A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
Cell surface proteins that bind interleukins and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
A ligand that binds to but fails to activate the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR. It plays an inhibitory role in the regulation of INFLAMMATION and FEVER. Several isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-1. Included under this heading are signaling receptors, non-signaling receptors and accessory proteins required for receptor signaling. Signaling from interleukin-1 receptors occurs via interaction with SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as MYELOID DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 88.
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
A multilineage cell growth factor secreted by LYMPHOCYTES; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and ASTROCYTES which stimulates clonal proliferation and differentiation of various types of blood and tissue cells.
A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.
A cytokine which resembles IL-1 structurally and IL-12 functionally. It enhances the cytotoxic activity of NK CELLS and CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES, and appears to play a role both as neuroimmunomodulator and in the induction of mucosal immunity.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Receptors present on a wide variety of hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cell types that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-4. They are involved in signaling a variety of immunological responses related to allergic INFLAMMATION including the differentiation of TH2 CELLS and the regulation of IMMUNOGLOBULIN E production. Two subtypes of receptors exist and are referred to as the TYPE I INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR and the TYPE II INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR. Each receptor subtype is defined by its unique subunit composition.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-6. They are present on T-LYMPHOCYTES, mitogen-activated B-LYMPHOCYTES, and peripheral MONOCYTES. The receptors are heterodimers of the INTERLEUKIN-6 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
A lymphohematopoietic cytokine that plays a role in regulating the proliferation of ERYTHROID PRECURSOR CELLS. It induces maturation of MEGAKARYOCYTES which results in increased production of BLOOD PLATELETS. Interleukin-11 was also initially described as an inhibitor of ADIPOGENESIS of cultured preadipocytes.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Cytokine that stimulates the proliferation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and shares biological activities with IL-2. IL-15 also can induce proliferation and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A cytokine produced by bone marrow stromal cells that promotes the growth of B-LYMPHOCYTE precursors and is co-mitogenic with INTERLEUKIN-2 for mature T-LYMPHOCYTE activation.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
An interleukin receptor subunit with specificity for INTERLEUKIN-13. It dimerizes with the INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT to form the TYPE II INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR which has specificity for both INTERLEUKIN-4 and INTERLEUKIN-13. Signaling of this receptor subunit occurs through the interaction of its cytoplasmic domain with JANUS KINASES such as the TYK2 KINASE.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-13. Included under this heading are the INTERLEUKIN-13 RECEPTOR ALPHA2 which is a monomeric receptor and the INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR TYPE II which has specificity for both INTERLEUKIN-4 and INTERLEUKIN-13.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
Cytolytic lymphocytes with the unique capacity of killing natural killer (NK)-resistant fresh tumor cells. They are INTERLEUKIN-2-activated NK cells that have no MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX restriction or need for antigen stimulation. LAK cells are used for ADOPTIVE IMMUNOTHERAPY in cancer patients.
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
An interleukin-1 subtype that occurs as a membrane-bound pro-protein form that is cleaved by proteases to form a secreted mature form. Unlike INTERLEUKIN-1BETA both membrane-bound and secreted forms of interleukin-1alpha are biologically active.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-23 is comprised of a unique 19 kDa subunit and 40 kDa subunit that is shared with INTERLEUKIN-12. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells
An interleukin-1 receptor subtype that is involved in signaling cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The binding of this receptor to its ligand causes its favorable interaction with INTERLEUKIN-1 RECEPTOR ACCESSORY PROTEIN and the formation of an activated receptor complex.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A cytokine receptor that acts through the formation of oligomeric complexes of itself with a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-5. They are heterodimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-5 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT. Signaling from interleukin-5 receptors can occur through interaction of their cytoplasmic domains with SYNTENINS.
A long pro-domain caspase that has specificity for the precursor form of INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. It plays a role in INFLAMMATION by catalytically converting the inactive forms of CYTOKINES such as interleukin-1beta to their active, secreted form. Caspase 1 is referred as interleukin-1beta converting enzyme and is frequently abbreviated ICE.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-4. Stat6 has been shown to partner with NF-KAPPA B and CCAAT-ENHANCER-BINDING PROTEINS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of interleukin-4 responsive GENES.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-10. They exist as a tetramer of two alpha chains (INTERLEUKIN-10 RECEPTOR ALPHA CHAIN) and two beta chains (INTERLEUKIN-10 RECEPTOR, BETA CHAIN). Signaling from interleukin-10 receptors occurs through their interaction with JANUS KINASES.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-7. They are present on T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTE precursors. The receptors are heterodimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-5 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT.
High affinity receptors for INTERLEUKIN-3. They are found on early HEMATOPOIETIC PROGENITOR CELLS; progenitors of MYELOID CELLS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS. Interleukin-3 receptors are formed by the dimerization of the INTERLEUKIN-3 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT.
A cytokine subunit that is a component of both interleukin-12 and interleukin-23. It binds to the INTERLEUKIN-12 SUBUNIT P35 via a disulfide bond to form interleukin-12 and to INTERLEUKIN-23 SUBUNIT P19 to form interleukin-23.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
A subunit of the interleukin-18 receptor that is responsible of extracellular binding of IL-18.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-18 found on a variety of cell types including MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; NK CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; and SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS. They are formed as a heterodimer of alpha and beta subunits.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A multifunctional cytokine secreted by primarily by activated TH2 CELLS that may play a role as a regulator of allergic INFLAMMATION. It has been shown to enhance the growth and CELL DIFFERENTIATION of MAST CELLS, and can act on a variety of other immune cells.
Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-12. They exist as dimers of beta 1 and beta 2 subunits. Signaling from interleukin-12 receptors occurs through their interaction with JANUS KINASES.
Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Glycoproteins found in a subfraction of normal mammalian plasma and urine. They stimulate the proliferation of bone marrow cells in agar cultures and the formation of colonies of granulocytes and/or macrophages. The factors include INTERLEUKIN-3; (IL-3); GRANULOCYTE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (G-CSF); MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (M-CSF); and GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (GM-CSF).
Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-15. They are widely-distributed heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-15 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2, 15 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.
Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-17. Several subtypes of receptors have been found, each with its own in specificity for interleukin-17 subtype.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.
The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
A low affinity interleukin-11 receptor subunit that combines with the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130 to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-11. Multiple isoforms of this protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its MRNA.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
A cytokine produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that stimulates the migration of CD4-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES and monocytes. It has been reported to suppress HIV replication.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
An early local inflammatory reaction to insult or injury that consists of fever, an increase in inflammatory humoral factors, and an increased synthesis by hepatocytes of a number of proteins or glycoproteins usually found in the plasma.
An INTERLEUKIN-6 related cytokine that exhibits pleiotrophic effects on many physiological systems that involve cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Leukemia inhibitory factor binds to and acts through the lif receptor.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
An interleukin receptor subunit that was originally discovered as a component of the INTERLEUKIN 2 RECEPTOR. It was subsequently found to be a component of several other receptors including the INTERLEUKIN 4 RECEPTOR, the INTERLEUKIN 7 RECEPTOR, the INTERLEUKIN-9 RECEPTOR, the INTERLEUKIN-15 RECEPTOR, and the INTERLEUKIN-21 RECEPTOR. Mutations in the gene for the interleukin receptor common gamma chain have been associated with X-LINKED COMBINED IMMUNODEFICIENCY DISEASES.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.
A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.
Glycoprotein molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes, that react with molecules of antilymphocyte sera, lectins, and other agents which induce blast transformation of lymphocytes.
Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
A Janus kinase subtype that is predominantly expressed in hematopoietic cell. It is involved in signaling from a broad variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS including ones that utilize the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA SUBUNIT.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A cell surface receptor that specifically mediates the biological effects of INTERLEUKIN-9. The functional IL9 receptor signals through interaction of its cytoplasm domain with JANUS KINASES and requires the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA SUBUNIT for activity.
Proteins that are secreted into the blood in increased or decreased quantities by hepatocytes in response to trauma, inflammation, or disease. These proteins can serve as inhibitors or mediators of the inflammatory processes. Certain acute-phase proteins have been used to diagnose and follow the course of diseases or as tumor markers.
A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
An interleukin-1 receptor subtype that competes with the INTERLEUKIN-1 RECEPTOR TYPE I for binding to INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The interleukin-1 type II receptor appears to lack signal transduction capability. Therefore it may act as a "decoy" receptor that modulates the activity of its ligands. Both membrane-bound and soluble forms of the receptor have been identified.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
A cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory actions that depend upon the cellular microenvironment. Oncostatin M is a 28 kDa monomeric glycoprotein that is similar in structure to LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR. Its name derives from the the observation that it inhibited the growth of tumor cells and augmented the growth of normal fibroblasts.
A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Cell surface receptors that bind TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.

Chlamydial and human heat shock protein 60s activate human vascular endothelium, smooth muscle cells, and macrophages. (1/14219)

Both chlamydial and human heat shock protein 60s (HSP 60), which colocalize in human atheroma, may contribute to inflammation during atherogenesis. We tested the hypothesis that chlamydial or human HSP 60 activates human endothelial cells (ECs), smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and monocyte-derived macrophages. We examined the expression of adhesion molecules such as endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (E-selectin), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and the production of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6). We also tested whether either HSP 60 induces nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), which contributes to the gene expression of these molecules. Either chlamydial or human HSP 60 induced E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 expression on ECs similar to levels induced by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Each HSP 60 also significantly induced IL-6 production by ECs, SMCs, and macrophages to an extent similar to that induced by E. coli LPS, as assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In ECs, either HSP 60 triggered activation of NF-kappaB complexes containing p65 and p50 Rel proteins. Heat treatment abolished all these effects, but did not alter the ability of E. coli LPS to induce these functions. Chlamydial and human HSP 60s therefore activate human vascular cell functions relevant to atherogenesis and lesional complications. These findings help to elucidate the mechanisms by which a chronic asymptomatic chlamydial infection might contribute to the pathophysiology of atheroma.  (+info)

Interleukin-6 dependent induction of the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1 is lost during progression of human malignant melanoma. (2/14219)

Human melanoma cell lines derived from early stage primary tumors are particularly sensitive to growth arrest induced by interleukin-6 (IL-6). This response is lost in cell lines derived from advanced lesions, a phenomenon which may contribute to tumor aggressiveness. We sought to determine whether resistance to growth inhibition by IL-6 can be explained by oncogenic alterations in cell cycle regulators or relevant components of intracellular signaling. Our results show that IL-6 treatment of early stage melanoma cell lines caused G1 arrest, which could not be explained by changes in levels of G1 cyclins (D1, E), cdks (cdk4, cdk2) or by loss of cyclin/cdk complex formation. Instead, IL-6 caused a marked induction of the cdk inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1 in three different IL-6 sensitive cell lines, two of which also showed a marked accumulation of the cdk inhibitor p27Kip1. In contrast, IL-6 failed to induce p21WAF1/CIP1 transcript and did not increase p21WAF1/CIP1 or p27kip1 proteins in any of the resistant lines. In fact, of five IL-6 resistant cell lines, only two expressed detectable levels of p21WAF1/CIP1 mRNA and protein, while in three other lines, p21WAF1/CIP1 was undetectable. IL-6 dependent upregulation of p21WAF1/CIP1 was associated with binding of both STAT3 and STAT1 to the p21WAF1/CIP1 promoter. Surprisingly, however, IL-6 stimulated STAT binding to this promoter in both sensitive and resistant cell lines (with one exception), suggesting that gross deregulation of this event is not the unifying cause of the defect in p21WAF1/CIP1 induction in IL-6 resistant cells. In somatic cell hybrids of IL-6 sensitive and resistant cell lines, the resistant phenotype was dominant and IL-6 failed to induce p21WAF1/CIP1. Thus, our results suggest that in early stage human melanoma cells, IL-6 induced growth inhibition involves induction of p21WAF1/CIP1 which is lost in the course of tumor progression presumably as a result of a dominant oncogenic event.  (+info)

Effects of soybean oil emulsion and eicosapentaenoic acid on stress response and immune function after a severely stressful operation. (3/14219)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of soybean oil emulsion and oral or enteral administration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on stress response, cytokine production, protein metabolism, and immune function after surgery for esophageal cancer. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: It has been reported that safflower oil, rich in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-6 PUFA), affects the survival rate of septic animals and decreases the immune function. It has also been reported that the administration of fish oil, in contrast, reduces these stress responses and stress-induced immunosuppression. In humans, the effects of soybean oil emulsion and the administration of EPA on stress response and immune function after surgery have not been established. METHODS: Patients who underwent esophagectomy with thoracotomy were divided into three groups. Seven patients were fed by total parenteral nutrition (TPN) with soybean oil emulsion, which accounted for 20% of total calories. Seven patients were given oral or enteral administration of 1.8 g/day EPA, in addition to TPN with soybean oil emulsion. Nine patients served as the control group; these patients received fat-free TPN. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein, concanavalin A (con A)- or phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation, natural killer cell activity, and stress hormones were measured. RESULTS: The postoperative level of serum IL-6 was significantly higher in the group receiving soybean oil emulsion than in the fat-free group. Oral or enteral supplementation of EPA with soybean oil emulsion significantly reduced the level of serum IL-6 compared with the patients receiving soybean oil emulsion. Con A- or PHA-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation decreased significantly on postoperative day 7 in all groups of patients. The supplementation of EPA with soybean oil emulsion significantly improved the lymphocyte proliferation and natural killer cell activity on postoperative day 21 compared with the group receiving soybean oil emulsion. CONCLUSIONS: Soybean oil emulsion amplifies, and the supplementation of EPA reduces, the stress response and stress-induced immunosuppression.  (+info)

Alpha-toxin and gamma-toxin jointly promote Staphylococcus aureus virulence in murine septic arthritis. (4/14219)

Septic arthritis is a common and feared complication of staphylococcal infections. Staphylococcus aureus produces a number of potential virulence factors including certain adhesins and enterotoxins. In this study we have assessed the roles of cytolytic toxins in the development of septic arthritis by inoculating mice with S. aureus wild-type strain 8325-4 or isogenic mutants differing in the expression of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-toxin production patterns. Mice inoculated with either an alpha- or beta-toxin mutant showed degrees of inflammation, joint damage, and weight decrease similar to wild-type-inoculated mice. In contrast, mice inoculated with either double (alpha- and gamma-toxin-deficient)- or triple (alpha-, beta-, and gamma-toxin-deficient)-mutant S. aureus strains showed lower frequency and severity of arthritis, measured both clinically and histologically, than mice inoculated with the wild-type strain. We conclude that simultaneous production of alpha- and gamma-toxin is a virulence factor in S. aureus arthritis.  (+info)

Effects of lipopolysaccharide on production of interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 by bovine mammary epithelial cells in vitro. (5/14219)

This investigation was performed to determine the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on production of interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6 by bovine mammary epithelial cells in vitro. After confluence, the cells were stimulated with LPS (0.1, 1.0 or 10 micrograms/ml) for 4, 8, 24, and 48 hr. LPS increased production of both IL-1 and IL-6 production from mammary cells in a dose dependent manner. The expression of mRNA for IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) was demonstrated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in bovine mammary epithelial cells.  (+info)

Medroxyprogesterone acetate inhibits interleukin 6 secretion from KPL-4 human breast cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo: a possible mechanism of the anticachectic effect. (6/14219)

Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine. Recent reports suggest that circulating IL-6 secreted from tumour cells plays an important role in cancer-induced cachexia. Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) has been used as an endocrine therapeutic agent for patients with breast cancer. It has been suggested that MPA decreases serum IL-6 levels and preserves the bodyweight of patients with advanced breast cancer. However, the mechanisms of action responsible for the anticachectic effect of MPA have not been elucidated. Therefore, the effects of MPA on IL-6 secretion were studied both in vitro and in vivo using a human breast cancer cell line, KPL-4, which secretes IL-6 into medium and induces cachexia when injected into female nude mice. MPA (10-1000 nM) dose-dependently decreased basal IL-6 secretion into medium, and also suppressed tumour necrosis factor (TNF-alpha)-induced IL-6 secretion. Both basal and TNF-alpha-induced IL-6 mRNA levels were dose-dependently lowered by MPA. Moreover, intramuscular injections of MPA (100 mg kg(-1) twice a week) into nude mice bearing KPL-4 transplanted tumours significantly decreased serum IL-6 levels without affecting tumour growth and preserved the bodyweight of recipient mice. These findings suggest that suppression of IL-6 secretion from tumour cells, at least in part, causes the anticachectic effect of MPA.  (+info)

C5a receptor and interleukin-6 are expressed in tissue macrophages and stimulated keratinocytes but not in pulmonary and intestinal epithelial cells. (7/14219)

The anaphylatoxin derived from the fifth component of the human complement system (C5a) mediates its effects by binding to a single high-affinity receptor (C5aR/CD88), the expression of which has been traditionally thought to be restricted to granulocytes, monocytes, macrophages (Mphi), and cell lines of myeloid origin. Recent immunohistochemical data suggested that human bronchial and alveolar cells express C5aR as well. To reexamine the tissue distribution of human C5aR expression, transcription of the C5aR gene was investigated in normal and pathologically affected human lung (bronchopneumonia, tuberculosis), large intestine (acute appendicitis, Crohn's disease), and skin (pyogenic granuloma, lichen planus) using in situ hybridization. In contrast to previous evidence, C5aR mRNA could not be detected in pulmonary or intestinal epithelial cells, whereas keratinocytes in inflamed but not in normal skin revealed detectable levels of C5aR transcripts. Additionally, it could be documented that only migrating Mphi express C5aR mRNA, whereas sessile Mphi in normal tissues and epithelioid/multinucleated Mphi found in granulomatous lesions do not. Because C5a has been demonstrated to upregulate the expression of interleukin (IL)-6 in human monocytes, we also studied IL-6 gene transcription in parallel to the C5aR. IL-6 mRNA was detectable in many tissue Mphi. Surprisingly, a tight co-expression of C5aR and IL-6 mRNA was observed in keratinocytes from lesions of pyogenic granuloma and lichen planus. These results point to an as yet unknown role for C5a in the pathogenesis of skin disorders beyond its well-defined function as a chemoattractant and activator of leukocytes.  (+info)

Experimental axonal injury triggers interleukin-6 mRNA, protein synthesis and release into cerebrospinal fluid. (8/14219)

Diffuse axonal injury is a frequent pathologic sequel of head trauma, which, despite its devastating consequences for the patients, remains to be fully elucidated. Here we studied the release of interleukin-6 (IL-6) into CSF and serum, as well as the expression of IL-6 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein in a weight drop model of axonal injury in the rat. The IL-6 activity was elevated in CSF within 1 hour and peaked between 2 and 4 hours, reaching maximal values of 82,108 pg/mL, and returned to control values after 24 hours. In serum, the levels of IL-6 remained below increased CSF levels and did not exceed 393 pg/mL. In situ hybridization demonstrated augmented IL-6 mRNA expression in several regions including cortical pyramidal cells, neurons in thalamic nuclei, and macrophages in the basal subarachnoid spaces. A weak constitutive expression of IL-6 protein was shown by immunohistochemical study in control brain. After injury, IL-6 increased at 1 hour and remained elevated through the first 24 hours, returning to normal afterward. Most cells producing IL-6 were cortical, thalamic, and hippocampal neurons as confirmed by staining for the neuronal marker NeuN. These results extend our previous studies showing IL-6 production in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with severe head trauma and demonstrate that neurons are the main source of IL-6 after experimental axonal injury.  (+info)

Background and purpose: The inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) has profound actions in the brain causing neuronal cell death and exacerbating mind damage. barrier model was generated by co-culture of porcine mind microvascular endothelial cells with astrocytes. The mechanisms of transcellular transport of IL-1β and IL-1 receptor antagonist were characterized with this model using endocytosis inhibitors and IL-1 receptor-blocking antibodies. Important results: Transcellular IL-1β and IL-1 receptor DMH-1 antagonist transport was temperature-dependent and IL-1β was transferred with higher affinity than IL-1 receptor antagonist. IL-1β inhibited IL-1 receptor antagonist transport more potently than IL-1 receptor antagonist inhibited IL-1β transport. Transport of IL-1β and IL-1 receptor antagonist was not via adsorptive-mediated endocytosis although inhibition of microtubule assembly significantly attenuated transport of both cytokines. An antibody directed DMH-1 to the type II IL-1 ...
Dumoutier L, Van Roost E, Colau D, Renauld JC. Human interleukin-10-related T cell-derived inducible factor: molecular cloning and functional characterization as an hepatocyte-stimulating factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Aug 29;97(18):10144-9. Full Text. ...
Jen, H.-Y., Chuang, Y.-H., Lin, S.-C., Chiang, B.-L. and Yang, Y.-H. (2011), Increased serum interleukin-17 and peripheral Th17 cells in children with acute Henoch-Schönlein purpura. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, 22: 862-868. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-3038.2011.01198.x ...
CD4 and CD8 T cells are constantly exposed to inflammatory signals that influence diverse functional outcomes during infections and certain autoimmune disorders. One of the signals controlling CD4 and CD8 T cell functions is the inflammatory cytokine IL-12. Previous studies have focused on how IL-12 regulates CD4 and CD8 T cell functions when present during or after the activation of the T cell receptor (TCR). However, based on murine studies, we have only recently begun to appreciate that exposure to inflammatory signals, driven in part by IL-12, could alter how CD4 and CD8 T cells respond to TCR stimulation. Although intriguing, these studies have left several questions unanswered. Does IL-12 similarly regulate the function of human T cells? If so, what is the exact molecular mechanism by which IL-12 mediates these effects? To address these critical questions, we examined how IL-12 pretreatment altered human CD4 and CD8 T cell responses to subsequent TCR stimulation. In CHAPTER III, we examined how
NEX232 Interleukin-1 (IL-1) refers to a group of three polypeptides (interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra)), that play a central role in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses.. IL-1β is a pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in immune defense against infection. ...
Interleukin-8 (IL-8) belongs to the neutrophil-specific CXC family of chemokines. It is one of the initial cytokines released from a variety of cell types, including T cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts, in response to an inflammatory stimulus and acts by recruiting neutrophils, T-cells and basophils to the site of inflammation. Elevated Interleukin-8 levels are associated with the onset of a variety of disease states ...
Patel KK, Vicencio AG, Du Z, Tsirilakis K, Salva PS, Webley WC. 2010. Infectious Chlamydia pneumoniae is associated with elevated interleukin-8 and airway neutrophilia in children with refractory asthma.. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 29(12):1093-8. ...
Interleukin-6 (IL-6), 2 µg. Interleukin-6 is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine primarily produced by activated T cells and an assortment of other cells including endothelial cells and macrophages.
Interleukin-6 (IL-6), 1 mg. Interleukin-6 is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine primarily produced by activated T cells and an assortment of other cells including endothelial cells and macrophages.
When your immune system detects a threat, your white blood cells release interleukin-6. Once secreted, IL-6 triggers what is known as the inflammatory cascade.
Interleukin-16: A cytokine produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that stimulates the migration of CD4-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES and monocytes. It has been reported to suppress HIV replication.
人IL-17 ELISA试剂盒(Interleukin-17) ELISA试剂盒datasheet (ab100556).Abcam抗体、ELISA、激动剂拮抗剂、表观遗传试剂、蛋白多肽,使用效果保证,中国70%以上现货。
人IL-6 Receptor ELISA试剂盒(Interleukin-6 Receptor) ELISA试剂盒datasheet (ab46029).Abcam抗体、ELISA、激动剂拮抗剂、表观遗传试剂、蛋白多肽,使用效果保证,中国70%以上现货。
The Interleukin-1 family (IL-1 family) is a group of 11 cytokines, which plays a central role in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses to infections or sterile insults. Rec. E. coli interleukin-1 for cell culture or antibody production. ...
Aberrant monocyte mediator production is pivotal in the development of posttrauma immunosuppression. We have previously shown that immunodepressed trauma patients monocytes produce elevated interleukin-6, suggesting their in vivo preactivation. This study confirms that preactivated patients Mo produce greater levels of IL-6 than normals Mo to the same in the in vitro Fc gamma RI stimulation. We also demonstrate the capacity of interleukin-4 to downregulate the elevated interleukin-6 production of trauma patients in vivo preactivated monocytes. Monocyte interleukin-6 downregulation by interleukin-4 is dose dependent and occurs whether Fc gamma RI cross-linking, muramyl dipeptide, indomethacin plus muramyl dipeptide, or interferon-gamma plus muramyl dipeptide is the interleukin-6 inducing stimulus. Furthermore, interleukin-4-dependent downregulation of monocyte interleukin-6 expression is confirmed at both the supernatant and the mRNA levels. Simultaneous downregulation of posttrauma elevated
Plasma interleukin-38 in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Int Immunopharmacol. 2018 Sep 26;65:1-7 Authors: Xu WD, Su LC, He CS, Huang AF Abstract Previous studies have indicated that interleukin-38 (IL-38) is involved in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The present study aims to assess plasma levels of IL-38 in RA and discuss the potential of IL-38 as a biomarker for RA. Protein...
Accelerated increase in serum interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) starts 6 years before diagnosis of type 2 diabetes: Whitehall II prospective cohort ...
A human IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against interleukin-1 alpha (IL1a) with potential A human IgG1 monoclonal antibody targeting the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 alpha (IL1a) with potential antineoplastic, anti-cachectic and anti-angiogenic activities. Anti-IL1a monoclonal antibody MABp1 targets and binds to IL1a and prevents IL1a activity. This prevents IL1a-mediated tumorigenesis and angiogenesis. In addition, MABp1 abrogates IL1a-mediated cachexia. IL1a, an inflammatory mediator expressed on monocytes, platelets and overexpressed by certain tumors, plays a key role in the promotion of tumor cell growth, metastasis and invasion. In addition, IL1a stimulates metabolic activity in the central nervous system.
Link between inflammation and overexpression of CCL2 suggests potential of anti-inflammatory medications as a breast cancer preventive in some women.
An interleukin-13 receptor subunit that is closely-related to the INTERLEUKIN-13 RECEPTOR ALPHA1 SUBUNIT. The receptor is found as a monomeric protein and has been considered to be a decoy receptor for interleukin-13 due the fact that it lacks cytoplasmic signaling domains.
The Interleukin-6 ELISA Test Kit is now available. The kit is for human serum or plasma. Research use only. Interleukin-6 ELISA. ...
Human CellExp IL-27, human recombinant protein, p28, IL30, IL-27, IL-27A, IL27p28, Interleukin-27, EBI3 validated in (PBV10859r-10), Abgent
The cytokine IL-10 is a key anti-inflammatory mediator ensuring protection of a host from over-exuberant responses to pathogens and microbiota, while playing important roles in other settings as sterile wound healing, autoimmunity, cancer, and homeostasis. Here we discuss our current understanding of the regulation of IL-10 production and of the molecular pathways associated with IL-10 responses. In addition to IL-10s classic inhibitory effects on myeloid cells, we also describe the nonclassic roles attributed to this pleiotropic cytokine, including how IL-10 regulates basic processes of neural and adipose cells and how it promotes CD8 T cell activation, as well as epithelial repair. We further discuss its therapeutic potential in the context of different diseases and the outstanding questions that may help develop an effective application of IL-10 in diverse clinical settings. ...
These findings suggest that soluble products from renal tumors may suppress T-cell responses by blocking both IL-2 production and normal IL-2 receptor signaling.
Read Interleukin-10 in Health and Disease by with Rakuten Kobo. This volume provides a set of reviews dedicated to the biology of Interleukin (IL)-10. It includes chapters on its impor...
Interleukin-7 (IL-7) signaling is essential for the development and peripheral maintenance of several blood cell types. Deficiencies in IL-7 or either component...
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a small quaternary structure|monomeric protein 133 amino acid|amino acids in length. It is a very important cytokine in the immu...
Interleukin-19 in Breast Cancer. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Exclusive to Global Medical Discovery (new Significance Statement and new figure). Interleukin-1 deficiency prolongs ovarian lifespan in mice.
Receptors, Interleukin-4, Type I information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and health issues.
A multifunctional cytokine secreted by primarily by activated TH2 CELLS that may play a role as a regulator of allergic INFLAMMATION. It has been shown to enhance the growth and CELL DIFFERENTIATION of MAST CELLS, and can act on a variety of other immune cells ...
Presky DH, Yang H, Minetti LJ, Chua AO, Nabavi N, Wu CY, Gately MK, Gubler U (1996). A functional interleukin 12 receptor complex is composed of two beta-type cytokine receptor subunits. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93 (24): 14002-14007. doi:10.1073/pnas.93.24.14002. PMC 19484. PMID 8943050 ...
Interleukins are naturally occurring proteins that help the bodys immune system. The different types of interleukins all serve to...
Yang K et al. (2005) Human TLR-7-, -8-, and -9-mediated induction of IFN-alpha/beta and -lambda Is IRAK-4 dependent and redundant for protective immunity to viruses.. ...
Your trusted lab partner for Interleukin-8 (IL-8) Serum testing, Viracor Eurofins delivers your results faster, when it matters most.
As in the original Irish, Dáil Éireann is typically abbreviated to Dáil, which, unlike the former, is preceded by the definite article. Thus one says: a member of Dáil Éireann; but: a member of the Dáil.. ...
Proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6, IL-8, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) have been detected in tumor specimens and primary cell cultures from patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. IL-1α has been reported to play an important role in inducing the expression of cytokines IL-6, IL-8, and GM-CSF during inflammation. We examined whether these cytokines are expressed together in five primary and seven established UM-SCC cell lines, and we also examined the effects of IL-1α, IL-1 receptor antagonist or neutralizing antibody (Ab) upon expression of this repertoire of proinflammatory cytokines in established UM-SCC lines. Secretion of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8, and GM-CSF was detected by ELISA in both the primary and established UM-SCC lines. Constitutive expression of specific mRNAs for these cytokines was confirmed in the UM-SCC lines by reverse transcriptase-PCR and Northern blot analysis. Addition of recombinant IL ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Surge of serum interleukin-2 level in a Japanese patient with cytarabine syndrome. AU - Iida, Yasunori. AU - Yasudo, Hiroki. AU - Fukano, Reiji. AU - Azuma, Yoshihiro. AU - Ichimura, Takuya. AU - Ohga, Shouichi. AU - Hasegawa, Shunji. PY - 2020/3/1. Y1 - 2020/3/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85076929700&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85076929700&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1002/pbc.28131. DO - 10.1002/pbc.28131. M3 - Letter. C2 - 31850653. AN - SCOPUS:85076929700. VL - 67. JO - Pediatric Blood and Cancer. JF - Pediatric Blood and Cancer. SN - 1545-5009. IS - 3. M1 - e28131. ER - ...
Both Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) are substances naturally produced by the bodys immune system. Evidence suggests that TNF-alpha production may be excessive or inappropriate in HIV-infected patients. Elevated TNF-alpha levels can result in increased IL-6 production and possibly increased HIV replication. TNFR:Fc is a modification of a natural substance that binds to TNF-alpha and neutralizes its activity. It is postulated that TNFR:Fc may result in decreased activity of TNF-alpha and lower IL-6 levels. HIV-infected patients who receive Interleukin-2 (IL-2) have been shown to have higher TNF-alpha and IL-6 levels than those who do not receive IL-2. It is thought that these higher levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 may contribute to some of the flu-like symptoms experienced by patients receiving IL-2. By decreasing the amount of IL-6 in the body and by decreasing the action of TNF-alpha in the body, TNFR:Fc may have a role in the treatment of HIV disease or in ...
Both Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) are substances naturally produced by the bodys immune system. Evidence suggests that TNF-alpha production may be excessive or inappropriate in HIV-infected patients. Elevated TNF-alpha levels can result in increased IL-6 production and possibly increased HIV replication. TNFR:Fc is a modification of a natural substance that binds to TNF-alpha and neutralizes its activity. It is postulated that TNFR:Fc may result in decreased activity of TNF-alpha and lower IL-6 levels. HIV-infected patients who receive Interleukin-2 (IL-2) have been shown to have higher TNF-alpha and IL-6 levels than those who do not receive IL-2. It is thought that these higher levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 may contribute to some of the flu-like symptoms experienced by patients receiving IL-2. By decreasing the amount of IL-6 in the body and by decreasing the action of TNF-alpha in the body, TNFR:Fc may have a role in the treatment of HIV disease or in ...
I cannot really say much more than the official ESC statement, he commented. Certainly the Congress will not be cancelled, and we plan to be going full speed in Barcelona next Saturday. I really hope that everybody will come and that we will have a great meeting.. In fact, with 2017s line-up of Hot Line studies plus special programming celebrating 40 years of PCI, the Congress had already been shaping up to be one of the biggest in years.. Kristensen offered TCTMD a few of his predictions for potential blockbusters, some of which are already on the radars of conference-goers following the release of their topline results earlier in the year.. Potential Game-Changers. CANTOS is one of Kristensens top picks. The trial, which enrolled over 10,000 patients with prior MI and elevated level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), is testing canakinumab (Ilaris; Novartis), a drug which inhibits the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β, for the prevention of MACE. Preliminary results, ...
Interleukin-10 also identified as cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (CSIF) that are capable of reducing synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokine such as TNF alpha, IFN gamma ,IL-2 and IL-3 by cell macrophages and regulatory T-cells yet it stimulates certain T-cells and mast cells as well as enhances the survival of B cell and antibody production. Interleukin-10 contains 5 exons and a span of 5.2 kb of genomic DNA that are mainly formed by monocytes and lymphocytes. The expression of IL-10 is nominal on unmotivated tissues that require stimulating factor by commensal micro-flora where it strongly regulated by transcriptional and post-transcriptional point. It also involved in regulation of JAK-STAT signaling pathway and able to block NK-kB activity. Interleukin-10 intervene immunostimulatory that helps to eradicate infectious and noninfectious materials with limited inflammation. It is also a prevailing tool of the central nervous system to avoid hyper inflammatory processes via activation of ...
Cells sense and respond to stimuli through signal transduction pathways, which mediate proliferation, differentiation, and survival. The cytokines interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) are key regulators of the immune system, influencing the expansion and differentiation of T cells. Both synergistic and antagonistic effects of IL-2 and -4 co-stimulation have been shown; the antagonism may arise from the sharing of a common receptor subunit. We have sought to characterize IL-2 and IL-4 signaling at the level of intracellular pathways activated by these receptors. IL-2 receptors are known to activate the Ras/Erk and phosphoinositide (PI) 3-kinase pathways as well as the STAT5 transcription factor. IL-4 is able to activate PI 3-kinase/Akt as well as STAT6, though not Ras/Erk.. We found that IL-4 initially antagonizes, and later synergizes with, IL-2-stimulated HT-2 cell proliferation; a murine T cell line. At a signaling level, IL-4 abates IL-2-stimulated activation levels of Akt, Erk and ...
Interleukin-1 Receptors: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-1. Included under this heading are signaling receptors, non-signaling receptors and accessory proteins required for receptor signaling. Signaling from interleukin-1 receptors occurs via interaction with SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as MYELOID DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 88.
Proinflammatory cytokines are produced predominantly by activated macrophages and are involved in the up-regulation of inflammatory reactions. IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α are the typical proinflammatory cytokines.
Brain tumor news: Cytotoxicity in glioma cells due to interleukin-12 and interleukin-18-stimulated macrophages mediated by interferon-gamma-regulated nitric oxide.
Results Baseline levels of IL-20 were significantly higher in RA patients compared to healthy individuals [73.54 (38.69-172.0)vs. 27.55 (15.42-72.92) pg/ml, p , 0.0024] and decreased after 16 weeks of RTX therapy [from 73.54 (38.69-172.0) to 61.94 (31.48-103.8) pg/ml, p = 0.040]. When analysed separately according to presence of autoantibodies, the decrease in IL-20 after RTX therapy was significant only in seropositive (RF+ and ACPA+, N = 20) patients [from 75.11 (44.70-180.9) to 61.94 (31.48-103.8), p = 0.043], but not in seronegative patients [from 51.53 (7.25-107.8) to 63.35 (23.30-102.9), p = 0.625]. Moreover, baseline IL-20 levels significantly correlated with DAS28 (r = 0.491, p = 0.008), CRP (r = 0.507, p = 0.006), ESR (r = 0.422, p = 0.025) and SJC (r = 0.376, p = 0.049). ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Interleukin-17 [IL-17, IL-25]. AU - Antonysamy, Mary A.. AU - Numasaki, Muneo. PY - 2003/7/7. Y1 - 2003/7/7. N2 - Significant progress in interleukin-17 research over the last 5 years has established this cytokine as a molecule of tremendous functional potential, and complexity. At least four new members structurally related to IL-17 have been identified, thus establishing a family of IL-7-related molecules. The IL-17 family of proteins, produced predominantly by activated T cells, exhibits a broad range of activities, and is represented in a spectrum of pathophysiologic conditions. The chapter provides ample of evidence for IL-17 as a regulator of hematopoiesis, and as a mediator of inflammation in several T cell-mediated disorders. These observations necessitate further research and development of this cytokine for potential clinical applications for conditions associated with compromised BM status, as well as in transplantation, cancer, autoimmunity, and other T cell-mediated ...
Rabbit anti Mouse Interleukin-22 antibody recognizes mouse interleukin-22 (IL-22), a regulatory cytokine and member of the IL-10 family, s
Product Name: Mouse mAb anti- human Interleukin-2 (IL-2), Clone 6F11Collection: AntibodySub Category: Monoclonal AntibodyImmunogen: Recombinant human IL-2Host
Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a pleiotropic cytokine that controls inflammatory processes by suppressing the production of proinflammatory cytokines that are known to be transcriptionally regulated by nuclear factor-B (NF-B). Although still controversial, IL-10 has been shown to inhibit NF-B activation through a process that involves proteolytic degradation of inhibitory subunit IB-. What is not known
Background Production of interferon (IFN)-gamma is key to efficient anti-tumor immunity. The present study was set out to investigate effects of IFNgamma on the release of the potent pro-angiogenic mediator IL-8 by human A549 lung carcinoma cells. Methods A549 cells were cultured and stimulated with interleukin (IL)-1beta alone or in combination with IFNgamma. IL-8 production by these cells was analyzed with enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA). mRNA-expression was analyzed by real-time PCR and RNase protection assay (RPA), respectively. Expression of inhibitor-kappaBalpha, cellular IL-8, and cyclooxygenase-2 was analyzed by Western blot analysis. Results Here we demonstrate that IFNgamma efficiently reduced IL-8 secretion under the influence of IL-1beta. Surprisingly, real-time PCR analysis and RPA revealed that the inhibitory effect of IFNgamma on IL-8 was not associated with significant changes in mRNA levels. These observations concurred with lack of a modulatory activity of IFNgamma ...
Product Name: Mouse mAb anti- human Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Clone 9D8Collection: AntibodySub Category: Monoclonal AntibodyImmunogen: Purified recombinant human
JS Friedland, Y Suputtamongkol, DG Remick, W Chaowagul, NJ White, NJ White, GE Griffin; Prolonged Elevation of Interleukin (IL) -8 and IL-6 Plasma Concentrations and Leucocyte mRNA in Septicaemic and Localised Gram Negative Infection. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 March 1992; 82 (s26): 10P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs082010Pa. Download citation file:. ...
Interleukin-17A (IL-17A), also known as CTLA-8, is a pro-inflammatory cytokine member of a six-species family of proteins (IL-17A-17F).
The Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer perspective on regulation of interleukin-6 signaling in COVID-19-related systemic inflammatory response ...
Cytokines are a family of proteins that play important roles in immune cell communication. The best-known example is interleukin-2 (IL-2), which is ...
RATIONALE: Interleukin-2 may stimulate a persons white blood cells to kill tumor cells. Combining white blood cells, which have been activated by a vac
Fisher Scientific - Elicit a range of responses from many cell types Shop Corning™ Interleukin-2 (IL-2), Human Recombinant at Fishersci.co.uk
Combining with interleukin-10 and transmitting the signal from one side of the membrane to the other to initiate a change in cell activity.
IL1F5 Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated, Polypeptide chain containing 155 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 17kDa.
The zebrafish possesses all of the interleukin 2 receptor family except interleukin 2 receptor alpha and removal of the common signalling component interleukin 2 receptor gamma causes a human like severe combined immunodeficiency ...
Several studies have shown a heightened inflammatory state in frail older adults, marked by high serum levels of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein and an increased number of circulating leukocytes. Activation of monocytes ...
Rekombinantes Ratten IL-13, in E.Coli exprimiert, ist ein einzelnes, nichtglykosyliertes Peptid aus 111 Aminosäuren mit der Gesamtmasse von 12192 Dal…
यह सामग्री क्रियेटिव कॉमन्स ऍट्रीब्यूशन/शेयर-अलाइक लाइसेंस के तहत उपलब्ध है; अन्य शर्ते लागू हो सकती हैं। विस्तार से जानकारी हेतु देखें उपयोग की शर्तें ...
Other cytokines that signal through receptors containing gp130 are Interleukin 11 (IL-11), Interleukin 27 (IL-27), ciliary ... IL-6's role as an anti-inflammatory myokine is mediated through its inhibitory effects on TNF-alpha and IL-1 and its activation ... Interleukin is the main member of the IL-6 superfamily (Pfam PF00489), which also includes G-CSF, IL23A, and CLCF1. A viral ... Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is an interleukin that acts as both a pro-inflammatory cytokine and an anti-inflammatory myokine. In ...
The interleukin-6 receptor can serve as an alpha-receptor for CTNF". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (11): 9528-35. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... "Entrez Gene: IL6R interleukin 6 receptor". Schwantner A, Dingley AJ, Ozbek S, Rose-John S, Grötzinger J (Jan 2004). "Direct ... Interleukin 6 receptor (IL6R) also known as CD126 (Cluster of Differentiation 126) is a type I cytokine receptor. Interleukin 6 ... Szpirer J, Szpirer C, Rivière M, Houart C, Baumann M, Fey GH, Poli V, Cortese R, Islam MQ, Levan G (1991). "The Interleukin-6- ...
As a signaling molecule, interleukin 11 has a variety of functions associated with its receptor interleukin 11 receptor alpha; ... Interleukin 11 (IL-11) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL11 gene. IL-11 is a cytokine and first isolated in 1990 ... Interleukin 11 is manufactured using recombinant DNA technology and is marketed as a protein therapeutic called oprelvekin, for ... Chen HF, Lin CY, Chao KH, Wu MY, Yang YS, Ho HN (May 2002). "Defective production of interleukin-11 by decidua and chorionic ...
Moore KW, de Waal Malefyt R, Coffman RL, O'Garra A (2001). "Interleukin-10 and the interleukin-10 receptor". Annual Review of ... Moore KW, de Waal Malefyt R, Coffman RL, O'Garra A (2001-01-01). "Interleukin-10 and the interleukin-10 receptor". Annual ... Media related to Interferons or interleukin-10 (IL-10) at Wikimedia Commons Interleukin-10 at the US National Library of ... "Recombinant human interleukin 10 in the treatment of patients with mild to moderately active Crohn's disease. The Interleukin ...
This protein binds interleukin-1α (IL1A), interleukin-1β (IL1B), and interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL1Ra), preventing them ... "Interleukin-13 and interleukin-4 act as interleukin-6 inducers in human microglial cells". Cytokine. 8 (8): 636-41. doi:10.1006 ... Interleukin 4 (IL4) is reported to antagonize the activity of interleukin 1 by inducing the expression and release of this ... Interleukin 1 receptor, type II (IL-1R2) also known as CD121b (Cluster of Differentiation 121b) is an interleukin receptor. ...
29 (4). Hassan N, Choy E (September 2020). "Interleukin-6 inhibitors". In Scott DL, Galloway J, Cope A, Pratt A, Strand V (eds ...
... 1 alpha and interleukin 1 beta (IL1 alpha and IL1 beta) are cytokines that participate in the regulation of immune ... Gately MK, Renzetti LM, Magram J, Stern AS, Adorini L, Gubler U, Presky DH (1998). "The interleukin-12/interleukin-12-receptor ... Recombinant expression enables cells to process precursor Interleukin 1 Beta to the mature form of the enzyme. Interleukin 1 ... di Giovine FS, Duff GW (Jan 1990). "Interleukin 1: the first interleukin". Immunology Today. 11 (1): 13-20. doi:10.1016/0167- ...
It binds to interleukin-6. Siltuximab has been investigated for the treatment of neoplastic diseases: metastatic renal cell ... October 2010). "A phase I/II study of siltuximab (CNTO 328), an anti-interleukin-6 monoclonal antibody, in metastatic renal ... Siltuximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to interleukin-6 (IL-6), preventing binding to soluble and membrane ... Kampan NC, Xiang SD, McNally OM, Stephens AN, Quinn MA, Plebanski M (2018). "Immunotherapeutic Interleukin-6 or Interleukin-6 ...
It binds to interleukin 6. Hence acting as an Anti-IL-6 therapeutic aimed at inflammatory disease e.g. rheumatoid arthritis (RA ... Walsh N (6 August 2014). "RheumShorts: IL-6 and RA, Life and Death, Surgery in Lupus". Genovese MC, Fleischmann R, Furst D, ...
Interleukin-1β and interleukein-6. also exhibit increased levels of expression upon infection. Furthermore, L. interrogans is ... 6: 39. doi:10.1186/1475-2859-6-39. PMC 2231387. PMID 18072968. Wang W, Gao X, Guo M, Zhang W, Song X, Wang T, et al. (October ... The cells are thin, about 0.15 µm, and long, between 6-20 µm, with a corkscrew shaped body with spiral or hooked ends. The ... 12 (6): 1455. doi:10.3390/diagnostics12061455. ISSN 2075-4418. PMC 9221883. PMID 35741265. Slonczewski, Joan (2020). ...
Interleukin 6 mediates activation of STAT3. The high level of STAT3 was described in isolated CSCs from liver, bone, cervical ... The activation of NFκB leads to increase not only in production of IL-6, TNF-α and SDF-1 but also in delivery of growth factors ... 131 (6): 1365-1375. doi:10.1242/dev.01025. PMID 14973292. Sarkar A, Parikh N, Hearn SA, Fuller MT, Tazuke SI, Schulz C (July ... The main roles have molecules (IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, NFκB, TGF-β, HIF-1α) which can regulate both processes through regulation of ...
Interleukin 6 is a cytokine relevant to many inflammatory diseases and many cancers. Hence, anti-IL6 agents have been sought. ... Yokota S (2003). "Interleukin 6 as a therapeutic target in systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis". Current Opinion in ... Barton BE (2005). "Interleukin-6 and new strategies for the treatment of cancer, hyperproliferative diseases and paraneoplastic ... Smolen JS, Maini RN (2006). "Interleukin-6: a new therapeutic target". Arthritis Research & Therapy. 8 (Suppl 2): S5. doi: ...
... interleukin-1, interleukin-2 receptor, tumor necrosis factor alpha, C-reactive protein, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 all ... including interleukin-1(IL-1; causes inflammatory cascade and abnormal hormone concentration), interleukin-6 (IL-6; activates ... Khandaker GM, Pearson RM, Zammit S, Lewis G, Jones PB (October 2014). "Association of serum interleukin 6 and C-reactive ... March 2009). "Associations of C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 with cognitive symptoms of depression: 12-year follow-up of ...
Taga T, Hibi M, Hirata Y, Yamasaki K, Yasukawa K, Matsuda T, Hirano T, Kishimoto T (1989). "Interleukin-6 triggers the ... Kishimoto T, Akira S, Narazaki M, Taga T (1995). "Interleukin-6 family of cytokines and gp130". Blood. 86 (4): 1243-1254. doi: ... Haan C, Heinrich PC, Behrmann I (January 2002). "Structural requirements of the interleukin-6 signal transducer gp130 for its ... Barton VA, Hudson KR, Heath JK (1999). "Identification of three distinct receptor binding sites of murine interleukin-11". J. ...
Galiellalactone is additionally a highly selective and potent inhibitor of interleukin-6 (IL-6) signaling in HepG2 cells. IL-6 ... Weidler M, Rether J, Anka T, Erkel G (2000). "Inhibition of interleukin-6 signaling by galiellalactone". FEBS Letters. 48 (1): ... ISBN 978-0-8131-9039-6. Kibby G. (1994). An Illustrated Guide to Mushrooms and Other Fungi of North America. Stamford, ... 1-6. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(00)02115-3. PMID 4609797. Galiella rufa in Index Fungorum (CS1 Latin-language sources (la), ...
Whisman, Mark A.; Sbarra, David A. (2012). "Marital adjustment and interleukin-6 (IL-6)". Journal of Family Psychology. 26 (2 ... 47 (6): 478-86. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2009.02.012. PMC 2688957. PMID 19286167. Heyman, Richard E. (2001). "Observation of couple ... 65 (5-6): 297-312. doi:10.1007/s11199-011-9968-6. S2CID 145011583. Holt-Lunstad, Julianne; Smith, Timothy B.; Layton, J. ... 32 (6): 754-63. doi:10.5993/AJHB.32.6.19. PMID 18442354. Reczek, Corinne; Umberson, Debra (2012). "Gender, health behavior, and ...
... interleukin-8, and GM-CSF. These activities are G2A-dependent. It is suggested that 9-HODE acts in human skin to block the ... interleukin-6 and keratinocyte chemoattractant, for in vivo studies. G2A is also involved in blood-borne ... 6 (9): 2840-56. doi:10.3390/toxins6092840. PMC 4179163. PMID 25251539. Frasch SC, Fernandez-Boyanapalli RF, Berry KZ, Leslie CC ... up-regulate the expression of CCR9 and CXCR4 and abrogate the release of IL-6 in human monocytes". Toxins. ...
It (OPR-003) targets (and blocks) Interleukin-6. It has undergone a number of early stage clinical trials, e.g. for lymphoma ... p11:immunoglobulin G1, anti-(human interleukin 6) (mouse monoclonal B-E8 heavy chain), disulfide with mouse monoclonal B-E8 k- ... It was used as a template to develop a high-affinity, antagonist, fully human anti-IL-6 mAb 1339. "WHO Drug Information" (PDF ... December 2009). "A high-affinity fully human anti-IL-6 mAb, 1339, for the treatment of multiple myeloma". Clinical Cancer ...
... and Interleukin-10 (IL-10), as well as TNF-alpha and Interleukin-6 (IL-6). Antidepressants have also been shown to suppress TH1 ... Hong CJ, Yu YW, Chen TJ, Tsai SJ (2005). "Interleukin-6 genetic polymorphism and Chinese major depression". Neuropsychobiology ... "Effects of serotonin and serotonergic agonists and antagonists on the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin ... "Anti-Inflammatory effects of antidepressants through suppression of the interferon-gamma/interleukin-10 production ratio". ...
Yao L, Pan J, Setiadi H, Patel KD, McEver RP (July 1996). "Interleukin 4 or oncostatin M induces a prolonged increase in P- ... Heinrich PC, Horn F, Graeve L, Dittrich E, Kerr I, Müller-Newen G, Grötzinger J, Wollmer A (1998). "Interleukin-6 and related ... OSM is a pleiotropic cytokine that belongs to the interleukin 6 group of cytokines. Of these cytokines it most closely ... Taga T, Kishimoto T (1997). "Gp130 and the interleukin-6 family of cytokines". Annu. Rev. Immunol. 15: 797-819. doi:10.1146/ ...
Rohleder N, Aringer M, Boentert M (July 2012). "Role of interleukin-6 in stress, sleep, and fatigue". Annals of the New York ... 18: 6. doi:10.5334/jcr.199. ISSN 1740-3391. PMC 7583716. PMID 33133210. Czeisler CA, Walsh JK, Roth T, Hughes RJ, Wright KP, ... Most people with different schedules than the ordinary one (from 8 AM to 6 PM) might have these symptoms but the difference is ... Partial and total sleep deprivation has been linked to an increase of pro-inflammatory markers, such as IL-6, and a decrease in ...
In this case, some interleukins bind to a specific receptor, which leads to activation of MAPK/ERK pathway. Consequently, the ... "Interleukin-6 Mediates Angiotensinogen Gene Expression during Liver Regeneration". PLOS ONE. 8 (7): e67868. Bibcode:2013PLoSO ... 24 (6): 290-300. doi:10.1016/j.tem.2013.02.001. PMC 3669669. PMID 23499155. Ham, J; Evans, BA (2012). "An emerging role for ... 6 (1): 60-71. PMC 2853051. PMID 20390049. Geldziler, BD; Marcello, MR; Shakes, D. C.; Singson, A (2011). The genetics and cell ...
Some symptoms of myxoma may be associated with the release of interleukin 6 (IL-6) by the myxoma. High levels of IL-6 may be ... Seino Y, Ikeda U, Shimada K (1993). "Increased expression of interleukin 6 mRNA in cardiac myxomas". Br Heart J. 69 (6): 565-7 ... Jourdan M, Bataille R, Seguin J, Zhang XG, Chaptal PA, Klein B (1990). "Constitutive production of interleukin-6 and ... 1993). "Cardiac myxoma metastasized to the brain: potential role of endogenous interleukin-6". Cardiology. 83 (3): 208-11. doi: ...
Heinrich PC, Behrmann I, Haan S, Hermanns HM, Müller-Newen G, Schaper F (August 2003). "Principles of interleukin (IL)-6-type ... Hermanns HM, Radtke S, Schaper F, Heinrich PC, Behrmann I (December 2000). "Non-redundant signal transduction of interleukin-6- ... This protein heterodimerizes with interleukin 6 signal transducer to form the type II oncostatin M receptor and with ... interleukin 31 receptor A to form the interleukin 31 receptor, and thus transduces oncostatin M and interleukin 31 induced ...
Molecules called pro-inflammatory cytokines, which include interleukin-1 (IL-1), Interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), ... and saw how interleukin-1 was released directly into the brain. Interleukin-1 is the same cytokine released when a macrophage ... Besedovsky, H.; del Rey, A.; Sorkin, E.; Dinarello, C. A. (1986-08-08). "Immunoregulatory feedback between interleukin-1 and ... Papanicolaou DA, Wilder RL, Manolagas SC, Chrousos GP (1998). "The pathophysiologic roles of interleukin-6 in human disease". ...
Interleukin (IL-6) is a signaling protein that has been known to be present during an immune response. The use of the sandwich ... Interleukin (IL-6) can also be bioimmobilized on biosensors. The ability to observe these changes in IL-6 levels is important ... The increase in interleukin levels is directly proportional to the increased death rate in breast cancer patients. PCR paired ... One example of how mutagenesis is used is found in the coupling of site-directed mutagenesis and PCR to reduce interleukin-6 ...
IL-12B is a common subunit of interleukin 12 and Interleukin 23. This gene encodes a subunit of interleukin 12, a cytokine that ... Interleukin-12 p40 also serves as a subunit of Interleukin 23. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000113302 - Ensembl, May 2017 ... "The interleukin-12 and interleukin-12 receptor system in normal and transformed human B lymphocytes". Haematologica. 87 (4): ... "Human immunodeficiency virus gp120 inhibits interleukin-12 secretion by human monocytes: an indirect interleukin-10-mediated ...
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"Interleukin-6 Inhibitor Sirukumab (CNTO 136) Phase 2 Data Show Promise in the Treatment of Active Rheumatoid Arthritis". PR ... It acts against the proinflammatory cytokine Interleukin 6 (IL-6). Sirukumab is currently under development by Johnson & ... Anti-IL-6 "Statement On A Nonproprietary Name Adopted By The USAN Council: Sirukumab" (PDF). American Medical Association. ... "IL-6 in RA: What Predicts Non-Progression? - High-risk patients showed most benefit with sirukumab". January 2017. "Sirukumab ...
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Other cytokines, such as interleukin 1, interleukin 2, interleukin-12, tumor necrosis factor and colony-stimulating factor, can ... Interferon type II (IFN-γ in humans): This is also known as immune interferon and is activated by Interleukin-12. Type II ... However, the production of type I IFN-α is inhibited by another cytokine known as Interleukin-10. Once released, type I ... such as more interferons and interleukins, among others) that signal to and co-ordinate the activity of other immune cells. ...
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... leading to tolerogenic interleukin 10 secretion, instead of pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. In human, TLR6 is highly ... Toll-like receptor 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TLR6 gene. TLR6 is a transmembrane protein, member of toll- ... Toll-Like+Receptor+6 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) TLR6 human gene location in the ... 31 (6): 873-84. doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2009.09.018. PMID 19931471. Mukherjee S, Huda S, Sinha Babu SP (July 2019). "Toll-like ...
During both chronic and acute phase sleep deprivation, there are increases in the pro-inflammatory cytokine Interleukin-6 (IL-6 ... Observations have been made that there is an association between stress, sleep, and Interleukin-6 proposing a possible ... Rohleder, Nicolas; Aringer, Martin; Boentert, Matthias (2012). "Role of interleukin-6 in stress, sleep, and fatigue". Annals of ... Retrieved 6 December 2021. Kim, Hye-Geum; Cheon, Eun-Jin; Bai, Dai-Seg; Lee, Young Hwan; Koo, Bon-Hoon (2018). "Stress ad Heart ...
Levels of interleukin 1B, interferon-gamma, interferon-inducible protein 10, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 were all ... In particular, pathogenic GM-CSF-secreting T cells were shown to correlate with the recruitment of inflammatory IL-6-secreting ... The production of IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and interferon-gamma, all crucial components of normal immune responses, ... Clinical laboratory findings of elevated IL‑2, IL‑7, IL‑6, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM‑CSF), ...
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"The N-terminus domain of the a2 isoform of vacuolar ATPase can regulate interleukin-1beta production from mononuclear cells in ... "Regeneration and tolerance factor modulates the effect of adenosine triphosphate-induced interleukin 1 beta secretion in human ... doi:10.1016/0161-5890(90)90102-6. PMID 2247090. Kornak U, Reynders E, Dimopoulou A, van Reeuwijk J, Fischer B, Rajab A, Budde B ... doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(03)00397-6. PMID 14580332. Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, et al. (2004). "Complete sequencing and ...
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Interleukin-25 (IL-25) - also known as interleukin-17E (IL-17E) - is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL25 gene on ... "Entrez Gene: IL25 interleukin 25". Moseley TA, Haudenschild DR, Rose L, Reddi AH (April 2003). "Interleukin-17 family and IL-17 ... "Interleukin-17B Antagonizes Interleukin-25-Mediated Mucosal Inflammation". Immunity. 42 (4): 692-703. doi:10.1016/j.immuni. ... Identification of an interleukin (IL)-25-dependent cell population that provides IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 at the onset of helminth ...
... is an interleukin, a type of biological signal (cytokine) that can improve the body's natural response to disease ... Tabira T, Chui DH, Fan JP, Shirabe T, Konishi Y (1998). "Interleukin-3 and interleukin-3 receptors in the brain". Ann. N. Y. ... Interleukin 3 has been shown to interact with IL3RA. Interleukin GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000164399 - Ensembl, May ... interleukin-3 (IL-3), and interleukin-5 (IL-5) receptor complexes to chromosome 22q13.1". Human Genetics. 93 (2): 198-200. doi: ...
... and interleukin, increase. TH2-type lymphocytes are activated, with an increase in T cells expressing CD25 (IL-2R), and B cells ... These medications include short-acting beta agonists (SABAs) such as albuterol which typically last 4-6 hours, and long-acting ... 1993). "Bronchial responsiveness to inhaled propranolol in asthmatic children and adults". Eur Respir J. 6 (2): 181-8. PMID ...
"Interleukin 6 and cortisol in acute musculoskeletal disorders: Results from a case-referent study in Sweden". Stress Medicine. ... Most workplace assaults are nonfatal, with an annual physical assault rate of 6% in the U.S. Assaultive behavior in the ... Journal of Applied Psychology, 67(6), 784-796. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.67.6.784 Quick, J.C., Murphy, L.R., & Hurrell, J.J., Jr. ( ... Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 6, 290-302. doi:10.1037/1076-8998.6.4.290 Chen, P.Y., Cigularov, K.P., & Menger, L.M ...
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In the central nervous system (CNS), IL-6 is involved in neurogenesis and the response of neurons and glia-cells to various ... In this review we aim to provide an overview of current studies and evaluate the diagnostic significance of CSF-IL-6. ... Numerous studies now demonstrate the pleiotropic character of IL-6, which has been shown to possess important functions in the ... IL-6) was first identified as a differentiation factor for B-cells (B-cell stimulatory factor 2) which caused B-cells to mature ...
Xiaohua Chen # 1 , Juan Zhou # 2 , Chen Chen # 2 3 , Baidong Hou 4 , Ashaq Ali 2 3 , Feng Li 5 6 , Zhaolin Hua 4 , Yingtao Wu 1 ... Consecutive Monitoring of Interleukin-6 Is Needed for COVID-19 Patients Virol Sin. 2021 Oct;36(5):1093-1096. doi: 10.1007/ ... 6 Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Allergy and Immunology, Wuhan, 430071, China. ...
Here, we investigated the role of interleukin-6 (IL-6), another member of the glycoprotein 130-activating cytokine family, as ... Expression of IL-6 was markedly induced in the retina upon optic nerve injury and IS, and mature RGCs expressed the IL-6 ... Therefore, IL-6 contributes to the beneficial effects of IS and its disinhibitory effect adds an important feature to the ... Moreover, IL-6 reduced myelin, but not neurocan-mediated growth inhibition mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) dependently in ...
Anti-interleukin-6 therapies for hospitalized patients with COVID-19: a protocol for a prospective meta-analysis of randomized ... Traitements contre la COVID-19 : orientations évolutives, 6 juillet 2021  Organisation mondiale de la Santé (‎Organisation ... Opciones terapéuticas y COVID-19: orientaciones evolutivas, 6 de julio de 2021  ...
IL-6) enabling the metabolic switch from carbohydrate to fat utilization. Similarly, metabolism is... , Find, read and cite all ... The increase in ATGL content does not appear to be due to a loss of IL-6s direct effects as ex vivo treatment with IL-6 failed ... Lutz TA, Schoenle EJ, Konrad D. Interleukin-6 contributes to early. fasting-induced free fatty acid mobilization in mice. Am J ... Interleukin-6 signaling in liver-parenchymal cells suppresses. hepatic inflammation and improves systemic insulin action. Cell ...
Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Inflammatory Agents : CK(20859) : AC(8334), Interleukin-1 beta downregulation : CK(3041) : AC( ... Local ice cryotherapy decreases synovial interleukin 6, interleukin 1β, vascular endothelial growth factor, prostaglandin-E2, ... 1567), Interleukin-6 Downregulation : CK(5029) : AC(1994), Postaglandin PGE2 downregulation : CK(202) : AC(110), Vascular ... IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-17A, VEGF, NF-kB-p65 protein, and PG-E2 levels were measured in the synovial fluid and compared before/ ...
Jeong-Hwa Woo, Yeong-In Yang, Ji-Hye Ahn, Youn Seok Choi, and Jung-Hye Choi "Interleukin 6 secretion from alternatively ... Interleukin 6 secretion from alternatively activated macrophages promotes the migration of endometriotic epithelial cells. †. ... Jeong-Hwa Woo, Yeong-In Yang, Ji-Hye Ahn, Youn Seok Choi, Jung-Hye Choi "Interleukin 6 secretion from alternatively activated ... RT-PCR and antibody array analyses revealed that EAMs highly express and produce interleukin (IL) 6 compared to macrophages ...
... 2007-03-01 Stefan Nagel , Roderick A F MacLeod Affiliation DSMZ - German Collection of ... Although interleukin-6 (IL-6) is considered as a key growth factor for myeloma cells, only a few subpopulations of tumor cells ... Targeted anti-interleukin-6 monoclonal antibody therapy for cancer: a review of the rationale and clinical evidence.. Trikha M ... Interleukin-6: structure-function relationships.. Simpson RJ et al. 15640623. 2004. Immunomodulation of multiple myeloma.. ...
Interleukin-6 is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine primarily produced by activated T cells and an assortment of other cells ... IL-6 affects B and T lymphocytes and has been shown to have a role in host defense, acute phase reactions, immune responses and ... IL6 is expressed with a 6 amino acid His tag at C-Terminus and purified by proprietary chromatographic techniques. ...
Adrenomedullin in synovial fluids from patients with rheumatoid arthritis inhibits interleukin 6 production from synoviocytes ... Adrenomedullin in synovial fluids from patients with rheumatoid arthritis inhibits interleukin 6 production from synoviocytes ... Adrenomedullin in synovial fluids from patients with rheumatoid arthritis inhibits interleukin 6 production from synoviocytes ...
This single-center retrospective study evaluated the correlation between serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels at admission with ... IL-6 concentrations were significantly higher in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia who were than who were not treated in ... IL-6 concentrations were significantly higher in patients with more severe than less severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Eight of 40 ... CONCLUSIONS:Serum IL-6 concentration is closely associated with the severity of COVID-19. Continuous monitoring of IL-6 has ...
Increased Interleukin-6 (IL-6) in Exhaled Breath Condensate of Asthmatic Children ... February 2017 Increased Interleukin-6 (IL-6) in Exhaled Breath Condensate of Asthmatic Children ... 1 The role of interleukin 6 (IL-6) in promoting effector T cell subsets suggest that it may play a functional role in asthma. ... IL-6 was detectable in the exhaled breath condensate of all children, with a median value of 2.3pg/ml (95% CI: 1.7-5.3). As ...
Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a pleomorphic cytokine that can be found in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in a wide spectrum of ... Our aim was to characterize the diagnostic significance of CSF IL-6 among various CNS inflammatory diseases with pseudotumoral ... CSF interleukin 6 is a useful marker to distinguish pseudotumoral CNS inflammatory diseases from primary CNS lymphoma.. Feb 19 ... Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a pleomorphic cytokine that can be found in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in a wide spectrum of ...
Interleukin 27 receptor, alpha - IL-6 receptor family. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology ... WSX-1 , cytokine receptor-like 1 , IL-27RA , TCCR , interleukin 27 receptor, alpha , interleukin 27 receptor ... negative regulation of interleukin-6 production. IEA. GO:0032720. negative regulation of tumor necrosis factor production. IEA ... IL-6 receptor family: Interleukin 27 receptor, alpha. Last modified on 18/09/2017. Accessed on 28/11/2022. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to ...
Billeter, A; Turina, M; Seifert, B; Mica, L; Stocker, R; Keel, M (2009). Early serum procalcitonin, interleukin-6, and 24-hour ... Early serum procalcitonin, interleukin-6, and 24-hour lactate clearance: useful indicators of septic infections in severely ... BACKGROUND: Elevated lactate and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were shown to correlate with mortality and multiple organ ... BACKGROUND: Elevated lactate and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were shown to correlate with mortality and multiple organ ...
From: Comparing C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and interleukin-6 for the diagnosis of bacterial infection in adult ... IL-6 (cut-off 24 ng/ml) 89.2 75.0 89.2 75.0 0.829 ...
Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it ...
Increased levels of interleukin-6 exacerbate the dystrophic phenotype in mdx mice. In: Human Molecular Genetics. 2015 ; Vol. 24 ... Increased levels of interleukin-6 exacerbate the dystrophic phenotype in mdx mice. Human Molecular Genetics. 2015;24(21):6041- ... Increased levels of interleukin-6 exacerbate the dystrophic phenotype in mdx mice. / Pelosi, Laura; Berardinelli, Maria Grazia ... In this study, we provide evidence that interleukin-6 (IL-6) is causally linked to the pathogenesis of muscular dystrophy. We ...
Cytokine bead array was used to simultaneously measure three key cytokines in culture supernatants: interleukin (IL)-1 beta, -6 ... Dive into the research topics of Activated protein C inhibits chemotaxis and interleukin-6 release by human neutrophils ... Cytokine bead array was used to simultaneously measure three key cytokines in culture supernatants: interleukin (IL)-1 beta, -6 ... Cytokine bead array was used to simultaneously measure three key cytokines in culture supernatants: interleukin (IL)-1 beta, -6 ...
KARAVYRAKI, MARILENA, Evidence of a role for Interleukin-6 in anoikis resistance and bioenergetic programming in oral squamous ... Evidence of a role for Interleukin-6 in anoikis resistance and bioenergetic programming in oral squamous cell carcinoma. ... The upregulated expression of TLR2/6 and IL-6Ra/gp130 receptors was also confirmed in SCC-4 cells. Examination of cancer ... Although migration was insensitive to IL-6 and independent to glycolysis, evidence showed invasion to be driven ultimately by ...
Interleukin 5 receptor, alpha (IL5RA) also known as CD125 (Cluster of Differentiation 125) is a subunit of the Interleukin-5 ... IL5RA, CD125, CDw125, HSIL5R3, IL5R, Interleukin 5 receptor alpha subunit, interleukin 5 receptor subunit alpha. ... "Entrez Gene: IL5RA interleukin 5 receptor, alpha".. *^ Woodcock JM, Zacharakis B, Plaetinck G, Bagley CJ, Qiyu S, Hercus TR, ... Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: Q01344 (Interleukin-5 receptor subunit alpha) at ...
Interleukin-6 regulates prostate-specific protein expression in prostate carcinoma cells by activation of the androgen receptor ...
... FONTAINE V;BRAKENHOFF J;DE WIT L;ARCONE, Rosaria; ... in human interleukin-6 (hIL-6). All those deletion-carrying hIL-6 (delta hIL-6) proteins were then produced in Xenopus laevis ... in human interleukin-6 (hIL-6). All those deletion-carrying hIL-6 (delta hIL-6) proteins were then produced in Xenopus laevis ... The IL-6 conformation of these deletion-carrying proteins has been studied by immunoprecipitation with two kinds of monoclonal ...
In the in vitro experiments, we confirmed that interleukin-6 (IL-6) secreted by MSCs upon transforming growth factor-β1 ... When situated in TGF-β1, the inflammatory environment induces mesenchymal stem cells to secrete interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-6 ... In dialysis-induced peritoneal fibrosis, MSCs are situated in an inflammatory environment of TGF-β1 and secrete IL-6 to ... Cox AA, Sagot Y, Hedou G, Grek C, Wilkes T, Vinik AI, Ghatnekar G. Low-dose pulsatile interleukin-6 as a treatment option for ...
Interleukin 9[uredi , uredi izvor]. Glavni članak: Interleukin 9. Interleukin 9 (IL-9) je citokin koji podržava IL-2 neovisan i ... Interleukin 8[uredi , uredi izvor]. Glavni članak: Interleukin 8. Interleukin 8 je hemokin koji proizvode makrofagi i drugi ... Interleukin-1β (IL-1β). -benakin. mobenakin Interleukin-2 (IL-2). -leukin. adargileukin alfa, aldesleukin,. celmoleukin, ... Interleukin 1 alfa i interleukin 1 beta ( IL1 alfa i IL1 beta) su citokini koji učestvuju u regulaciji imunskih odgovora, ...
Interleukin 1, Interleukin 6, Interleukin 10, and Tumor Necrosis Factor α in Active and Quiescent Systemic Lupus Erythematosus ... Interleukin 6 Promoter Polymorphisms in Normal Han Chinese Population Min Pan, Shu-Ping Gao, Min-Hui Jiang, Jing Guo, Jin-Guo ...
... interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). LDL-C was calculated. The TC showed a 27.9% decrease, ... Interleukin-6 release and the acute-phase reaction in patients with acute myocardial infarction: a pilot study. ... Postsurgical reduction of serum lipoproteins: Interleukin-6 and the acute-phase response. *. Suat Akgün. Suat Akgün ... Effects of recombinant human interleukin-3 in patients with relapsed small-cell lung cancer treated with chemotherapy: A dose ...
Interleukin-6 levels fluctuate with the light-dark cycle in the brain and peripheral tissues in rats. In: Brain, Behavior, and ... Guan, Z., Vgontzas, A. N., Omori, T., Peng, X., Bixler, E. O., & Fang, J. (2005). Interleukin-6 levels fluctuate with the light ... Interleukin-6 levels fluctuate with the light-dark cycle in the brain and peripheral tissues in rats. / Guan, Zhiwei; Vgontzas ... Interleukin-6 levels fluctuate with the light-dark cycle in the brain and peripheral tissues in rats. Brain, Behavior, and ...
Pig Interleukin 6 (IL6) CLIA Kit, Cat#EKU08805. Write a Review Write a Review. × ... Pig Interleukin 6 (IL6) CLIA Kit, Cat#EKU08805. Rating Required Select Rating. 1 star (worst). 2 stars. 3 stars (average). 4 ... IL6 / Interleukin 6. Target Synonyms. MGI2-A; MGI2A; HGF; BSF2; HSF; IFNB2; B-Cell Stimulatory Factor-2; Hybridoma/Plasmacytoma ... This assay has high sensitivity and excellent specificity for detection of Interleukin 6 (IL6). No significant cross-reactivity ...
  • Interleukin 6 is a cytokine of a pleiotropic nature, which was first identified as a differentiation factor for B-cells almost 30 years ago. (degruyter.com)
  • Apart from IL-6, this group also comprises the cytokines interleukin 11 (IL-11), the leukemia-inhibitory factor (LIF), oncostatin M (OSM), the ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) and cardiotrophin-like cytokine (CLC). (degruyter.com)
  • Receptors for interleukin-6-type cytokines can be divided into non-signal-transmitting α-receptor proteins (Class I cytokine receptors) without intrinsic enzymatic activity, such as IL-6Rα for IL-6, and signal-transmitting receptor proteins (gp130, LIFR and OSMR). (degruyter.com)
  • While gp130 is expressed ubiquitously, the expression of the α-receptor subunits (IL-6Rα, etc.) is strictly limited, which also limits the number of cells that can react to an IL-6-type cytokine. (degruyter.com)
  • Here, we investigated the role of interleukin-6 (IL-6), another member of the glycoprotein 130-activating cytokine family, as additonal contributing factor. (nature.com)
  • Interleukin-6 is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine primarily produced by activated T cells and an assortment of other cells including endothelial cells and macrophages. (prospecbio.com)
  • Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a pleomorphic cytokine that can be found in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in a wide spectrum of inflammatory pathologies of the central nervous system (CNS). (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Cytokine bead array was used to simultaneously measure three key cytokines in culture supernatants: interleukin (IL)-1 beta, -6, and -8. (elsevier.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is an interleukin 5 specific subunit of a heterodimeric cytokine receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • These results suggest that IL-6, a cytokine involved in T and B lymphocyte activation during inflammation, and IFN-gamma, which stimulates T and B lymphocytes, macrophages, endothelial cells and fibroblasts, may play a role in the pathogenesis of various vascular inflammatory diseases such as AAA. (northwestern.edu)
  • IL-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine with complex roles in immune function and metabolic disease. (tcu.edu)
  • Levels of IL-6 are typically very low in saliva, which makes this cytokine more difficult to measure in saliva than serum or plasma. (tcu.edu)
  • Interleukin 6 (IL-6), also known as B-cell stimulatory factor 2, is a small protein that can be classified as both a cytokine and myokine, exhibiting both proinflammatory as well as anti-inflammatory roles. (tcu.edu)
  • As a cytokine, IL-6 has several important functions, including the recruitment of macrophages during innate immune system activation, regulation of body temperature, initiation of the acute phase response, and stimulating the synthesis of complement factors B and C3. (tcu.edu)
  • However, levels of IL-6 in saliva are typically very low, making it easier to measure this cytokine in serum / plasma versus saliva samples. (tcu.edu)
  • This study tested the hypothesis that the inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-6, contributes to the hypertensive response to acute psychosocial stress, caused by switching male mice to a cage previously occupied by a different male mouse. (elsevier.com)
  • IL-6 plays roles as a proinflammatory cytokine and as an anti-inflammatory myokine (cytokine produced in the muscle) amongst so many other vital roles but in this text, we shall focus on the proinflammatory role of IL-6 as it relates to sepsis. (sensusuppsala.com)
  • The Two-Faced Cytokine IL-6 in Host Defense and Diseases. (sensusuppsala.com)
  • Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a cytokine that is expressed by T cells, macrophages, and muscle cells. (enquirebio.com)
  • IL-6 has both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory functions, is capable of promoting fever, and signals through the cell-surface type I cytokine receptor complex containing the IL-6Ra and gp130 chains. (enquirebio.com)
  • Lab Corp: "Interleukein-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine that acts as both a pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediator that plays an important role in the proliferation and differentiation of cells in humans. (secondopinionphysician.com)
  • 6 This essential cytokine stimulates acute phase reactions, immune responses, hematopoiesis and various internal organs to prepare for host defense. (secondopinionphysician.com)
  • Interleukin 3 is an interleukin , a type of biological signal ( cytokine ) that can improve the body's natural response to disease as part of the immune system. (wikidoc.org)
  • Interleukin-6 (IL-6), a pleiotropic cytokine that mediates many physiological and pathophysiological processes, is often regarded as a pro-inflammatory cytokine secreted by inflammatory cells, with elevated plasma concentrations observed in conditions where inflammation is present [ 1 ]. (exercmed.org)
  • Dr. Kishimoto and Dr. Hirano jointly worked on the purification of interleukin-6 (IL-6) which is a cytokine* 1 that induces antibody production by B lymphocytes* 2 , and in 1986 they succeeded in cloning the cDNA encoding IL-6. (japanprize.jp)
  • The doctors also successfully cloned the receptor molecules for IL-6 and revealed that the IL-6 receptor complex consists of a cytokine-binding molecule specific for IL-6 and a molecule that has signal transducing function, shared with other cytokine receptors. (japanprize.jp)
  • Their research has revealed that IL-6 is the representative molecule of inflammatory cytokines and their findings have founded a conceptual basis for explaining pathology of many refractory diseases from the roles of a specific cytokine. (japanprize.jp)
  • In this study, we investigated the effect of an aqueous extract from A. millefolium on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and on the serum cytokine levels in C57BL/6 mice. (ijp-online.com)
  • In this study we investigated whether retinoid-mediated inhibition of interleukin-12 production in mouse macrophages could regulate cytokine profile of antigen (Ag)-primed CD4 + Th cells. (elsevier.com)
  • According to modern classification, IL-6 is part of the subgroup of interleukin-6-type cytokines. (degruyter.com)
  • Among the IL-6-type cytokines, signals are transmitted only for IL-6 and IL-11 via gp130 homodimers. (degruyter.com)
  • Interleukin-6 (IL-6), as well as CNTF and LIF, belong to the family of glycoprotein 130 (gp130)-activating cytokines. (nature.com)
  • Some cytokines, including IL-6, stimulate breast cancer proliferation or invasion and serve as negative prognostic indicators. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Cytokines, such as IL-6 play a key role in regulating estrogen synthesis in normal and malignant breast tissues. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • This may sensitize these cells to proliferative stimuli, resulting in selective expansion as a result of interaction with BMM that produce IL-6 and other cytokines. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • The APC exposure resulted in a significant release of IL-6 (P=0.04) without affecting other cytokines. (elsevier.com)
  • This pilot study showed that APC treatment of human neutrophils results in a decreased IL-6 expression and chemotaxis, without affecting other cytokines, apoptosis, or respiratory burst activity. (elsevier.com)
  • Cells exposed to the avian-human H1N1 virus showed increased synthesis of viral neuraminidase, previously reported to induce fever-producing cytokines, but no detectable increase in production of interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α measured by immunoassay, or decrease in interleukin-1 inhibitor activity by bioassay. (utmb.edu)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the possible pathogenetic role of other proinflammatory cytokines, namely IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, and interferon (IFN)-gamma. (northwestern.edu)
  • Interestingly, IL-6 has also been shown to be anti-inflammatory in certain contexts, which conflicts with the traditional assumption that pro- and anti-inflammatory activity is mutually exclusive among cytokines. (tcu.edu)
  • Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional protein that belongs to the IL-6 family which comprises of polypeptide cytokines characterized by a four-alpha-helical structure with molecular mass of 21-28kDa (Keystone and Omair, 2015). (sensusuppsala.com)
  • IL-6 is a one of a large group of molecules called cytokines, which direct the body's "inflammatory cascade. (secondopinionphysician.com)
  • This can contribute to the activation of transcription factors such as nuclear-factor-kappa-B and nuclear- factor-interleukin-6 which, in turn, stimulate inflammatory cytokines. (cdc.gov)
  • Activation of the Janus kinase/STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) signal transduction pathway by interleukin-6-type cytokines promotes osteoblast differentiation. (uams.edu)
  • other proteins are also released, such as bradykinin, bradykinin is an important trigger of early cold symptoms such as sore throat and nasal congestion, cytokines, such as interleukin 1 il-1 and interleukin 6 il-6, cause fever and chills in some people and then symptoms begin. (youtuberead.com)
  • This single-center retrospective study evaluated the correlation between serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels at admission with the severity of COVID-19 pneumonia, as determined by admission to the intensive Care Unit (ICU). (medscimonit.com)
  • Serum IL-6 concentrations at admission were measured by ELISA. (medscimonit.com)
  • Correlations between serum IL-6 concentrations and ICU admission due to the development of severe COVID-19 pneumonia were evaluated. (medscimonit.com)
  • Serum IL-6 concentration is closely associated with the severity of COVID-19. (medscimonit.com)
  • Serum samples were obtained from 11 male patients before and at intervals for up to 10 days after surgery, and were assayed for total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), cortisol, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). (translationalres.com)
  • There is a significant inverse correlation between TC and IL-6, suggesting a possible role of IL-6 in postoperative changes in serum lipoproteins. (translationalres.com)
  • Cloud-CloneDescription: ELISA Kit for detection of Human Interleukin 9 (IL9) in samples from Serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell. (proteomecommons.org)
  • To investigate serum IL-6 (sIL-6) levels during active disease, complete remission (CR), and relapse in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV), and to explore the association of changes in sIL-6 with clinical outcomes. (univ-brest.fr)
  • The strength of correlations between salivary and serum / plasma levels of IL-6 vary based on a number of different factors, such as whether samples were collected before or after an experimental stressor (i.e., correlation coefficients are often greater after an experimental manipulation). (tcu.edu)
  • The human IL-6 ELISA kit is suitable for the quantitative determination of human IL-6 in a wide range of sample types, including serum, plasma, cell culture supernates, tissue homogenates, and urine. (cusabio.com)
  • 16-18 Increased amounts of IL-6 in serum were associated with pulmonary inflammation and extensive lung in SARS coronavirus patients. (secondopinionphysician.com)
  • In a study of serum markers related to immune cells that may be involved in PMR and giant cell arteritis (GCA), serum B-cell activating factor (BAFF) and IL-6 were most strongly associated with disease activity in both GCA and PMR patients. (medscape.com)
  • Kolb M, Bhatia M, Madina GG, Satwani P. Effective use of tocilizumab for the treatment of steroid-refractory gastrointestinal acute graft versus host disease in a child with very high levels of serum interleukin-6. (chop.edu)
  • The Mouse Il-6 Elisa reagent is RUO (Research Use Only) to test human serum or cell culture lab samples. (ayurvedandindia.com)
  • Description: For quantitative detection of mouse IL-6 in cell culture supernates, serum and plasma( heparin, EDTA, citrate). (ayurvedandindia.com)
  • Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit for quantification of Mouse IL-6 in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates and other biological fluids. (ayurvedandindia.com)
  • Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (ijp-online.com)
  • CNS infections, cerebral ischaemia, CNS traumata or chronic inflammatory diseases with CNS manifestations such as neuro-lupus or neuro-sarcoidosis are associated with increased IL-6 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). (degruyter.com)
  • the first disease to be associated with markedly elevated IL-6 was cardiac myxoma, a benign heart tumor, where increased IL-6 levels cause extensive inflammatory symptoms. (secondopinionphysician.com)
  • Through the use of monoclonal antibodies against IL-6 and recombinant IL-6, it was further discovered that the proteins IFN-β2, 26 kDa protein and the hepatocyte-stimulating factor were also IL-6 [1]. (degruyter.com)
  • Treatment of cultured RGCs with IL-6 or specific IL-6 receptor agonist, significantly increased neurite outgrowth janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription-3 (JAK/STAT3) and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) dependently. (nature.com)
  • 6 However, RGCs can be transformed into an active regenerative state either by genetic modulation of the janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducers and activators of transcription-3 (STAT3) or the phosphatase and tensin homolog/phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway or by inflammatory stimulation (IS) in the eye of wild-type animals. (nature.com)
  • IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-17A, VEGF, NF-kB-p65 protein, and PG-E2 levels were measured in the synovial fluid and compared before/after the two cold applications. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • These results suggest that local ice cryotherapy reduces IL-6, IL-1β, and VEGF synovial protein levels, mainly in microcrystal-induced arthritis, and potentially through NF-kB and PG-E2-dependent mechanisms. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • godine, kako bi zamijenio različita različita imena koja su koristili različite istraživačke skupine za označavanje varijante interleukin 1 (faktor aktiviranja limfocita, mitogeni protein, zamjenski faktor III koji aktivira B-ćelije, faktor B-ćelije, Faktor diferencijacije B-ćelija i "heidikin") i interleukin 2 (TSF itd. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, among others, may play a role in the generation by AAA. (northwestern.edu)
  • Recombinant IL-6 is a homodimer protein consisting of 184 amino acid residue subunits, and migrates as an approximately 21 kDa protein under reducing conditions in SDS-PAGE. (reprokine.com)
  • IL-6 is a protein produced by a variety of cells (i.e. white blood cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, etc.) that helps regulate immune responses, which makes the IL-6 test useful as a marker of immune activation and inflammation. (secondopinionphysician.com)
  • Interleukin 3 ( IL-3 ) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL3 gene . (wikidoc.org)
  • They also revealed that IL-6 not only enhances antibody production but also has a wide range of functions, including its role as a key stimulus for hepatic production of C-reactive protein* 3 (CRP) during the acute phase of inflammation and as a growth factor for multiple myeloma. (japanprize.jp)
  • Feline IL-8 Recombinant Protein is purified interleukin-8 produced in yeast. (ayurvedandindia.com)
  • The samples were submitted to laboratory analysis to measure the levels of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP) at the three times. (bvsalud.org)
  • Thrombin generation in response to microvascular injury ACS patients correlated with interleukin-6 but not C-reactive protein. (krakow.pl)
  • The upregulated expression of TLR2/6 and IL-6Ra/gp130 receptors was also confirmed in SCC-4 cells. (tcd.ie)
  • The receptor is composed of a ligand specific alpha subunit and a signal transducing beta subunit shared by the receptors for interleukin 3 (IL3), colony stimulating factor 2 (CSF2/GM-CSF), and interleukin 5 (IL5). (wikipedia.org)
  • They also elucidated the complex signaling pathway through which IL-6 signals by binding to the receptors on the cell surface membrane to the nucleus. (japanprize.jp)
  • From their pioneering discovery of IL-6 to their research on IL-6 receptors and the mechanism of signaling pathways in the cells, the doctors continued to lead the world. (japanprize.jp)
  • We also quantified vitamin E and coenzyme Q 10 to monitor antioxidant reserve, as well as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, TNF-soluble receptors, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1ra to assess inflammatory status. (elsevier.com)
  • They modify the body's immune response to diverse stimuli and inhibit the synthesis of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-6, and interferon (IFN)-gamma. (medscape.com)
  • Description: Description of target: The human interferon-beta 2 gene (IFNB2) product is identical to that for the B-cell stimulation factor-2 (BSF-2), the hybridoma growth factor (HGF) ("interleukin-6"), and the hepatocyte stimulating factor (HSF). (ayurvedandindia.com)
  • In the case of IL-6, a hexamer consists of two IL-6 molecules, two IL-6R and a gp130 homodimer. (degruyter.com)
  • 24 IL-6 acts on target cells through a receptor complex composed of the full-length IL-6 receptor- α (IL-6R α ) and gp130. (nature.com)
  • Furthermore, IL-6 binds to the ubiquitous gp130 receptor, inducing inflammation and preventing apoptosis of T cells, as well as maintaining proinflammatory Th17 cells. (tcu.edu)
  • IL-6 binding to its receptor IL-6R ligates to gp130, initiating a downstream signal cascade, including JAK/STAT3 and JAK-SHP-2-MAPK pathways. (cusabio.com)
  • IL-6 directly signals through its cell-surface receptor (membrane-bound IL-6R ['mbIL-6R']), which initiates downstream intracellular responses via glycoprotein-130 ('gp130') [ 3 , 4 ]. (exercmed.org)
  • the resulting IL-6/sIL-6R "active complex" can bind to gp130 (which is ubiquitously expressed, but which does not bind to IL-6 alone, or sIL-6R alone) [ 3 ], and trigger "trans-signalling" responses independent of mbIL-6R [ 4 ]. (exercmed.org)
  • Finally, a circulating soluble fragment of gp130 ('sgp130') binds to IL-6/sIL-6R, forming an "inactive (or buffer) complex" and impairing trans-signalling [ 3 ]. (exercmed.org)
  • All of these delta hIL-6 proteins were inactive in the IL-6 hybridoma growth factor (HGF) assay and unable to inhibit the HGF activity of the recombinant human wild-type IL-6 (wt hIL-6). (uniparthenope.it)
  • WB.Recombinant Interleukin 9 (IL9) is. (proteomecommons.org)
  • Numerous studies now demonstrate the pleiotropic character of IL-6, which has been shown to possess important functions in the immune system, the regulation of hematopoesis, inflammation and oncogenesis. (degruyter.com)
  • Flow cytometry analysis of CaCo-2 cells double stained for CFSE dilution assay and TfR (mouse anti-human TfR stain), after incubation with the following inflammation mediators: TNFα, IL1β, IL-6, a mixture of the three, or CRM from mouse source. (reprokine.com)
  • However, it should be noted that IL-6 also has anti-inflammatory properties, which may make it an unreliable index of inflammation on its own. (tcu.edu)
  • However, chronic inflammation also plays a focal role in the etiology of obesity, suggesting that while IL-6 is necessary for healthy metabolic function, excessive levels may also contribute to metabolic disorders. (tcu.edu)
  • IL-6 in inflammation, immunity, and disease. (tcu.edu)
  • Elevated blood levels of IL-6 can be indicative of inflammation, infection, autoimmune disorders, or cardiovascular diseases. (sensusuppsala.com)
  • Interleukin 6 - monitor cancer progression, inflammation. (secondopinionphysician.com)
  • Furthermore, by focusing on the association of IL-6 with inflammation as well as with various diseases, the doctors constructed IL-6 over-expressing transgenic mice and, conversely, those with genetic disruption of IL-6, and those expressing mutated IL-6 receptor signal transducing subunit. (japanprize.jp)
  • A causative role for IL-6 in the physiological adaptation to fasting was further supported by the fact that fasting-induced increase in circulating FFA levels was significantly blunted in lean IL-6 knockout (KO) and lean C57BL/6J mice treated with neutralizing IL-6 antibody. (researchgate.net)
  • RT-PCR and antibody array analyses revealed that EAMs highly express and produce interleukin (IL) 6 compared to macrophages stimulated by the CM of HES cells. (bioone.org)
  • Cloud-CloneDescription: A monoclonal antibody rasied in mouse against human Interleukin 9Monoclonal Antibody to Interleukin 9 (IL9) is. (proteomecommons.org)
  • It is a humanized monoclonal anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody. (medscape.com)
  • The overall downstream effect of elevated levels of IL-6 is deposition of antibody complexes, matrix, and proteases in the affected tissues and, thereafter, destruction of tissues. (sensusuppsala.com)
  • Based on these discoveries, Dr. Kishimoto in cooperation with a pharmaceutical company applied their understandings by developing tocilizumab, a humanized antibody which binds to the IL-6 receptor to inhibit the effect of IL-6. (japanprize.jp)
  • Human IgG antibody Laboratories manufactures the mouse il-6 elisa reagents distributed by Genprice. (ayurvedandindia.com)
  • In dialysis-induced peritoneal fibrosis, MSCs are situated in an inflammatory environment of TGF-β1 and secrete IL-6 to polarize macrophages into the M2 phenotype. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When situated in TGF-β1, the inflammatory environment induces mesenchymal stem cells to secrete interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-6 polarizes macrophages into the M2 phenotype. (biomedcentral.com)
  • IL-6 is released by various innate immune cells of the body (mostly macrophages and dendritic cells) in defense against bacteria, virus, or other microorganisms' invasion. (sensusuppsala.com)
  • Description: Interleukin-8 (IL-8), also known as CXCL8, is an ELR-positive CXC family member chemokine produced by macrophages and other cell types such as epithelial cells. (ayurvedandindia.com)
  • IL-6 induces divergent proliferative responses in prostate cells. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been implicated in excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in humans, and exogenous IL-6 also induces sleep alterations both in humans and rats. (elsevier.com)
  • Because hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 1α is expressed during hypoxia and cellular stress and up-regulates the expression of IL-6, we hypothesized that HIF-1 α induces the increased cardiac IL-6 after trauma-hemorrhage and that estrogen suppresses this induction. (uthscsa.edu)
  • It has been reported that IL-6 levels in induced sputum are particularly elevated in asthmatic subjects compared with healthy controls. (archbronconeumol.org)
  • In lean C57BL/6J mice, 6 hours of food withdrawal increased gene transcription levels of IL-6 in skeletal muscle but not in white adipose tissue. (researchgate.net)
  • Concomitantly, circulating IL-6 and free fatty acid (FFA) levels were significantly increased, whereas respiratory quotient (RQ) was reduced in 6-hour fasted mice. (researchgate.net)
  • Intriguingly, fasting-induced increase in circulating IL-6 levels and parallel rise in FFA concentration were absent in obese and glucose intolerant mice. (researchgate.net)
  • Local ice cryotherapy significantly reduced the IL-6, IL-1β, VEGF, NF-kB-p65, and PG-E2 synovial levels, especially in the microcrystal-induced arthritis subgroup, while only phosphorylated NF-kB-p65 significantly decreased in rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthritis patients. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • IL-6 is expressed in benign and malignant prostate tissue and levels of both IL-6 and IL-6R increase during prostate carcinogenesis. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether IL-6 levels in exhaled breath condensate could differentiate between healthy and asthmatic children, and in the latter group between steroid-naïve and those receiving steroids for asthma management. (archbronconeumol.org)
  • A group comparison showed significantly higher CSF IL-6 levels in patients with CNSID than in those with PCNSL (p = 0.032). (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Our study suggests that CSF IL-6 levels could represent, in addition to CSF IL-10, a useful biomarker in the differential diagnosis of CNSID and suspected PCNSL. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Elevated lactate and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were shown to correlate with mortality and multiple organ dysfunction in severely traumatized patients. (uzh.ch)
  • The purpose of this study was to test whether an association exists between 24-hour lactate clearance, IL-6 and procalcitonin (PCT) levels, and the development of infectious complications in trauma patients. (uzh.ch)
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that elevated early procalcitonin and IL-6 levels and inadequate 24-hour lactate clearance help identify trauma patients who develop septic and nonseptic infectious complications. (uzh.ch)
  • Increased levels of IL-6 exacerbate the dystrophic muscle phenotype, sustaining inflammatory response and repeated cycles of muscle degeneration and regeneration, leading to exhaustion of satellite cells. (elsevier.com)
  • There was an inverse relationship between TC and IL-6 levels, with r = −0.51 for the entire curve and r = −0.90 for the cholesterol nadir with the IL-6 peak. (translationalres.com)
  • The IL-6 levels in human blood vary with the light-dark cycle with IL-6 levels being high during the dark period and low during the light period, whereas in the pituitary of rats the IL-6 levels are elevated during the light period compared to the dark period. (elsevier.com)
  • We hypothesized that IL-6 levels in the brain are regulated by the light-dark cycles and are elevated during the period that is predominantly occupied by sleep. (elsevier.com)
  • To test this hypothesis, we measured IL-6 levels in the brain, blood, and adipose tissue of rats across light-dark cycle every 4 h. (elsevier.com)
  • IL-6 levels were significantly higher during the light period than during the dark period in the cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus. (elsevier.com)
  • In the brainstem, IL-6 levels did not significantly vary across the light-dark cycles. (elsevier.com)
  • IL-6 levels were positively correlated between the blood and adipose tissue, between hypothalamus and blood, and between the hypothalamus and hippocampus. (elsevier.com)
  • These observations suggest that IL-6 levels vary across the light-dark cycle among different tissues and that IL-6 levels are elevated both centrally and peripherally during the period predominantly occupied by sleep but decreased during the period that primarily consists of wakefulness. (elsevier.com)
  • Levels of IL-6 can be quantified in both blood and saliva. (tcu.edu)
  • The plasmatic and salivary levels of IL-1β, IL-18 and IL-6 are associated to emotional difference during stress in young male. (tcu.edu)
  • It has been reported from as far back as 1989 that there is an elevated level of IL-6 from the normal blood plasma level to very high levels in patients with sepsis from admission to intensive care stage (Hack et al , 1989). (sensusuppsala.com)
  • Increased Plasma Levels of Interleukin-6 in Sepsis. (sensusuppsala.com)
  • Defining IL-6 levels in healthy individuals: A meta-analysis. (sensusuppsala.com)
  • The majority of studies report that elevated levels of IL-6 are associated with worse cancer outcomes. (secondopinionphysician.com)
  • In severe cases, IL-6 levels measured can trigger excessive defense signaling and threaten survival. (secondopinionphysician.com)
  • 11,12 Markedly elevated IL-6 levels are also found in Castleman's disease, a condition where patients suffer from severe inflammatory symptoms related to massive infiltration of mature plasma cells into lymph nodes. (secondopinionphysician.com)
  • 5 Elevated levels of IL-6 in patients with community acquired pneumonia are associated with increased all-cause and cause-specific mortality during admission and over one-year post-admission, despite resolution of clinical signs of an acute infection. (secondopinionphysician.com)
  • Thus, whether IL-6 signals via classical or trans-signalling is determined by the respective levels of IL-6, sIL-6R, and sgp130. (exercmed.org)
  • In this study production levels of interleukins (IL)-12 and IL-13 were measured by commercial ELISA in culture supernatants of mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 30 non-splenectomized beta-thalassaemia cases with iron overload and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. (who.int)
  • In addition, through their findings that rheumatoid arthritis patients have high levels of IL-6 in their synovial fluid, they unraveled the significant role of IL-6 in rheumatoid arthritis and other disease conditions. (japanprize.jp)
  • Studies have shown that administration of 17β-estradiol (estrogen) after traumahemorrhage normalized cardiac IL-6 levels and restored cardiac functions under those conditions. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Because elevated IL-6 levels after trauma-hemorrhage were decreased with YC-1 treatment, it indicates that IL-6 expression in cardiomyocytes is induced via HIF-1α. (uthscsa.edu)
  • The levels of Interleukin-6 were higher after the tooth extractions and returned to normal after 72 hours, but there were no significant differences between the groups. (bvsalud.org)
  • The gene for IL6 is shown in light blue and comprizes 6 exons (with 375 bp, 103 bp, 191 bp, 114 bp, 147 bp and 542 bp in length) and 5 introns (with 920 bp, 162 bp, 1058 bp, 707 bp and 1745 bp in length). (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Genetic factors involved in the molecular pathways regulating tumor development have been adduced to explain these differences, and it has been suggested that the IL-6 gene is a susceptibility factor underlying ethnic differences in breast cancer survival. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Reports of a G/C polymorphism at nucleotide -174 within the promoter region of the IL-6 gene support this contention. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • The NF-kappaB and NF-IL6 elements have previously been shown to play an important role in regulation of both the mouse and human interleukin-6 gene. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • In this study we demonstrate that the transcription factor Sp1 binds to these repeats and plays an important role in basal and in inducible expression of the murine interleukin-6 gene. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Association of interleukin-6 gene polymorphism with angina pectoris. (bvsalud.org)
  • Our study demonstrates a high incidence of the -174G>C polymorphism of the IL-6 gene in patients with angina pectoris compared with those carrying the G allele , reinforcing the contribution of genetic factors to the symptoms of angina pectoris . (bvsalud.org)
  • Coal-induced interleukin-6 gene expression is mediated through ERKs and p38 MAPK pathways. (cdc.gov)
  • It has repeatedly shown that oncogenic mutations as well as the bone marrow matrix (BMM) stimulate IL-6-independent signalling pathways that protect MM cells from apoptosis.Hyperdiploid MM tumors contain multiple trisomies involving chromosomes 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 15 , 19 , and 21, but rarely have IgH translocations, although CCND-1 / CCND-2 / CCND-3 dysregulation appears to occur as an early event. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Proteasome inhibitors are emerging as a promising class of anti-cancer therapeutic agents in MM, e.g. bortezomib which inhibits NF-kappaB translocation / transcription and critical signalling pathways, notably IL-6-induced proliferation and/or survival. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Interleukin-6 receptor pathways in abdominal aortic aneurysm. (cdc.gov)
  • Abid H, Ryan ZC, Delmotte P, Sieck GC, Lanza IR (2020) Extramyocellular interleukin-6 influences skeletal muscle mitochondrial physiology through canonical JAK/STAT signaling pathways. (mitophysiology.org)
  • Finally, we have produced two proteins with aa 29-33 or 97-104 substituted by corresponding murine IL-6 (mIL-6) sequences. (uniparthenope.it)
  • The amount of synthesized colored products are positively related to the analyte of interest in the sample.This human IL-6 ELISA kit has been described in up to 143 publications. (cusabio.com)
  • We report that forced expression of IL-6, in the adult mdx mice, recapitulates the severe phenotypic characteristics of DMD in humans. (elsevier.com)
  • On the other hand, genetic ablation of IL-6 in mice significantly reduced IS-mediated myelin disinhibition and axon regeneration in the optic nerve. (nature.com)
  • Consistently, phosphorylation of HSL was significantly reduced in adipose tissue of IL-6 depleted mice. (researchgate.net)
  • Male C57BL6 (WT) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) knockout (KO) mice were implanted with biotelemetry devices to monitor mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and motor activity in the unrestrained state. (elsevier.com)
  • Baseline mean arterial pressure was 98±1 and 103±1 for WT and IL-6 KO mice. (elsevier.com)
  • However, because perfusion of the isolated mesenteric bed with phenylephrine and chronic infusion of angiotensin II caused similar responses in WT and IL-6 KO mice, it is clear that future studies are needed to determine to what extent the acute blood pressure effect of IL-6 is stress-specific. (elsevier.com)
  • Interleukin 3 originally was discovered by JN Ihle in mice. (wikidoc.org)
  • Using these genetically engineered mice they elucidated the physiological function of IL-6 in vivo. (japanprize.jp)
  • Mice were killed at 2 h after resuscitation, and cardiac IL-6, HIF-1α, and nuclear factor (NF) κB activities were measured. (uthscsa.edu)
  • EAE was induced in 63 C57BL/6 mice weighing 20-25 g (8 weeks old). (ijp-online.com)
  • Visceral Leishmania donovani infection in interleukin-13-/- mice. (cornell.edu)
  • Responses to Leishmania donovani in mice deficient in interleukin-12 (IL-12), IL-12/IL-23, or IL-18. (cornell.edu)
  • This polymorphism modulates IL-6 expression and allele/genotype frequencies at the -174 site differ significantly between ethnic groups. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Long-term prognosis after coronary bypass surgery depends on interleukin 6 polymorphism and past acute infections. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In this study, we investigated the role of the -174G>C polymorphism of interleukin-6 ( IL-6 ) as a predisposing factor to angina pectoris . (bvsalud.org)
  • Thus, the use of IL-6 as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in these diseases is being investigated. (degruyter.com)
  • The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was 0.816 ( P 0.01), indicating that IL-6 was prognostic of disease severity in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. (medscimonit.com)
  • Interleukin-6 test has great prognostic value in Covid-19 infection! (klinikatawil.com)
  • abstract = "Cardiac dysfunction is a major concern after trauma-hemorrhage, and increased IL-6 is one of the underlying causes for producing the dysfunction. (uthscsa.edu)
  • IL-6 concentrations were significantly higher in patients with more severe than less severe COVID-19 pneumonia. (medscimonit.com)
  • We retrospectively analyzed the CSF IL-6 concentrations in 43 consecutive patients with suspected PCNSL. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • To assess the linearity of the assay, samples were spiked with high concentrations of human IL-6 in various matrices and diluted with the Sample Diluent to produce samples with values within the dynamic range of the assay. (cusabio.com)
  • Differential Effects of Low and High Concentrations of Interleukin 6 on Human B Cell. (nordicmubio.com)
  • Forty-seven patients were included (17 gouts, 11 calcium pyrophosphate deposition diseases, 13 rheumatoid arthritides, 6 spondyloarthritides). (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Specifically, IL-6 has been shown to influence Crohn's disease and rheumatoid arthritis, as well as other inflammatory disorders. (tcu.edu)
  • 13 IL-6 is involved in pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis 14,15 and other autoimmune conditions. (secondopinionphysician.com)
  • In the PCNSL group, the median CSF IL-6 concentration was 8 pg/ml, interquartile range (IQR) 5-18.5. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Eight participants with complication-free Type 1 diabetes, whose mean +/- SEM age was 38 (6) years, mean +/- SEM HbA(1c) concentration was 71 +/- 11 mmol/mol (8.7 +/- 1.0%) and mean +/- SEM Type 1 diabetes duration was 15 +/- 13 years, attended the research facility after an overnight fast on four separate occasions, having administered their basal insulin the night before (glargine 27.5 +/- 3.1U, n=8), but omitted morning rapid-acting insulin. (northumbria.ac.uk)
  • The rise in IL-6 from baseline to peak concentration significantly correlated inversely with blood glucose area under the curve (r=-0.65, P=0.041). (northumbria.ac.uk)
  • To purchase these products, for the MSDS, Data Sheet, protocol, storage conditions/temperature or for the concentration, please contact il 6 elisa. (ayurvedandindia.com)
  • Thus, the acute hypertensive response to psychosocial stress depends significantly on IL-6, and the effect appears to be specific for blood pressure rather than to a global impairment in the response to stress. (elsevier.com)
  • CSF interleukin 6 is a useful marker to distinguish pseudotumoral CNS inflammatory diseases from primary CNS lymphoma. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Our aim was to characterize the diagnostic significance of CSF IL-6 among various CNS inflammatory diseases with pseudotumoral lesions (CNSID) and primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL). (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Dysregulated IL-6 has been associated with the pathogenesis of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, metabolic abnormalities, and cancer. (cusabio.com)
  • Targeting IL-6 has shown to be potential for the treatment of various immune-mediated diseases. (cusabio.com)
  • Fig. 2: Representation of several mechanisms by which interleukin (IL)-6 can contribute to chronic inflammatory diseases. (sensusuppsala.com)
  • The summary about IL-6 in this context is that inasmuch as it sends defense signal during pathogen invasion or tissue damage, its excessive and long sustained secretion is often associated with various inflammatory diseases that could ultimately result in a septic shock. (sensusuppsala.com)
  • Interleukin-6: from an inflammatory marker to a target for inflammatory diseases. (sensusuppsala.com)
  • 9 Sustained and excessive production of IL-6 can occur in a variety of inflammatory diseases. (secondopinionphysician.com)
  • IL-6 affects B and T lymphocytes and has been shown to have a role in host defense, acute phase reactions, immune responses and hematopoiesis. (prospecbio.com)
  • IL-6 has been shown to influence the nervous system and may mediate links between immune activation and behavior. (tcu.edu)
  • These local effects aid the innate immune system, but pathology associated with IL-6 dysregulation has also been observed. (tcu.edu)
  • IL-6 is rapidly and transiently generated in response to infections and tissue damage, contributing to host defense via the induction of acute-phase responses, hematopoiesis, and immune reactions. (cusabio.com)
  • In addition to regulating immune and inflammatory reactions, IL-6 also plays an important role in hematopoiesis, metabolism, and organ development. (cusabio.com)
  • IL-6 acts to stimulate an immune response upon infection or trauma. (enquirebio.com)
  • 6 IL-6 is an important mediator of fever and the acute phase response that enhances the innate immune system to protect against tissue damage. (secondopinionphysician.com)
  • 1. Interleukin-12 (IL-12) plays a central role in the immune system by driving the immune response towards T helper 1 (Th1) type responses characterized by high IFN-γ and low IL-4 production. (elsevier.com)
  • This in turn can lead to the recruitment of an abnormally high number of immune cells which was seen to cause lung damage in COVID-19 patients, due to what's called an acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (6). (dolomite-bio.com)
  • The IL-6 conformation of these deletion-carrying proteins has been studied by immunoprecipitation with two kinds of monoclonal antibodies (mAb's): mAb's that show preference towards denatured hIL-6, or conformation-specific mAb's. (uniparthenope.it)
  • Therefore, IL-6 contributes to the beneficial effects of IS and its disinhibitory effect adds an important feature to the effects of so far identified IS-mediating factors. (nature.com)
  • Hitherto IL-2, IFNalpha, IFNbeta IFNgamma, IL-6, IL-12 have been used for anti tumour treatment of advanced breast cancer either to induce or increase hormone sensitivity and/or to stimulate cellular immunity. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • 4-7 IL-6 is involved in many physiological responses, including acute phase response, fever induction, angiogenesis, B and T cell differentiation as well as in lipid and iron metabolism. (secondopinionphysician.com)
  • In vivo , intravitreal application of IL-6 transformed RGCs into a regenerative state, enabling axon regeneration beyond the lesion site of the optic nerve. (nature.com)
  • 6. In Vivo and In Vitro Expression of Myeloid Antigens on B-lineage Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Cells. (nordicmubio.com)
  • In 1985 interleukin 6 (IL-6) was first identified as a differentiation factor for B-cells (B-cell stimulatory factor 2) which caused B-cells to mature and produce antibodies. (degruyter.com)
  • Conversely, although exercise-associated IL-6 secretion from leukocytes is negligible [ 2 ], IL-6 is released as a "myokine" from contracting muscles to enable muscle-organ crosstalk, which is important in the body's systemic anti-inflammatory response to exercise [ 1 , 2 ]. (exercmed.org)
  • Interleukin 3 stimulates the differentiation of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells into myeloid progenitor cells or, with the addition of IL-7, into lymphoid progenitor cells . (wikidoc.org)
  • The kinetics of IL-6 were similar to those of PCT but did differentiate between infected and noninfected patients after day 5. (uzh.ch)
  • 10 white blood cells (WBC)/high-power field (hpf), has been variously reported in 33% to 62% of acute KD patients 3,4,6,7 and was recognized in the recent American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines as a laboratory finding supportive of the diagnosis of KD. (lww.com)
  • Development of a critical disease with septic shock, respiratory or multi-organ failure may occur in a minor number of patients, 80% of the cases show minor symptoms, 14% have severe symptoms, and 5% develop serious or critical illness [5, 6]. (sciencerepository.org)
  • Group 2 patients developing HF during hospitalization (Group 2Bi) presented with an increase of both · OH production at discharge and inflammatory status, as compared with patients without HF (Group 2Ai), persisting at month 6 in post-MI patients with HF (Group 2Bii). (elsevier.com)
  • According to a report by Said et al, 2021, IL-6 values in the blood of healthy donors in a meta-analysis his group carried out ranged from 0 to 43.5pg/mL. (sensusuppsala.com)
  • Structure of human interleukin 6. (degruyter.com)
  • Local ice cryotherapy decreases synovial interleukin 6, interleukin 1β, vascular endothelial growth factor, prostaglandin-E2, and nuclear factor kappa B p65 in human knee arthritis: a controlled study. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Binding interactions of human interleukin 5 with its receptor alpha subunit. (wikipedia.org)
  • By cDNA mutagenesis, we have constructed internal and C-terminal deletions (delta 21-51, delta 52-97, delta 97-104, delta 127-174, delta 97-184 and delta 134-184) in human interleukin-6 (hIL-6). (uniparthenope.it)
  • Native human Interleukin-6 is generated by the proteolytic removal of the signal peptide and propeptide, the molecule has a calculated molecular mass of approximately 21 kDa. (reprokine.com)
  • Human IL-6 is active on mouse and rat cells. (enquirebio.com)
  • Cha, DR 2016, ' Interleukin-6 signaling in podocyte hypertrophy ', Kidney Research and Clinical Practice , vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 195-196. (elsevier.com)
  • IL-6 production was also increased in AAA compared to NL aortic explant supernatants. (northwestern.edu)
  • Expression of IL-6 was markedly induced in the retina upon optic nerve injury and IS, and mature RGCs expressed the IL-6 receptor. (nature.com)
  • We have found that IL-6 expression is markedly induced in the retina after optic nerve injury and IS. (nature.com)
  • Interleukin 5 receptor, alpha ( IL5RA ) also known as CD125 ( C luster of D ifferentiation 125 ) is a subunit of the Interleukin-5 receptor . (wikipedia.org)
  • 8 IL-6 is produced locally at the site of infectious or injured lesions and is delivered to the whole body via the blood stream, promptly activating the host defense system to perform diverse functions. (secondopinionphysician.com)
  • In the central nervous system (CNS), IL-6 is involved in neurogenesis and the response of neurons and glia-cells to various injuries. (degruyter.com)
  • It was then shown that the hybridoma/plasmocytoma growth factor, which triggered the polyclonal growth of plasma cells in the spleen and lymph nodes in animal studies, was identical to IL-6. (degruyter.com)
  • Although interleukin-6 (IL-6) is considered as a key growth factor for myeloma cells, only a few subpopulations of tumor cells, such as CD45(+) immature cells, proliferate in response to IL-6. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Production of interleukin 6 by hepatoma cells. (mcmaster.ca)
  • Furthermore, SCC-4 cells, compared to PGK and DOK cells, constitutively synthesized and released significant amounts of IL-6, which was further enhanced by the addition of the TLR2/TLR6 agonist, Pam2CSK4. (tcd.ie)
  • A key finding was that IL-6 played a central role in promoting anoikisresistance, increasing glycolytic flux and inhibiting oxidative phosphorylation in SCC-4 cells. (tcd.ie)
  • In conclusion, this study provided novel data and key insights into the bioenergetics of normal, dysplastic and cancerous oral cells, as well as uncovering a role for IL-6 in anoikis resistance, increased glycolytic flux and reduced oxidative phosphorylation in OSCC cells, warranting further studies on a therapeutic role for anti-IL-6 receptor antibodies for the treatment and metastasis of OSCC. (tcd.ie)
  • He found a T cell derived factor that induced the synthesis of 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in hematopoietic cells and termed it interleukin-3. (wikidoc.org)
  • High-affinity mutant Interleukin - 13 targeted CAR T cells enhance delivery of clickable biodegradable fluorescent nanoparticles to glioblastoma. (il-13.com)
  • In the in vitro experiments, we confirmed that interleukin-6 (IL-6) secreted by MSCs upon transforming growth factor-β1 stimulation promotes M2 macrophage polarization. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Erythropoietin (EPO), Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and IL-6 . (wikidoc.org)
  • It involves estimation of IL-6 & insulin along with its correlation with insulin, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), Insulin resistance (IR) and physical measurements. (who.int)
  • Hemoglobinuria amongst adult Nigerians as a end result of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency with drug sensitivity. (edu.hk)