi:10.1016/j.ccr.2004.09.032. PMID 15542433. Schlange, Thomas; Matsuda, Yutaka; Lienhard, Susanne; Huber, ...
Činjenica da je interleukin 8 sekrecija povećana sa oksidant stresom, i obrnuto, interleukin 8 uzrokujući regrutovanje ... 2003). "Role of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 ... Interleukin 8 receptor, beta. Reference[uredi - уреди , uredi izvor]. *↑ Wolff B, Burns AR, Middleton J, Rot A (November 1998 ... vezivanje za interleukin-8 receptor. • vezivanje za proteine. • aktivnost hemokina. Ćelijska komponenta. • ekstracelularni ...
positive regulation of interleukin-17 production. • innate immune response. • positive regulation of natural killer cell ... SLAMF6‏ (SLAM family member 6) هوَ بروتين يُشَفر بواسطة جين SLAMF6 في الإنسان.[1][2] ... "Entrez Gene: SLAMF6 SLAM family member 6". الوسيط ,المسار=. تم تجاهله (مساعدة); الوسيط ,العنوان=. تم تجاهله (مساعدة). .mw- ... SLAMF6, CD352, KALI, KALIb, Ly108, NTB-A, NTBA, SF2000, SLAM family member 6. ...
Rattazzi M, Puato M, Faggin E, et al. (2004). C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 in vascular disease: culprits or passive ... Mastorakos G, Ilias I (2007). Interleukin-6: a cytokine and/or a major modulator of the response to somatic stress. Ann. N. Y. ... Nishimoto N (May 2006). Interleukin-6 in rheumatoid arthritis. Curr Opin Rheumatol 18 (3): 277-81. PMID: 16582692. DOI: 10.1097 ... Smith PC, Hobisch A, Lin DL, Culig Z, Keller ET (March 2001). Interleukin-6 and prostate cancer progression. Cytokine Growth ...
"Interleukin-23 promotes a distinct CD4 T cell activation state characterized by the production of interleukin-17". J. Biol. ... Interleukin 17 (IL-17, ili IL-17A) je osnivački član grupe citokina poznatih kao IL-17 familija. IL-17A, je originalno (1993. ... 17,0 17,1 17,2 17,3 Moseley TA, Haudenschild DR, Rose L, Reddi AH (2003). "Interleukin-17 family and IL-17 receptors". Cytokine ... IL-1 • IL-2 • IL-3 • IL-4 • IL-5 • IL-6 • IL-7 • IL-8 • IL-9 • IL-10 • IL-11 • IL-12 (B) • IL-13 • IL-14 • IL-15 • IL-16 • IL- ...
Interleukin receptors *IL2R / IL2RA/IL2RB / IL15R. *IL4R / IL13R / IL13RA1 / IL13RA2. *IL7R / IL7RA ... 9 (6): 1567-74. PMID 8183550.. *. Lee SY, Park CG, Choi Y (Feb 1996). "T cell receptor-dependent cell death of T cell ... 6] CD30 and CD15 are also expressed on Reed-Sternberg cells typical for Hodgkin's lymphoma.[7] ... 122 (6): 1345-7. doi:10.1111/j.0022-202X.2004.22616.x. PMID 15175022.. ...
Interleukins/T-cell growth factors (see here instead). *Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... Pegaptanib (pegaptanib sodium injection) has been approved in: United States (2004)[6] Europe (2005)[2] Brazil (2005)[6] Canada ... 12-dioxo-6[[[5-(phosphoonoxy)pentyl]amino]carbonyl]-3,13-dioxa-5,11-diaza-1,15-pentadecanediyl]bis[ω-methoxypoly(oxy-1,2- ...
Singh B, Schwartz JA, Sandrock C, Bellemore SM, Nikoopour E (2013). „Modulation of autoimmune diseases by interleukin (IL)-17 ... efektorske memoriske T ćelije (TEM ćelije) i TEMRA ćelije,[6] te ...
The interluekin-6 receptor (IL-6R) is the receptor that IL-6 binds to in order to initiate the bodys responses to inflammation ... The interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R) is the receptor that IL-6 binds to in order to initiate the bodys responses to inflammation ... Interleukin 6. Image Credit: StudioMolekuul/Shutterstock.com. In what is referred to as "classical signaling", IL-6 exerts its ... www.news-medical.net/health/Interleukin-6-Receptor.aspx. (accessed March 01, 2021). ...
Interleukin-6 receptor subunit alpha The interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R) is a type I transmembrane protein that was cloned and ... CD126; Glycoprotein 80; gp80; IL-6R; IL-6Rα; Interleukin-6 receptor subunit alpha ... Proteolytic cleavage governs interleukin-11 trans-signaling. Cell Rep. 2016;14:1761-73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Cloning and expression of the human interleukin-6 (BSF-2/IFN beta 2) receptor. Science. 1988;241:825-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle ...
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine which mediates many aspects of the acute phase response. Although known to ... Endotoxin stimulates hepatocyte interleukin-6 production.. Panesar N1, Tolman K, Mazuski JE. ... Cultured hepatocytes were treated with various concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interleukin-1 (IL-1), or tumor ... Hepatocyte IL-6 production was significantly increased following treatment with LPS, IL-1, and TNF. Combinations of LPS and ...
Signaling by Interleukins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME) Signaling by Interleukins, organism-specific biosystem ... interleukin 6provided by RGD. Primary source. RGD:2901 See related. Ensembl:ENSRNOG00000010278 Gene type. protein coding. ... Angiotensin II induces interleukin-6 expression in astrocytes: Role of reactive oxygen species and NF-κB. Gowrisankar YV, et al ... The Role of Interleukin-6 Polymorphism (rs1800795) in Prostate Cancer Development and Progression. Jurečeková J, et al. ...
Kanemaki T, Kitade H, Kaibori M, Sakitani K, Hiramatsu Y, Kamiyama Y, Ito S, Okumura T: Interleukin 1beta and interleukin 6, ... The human interleukin-6 gene (IL6, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man #147620) maps to chromosome 7p21. IL6 has a high degree ... Interleukin (IL)-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine with a key impact on both immunoregulation and nonimmune events in most cell types ... Rotter V, Nagaev I, Smith U: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) induces insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and is, like IL-8 and tumor ...
... which are capable of specifically binding to a human interleukin-6 receptor. Also included are monoclonal antibodies which ... Interleukin-6 (hereinafter abbreviated to "IL-6") is a protein having various important physiological activities and ... A process for the preparation of a polyclonal antibody directed against human interleukin-6 receptor, comprising the steps of 1 ... The present invention further provides a process for the preparation of an antibody to a human interleukin-6 receptor, which ...
Interleukin-6 measured using the automated electrochemiluminescence immunoassay method for the identification of intra-amniotic ... We aimed to compare the amniotic fluid interleukin (IL)-6 concentrations measured using the automated electrochemiluminescence ... IAI was defined as an amniotic fluid IL-6 concentration of ≥ 2600 pg/mL measured using ELISA.A correlation between both assays ... IL-6 concentrations were assessed using both the automated electrochemiluminescence immunoassay method and ELISA, the current ...
USA Home > Product Directory > Cell Culture > Reagents and Supplements > Growth Factors and Cytokines > Interleukins (IL) > ... Interleukin-6 from rat IL-6, recombinant, expressed in E. coli, buffered aqueous solution, suitable for cell culture * pricing ... Interleukin-6 human IL-6, recombinant, expressed in E. coli, lyophilized powder, suitable for cell culture * pricing ... Interleukin-6 from mouse IL-6, recombinant, expressed in E. coli, lyophilized powder, suitable for cell culture, carrier free * ...
The regulation of interleukin 6 (IL-6) is dependent on many factors that include numerous stimuli such as lipopolysaccharide ( ... These studies demonstrate the ability of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) to significantly enhance IL-6 mRNA and protein production ... Interferon-gamma regulation of interleukin 6 in monocytic cells Am J Physiol. 1994 Nov;267(5 Pt 1):L564-8. doi: 10.1152/ajplung ... The regulation of interleukin 6 (IL-6) is dependent on many factors that include numerous stimuli such as lipopolysaccharide ( ...
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine that is associated... ... Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine that is associated with the disease status and outcomes of cancers. However ... Interleukin-6 induces vascular endothelial growth factor expression and promotes angiogenesis through apoptosis signal- ... Here we found that the IL-6 and VEGF expression was correlated with tumor stage and significantly higher than that in normal ...
Other cytokines that signal through receptors containing gp130 are Interleukin 11 (IL-11), Interleukin 27 (IL-27), ciliary ... IL-6s role as an anti-inflammatory myokine is mediated through its inhibitory effects on TNF-alpha and IL-1 and its activation ... Interleukin is the main member of the IL-6 superfamily (Pfam PF00489), which also includes G-CSF, IL23A, and CLCF1. A viral ... Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is an interleukin that acts as both a pro-inflammatory cytokine and an anti-inflammatory myokine. In ...
Drugi citokini koji prenose signal kroz receptor koji sadrži gp130 su Interleukin 11 (IL-11), Interleukin 27 (IL-27), cilijarni ... The interleukin-6 receptor can serve as an alpha-receptor for CTNF". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (11): 9528-35. PMID 12643274. ... vezivanje za interleukin-6 receptor. • vezivanje za proteine. Ćelijska komponenta. • ekstracelularni region. • ekstracelularni ... Za interleukin 6 je bilo pokazano da formira interakciju sa interleukin-6 receptorom[10][11][12] u glikoproteinom 130.[13] ...
... at the University of Cambridge have found that there is a link between coronary heart disease and levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6 ... IL-6 is a protein that triggers the cascade of immune cells to the injury site and is produced wherever there is inflammation. ... Lead researcher John Danesh and colleagues also suggest that IL-6 could be a target for the development of drugs to fight ... at the University of Cambridge has revealed the existence of a link between coronary heart disease and levels of interleukin-6 ...
Interleukin-6 gene polymorphism and insulin sensitivity.. J M Fernández-Real, M Broch, J Vendrell, C Gutiérrez, R Casamitjana, ... Interleukin-6 gene polymorphism and insulin sensitivity.. J M Fernández-Real, M Broch, J Vendrell, C Gutiérrez, R Casamitjana, ... We aimed to study an interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene polymorphism in relation to insulin sensitivity (IL-6 is the main cytokine ... 37.6+/-4.6 mg/l, P = 0.03). In summary, a polymorphism of the IL-6 gene influences the relationship among insulin sensitivity, ...
The interleukin-6 receptor can serve as an alpha-receptor for CTNF". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (11): 9528-35. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... "Entrez Gene: IL6R interleukin 6 receptor". Schwantner A, Dingley AJ, Ozbek S, Rose-John S, Grötzinger J (Jan 2004). "Direct ... Interleukin 6 receptor (IL6R) also known as CD126 (Cluster of Differentiation 126) is a type I cytokine receptor. Interleukin 6 ... Szpirer J, Szpirer C, Rivière M, Houart C, Baumann M, Fey GH, Poli V, Cortese R, Islam MQ, Levan G (1991). "The Interleukin-6- ...
Interleukin-1 beta downregulation : CK(1743) : AC(868), Interleukin-6 Downregulation : CK(3054) : AC(1144), Tumor Necrosis ... 1144 Curated Medical Research astracts associated with Interleukin-6 Downregulation. FRIEND membership. $8 / month $75 / year ... PRO MEMBERS get Unlimited Access to downloadable documents like this, with curated research on Interleukin-6 Downregulation. ... Some Example Abstracts on Interleukin-6 Downregulation. Ashwagandha may prove to be a potential therapeutic candidate for the ...
Tags: Ascites, Blood, Cancer, Cytokine, Depression, Fatigue, G-Protein, Immune System, Interleukin-2, Interleukin-6, Laboratory ... Psychosocial factors and interleukin-6 among women with advanced ovarian cancer. *Download PDF Copy ... called interleukin 6 (IL-6). In contrast, negative quality of life factors were associated with higher IL-6 levels. ... IL-6 has previously been shown to promote tumor growth, and IL-6 levels are also prognostic in ovarian cancer, with elevated ...
The humanized anti-interleukin (IL)-6 receptor antibody Tocilizumab is currently in Phase III clinical trials for use in ... Appreciating the Balance between Classical Interleukin (IL)-6 Receptor Signaling and IL-6 Trans-Signaling: Implications for ... Specific attention will be given to the role of the soluble IL-6 receptor and we will discuss the merit of selectively ... However do we fully appreciate the regulation of IL-6 responses in vivo, and understand the wider implications of IL-6 ...
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was infused intravenously for 2.5 h in seven healthy human volunteers at a dose giving rise to a ... circulating IL-6 concentration of approximately 35 ng l(-1). The metabolic effects of this infusion were studied in ... Metabolic effects of interleukin-6 in human splanchnic and adipose tissue J Physiol. 2002 Aug 15;543(Pt 1):379-86. doi: 10.1113 ... Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was infused intravenously for 2.5 h in seven healthy human volunteers at a dose giving rise to a ...
The Mammalian Phenotype (MP) Ontology is a community effort to provide standard terms for annotating phenotypic data. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated phenotype data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
Adverse Pharmacological Actions : Cycloogenase-2 enzyme upregulation, Inflammatory, Interleukin-1 up-regulation, Interleukin-6 ... Interleukin-6 up-regulation Related Articles. Medical Errors Kill Enough People to Fill 4 Jumbo Jets a Week. - 7 Tips on ... 9 Abstracts with Interleukin-6 up-regulation Research. Filter by Study Type. Animal Study. ... Adverse Pharmacological Actions : Cardiotoxic, Inflammatory, Interleukin-6 up-regulation, Interleukin-8 up-regulation, MCP-1 ( ...
R-HSA-6783783 Interleukin-10 signaling. R-HSA-6785807 Interleukin-4 and Interleukin-13 signaling. R-HSA-8853884 Transcriptional ... R-HSA-6783783 Interleukin-10 signaling. R-HSA-6785807 Interleukin-4 and Interleukin-13 signaling. R-HSA-8853884 Transcriptional ... "Synergistic activation of human T cells by interleukin 1 and interleukin 6.". Houssiau F.A., Coulie P.G., Olive D., Van Snick J ... The interleukin-6 receptor can serve as an alpha-receptor for CTNF.". Schuster B., Kovaleva M., Sun Y., Regenhard P., Matthews ...
Other cytokines that signal through receptors containing gp130 are Interleukin 11 (IL-11), Interleukin 27 (IL-27), ciliary ... Interleukin-6 has been shown to interact with interleukin-6 receptor,[18][19][20] and glycoprotein 130.[21] ... Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is an interleukin that acts as both a pro-inflammatory cytokine and an anti-inflammatory myokine. In ... The interleukin-6 receptor can serve as an alpha-receptor for CTNF". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (11): 9528-35. ...
Interleukin and interleukin receptor gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to melanoma. Melanoma Res. 2008;18(5):330-5. PMCID: ... Serum interleukin-6, soluble interleukin-6 receptor and Crohns disease activity. Dig Dis Sci. 2008;53(1):242-7.CrossRefPubMed ... Serum interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein as a prognostic indicator in hepatocellular carcinoma. Cytokine. 2012;60(3):686-93. ... The interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor is known to be mainly expressed by hepatocytes, neutrophils, monocytes/macrophages, and some ...
We also demonstrate that interleukin 6 (IL-6), shown to be increased in NMO, enhanced the survival of PB as well as their AQP4- ... Interleukin 6 signaling promotes anti-aquaporin 4 autoantibody production from plasmablasts in neuromyelitis optica. Norio ... 1995) Differentiation of early plasma cells on bone marrow stromal cells requires interleukin-6 for escaping from apoptosis. ... 2005) Humanized anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody treatment of multicentric Castleman disease. Blood 106:2627-2632. ...
The homodimer binds two molecules of herpes virus 8/HHV-8 protein vIL-6 (PubMed:11238858, PubMed:11251120). Interacts with HCK ...
Home , 1998 - Volume 10 - Issue , 13: CONTRIBUTION OF INTERLEUKIN-6 TO THE ISCHEMIA AND REPERF... ...
J:29552 Gearing DP, et al., Leukemia inhibitory factor receptor is structurally related to the IL-6 signal transducer, gp130. ...
Interleukin-6 receptor has been shown to interact with Interleukin 6[3][4][5] and Ciliary neurotrophic factor.[4][6] ... Interleukin 6 receptor (IL6R) also known as CD126 (Cluster of Differentiation 126) is a type I cytokine receptor. ... "Entrez Gene: IL6R interleukin 6 receptor".. *↑ Schwantner A, Dingley AJ, Ozbek S, Rose-John S, Grötzinger J (Jan 2004). "Direct ... The interleukin-6 receptor can serve as an alpha-receptor for CTNF". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (11): 9528-35. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...
Interleukin-6 was the only risk factor related to each endothelial activation molecule and independently contributed by 18% and ... Interleukin-6 concentrations relate consistently, markedly, and to a larger extent than other cardiovascular risk factors to ... The independent interleukin-6-overall endothelial activation relationships were reproduced in various subgroups. ... Assessment of interleukin-6 concentrations may enhance cardiovascular risk stratification in RA. ...
  • The IL-6R shares many features with other receptors of the IL-6 family of cytokines, notably the interleukin-11 receptor (IL-11R) and the ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor (CNTFR) (Garbers et al. (springer.com)
  • Plasticity and cross-talk of interleukin 6-type cytokines. (springer.com)
  • The present studies were performed to determine if endotoxin and proinflammatory cytokines stimulate the release of IL-6 from native murine hepatocytes. (nih.gov)
  • Combinations of LPS and these cytokines were synergistic in stimulating IL-6 release. (nih.gov)
  • Murine hepatocytes release significant amounts of IL-6 when exposed to endotoxin or proinflammatory cytokines. (nih.gov)
  • Mediators of inflammation such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, the IL-6 family of cytokines, IL-18, and certain chemokines have been proposed to be involved in the events causing both forms of diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The regulation of interleukin 6 (IL-6) is dependent on many factors that include numerous stimuli such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), viruses, and other cytokines. (nih.gov)
  • The receptor for this ligand (IL-6) is composed of two subunits - an alpha subunit responsible for ligand specificity, and glycoprotein (GP) 130, a receptor that other cytokines in the IL-6 family share. (openpr.com)
  • It has been postulated that an inflammatory response after cutaneous wounding is a prerequisite for healing, and inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), might be intimately involved in this process. (cdc.gov)
  • [6] It is significantly elevated with exercise, and precedes the appearance of other cytokines in the circulation. (wikidoc.org)
  • Regulatory cytokines include interleukins (IL), interferons (IFN), tumor necrosis factors (TNF), and growth factors [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • IL-6 induces the production of mediators for the release of cytokines such as TNF and IL-1, which drive the inflammatory reaction [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Many cytokines are known to influence RA pain, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), IL-1, IL-6, and IL-10. (ajmc.com)
  • IL-6 may also have an orchestrating role in regulating cytokines that modulate pain, he wrote. (ajmc.com)
  • Interleukin-6 has direct effects on cells where it intercede the property of other cytokines and interacts with glucocorticoid . (biology-online.org)
  • One way in which these "danger" signals trigger inflammation is through activation of inflammasomes, which are multiprotein complexes that assemble in the cytosol after exposure to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and result in the activation of caspase-1 and subsequent cleavage of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 (Reviewed in 1-6). (cellsignal.com)
  • Some cytokines, including IL-6, stimulate breast cancer proliferation or invasion and serve as negative prognostic indicators. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Cytokines, such as IL-6 play a key role in regulating estrogen synthesis in normal and malignant breast tissues. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • This may sensitize these cells to proliferative stimuli, resulting in selective expansion as a result of interaction with BMM that produce IL-6 and other cytokines. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • This IL-6 assay kit has also been formatted to minimize cross reactivity for related cytokines. (salimetrics.com)
  • Whereas gp80 binds specifically to IL-6, gp130 is a common signal-transducing receptor for a subfamily of cytokines, including IL-6, IL-11, LIF, ciliary neurotrophic factor, oncostatin M, cardiotropin-1, and neurotrophin-1, named the gp130 cytokine family. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Kaposi's sarcoma is a multifocal lesion that is reported to be greatly influenced by cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and oncostatin M. DNA sequences of a novel human gammaherpesvirus, termed human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) or Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, have been identified in all epidemiological forms of Kaposi's sarcoma with high frequency. (asm.org)
  • Members of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) family of proinflammatory cytokines, which includes IL-6 and IL-11, stimulate responses by binding to a complex of their cytokine-specific receptor and the gp130 signaling receptor. (sciencemag.org)
  • engineered a reductionist system to interrogate how cells respond to wild-type and synthetic IL-6 and IL-11 cytokines. (sciencemag.org)
  • The family of cytokines signalling through the common receptor subunit gp130 comprises interleukin (IL)-6, IL-11, leukaemia inhibitory factor, oncostatin M, ciliary neurotrophic factor and cardiotrophin-1. (portlandpress.com)
  • These so-called IL-6-type cytokines play an important role in the regulation of complex cellular processes such as gene activation, proliferation and differentiation. (portlandpress.com)
  • Although all IL-6-type cytokines signal through the gp130/Jak/STAT pathway, the comparison of their physiological properties shows that they elicit not only similar, but also distinct, biological responses. (portlandpress.com)
  • Increased levels of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) are cross-sectionally and longitudinally associated with poor physical function in older adults. (natap.org)
  • IL-6 induces CRP increase, and we therefore investigated the effects of pretransplant IL-6, soluble IL-6 receptors, IL-6 family cytokines and CRP serum levels on outcome for 100 consecutive allotransplant recipients. (mdpi.com)
  • Cytokines including IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor alpha as well as acute phase proteins such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen are key biochemical risk factors for the development of these disease conditions. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The pathophysiological process underlying severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, consists of an exaggerated host immune response and elevated circulating levels of inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6 [2, 3]. (ersjournals.com)
  • Growing evidence suggests that proinflammatory cytokines (PICs), such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), are induced in the spinal cord under various injury conditions and contribute to pain hypersensitivity. (jneurosci.org)
  • We recently demonstrated that monocytes from patients with severe and multifocal CRMO are characterized by impaired expression of the immune-regulatory cytokines interleukin (IL-)10 and IL-19, favoring the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-20, TNF-α). (frontiersin.org)
  • Koj A. The Role of Interleukin-6 as the Hepatocyte Stimulating Factor in the Network of Inflammatory Cytokines. (biovendor.com)
  • 1 , 9 , 13 , 14 In addition, activated mast cells can produce and release a number of functional cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF), oncostatin M (OSM), or interleukin-6 (IL-6). (haematologica.org)
  • Here, we report that plasma levels of other inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-α) are elevated in patients with OSAS, and the levels are associated with levels of hsCRP. (ahajournals.org)
  • These results suggest that both increased C-reactive protein and increased inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) may synergistically affect the progression of coronary atherosclerosis in patients with OSAS. (ahajournals.org)
  • Others have reported that OSAS patients had higher plasma concentrations of the inflammatory, fatigue-causing, and insulin resistance-producing cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 than do nonapneic obese men. (ahajournals.org)
  • 4 Because abdominal obesity is associated with elevations of hsCRP and inflammatory cytokines, weight loss may lower IL-6 and CRP levels and may beneficially suppress an immune response, resulting in the prevention of atherosclerotic lesions in OSAS patients. (ahajournals.org)
  • The IL6 receptor is a protein complex consisting of this protein and interleukin 6 signal transducer (IL6ST/GP130/IL6-beta), a receptor subunit also shared by many other cytokines. (creative-biogene.com)
  • IL-6 is usually not produced constitutively by normal cells, but its expression is readily induced by a variety of cytokines, lipopolysaccharide or viral infections. (biovendor.com)
  • Cultured hepatocytes were treated with various concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interleukin-1 (IL-1), or tumor necrosis factor (TNF), in the presence or absence of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1 RA), an anti-TNF antibody, or dexamethasone. (nih.gov)
  • Dexamethasone, but not IL-1 RA or an anti-TNF antibody, inhibited hepatocyte production of IL-6 in response to LPS. (nih.gov)
  • It has been shown that the reduction of abdominal obesity by exercise in human adults can be reversed by the IL-6 receptor blocking antibody tocilizumab. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pretreatment of cells with IL-6R antibody reduced IL-6-mediated VEGF production. (mendeley.com)
  • IL-6 is involved in many autoimmune conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), therefore to target it, the drug candidate is being developed as a human monoclonal immunoglobulin G-1 (IgG1) kappa antibody and IL-6 inhibitor, to be administered subcutaneously. (openpr.com)
  • The humanized anti-interleukin (IL)-6 receptor antibody Tocilizumab is currently in Phase III clinical trials for use in autoimmune conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn's disease. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • We also demonstrate that interleukin 6 (IL-6), shown to be increased in NMO, enhanced the survival of PB as well as their AQP4-Ab secretion, whereas the blockade of IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) signaling by anti-IL-6R antibody reduced the survival of PB in vitro. (pnas.org)
  • The Senescence Marker Antibody Sampler Kit provides a collection of antibodies to commonly used biomarkers of senescence-associated cell cycle arrest (p16 INK4A, p21 Waf1/Cip1), senescence-associated DNA damage (gamma-Histone H2A.X), and the SASP (HMGB1, IL-6, TNF-alpha, MMP3). (cellsignal.com)
  • An IL-6 specific gene signature was generated by profiling ten ERα-positive breast cancer cell lines alone or following treatment with 10 ng/mL recombinant IL-6 or human marrow stromal cell-conditioned media, with or without siltuximab (a neutralizing anti-IL-6 antibody) and grown in three-dimensional tumor microenvironment-aligned cultures for 4 days, 5 days, or 6 days. (dovepress.com)
  • IL-6 antibody was purified from mouse ascitic fluids by protein-G affinity chromatography. (prospecbio.com)
  • IL-6 antibody has been tested by ELISA, Western blot analysis, Flow cytometry and ICC/IF to assure specificity and reactivity. (prospecbio.com)
  • Several clinical studies have demonstrated that a humanized anti-IL-6 receptor antibody, tocilizumab, improves clinical symptoms in rheumatoid arthritis. (dovepress.com)
  • IL-6 in standards and samples binds to the antibody binding sites on a microtitre plate. (salimetrics.com)
  • The study will include patients with active rheumatoid arthritis and a need to initiate treatment with an IL-6 receptor antibody. (centerwatch.com)
  • Patients will then initiate IL-6 receptor antibody treatment and to assess both short- and long-term impact of altered inflammation, the same 6-drug cocktail will be ingested, and concentrations measured, after three weeks and three months. (centerwatch.com)
  • The samples were analyzed for interleukin-6 (IL-6) and specific antibody activity to antigens extracted from the Escherichia coli strain infecting each patient. (lu.se)
  • These results demonstrate that the immunosuppression of pregnancy includes the mucosal IL-6 and specific antibody responses to acute pyelonephritis caused by E. coli. (lu.se)
  • Effect of in situ expression of human interleukin-6 on antibody responses against Salmonella typhimurium antigens. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Hybridoma proliferation was inhibited by the addition of a neutralizing anti-mouse IL-6 antibody, indicating that the activity was indeed due to IL-6. (ovid.com)
  • The lung fibroblasts expressed IL-6 receptors on their surface as determined by flow cytometry using a rat anti-mouse IL-6 receptor antibody (15A7). (ovid.com)
  • The purposes of this study were to assess whether anti-oxidized LDL antibody titers are related to other inflammatory markers of possible interest in atherosclerotic development, such as soluble cell adhesion molecules, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein (CRP), and to determine the prognostic value of anti-oxidized LDL antibody as a predictor of cardiac events in patients with unstable angina pectoris. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • With the recent approval of tocilizumab, a humanized anti-IL-6 receptor antibody originating from Chugai and under development at Roche in Western countries, this target has become clinically validated and now can show its commercial potential in competition with TNF blockers. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The stimulatory effect of CM on prostatic carcinoma cells was significantly reduced by the addition of anti-IL-6 antibody to the culture medium. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cells that only express gp130 do not respond to IL-6 alone. (news-medical.net)
  • The IL-6/sIL-6R complex then mediates the activation of gp130 in either an autocrine or paracrine manner. (news-medical.net)
  • Jones SA, Scheller J, Rose-John S. Therapeutic strategies for the clinical blockade of IL-6/gp130 signaling. (springer.com)
  • Association of transcription factor APRF and protein kinase Jak1 with the interleukin-6 signal transducer gp130. (springer.com)
  • The complex of IL-6 and sIL-6R can bind to gp130 on cells, which do not express the IL-6R, and which are unresponsive to IL-6. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-6 receptor je tip I citokin receptorski kompleks koji se sastoji od ligand -vezujućeg IL-6Rα lanca ( CD126 ), i signal-prenoseće komponente gp130 (isto poznate kao CD130). (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-6 interakcija sa njegovim receptorom, podstiče gp130 i IL-6R proteine da formiraju kompleks, čime se aktivira receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-6 je verovatno najbolje studiran od svih citokina koji koriste gp130 u njihovim signalnim kompleksima. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drugi citokini koji prenose signal kroz receptor koji sadrži gp130 su Interleukin 11 (IL-11), Interleukin 27 (IL-27), cilijarni neurotrofni faktor (CNTF), kardiotrofin 1 (CT-1), kardiotrofin--sličan citokin (CLC), Inhibitorni faktor leukemije (LIF), onkostatin M (OSM), Kapošijev sarkom-asocirani herpesvirus interleukinu 6 sličan protein ( KSHV-IL6 ). (wikipedia.org)
  • [8] Ovi citokini se normalno zovu IL-6 slični ili gp130 koristeći citokini. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once bound to IL-6, the resulting sIL-6R/IL-6 complex acts as an agonist that is capable of activating cells through membrane-bound gp130. (rupress.org)
  • Since expression of gp130 is essentially ubiquitous, the sIL-6R/IL-6 complex has the potential to stimulate cell types that are not inherently responsive to IL-6 alone. (rupress.org)
  • A low affinity interleukin-6 receptor subunit that combines with the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130 to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-6. (harvard.edu)
  • IL-6 is produced at sites of acute and chronic inflammation, where it is secreted and signals through a cell-surface type I cytokine receptor complex consisting of the ligand-binding IL-6Rα chain (CD126), and the signal transducing component gp130 (CD130. (cellsciences.com)
  • The gp130 functions as an affinity converter because the resulting affinity of IL-6 for the ternary complex is approximately 10 −11 m , instead of 10 −9 m for IL-6R. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The authors found that a soluble form of gp130 blocked responses to IL-6 and IL-11 that were presented in trans by a neighboring cell. (sciencemag.org)
  • In contrast, extracellular blockade of cell surface gp130 had no effect on the response to autocrine IL-6, suggesting that these responses could occur within the cell. (sciencemag.org)
  • Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a proinflammatory cytokine of the IL-6 family, members of which signal through a complex of a cytokine-specific receptor and the signal-transducing subunit gp130. (sciencemag.org)
  • The interaction of IL-6 with the membrane-bound IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) and gp130 stimulates "classic signaling," whereas the binding of IL-6 and a soluble version of the IL-6R to gp130 stimulates "trans-signaling. (sciencemag.org)
  • Alternatively, "cluster signaling" occurs when membrane-bound IL-6:IL-6R complexes on transmitter cells activate gp130 receptors on neighboring receiver cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • We demonstrated that the interaction of soluble gp130 with natural and synthetic membrane-bound IL-6:IL-6R complexes inhibited IL-6 cluster signaling. (sciencemag.org)
  • To mediate its effects, IL-6 binds to the non-signal-transducing IL-6 receptor (IL-6R), which forms a complex with the signal-transducing glycoprotein 130 (gp130) co-receptor. (sciencemag.org)
  • IL-6 recognition stimulates homodimerization of gp130 and activates the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT), the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) downstream signaling pathways ( 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Because IL-6 itself does not bind to the gp130 subunit alone, the IL-6R is mandatory for the interaction of IL-6 with gp130 ( 4 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Furthermore, we review various mechanisms involved in the termination of the IL-6-type cytokine signalling, namely the action of tyrosine phosphatases, proteasome, Jak kinase inhibitors SOCS (suppressor of cytokine signalling), protein inhibitors of activated STATs (PIAS), and internalization of the cytokine receptors via gp130. (portlandpress.com)
  • IL-6 activates cell surface signalling via the assembly of IL-6, the IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) and the signalling receptor gp130. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Assembly of the (hexameric) signalling complex of IL-6, IL-6R and gp130 occurs in a sequential manner and therefore this signalling complex lends itself to several potential sites for drug targeting. (eurekaselect.com)
  • IL-6 signals through the IL-6 receptor system that consists of two chains, IL-6R α and gp130. (biovendor.com)
  • In what is referred to as "classical signaling", IL-6 exerts its effects by binding to IL-6R, a glycosylated type 1 membrane-bound protein of around 80 kDa. (news-medical.net)
  • The interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R) is a type I transmembrane protein that was cloned and described in 1988 (Yamasaki et al. (springer.com)
  • IL-6 is responsible for stimulating acute phase protein synthesis, as well as the production of neutrophils in the bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Effects of prenatal low protein and postnatal high fat diets on visceral adipose tissue macrophage phenotypes and IL-6 expression in Sprague Dawley rat offspring. (nih.gov)
  • The IL6 receptor is a protein complex consisting of an IL-6 receptor subunit (IL6R) and interleukin 6 signal transducer Glycoprotein 130. (wikipedia.org)
  • These studies demonstrate the ability of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) to significantly enhance IL-6 mRNA and protein production in LPS-stimulated monocytes and THP-1 cells. (nih.gov)
  • IL-6 protein production was increased sevenfold in LPS-stimulated cells with the addition of IFN-gamma. (nih.gov)
  • Incubation of osteosarcoma cells with IL-6 increased VEGF mRNA and protein expression. (mendeley.com)
  • Interleukin 6 (IL-6) je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran IL6 genom . (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-6 is a protein that triggers the cascade of immune cells to the injury site and is produced wherever there is inflammation. (medindia.net)
  • The study, published in the July 15, 2005 issue of CANCER , a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society , reports that factors that improved quality life, such as social support, were associated with low levels of a protein released by both immune cells and tumor cells, called interleukin 6 (IL-6). (news-medical.net)
  • Serum interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein as a prognostic indicator in hepatocellular carcinoma. (springer.com)
  • The homodimer binds two molecules of herpes virus 8/HHV-8 protein vIL-6 (PubMed:11238858, PubMed:11251120). (rcsb.org)
  • Inhibition of IL-6 suppressed the elevation of TNFα, IL-1, and IL-6 messenger RNA in the spinal cord and inhibited the release of TNFα and IL-1 protein into cerebrospinal fluid. (ajmc.com)
  • C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptomology in urban police officers. (cdc.gov)
  • Our aim was to examine the relationship between the level of the inflammatory markers, C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomology in a random sample of 115 police officers. (cdc.gov)
  • Anti-human IL-6, clone PAT1H6AT mAb, is derived from hybridization of mouse F0 myeloma cells with spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with a recombinant human IL-6 protein 30-212 amino acids purified from E. coli. (prospecbio.com)
  • 1990). Acute-phase response of human hepatocytes: Regulation of acute-phase protein synthesis by interleukin-6. (salimetrics.com)
  • In six clinical studies of mAbs to IL-6 with BE-8 or CNTO 328 in patients with multiple myeloma, renal cell carcinoma, and B-lymphoproliferative disorders, anti-IL-6 mAb treatment decreased C-reactive protein levels in all patients. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Sequence analysis of a 17-kb fragment revealed that adjacent to a block of conserved herpesvirus genes (major DNA-binding protein, glycoprotein B, and DNA polymerase), the genome of HHV-8 encodes structural homolog of IL-6. (asm.org)
  • The relationship of platelet number to soluble CD40 Ligand, Interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein blood levels was studied. (scirp.org)
  • Although the primary focus of our study was IL-6, we also assessed tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-1β, IL-8, IL-10 and C-reactive protein (CRP) to determine the inflammatory pattern associated with IL-6 changes, since these markers are usually related to IL-6 response under different stress conditions [ 5 , 14 ]. (ersjournals.com)
  • TNF-alpha and IL-6 mRNAs were also increased in the inflamed paws as was IL-6 protein in the serum. (jci.org)
  • Lyophilized Interleukin-6 although stable at room temperature for 3 weeks, should be stored desiccated below -18°C. Upon reconstitution IL-6 should be stored at 4°C between 2-7 days and for future use below -18°C. For long term storage it is recommended to add a carrier protein (0.1% HSA or BSA). (acris-antibodies.com)
  • TRAF3 inhibited IL-6 receptor (IL-6R)-mediated signaling by facilitating the association of PTPN22 (a nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase) with the kinase Janus-activated kinase 1 (Jak1), which in turn blocked phosphorylation of the transcription factor STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3). (sciencemag.org)
  • A new family member, Stat3, becomes activated through phosphorylation on tyrosine as a DNA binding protein in response to epidermal growth factor (EGF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) but not interferon gamma (IFN-gamma). (sciencemag.org)
  • Recombinant Murine IL-6 is a 21.7 kDa protein containing 188 amino acid residues. (biovendor.com)
  • Wolf J, Rose-John S, Garbers C. Interleukin-6 and its receptors: a highly regulated and dynamic system. (springer.com)
  • IL-6 synthesis and secretion were connected to acute peritoneal dialysis fluid exposure, and this response was triggered by TRPA1 receptors, possibly located to non-neuronal cells. (nih.gov)
  • IL-6 and its receptors in coronary artery disease and acute myocardial infarction. (springer.com)
  • Cell surface receptors that are specific for Interleukin-6 . (jove.com)
  • These cells not only express receptors, but neurons, astrocytes and microglia also produce IL-6. (ajmc.com)
  • Previous studies from our group have provided evidence in support of the existence of a pathway across the blood-brain barrier by demonstrating that proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 transfers the inflammatory message to the brain through binding to its receptors situated in the brain vessels. (diva-portal.org)
  • Thus, we suggest that IL-6 exerts its effect neither up- nor downstream from PGE2, and propose instead that IL-6 may act alongside the PGE2 and regulate the process that deals with the transport of and binding of PGE2 onto its receptors. (diva-portal.org)
  • Human appendix B cells naturally express receptors for and respond to interleukin 6 with selective IgA1 and IgA2 synthesis. (jci.org)
  • Hirano T, Kishimoto T. Interleukin-6.Handbook of experimental pharmacology, Peptide Growth Factors and Their Receptors. (biovendor.com)
  • The interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R) is the receptor that IL-6 binds to in order to initiate the body's responses to inflammation and infection. (news-medical.net)
  • Chalaris A, Garbers C, Rabe B, Rose-John S, Scheller J. The soluble interleukin 6 receptor: generation and role in inflammation and cancer. (springer.com)
  • In the absence of inflammation 10-35% of circulating IL-6 may come from adipose tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin-6 measured using the automated electrochemiluminescence immunoassay method for the identification of intra-amniotic inflammation in preterm prelabor rupture of membranes. (gu.se)
  • We aimed to compare the amniotic fluid interleukin (IL)-6 concentrations measured using the automated electrochemiluminescence immunoassay method and ELISA, and to establish an IL-6 concentration cut-off value for intra-amniotic inflammation (IAI) in preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM), which can be used in the automated electrochemiluminescence immunoassay method.A total of 120 women with PPROM were included in this study. (gu.se)
  • Interleukin-6 (IL-6), an inflammatory cytokine involved in various biological processes, ranging from immune system activation and hematopoiesis to inflammation and regulating oncogenesis by taking part in gene activation and cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. (openpr.com)
  • However do we fully appreciate the regulation of IL-6 responses in vivo, and understand the wider implications of IL-6 bioactivity in general physiology and inflammation? (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Mercury stimulates VEGF and IL-6 release from human mast cells which could disrupt the blood-brain-barrier and permit brain inflammation. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • A review published in Open Access Rheumatology: Research and Reviews argues there is a frequent disconnect between pain and inflammation in RA, and that pain is apparently caused by multiple mechanisms, including interleukin-6 (IL-6) in a key role. (ajmc.com)
  • Preclinical evidence suggests that IL-6, in particular, might have a role in RA-related pain through various mechanisms, not just indirectly related to inflammation, according to Sebba. (ajmc.com)
  • Furthermore, circulating IL-6 can cross the blood-brain barrier to access the CNS, especially during chronic inflammation, he wrote. (ajmc.com)
  • Furthermore, animal-study data suggests IL-6 drives sensitization at the neuron level in the peripheral nervous system, with or without inflammation in the joint, Sebba wrote. (ajmc.com)
  • ROCHESTER, Minn. -- A Mayo Clinic investigation of Interleukin-6, a hormone inside cells often considered a "bad actor" of the immune system because of its association with inflammation injuries and malignant diseases, shows that it also plays a therapeutic role in mice: it protects brain cells. (prohealth.com)
  • Treating KC-Tie2x Mrp14 -/- mice with anti-IL-23p19 antibodies reversed the skin inflammation, improved thrombosis, and decreased IL-6. (jci.org)
  • In comparison, IL-6 deletion from KC-Tie2 animals improved thrombosis despite sustained skin inflammation, suggesting that thrombosis improvements following IL-23 inhibition occur secondary to IL-6 decreases. (jci.org)
  • Together, these results identify a critical role for skin-derived IL-6 linking skin inflammation with thrombosis, and shows that in the absence of IL-6 the connection between skin inflammation and thrombosis comorbidities is severed. (jci.org)
  • IL-6 initiates and up-regulates inflammation, triggers the release of acute phase proteins, regulates inflammatory response, attracts immune cells to sites of injury or infection and stimulates coagulation. (salimetrics.com)
  • Interleukin-6 as a central mediator of cardiovascular risk associated with chronic inflammation, smoking, diabetes, and visceral obesity: Down-regulation with essential fatty acids, ethanol and pentoxifylline. (salimetrics.com)
  • Selective inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 reverses inflammation and expression of COX-2 and interleukin 6 in rat adjuvant arthritis. (jci.org)
  • These results suggest that COX-2 plays a prominent role in the inflammation associated with adjuvant arthritis and that COX-2 derived PGs upregulate COX-2 and IL-6 expression at inflammatory sites. (jci.org)
  • OBJECTIVE -Diabetic patients have elevated blood levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), which is known to increase inflammation and the development of vascular disease and atherosclerosis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Interleukin-6 (IL-6), which is secreted by macrophages, lymphocytes, and other cells ( 1 ), is an important cytokine that can initiate events leading to atherogenesis by induction of adhesion molecules, monocyte-endothelial interactions, and inflammation injury ( 1 - 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The role of IL-6 in vascular inflammation has also been shown using IL-6 knockout mice that exhibit resistance to splanchnic artery occlusion shock ( 6 ), and in studies ( 7 ) that show increased levels of lipid peroxidation and inflammation in mice that overexpress IL-6. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This suggests that elevated blood levels of IL-6 are associated with the development of vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis ( 1 , 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • IL-6 is cytokine with multiple pleiotropic effect on inflammation, immune response, hematopoiesis and oncogenesis. (biovendor.com)
  • Circulating IL-6 levels in healthy people are very low, about 1 pg/ml, but during inflammation, IL-6 levels increase rapidly. (biovendor.com)
  • Pro-inflammatory properties of IL-6 negatively affect chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. (biovendor.com)
  • Due to its major role in initiation as well as resolving inflammation, deregulation of IL-6 is a mainstay of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. (bmj.com)
  • The serum concentration of fully glycosylated cortisol binding globulin (another marker of IL-6 action), suggested by concanavalin A adsorption, was lower in C/C subjects than in G/G individuals (32.6+/-2.9 vs. 37.6+/-4.6 mg/l, P = 0.03). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Polymorphisms in the IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) gene: strong evidence that serum levels of soluble IL-6R are genetically influenced. (springer.com)
  • T polymorphisms in the IL-10 gene and the IL-6 and IL-10 serum levels in healthy individuals with and without DS. (hindawi.com)
  • The serum measurement of IL-6 and IL-10 was performed in a subgroup (54 cases and 54 controls) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (hindawi.com)
  • IL-6 genotypes had no influence on IL-6 serum levels. (hindawi.com)
  • A (rs1800872) in the IL-10 gene and the serum level of IL-6 and IL-10 in these individuals in comparison with individuals without DS. (hindawi.com)
  • CRP was measured in citrated plasma using a particle enhanced immunonepholometric assay and IL-6 was measured in serum with a solid-phase quantitative sandwich ELISA. (cdc.gov)
  • Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is an important growth factor for estrogen receptor-α (ERα)-positive breast cancer, and elevated serum IL-6 is associated with poor prognosis. (dovepress.com)
  • The established IL-6 signature was validated against 36 human ERα-positive breast tumor samples with matched serum. (dovepress.com)
  • Validation of the IL-6 gene signature in 36 matched human serum and ERα-positive breast tumor samples showed that patients with a high IL-6 pathway activation score were also enriched for elevated serum IL-6 (≥10 pg/mL). (dovepress.com)
  • IL-6 is present in the positive control sample (human serum) and absent from the negative control sample (mouse brain). (antikoerper-online.de)
  • The values of triglyceride, LDL, VLDL, red blood cells and platelets showed an indirect linear trend and the levels of lactate dehydrogenase, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, creatine phosphokinase, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and CRP demonstrated a direct linear trend with elevating rate of IL-6. (ssrn.com)
  • Many patients treated with tocilizumab achieved clinical remission associated with decreased serum IL-6, suggesting that IL-6 enhances autoimmunity. (dovepress.com)
  • In 179 community-dwelling older adults, gait speed was assessed on an automated walkway and serum IL-6 was assayed on ELISA. (natap.org)
  • The concentration of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in pericardial fluid was notably increased compared with serum. (bmj.com)
  • Serum IL-6 levels and other inflammatory mediators commonly associated with stress were determined. (ersjournals.com)
  • Serum IL-6 and paw IL-6 mRNA levels were also reduced to near normal levels by SC-58125. (jci.org)
  • This study investigated interactions between dietary fat intake and IL-6 polymorphisms on obesity and serum lipids in black and white South African (SA) women. (mdpi.com)
  • The IL-6 levels in serum and. (lu.se)
  • The IL-6 levels in serum and urine at diagnosis were significantly higher in the non-pregnant compared to the pregnant women. (lu.se)
  • Serum biomarkers CCL11/eotaxin and IL-6 differentiate between patients with CRMO, healthy controls, and alternative diagnoses (leukemia and lymphoma, osteoarticular infections, para-infectious arthritis, and JIA). (frontiersin.org)
  • Serum CCL11/eotaxin and IL-6 allow differentiation between patients with chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO), healthy controls, and alternative diagnoses. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cellular senescence or EGFR signaling induces interleukin 6 (IL-6) receptor expression controlled by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). (springer.com)
  • Angiotensin II induces interleukin-6 expression in astrocytes: Role of reactive oxygen species and NF-κB. (nih.gov)
  • Complementary DNA For A Novel Human Interleukin (BSF-2) That Induces B Lymphocytes To Produce Immunoglobulin", Nature, 324:73-76, Nov., 1986. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Interleukin-6 induces vascular en. (mendeley.com)
  • Il-6 is a cytokine with a wide variety of biological functions: it plays an essential role in the final differentiation of b-cells into ig-secreting cells, it induces myeloma and plasmacytoma growth, it induces nerve cells differentiation, in hepatocytes it induces acute phase reactants. (prospecbio.com)
  • These data, taken together, suggest that treatment with torin2 and rapamycin induces IL-6 secretion by astrocytes and may contribute to the reduction of mechanical hypersensitivity after SCI. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • however, mitogen or antigen activation of these B cells induces IL-6R and responsiveness to IL-6. (jci.org)
  • In this study, we have shown that a high proportion of B cells enzymatically dissociated from human appendix, a gut-associated lymphoreticular tissue (GALT), expresses the IL-6R, and that recombinant human IL-6 induces significant increases in the number of Ig-producing cells. (jci.org)
  • Although known to be produced by macrophages and other proinflammatory cells, IL-6 is also released by many types of epithelial cells. (nih.gov)
  • IL-6 is secreted by macrophages in response to specific microbial molecules, referred to as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent work has shown that both upstream and downstream signalling pathways for IL-6 differ markedly between myocytes and macrophages. (wikidoc.org)
  • It appears that unlike IL-6 signalling in macrophages, which is dependent upon activation of the NFκB signalling pathway, intramuscular IL-6 expression is regulated by a network of signalling cascades, including the Ca2+/NFAT and glycogen/p38 MAPK pathways. (wikidoc.org)
  • The interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor is known to be mainly expressed by hepatocytes, neutrophils, monocytes/macrophages, and some lymphocytes, which have been used as prognostic markers in a variety of inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, and Crohn's disease. (springer.com)
  • Interleukin-6 is a cytokine that contains a monomer of 184 amino acids produced by T-cells endothelial cells and macrophages mapped on chromosomes 7p15. (biology-online.org)
  • Interleukin-6 is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine primarily produced by activated T cells and an assortment of other cells including endothelial cells and macrophages. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Using 18-week-old and 52-week-old Wistar rats, we examined interleukin-6 (IL-6) production from osteoblasts and bone marrow macrophages treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and/or β -estradiol. (go.jp)
  • Additionally, and in contrast, the production of IL-6 by bone marrow macrophages was not significantly changed by treatment with both agents. (go.jp)
  • Finally, there was a marked difference in the amount of IL-6 produced between osteoblastd and bone marrow macrophages. (go.jp)
  • Interleukin-6 secretion by astrocytes is dynamically regulated by PI3K-mTOR-calcium signaling. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Using primary cultures of rat astrocytes we delineated the molecular mechanisms that regulate IL-6 expression and secretion. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Furthermore, we found that an increase in cytosolic calcium concentration was necessary for IL-6 secretion. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • To induce IL-6 secretion in astrocytes, we used torin2 and rapamycin to block the PI3K-mTOR pathway and increase cytosolic calcium, respectively. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The secretion of catecholamines during stress is associated with systemic interleukin (IL)-6 production [ 12 ]. (ersjournals.com)
  • This study examined the hypothesis that ketosis increases the circulating levels of IL-6 in type 1 diabetic patients as well as the secretion of IL-6 in vitro in a cell culture model using U937 monocytes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Cell culture studies found that exogenous addition of the ketone body AA, but not BHB, increases IL-6 secretion and ROS generation in U937 cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • N -acetylcysteine (NAC) prevented the IL-6 secretion in acetoacetate-treated U937 monocytes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS -This study demonstrates that hyperketonemia increases IL-6 levels in the blood of type 1 diabetic patients and that NAC can inhibit IL-6 secretion by U937 monocytic cells cultured in a ketotic medium. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Cell culture studies have shown that high glucose concentrations can increase the IL-6 secretion in cultured monocytes ( 4 , 11 , 12 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • No study has been performed on the effects of ketosis on blood levels of IL-6 in diabetic patients or on IL-6 secretion by monocytes in a cell culture model. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This study examined the hypothesis that ketosis increases the IL-6 secretion in a cell culture model using U937 monocytes and in type 1 diabetic patients. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • IL-6 is the key cytokine responsible for the stimulus of synthesis and secretion of CRP. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Hepatocyte IL-6 production was significantly increased following treatment with LPS, IL-1, and TNF. (nih.gov)
  • The interleukin 6 (IL-6)-174 polymorphism was significantly associated with prostate cancer in Slovak patients. (nih.gov)
  • Here we found that the IL-6 and VEGF expression was correlated with tumor stage and significantly higher than that in normal bone. (mendeley.com)
  • While levels of IL-6 and the incidence of depression were elevated in these patients, those who reported strong social attachments had significantly lower levels of IL-6 in both the blood and in the ascites fluid surrounding the tumor. (news-medical.net)
  • IL-6 infusion gave rise to increase in net glycerol release in subcutaneous adipose tissue while the net release of fatty acids did not change significantly. (nih.gov)
  • In the splanchnic region IL-6 elicited a pronounced vasodilatation, and the uptake of fatty acids and the gluconeogenic precursors glycerol and lactate increased significantly. (nih.gov)
  • IL-6-deficient transgenic mice (IL-6 KO) displayed significantly delayed cutaneous wound healing compared with wild-type control animals, requiring up to threefold longer to heal. (cdc.gov)
  • Interleukin-6 was the only risk factor related to each endothelial activation molecule and independently contributed by 18% and significantly more than other risk factors to the variation in overall endothelial activation as estimated by an SD (z) score of endothelial activation molecule concentrations. (hindawi.com)
  • This polymorphism modulates IL-6 expression and allele/genotype frequencies at the -174 site differ significantly between ethnic groups. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • IL-6 levels were significantly higher for the cases than controls but with moderate overlap in their ranges. (aappublications.org)
  • Anti-IL-6 therapy significantly prevents the inflammatory process in mice ( 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Despite a significant correlation between pretransplant CRP and IL-6 levels, only CRP levels significantly influenced transplant-related mortality (TRM). (mdpi.com)
  • While they displayed significantly elevated levels of IL-6 both in plasma and CSF compared with control mice, the increase was modest compared with that seen in LPS injected mice on WT background, the latter being approximately 20 times larger in magnitude. (diva-portal.org)
  • Each level of IL-6 or TNF-α was significantly associated with the level of hsCRP. (ahajournals.org)
  • Interleukin 6 (IL6) is a potent pleiotropic cytokine that regulates cell growth and differentiation and plays an important role in immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin (IL)-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine with a key impact on both immunoregulation and nonimmune events in most cell types and tissues outside the immune system ( 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A complete review of the pleiotropic biological effects of IL-6 is beyond the scope of this review and has been the topic of a recent review ( 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine involved in a multitude of inflammatory responses with roles in immune regulation and pathologic conditions including both acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. (salimetrics.com)
  • Interleukin (IL)-6, a pleiotropic cytokine with varied systemic functions, plays a major role in inflammatory processes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Interleukin (IL)-6 is a pleiotropic inflammatory cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory capacities, produced by different cells and tissues, such as leukocytes, adipocytes, and endothelium. (jle.com)
  • Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine having several functions, including the regulation of immunologic and inflammatory responses. (ovid.com)
  • IL-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine that plays an important role in host defense by regulating immune and inflammatory responses. (biovendor.com)
  • Interleukin 6 receptor (IL6R) also known as CD126 (Cluster of Differentiation 126) is a type I cytokine receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-10 stimulates the activation, proliferation, and differentiation of B cells [ 6 ] and participates in the control of the inflammatory response [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • IL-6 also acts on lymphocytes, not only on B cells to stimulate autoantibody production, but also on naïve T helper cells to promote T h 17 cell differentiation. (dovepress.com)
  • In addition, IL-6 has been implicated in hematopoiesis as a cofactor in stem cell amplification and differentiation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) supports the differentiation and survival of normal and neoplastic plasma cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • IL-6 concentrations were assessed using both the automated electrochemiluminescence immunoassay method and ELISA, the current gold standard. (gu.se)
  • Interleukin-6 concentrations relate consistently, markedly, and to a larger extent than other cardiovascular risk factors to endothelial activation in RA. (hindawi.com)
  • Assessment of interleukin-6 concentrations may enhance cardiovascular risk stratification in RA. (hindawi.com)
  • The authors also aimed to investigate the impact of the genotypes on the interleukin concentrations. (hindawi.com)
  • An equation (y = 248.75x4 - 542.17x3 + 396.6x2 + 131.48x + 2.0519) was derived from the standard curve and used to calculate IL-6 concentrations shown in the Table. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • We report a case of cardiac tamponade caused by rheumatoid pericarditis associated with high concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in pericardial fluid. (bmj.com)
  • Plasma and urine will be drawn over 6 hours to determine concentrations of the drugs and their metabolites. (centerwatch.com)
  • IL-6 receptor (IL6R) inhibition may represent another potential immunomodulatory strategy for treating COVID-19 [5, 6], and a recent meta-analysis of mean IL-6 concentrations demonstrated 2.9-fold higher levels in patients with complicated COVID-19 compared with patients with non-complicated disease [7]. (ersjournals.com)
  • Vascular risk factor modification can potentially mitigate chronically elevated IL-6 levels and potentially affect gait slowing in older adults.4 Our findings suggest that low IL-6 levels sustained over a long-term period may be more meaningful for maintaining WM health and gait speed in older adults. (natap.org)
  • 11 , 12 In addition, in SM, elevated IL-6 levels are regarded as an indicator of a poor prognosis. (haematologica.org)
  • Like in humans, there seems to be an increase in IL-6 expression in working muscle and plasma IL-6 concentration during exercise in rodents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following exercise, the basal plasma IL-6 concentration may increase up to 100-fold, but less dramatic increases are more frequent. (wikidoc.org)
  • We measured the plasma IL-6 concentration and estimated dietary antioxidant capacity based on oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) combined with a 106-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. (mdpi.com)
  • Together with the findings that IL-6 prevents obesity, stimulates lipolysis and is released from skeletal muscle during exercise, the tocilizumab finding indicates that IL-6 is required for exercise to reduce visceral adipose tissue mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • The investigators hypothesize that a single administration of the anti-Interleukin 6 receptor antagonist Tocilizumab, in patients with NSTEMI, may interrupt the self-perpetuating inflammatory loops which could improve plaque stability, with potential secondary beneficial effects on myocardial damage. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Las Vegas -Intravenous administration of the anti-interleukin-6 (IL-6) agent tocilizumab (Actemra, Genentech) is well-tolerated in patients with non-infectious uveitis involving the posterior segment and showing promising efficacy, according to interim outcomes reported by Quan Dong Nguyen, MD. (modernmedicine.com)
  • The primary endpoint was assessed at 6 months, and then tocilizumab administration was changed to an "as needed" basis. (modernmedicine.com)
  • IL-6 mRNA production was increased in a dose-dependent fashion up to 15-fold in LPS-stimulated cells with the addition of IFN-gamma. (nih.gov)
  • The enhanced production of IL-6 mRNA that occurs with the addition of IFN-gamma to LPS-stimulated monocytic cells was due to increased transcription of IL-6 mRNA. (nih.gov)
  • In situ hybridization of wound tissue from wild-type mice revealed IL-6 mRNA expression primarily in the epidermis at the leading edge of the wound. (cdc.gov)
  • IL-6 mRNA was detected in both Thy 1+ and Thy 1- murine fibroblasts and clones using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). (ovid.com)
  • Interestingly, semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Northern blot analysis demonstrated that IL-6 mRNA was down-regulated in confluent fibroblast cultures versus cultures in log phase growth. (ovid.com)
  • Results of reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis indicated that IL-6 receptor mRNA was present in all carcinoma cell lines but not in epithelial cells or stromal cells derived from BPH. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The Ras-mediated and Janus kinase (JAK)-Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STAT) pathways are activated because of the IL-6 ligand and its receptor binding. (openpr.com)
  • Genetic factors involved in the molecular pathways regulating tumor development have been adduced to explain these differences, and it has been suggested that the IL-6 gene is a susceptibility factor underlying ethnic differences in breast cancer survival. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • It has repeatedly shown that oncogenic mutations as well as the bone marrow matrix (BMM) stimulate IL-6-independent signalling pathways that protect MM cells from apoptosis.Hyperdiploid MM tumors contain multiple trisomies involving chromosomes 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 15 , 19 , and 21, but rarely have IgH translocations, although CCND-1 / CCND-2 / CCND-3 dysregulation appears to occur as an early event. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Cells were treated with recombinant human IL-6 or conditioned medium (CM) derived from the above cultured cells to identify possible paracrine and autocrine pathways. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1)/p38/AP-1 pathway was activated after IL-6 treatment, and IL-6-induced VEGF expression was abolished by the specific inhibitor and siRNA of ASK1, p38, and AP-1 cascades. (mendeley.com)
  • As the dysregulation of IL-6 signaling pathway leads to various cancers and dysimmune diseases, many anti-IL6 therapies are being developed. (openpr.com)
  • With the involvement of IL-6 signaling pathway in the development of various diseases, the therapeutics pipeline for IL6 inhibitors is set to experience growth in coming years. (openpr.com)
  • We have thus identified a new factor in the IL-6 regulated fever pathway, but the pathway is still not understood. (diva-portal.org)
  • Differential gene expression analysis identified 17 genes that could be used to determine IL-6 pathway activation by combining their expression intensity into a pathway activation score. (dovepress.com)
  • The investigators hypothesize that patients with rheumatoid arthritis initiating treatment with an IL-6-receptor inhibitor (anti-IL-6R) will obtain a normalization of the activated IL-6-pathway resulting in increased expression and activity of drug metabolizing enzymes and hence increased metabolism. (centerwatch.com)
  • Inhibition of Interleukin-6 Receptor in a Murine Model of Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion. (doaj.org)
  • Additionally, niclosamide reversed adipocyte-induced EMT with a correlated inhibition of IL-6/Stat3 activation and downregulation of EMT-TFs TWIST and SNAIL. (nature.com)
  • A common variant of the interleukin 6 receptor (IL-6r) gene increases IL-6r and IL-6 levels, without other inflammatory effects. (springer.com)
  • IL-6 is produced by adipocytes and is thought to be a reason why obese individuals have higher endogeneous levels of CRP. (wikipedia.org)
  • One example is the parabrachial nuclei of the pons, where GLP-1 increases IL-6 levels and where IL-6 exerts a marked anti-obesity effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • A new study by researchers at the University of Cambridge has revealed the existence of a link between coronary heart disease and levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6). (medindia.net)
  • In summary, a polymorphism of the IL-6 gene influences the relationship among insulin sensitivity, postload glucose levels, and peripheral white blood cell count. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In contrast, negative quality of life factors were associated with higher IL-6 levels. (news-medical.net)
  • Levels of IL-6 increase with age, chronic psychological stress, and disease. (news-medical.net)
  • Previous studies in humans and laboratory animals have shown IL-6 levels are also influenced by behavioral factors. (news-medical.net)
  • IL-6 has previously been shown to promote tumor growth, and IL-6 levels are also prognostic in ovarian cancer, with elevated levels associated with higher mortality and metastatic disease. (news-medical.net)
  • Because depression and chronic stress are commonly associated with ovarian cancer, and IL-6 levels are responsive to psychosocial factors, Erin S. Costanzo, M.A. from the University of Iowa and colleagues investigated whether IL-6 levels were linked to psychosocial factors in 61 women with advanced ovarian cancer. (news-medical.net)
  • We examined the potential impact of conventional compared with nonconventional cardiovascular risk factors including interleukin-6 levels on endothelial activation in RA. (hindawi.com)
  • These days, blood has to be drawn and levels of cortisol and interleukin-6 can only be measured once in a while and not continuously. (medgadget.com)
  • Elevated levels of IL-6 and the IL-6 receptor were evident in a mouse model of chronic back pain. (ajmc.com)
  • Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels are upregulated in myocardial infarction. (doaj.org)
  • The soluble interleukin 6 receptor (sIL-6R) circulates at elevated levels in various diseases. (rupress.org)
  • Furthermore, IL-6 levels had a significant and direct correlation with troponin I, CRP, ferritin and pro-calcitonin while it had a significant and indirect correlation with VLDL.Interpretation: A hazardous level of IL-6 probably threatening the critical health factors and has a crucial role in immune-mediated acute lung injury in CIOVID-19 patients. (ssrn.com)
  • To determine the utility of plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF), interleukin 1β (IL-1), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in the prediction of occult bacteremia in febrile, young children. (aappublications.org)
  • In febrile children 0 to 36 months of age, IL-6 levels may be helpful in the prediction of occult bacteremia, but TNF and IL-1 levels are not. (aappublications.org)
  • IL-6 levels alone or notably when combined with an ANC were more predictive of occult bacteremia than traditional tests and clinical criteria. (aappublications.org)
  • Salivary IL-6 levels can be very low in certain participant groups, and pilot studies in the population of interest are recommended to determine baseline measures. (salimetrics.com)
  • Results: There was a clear correlation between basal platelet count and sCD40L basal levels, post-angioplasty sCD40L increase and post-angioplasty IL-6 levels and post-angioplasty IL-6 levels with post-angioplasty CRP levels. (scirp.org)
  • Postangioplasty CRP, IL-6 and sCD40L blood levels were influenced by GP IIb-IIIa treatment in patients with angiographic thrombus. (scirp.org)
  • high IL-6 levels over the prior 10 years is strongly related to slower gait. (natap.org)
  • In this cohort of older adults with mean age of 83 years, sustained exposure to high IL-6 levels over the prior 10 years is strongly related to slower gait and this association is explained by higher WMH burden in the brain. (natap.org)
  • We found that higher IL-6 at time of MRI was related to worse NAWM-FA but not to WMH, whereas sustained IL-6 levels were associated with WMH but not with NAWM-FA. (natap.org)
  • WMH accounted for 30% attenuation in the relationship between higher sustained IL-6 levels and slower gait speed (p = 0.043) in the mediation analyses. (natap.org)
  • A transient appearance of circulating IL-6 was observed with peak levels between 3 and 6 h after the start of the hrTNF infusion. (rupress.org)
  • The combination of hrIFN-gamma (200 micrograms/m2) and hrTNF in the infusions resulted in higher IL-6 levels than a comparable dose of hrTNF alone. (rupress.org)
  • IL-6 levels increased from mechanical ventilation to spontaneous breathing in all patients (p=0.02) and in the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) population (p=0.05) with SBT failure compared with success, but not in non-COPD patients (p=0.12). (ersjournals.com)
  • After 24 h of SBT stress, IL-6 levels decreased in patients with SBT failure (under mechanical ventilation at that point) (p=0.02) and those with weaning success (p=0.04). (ersjournals.com)
  • IL-6 levels in blood are higher or similar in diabetic patients compared with normal subjects ( 4 , 8 - 10 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In contrast, human tonsillar and peripheral blood B cells express low levels of IL-6R, and exogenous IL-6 does not increase numbers of Ig-producing cells. (jci.org)
  • Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional pro-inflammatory cytokine that is tightly regulated and expressed at low levels in healthy individuals. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Mice lacking IL-6 in hematopoietic cells displayed normal fever to LPS and were found to have similar levels of IL-6 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and in plasma as well as similar expression of the IL-6 gene in the brain as WT mice. (diva-portal.org)
  • Although IL-6 levels were detected in patients undergoing cardiac operations and reported sporadically, the perioperative kinetics of IL-6 in cardiac surgical patients was insufficiently elaborated. (jle.com)
  • The degree of endothelial dysfunction produced by 400 and 1000 ng/kg/min Ang II was reflective of parallel increases in plasma IL-6 levels and vascular macrophage content, suggesting that increases in arterial blood pressure precede the development of endothelial dysfunction. (frontiersin.org)
  • Increased levels of IL-6 have been found in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, insulin resistant, diabetes mellitus type 2, atopic asthma, rheumatoid arthritis but also in patients with advance stage cancer, blood circulating micrometastasis etc. (biovendor.com)
  • 7 - 12 For example, a clear correlation between the variant of SM and IL-6 levels has been described. (haematologica.org)
  • 15 In particular, they were able to show that bone marrow mast cells in patients with KIT D816V + SM express and release IL-6, and that the levels of IL-6 in cultured mononuclear cells in these patients correlate with the D816V KIT allele burden and with the percentage of mast cells in these samples. (haematologica.org)
  • Because admission levels of IL-6 and CRP were reported to be elevated in patients with unstable angina, IL-6 and CRP are involved in the major adverse cardiac events. (ahajournals.org)
  • Interleukin-6 receptor blockade selectively reduces IL-21 production by CD4 T cells and IgG4 autoantibodies in rheumatoid arthritis. (springer.com)
  • With this study the investigators aim to assess if drug metabolism changes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis when an interleukin (IL)-6 inhibitor is initiated. (centerwatch.com)
  • The present Competitive Intelligence Report about Interleukin-6 (IL-6) Inhibitors and IL-6 Receptor (IL-6R) Antagonists for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and multiple myeloma provides a competitor evaluation in the field of R&D projects with Interleukin-6 (IL-6) Inhibitors and IL-6 Receptor (IL-6R) Antagonists as of October 2012. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Although the causes of rheumatoid arthritis are not fully understood, constitutive overproduction of interleukin-6 (IL-6), a multifunctional cytokine that regulates immune response, inflammatory reaction and bone metabolism, is thought to play a major pathological role in RA. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Interleukin-6 (IL6) is a multifunctional cytokine that regulates immune and inflammatory responses. (osti.gov)
  • Interleukin-6 is a multi-functional cytokine that regulates immune responses, acute phase reactions and hematopoiesis, and it may play a central role in host defense mechanisms. (biovendor.com)
  • Antibodies, polyclonal and monoclonal, which are capable of specifically binding to a human interleukin-6 receptor. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Also included are monoclonal antibodies which competitively and non-competitively inhibit human interleukin-6, and a method of producing hybridomas of the said monoclonal antibodies capable of specifically binding to a human interleukin-6 receptor. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Cellular cholesterol depletion triggers shedding of the human interleukin-6 receptor by ADAM10 and ADAM17 (TACE). (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Translation of Summary document of Proceedings of the Japanese Society for Immunology, B2-66 Attempt to Prepare Monoclonal Antibodies to human BSF2/IL-6 Receptor (Dec. 6, 1988). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Species specificity of ADAM10 and ADAM17 proteins in interleukin-6 (IL-6) trans-signaling and novel role of ADAM10 in inducible IL-6 receptor shedding. (springer.com)
  • These in vivo findings corresponded with a greater adhesion of the IL-6-transfected B16 cells to stromal matrix proteins (laminin, fibronectin, and vitronectin) and a less prominent vascular response in an intradermal angiogenesis assay. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine which mediates many aspects of the acute phase response. (nih.gov)
  • IL-6 is an important mediator of fever and of the acute phase response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin‑6 RNA knockdown ameliorates acute lung injury induced by intestinal ischemia reperfusion in rats by upregulating interleukin‑10 expression. (nih.gov)
  • The present study demonstrated that IL-6 RNA interference may protect the lung from acute lung injury induced by intestinal ischemia/reperfusion, and that this protective role may be associated with upregulation of IL-10. (nih.gov)
  • Interleukin-6 (IL6) is a cytokine important for inducing the fever response during infection and has been reported to uphold core body temperature during acute cold exposure. (gu.se)
  • We aimed to study an interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene polymorphism in relation to insulin sensitivity (IL-6 is the main cytokine involved in an acute-phase response). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • It well established that IL-6 stimulates the acute phase expression of CRP. (rupress.org)
  • however, little is known about the role of IL-6 in the sub-acute phases of SCI. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Height of fever, duration of fever, acute illness observation score, absolute band count, and white blood cell count were all much less predictive of bacteremia than either IL-6 or absolute neutrophil count (ANC). (aappublications.org)
  • As IL-6 production seems to be related to the intensity of stress in other conditions (especially in acute exercise) [ 13 , 14 ], we also hypothesised that the increase of IL-6 during SBT is higher in patients who fail the trial, because this population typically develops higher cardiopulmonary stress. (ersjournals.com)
  • IL-6 affects B and T lymphocytes and has been shown to have a role in host defense, acute phase reactions, immune responses and hematopoiesis. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Specific attention will be given to the role of the soluble IL-6 receptor and we will discuss the merit of selectively targeting this soluble receptor as an alternative therapeutic strategy for clinically blocking IL-6 involvement in disease. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Surprisingly, soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) produced initial decrease of sEPSCs, followed by increase of sEPSCs and CREB phosphorylation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Endotoxin stimulates hepatocyte interleukin-6 production. (nih.gov)
  • In muscle and fatty tissue, IL-6 stimulates energy mobilization that leads to increased body temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Outside the CNS, it seems that IL-6 stimulates the production of GLP-1 in the endocrine pancreas and the gut. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-6 had previously been classified as a proinflammatory cytokine. (wikidoc.org)
  • The Interleukin 6 (IL-6) gene encodes the classic proinflammatory cytokine IL-6. (bmj.com)
  • Culture supernatants were assayed for murine IL-6 using an ELISA. (nih.gov)
  • The IL-6 dosages will be performed by the ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) method. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The Salimetrics IL-6 ELISA Kit is a sandwich immunoassay specifically designed and validated for the quantitative measurement of salivary Interleukin -6. (salimetrics.com)
  • Technological advancements have made it possible for pharmaceutical companies to develop better drug candidates in the IL-6 inhibitors therapeutics pipeline. (openpr.com)
  • The IL-6 inhibitors therapeutics pipeline was analyzed based on phase, route of administration, and molecule type. (openpr.com)
  • Sirukumab, the drug in the filed stage of the Interleukin-6 inhibitors therapeutics pipeline, is being developed by GlaxoSmithKline PLC in collaboration with Janssen Biotech Inc. It was also under Phase II development for severe asthma and in Phase III stage for giant cell arteritis. (openpr.com)
  • For the treatment of RA, a drug being developed by R-Pharm Group - Olokizumab - was under Phase III development stage of the IL-6 inhibitors therapeutics pipeline. (openpr.com)
  • Inhibitors of IL-6 (including estrogen ) are used to treat postmenopausal osteoporosis . (wikidoc.org)
  • Many treatments, including IL-6 inhibitors, are too large to cross the blood-brain barrier, which points to a likely reason that central effects on pain from IL-6 might persist despite biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug treatment. (ajmc.com)
  • Research and Markets: Competitor Analysis: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) Inhibitors and IL-6 Receptor (IL-6R) Antagonists. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • DUBLIN -- Research and Markets (http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/hsbrf8/competitor) has announced the addition of the "Competitor Analysis: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) Inhibitors and IL-6 Receptor (IL-6R) Antagonists" report to their offering. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • This IL-6 trans-signaling also promotes the proliferation of T cells and regulates the expression of adhesion molecules on endothelial cells. (news-medical.net)
  • Mice with a B cell-specific deletion of TRAF3 (B- Traf3 −/− mice) show a marked B cell survival advantage in the absence of increased proliferation ( 5 , 6 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The ED 50 as determined by the dose-dependent stimulation of the proliferation of IL-6-dependent murine 7TD1 cells is ≤ 0.02 ng/ml, corresponding to a specific activity of ≥ 5×10 7 units/mg. (biovendor.com)
  • Together, our results suggest that autocrine IL-6 signaling may occur intracellularly. (sciencemag.org)
  • Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-encoded viral interleukin-6 is secreted and modified differently than human interleukin-6: evidence for a unique autocrine signaling mechanism. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Interleukin-6 is an autocrine growth factor for murine lung fibroblast subsets. (ovid.com)
  • These results suggest that IL-6 functions as a paracrine growth factor for LNCaP and as an autocrine growth factor for DU145 and PC3, but it has no stimulatory effect on epithelial cells derived from BPH. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It is assumed that interleukin 6 in the liver activates the homologue of the human longevity gene mINDY expression via binding to its IL-6-receptor, which is associated with activation of the transcription factor STAT3 (which binds to the binding site in the mIndy promoter) and thereby rise of citrate uptake and hepatic lipogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-6 expression increased in all groups compared to control. (nih.gov)
  • Cloning and Expression of the Human Interleukin-6 (BSF-2/IFN.beta.2) Receptor", Science, 241:825-828 1988, Aug. 12). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • However, the relationship between IL-6 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in human osteosarcoma is mostly unknown. (mendeley.com)
  • Importantly, knockdown IL-6 reduced VEGF expression and abolished osteosarcoma conditional medium-mediated angiogenesis. (mendeley.com)
  • Taken together, these results indicate that IL-6 occurs through ASK1 and p38, which in turn activates AP-1, resulting in the activations of VEGF expression and contributing the angiogenesis of human osteosarcoma cells. (mendeley.com)
  • Delayed wound healing in IL-6 KO mice was reversed with a single dose of recombinant murine IL-6 or intradermal injection of an expression plasmid containing the full-length murine IL-6 cDNA. (cdc.gov)
  • Roles of circulating soluble interleukin (IL)-6 receptor and IL-6 receptor expression on CD4 + T cells in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Int J Infect Dis IJID Off Publ Int Soc Infect Dis. (springer.com)
  • In the CNS lesions of NMO, reduced expression of AQP4 on astrocytes is evident even during the early stage ( 6 ), which is followed by the occurrence of vasculocentric destruction of astrocytes associated with perivascular deposition of complement and IgG ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • After an IL-6 inhibitor was given, expression of the pain-related neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide was reduced in the dorsal root ganglia. (ajmc.com)
  • We demonstrated that mice deficient in IL-6 did not respond with fever upon peripheral LPS administration despite an intact expression of PGE2 in the brain. (diva-portal.org)
  • We demonstrated that mice lacking IL-6 displayed two-times lower expression of lipocalin-2 in the hypothalamus. (diva-portal.org)
  • IL-6 and lipocalin-2 were directly related to each other since peripherally administrated IL-6 induced the expression of lipocalin-2 in cells associated with the brain vessels. (diva-portal.org)
  • IL-6 expression requires activation of p38 and depends on NF-κB transcriptional activity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Increased IL-6 expression has been associated with a variety of diseases, including inflammatory conditions such as atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (obesity, myocardial infarction and type II diabetes). (eurekaselect.com)
  • Regulation of expression of interleukin-6. (biovendor.com)
  • report that the D816V-mutated KIT receptor triggers expression and release of IL-6 in neoplastic mast cells. (haematologica.org)
  • The independent interleukin-6-overall endothelial activation relationships were reproduced in various subgroups. (hindawi.com)
  • These findings are important as they demonstrate that along with increases in arterial pressure that increases in IL-6 and vascular macrophage accumulation correlate with the impairment of endothelial function produced by Ang II. (frontiersin.org)
  • Functional murine interleukin 6 receptor with the intracisternal A particle gene product at its cytoplasmic domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • A comparative MCF-7 xenograft murine model was utilized to determine the role of IL-6 in estrogen-supplemented ERa-positive breast cancer to assess the efficacy of anti-IL-6 therapy in vivo. (dovepress.com)
  • however, it was not known whether all murine lung fibroblasts secreted IL-6 or only subsets thereof. (ovid.com)
  • Also, IL-6 activity was detected in the supernatants of murine lung fibroblast lines and clones using an IL-6-dependent hybridoma assay. (ovid.com)
  • Murine IL-6 is inactive on human cells, while both human and murine are equally active on murine cells. (biovendor.com)
  • 2013). The association of IL-6 and IL-6R gene polymorphisms with chronic periodontitis in a Chinese population. (springer.com)
  • These results indicate that the IL-6-dependent B-cell subpopulation is involved in the pathogenesis of NMO, thereby providing a therapeutic strategy for targeting IL-6R signaling. (pnas.org)
  • Citation: Wang C, Wolf S, Khan M, Mao-Draayer Y (2015) Interleukin-6 Receptor: A Novel Therapeutic Target for Neuromyelitis Optica. (omicsonline.org)
  • This protective response holds considerable therapeutic significance since scientists already know how to make IL-6 in the laboratory. (prohealth.com)
  • Thus, a better understanding of IL-6 and its role in various pathological conditions could enable the development of strategies to use it as a therapeutic target. (bmj.com)
  • In addition we discuss the role of IL-6 in diseases with inflammatory background and cancer and also the therapeutic applications of anti-IL-6 agents. (bmj.com)
  • Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF), interleukin 1β (IL-1), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) are well known and important early mediators in the host's initial response to bacterial infection. (aappublications.org)
  • Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is an interleukin that acts as both a pro-inflammatory cytokine and an anti-inflammatory myokine. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-6 has extensive anti-inflammatory functions in its role as a myokine . (wikidoc.org)
  • The immune system uses anti-inflammatory mechanisms to prevent the exacerbation of inflammatory processes caused by proinflammatory molecules and avoid tissue damage and restore the homeostasis [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Interleukin-6 (IL-6) as an anti-inflammatory cytokine: Induction of circulating IL-1 receptor antagonist and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor p55. (salimetrics.com)
  • This interaction of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory activities suggests that IL-6 may play a role in regulating the physiological response to disease. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Anti-inflammatory properties of IL-6 are mainly responsible for the antibacterial and beneficial regenerative processes. (biovendor.com)
  • At 4 degrees C, both the oxygen consumption and core temperature were lower in IL-6-/- compared with wild-type mice, suggesting a lower cold-induced thermogenesis in IL-6-/- mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-6 may exert a tonic suppression of body fat in mature mice, given that IL-6 gene knockout causes mature onset obesity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies in mice with IL-6 gene knockout indicate that lack of IL-6 in mice affect exercise function. (wikipedia.org)
  • All mice were placed in a cold environment (4˚C) for 6 days. (gu.se)
  • Impaired cutaneous wound healing in interleukin-6-deficient and immunosuppressed mice. (cdc.gov)
  • Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays of wound tissue from IL-6 KO mice, decreased AP-1 transcription factor activation was shown compared with wild-type mice 16 h after wounding. (cdc.gov)
  • Treatment with rmIL-6 also reconstituted wound healing in dexamethasone-treated immunosuppressed mice. (cdc.gov)
  • In contrast, upon intracerebroventricular administration of PGE2 into the brain, a dose-dependent fever response was monitored in IL-6 deficient mice. (diva-portal.org)
  • To further investigate the elusive role of IL-6 in fever, we performed a microarray analysis to identify the genes that were differentially expressed in the brain of LPS-challenged IL-6 deficient mice compared to wild type mice (paper III). (diva-portal.org)
  • This question was studied further in paper IV, where we investigated the role of hematopoietically produced IL-6 in fever by constructing chimeric mice. (diva-portal.org)
  • Mice lacking the IL-6 gene got severely sick and started dying. (prohealth.com)
  • Their findings: neurons in the spinal cords of mice lacking IL-6 were degenerating dramatically. (prohealth.com)
  • An analysis of the brains of healthy mice possessing the IL-6 gene surprised them. (prohealth.com)
  • Their data show that of infected mice possessing IL-6, only two of 23 (~9 percent) died. (prohealth.com)
  • By comparison, 17 of 29 mice (~60 percent) lacking IL-6 died after virus infection. (prohealth.com)
  • To clarify the contribution of hematopoietically derived IL-6 to fever, we created chimeric mice expressing IL-6 either in cells of hematopoietic or, conversely, in cells of non-hematopoietic origin. (diva-portal.org)
  • This was performed by extinguishing hematopoetic cells in wild-type (WT) or IL-6 knockout (IL-6 KO) mice by whole-body irradiation and transplanting them with new stem cells. (diva-portal.org)
  • In contrast, IL-6 KO mice, with intact IL-6 production in cells of hematopoietic origin, only showed a minor elevation of the body temperature after peripheral LPS injection. (diva-portal.org)
  • In B cells from wild-type mice, TRAF3 associated with a phosphatase that targeted a transcription factor downstream of the IL-6 receptor, suggesting that TRAF3 limits the accumulation of plasma cells by inhibiting IL-6 signaling. (sciencemag.org)
  • TRAF3-deficient B cells had enhanced responsiveness to IL-6, and genetic loss of IL-6 in B- Traf3 −/− mice restored their plasma cell numbers to normal. (sciencemag.org)
  • Blood pressure and responses of carotid arteries were examined in control (C57Bl/6) mice and in mice infused with 50, 100, 200, 400, or 1000 ng/kg/min Ang II for either 14 or 28 Days. (frontiersin.org)
  • Recent data suggest a causal role of the IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) in coronary heart disease. (doaj.org)
  • Psoriasis patient skin has elevated IL-6 and IL-6 receptor is present in human coronary atheroma, supporting a link between skin and distant vessel disease in patient tissue. (jci.org)
  • In addition, osteoblasts secrete IL-6 to stimulate osteoclast formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin-6 receptor has been shown to interact with Interleukin 6 and Ciliary neurotrophic factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interestingly, IL-6 also promotes axon regeneration, and therefore its induction in reactive astrocytes may improve regeneration after SCI. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We found that IL-6 is expressed by astrocytes and neurons one week post-injury and then declines. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Specifically, IL-6 was found in astrocytes. (prohealth.com)
  • Says Dr. Rodriguez, "As soon as you put this virus in, all those astrocytes -- like a lightbulb -- go on to make IL-6. (prohealth.com)
  • Given its production in astrocytes, it seems IL-6 holds "dual citizenship" by also working in the realm of the brain to protect against neuronal injury. (prohealth.com)
  • The recombinant human IL-6-induced increase in Ig-producing cells is restricted to the IgA isotype. (jci.org)
  • Recombinant human interleukin-6 infusion during low-intensity exercise does not enhance whole body lipolysis or fat oxidation in humans. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Only a small number of cells express this membrane-bound IL-6R and can therefore respond to IL-6 alone. (news-medical.net)
  • However, these cells do respond if IL-6 is bound in a complex to the soluble form of IL-6R (sIL-6R). (news-medical.net)
  • Generation of sIL-6R therefore dramatically increases the range of cells that can be targeted and activated by IL-6. (news-medical.net)
  • This activation of cells by the IL-6/sIL-6R complex is referred to as "trans-signaling. (news-medical.net)
  • Immunohistochemical staining revealed that the hepatocytes, and not contaminating nonparenchymal cells, were the principal source of the IL-6 produced in these cultures. (nih.gov)
  • Smooth muscle cells in the tunica media of many blood vessels also produce IL-6 as a pro-inflammatory cytokine. (wikipedia.org)
  • An intracellular adrenomedullin system reduces IL-6 release via a NF-kB-mediated, cAMP-independent transcriptional mechanism in rat thymic epithelial cells. (nih.gov)
  • IL-6 has in addition to its immunoregulatory actions been proposed to affect glucose homeostasis and metabolism directly and indirectly by action on skeletal muscle cells, adipocytes, hepatocytes, pancreatic β-cells, and neuroendocrine cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Type 2 diabetes is characterized by the failure of the β-cells to compensate for peripheral insulin resistance ( 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • IL-6 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that activates cells through both membrane-bound (classic) and soluble forms (trans-signaling), according to the review. (ajmc.com)
  • All cells are susceptible to IL-6 trans-signaling, including the neurons and glial cells of the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia, according to the author. (ajmc.com)
  • Although interleukin-6 (IL-6) is considered as a key growth factor for myeloma cells, only a few subpopulations of tumor cells, such as CD45(+) immature cells, proliferate in response to IL-6. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Adipocytes induce epithelial mesenchymal transition of breast cancer cells through paracrine IL-6/Stat3 signalling. (nature.com)
  • We concluded that IL-6 produced by cells of non-hematopoietic origin is critical for the LPSinduced fever while hematopoietically produced IL-6 plays only a minor role in contributing to fever. (diva-portal.org)
  • When human IL-6 was provided in vivo, MCF-7 cells engrafted without the need for estrogen supplementation, and addition of estrogen to IL-6 did not further enhance engraftment. (dovepress.com)
  • B16 melanoma cells transfected with the human IL-6 complementary DNA demonstrated slower tumor growth in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Interleukin-6 -- called IL-6 for short by researchers -- may, in fact, be a "white knight" for mouse brain cells, or neurons, as brain cells also are called. (prohealth.com)
  • IL-6 is a multifunctional cytokine that binds to a specific IL-6R (α chain, IL-6R, or CD126) on target cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, higher numbers of IL-6 responsive IgA2 B cells are present in the human appendix as compared to tonsils or PBMC. (jci.org)
  • One known source of IL-6 is hematopoietic cells, such as monocytes. (diva-portal.org)
  • These results suggest that IL-6 of nonhematopoietic origin is the main source of IL-6 in LPS-induced fever, and that IL-6 produced by hematopoietic cells only plays a minor role. (diva-portal.org)
  • Loss of TRAF3 in B cells resulted in increased responsiveness to the cytokine IL-6, which mediates the development and survival of plasma cells under normal conditions. (sciencemag.org)
  • Cayphas S, Van Damme J, Vink A, Simpson RJ, Billiau A, Van Snick J. Identification of an interleukin HP1-like plasmacytoma growth factor produced by L cells in response to viral infection. (biovendor.com)
  • Finally, they deciphered the KIT D816V-dependent signaling machinery that triggers IL-6 production in neoplastic mast cells. (haematologica.org)
  • 15 of the KIT D816V-dependent signaling machinery that involves PI3K, AKT, TOR, and JAK2-STAT5 and triggers IL-6 production in neoplastic mast cells. (haematologica.org)
  • Figure 7.Morphology of 5H and 5L cells after addition of IL-6. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In contrast, BPH-derived epithelial cells showed little or no response to IL-6. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our current findings demonstrate a novel relationship between these two mediators, since CRP may affect IL-6-mediated inflammatory events by enabling formation of the sIL-6R/IL-6 complex. (rupress.org)
  • Since the inflammatory potential of IL-6 is modulated through binding the sIL-6R, identifying physiological mediators of sIL-6R generation is of central importance to understanding the significance of this soluble receptor in disease. (rupress.org)
  • Cleavage site localization differentially controls interleukin-6 receptor proteolysis by ADAM10 and ADAM17. (springer.com)