A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
Cell surface proteins that bind interleukins and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
A ligand that binds to but fails to activate the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR. It plays an inhibitory role in the regulation of INFLAMMATION and FEVER. Several isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-1. Included under this heading are signaling receptors, non-signaling receptors and accessory proteins required for receptor signaling. Signaling from interleukin-1 receptors occurs via interaction with SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as MYELOID DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 88.
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
A multilineage cell growth factor secreted by LYMPHOCYTES; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and ASTROCYTES which stimulates clonal proliferation and differentiation of various types of blood and tissue cells.
A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.
A cytokine which resembles IL-1 structurally and IL-12 functionally. It enhances the cytotoxic activity of NK CELLS and CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES, and appears to play a role both as neuroimmunomodulator and in the induction of mucosal immunity.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Receptors present on a wide variety of hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cell types that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-4. They are involved in signaling a variety of immunological responses related to allergic INFLAMMATION including the differentiation of TH2 CELLS and the regulation of IMMUNOGLOBULIN E production. Two subtypes of receptors exist and are referred to as the TYPE I INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR and the TYPE II INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR. Each receptor subtype is defined by its unique subunit composition.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-6. They are present on T-LYMPHOCYTES, mitogen-activated B-LYMPHOCYTES, and peripheral MONOCYTES. The receptors are heterodimers of the INTERLEUKIN-6 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
A lymphohematopoietic cytokine that plays a role in regulating the proliferation of ERYTHROID PRECURSOR CELLS. It induces maturation of MEGAKARYOCYTES which results in increased production of BLOOD PLATELETS. Interleukin-11 was also initially described as an inhibitor of ADIPOGENESIS of cultured preadipocytes.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Cytokine that stimulates the proliferation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and shares biological activities with IL-2. IL-15 also can induce proliferation and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A cytokine produced by bone marrow stromal cells that promotes the growth of B-LYMPHOCYTE precursors and is co-mitogenic with INTERLEUKIN-2 for mature T-LYMPHOCYTE activation.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
An interleukin receptor subunit with specificity for INTERLEUKIN-13. It dimerizes with the INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT to form the TYPE II INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR which has specificity for both INTERLEUKIN-4 and INTERLEUKIN-13. Signaling of this receptor subunit occurs through the interaction of its cytoplasmic domain with JANUS KINASES such as the TYK2 KINASE.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-13. Included under this heading are the INTERLEUKIN-13 RECEPTOR ALPHA2 which is a monomeric receptor and the INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR TYPE II which has specificity for both INTERLEUKIN-4 and INTERLEUKIN-13.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
Cytolytic lymphocytes with the unique capacity of killing natural killer (NK)-resistant fresh tumor cells. They are INTERLEUKIN-2-activated NK cells that have no MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX restriction or need for antigen stimulation. LAK cells are used for ADOPTIVE IMMUNOTHERAPY in cancer patients.
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
An interleukin-1 subtype that occurs as a membrane-bound pro-protein form that is cleaved by proteases to form a secreted mature form. Unlike INTERLEUKIN-1BETA both membrane-bound and secreted forms of interleukin-1alpha are biologically active.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-23 is comprised of a unique 19 kDa subunit and 40 kDa subunit that is shared with INTERLEUKIN-12. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells
An interleukin-1 receptor subtype that is involved in signaling cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The binding of this receptor to its ligand causes its favorable interaction with INTERLEUKIN-1 RECEPTOR ACCESSORY PROTEIN and the formation of an activated receptor complex.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A cytokine receptor that acts through the formation of oligomeric complexes of itself with a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-5. They are heterodimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-5 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT. Signaling from interleukin-5 receptors can occur through interaction of their cytoplasmic domains with SYNTENINS.
A long pro-domain caspase that has specificity for the precursor form of INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. It plays a role in INFLAMMATION by catalytically converting the inactive forms of CYTOKINES such as interleukin-1beta to their active, secreted form. Caspase 1 is referred as interleukin-1beta converting enzyme and is frequently abbreviated ICE.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-4. Stat6 has been shown to partner with NF-KAPPA B and CCAAT-ENHANCER-BINDING PROTEINS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of interleukin-4 responsive GENES.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-10. They exist as a tetramer of two alpha chains (INTERLEUKIN-10 RECEPTOR ALPHA CHAIN) and two beta chains (INTERLEUKIN-10 RECEPTOR, BETA CHAIN). Signaling from interleukin-10 receptors occurs through their interaction with JANUS KINASES.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-7. They are present on T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTE precursors. The receptors are heterodimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-5 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT.
High affinity receptors for INTERLEUKIN-3. They are found on early HEMATOPOIETIC PROGENITOR CELLS; progenitors of MYELOID CELLS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS. Interleukin-3 receptors are formed by the dimerization of the INTERLEUKIN-3 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT.
A cytokine subunit that is a component of both interleukin-12 and interleukin-23. It binds to the INTERLEUKIN-12 SUBUNIT P35 via a disulfide bond to form interleukin-12 and to INTERLEUKIN-23 SUBUNIT P19 to form interleukin-23.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
A subunit of the interleukin-18 receptor that is responsible of extracellular binding of IL-18.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-18 found on a variety of cell types including MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; NK CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; and SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS. They are formed as a heterodimer of alpha and beta subunits.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A multifunctional cytokine secreted by primarily by activated TH2 CELLS that may play a role as a regulator of allergic INFLAMMATION. It has been shown to enhance the growth and CELL DIFFERENTIATION of MAST CELLS, and can act on a variety of other immune cells.
Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-12. They exist as dimers of beta 1 and beta 2 subunits. Signaling from interleukin-12 receptors occurs through their interaction with JANUS KINASES.
Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Glycoproteins found in a subfraction of normal mammalian plasma and urine. They stimulate the proliferation of bone marrow cells in agar cultures and the formation of colonies of granulocytes and/or macrophages. The factors include INTERLEUKIN-3; (IL-3); GRANULOCYTE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (G-CSF); MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (M-CSF); and GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (GM-CSF).
Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-15. They are widely-distributed heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-15 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2, 15 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.
Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-17. Several subtypes of receptors have been found, each with its own in specificity for interleukin-17 subtype.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.
The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
A low affinity interleukin-11 receptor subunit that combines with the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130 to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-11. Multiple isoforms of this protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its MRNA.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
A cytokine produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that stimulates the migration of CD4-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES and monocytes. It has been reported to suppress HIV replication.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
An early local inflammatory reaction to insult or injury that consists of fever, an increase in inflammatory humoral factors, and an increased synthesis by hepatocytes of a number of proteins or glycoproteins usually found in the plasma.
An INTERLEUKIN-6 related cytokine that exhibits pleiotrophic effects on many physiological systems that involve cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Leukemia inhibitory factor binds to and acts through the lif receptor.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
An interleukin receptor subunit that was originally discovered as a component of the INTERLEUKIN 2 RECEPTOR. It was subsequently found to be a component of several other receptors including the INTERLEUKIN 4 RECEPTOR, the INTERLEUKIN 7 RECEPTOR, the INTERLEUKIN-9 RECEPTOR, the INTERLEUKIN-15 RECEPTOR, and the INTERLEUKIN-21 RECEPTOR. Mutations in the gene for the interleukin receptor common gamma chain have been associated with X-LINKED COMBINED IMMUNODEFICIENCY DISEASES.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.
A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.
Glycoprotein molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes, that react with molecules of antilymphocyte sera, lectins, and other agents which induce blast transformation of lymphocytes.
Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
A Janus kinase subtype that is predominantly expressed in hematopoietic cell. It is involved in signaling from a broad variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS including ones that utilize the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA SUBUNIT.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A cell surface receptor that specifically mediates the biological effects of INTERLEUKIN-9. The functional IL9 receptor signals through interaction of its cytoplasm domain with JANUS KINASES and requires the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA SUBUNIT for activity.
Proteins that are secreted into the blood in increased or decreased quantities by hepatocytes in response to trauma, inflammation, or disease. These proteins can serve as inhibitors or mediators of the inflammatory processes. Certain acute-phase proteins have been used to diagnose and follow the course of diseases or as tumor markers.
A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
An interleukin-1 receptor subtype that competes with the INTERLEUKIN-1 RECEPTOR TYPE I for binding to INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The interleukin-1 type II receptor appears to lack signal transduction capability. Therefore it may act as a "decoy" receptor that modulates the activity of its ligands. Both membrane-bound and soluble forms of the receptor have been identified.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
A cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory actions that depend upon the cellular microenvironment. Oncostatin M is a 28 kDa monomeric glycoprotein that is similar in structure to LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR. Its name derives from the the observation that it inhibited the growth of tumor cells and augmented the growth of normal fibroblasts.
A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Cell surface receptors that bind TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.

Characterization of CD4+ CD8alphaalpha+ and CD4-CD8alphaalpha+ intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes in rats. (1/1614)

Intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (i-IEL) of aged rats comprise CD4+CD8alphaalpha+ and CD4-CD8alphaalpha+ T cells expressing TCR alphabeta. In the present study, we compared characteristics between CD4+CD8alphaalpha+ and CD4-CD8alphaalpha+ i-IEL, which were purified by a cell sorter from the i-IEL of 6-month-old Lewis rats. Most of the CD4+CD8alphaalpha+ i-IEL were of the CD44(hlgh) phenotype, while CD4-CD8alphabeta+ i-IEL were CD44(low). Vbeta usage in the CD4-CD8alphaalpha+ i-IEL was much diversified, while CD4+CD8alphaalpha+ i-IEL showed a skewed Vbeta repertoire. The CD4+CD8alphaalpha+ i-IEL but not the CD4-CD8alphaalpha+ i-IEL proliferated in response to syngeneic spleen cells, which was partially inhibited by addition of anti-MHC class I mAb. The CD4+CD8alphaalpha+ i-IEL produced IFN-gamma and IL-2 but no IL-4 or transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta in response to syngeneic spleen cells, while CD4-CD8alphaalpha+ i-IEL produced abundant levels of TGF-beta but no IL-2, IFN-gamma or IL-4. CD4+CD8alphaalpha+ i-IEL proliferated in response to exogenous IL-2 but not to IL-15, while CD4-CD8alphaalpha+ i-IEL could respond to IL-15 as well as IL-2. These results suggest that a significant fraction of CD4+CD8alphaalpha+ i-IEL belongs to Th1-type T cells capable of responding to self-MHC class I, while CD4-CD8alphaalpha+ i-IEL are a unique population with a diversified Vbeta repertoire that respond to IL-15 in rats.  (+info)

IL-5 induces IgG1 isotype switch recombination in mouse CD38-activated sIgD-positive B lymphocytes. (2/1614)

Mouse B cells express CD38, whose ligation by anti-CD38 Ab induces their proliferation and protection from apoptosis. We previously showed that stimulation of mouse splenic B cells with IL-5 together with CS/2, an anti-mouse CD38 mAb, induces production of IgG1 and IgM. Here we examined the role of IL-5 and CS/2 in the expression of germline gamma1 transcripts and the generation of reciprocal products forming DNA circles as byproducts of mu-gamma1 switch recombination. By itself, CS/2 induced significant expression of germline gamma1 transcripts in splenic naive B cells, whereas IL-5 neither induced nor enhanced germline gamma1 expression. Increased cellular content of reciprocal product, which is characteristic of mu-gamma1 recombination, was not observed after culturing B cells with CS/2, but increased reciprocal product, along with high levels of lgG1 secretion, was found when B cells were cultured with CS/2 plus IL-5. Although IL-4 did not, by itself, induce mu-gamma1 recombination in B cells stimulated with CS/2, in conjunction with CS/2 plus IL-5, IL-4 dramatically enhanced sterile gamma1 transcription and IgG1 production. These results demonstrate that CD38 ligation induces only germline gamma1 transcription and that IL-5 promotes both mu-gamma1 switch recombination and lgG1 secretion in an IL-4-independent manner.  (+info)

Endogenous platelet-activating factor is critically involved in effector functions of eosinophils stimulated with IL-5 or IgG. (3/1614)

Eosinophil activation and subsequent release of inflammatory mediators are implicated in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases. Eosinophils are activated by various classes of secretagogues, such as cytokines (e.g., IL-5), lipid mediators (e.g., platelet-activating factor (PAF)), and Ig (e.g., immobilized IgG). However, do these agonists act directly on eosinophils or indirectly through the generation of intermediate active metabolites? We now report that endogenous PAF produced by activated eosinophils plays a critical role in eosinophil functions. Human eosinophils produced superoxide when stimulated with immobilized IgG, soluble IL-5, or PAF. Pretreating eosinophils with pertussis toxin abolished their responses to these stimuli, suggesting involvement of a metabolite(s) that acts on G proteins. Indeed, PAF was detected in supernatants from eosinophils stimulated with IgG or IL-5. Furthermore, structurally distinct PAF antagonists, including CV6209, hexanolamine PAF, and Y-24180 (israpafant), inhibited IgG- or IL-5-induced superoxide production and degranulation. Previous reports indicated that exogenous PAF stimulates eosinophil eicosanoid production through formation of lipid bodies. We found in this study that IgG or IL-5 also induces lipid body formation and subsequent leukotriene C4 production mediated by endogenous PAF. Finally, inhibition of cytosolic phospholipase A2, one of the key enzymes involved in PAF synthesis, attenuated both PAF production and effector functions of eosinophils. These findings suggest that endogenous PAF plays important roles in eosinophil functional responses to various exogenous stimuli, such as cytokines and Igs. Therefore, inhibition of PAF synthesis or action may be beneficial for the treatment of eosinophilic inflammation.  (+info)

IL-5 and eosinophils are essential for the development of airway hyperresponsiveness following acute respiratory syncytial virus infection. (4/1614)

Viral respiratory infections can cause bronchial hyperresponsiveness and exacerbate asthma. In mice, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, which induces an immune response dominated by IFN-gamma, results in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and eosinophil influx into the airways, both of which are prevented by pretreatment with anti-IL-5 Ab. To delineate the role of IL-5, IL-4, and IFN-gamma in the development of RSV-induced AHR and lung eosinophilia, we tested the ability of mice deficient in each of these cytokines to develop these symptoms of RSV infection. Mice deficient in either IL-5, IL-4, or IFN-gamma were administered infectious RSV intranasally, and 6 days later, airway responsiveness to inhaled methacholine was assessed by barometric body plethysmography, and numbers of lung eosinophils and production of IFN-gamma, IL-4, and IL-5 by mononuclear cells from peribronchial lymph nodes were monitored. RSV infection resulted in airway eosinophilia and AHR in both IL-4- and IFN-gamma-deficient mice, but not in IL-5-deficient mice. Reconstitution of IL-5-deficient mice with IL-5 restored these responses and enhanced the responses in IL-4-deficient mice. Anti-VLA-4 (very late Ag-4) treatment prevented lung eosinophilia and AHR following RSV infection and IL-5 reconstitution. We conclude that in response to RSV, IL-5 is essential for the influx of eosinophils into the lung and that eosinophils in turn are critical for the development of AHR. IFN-gamma and IL-4 are not essential for these responses to RSV infection.  (+info)

Optimal proliferation of a hematopoietic progenitor cell line requires either costimulation with stem cell factor or increase of receptor expression that can be replaced by overexpression of Bcl-2. (5/1614)

In vitro proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells requires costimulation by multiple regulatory factors whereas expansion of lineage-committed progenitor cells generated by stem cells usually requires only a single factor. The distinct requirement of factors for proliferation coincides with the differential temporal expression of the subunits of cytokine receptors during early stem cell differentiation. In this study, we explored the underlying mechanism of the requirement of costimulation in a hematopoietic progenitor cell line TF-1. We found that granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) optimally activated proliferation of TF-1 cells regardless of the presence or absence of stem cell factor (SCF). However, interleukin-5 (IL-5) alone sustained survival of TF-1 cells and required costimulation of SCF for optimal proliferation. The synergistic effect of SCF was partly due to its anti-apoptosis activity. Overexpression of the IL-5 receptor alpha subunit (IL5Ralpha) in TF-1 cells by genetic selection or retroviral infection also resumed optimal proliferation due to correction of the defect in apoptosis suppression. Exogenous expression of an oncogenic anti-apoptosis protein, Bcl-2, conferred on TF-1 cells an IL-5-dependent phenotype. In summary, our data suggested SCF costimulation is only necessary when the expression level of IL5Ralpha is low and apoptosis suppression is defective in the signal transduction of IL-5. Expression of Bcl-2 proteins released the growth restriction of the progenitor cells and may be implicated in leukemia formation.  (+info)

CD8 T cells are essential in the development of respiratory syncytial virus-induced lung eosinophilia and airway hyperresponsiveness. (6/1614)

Viral respiratory infections can cause bronchial hyperresponsiveness and exacerbate asthma. In mice, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection results in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and eosinophil influx into the airways. The immune cell requirements for these responses to RSV infection are not well defined. To delineate the role of CD8 T cells in the development of RSV-induced AHR and lung eosinophilia, we tested the ability of mice depleted of CD8 T cells to develop these symptoms of RSV infection. BALB/c mice were depleted of CD8 T cells using anti-CD8 Ab treatment before intranasal administration of infectious RSV. Six days postinfection, airway responsiveness to inhaled methacholine was assessed by barometric body plethysmography, and numbers of lung eosinophils and levels of IFN-gamma, IL-4, and IL-5 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were monitored. RSV infection resulted in airway eosinophilia and AHR in control mice, but not in CD8-depleted animals. Further, whereas RSV-infected mice secreted increased amounts of IL-5 into the airways as compared with noninfected controls, no IL-5 was detectable in both bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and culture supernatants from CD8-depleted animals. Treatment of CD8-depleted mice with IL-5 fully restored both lung eosinophilia and AHR. We conclude that CD8 T cells are essential for the influx of eosinophils into the lung and the development of AHR in response to RSV infection.  (+info)

Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases prevents allergen-induced airway inflammation in a murine model of asthma. (7/1614)

Although matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been reported to play crucial roles in the migration of inflammatory cells through basement membrane components in vitro, the role of MMPs in the in vivo accumulation of the cells to the site of inflammation in bronchial asthma is still obscure. In this study, we investigated the role of MMPs in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma, using a murine model of allergic asthma. In this model, we observed the increase of the release of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids after Ag inhalation in the mice sensitized with OVA, which was accompanied by the infiltration of lymphocytes and eosinophils. Administration of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 to airways inhibited the Ag-induced infiltration of lymphocytes and eosinophils to airway wall and lumen, reduced Ag-induced airway hyperresponsiveness, and increased the numbers of eosinophils and lymphocytes in peripheral blood. The inhibition of cellular infiltration to airway lumen was observed also with tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and a synthetic matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor. These data suggest that MMPs, especially MMP-2 and MMP-9, are crucial for the infiltration of inflammatory cells and the induction of airway hyperresponsiveness, which are pathophysiologic features of bronchial asthma, and further raise the possibility of the inhibition of MMPs as a therapeutic strategy of bronchial asthma.  (+info)

Roles of TH1 and TH2 cytokines in a murine model of allergic dermatitis. (8/1614)

Skin lesions in atopic dermatitis (AD) are characterized by hypertrophy of the dermis and epidermis, infiltration by T cells and eosinophils, and expression of the cytokines IL-4, IL-5, and IFN-gamma. The role of these cytokines in the pathogenesis of AD is not known. We took advantage of a recently described murine model of AD elicited by epicutaneous sensitization with ovalbumin (OVA) (1) and of the availability of mice with targeted deletions of the IL-4, IL-5, and IFN-gamma cytokine genes to assess the role of these cytokines in this model.OVA-sensitized skin from IL-5(-/-) mice had no detectable eosinophils and exhibited decreased epidermal and dermal thickening. Sensitized skin from IL-4(-/-) mice displayed normal thickening of the skin layers but had a drastic reduction in eosinophils and a significant increase in infiltrating T cells. These findings were associated with a reduction in eotaxin mRNA and an increase in mRNA for the T-cell chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), MIP-1beta, and RANTES. Sensitized skin from IFN-gamma-/- mice was characterized by reduced dermal thickening. These results suggest that both the TH2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 and the TH1 cytokine IFN-gamma play important roles in the inflammation and hypertrophy of the skin in AD.  (+info)

Eosinophils are hypothesized to be crucial in the development of allergic airway inflammation; however, the actual mechanisms that determine their inflammatory activity are still largely undefined. To investigate the factors that regulate eosinophil function in allergic airway disease, we have previously used segmental bronchoprovocation with allergen to study ex vivo eosinophil function. To determine whether the functional changes associated with airway eosinophils obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage 48 hours after antigen challenge are caused by exposure to airway-generated cytokines, normodense blood eosinophils were cultured in vitro with recombinant human interleukin-5 (IL-5) or granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). The effect of cytokine exposure was then evaluated on selected cell functions. In vitro incubation with these cytokines for 24 hours significantly increased eosinophil membrane expression of CD18 and CD11b compared with culture in medium alone or eosinophils obtained
GM-CSF), and IL-5. Activated T cells likely are the principal sources of IL-3, GM-CSF, and IL-5 that induce eosinophil differentiation in bone marrow. However, depending on pathogenic stimuli, eosinophilopoietic cytokines may be released by other cell types, including mast cells, macrophages, natural killer cells, endothelial cells, epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and even eosinophils, themselves.4 IL-3 and GM-CSF are pluripotent cytokines that have effects on other hematopoietic lineages. IL-5 is the most selective eosinophil-active cytokine, but it is relatively late acting. Although it is both necessary and sufficient for eosinophil differentiation, IL-5 demonstrates maximum activity on the IL-5 receptor (IL-5R)-positive eosinophil progenitor pool that first is expanded by earlier acting pluripotent cytokines such as IL-3 and GM-CSF4; expression of the high affinity IL-5R is a prerequisite for eosinophil development. Exodus from the bone marrow also is regulated by IL-5. IL-3, GM-CSF, along ...
The current presence of eosinophils in the lung is often seen as a defining feature of asthma. through rules of eosinophil progenitor creation. A nationwide study found that over fifty percent (54.6%) from the U.S. human population test positive to 1 or more things that trigger allergies.1 Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease thats seen as a eosinophil infiltration. Eosinophils are prominent effector cells Rabbit polyclonal to CD105 in sensitive asthma.2C4 Several research established a causative web page link between eosinophils and allergic lung illnesses.5C8 Targeting eosinophils using anti-IL-5 antibodies continues to be regarded as a therapeutic approach for the treating asthma. In stable condition, eosinophil progenitors continuously egress from your bone marrow in to the bloodstream and circulate to peripheral cells. In sensitive diseases, the bone tissue marrow releases improved amounts of eosinophil progenitor cells that migrate to the website of sensitive inflammation, ...
Primary objective of the study is to evaluate whether patients with severe eosinophilic asthma who have received long-term treatment with mepolizumab (at least 3 years) need to maintain treatment with mepolizumab to continue to receive benefit. Subjects who participated in the open-label studies MEA115666 or 201312 with at least 6 months of treatment with mepolizumab prior to Visit 1 and who have no more than 2 consecutive missed doses of mepolizumab treatment will be eligible to participate in this study. This study will be conducted in 4 parts in approximately 300 subjects. Part A will be Variable Open-Label Run-in (for subjects with less than 3 years of mepolizumab treatment). Once the required 3 year exposure is reached, subjects will enter Part B- Fixed Open-Label Run-In (4 weeks to 8 weeks). During Part A and B subjects will be administered Open-label mepolizumab (100 milligram [mg] Subcutaneous [SC]) every 4 weeks. Part C will be the randomized double-blinded part. Upon completion of Part ...
Following maturation and/or activation, eosinophils (as well as their progenitors) are mobilised, released from bone marrow into circulation and trafficked to tissue sites. A large proportion of these mature eosinophils will remain in bone marrow[8][18]. Once eosinophils enter circulation, they have a half-life of approximately 8-18 hours[8]. Under normal conditions, the vast majority of eosinophils are located in tissues (the tissue/blood eosinophil ratio is about 100:1) and upon gaining entrance to a tissue, most do not recirculate[3]. They have a life span ranging from 2 to 5 days, however locally produced cytokines such as IL-5, IL-3, GM-CSF, IL-33, and interferon-γ may increase this survival time (up to 12 days)[3][8][18]. Eosinophils are predominantly trafficked to mucosal surfaces of the respiratory, lower genitourinary and gastrointestinal tracts where they reside within the lamina propria (excluding the oesophagus). They are also localised within the thymus (medulla and junction ...
Following maturation and/or activation, eosinophils (as well as their progenitors) are mobilised, released from bone marrow into circulation and trafficked to tissue sites. A large proportion of these mature eosinophils will remain in bone marrow [8][17]. Once eosinophils enter circulation, they have a half-life of approximately 8-18 hours[8]. Under normal conditions, the vast majority of eosinophils are located in tissues (the tissue/blood eosinophil ratio is about 100:1) and upon gaining entrance to a tissue, most do not recirculate[3]. They have a life span ranging from 2 to 5 days, however locally produced cytokines such as IL-5, IL-3, GM-CSF, IL-33, and interferon-γ may increase this survival time (up to 12 days)[3][8][17]. Eosinophils are predominantly trafficked to mucosal surfaces of the respiratory, lower genitourinary and gastrointestinal tracts where they reside within the lamina propria (excluding the oesophagus). They are also localised within the thymus (medulla and junction ...
YM-90709 is an interleukin-5 receptor antagonist. YM-90709 inhibits the binding of IL-5 to its receptor on peripheral human eosinophils and butyric acid-treated eosinophilic HL-60 clone 15 cells, with IC50 values of 1.0 and 0.57 microM, respectively. In functional assays, YM-90709 inhibited IL-5-prolonged eosinophil survival with an IC50 value of 0.45 microM and did not affect the GM-CSF-prolonged eosinophil survival. Furthermore, YM-90709 inhibited the IL-5-induced but not GM-CSF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) in eosinophilic HL-60 clone 15 cells.
Eosinophils play a central role in asthma. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) on longevity of isolated human eosinophils. In contrast to Fas, TNF-α inhibited eosinophil apoptosis as evidenced by a combination of flow cytometry, DNA fragmentation assay and morphological analyses. The effect of TNF-α on eosinophil apoptosis was reversed by a TNF-α neutralising antibody. The anti-apoptotic effect of TNF-α was not due to autocrine release of known survival-prolonging cytokines interleukins 3 and 5 or granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulatin​gfactor as their neutralisation did not affect the effect of TNF-α. The anti-apoptotic signal was mediated mainly by the TNF-receptor 1. TNF-α induced phosphorylation and degradation of IκB and an increase in NF-κB DNA-binding activity. The survival-prolonging effect of TNF-α was reversed by inhibitors of NF-κB pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate and gliotoxin and by an inhibitor of IκB kinase, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of IL-10 in the resolution of airway inflammation. AU - Ogawa, Yoshiko. AU - Duru, Enrico A.. AU - Ameredes, Bill. PY - 2008/8. Y1 - 2008/8. N2 - IL-10 can be considered an important agent in the resolution of inflammation. Originally named cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor for its ability to inhibit IFN-y and IL-2 production in Th2 cells, it is secreted by monocytes, macrophages, mast cells, T and B lymphocytes, and dendritic cells (DCs). IL-10 production and release by monocytic cells in response to allergic challenge is upregulated by TNF-α, and by negative feedback regulation of itself. However, it is also secreted by T regulatory cells (Tregs), under the control of IL-2. Importantly in the context of asthma, IL-10 inhibits eosinophilia, by suppression of IL-5 and GM-CSF, by direct effects on eosinophil apoptosis, and effects on cell proliferation through down-regulation of IL-1. A number of its cytokine suppressive characteristics are now thought to occur through ...
Using a clonal culture system, we investigated the hemopoietic effects of purified recombinant IL-5 obtained from conditioned media of transfected Xenopus oocytes. IL-5 alone acted on untreated bone marrow cells and supported the formation of a small number of colonies, all of which were predominantly eosinophilic. However, it did not support colony formation by spleen cells from 5-FU-treated mice, in which only primitive stem cells had survived, while IL-3 and G-CSF did. Eosinophil-containing colonies were formed from these cells in the presence of IL-5 and G-CSF together. In contrast, G-CSF alone did not support any eosinophil colonies. The eosinophilopoietic effect of IL-5 was dose-dependent, and was neutralized specifically by anti-IL-5 antibody. To exclude the possibility of interactions with accessory cells in the same culture dish, we replated a small number (200 cells/dish) of enriched hemopoietic progenitors, obtained from blast cell colonies, which were formed by cultivation of spleen ...
Abstract. Progenitor cells of neutrophils, monocyte-macrophages, and eosinophils in human marrow were enumerated in agar cultures stimulated by placental condi
The biologic becomes the first in its drug class to be indicated for patients aged 6-11 years old with the difficult-to-treat condition.
104317: The market authorisation application for mepolizumab for the indication of hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) was filed in 2008, but later the file was withdrawn due to outstanding questions from regulators raised from the application. On the basis of sponsors evaluation, participants with life-threatening HES who have documented failure (lack of efficacy or a contra-indication) to at least 3 standard HES therapies (compassionate use) and participants who have participated in a previous GSK sponsored study in HES (long-term access) can be consider for mepolizumab treatment where the country regulation permits. In this study, participants will receive mepolizumab in an open-labelled manner, and limited data will be collected to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of mepolizumab.. 201956: This is a Long-term Access Programme (LAP) which aims to support provision of mepolizumab, until it is commercially available, to eligible subjects with severe asthma who participated in a ...
The REALITI-A study is a prospective, global, observational, self-controlled cohort study being conducted to collect real-world data from patients with asthma who were newly prescribed mepolizumab treatment. These initial results showed real-world mepolizumab initiation led to significant reductions in the annual asthma exacerbation rate and clinically meaningful reductions in daily maintenance OCS dose versus pre-mepolizumab treatment. Furthermore, there were no new safety concerns with mepolizumab when compared with results from previous randomised controlled trials (RCTs). These initial data confirm mepolizumab effectiveness in a real-world setting.. We found the rates of clinically significant exacerbations and exacerbations requiring hospitalisation and/or emergency department visit were significantly reduced with mepolizumab treatment initiation versus before initiation. Reductions in clinically significant exacerbations were observed regardless of older age, maintenance OCS at enrolment ...
Description:. Mepolizumab is a humanized IL-5 antagonist monoclonal antibody. Mepolizumab is produced by recombinant DNA technology in Chinese hamster ovary cells.. US- FDA-Approved Indications:. NUCALA is an interleukin-5 antagonist monoclonal antibody (IgG1 kappa) indicated for add-on maintenance treatment of patients with severe asthma aged 12 years and older, and with an eosinophilic phenotype.. Mepolizumab is an interleukin-5 antagonist (IgG1 kappa). IL-5 is the major cytokine responsible for the growth and differentiation, recruitment, activation, and survival of eosinophils. Mepolizumab binds to IL-5 with a dissociation constant of 100 pM, inhibiting the bioactivity of IL-5 by blocking its binding to the alpha chain of the IL-5 receptor complex expressed on the eosinophil cell surface. Inflammation is an important component in the pathogenesis of asthma. Multiple cell types (e.g. , mast cells, eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes) and mediators (e.g., histamine, eicosanoids, ...
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Nucala (mepolizumab) for use with other asthma medicines for the maintenance treatment of asthma in patients age 12 years and older. Nucala is approved for patients who have a history of severe asthma attacks (exacerbations) despite receiving their current asthma medicines.
Eosinophils are white blood cells. Eosinophils are produced in the bone marrow and are normally found in the bloodstream and the gut lining. They contain proteins that help the body to fight infection from parasitic organisms, such as worms. What is eosinophilia? The term eosinophilia refers to conditions in which…
Pulmonary diseases associated with tissue and/or blood eosinophilia are a heterogeneous group of disorders. Various nosologies have been offered, but this article classifies these syndromes as extrinsic or intrinsic in origin.
Although most patients with eosinophilic disorders do not require the use of a feeding tube, some are dependent on them for total nutrition or supplementation
TY - JOUR. T1 - Exogenous interleukin-17a inhibits eosinophil differentiation and alleviates allergic airway inflammation. AU - Tian, B. P.. AU - Hua, Wen. AU - Xia, Li Xia. AU - Jin, Yan. AU - Lan, Fen. AU - Lee, James J.. AU - Lee, Nancy A.. AU - Li, Wen. AU - Ying, Song Min. AU - Chen, Zhi Hua. AU - Shen, Hua Hao. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2015 by the American Thoracic Society. Copyright: Copyright 2015 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2015/4/1. Y1 - 2015/4/1. N2 - IL-17 is known to play important roles in immune and inflammatory disease, such as in asthma, but its functions in allergic airway inflammation are still controversial, and the molecular mechanisms mediating these functions remain unclear. Increased production of eosinophils in bone marrow and their emergence in the airway have been linked to the onset and progression of allergic asthma. In this study, we investigated the effects of exogenous IL-17 on allergic airway inflammation and explored the underlying molecular ...
Background: Lymphocytic variant hypereosinophilic syndrome is characterized by marked over-production of eosinophilopoietic factor(s) by dysregulated T cells leading to eosinophil expansion. In most cases, these T cells are clonal and express a CD3−CD4+ phenotype. As this is a rare disorder, presenting manifestations, disease course, treatment responses, and outcome are not well-characterized. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective single-center observational study, we reviewed medical files of all patients with persistent hypereosinophilia seen between 1994 and 2019 in whom CD3−CD4+ T cells were detected. Data collection included clinical and biological findings at presentation, treatment responses, disease course, and serial CD3−CD4+ T cell counts. Results: Our cohort comprises 26 patients, including 2 with hypereosinophilia of undetermined significance. All 24 symptomatic patients had cutaneous lesions and/or angioedema, and fasciitis was present in several
Eosinophilia (e-o-sin-o-FILL-e-uh) is a higher than normal level of eosinophils. Eosinophils are a type of disease-fighting white blood cell. This condition most often indicates a parasitic infection, an allergic reaction or cancer.. You can have high levels of eosinophils in your blood (blood eosinophilia) or in tissues at the site of an infection or inflammation (tissue eosinophilia).. Tissue eosinophilia may be found in samples taken during an exploratory procedure or in samples of certain fluids, such as mucus released from nasal tissues. If you have tissue eosinophilia, the level of eosinophils in your bloodstream is likely normal.. Blood eosinophilia may be detected with a blood test, usually as part of a complete blood count. A count of more than 500 eosinophils per microliter of blood is generally considered eosinophilia in adults. A count of more than 1,500 eosinophils per microliter of blood that lasts for several months is called hypereosinophilia.. Eosinophils play two roles in your ...
This study is the first to provide clinical insights into the role of peripheral blood eosinophil level in patients with COPD complicated with CAP requiring IMV and admission to an ICU. The important findings are the associations between peripheral blood eosinophil level and severity of lung function, leucocyte count and in-ICU treatment outcomes in terms of prolonged RICU admission (RICU length of stay ,14 days) and a distinct bacterial profile for the cause of CAP in this population.. The strengths of this study include that all participants had spirometric data to confirm the diagnosis of COPD, and that the bacteriology was profiled using samples collected via transbronchial aspirates on insertion of an endotracheal tube. In addition, this study population has never previously been studied with regard to the relationship between peripheral blood eosinophil level and clinical characteristics, bacteriology of EAs and clinical outcomes. This ensures a valid study population of patients with COPD ...
Eosinophils are major effector cells in type 2 inflammatory responses and become activated in response to IL-4 and IL-33, yet the molecular mechanism remains unclear. We examined the direct effect of these cytokines on eosinophils and demonstrated that murine eosinophils respond to IL-4 and IL-33 by phosphorylation of STAT-6 and NFkB, respectively. RNA sequencing analysis of murine eosinophils indicated that IL-33 regulates 519 genes, whereas IL-4 regulates only 28 genes, including 19 IL-33-regulated genes. Interestingly, IL-33 induced eosinophil activation via two distinct mechanisms, IL-4 independent and IL-4 secretion/auto-stimulation dependent. Anti-IL-4 or anti-IL-4Ra antibody-treated eosinophils, as well as Il4- or Stat6-deficient eosinophils, had attenuated protein secretion of a subset of IL-33-induced genes, including Retnla and Ccl17. However, the induction of most IL-33-regulated transcripts (e.g. Il6 and Il13) was IL-4 independent and blocked by NFkB inhibition. Indeed, IL-33 induced the
Ponzio, N M. and Speirs, R S., Lymphoid cell dependence of eosinophil response to antigen. VI. The effect of selective removal of t or b lymphocytes on the capacity of primed spleen cells to adoptively transferred immunity to tetanus toxoid. (1975). Subject Strain Bibliography 1975. 1101 ...
The optimum use of mepolizumab is yet to be determined. Not all patients benefit, for example 36% were unable to reduce their dose of oral corticosteroid, withdrew from treatment or had a lack of asthma control.4 Some of the patients suitable for treatment with mepolizumab may also qualify for treatment with omalizumab so the treatments should be compared. If a patient with severe refractory eosinophilic asthma is prescribed mepolizumab, how long should they take it for? A follow-up of some of the patients in the trials found that after stopping treatment there was a rise in eosinophil count and an increase in asthma symptoms and exacerbations.5 ...
Eosinophils, a type of white blood cell, fight infections and play a role in allergic reactions. In eosinophilic disorders, too many cells build up.
In adults with persistent asthma, elevated blood eosinophil levels may be able to predict which individuals are at increased risk for exacerbations.
Question - Is it serious to have a high eosinophils level in child ?. Ask a Doctor about Eosinophil granulocyte, Ask a Pediatrician
Question - Found elevated monocytes and eosinophils level. Whats going on?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Bronchial asthma, Ask a Radiologist
Another name for Pulmonary Eosinophilia is Eosinophilic Pneumonia. Symptoms of eosinophilic pneumonia include: * Chest pain: - Chest pain when taking ...
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Learn how parasite infections, medications, asthma, can be some of the causes of Eosinophilia, which is elevated numbers of eosinophils in the blood.
Background: Eosinophils are pro-inflammatory cells implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma and atopy. Apoptosis has been proposed as a potential mechanism underlying the resolution of eosinophilic inflammation and studies have indicated the ability of interventions that induce human eosinophil apoptosis to promote the resolution of eosinophilic inflammation. Recently, the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor R-roscovitine was shown to enhance neutrophil apoptosis and promote the resolution of neutrophilic inflammation. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the expression of CDKs in human blood eosinophils, the effects of R-roscovitine on eosinophil survival in vitro and whether R-roscovitine could influence eosinophilic lung inflammation in vivo. Methods: Eosinophils were isolated from human peripheral blood and the effects of R-roscovitine on apoptosis, degranulation and phagocytic uptake examined in vitro. The effects of R-roscovitine on eosinophilic lung inflammation in vivo ...
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Mepolizumab, an anti-interleukin 5 monoclonal antibody under development for severe asthma, has been shown to reduce peripheral and sputum eosinophils.1 ,2 Mepolizumab is hypothesised to work by reducing eosinophilic driven airway inflammation. Mepolizumab has previously been shown to be steroid sparing in a small study.1 The DREAM study (NCT01000506) reported that mepolizumab can reduce the exacerbation rate by 39-52% in a severe asthma population.2 Approximately a third of the subjects (n=188) who participated in the DREAM study were using daily oral corticosteroids (OCS) at baseline in addition to using high dose inhaled corticosteroid and an additional controller to treat their asthma. This group reported an average duration of OCS use of 4.1 years, a mean OCS dose of 17 mg/day and a median peripheral blood baseline eosinophil level of 280 cells/µL, which was similar to that for the non-OCS dependent subgroup (290 cells/µL) (table 1). Sputum eosinophils levels were also similar between the ...
In allergic diseases of the upper and lower airways, eosinophils are characteristically recruited from the bloodstream into the tissues and lumina of the airways and are present in respiratory secretions from the nose and lungs. As such, intraluminal and tissue eosinophils are exposed to inhaled allergens. In the present study, we assessed whether recruited airway eosinophils might serve as distinct inflammatory APCs for airway Ags in mediating T cell responses. Normal lungs contain several cell types, DCs, B cells, and macrophages, in their airways and parenchyma capable of acting as professional APCs (28, 29, 30). Native lung myeloid DCs, likely indicative of regulatory mechanisms that restrain local lung T cell activation, lack the full functional capabilities of Ag-processing APCs in that they can present antigenic peptides but not whole proteins to naive CD4+ T cells (28). Lung myeloid DCs, however, acquire the full capabilities of professional APCs following in vitro exposures to ...
This group is for parents who have children with an eosinophilic disorder such as eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG), eosinophilic esophagitis (EE), and eosinophilic colitis (EC). These conditions involve severe food allergies and often require the use of elemental formula as supplements or the sole source of nutrition. A great website for information about eosinophilic disorders is www.apfed.org.
Correlations between peripheral blood eosinophil activity and eosinophil count as well as IL-5 levels in the induced sputum in the patients with allergic asthma
Background: Tumor associated tissue eosinophilia (TATE) is believed to play a significant role in biological behavior of the carcinoma. Eosinophils are involved in immune reaction. Various studies have been carried out regarding their role in tumor progression or regulation. In oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), eosinophils are associated with favourable or unfavourable prognosis and hence their role is yet unclear. To compare the tissue eosinophils in OSCC and normal tissue and to correlate the expression of TATE in different grades of OSCC. Method: Study comprised 30 cases, 6 normal and 24 histopathologically diagnosed with OSCC. 4 micron thick sections were stained using 1% congo red solution. The sections were examined under high power (×40) and 10 consecutive microscopic fields were studied. The average number of eosinophils were statistically analysed. Results: The tabulated results showed that the median value of tissue eosinophils, increased in OSCC compared to normal mucosa. Analysis ...
An abnormally high number of eosinophils in the blood. Normally, eosinophils constitute 1 to 3% of the peripheral blood leukocytes, at a count of 350 to 650 per cubic millimeter. Eosinophilia can be categorized as mild (less than 1500 eosinophils per cubic millimeter), moderate (1500 to 5000 per cubic millimeter), or severe (more than 5000 per cubic millimeter). In areas of the world where parasitic diseases are common, they are the usual cause of eosinophilia. In developed nations, eosinophilia is most often due to allergy or, less often, a drug reaction. There are numerous other causes of eosinophilia, but individually they are quite uncommon. Eosinophilia may be primary or secondary. In primary eosinophilia, the increased production of eosinophils is due to an abnormality in a hematopoietic stem cell as, for example, in eosinophilic leukemia. In secondary eosinophilia, the increased production of eosinophils is a reactive process driven by cytokines, as is the case in allergy. ...
In this report we describe the generation of mice deficient in IL-13Rα2 to define the role of this receptor chain in IL-13 responses. IL-13Rα2 may act to modulate the effects of IL-13 in vivo in various ways. IL-13Rα2 could enhance IL-13 activities by increasing the strength of IL-13 signaling or attenuate IL-13 effects by negative signaling or simply as a molecular decoy. Attenuating roles of IL-13Rα2 could explain the lack of evidence for IL-13 effects on T cells or an enhancing role could explain the effect of IL-13 effect on airways hyperreactivity and eosinophil survival distinct from IL-4.. Interestingly, we find that the absence of IL-13Rα2 correlates with nearly complete loss of serum IL-13 and an increase in tissue IL-13 in IL-13Rα2−/− mice. The lack of serum IL-13 cannot be explained by a lack of IL-13 production in IL-13Rα2−/− mice as IL-13 is present in tissues of IL-13Rα2−/− and is produced by activated IL-13Rα2−/− immune cells. Serum IL-13Rα2 may act as a ...
Eosinophilia. Merck Manual Professional Version website. Available at: https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/hematology-and-oncology/eosinophilic-disorders/eosinophilia. Updated November 2016. Accessed July 13, 2018.. Eosinophilia. Patient website. Available at: https://patient.info/doctor/eosinophilia. Updated March 12, 2014. Accessed July 13, 2018.. Eosinophilia-approach to the patient. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T917758/Eosinophilia-approach-to-the-patient . Updated June 5, 2017. Accessed July 13, 2018. Tefferi A. Blood eosinophilia: a new paradigm in disease classification, diagnosis, and treatment.. Mayo Clin Proc. 2005;80(1):75-83.. ...
The eosinophil is an enigmatic cell with a continuing ability to fascinate. In this book, experts in the field of eosinophil biology comprehensively update our knowledge on the human eosinophil in health and disease. Topics discussed include a synopsis of eosinophil characteristics, properties and role in disease. Important information on how eosinophils release their potent and toxic granule proteins will be covered and how these basic proteins give rise to pathologies including issues such as the function of the nerves. (Imprint: Nova Biomedical ...
Mepolizumab showed early and sustained clinically relevant improvements in quality of life, with a good safety profile in severe eosinophilic asthma.
There's a new standard treatment for a rare immunological disease: mepolizumab. No need for an approval process, though - the drug is already approved
Summary: The relevance of the ACOS is to identify patients with COPD who may have underlying eosinophilic inflammation that responds to inhaled corticosteroids. So far, the previous diagnosis of asthma in a patient with COPD is the more reliable criterion for ACOS. Ongoing studies will clarify if concentrations of blood eosinophils may be useful to identify this subgroup of patients with COPD. If this is the case, the interest of ACOS may shift to that of eosinophilic COPD, which is easier to diagnose and has clear therapeutic implications. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The surface phenotype of human eosinophils. AU - Tachimoto, Hiroshi. AU - Bochner, Bruce S.. PY - 2000/3/16. Y1 - 2000/3/16. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0034094643&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0034094643&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Review article. C2 - 10761304. AN - SCOPUS:0034094643. VL - 76. SP - 45. EP - 62. JO - Progress in Allergy. JF - Progress in Allergy. SN - 1660-2242. ER - ...
With involvement of either nervous method, hypereosinophilic syndrome has been a disease characterized with the help of a persistently elevated eosinophil count
Eosinophils play a key role in the pathogenesis of asthma, and T cells are controller cells in the recruitment and activation of eosinophils.
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In this article, well discuss what causes eosinophilia and its symptoms as well as how to treat eosinophilia naturally and medically.
Having eosinophilia can be irritating and troublesome, but one can get rid of it with the help of our natural herbs and herbal supplements.
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Learn more about Eosinophilia at Sky Ridge Medical Center DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision .....
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Hi Again Please could you tell me what tissue in mouse is a good positive control for eosinophil staining. Thanks Marilyn _______________________________________________ Histonet mailing list [email protected] http://lists.utsouthwestern.edu/mailman/listinfo/histonet ...
Increase in the number of eosinophils in the blood. It commonly occurs in allergic reactions and in some inflammatory conditions.
High levels of interleukin-5 has been observed to up regulate the expression of adhesion molecules, which then facilitate the ... Yamaguchi Y, Suda T, Suda J, Eguchi M, Miura Y, Harada N, Tominaga A, Takatsu K (January 1988). "Purified interleukin 5 ... Sanderson, Colin (1992). "Interleukin-5, Eosinophils, and Disease". Blood. 79 (12): 3101-3109. doi:10.1182/blood.V79.12.3101. ... Eosinophilia in mice models are shown to be associated with high interleukin-5 levels. Furthermore, mucosal bronchial biopsies ...
Interleukin 8 and Interleukin 17); a promoter of innate immune and autoimmune responses (viz., Interleukin 22); and a cytokine ... Interleukin 4), promote allergic responses and tissue fibrosis (viz., Interleukin 13), promote innate, adaptive, and auto- ... interleukin 5 and annexin A1). DRESS syndrome: Key elements promoting tissue injury in the DRESS syndrome are: Th2 cells and ... Interleukin 5), promote adaptive and allergic immune responses (viz., ...
His identification of the cytokine Interleukin 13 and the subsequent unearthing of its central role in allergic asthma led to ... "Mutated interleukin-5 monomers are biologically inactive". Molecular Immunology. 28 (1-2): 155-158. doi:10.1016/0161-5890(91) ...
... interleukin 3, interleukin 5) that: a) cause bone marrow precursor cells, i.e. CFU-Eos, to proliferate and mature into ... interleukin 3, or interleukin 13. The disorder is usually indolent but infrequently progresses to T-cell lymphoma or Sezary ... interleukin 3, interleukin 5, and colony stimulating factor 2. However, no functional sequence genetic polylmophisms are found ... Prakash Babu S, Chen YK, Bonne-Annee S, Yang J, Maric I, Myers TG, Nutman TB, Klion AD (2017). "Dysregulation of interleukin 5 ...
... is an interleukin-5 antagonist monoclonal antibody. IL-5 is the major cytokine responsible for the growth and ... Reslizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against human interleukin-5 (IL-5). Reslizumab binds specifically to IL-5, a key ... WO 1993016184, "Design, cloning and expression of humanized monoclonal antibodies against human interleukin-5", published 19 ... Reslizumab has a volume of distribution of approximately 5 L, clearance of approximately 7 mL/hour, and a half-life of about 24 ...
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Nutku-Bilir E, Hudson SA, Bochner BS (January 2008). "Interleukin-5 priming of human eosinophils alters siglec-8 mediated ... Ligation of Siglec-8 induces apoptosis in eosinophils, and, surprisingly, the normally pro-survival cytokines interleukin (IL)- ... "Interleukin-33 enhances adhesion, CD11b expression and survival in human eosinophils". Laboratory Investigation; A Journal of ... IL-5 stimulation also appears to alter the mode of cell death of eosinophils induced by Siglec-8 ligation in that cell death ...
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It is directed against the alpha-chain of the interleukin-5 receptor (CD125). Two phase III clinical trials of benralizumab ...
Interleukin 17 drives interstitial entrapment of tissue lipoproteins in experimental psoriasis. Cell Metabolism, 29:475-487. ... "Interleukin-17 Drives Interstitial Entrapment of Tissue Lipoproteins in Experimental Psoriasis". Cell Metabolism. 29 (2): 475- ... 5 (8): 617-628. doi:10.1038/nri1670. ISSN 1474-1741. PMID 16056255. S2CID 28795897. Randolph, Gwendalyn J.; Beaulieu, Sylvie; ... 121 (5): 2025-2036. doi:10.1172/JCI43802. ISSN 1558-8238. PMC 3083793. PMID 21505265. Gautier, Emmanuel L.; Ivanov, Stoyan; ...
Reslizumab, a newly developed antibody directed against interleukin 5 that has been successfully used to treat 4 patients with ... Schrezenmeier H, Thomé SD, Tewald F, Fleischer B, Raghavachar A (1993). "Interleukin-5 is the predominant eosinophilopoietin ... studies on the T cell receptor and IL-5 are not available and therefore not routine parts of the diagnostic work-up or criteria ... evidence of excessive IL-5 secretion by lymphocytes (see above section on Pathogenesis). In many clinical settings, however, ...
"Dysregulation of interleukin 5 expression in familial eosinophilia". Allergy. 72: 1338-1345. doi:10.1111/all.13146. PMC 5546948 ... with some reports indicating that this may be mediated by interleukin production by tumor cells, especially IL-5 or IL-3.[2] ... interleukin 5, and histamine (though this has a narrow range of concentration).[3] ... Addison's disease and stress-induced suppression of adrenal gland function[5]. *Some forms of malignancy *Acute lymphoblastic ...
Liu L, Damen JE, Ware MD, Krystal G (April 1997). "Interleukin-3 induces the association of the inositol 5-phosphatase SHIP ... 254 (2): 440-5. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1998.9959. PMID 9918857. Mikhalap SV, Shlapatska LM, Berdova AG, Law CL, Clark EA, Sidorenko ... 12 (5): 317-26. doi:10.1016/S0898-6568(00)00073-5. PMID 10822173. Baran CP, Tridandapani S, Helgason CD, Humphries RK, Krystal ... 12 (5): 317-26. doi:10.1016/S0898-6568(00)00073-5. PMID 10822173. Overview of all the structural information available in the ...
A polypeptide called interleukin-5 interacts with eosinophils and causes them to grow and differentiate; this polypeptide is ... 9 (5): 364-75. doi:10.1038/nri2532. PMID 19390567. Robinson p. 187 and Ernst pp. 7-10 Paoletti p. 62 Soehnlein O, Kenne E, ... doi:10.1016/S0065-2776(08)60351-X. ISBN 978-0-12-022439-5. Campbell p. 903 Akuthota P, Wang HB, Spencer LA, Weller PF (August ... granulocyte levels less than 5% of normal) and neutropenia (deficiency of neutrophil granulocytes). Granulocytes live only one ...
Clark AK, Staniland AA, Marchand F, Kaan TK, McMahon SB, Malcangio M (January 2010). "P2X7-dependent release of interleukin- ... "Mechanisms underlying extracellular ATP-evoked interleukin-6 release in mouse microglial cell line, MG-5". Journal of ... 5 (6): 347-54. PMID 9826911. "Entrez Gene: P2RX7 purinergic receptor P2X, ligand-gated ion channel, 7". Faria RX, Freitas HR, ... 5 (2): 163-73. doi:10.1007/s11302-009-9132-8. PMC 2686822. PMID 19189228. Kurashima Y, Kiyono H (March 2014). "New era for ...
"Entrez Gene: IL2RB interleukin 2 receptor, beta". Boyman O, Sprent J (February 17, 2012). "The role of interleukin-2 during ... Purvis SF, Georges DL, Williams TM, Lederman MM (1992). "Suppression of interleukin-2 and interleukin-2 receptor expression in ... Bamborough P, Hedgecock CJ, Richards WG (1994). "The interleukin-2 and interleukin-4 receptors studied by molecular modelling ... "CIS associates with the interleukin-2 receptor beta chain and inhibits interleukin-2-dependent signaling". J. Biol. Chem. 274 ( ...
Mepolizumab is a monoclonal antibody that targets interleukin-5, a major factor in eosinophil survival. Eosinophilic ... 5: 549. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2014.00549. PMC 4217511. PMID 25404930. synd/2733 at Who Named It? Rich et al. 2012, p. 700. Hellmich ... Retrieved 5 October 2015. "Toni Street reveals 'dark moments' as she battles deadly disease". NZ Herald. Retrieved 5 October ... Retrieved 5 October 2015. Goldstein R (25 November 2018), "Willie Naulls, Knicks All-Star and Celtics Champion, Dies at 84", ...
It recognizes and blocks interleukin-5 (IL-5), a signalling protein of the immune system. The most common side effects include ...
Clark AK, Staniland AA, Marchand F, Kaan TK, McMahon SB, Malcangio M (January 2010). "P2X7-dependent release of interleukin- ... "Mechanisms underlying extracellular ATP-evoked interleukin-6 release in mouse microglial cell line, MG-5". Journal of ... 24 (8): 450-5. doi:10.1016/S0166-2236(00)01854-3. PMID 11476884. Barberà-Cremades M, Baroja-Mazo A, Gomez AI, Machado F, Di ... 54 (5): 655-64. doi:10.1002/ana.10750. PMID 14595655. Wang J, Tsirka SE (March 2005). "Tuftsin fragment 1-3 is beneficial when ...
"Expression vector system based on the chicken beta-actin promoter directs efficient production of interleukin-5". Gene. 79 (2 ...
The human gene has been localized in close proximity to the interleukin 3 gene within a T helper type 2-associated cytokine ... Other genes in the cluster include those encoding interleukins 4, 5, and 13. Human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating ... "A conserved insulator that recruits CTCF and cohesin exists between the closely related but divergently regulated interleukin-3 ... 55 (5): 348-56. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0609.1995.tb00713.x. PMID 7493686. S2CID 25424116. "Press release: Novartis Oncology ...
Herzog C, Kaushal GP, Haun RS (2005). "Generation of biologically active interleukin-1beta by meprin B.". Cytokine. 31 (5): 394 ... 126 (5): 1319-27. doi:10.1083/jcb.126.5.1319. PMC 2120165. PMID 8063866. Dumermuth E, Eldering JA, Grünberg J, et al. (1994). " ... 127 (5): 1115-25. doi:10.1038/sj.jid.5700675. PMID 17195012. v t e. ...
Durum SK, Aiello FB (2003). "Interleukin-7 induces MUC1". Cancer Biology & Therapy 2 (2): 194-5. PMID 12750562. doi:10.4161/cbt ... "Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 108 (5): 1937-42. PMC 3033301. PMID 21245303. ... "The Journal of Cell Biology 136 (5): 1123-36. PMC 2132470. PMID 9060476. doi:10.1083/jcb.136.5.1123.. ... "The Journal of Cell Biology 128 (5): 949-57. PMC 2120395. PMID 7876318. doi:10.1083/jcb.128.5.949.. ...
Interleukin-5, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor, and interleukin-33 enhance anti-Siglec-8 mediated destruction ...
Interleukins 1, 2, and 5 all rely on interleukin co-receptors to bind to the primary interleukin receptors. Syndecans 1 and 4 ... Various ligands include interleukins, neurotrophic factors, fibroblast growth factors, transforming growth factors, vascular ... 446 (7137): 801-5. doi:10.1038/nature05654. PMID 17325668. Waldmann, H., Adams, E., Cobbold, S. (2008). "Reprogramming the ... LRP5 (low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5) acts as a co-receptor for the Wnt-family of glycoproteins which ...
Th2 also produce Interleukin 4, which facilitates B cell isotype switching. In general, Th2 responses are more effective ... The Th2 response is characterized by the release of Interleukin 5, which induces eosinophils in the clearance of parasites. ... 5 (9): 722-35. doi:10.1038/nri1686. PMID 16138104. S2CID 19594405. Flajnik MF, Kasahara M (January 2010). "Origin and evolution ... 2 (5): e128. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0020128. PMC 1140945. PMID 15916466. Schofield L, Grau GE (September 2005). " ...
"Identification of a coordinate regulator of interleukins 4, 13, and 5 by cross-species sequence comparisons". Science. 288 ( ... Bibcode:2019NatCo..10.1054G. doi:10.1038/s41467-019-08940-5. PMC 6401380. PMID 30837461. DeBoever, C; Ghia, EM; Shepard, PJ; ...
... interleukin-6 and interferon gamma in human thyroid tissue". Immunol. Lett. 80 (1): 3-7. doi:10.1016/S0165-2478(01)00301-7. ... It activates thyroid hormone by converting the prohormone thyroxine (T4) by outer ring deiodination (ORD) to bioactive 3,3',5- ... Molnár I, Balázs C, Szegedi G, Sipka S (2002). "Inhibition of type 2,5'-deiodinase by tumor necrosis factor alpha, ... Baur A, Buchfelder M, Köhrle J (2002). "Expression of 5'-deiodinase enzymes in normal pituitaries and in various human ...
... and interleukin 5. Furthermore, Eoxins stimulate vascular permeability in an ex vivo human vascular endothelial model system, ... Retrieved 5 January 2015. Since eosinophils are a rich source of these novel metabolites, we suggest the name eoxin instead of ... 87 (4-5): 159-63. doi:10.1016/j.plefa.2012.07.003. hdl:10616/41399. PMID 22921794. James A, Daham K, Backman L, Brunnström A, ... Thus, the names 14,1 5-leukotriene A4, C4, D4 and E4 are replaced with eoxin (Eox) A4, EoxC4, EoxD4 and EoxE4, respectively ( ...
... and endothelial cells encoding an alternate type-II interleukin-4/interleukin-13 receptor". European Journal of Immunology. 27 ... "Characterization of the interaction between interleukin-13 and interleukin-13 receptors". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. ... "Entrez Gene: IL13RA2 interleukin 13 receptor, alpha 2". Fujisawa T, Joshi B, Nakajima A, Puri RK (November 2009). "A novel role ... Interleukin-13 receptor subunit alpha-2 (IL-13Rα2), also known as CD213A2 (cluster of differentiation 213A2), is a membrane ...
USA Home > Product Directory > Cell Culture > Reagents and Supplements > Growth Factors and Cytokines > Interleukins (IL) > ... Interleukin-5 from mouse ≥97% (SDS-PAGE), recombinant, expressed in baculovirus infected Sf21 cells, lyophilized powder, ... Interleukin-5 human recombinant, expressed in baculovirus infected Sf21 cells, ≥97% (SDS-PAGE), lyophilized powder, suitable ... IL-5 from mouse recombinant, expressed in E. coli, ≥98% (SDS-PAGE), ≥98% (HPLC), suitable for cell culture * pricing ...
... is an interleukin produced by type-2 T helper cells and mast cells. Through binding to the interleukin-5 receptor, interleukin ... Interleukin-5 is also expressed by eosinophils and has been observed in the mast cells of asthmatic airways by ... Interleukin-5 has long been associated with the cause of several allergic diseases including allergic rhinitis and asthma, ... Unlike other members of this cytokine family (namely interleukin 3 and GM-CSF), this glycoprotein in its active form is a ...
The interleukin-5 receptor is a type I cytokine receptor. It is a heterodimer of the interleukin 5 receptor alpha subunit and ... Takaki S, Kanazawa H, Shiiba M, Takatsu K (November 1994). "A critical cytoplasmic domain of the interleukin-5 (IL-5) receptor ... Receptors,+Interleukin-5 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... Takatsu K, Tominaga A (1991). "Interleukin 5 and its receptor". Prog. Growth Factor Res. 3 (2): 87-102. doi:10.1016/S0955-2235( ...
Interleukin-12 downregulation, Interleukin-1 beta downregulation, Interleukin-4 downregulation, Interleukin-5 downregulation, ... Interleukin-12 upregulation, interleukin-13 down-regulation, Interleukin-4 downregulation, Interleukin-5 downregulation ... Pharmacological Actions : Interleukin-10 upregulation, interleukin-13 down-regulation, Interleukin-4 downregulation, ... Pharmacological Actions : interleukin-13 down-regulation, Interleukin-4 downregulation, Interleukin-5 downregulation ...
The Mammalian Phenotype (MP) Ontology is a community effort to provide standard terms for annotating phenotypic data. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated phenotype data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
... interleukin 5 include A Reversible, Non-invasive Method for Airway Resistance Measurements and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid ... Interleukin-5: A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of Eosinophils. It also triggers activated B-Lymphocytes ...
Interleukin 5 (IL-5) enhances eosinophil survival by inhibiting apoptosis, and increased IL-5 expression is reported in ... Induction of eosinophil apoptosis in the absence and presence of interleukin 5 (IL-5) by dexamethasone (DEX), fluticasone ... As expected IL-5 inhibited eosinophil apoptosis, maximally at 0.1 ng/ml (figure 1B); the reduction in the efficacy of IL-5 at 1 ... C) Effect of IL-5 on eosinophil adhesion (n=4), *p,0.05 vs control. (D-F) Effect of GCs on IL-5 inhibition of eosinophil ...
Relationship between interleukin-5 and eotaxin in regulating blood and tissue eosinophilia in mice.. A W Mould, K I Matthaei, I ... Both IL-5 and eotaxin could independently induce a rapid and pronounced blood eosinophilia in wild type mice when administered ... Furthermore, IL-5 is not only essential for mobilizing eosinophils from the bone marrow during allergic inflammation, but also ... In this investigation we have used IL-5 deficient mice to define the relationship between this cytokine and eotaxin in the ...
Enhanced soluble interleukin-5 receptor alpha expression in nasal polyposis.. Gevaert P1, Bachert C, Holtappels G, Novo CP, Van ... Alternative splicing of the interleukin-5 receptor alpha (IL-5Ralpha)-subunit leads to the generation of a signalling, membrane ... Given the key role of IL-5 in eosinophil function, we investigated SOL IL-5Ralpha expression pattern in an eosinophil- ... 2003 May;58(5):371-9. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ...
The alpha chain is specific to the interleukin-5 receptor, whereas the beta chain is shared with the receptors for granulocyte- ... A protein complex that binds interleukin-3; comprises an alpha and a beta subunit. ...
Viral interleukin-10 homologAdd BLAST. 151. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical ... Evasion of host immunity by viral interleukin-like protein, Host-virus interaction, Inhibition of host innate immune response ... sp,F5HC71,IL10H_HCMVM Viral interleukin-10 homolog OS=Human cytomegalovirus (strain Merlin) OX=295027 GN=UL111A PE=3 SV=1 ... Annotation score:3 out of 5. ,p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in negative regulation of interleukin-5 production pathways, according to their Panther/Gene ... Antibodies for proteins involved in negative regulation of interleukin-5 production pathways; according to their Panther/Gene ...
... to express the inserted cDNA encoding a single interleukin constitutively, and to secrete the interleukin in high quantities. ... Establishment of mouse cell lines which constitutively secrete large quantities of interleukin 2, 3, 4 or 5, using modified ... The established cell lines secreting IL2, 3, 4 or 5 at high rate should be useful sources for these interleukins in the ... of different lineages have been established which constitutively secrete large quantities of recombinant mouse interleukins ( ...
Protective Effects of Oridonin on Acute Liver Injury via Impeding Posttranslational Modifications of Interleukin-1 Receptor- ... Protective Effects of Oridonin on Acute Liver Injury via Impeding Posttranslational Modifications of Interleukin-1 Receptor- ... Figure 5. Participation of MAPK plus NF-κB signaling pathways in the anti-inflammatory effect of oridonin on LPS/D-Gal-induced ...
Interleukin-2. Antineoplastic Agents. Antiviral Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Antimetabolites. Molecular Mechanisms of ... Interleukin-2, given by continuous IV infusion Days 2-5, every week for 4 weeks. ... Interleukin-2, given by continuous IV infusion Days 2-5, every week for 4 weeks. ... Interferon-an Interleukin-2, & Thalidomide for Metastatic, Advanced or Recurrent Renal Cell Carcinoma. The safety and ...
Interleukin-5(IL-5)is a secreted glycoprotein that belongs to the .-helical group of cytokines . Unlike other family members, ... Interleukin-5 / IL5 antibody. Not available. Rat. IgG2a. JES1-5A10. Purified. Hu. E, E(capture), E(detection). 0.5 mg / €320.00 ... Background of Interleukin-5 / IL5 antibody. Interleukin-5(IL-5)is a secreted glycoprotein that belongs to the .-helical group ... Alternative names for Interleukin-5 / IL5 antibody. IL-5, B-cell differentiation factor I, Eosinophil differentiation factor, T ...
... enhances human eosinophil effector functions induced by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor or interleukin-5. ... CD11b AntigenCell AdhesionEosinophilsGranulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating FactorHumansInterferon-gammaInterleukin-5Mitogen ... Interleukin-3, -5, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor-induced adhesion molecule expression on eosinophils by ... and interleukin (IL)-5. GM-CSF and IL-5 have significant functional homology, and contribute to the regulation of Th2 immunity ...
Interleukin-5. By Technical Data. Interleukin-5 - Immunoassays. Interleukin-5 - Sandwich ELISA, Biotin-labelled antibody - ... Mouse - Interleukin-5 - Immunoassays. Interleukin-5 - for Serum - Immunoassays. Interleukin-5 - for Cell culture supernatant - ... Interleukin-5 - RUO - Immunoassays. Sandwich ELISA, Biotin-labelled antibody - Immunoassays. Mouse - Sandwich ELISA, Biotin- ... You are here: Home Products and Services Immunoassays Interleukin-5 Mouse ELISA ...
Signaling by Interleukins (Mus musculus) * Interleukin-3, Interleukin-5 and GM-CSF signaling (Mus musculus) * Interleukin-5 ...
Anti-interleukin-5 monoclonal antibodies: preclinical and clinical evidence in asthma models. Am J Respir Med. 2003;2:245-59 ... Molecular and clinical rationale for therapeutic targeting of interleukin-5 and its receptor. Clin Exp Allergy. 2012;42:712-37 ... Placenta-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Reduce the Interleukin-5 Level Experimentally in Children with Asthma. Int J Med Sci ... Th2: type 2 T helper cell; Th1: type 1 T helper cell; IL: interleukin; MSCs: mesenchymal stem cells; iPSC-MSCs: induced ...
All four subpopulations produced interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13, wh … ... Eomesodermin controls interleukin-5 production in memory T helper 2 cells through inhibition of activity of the transcription ... All four subpopulations produced interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13, whereas only the CD62L(lo)CXCR3(lo) population produced IL-5 ... Thus, IL-5 production in memory Th2 cells is regulated by Eomesodermin via the inhibition of GATA3 activity. ...
A more detailed knowledge of the immunological mechanisms of the asthma pathogenesis has enabled identifying interleukin 5 (IL- ... IL-5, in fact, exerts selective action on eosinophils which, in turn, sustain airway inflammation and worsen asthma symptoms ... IL-5, in fact, exerts selective action on eosinophils which, in turn, sustain airway inflammation and worsen asthma symptoms ... The development of drugs targeting IL-5 or its receptor alpha subunit (IL-5Rα) has been shown, in clinical trials, a promising ...
Interleukin-5. By Technical Data. Interleukin-5 - Proteins. Interleukin-5 - Recombinant protein - Proteins. Rat - Interleukin-5 ... Interleukin-5 - from E. coli - Proteins. Recombinant protein - Proteins. Rat - Recombinant protein - Proteins. Recombinant ... You are here: Home Products and Services Proteins Interleukin-5 Rat E. coli ... IL-5 is a hematopoietic growth factor that stimulates the proliferation and activation of eosinophils. Produced by mast cells, ...
Tony HP, Shen BJ, Reusch P, Sebald W. Design ofhuman interleukin‐4 antagonists inhibiting interleukin‐4 and interleukin-13 ... Antagonism both of interleukin‐4 and interleukin5 represents a potentially important new therapeutic strategy in asthma. ... Within the range of cytokines produced by Th2 cells, interleukin‐4 (IL‐4) and interleukin5 (IL‐5) have received considerable ... Several strategies have now been developed that successfully inhibit the biological effect of interleukin‐4 or interleukin5. ...
Impact of Surfactant Protein D, Interleukin-5, and Eosinophilia on Cryptococcosis. Stephanie M. Holmer, Kathy S. Evans, ... Impact of Surfactant Protein D, Interleukin-5, and Eosinophilia on Cryptococcosis. Stephanie M. Holmer, Kathy S. Evans, ... Impact of Surfactant Protein D, Interleukin-5, and Eosinophilia on Cryptococcosis. Stephanie M. Holmer, Kathy S. Evans, ... Impact of Surfactant Protein D, Interleukin-5, and Eosinophilia on Cryptococcosis Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ...
This mouse anti-human IL-5 monoclonal antibody (clone B-Z25)can be used as a capture antibody in ELISA assays and for ... This mouse anti-human IL-5 monoclonal antibody (clone B-Z25)can be used as a capture antibody in ELISA assays and for ... IL-5, Eosinophil differentiation factor, EDF, T-cell replacing factor, TRF, B-cell differentiation factor I ...
Comparison of anti-interleukin-5 therapies in patients with severe asthma: global and indirect meta-analyses of randomized ... Benralizumab, an anti-interleukin-5 receptor α monoclonal antibody, as add-on treatment for patients with severe, uncontrolled ... Benralizumab is an interleukin-5 receptor α-directed cytolytic monoclonal antibody that directly depletes eosinophils. Its ... Matching-adjusted indirect comparison of benralizumab versus interleukin-5 inhibitors for the treatment of severe asthma: a ...
Interleukin-5 levels are decreased in the plasma of coronary artery disease patients and inhibit Th1 and Th17 differentiation ... Interleukin (IL)-5 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine that has been demonstrated to be involved in cardiovascular diseases, ... Articles in press Interleukin-5 levels are decreased in the plasma of coronary artery disease patients... ... Se separaron las células murinas CD4+T helper (Th), y el efecto de la IL-5 en la diferenciación de Th1, célula T reguladora y ...
... implications for the antitumor activity of interleukin 12 and/or interleukin 2. Cancer Res., 56: 1131-1136, 1996. ... Interleukin-12 and interleukin-18 synergistically induce murine tumor regression which involves inhibition of angiogenesis. J. ... Gołąb J., Zagożdżon R. Antitumor effects of interleukin-12 in pre-clinical and early clinical studies. Int. J. Mol. Med., 3: ... Wigginton J. M., Kuhns D. B., Back T. C., Brunda M. J., Wiltrout R. H., Cox G. W. Interleukin 12 primes macrophages for nitric ...
  • IL-5 is a 115-amino acid (in human, 133 in the mouse) -long TH2 cytokine that is part of the hematopoietic family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike other members of this cytokine family (namely interleukin 3 and GM-CSF), this glycoprotein in its active form is a homodimer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The interleukin-5 receptor is a type I cytokine receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The IL-5 receptor (IL-5R) belongs to the type I cytokine receptor family and is a heterodimer composed of two polypeptide chains, one α subunit, which binds IL-5 and confers upon the receptor cytokine specificity, and one β subunit, which contains the signal transduction domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike the α-chain, the β-chain does not bind IL-5, is not specific to this cytokine, and is expressed on practically all leukocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this investigation we have used IL-5 deficient mice to define the relationship between this cytokine and eotaxin in the regulation of blood eosinophilia and eosinophil homing and tissue accumulation. (jci.org)
  • We examined whether interferon (IFN)-gamma, a representative Th1 cytokine, modifies the effector functions of human eosinophils stimulated by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL)-5. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In conclusion, IFN-gamma might upregulate ERK, p38, or JNK/ATF-2 phosphorylation induced by GM-CSF or IL-5, leading to enhanced cytokine-induced eosinophil superoxide generation and degranulation. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • We assessed the effect of placenta-derived MSCs on T cell immune responses and cytokine IL-5 levels according to cultures in children with and without asthma. (medsci.org)
  • Eosinophils develop from hematopoietic CD34+ progenitor cells, and interleukin (IL)-5 is a key cytokine involved in the differentiation, proliferation, and survival of eosinophils [ 4 ]. (medsci.org)
  • A more detailed analysis of the immunological mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of asthma shows interleukin 5 (IL-5) to be a crucial cytokine in several asthma phenotypes. (frontiersin.org)
  • The demonstration of a close link between eosinophils and interleukin (IL) 5 shifted attention to this cytokine and led to the development of new drugs able to act directly on interleukin 5 (IL-5) and its specific receptor α-subunit (IL-5Ra). (frontiersin.org)
  • Interleukin (IL)-5 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine that has been demonstrated to be involved in cardiovascular diseases, including aortic aneurysm and heart failure. (revespcardiol.org)
  • IL-5 is a late-acting, lineage-specific cytokine produced primarily by activated T cells ( 42 ) and mast cells ( 24 ). (asm.org)
  • This cytokine is predominantly released by activated monocytes , macrophages and T helper 2 (Th2) cells [5] and acts on non-haematopoietic tissues such as skin, lung and reproductive tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine which reduces type 1 collagen mRNA levels in human fibroblasts. (cdc.gov)
  • IL-5 is the major cytokine responsible for the growth and differentiation, recruitment, activation, and survival of eosinophils (a cell type associated with inflammation and an important component of the pathogenesis of asthma, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and hypereosinophilic syndrome). (drugs.com)
  • A unique feature of the cytokine storm in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the dramatic elevation of interleukin 10 ( IL-10 ). (bvsalud.org)
  • The association between the interleukin-10 cytokine and CC chemokine ligand 5 polymorphisms and mycetoma granuloma formation. (cdc.gov)
  • Interleukin-12 (IL-12), a heterodimeric immunoregulatory cytokine composed of covalently linked p35 and p40 subunits, has antitumor activity in animal models. (kribb.re.kr)
  • Given its role in cytokine signaling, CIS1 upregulation may serve to attenuate IL-5 and GM-CSF modulation of eosinophil function. (elsevier.com)
  • Interleukin-11 (IL-11) is a hematopoietic cytokine engaged in numerous biological processes and validated as a target for treatment of various cancers. (abo.fi)
  • IL-5 is a Th2 cytokine which activates eosinophils and is suggested to have an atheroprotective role. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Interleukin (IL)-11, a multi-functional cytokine secreted by the bone marrow environment, plays an important role in regulating growth and differentiation of HSCs/HPCs. (elsevier.com)
  • One of the strategies which has been developed, is to inhibit the effect of interleukin (IL)‐4 or IL‐5, two main Th2 cell derived cytokines. (ersjournals.com)
  • Within the range of cytokines produced by Th2 cells, interleukin‐4 (IL‐4) and interleukin‐5 (IL‐5) have received considerable interest to date. (ersjournals.com)
  • Mouse CD4 + T helper (Th) cells were separated, and the effect of IL-5 on Th1, regulatory T cell and Th17 differentiation and mRNA levels of their characteristic cytokines were detected using flow cytometry and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively. (revespcardiol.org)
  • Recombinant mouse IL-5 treatment decreased Th1 and Th17 levels and mRNA expression of their characteristic cytokines in oxidized low-density lipoprotein-treated CD4 + Th cells. (revespcardiol.org)
  • In this study we investigated the efficacy of low-dose 5-aza-2′-deoxycitydine (DAC), a methylation inhibitor, with interleukin (IL) 12, one of the most potent cytokines with antitumor activity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Eosinophils are derived from pluripotent progenitor cells in the bone marrow, and their development and differentiation are promoted by three cytokines: interleukin-3 (IL-3), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and IL-5. (asm.org)
  • Helminth Products Protect against Autoimmunity via Innate Type 2 Cytokines IL-5 and IL-33, Which Promote Eosinophilia. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Experiments in vitro suggest that although interleukin 5 (IL5) stimulates the late stages ofeosinophil differentiation, other cytokines are required for the generation of eosinophil progenitor cells. (elsevier.com)
  • The present study focused on the presence of receptors for the Th2-type cytokines interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-9 on peripheral blood neutrophils of horses with heaves. (sparrho.com)
  • Interleukins (ILs) are a large group of cytokines that are produced mainly by leukocytes, although some are produced by certain phagocytes and auxiliary cells. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Interleukin (IL)\9 is a 28\30 kDa monomeric glycosylated polypeptide belonging to the IL\7/IL\9 family of proteins that bind to a composite receptor consisting of the private receptor IL\9R and the IL\2 receptor, gamma (IL\2RG), a common gamma subunit shared by the receptors of many different cytokines. (isvhld2012.org)
  • buy 1204707-71-0 stimulation with recombinant IL\9, produce high levels of specific peptides such as \defensin 5 and cytokines such as IL\23, indicating the occurrence of an autocrine loop involving IL\9 27. (isvhld2012.org)
  • To determine whether the functional changes associated with airway eosinophils obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage 48 hours after antigen challenge are caused by exposure to airway-generated cytokines, normodense blood eosinophils were cultured in vitro with recombinant human interleukin-5 (IL-5) or granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). (semanticscholar.org)
  • The clinical phase I/II chemoimmunotherapy trial presented here examines the low-dose sequential application of GM-CSF in combination with the cytokines IL-2 and IFN-α as well as the cytostatic drug 5-FU in metastatic renal cell carcinoma. (fu-berlin.de)
  • In fact, the β-subunit of the IL-5 receptor is also found in IL-3 and GM-CSF receptors where it is associated with IL-3Rα and GM-CSFRα subunits respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • The receptor for IL-5 is comprised of a unique α subunit (IL-5Rα) and a common β subunit (βc) that is common to receptors for GM-CSF, IL-3, and IL-5 ( 16 ). (asm.org)
  • The interleukin-5 (IL-5) receptor is a heterodimer that consists of an IL-5 specific alpha subunit and a common ssc chain that is shared with the receptors for granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-3 (IL-3). (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Moreover, IL-5 maintained the viability of mature eosinophils obtained from peritoneal exudate cells of the mice infected with parasites, indicating mature functional eosinophils carried IL-5 receptors. (rupress.org)
  • Binding studies with a number of other human cell lines, including a B-lymphoma line, and with lymphocyte and neutrophil preparations were also performed, but IL-5 receptors were not detectable on these cells. (edu.au)
  • The number of hIL-5 receptors on HL-60 cells could be correlated with its propensity to differentiate towards an eosinophilic cell type. (edu.au)
  • Expression of hIL-5 receptors on HL-60 cells was upregulated by butyric acid under alkaline conditions, downregulated by hIL-3, virtually eliminated by dimethyl sulfoxide and hIL-5, while hIL-2 had no detectable effect. (edu.au)
  • Studies using cellular autoradiography showed that IL-5 receptors were evenly distributed on eosinophils but that receptor distribution on HL-60 cells was noticeably heterogeneous. (edu.au)
  • Eosinophils were the only cells in slides prepared from peripheral blood that had detectable levels of IL-5 receptors in agreement with the specific action of IL-5 on the human eosinophil lineage. (edu.au)
  • Expression of interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-9 receptors on neutrophils of horses with heaves. (sparrho.com)
  • Horses with heaves had significantly increased numbers of neutrophils expressing IL-5 and IL-9 receptors compared to control while in pasture, and further increased during stabling in heaves affected horses but not in control animals. (sparrho.com)
  • Prebiotics may modulate the immune system directly through ligation of carbohydrate or pattern recognition receptors on immune and epithelial cells [ 5 , 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • All of their receptors are heteropolymers of which at least one sub-unit is a member of the family of IL-1 receptors (IL-1R), which are characterized by extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and an intracellular Toll/Interleukin-1R (TIR) domain within their cytoplasmic tail. (frontiersin.org)
  • To explore the possible involvement of STAT factors ("signal transducers and activators of transcription") in the interleukin 2 receptor (IL-2R) signaling cascade, murine HT-2 cells expressing chimeric receptors composed of the extracellular domain of the erythropoietin receptor fused to the cytoplasmic domains of the IL-2R beta or -gamma c chains were prepared. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Interleukin 5 has been shown to interact with Interleukin 5 receptor alpha subunit. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a heterodimer of the interleukin 5 receptor alpha subunit and CSF2RB. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinical trials have shown drugs targeting IL-5 or its receptor alpha subunit (IL-5Ra) to be a promising therapeutic approach to severe asthma, whose characteristics render standard therapy of little use: systemic corticosteroids only partially control the disease and have well-known adverse effects, and omalizumab is used for allergic subtypes. (frontiersin.org)
  • To investigate whether the lineage specificity of IL-5 is due to the restricted expression of the IL-5 receptor alpha subunit we transfected the FDCP-Mix A4 cells with a retroviral vector containing this alpha subunit. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • The ectopic expression of the IL-5 receptor alpha subunit in the FDCP-Mix cells did not increase the observed eosinophilic development but did stimulate survival and proliferation of the transfected cells when IL-5 was added. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • The results further argue that the observed lineage specificity of IL-5 is probably due to factors in addition to the restricted expression of the IL-5 receptor alpha subunit. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Mepolizumab is a monoclonal antibody against IL-5 which can reduce excessive eosinophilia. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Hodgkin lymphoma, for instance, the typically-observed eosinophilia is thought to be attributable to an increased production of IL-5. (wikipedia.org)
  • Relationship between interleukin-5 and eotaxin in regulating blood and tissue eosinophilia in mice. (jci.org)
  • Both IL-5 and eotaxin could independently induce a rapid and pronounced blood eosinophilia in wild type mice when administered systemically. (jci.org)
  • In contrast, only eotaxin induced a pronounced blood eosinophilia in IL-5 deficient mice. (jci.org)
  • Subcutaneous injection of eotaxin induced a local tissue eosinophilia in wild type mice but not in IL-5 deficient mice. (jci.org)
  • Furthermore, tissue eosinophilia in wild type mice, but not in IL-5 deficient mice, was enhanced by adoptive transfer of eosinophils or the administration of intravenous IL-5. (jci.org)
  • Elevated levels of IL-5 lead to Eosinophilia, which may result in the induction of asthma and other allergic diseases. (biovendor.com)
  • IL-5-overexpressing mice have increased pulmonary eosinophilia and are more susceptible to C. neoformans infection than WT mice. (asm.org)
  • Eosinophils, which constitute 5 to 10% of granulocytes, play an important role in host immune defense against helminthic parasites and contribute to the pathogenesis of a variety of allergic diseases associated with eosinophilia, including asthma ( 9 , 11 ). (asm.org)
  • Chemotherapy for Schistosomiasis in Ugandan Fishermen: Treatment Can Cause a Rapid Increase in Interleukin-5 Levels in Plasma but Decreased Levels of Eosinophilia and Worm-Specific Immunoglobulin E. (aber.ac.uk)
  • IL-5 is thus the first hemopoietic factor whose elaboration in vivo can explain the selective eosinophilia and eosinophil activation seen in disease[1]. (fortunebio-tech.com)
  • Interleukin-5 (IL-5) promotes the growth and differentiation of human eosinophils and may regulate the selective eosinophilia and eosinophil activation seen in certain diseases. (edu.au)
  • The role of eosinophilia in allergic disorders indicates hIL-5 as a target of therapy. (edu.au)
  • The elevated serum levels of interleukin-5 and eosinophilic cationic protein may be responsible for the eosinophilia and tissue injury, respectively. (qxmd.com)
  • The IL-5 gene is located on chromosome 11 in the mouse, and chromosome 5 in humans, in close proximity to the genes encoding IL-3, IL-4, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), which are often co-expressed in TH2 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The α subunit is specific for the IL-5 molecule, whereas the βc subunit also recognised by interleukin 3 (IL3) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Human interleukin-5 (IL-5) regulates the production of eosinophils in human bone marrowcultures: comparison and interaction with IL-1, IL-3, IL-6, and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GMCSF)[2]. (fortunebio-tech.com)
  • Binding studies with eosinophils and HL-60 cells grown under alkaline conditions demonstrated similar high-affinity binding sites for hIL-5 on both cell types with kd values of approximately 400 pmol/L. The binding observed was specific in that it was not inhibited by hIL-3, human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, or hIL-2. (edu.au)
  • Methods Peripheral blood eosinophils were isolated for the analysis of metabolic processes using extracellular flux analysis and individual metabolites by stable isotope tracer analysis coupled to gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry following treatment with IL‐3, IL‐5 or granulocyte‐macrophage colony‐stimulating factor (GM‐CSF). (cf.ac.uk)
  • High concentrations of IL-5 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor essentially completely overcame the inhibitory effect of 1000 nM fluticasone 17-propionate on eosinophil survival. (elsevier.com)
  • In these studies, we examined signaling through the transcription factor STAT5 in human peripheral blood eosinophils after treatment with granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or interleukin (IL)-5. (elsevier.com)
  • Effect of interleukin-5 and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor on in vitro eosinophil function: comparison with airway eosinophils. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Gentaur suppliers human normal cells, cell lines, RNA extracts and lots of antibodies and elisa kit to Human proteins as well as Interleukin 2 (IL_2), Clone LO_hIL2_4, Rat Mab anti_Human. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • To investigate the role of such proteins in the regulation of apoptosis of eosinophils, the expression of Bcl-2 and homologues Bcl-x(L), (death antagonists), Bax, and Bcl-x(S) (death agonists) were examined by immunoblot, flow cytometry, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis, Potential modulation of apoptosis-associated molecules during spontaneous apoptosis and in the presence of interleukin (IL)-5 was also investigated. (elsevier.com)
  • The STAT proteins utilized by IL‐7 were identical to those induced by IL‐2 and could be identified as various STAT 5 isoforms. (elsevier.com)
  • These observations raise the possibility that the contribution of IL-5 and GM-CSF to phenotypic changes of airway eosinophils is principally to enhance survival and expression of adhesion proteins. (semanticscholar.org)
  • All four subpopulations produced interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13, whereas only the CD62L(lo)CXCR3(lo) population produced IL-5 accompanied by increased H3-K4 methylation at the Il5 gene locus. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, MHC class II (8 , 9) and costimulatory molecules such as intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and leukotactic factor activity 3 (5) were found to be down-regulated by hypermethylation of CpG islands inside their gene promoters and reinduced in the presence of DAC. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here we demonstrate the presence of unique DNA sequences in the 5' flanking region of the human IL-2 gene that control induced T-cell-specific gene expression. (eurekamag.com)
  • A 275 basepair fragment at the 5' end of the interleukin 2 gene enhances expression from a heterologous promoter in response to signals from the T cell antigen receptor. (rupress.org)
  • In contrast, calcium ionophore plus PMA did induce the expression of a linked gene through the IL-2 5' flanking region in the mutant Jurkat cell line. (rupress.org)
  • Interleukin 24 (IL-24) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL24 gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study transgenic mice constitutively expressing the IL-5 gene were established using a genomic fragment of the 11,5 gene coupled to the dominant control region from the gene encoding human CD2. (elsevier.com)
  • These data indicate that induction of the IL-5 gene is sufficient for production ofeosinophilia, and that IL-5 can induce the full pathway of eosinophil differentiation. (elsevier.com)
  • This study aimed at understanding the role of conserved lymphokine element 0 (CLEO) in induction and inhibition of IL-5.The conserved proximal CLEO/TATA elements driving a luciferase reporter gene gave higher expression than a 500bp promoter in PER1 17 T-cell line. (edu.au)
  • Antisense technology has also shown the dependence of IL-5 gene transcription on the de novo synthesis of the transcription factor Fra2.Inhibition of IL-5 reporter constructs by dexamethasone when induced by PMNcAMP, but not PMNCaI, provided a tool for understanding the mechanism. (edu.au)
  • In this study, an antisense IL-5 gene transferred by recombinant adeno-associated virus (asIL-5) was constructed to transfect murine allergic asthma model. (bvsalud.org)
  • The 5' flanking region of the IL-10 gene is highly polymorphic, with three single base pair substitutions at position -1082(G/A), -819(C/T) and -592(C/A), which results in differential IL-10 production. (cdc.gov)
  • Proximal interleukin-10 gene polymorphisms in Italian patients with systemic sclerosis. (cdc.gov)
  • The IL36RN gene provides instructions for making a protein called interleukin 36 receptor antagonist (IL-36Ra). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The enzyme/prodrug strategy using cytosine deaminase (CD) and 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) has been used for cancer gene therapy. (kribb.re.kr)
  • Conclusions: The results suggest that adenovirus-mediated IL-12 gene transfer combined with Ad.CD followed by 5-FC treatment may be useful for treating cancers. (kribb.re.kr)
  • This is the first report of IL-5 regulation of CIS1 gene expression in any cell type. (elsevier.com)
  • Both chromosome 5 loci were in the vicinity of the IL5 gene, however the association with IL-5 levels failed to replicate in a meta-analysis of 2 independent cohorts (rs56183820, BETA=0.04, P=0.2763, I(2)=24, I(2)-P=0.2516). (ox.ac.uk)
  • In humans, IL-5 primarily affects cells of the eosinophilic lineage, and promotes their differentiation, maturation, activation, migration and survival, while in mice IL-5 also enhances Ig class switching and release from B1 cells (1-3, 9, 10, 15). (acris-antibodies.com)
  • IL-5 levels were decreased in CAD patients and inhibited oxidized low-density lipoprotein Th1 and Th17 differentiation in vitro. (revespcardiol.org)
  • Interleukin-5 (IL-5) plays a central role in the differentiation, proliferation, and functional activation of eosinophils. (asm.org)
  • Whereas GM-CSF and IL-3 play necessary roles in the proliferation of all granulocyte progenitors, including eosinophils, IL-5 is specific for eosinophil differentiation, functional activation, and survival ( 30 , 47 , 48 ). (asm.org)
  • Purified interleukin 5 supports the terminal differentiation and proliferation of murine eosinophilic precursors. (rupress.org)
  • IL-5 specifically facilitated the terminal differentiation and proliferation of eosinophils. (rupress.org)
  • In this respect, the role of IL-5 in eosinophilopoiesis seems to be analogous to erythropoietin, which promotes the terminal differentiation and amplification of erythroid cells. (rupress.org)
  • This interleukin is also known as melanoma differentiation-associated 7 ( mda-7 ) due to its discovery as a tumour suppressing protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-5 may therefore not be restricted in action to the later stages of eosinophil differentiation, as suggested by earlier in vitro studies. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "Interleukin (IL-5) was found to enhance the adhesion of eosinophils, but not neutrophils, to both microvascular and large vein endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. (elsevier.com)
  • IL-5 preincubation before the addition of each GC caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of the proapoptotic effects of these compounds ( figure 1D-F ). This occurred without any significant shift in the GC concentration-response curves, suggesting non-competitive antagonism. (bmj.com)
  • Thus, IL-5 production in memory Th2 cells is regulated by Eomesodermin via the inhibition of GATA3 activity. (nih.gov)
  • ASO targeting with these strategies resulted in inhibition of mRNA and protein levels of the membrane IL-5Rα isoform capable of signaling IL-5-mediated growth and antiapoptotic signals to eosinophils. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Membrane isoform IL-5Rα inhibition was coupled with an increase in expression of mRNA for the alternatively spliced soluble isoform, which binds IL-5 extracellularly and may block its function. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Basal expression of eosinophil CR3 with monoclonal antibody inhibited IL-5-induced eosinophil hyperadherence to HUVEC in a manner almost identical to inhibition in the presence of excess anti-CR3. (elsevier.com)
  • Non-inhibition of IL-5 reporter constructs by dexamethasone in a Jurkat cell line, however, showed a possible intermediary factor involved in the inhibition mechanism. (edu.au)
  • Thus, inhibition of IL-5 expression seems to be an attractive approach for asthma therapy . (bvsalud.org)
  • In addition, significant inhibition of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) was also found in the mice treated with asIL-5. (bvsalud.org)
  • Hagan, JB , Kita, H & Gleich, GJ 1998, ' Inhibition of interleukin-5 mediated eosinophil viability by fluticasone 17-propionate: Comparison with other glucocorticoids ', Clinical and Experimental Allergy , vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 999-1006. (elsevier.com)
  • Results: The inhibition of tumor growth in mice treated with Ad.p35 plus Ad.p40 and Ad.CD, followed by injection of 5-FC, was significantly greater than that in mice treated with Ad.CD/5-FC, a mixture of Ad.p35 plus Ad.p40, or Ad.GFP (control). (kribb.re.kr)
  • Ad.CD/5-FC treatment significantly increased the antitumor effect of Ad.IL-12 in terms of tumor growth inhibition and mean animal survival time. (kribb.re.kr)
  • Möglicherweise war diese Inhibition 5-FU-bedingt. (fu-berlin.de)
  • Interleukin 5 (IL-5) enhances eosinophil survival by inhibiting apoptosis, and increased IL-5 expression is reported in eosinophilic inflammation. (bmj.com)
  • The eosinophilic response induced by intravenous eotaxin in wild type mice did not correlate with a significant reduction in the level of bone marrow eosinophils, whereas intravenous IL-5 resulted in depletion of this store. (jci.org)
  • Expression of the interleukin-5 receptor-α (IL-5Rα) chain is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma and other eosinophilic diseases. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The results suggest that IL-5, whilst having a capacity to promote proliferation, does not influence eosinophilic lineage commitment in these multipotent cells. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • IL-5 alone acted on untreated bone marrow cells and supported the formation of a small number of colonies, all of which were predominantly eosinophilic. (rupress.org)
  • Anti-IL-5 treatments have shown efficacy in reducing the rate of severe asthma attacks in eosinophilic asthma. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Local hypersensitivity reaction in transgenic mice with squamous epithelial IL-5 overexpression provides a novel model of eosinophilic oesophagitis. (ucdenver.edu)
  • YM-90709 inhibits the binding of IL-5 to its receptor on peripheral human eosinophils and butyric acid-treated eosinophilic HL-60 clone 15 cells, with IC50 values of 1.0 and 0.57 microM, respectively. (medkoo.com)
  • Furthermore, YM-90709 inhibited the IL-5-induced but not GM-CSF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) in eosinophilic HL-60 clone 15 cells. (medkoo.com)
  • Radiolabeled recombinant human IL-5 (hIL-5) was used to characterize the IL-5 receptor present on normal human eosinophils and on the myeloid leukemia line HL-60, which can be induced to differentiate into eosinophilic cells. (edu.au)
  • Elevated serum levels of eosinophilic cationic protein and interleukin-5 paralleling disease activity were detected. (qxmd.com)
  • The mechanism of cooperation between IL-5 and eotaxin for the selective accumulation of eosinophils at sites of allergic inflammation is unknown. (jci.org)
  • Furthermore, IL-5 is not only essential for mobilizing eosinophils from the bone marrow during allergic inflammation, but also plays a critical role in regulating eosinophil homing and migration into tissues in response to eotaxin and possibly other specific chemotactic stimuli. (jci.org)
  • Inflammation-induced and locally produced IL-5 may act on the bone marrow in a cooperative manner. (biovendor.com)
  • In fact, IL-5 exerts selective action on eosinophils, which, in turn, sustain airway inflammation and worsen asthma symptoms and control. (frontiersin.org)
  • The present study was focused on the oxidative mechanisms by which IL-4 induces vascular inflammation as well as how 5-LOX is involved in this process. (vt.edu)
  • Eosinophil recruitment is a characteristic feature of a number of pathological conditions and was the topic of the recent International Symposium on allergic inflammation, asthma, parasitic and infectious diseases (Rio de Janeiro, June 3-5, 1996). (fiocruz.br)
  • Interleukin-5 ( IL-5 ) involves in the development of airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness through activation of eosinophils . (bvsalud.org)
  • Our results showed that asIL-5 efficiently inhibited the IL-5 mRNA expression and significantly attenuated the inflammation in lung tissues . (bvsalud.org)
  • In either case, the α-chain exclusively binds IL-5 and the intra-cellular portion of IL-5Rα is associated with Janus kinase (JAK) 2, a protein tyrosine-kinase essential in IL-5 signal transduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benralizumab binds to IL-5Ra, while mepolizumab and reslizumab bind to IL-5, preventing it from binding to IL-5Ra. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin-5 has long been associated with the cause of several allergic diseases including allergic rhinitis and asthma, wherein a large increase in the number of circulating, airway tissue, and induced sputum eosinophils have been observed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Placenta-derived MSCs exerted an anti-IL-5 effect and reduced the IL-5 level in culture in different subgroups of children with asthma. (medsci.org)
  • Notably, IL-5 plays a crucial role in asthma. (medsci.org)
  • The Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP) study identified four asthma clusters based on age at onset, airflow limitation, comorbidities, and lung function ( 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Additional effects that seem of particular importance for asthma include stimulation of mucus producing cells and fibroblasts, thus also implicating IL‐4 in the pathogenesis of airway remodelling 5 - 7 . (ersjournals.com)
  • Its relative efficacy versus other IL-5-targeted treatments for patients with severe, uncontrolled asthma is not yet fully characterised. (ersjournals.com)
  • Interleukin-5 Inhibitors for Severe Asthma: Rationale and Future Outlook. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In this review, we outline the pathophysiology of severe asthma and discuss the role of anti-interleukin (IL)-5 inhibitors for the treatment of asthma. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We review the history of the development of these agents, lessons learnt about severe asthma along the way and key clinical trials supporting efficacy of the three anti-IL-5 treatments that are clinically available or undergoing clinical trials in asthma. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Antisense interleukin-5 reduces eosinophil infiltration and hyperrespon-siveness in an allergic asthma model. (bvsalud.org)
  • These observations demonstrate that antisense oligonucleotid against IL-5 delivered by adeno-associated virus system is possibly an efficacious therapeutic strategy for allergic asthma and other eosinophil -related disorders. (bvsalud.org)
  • CD8 T-cell clones producing interleukin-5 and interferon-gamma in bronchial mucosa of patients with asthma induced by toluene diisocyanate. (unimore.it)
  • By mehanographic method, contraktile responses of the airways smooth muscles in experimental bronchial asthma in porpoises intact and incubated with interleykin-5, were studied. (elsevier.com)
  • The specific action of IL-5 on eosinophils and hematopoietically related basophils is regulated by the restricted expression of IL-5 receptor α (IL-5Rα), a subunit of high-affinity IL-5R, on these cells. (asm.org)
  • Low-affinity binding of IL-5 occurs with the IL-5Rα chain, and the βc chain forms a high-affinity IL-5R in combination with the IL-5Rα chain. (asm.org)
  • Parallel interleukin 5 synthesis by eosinophils in duodenal and skin lesions of a patient with dermatitis herpetiformis. (bmj.com)
  • The DNA, which spans about 200 bp, contains regions with sequence homology to LTR sequences of HTLV-III (or LAV) and the 5' upstream region of the IL-2 receptor and interferon-gamma genes. (eurekamag.com)
  • There is an up regulation of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 expression in patients with lymphatic filariasis and a simultaneous decrease in levels of the interferon-gamma and IL-2. (alliedacademies.org)
  • All of the CD8 clones produced interferon-gamma and 44% produced interleukin-5, but only 6% secreted interleukin-4 as well. (unimore.it)
  • CONCLUSIONS--The results suggest that, in sensitized subjects, exposure to TDI induces the activation of a subset of CD8 lymphocytes producing interferon-gamma and interleukin-5. (unimore.it)
  • Genetic loci on chromosome 5 are associated with circulating levels of interleukin-5 and eosinophil count in a European population with high risk for cardiovascular disease. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Similarly, ECP IL-5, GATA-3 mRNA expression and IgE-induced release of LTC4/D 4 /E 4 and PGD 2 from mast cells were significantly increased in patients with PER compared to patients with IAR. (wiley.com)
  • Expression quantitative trait analyses indicate effects of the IL-5 and eosinophil-associated SNPs on RAD50 mRNA expression levels (rs12652920 (r2=0.93 with rs56183820) BETA=-0.10, P=8.64E(-6) and rs11739623 (r2=0.96 with rs72797327) BETA=-0.23, P=1.74E(-29), respectively). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Induction of eosinophil apoptosis in the absence and presence of interleukin 5 (IL-5) by dexamethasone (DEX), fluticasone propionate (FP) and fluticasone furoate (FF). (bmj.com)
  • The fragments of bronchial mucosa were cultured in the presence of interleukin-2 so that the in vivo activated T cells present in the tissue would expand, and T blasts were then cloned under limiting dilution conditions. (unimore.it)
  • Activated eosinophils and interleukin 5 expression in early recurrence of Crohn's disease. (bmj.com)
  • IL-5 expression is regulated by several transcription factors including GATA3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enhanced soluble interleukin-5 receptor alpha expression in nasal polyposis. (nih.gov)
  • Given the key role of IL-5 in eosinophil function, we investigated SOL IL-5Ralpha expression pattern in an eosinophil-associated disease such as nasal polyposis (NP). (nih.gov)
  • Establishment of mouse cell lines which constitutively secrete large quantities of interleukin 2, 3, 4 or 5, using modified cDNA expression vectors. (nih.gov)
  • An existing bovine papilloma virus-based expression vector, pBV-1MTHA, was modified to allow transformed X63Ag8-653 myeloma cells, NIH 3T3 fibroblasts and C127 mammary tumor cells to stably carry multiple copies of the vector, to express the inserted cDNA encoding a single interleukin constitutively, and to secrete the interleukin in high quantities. (nih.gov)
  • After the pretreatment of eosinophils with IFN-gamma, GM-CSF- or IL-5-induced eosinophil functions were examined, including superoxide anion generation, degranulation, adhesion, expression of GM-CSF receptor (R), IL-5R, or CD11b, and phosphorylation of intracellular signaling molecules. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The transcription factor Eomesodermin (encoded by Eomes) was highly expressed in memory Th2 cells, whereas its expression was selectively downregulated in the IL-5-producing cells. (nih.gov)
  • Mucosal expression of interleukin 5 (IL 5), an important eosinophil activating factor was studied using in situ hybridisation. (bmj.com)
  • Eosinophil infiltration was more pronounced in diseased than in endoscopically normal areas and was associated with a high expression of IL 5 mRNA. (bmj.com)
  • We analyzed IL-5 expression in human coronary artery specimens collected from CAD patients and deceased donors. (revespcardiol.org)
  • Finally, in a mutant Jurkat cell line lacking T3/antigen receptor complexes at the cell surface, no expression due to the IL-2 5' flanking region was seen after exposure to antibody to the T cell antigen receptor plus PMA or to PHA plus PMA. (rupress.org)
  • Although 5-LOX has been implicated in the development of atherosclerosis, it remains unclear whether 5-LOX-mediated ROS generation is associated with IL-4-induced MCP-1 expression in vascular endothelium. (vt.edu)
  • We have also provided the first novel evidence that 5-LOX, one of the enzymes associated with arachidonic acid metabolism, is responsible for the IL-4-induced ROS generation and MCP-1 expression in human vascular endothelial cells. (vt.edu)
  • Significant increases in eosinophil CR3 expression, but not LFA-1, were observed following pre-incubation with PAF, IL-3, IL-5 or GM-CSF. (elsevier.com)
  • Neutrophil CR3 expression was increased significantly by pre-incubation with PAF or GM-CSF, but not IL-3 or IL-5. (elsevier.com)
  • Chronic exacerbation of equine heaves is associated with an increased expression of interleukin-17 mRNA in bronchoalveolar lavage cells. (sparrho.com)
  • The conservation of hIL-5 proximal elements suggests they are important in controlling expression. (edu.au)
  • Corticosteroids are important in the treatment of allergy, and are powerful inhibitors of IL-5 expression. (edu.au)
  • Two and three copies of IL-5 CLEO upstream of the silent IL-4 minimal promoter gave 150-200 fold increases in expression in forward orientation, but little activity in reverse orientation. (edu.au)
  • 0.01) to 10.7 +/- 2.6% compared with 46.8 +/- 7.4% in the absence of IL-5, and induced Bcl-2 mRNA and protein expression, with no detectable change in Bax, Bcl-x, or beta-actin as a control. (elsevier.com)
  • This investigation indicates a specific profile of apoptotic molecules in eosinophils distinct from that of neutrophils, and indicates that survival-enhancing IL-5 modulates the expression of Bcl-2 in vitro. (elsevier.com)
  • Dewson, G , Walsh, G & Wardlaw, AJ 1999, ' Expression of Bcl-2 and its homologues in human eosinophils - Modulation by interleukin-5 ', American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology , vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 720-728. (elsevier.com)
  • Induction of nuclear expression of this STAT-5-like factor was blocked by the addition of herbimycin A, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, but not by rapamycin, an immunophilin-binding antagonist of IL-2-induced proliferation. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • The expression of very late antigen (VLA)-4 and VLA-5 integrins was detected on CD34 + cells. (elsevier.com)
  • The expression of very late antigen (VLA)-4 and VLA-5 integrins was detected on CD34+ cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Drugs that target IL-5 are mepolizumab and reslizumab. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mepolizumab is an interleukin-5 antagonist (IgG1 kappa). (drugs.com)
  • Bone marrow from transgenic mice was rich in 11,5-dependent eosinophil precursors. (elsevier.com)
  • The proliferation of spontaneous and phytohemagglutinin-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and their production of interleukin-4, interleukin-5, transforming growth factor- β 1, and interferon- γ (IFN γ ) were determined in eighteen men at the baseline and during a 2-week period of probiotics (mixture of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus rhamnosus LC705, Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. (hindawi.com)
  • 5-Aminosalicylic acid abrogates T-cell proliferation by blocking interleukin-2 production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (edu.kz)
  • Compared with the non-CAD group, plasma IL-5 levels in the CAD groups were significantly lower, and the sequence from high to low was stable angina pectoris, unstable angina pectoris, and acute myocardial infarction. (revespcardiol.org)
  • A marked transient increase in plasma IL-5 levels was observed in 75% of the subjects (n 48) by 1 day posttreatment. (aber.ac.uk)
  • Results: (R,S)-albuterol inhibited IL-5-induced superoxide production. (elsevier.com)
  • Leicester Research Archive: Interleukin-5 inhibits translocation of Bax to the mitochondria, cytochrome c release, and activation of caspases in human eosinophils. (le.ac.uk)
  • 3: Morokata T, Ida K, Yamada T. Characterization of YM-90709 as a novel antagonist which inhibits the binding of interleukin-5 to interleukin-5 receptor. (medkoo.com)
  • Inhibits the activity of interleukin-36 (IL36A,IL36B and IL36G) by binding to receptor IL1RL2 and preventing its association with the coreceptor IL1RAP for signaling. (uniprot.org)
  • Interleukin 2 (IL_2), Clone LO_hIL2_4, Rat Mab anti_Human monoclonal antibodies Monoclonal antobodies are used for flow cytometry, IHC or immunohistochemistry, in ELISA as dedector antibody. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • CD34 + cells also expressed a-chain and gp130 subunits of the IL-11 receptor (R). Enhanced adhesion by IL-11 was mediated via activation of VLA-5 integrins, since this action could be blocked by monoclonal antibodies against β1 and α5, but not α4, integrins. (elsevier.com)
  • However, pretreatment of IL-5 deficient mice with intraperitoneal IL-5 for 72 h restored eosinophil homing and tissue accumulation in response to subcutaneous eotaxin. (jci.org)
  • Postinfection, mice lacking SP-D have reduced eosinophil infiltration and interleukin-5 (IL-5) in lung lavage fluid. (asm.org)
  • To further explore the interplay of SP-D, eosinophils, and IL-5, mice expressing altered levels of eosinophils and/or IL-5 were infected with C. neoformans to assess the role of these innate immune mediators. (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, susceptibility of SP-D −/− mice to C. neoformans infection could be restored to the level of WT mice by increasing IL-5 and eosinophils by crossing the IL-5-overexpressing mice with SP-D −/− mice. (asm.org)
  • This study evaluated the ability of flagellin, agonist of Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5), to control the replication of influenza A virus (IAV) in mice. (inserm.fr)
  • The effect of the flagellin on viral replication was also observed in Ifnar-/- and Il22-/- IAV-infected mice, suggesting a mechanism independent of type I interferon and interleukin 22 signaling. (inserm.fr)
  • However, it did not support colony formation by spleen cells from 5-FU-treated mice, in which only primitive stem cells had survived, while IL-3 and G-CSF did. (rupress.org)
  • To exclude the possibility of interactions with accessory cells in the same culture dish, we replated a small number (200 cells/dish) of enriched hemopoietic progenitors, obtained from blast cell colonies, which were formed by cultivation of spleen cells from 5-FU-treated mice in the presence of IL-3 or G-CSF. (rupress.org)
  • 1: Morokata T, Suzuki K, Ida K, Yamada T. Effect of a novel interleukin-5 receptor antagonist, YM-90709, on antigen-induced eosinophil infiltration into the airway of BDF1 mice. (medkoo.com)
  • The effect of IL-5 deficiency on the fertility and fecundity of C57BL/6 mice has now been studied in some detail (SA Robertson, IG Young & KI Matthaei, unpublished). (fiocruz.br)
  • Based on reactivity with specific anti-STAT antibodies, this DNA-binding activity was identified as a murine homologue of STAT-5. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Should the Canine Interleukin 5 (IL5) ELISA Kit is proven to show malperformance, you will receive a refund or a free replacement. (hiv-pharmacogenomics.org)
  • Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Canine Interleukin 5 (IL5) in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates or other biological fluids. (hiv-pharmacogenomics.org)
  • Recently, the role of interleukin-4 (IL-4) in atherogenesis became controversial and gained attention. (vt.edu)
  • A Potential Role of Interleukin 10 in COVID-19 Pathogenesis. (bvsalud.org)
  • the role of interleukin 5 in formation of hyper-responsiveness of bronchial tubes: rol' interleikina-5 v formirovanii giperreaktivnosti bronkhov. (elsevier.com)
  • In fact, IL-5 was originally discovered as an eosinophil colony-stimulating factor, is a major regulator of eosinophil accumulation in tissues, and can modulate eosinophil behavior at every stage from maturation to survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to IL-5, which acts mainly as an eosinophil lineage specific factor in vivo, IL-3 and GM-CSF stimulate the survival, proliferation and development of various hematopoietic cell lineages and also multipotent progenitor cells. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • IL-5 has little effect on the survival or proliferation of the multipotent stem cell line FDCP-Mix A4 but does promote some eosinophil development. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • IL-5 thus acts like IL-3 in these cells, promoting proliferation and survival. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • In functional assays, YM-90709 inhibited IL-5-prolonged eosinophil survival with an IC50 value of 0.45 microM and did not affect the GM-CSF-prolonged eosinophil survival. (medkoo.com)
  • As with the IL-5Rα subunit, the β subunit's cytoplasmic domain is constitutively associated with JAK2, as well as LYN, another tyrosine kinase, which are both essential for IL-5 signal transduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mouse cell lines of different lineages have been established which constitutively secrete large quantities of recombinant mouse interleukins (mIL2, mIL3, mIL4 or mIL5). (nih.gov)
  • Flt-3L could also drive proliferation in synergy with ectopically expressed constitutively active Stat-5. (diva-portal.org)
  • The cDNA for human IL-5 encodes a signal peptide and a 115 amino acid (aa) mature protein. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Furthermore, IFN-gamma upregulated GM-CSF- or IL-5-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and activating transcription factor (ATF)-2. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Recombinant Rat IL-5 is a 26.0 kDa disulfide-linked homodimeric protein containing two 113 amino acid chains. (biovendor.com)
  • Predictive value of interleukin-5 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 for bacteremia in children with febrile neutropenia. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Increasing evidence, however, has suggested that IL-4 contributes to the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis by oxidative stress-mediated up-regulation of pro-inflammatory mediators such as vascular cell adhesion moledule-1 (VCAM-1), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in vascular endothelium. (vt.edu)
  • This protein is a receptor for interleukin 8 (IL8). (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunohistochemistry: The Interleukin-5 antibody stained formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of human colon/rectum adenocarcinoma. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Sandwich ELISA using Interleukin-5 / IL5 Antibody Cat. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Western blot (WB) analysis of IL-5 antibody (Cat. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry (IHC) analyzes of IL-5 antibody (Cat. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • This mouse anti-human IL-5 monoclonal antibody (clone B-Z25)can be used as a capture antibody in ELISA assays and for intracellular staining and Western Blot. (cellsciences.com)
  • Benralizumab is an interleukin-5 receptor α-directed cytolytic monoclonal antibody that directly depletes eosinophils. (ersjournals.com)
  • If these differ across trials for each IL-5Rα or anti-IL-5 monoclonal antibody development programme because of different inclusion or exclusion criteria, the indirect comparison estimate may be erroneous or biased. (ersjournals.com)
  • The eosinophilopoietic effect of IL-5 was dose-dependent, and was neutralized specifically by anti-IL-5 antibody. (rupress.org)
  • PD-L2 Regulates B-1 Cell Antibody Production against Phosphorylcholine through an IL-5-Dependent Mechanism. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human Interleukin 5 Receptor Alpha (IL5Ra) in serum, plasma and other biological fluids. (noveoninc.com)
  • Interleukin 2 (IL_2), Clone LO_hIL2_4, Rat Mab anti_Human antibody storage Gentaur recommends for long therm storage to freeze at -24 C. For short time storage up to 30 days we suggest fridge storage at 1 to 10 C. Prevent multiple freeze taw cycles of Interleukin 2 (IL_2), Clone LO_hIL2_4, Rat Mab anti_Human. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • The use Interleukin 2 (IL_2), Clone LO_hIL2_4, Rat Mab anti_Human is much more reproducable than with a polyclonal antibody. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • An afucosylated, humanized monoclonal antibody against the alpha chain of the interleukin-5 receptor (IL-5Ra), with potential anti-asthmatic activity. (fpnotebook.com)
  • [5] Stimulation of CXCR1 in neutrophils by its primary ligand, Interleukin 8 , leads to neutrophil chemotaxis and activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • These findings demonstrate that IL-5 enhances eosinophil, but not neutrophil, adherence reactions, by a mechanism dependent, at least in part, on the CD11/18 family of adhesion glycoproteins. (elsevier.com)
  • The objective of the present study is to determine the effect of intraoperative HS, on graft function and urinary biomarkers of interleukin 18 (IL-18) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), in patients with DDKT. (ac.ir)
  • the reduction in the efficacy of IL-5 at 1 ng/ml reflects the capacity of this higher concentration to induce eosinophil adhesion ( figure 1C ). (bmj.com)
  • Preincubation with IFN-gamma resulted in enhanced GM-CSF- or IL-5-induced superoxide anion generation and degranulation of human eosinophils, whereas stimulus-induced eosinophil adhesion was unaffected. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Human IL-5 is a disulphide-linked homodimer with 115 amino-acid residues in each chain. (reactome.org)
  • Human and mouse IL-5 are cross-reactive. (gembio.com)
  • Reconstitute the lyophilized recombinant Human Interleukin-5 (rHuIL-5) to 100 µg/mL using ddH2O. (fortunebio-tech.com)
  • Lyophilized recombinant Human Interleukin-5 (rHuIL-5) is stored at -20°C. After reconstitution, it is stable at 4°C for 2 weeks or -20°C for longer. (fortunebio-tech.com)
  • Recombinant Human Interleukin-5 (rhIL-5) is a powerful and selective stimulator of human eosinophil function. (fortunebio-tech.com)
  • Recombinant human interleukin-5 (rhIL-5), in either liquid or semi- solid cultures, selectively induced eosinophil production from normal human bone marrow, with no activity on other cell lineages. (fortunebio-tech.com)
  • Interleukin 2 (IL_2), Clone LO_hIL2_4, Rat Mab anti_Human Human samples 80 % of the research is conducted on human samples. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Interleukin 2 (IL_2), Clone LO_hIL2_4, Rat Mab anti_Human monclonal andibody monoclonal antobodies are directed against a specific epitope. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Methods: Isolated human eosinophils were pretreated with 1: 1 racemic (R,S)-, (R)- or (S)-albuterol, isobutyl methylxanthine (IBMX), and stimulated with IL-5. (elsevier.com)
  • These data suggest that active nuclear STAT5 participates in the regulation of IL-5 and GM-CSF-inducible genes in stimulated human peripheral blood eosinophils. (elsevier.com)
  • In addition, spontaneous adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers was increased after exposure to both IL-5 and GM-CSF. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Transduction of a dominant-negative H-Ras into human eosinophils attenuates extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation and interleukin-5-mediated cell viability. (semanticscholar.org)
  • YM-90709 is an interleukin-5 receptor antagonist. (medkoo.com)
  • Interleukin-1-receptor antagonist in type 2 diabetes mellitus. (nature.com)
  • Sustained effects of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist treatment in type 2 diabetes. (nature.com)
  • first, mobilization of an IL-5 dependent bone marrow pool, and second, an eotaxin-induced sequestration of eosinophils from tissues into the blood. (jci.org)
  • Moreover, the induction of both Jak 1 and 3, and STAT 5 activity strongly correlated with the growth‐promoting effects of IL‐7, suggesting that this signal transduction mechanism may play a key role in IL‐7‐induced proliferation. (elsevier.com)
  • In contrast, a gamma c mutant lacking all of its cytoplasmic tyrosine residues proved fully competent for the induction of STAT-5. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • IL-5 was significantly decreased in the coronary plaque of CAD patients compared with the deceased donors group, and IL-5 was mainly derived from macrophages in the coronary artery plaque. (revespcardiol.org)
  • N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine-stimulated superoxide anion generation was slightly but significantly enhanced by incubation with IL-5 but not with GM-CSF. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A Phase I/II Trial of Combination Therapy With 5-Fluorouracil, Interferon-an Interleukin-2, and Thalidomide for Metastatic, Advanced or Recurrent Renal Cell Carcinoma. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Elias L, Hunt WC (2001) A literature analysis of prognostic factors for response and quality of response of patients with renal cell carcinoma to interleukin-2-based therapy. (springer.com)
  • The soluble form does not lead to signal transduction and therefore has an antagonistic effect on IL-5 signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternative splicing of the interleukin-5 receptor alpha (IL-5Ralpha)-subunit leads to the generation of a signalling, membrane-anchored (TM) isoform, or a secreted [soluble (SOL)], antagonistic variant. (nih.gov)
  • Thus IL-5 in vivo is relatively specific for the eosinophil lineage. (elsevier.com)
  • Plasma IL-5, IL-17, and interferon-γ levels in CAD patients were detected using ELISA kits, with samples from chest pain patients (non-CAD) as controls. (revespcardiol.org)
  • The levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-γ (IFNγ) for type 1 and interleukin-4, interleukin-5 and interleukin-10 (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10) for type 2 responses were estimated by ELISA in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) culture supernatants. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Mouse Interleukin 5 Receptor Alpha (IL5Ra) in samples from serum, plasma or other biological fluids. (noveoninc.com)
  • Known also as Interleukin 5 Receptor Alpha elisa. (noveoninc.com)
  • Interleukin 5 (IL5) is an interleukin produced by type-2 T helper cells and mast cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin-5 is also expressed by eosinophils and has been observed in the mast cells of asthmatic airways by immunohistochemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-5 is primarily produced by CD4+ Th2 cells, but also by activated eosinophils, mast cells, EBV-transformed B cells, Reed-Sternberg cells in HodgkinÂ?s disease, and IL-2-stimulated invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT) (1-3, 6-8). (acris-antibodies.com)
  • IL-5 is mostly secreted by allergen-reactive T cells, mast cells, and eosinophils [ 5 ]. (medsci.org)
  • Produced by mast cells, T cells, and eosinophils, IL-5 plays an important role in inducing cell-mediated immunity against parasitic infections and certain tumors. (biovendor.com)
  • Interleukin-5 (IL-5) is a hematopoietic growth factor expressed in Th2, mast cells and eosinophils. (gembio.com)
  • No significant associations were observed between SNPs associated with IL-5 levels or eosinophil count and IMT measures. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Our data do not support a role for IL-5 levels and eosinophil count in intima-media thickness, however SNPs associated with IL-5 and eosinophils might influence stability of the atherosclerotic plaque via modulation of RAD50 levels. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Data on the comparative efficacy of treatments would be valuable for clinicians making decisions about patients who are potential candidates for IL-5Rα or anti-IL-5 treatments. (ersjournals.com)