A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
Cell surface proteins that bind interleukins and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
A ligand that binds to but fails to activate the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR. It plays an inhibitory role in the regulation of INFLAMMATION and FEVER. Several isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-1. Included under this heading are signaling receptors, non-signaling receptors and accessory proteins required for receptor signaling. Signaling from interleukin-1 receptors occurs via interaction with SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as MYELOID DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 88.
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
A multilineage cell growth factor secreted by LYMPHOCYTES; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and ASTROCYTES which stimulates clonal proliferation and differentiation of various types of blood and tissue cells.
A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.
A cytokine which resembles IL-1 structurally and IL-12 functionally. It enhances the cytotoxic activity of NK CELLS and CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES, and appears to play a role both as neuroimmunomodulator and in the induction of mucosal immunity.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Receptors present on a wide variety of hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cell types that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-4. They are involved in signaling a variety of immunological responses related to allergic INFLAMMATION including the differentiation of TH2 CELLS and the regulation of IMMUNOGLOBULIN E production. Two subtypes of receptors exist and are referred to as the TYPE I INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR and the TYPE II INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR. Each receptor subtype is defined by its unique subunit composition.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-6. They are present on T-LYMPHOCYTES, mitogen-activated B-LYMPHOCYTES, and peripheral MONOCYTES. The receptors are heterodimers of the INTERLEUKIN-6 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
A lymphohematopoietic cytokine that plays a role in regulating the proliferation of ERYTHROID PRECURSOR CELLS. It induces maturation of MEGAKARYOCYTES which results in increased production of BLOOD PLATELETS. Interleukin-11 was also initially described as an inhibitor of ADIPOGENESIS of cultured preadipocytes.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Cytokine that stimulates the proliferation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and shares biological activities with IL-2. IL-15 also can induce proliferation and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A cytokine produced by bone marrow stromal cells that promotes the growth of B-LYMPHOCYTE precursors and is co-mitogenic with INTERLEUKIN-2 for mature T-LYMPHOCYTE activation.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
An interleukin receptor subunit with specificity for INTERLEUKIN-13. It dimerizes with the INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT to form the TYPE II INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR which has specificity for both INTERLEUKIN-4 and INTERLEUKIN-13. Signaling of this receptor subunit occurs through the interaction of its cytoplasmic domain with JANUS KINASES such as the TYK2 KINASE.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-13. Included under this heading are the INTERLEUKIN-13 RECEPTOR ALPHA2 which is a monomeric receptor and the INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR TYPE II which has specificity for both INTERLEUKIN-4 and INTERLEUKIN-13.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
Cytolytic lymphocytes with the unique capacity of killing natural killer (NK)-resistant fresh tumor cells. They are INTERLEUKIN-2-activated NK cells that have no MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX restriction or need for antigen stimulation. LAK cells are used for ADOPTIVE IMMUNOTHERAPY in cancer patients.
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
An interleukin-1 subtype that occurs as a membrane-bound pro-protein form that is cleaved by proteases to form a secreted mature form. Unlike INTERLEUKIN-1BETA both membrane-bound and secreted forms of interleukin-1alpha are biologically active.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-23 is comprised of a unique 19 kDa subunit and 40 kDa subunit that is shared with INTERLEUKIN-12. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells
An interleukin-1 receptor subtype that is involved in signaling cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The binding of this receptor to its ligand causes its favorable interaction with INTERLEUKIN-1 RECEPTOR ACCESSORY PROTEIN and the formation of an activated receptor complex.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A cytokine receptor that acts through the formation of oligomeric complexes of itself with a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-5. They are heterodimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-5 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT. Signaling from interleukin-5 receptors can occur through interaction of their cytoplasmic domains with SYNTENINS.
A long pro-domain caspase that has specificity for the precursor form of INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. It plays a role in INFLAMMATION by catalytically converting the inactive forms of CYTOKINES such as interleukin-1beta to their active, secreted form. Caspase 1 is referred as interleukin-1beta converting enzyme and is frequently abbreviated ICE.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-4. Stat6 has been shown to partner with NF-KAPPA B and CCAAT-ENHANCER-BINDING PROTEINS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of interleukin-4 responsive GENES.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-10. They exist as a tetramer of two alpha chains (INTERLEUKIN-10 RECEPTOR ALPHA CHAIN) and two beta chains (INTERLEUKIN-10 RECEPTOR, BETA CHAIN). Signaling from interleukin-10 receptors occurs through their interaction with JANUS KINASES.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-7. They are present on T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTE precursors. The receptors are heterodimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-5 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT.
High affinity receptors for INTERLEUKIN-3. They are found on early HEMATOPOIETIC PROGENITOR CELLS; progenitors of MYELOID CELLS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS. Interleukin-3 receptors are formed by the dimerization of the INTERLEUKIN-3 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT.
A cytokine subunit that is a component of both interleukin-12 and interleukin-23. It binds to the INTERLEUKIN-12 SUBUNIT P35 via a disulfide bond to form interleukin-12 and to INTERLEUKIN-23 SUBUNIT P19 to form interleukin-23.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
A subunit of the interleukin-18 receptor that is responsible of extracellular binding of IL-18.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-18 found on a variety of cell types including MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; NK CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; and SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS. They are formed as a heterodimer of alpha and beta subunits.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A multifunctional cytokine secreted by primarily by activated TH2 CELLS that may play a role as a regulator of allergic INFLAMMATION. It has been shown to enhance the growth and CELL DIFFERENTIATION of MAST CELLS, and can act on a variety of other immune cells.
Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-12. They exist as dimers of beta 1 and beta 2 subunits. Signaling from interleukin-12 receptors occurs through their interaction with JANUS KINASES.
Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Glycoproteins found in a subfraction of normal mammalian plasma and urine. They stimulate the proliferation of bone marrow cells in agar cultures and the formation of colonies of granulocytes and/or macrophages. The factors include INTERLEUKIN-3; (IL-3); GRANULOCYTE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (G-CSF); MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (M-CSF); and GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (GM-CSF).
Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-15. They are widely-distributed heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-15 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2, 15 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.
Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-17. Several subtypes of receptors have been found, each with its own in specificity for interleukin-17 subtype.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.
The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
A low affinity interleukin-11 receptor subunit that combines with the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130 to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-11. Multiple isoforms of this protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its MRNA.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
A cytokine produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that stimulates the migration of CD4-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES and monocytes. It has been reported to suppress HIV replication.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
An early local inflammatory reaction to insult or injury that consists of fever, an increase in inflammatory humoral factors, and an increased synthesis by hepatocytes of a number of proteins or glycoproteins usually found in the plasma.
An INTERLEUKIN-6 related cytokine that exhibits pleiotrophic effects on many physiological systems that involve cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Leukemia inhibitory factor binds to and acts through the lif receptor.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
An interleukin receptor subunit that was originally discovered as a component of the INTERLEUKIN 2 RECEPTOR. It was subsequently found to be a component of several other receptors including the INTERLEUKIN 4 RECEPTOR, the INTERLEUKIN 7 RECEPTOR, the INTERLEUKIN-9 RECEPTOR, the INTERLEUKIN-15 RECEPTOR, and the INTERLEUKIN-21 RECEPTOR. Mutations in the gene for the interleukin receptor common gamma chain have been associated with X-LINKED COMBINED IMMUNODEFICIENCY DISEASES.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.
A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.
Glycoprotein molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes, that react with molecules of antilymphocyte sera, lectins, and other agents which induce blast transformation of lymphocytes.
Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
A Janus kinase subtype that is predominantly expressed in hematopoietic cell. It is involved in signaling from a broad variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS including ones that utilize the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA SUBUNIT.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A cell surface receptor that specifically mediates the biological effects of INTERLEUKIN-9. The functional IL9 receptor signals through interaction of its cytoplasm domain with JANUS KINASES and requires the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA SUBUNIT for activity.
Proteins that are secreted into the blood in increased or decreased quantities by hepatocytes in response to trauma, inflammation, or disease. These proteins can serve as inhibitors or mediators of the inflammatory processes. Certain acute-phase proteins have been used to diagnose and follow the course of diseases or as tumor markers.
A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
An interleukin-1 receptor subtype that competes with the INTERLEUKIN-1 RECEPTOR TYPE I for binding to INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The interleukin-1 type II receptor appears to lack signal transduction capability. Therefore it may act as a "decoy" receptor that modulates the activity of its ligands. Both membrane-bound and soluble forms of the receptor have been identified.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
A cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory actions that depend upon the cellular microenvironment. Oncostatin M is a 28 kDa monomeric glycoprotein that is similar in structure to LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR. Its name derives from the the observation that it inhibited the growth of tumor cells and augmented the growth of normal fibroblasts.
A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Cell surface receptors that bind TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.

Reciprocal control of T helper cell and dendritic cell differentiation. (1/6774)

It is not known whether subsets of dendritic cells provide different cytokine microenvironments that determine the differentiation of either type-1 T helper (TH1) or TH2 cells. Human monocyte (pDC1)-derived dendritic cells (DC1) were found to induce TH1 differentiation, whereas dendritic cells (DC2) derived from CD4+CD3-CD11c- plasmacytoid cells (pDC2) induced TH2 differentiation by use of a mechanism unaffected by interleukin-4 (IL-4) or IL-12. The TH2 cytokine IL-4 enhanced DC1 maturation and killed pDC2, an effect potentiated by IL-10 but blocked by CD40 ligand and interferon-gamma. Thus, a negative feedback loop from the mature T helper cells may selectively inhibit prolonged TH1 or TH2 responses by regulating survival of the appropriate dendritic cell subset.  (+info)

CD40 signaling of monocyte inflammatory cytokine synthesis through an ERK1/2-dependent pathway. A target of interleukin (il)-4 and il-10 anti-inflammatory action. (2/6774)

Ligation of CD40 on monocytes through its interaction with CD40 ligand (CD154) present on activated T helper cells, results in activation of monocyte inflammatory cytokine synthesis and rescue of monocytes from apoptosis induced through serum deprivation. Both of these consequences of CD40 stimulation have been shown to be dependent on the induction of protein tyrosine kinase activity. CD40-mediated activation of protein tyrosine kinase activity and subsequent inflammatory cytokine production are abrogated by treatment of monocytes with the T helper type 2 cytokines interleukin 4 (IL-4) and interleukin 10 (IL-10). In the current study we demonstrate that stimulation of monocytes through CD40 resulted in the phosphorylation and activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) mitogen-activated protein kinases, whereas phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases family members p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase was not observed in response to this stimuli over the time course examined. PD98059, an inhibitor of the upstream activator of ERK1/2, the MAP/ERK kinase MEK1/2, suppressed IL-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production in a dose-dependent fashion. Pretreatment of monocytes with IL-4 and IL-10 inhibited CD40-mediated activation of ERK1/2 kinase activity when used individually, and are enhanced in effectiveness when used in combination. Together, the data demonstrate that CD40-mediated induction of IL-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha synthesis is dependent on a MEK/ERK pathway which is obstructed by signals generated through the action of IL-4 and IL-10.  (+info)

T helper cell type 1-associated and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated tumor immunity is impaired in interleukin 4-deficient mice. (3/6774)

It is widely accepted that cellular immune responses are induced by CD4(+) T helper 1 (Th1) cells secreting interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-gamma. Tumor immunity is often mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) whose activation is supported by Th1 cytokines. Since IL-4 directs Th2 development and has been shown to inhibit Th1-dominated responses, we assumed that IL-4-deficient (IL-4(-/-)) mice would develop vigorous CTL-mediated tumor immunity compared with IL-4-competent (IL-4(+/+)) mice. Surprisingly, IL-4(-/-) mice were severely impaired to develop tumor immunity to both a mammary adenocarcinoma line and a colon carcinoma line. The lack of tumor immunity in IL-4(-/-) mice was associated with reduced IFN-gamma production, diminished levels of tumor-reactive serum IgG2a, and undetectable CTL activity, indicating a defective Th1 response in the absence of endogenous IL-4. Anti-IL-4 monoclonal antibody blocked tumor immunity in IL-4(+/+) mice when administered at the time of immunization but not at the time of challenge. Additionally, tumor immunity could be induced in IL-4(-/-) mice, if IL-4 was provided by gene-modified cells together with immunizing tumor cells. These results demonstrate that tumor immunity requires IL-4 in the priming phase for the generation of effector cells rather than for their maintenance and exclude secondary, developmental defects in the "knockout" strain. Together, our results demonstrate a novel and previously unanticipated role of IL-4 for the generation of Th1-associated, CTL-mediated tumor immunity.  (+info)

Selective recruitment of CCR4-bearing Th2 cells toward antigen-presenting cells by the CC chemokines thymus and activation-regulated chemokine and macrophage-derived chemokine. (4/6774)

Helper T cells are classified into Th1 and Th2 subsets based on their profiles of cytokine production. Th1 cells are involved in cell-mediated immunity, whereas Th2 cells induce humoral responses. Selective recruitment of these two subsets depends on specific adhesion molecules and specific chemoattractants. Here, we demonstrate that the T cell-directed CC chemokine thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) was abundantly produced by monocytes treated with granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or IL-3, especially in the presence of IL-4 and by dendritic cells derived from monocytes cultured with GM-CSF + IL-4. The receptor for TARC and another macrophage/dendritic cell-derived CC chemokine macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) is CCR4, a G protein-coupled receptor. CCR4 was found to be expressed on approximately 20% of adult peripheral blood effector/memory CD4+ T cells. T cells attracted by TARC and MDC generated cell lines predominantly producing Th2-type cytokines, IL-4 and IL-5. Fractionated CCR4+ cells but not CCR4- cells also selectively gave rise to Th2-type cell lines. When naive CD4+ T cells from adult peripheral blood were polarized in vitro, Th2-type cells selectively expressed CCR4 and vigorously migrated toward TARC and MDC. Taken together, CCR4 is selectively expressed on Th2-type T cells and antigen-presenting cells may recruit Th2 cells expressing CCR4 by producing TARC and MDC in Th2-dominant conditions.  (+info)

Development and function of autospecific dual TCR+ T lymphocytes. (5/6774)

Recent studies have challenged the long held concept that each T lymphocyte expresses on its surface only a single, unique alphabetaTCR. Dual TCR+ T cells have been recognized, however, their origin and potential to escape screening for self-reactivity remain obscure. We now report the thymic generation of dual alphabetaTCR+ T cells in the H-2Db/H-Y-specific TCR transgenic (Tg) mouse. Dual TCR+ thymocytes were positively selected less efficiently than single TCR+ thymocytes, although a subset attained maturity. Importantly, when TCR Tg mice were bred onto a negatively selecting background, auto-specific cells survived central deletion and matured as CD4+ dual TCR+ cells. These cells were autoreactive when CD8 expression was restored. The existence of autospecific, dual TCR+ T cells may have implications for the maintenance of self tolerance.  (+info)

Cytokine-mediated inflammatory hyperalgesia limited by interleukin-4. (6/6774)

1. The effect of IL-4 on responses to intraplantar (i.pl.) carrageenin, bradykinin, TNFalpha, IL-1beta, IL-8 and PGE2 was investigated in a model of mechanical hyperalgesia in rats. Also, the cellular source of the IL-4 was investigated. 2. IL-4, 30 min before the stimulus, inhibited responses to carrageenin, bradykinin, and TNFalpha, but not responses to IL-1beta, IL-8 and PGE2. 3. IL-4, 2 h before the injection of IL-1beta, did not affect the response to IL-1beta, whereas IL-4, 12 or 12+2 h before the IL-1beta, inhibited the hyperalgesia (-30%, -74%, respectively). 4. In murine peritoneal macrophages, murine IL-4 for 2 h before stimulation with LPS, inhibited (-40%) the production of IL-1beta but not PGE2. Murine IL-4 (for 16 h before stimulation with LPS) inhibited LPS-stimulated PGE2 but not IL-1beta. 5. Anti-murine IL-4 antibodies potentiated responses to carrageenin, bradykinin and TNFalpha, but not IL-1beta and IL-8, as well as responses to bradykinin in athymic rats but not in rats depleted of mast cells with compound 40/80. 6. These data suggest that IL-4 released by mast cells limits inflammatory hyperalgesia. During the early phase of the inflammatory response the mode of action of the IL-4 appears to be inhibition of the production TNFalpha, IL-1beta and IL-8. In the later phase of the response, in addition to inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-4 also may inhibit the release of PGs.  (+info)

Marking IL-4-producing cells by knock-in of the IL-4 gene. (7/6774)

IL-4 is a cytokine which can be expressed by a number of cell types including Th2 cells, mast cells and a population of CD4+ NK1.1+ NK T cells. Although phenotypic markers exist for identifying each of these cell types, there is at present no known cell surface marker common to all IL-4-producing cells. Using gene targeting in embryonic stem cells, we have modified the IL-4 locus by knock-in of a transmembrane domain to generate mice that express a membrane-bound form of IL-4 (mIL-4). Flow cytometry using an IL-4-specific mAb allowed the detection of IL-secreting Th2 cells, mast cells and NK T cells from mIL-4 mice. Furthermore, the analysis of immune responses in mIL-4 mice following immunization with anti-CD3 and anti-IgD has allowed us to identify distinct subpopulations of IL-4-producing NK T cells. Thus, the expression of IL-4 in a membrane-bound form provides a novel method for the identification and characterization of IL-4-producing cells.  (+info)

Evidence for suppressed activity of the transcription factor NFAT1 at its proximal binding element P0 in the IL-4 promoter associated with enhanced IL-4 gene transcription in T cells of atopic patients. (8/6774)

Allergen-specific T cells in atopic patients are polarized IL-4-producing Th2 cells, promoting IgE synthesis by B cells. The molecular basis for increased IL-4 gene expression in atopy is not fully understood. IL-4 gene regulation in general involves the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) family of transcription factors, of which NFAT1 and NFAT2 are most prominent in peripheral T cells. Recently, a unique inhibitory role of NFAT1 in IL-4 gene control was shown in the mouse. In a series of electrophoretic mobility shift assays with protein extracts of highly polarized Th2 clones from atopics and Th1 clones from controls we compared DNA-binding activities at the two NFAT-binding elements P0 and P1 of the crucial proximal human IL-4 promoter. At the most proximal P0 site, NFAT-containing complexes devoid of NFAT2 were readily inducible in the Th1 clones, but hardly or not in the Th2 clones. In contrast, both in Th1 and Th2 clones NFAT-containing complexes were strongly inducible at the P1 site, consisting of NFAT2 and a P0-compatible NFAT activity, without apparent differences between Th1 and Th2 clones. Like in Th2 clones, suppressed NFAT-P0 complex formation was observed also at the polyclonal level in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of three of five severe atopic dermatitis patients with strongly elevated serum IgE levels, but not in control PBMC. These findings suggest that high-level IL-4 production in atopic Th2 cells is associated with selective reduction of suppressive NFAT1 activity at the IL-4 P0 element and that some patients with this multifactorial disease may have a putative systemic disorder at this level.  (+info)

There may be an inflammatory component to pathologic pregnancies, as evidenced by a Th1-dominant profile in women whose pregnancies ended in spontaneous abortion.
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CCL4, CCL20, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-16, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-18, MIF, TNSF15, IL-1β, IL-1R, IL-6, IL-7, IL-7R, IL-8, IL-10R, IL-12p35, IL-12p40, IL-3, IL-15, IL-16, IL-21, IL-21R, IL-22, IL-17D, LITAF, NK-lysin, CD25, CD80, CD83, CD86, IFN-α, IFN-r, TGFB4, B-defensin8 ...
IL-12/IL-23 p40, eFluor 660, clone: C17.8, eBioscience™ 25μg; eFluor 660 IL-12/IL-23 p40, eFluor 660, clone: C17.8, eBioscience™ Primary Antibodies IgY...
有多种机制认为病毒感染与过敏性炎症相互作用,从而导致下呼吸道功能障碍、喘息和哮喘。首先,潜在的过敏性炎症可以直接增强气道对鼻病毒感染的反应性。此外,病毒感染可损害气道上皮的屏障功能,导致气道壁对气传过敏原的吸收增加和炎症反应增强,而潜在的过敏性炎症也可能导致病毒复制增强。值得注意的是,鼻病毒感染和变应原均可促进气道上皮细胞产生IL-33, IL-33是最近发现的一种先天细胞因子,可促进2型气道炎症和重塑。据报道,这种类固醇耐药途径在难以控制哮喘的儿童中上调。有趣的是,IL-33多聚物与中晚期发作的喘息有关,而中晚期发作的喘息与早期生活中的过敏反应密切相关。 另一种先天上皮细胞因子IL-25也由鼻病毒诱导,在过敏患者鼻病毒感染的情况下,IL-25可能加重过敏性气道炎症 ...
Инфламмасома - важный компонент нативного иммунитета. Она представляет собой макромолекулярный комплекс, включающий сенсорные элементы, адапторные белки и зимоген каспазы-1. Под действием продуктов распада тканей и патогенных микроорганизмов инфламмасома активируется и превращает про-IL-1b и про-IL-18 в активные интерлейкины. Активация инфламмасом отмечена при многих воспалительных заболеваниях и служит мишенью для терапевтических воздействий. В настоящем обзоре обсуждается вклад инфламмасом в патогенез социально-значимых заболеваний ...
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Looking for online definition of B cell stimulatory factor II in the Medical Dictionary? B cell stimulatory factor II explanation free. What is B cell stimulatory factor II? Meaning of B cell stimulatory factor II medical term. What does B cell stimulatory factor II mean?
B-cell growth factor 1, 12kDa, also known as BCGF1, is a human gene. B-cell growth factor is released by T lymphocytes after either lectin or antigen stimulation. It supports the clonal proliferation of B lymphocytes. Entrez Gene: BCGF1 B-cell growth factor 1, 12kDa. Kumar A, Vasquez A, Maizel AL, Sharma S (1991). Human BCGF-12kD functions as an autocrine growth factor in transformed B cells. European Cytokine Network. 1 (2): 109-13. PMID 1966378. Vazquez A, Mills S, Sharma S, Maizel AL (October 1988). Expression of CD23 antigen is not necessary for human 12-kDa B cell growth factor-mediated B cell proliferation. European Journal of Immunology. 18 (10): 1647-9. doi:10.1002/eji.1830181029. PMID 2973416. Mehta SR, Sandler RS, Ford RJ, Sharma S, Maizel AL (1986). Cellular interaction between B and T lymphocytes: enhanced release of B cell growth factor. Lymphokine Research. 5 (1): 49-57. PMID 3484798. Ennist DL, Greenblatt D, Coffman R, Sharma S, Maizel A, Howard M (November 1987). ...
This report describes the effects of B cell growth factor (BCGFII) and other lymphokines in the differentiation of normal and tumor B cells. We compared BCL1 tumor B cells, normal B cells giving rise to a polyclonal response without the intentional addition of antigen, and an antigen-driven, SRBC-specific response. BCL1 tumor B cells gave maximum PFC responses when partially purified BCGFII was added or when suboptimal doses of BCGFII were mixed with one of several putative terminal differentiation factors we call B cell differentiation factors BCDF. IFN-gamma was not active as any of these factors. Maximum polyclonal responses of B cells were seen when either IL 2 or BCGFII were mixed with BCDF. In contrast, SRBC-specific responses showed a strict requirement for IL 2, and BCGFII and BCDF synergized with IL 2 to give a maximum response. The involvement of BCGFII in all of these responses suggests that BCGFII acts as a growth factor for a population of B cells that has differentiated much of the ...
Monkey IFN-gamma - IL-10 FluoroSpot Kit (2-plate). The dual-color cytokine FluoroSpot assay is a modification of the Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSPOT (ELISPOT) assay and is designed to detect double cytokine-secreting T cells at the single cell level. The assay is based on the use of fluorescent- instead of enzymatic-labeled conjugates. Previous attempts to develop an immunoenzymatic dual-color ELISPOT assay were less successful because of problematic interpretation of mixed color spots. The dual-color FluoroSpot assay, however, provides good discrimination between single and double cytokine-secreting cells and is particularly suited to detect T cell subpopulations with a characteristic cytokine profile. The sensitivity of the assay lends itself to measure very low frequencies of cytokine-secreting T cells (1/300,000).
BULGULAR: Y ksek IL-10 d zeyleri pek ok k t prognostik zellikle, ok k sa ya am s resi ve lenfopeni ile ili kiliydi. Alb min a s ndan IL-10 ile negatif ili ki, IL-4 ile pozitif ili ki bulundu. Eozinofil ve IgE ile ilgili herhangi bir ili ki kurulamad . Baz hastalarda g zlenen artm IL-4 geri planda kalm Th2 yola aktivasyonunun bir ip ucu olabilir ...
IL-12/IL-23 p40, PerCP-Cyanine5.5, clone: C17.8, eBioscience™ 25μg; PerCP-Cyanine5.5 IL-12/IL-23 p40, PerCP-Cyanine5.5, clone: C17.8, eBioscience™...
Serological cytokine expression for IL-1β over the time course.IL-1β levels were detected at all the allocated time points with a significant difference betwe
摘 要:γδT细胞是一群异质细胞,人和小鼠不同组织部位的γδT细胞亚群表型多变、功能丰富。γδT细胞经过胸腺选择,形成IL-17+γδT细胞、IFN-γ+γδT细胞或IL-4+γδT细胞,它的分化受到很多因素的调控。γδT细胞是炎症介质IL-17的重要来源,IL-17+γδT细胞可以参与多种疾病的诱发和发展,如过敏、自身免疫性疾病,甚至恶性肿瘤。此外,它们也在宿主防御中发挥保护作用,防治传染病和诱导细胞毒性T淋巴细胞对癌症的反应。就IL-17+γδT细胞的发育、分化和调节机制以及在各种疾病中的作用进行综述 ...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , GenWay \ IL-4 Human - IL-4; B-cell stimulatory factor 1; BSF-1; Lymphocyte stimulatory factor 1; IGG1 induction factor; B-cell IgG differentiation factor; B-cell growth factor 1 \ 10-271-82216 for more molecular products just contact us
TABLE-US-00002 TABLE 2 Relative expression of interferon-gamma from human NK cells, as determined by Taqman ® real time PCR. Relative Condition expression NK media only 1 1:625 IL-27 1 1:125 IL-27 1 1:25 IL-27 1 1:5 IL-27 1 100 ng/ml IL-27 1 IL-2 only (100 ng/ml) 320 IL-27 + 1:625 IL-2 120 IL-27 + 1:125 IL-2 240 IL-27 + 1:25 IL-2 340 IL-27 + 1:5 IL-2 310 IL-27 + IL-2 (100 ng/ml) 190 IL-12 only (100 ng/ml) 650 IL-27 + 1:625 IL-12 740 IL-27 + 1:125 IL-12 710 IL-27 + 1:25 IL-12 690 IL-27 + 1:5 IL-12 705 IL-27 + IL-12 (100 ng/ml) 820 IL-18 only 1 IL-27 + 1:625 IL-18 1 IL-27 + 1:125 IL-18 1 IL-27 + 1:25 IL-18 1 IL-27 + 1:5 IL-18 1 IL-27 + IL-18 (100 ng/ml) 1 IL-2 + IL-12 2800 IL-27 + 1:625 IL-2 + IL-12 1500 IL-27 + 1:125 IL-2 + IL-12 1600 IL-27 + 1:25 IL-2 + IL-12 1700 IL-27 + 1:5 IL-2 + IL-12 2600 IL-27 + IL-2 (100 ng/ml) + IL-12 2100 IL-2 + IL-18 500 IL-27 + 1:625 IL-2 + IL-18 300 IL-27 + 1:125 IL-2 + IL-18 300 IL-27 + 1:25 IL-2 + IL-18 600 IL-27 + 1:5 IL-2 + IL-18 500 IL-27 + IL-2 (100 ng/ml) + ...
b_ˈiː s_ˈɛ_l ɡ_ɹ_ˈəʊ_θ f_ˈa_k_t_ə w_ˈɒ_n], [bˈiː sˈɛl ɡɹˈə͡ʊθ fˈaktə wˈɒn], [bˈiː sˈɛl ɡɹˈə‍ʊθ fˈaktə wˈɒn] ...
In this report we describe the generation of mice deficient in IL-13Rα2 to define the role of this receptor chain in IL-13 responses. IL-13Rα2 may act to modulate the effects of IL-13 in vivo in various ways. IL-13Rα2 could enhance IL-13 activities by increasing the strength of IL-13 signaling or attenuate IL-13 effects by negative signaling or simply as a molecular decoy. Attenuating roles of IL-13Rα2 could explain the lack of evidence for IL-13 effects on T cells or an enhancing role could explain the effect of IL-13 effect on airways hyperreactivity and eosinophil survival distinct from IL-4.. Interestingly, we find that the absence of IL-13Rα2 correlates with nearly complete loss of serum IL-13 and an increase in tissue IL-13 in IL-13Rα2−/− mice. The lack of serum IL-13 cannot be explained by a lack of IL-13 production in IL-13Rα2−/− mice as IL-13 is present in tissues of IL-13Rα2−/− and is produced by activated IL-13Rα2−/− immune cells. Serum IL-13Rα2 may act as a ...
IL-25). A member of the IL-17 family of immunoregulatory cytokines (IL-17E; SF20, a homodimer of 177 aa subunits), produced by Th2 cells. It has a role in allergic inflammation by up-regulating IgG and IgE production, eosinophil levels, and inflammatory responses, through induction of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. ...
Interleukin-6 (IL-6), 0.5 mg. IL-6 is a potent lymphoid cell growth factor that stimulates the growth and survival of certain B cells and T cells.
Interleukin-6 (IL-6), 0.5 mg. IL-6 is a potent lymphoid cell growth factor that stimulates the growth and survival of certain B cells and T cells.
Description - NHP interleukin 17F (CANDF6, ML1; Gene ID: 708220) is a cross-linked homodimer, a prototypical biomarker for Th17 cells, and is closely related to IL 17A. IL-17A can pair with IL-17F to form a heterodimer of intermediate activity. IL-17F has greater affinity for IL-17RC receptor while IL-17A prefers IL-17RA, so some target-based differentiation is obtained when more than one of the possible three dimers is present. This cytokine is also found to inhibit the angiogenesis of endothelial cells and induce endothelial cells to produce IL-2, TGF-β, and MCP-1 ...
Determination of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, MIP-1α, IL-10, TGF-β1 and FGFb levels in the cell-free supernatant obtained from monocytes from healthy subjects (CG, n
IL-23A/IL-23 P19 Proteins available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our IL-23A/IL-23 P19 Protein catalog backed by our Guarantee+.
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Looking for online definition of B-Cell Stimulatory Factor 1 in the Medical Dictionary? B-Cell Stimulatory Factor 1 explanation free. What is B-Cell Stimulatory Factor 1? Meaning of B-Cell Stimulatory Factor 1 medical term. What does B-Cell Stimulatory Factor 1 mean?
The property of 109 CD4+ T cell clones (TCC) to induce IgE synthesis in vitro in human B cells was compared with their ability to produce IL-2, IL-4, and IFN-gamma in their supernatants (SUP) after 24-h stimulation with PHA. A significant positive correlation was found between the property of TCC to induce or enhance spontaneous IgE synthesis and their ability to release IL-4. In contrast, there was an inverse relationship between the IgE helper activity of TCC and their ability to release IFN-gamma, whereas no statistical correlation between the property to induce IgE synthesis and to produce IL-2 was observed. The ability of PHA-SUP from 71 CD4+ TCC to induce IgE synthesis in B cells was also investigated. Twenty-nine SUP (all derived from TCC active on IgE synthesis) induced production of substantial amounts of IgE in target B cells. There was a correlation between the amount of IgE synthesized by B cells in response to these SUP and their IL-4 content. An even higher correlation was found ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prolonged survival of mice with glioma injected intracerebrally with double cytokine-secreting cells. AU - Lichtor, T.. AU - Glick, R. P.. AU - Kim, Tae Sung. AU - Hand, R.. AU - Cohen, E. P.. PY - 1995/12/1. Y1 - 1995/12/1. N2 - A novel approach toward the treatment of glioma was developed in a murine model. The genes for both interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) were first transfected into a mouse fibroblast cell line that expresses defined major histocompatibility complex (MHC) determinants (H-2(k)). The double cytokine-secreting cells were then cotransplanted intracerebrally with the G1261 murine glioma cell line into syngeneic C57BL/6 mice (H-2b) whose cells differed at the MHC from the cellular immunogen. The results indicate that the survival of mice with glioma injected with the cytokine-secreting allogeneic cells was significantly prolonged, relative to the survival of mice receiving equivalent numbers of glioma cells alone. Using a standard 51Cr-release ...
The cytokine interleukin-22 (IL-22), which is a member of the IL-10 family, is produced exclusively by immune cells and activates signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in nonimmune cells, such as hepatocytes, keratinocytes, and colonic epithelial cells, to drive various processes central to tissue homeostasis and immunosurveillance. Dysregulation of IL-22 signaling causes inflammatory diseases. IL-22 binding protein (IL-22BP; encoded by IL22RA2) is a soluble IL-22 receptor, which antagonizes IL-22 activity and has genetic associations with autoimmune diseases. Humans have three IL-22BP isoforms, IL-22BPi1 to IL-22BPi3, which are generated by alternative splicing; mice only have an IL-22BPi2 homolog. We showed that, although IL-22BPi3 had less inhibitory activity than IL-22BPi2, IL-22BPi3 was more abundant in various human tissues under homeostatic conditions. IL-22BPi2 was more effective than IL-22BPi3 at blocking the contribution of IL-22 to cooperative gene induction with ...
Utilizing Stem Cell Cytokines, The AnteAGE System is one of the most effective, and advanced treatments for reversing premature aging.
Interleukin 33 (IL-33) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL33 gene. Interleukin 33 is a member of the IL-1 family that potently drives production of T helper-2 (Th2)-associated cytokines (e.g., IL-4). IL33 is a ligand for ST2 (IL1RL1), an IL-1 family receptor that is highly expressed on Th2 cells, mast cells and group 2 innate lymphocytes. IL-33 is expressed by a wide variety of cell types, including fibroblasts, mast cells, dendritic cells, macrophages, osteoblasts, endothelial cells, and epithelial cells ...
IL-1 receptor antagonist, IL-1RA/ IL-1RN, was initially purified from medium conditioned by human monocytes. IL-1RA belongs to the IL-1 family of cytokines, which includes 11 members that include three subfamilies in addition to the IL-1RA: IL-1 subfamily (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-33), L-18 subfamily (IL-18
Human CellExp IL-27, human recombinant protein, p28, IL30, IL-27, IL-27A, IL27p28, Interleukin-27, EBI3 validated in (PBV10859r-10), Abgent
當寄生蟲或蛋白質抗原(protein antigens(被APC呈現給naive CD4+ T cell3會促使naive CD4+ T cell增殖並分化成TH2 cells3TH2 cells則藉由分泌不同cytokines(IL-4 IL-5 IL-13(去調控各種免疫反應如下 ...
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Receptors, Interleukin-4, Type I information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and health issues.
Interleukins are naturally occurring proteins that help the bodys immune system. The different types of interleukins all serve to...
产品名称:HumanIL-5ELISAReady-SET-Go规格:10plates货号:88-7056-88厂商:eBioscience产品介绍:Alsoknownas:Interleukin-5ReactivityHumanSensitivity4pg/mLStandardCurveRange4-500pg/mLComponentsCaptureAntibody.Pre-titrated,pu
ಆರೋಗ್ಯದ ಸೂತ್ರದ ಕಲ್ಪನೆಗಳ ಪ್ರಕಾರ ಡೇವಿಡ್ ಪಿ.ಸ್ಟ್ರಾಚನ್ ಅವರ ಹೇಳಿಕೆಯಂತೆ ಅಲರ್ಜಿಗಳು ಕಾಯಿಲೆಗಳು ಅನಿಯಮಿತ ಮತ್ತು ಅಶಿಸ್ತಿನ ಆರೋಗ್ಯದ ನಿಯಮಗಳನ್ನು ಅನುಸರಿಸುವದರಿಂದ ಇದು ಉಲ್ಬಣಗೊಳ್ಳುವ ಸಾಧ್ಯತೆ ಇದೆ.ನಿರಪಾಯಕಾರಿ ಅಂಟಿಜೆನ್ ಗಳTH2 ನ ಕೃತಕ ರೋಗನಿರೋಧಕಗಳ ಮೂಲಕ ಅದರ ಪ್ರತಿಕ್ರಿಯೆಯನ್ನು ಸೂಸ್ಮವಾಗಿ ಗಮನಿಸಬಹುದು. ಹಲವಾರು ಬ್ಯಾಕ್ಟೀರಿಯಾ ಮತ್ತು ವೈರಸ್ ಗಳು ಉನ್ನತ ಮಟ್ಟದ TH1ರೋಗ ನಿರೋಧಕ ಜೊತೆಗೂಡಿ TH೨ ಔಷಧಿಯುಕ್ತ ನಿರೋಧಕದ ಪ್ರಮಾಣವನ್ನು ...
References for Abcams Recombinant Human Interleukin 34 protein (ab109933). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Differentiation of naïve CD4+ T cells into the T helper type 1 (TH1) phenotype requires signaling by interleukin (IL)-12 through the IL-12 receptor β2 chain, and activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 4. On the other hand, induction of the TH2 phenotype from naïve CD4+ T cells requires IL-4 binding of the functional IL-4 receptor and activation of STAT6. A concomitant reduction of IL-12Rβ2 is also observed. When naïve CD4+ T cells are treated simultaneously with both IL-4 and IL-12, the IL-4 effects predominate and TH2 cells develop. Thus, it has been hypothesized that IL-4-dependent decreases in IL-12Rβ2 expression prevent IL-12 signals, and this allows for differentiation into the TH2 phenotype. However, it is not known what effect constitutive expression of the IL-12Rβ2 chain has on the development of TH2 cells. Nishikomori et al. found that IL-12Rβ2 transgenic CD4+ T cells differentiated into TH2 cells in the presence of IL-4, or IL-4 and IL-12. ...
NEX232 Interleukin-1 (IL-1) refers to a group of three polypeptides (interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra)), that play a central role in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses.. IL-1β is a pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in immune defense against infection. ...
Description - Interleukin-27 (IL-27), a heterodimeric cytokine and a relatively new member of the IL-6/IL-12 family, plays an important role in the regulation of Th1 responses. IL-27 consists of two subunits, an EBV-transformed gene 3 (EBI3) subunit and a p28 cytokine subunit. IL-27 activity is mediated by binding to its receptor, IL-27R, comprised of WSX-1 and gp130. Several immune cells co-express both subunits of the IL-27 receptor. IL-27 is expressed by antigen-presenting cells upon antigen activation. IL-27 potently induces the proliferation of naive T cells, and synergistically with IL-12 stimulates the production of IFN-γ by naive CD4+ T cells ...
An interleukin-13 receptor subunit that is closely-related to the INTERLEUKIN-13 RECEPTOR ALPHA1 SUBUNIT. The receptor is found as a monomeric protein and has been considered to be a decoy receptor for interleukin-13 due the fact that it lacks cytoplasmic signaling domains.
Recombinant Interleukin-17F, IL-17F, Interleukin-24, IL-24, cytokine stimulates PBMC and T-cell proliferation, expressed in HEK293 cells
This phase I trial studies the side effects and best dose of pembrolizumab and recombinant interleukin-12 in treating patients with solid tumors. Monoclonal
HEK-Blue™ IL-17 cells allow the colorimetric detection of bioactive human and murine interleukin-17A (IL-17A), as well as human IL-17F and IL-17E (IL-25). They can be used for the screening of anti-IL-17 antibodies or for IL-17 cell-based potency assay.
When your immune system detects a threat, your white blood cells release interleukin-6. Once secreted, IL-6 triggers what is known as the inflammatory cascade.
人IL-23 ELISA试剂盒(Interleukin-23) ELISA试剂盒datasheet (ab64708).Abcam抗体、ELISA、激动剂拮抗剂、表观遗传试剂、蛋白多肽,使用效果保证,中国70%以上现货。
Interleukin 2 (IL-2) is a monomeric glycoprotein that is primarily produced by activated CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and dendritic cells. It is characterized as a proinfla..
Combining with interleukin-10 and transmitting the signal from one side of the membrane to the other to initiate a change in cell activity.
Exclusive to Global Medical Discovery (new Significance Statement and new figure). Interleukin-1 deficiency prolongs ovarian lifespan in mice.
changes in frequency, activation state, and HIV-specific functional capacity of T and NK cells in blood, as monitored by expression of intracellular cytokines during the first 12 weeks after stopping HAART, with respect to termination of Step ...
产品名称:MouseIL-1aELISPOTReady-Set-Go规格:10plate货号:88-7813-88厂商:eBioscience产品介绍:Alsoknownas:Interleukin1a,IL1a,IL-1alpha,IL-1alphaReactivityMouseComponentsCaptureAntibody.Pre-titrated,FunctionalGrade(lowe
Mouse IL-17A standard, 0.3 µg, for use in AlphaLISA immunoassays. This vial contains enough analyte to run 10 standard curves. This standard is provided in the AlphaLISA mouse IL-17A kits, but can also be ordered separately.
TEL :. +86 153 6067 3248 (Intl). US Toll free: 855 777 3210 EU Toll free: 800 3272 9252 Korea Toll free: 001 800 3272 9252 (Telecom ...
白血球介素或介白素(interleukin(是一組細胞因子(分泌的信號分子(》最早發現在白血球中表達作為細胞間信號傳遞的手段》實際上3白血球介素可以由多種細胞產生》免疫系統的功能3在很大程度上依賴於白細胞介素》一些罕見的白細胞介素缺陷不足都常出現自身免疫性疾病或免疫缺陷》 ...
High-quality IL-29 proteins from ACROBiosystems. Various species and tags of PCSK9 proteins. Minimal Batch-to-Batch Variation. Bulks in stock.
Analyze information about public health with the interactive quiz and printable worksheet. These tools will help you point out important details...
... and Interleukin-1 (IL-1)) and through stabilization of Messenger RNA (mRNA) (e.g., Interleukin-4 (IL-4)). The promoter region ... Primarily, the VCAM-1 protein is an endothelial ligand for VLA-4 (Very Late Antigen-4 or integrin α4β1) of the β1 subfamily of ...
... and Interleukin-1 (IL-1)) and through stabilization of Messenger RNA (mRNA) (e.g., Interleukin-4 (IL-4)). The promoter region ... Primarily, the VCAM-1 protein is an endothelial ligand for VLA-4 (Very Late Antigen-4 or integrin α4β1) of the β1 subfamily of ... 58 (3-4): 1850-1867. doi:10.1159/000133735. "Entrez Gene: VCAM1 vascular cell adhesion molecule 1". Barreiro O, Yanez-Mo M, ...
NO inhibits tyrosine phosphorylation of the kinases involved in production of the interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor, the expression ... Pouliot P, Turmel V, Gélinas E, Laviolette M, Bissonnette EY (June 2005). "Interleukin-4 production by human alveolar ... Paul WE (May 1991). "Interleukin-4: a prototypic immunoregulatory lymphokine". Blood. 77 (9): 1859-70. doi:10.1182/blood.V77.9. ... interleukin-4 and -10(IL-4, IL-10), and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). NO is a major source of immunomodulation in ...
Interleukin-4 (IL4) lacking model of MMTV-PyMT; IL4−/− mice. Role of the adhesion molecule CD44 in lung metastasis. Conditional ... 1: 4. doi:10.1186/1471-213X-1-4. PMC 31338. PMID 11299042. Liao, M. J.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhou, B; Zimonjic, D. B.; Mani, S. A.; ... 9 (4): 302-12. doi:10.1038/nrc2627. PMID 19308069. Weng, D; Penzner, J. H.; Song, B; Koido, S; Calderwood, S. K.; Gong, J (2012 ... 113 (4): 525-32. doi:10.1002/ijc.20631. PMID 15472905. Cuevas, B. D.; Winter-Vann, A. M.; Johnson, N. L.; Johnson, G. L. (2006 ...
... interleukin-6, interleukin-9, interleukin-10, interleukin-13 Immune stimulation promoted. Cellular immune system. Maximizes the ... Interleukin-2 interleukin-10 production has been reported in activated Th1 cell.[14] interleukin-4, interleukin-5, ... while interleukin-10 (IL-10) inhibits a variety of cytokines including interleukin-2 and IFN-γ in helper T cells and IL-12 in ... "Interleukin-10 production by Th1 cells requires interleukin-12-induced STAT4 transcription factor and ERK MAP kinase activation ...
Hodge MR, Chun HJ, Rengarajan J, Alt A, Lieberson R, Glimcher LH (Dec 1996). "NF-AT-Driven interleukin-4 transcription ... interacts with NFATc2 to modulate interleukin 4 gene expression". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 195 (8): 1003-12. doi: ... "Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 tat enhances interleukin-2 promoter activity through synergism with phorbol ester and ... three nuclear factors regulating interleukin-2 gene enhancer activity". European Journal of Immunology. 24 (11): 2646-2652. doi ...
Interleukin 8 and Interleukin 17); a promoter of innate immune and autoimmune responses (viz., Interleukin 22); and a cytokine ... Interleukin 5), promote adaptive and allergic immune responses (viz., Interleukin 4), promote allergic responses and tissue ... interleukin 5 and annexin A1). DRESS syndrome: Key elements promoting tissue injury in the DRESS syndrome are: Th2 cells and ... 177 (4): 1102-1112. doi:10.1111/bjd.15498. PMC 5617756. PMID 28346659. Su SC, Hung SI, Fan WL, Dao RL, Chung WH (2016). "Severe ...
Angažovanje FcεRI, uz interleukin-5 (IL-5), koji je produkt aktivnosti Th2 pomoćnih ćelija, aktivira degranulaciju eozinofila, ... Njegovu ekspresiju stimuliše interleukin 4 (IL-4). Postoje dve izoforme ovog tipa receptora. Izoforma CD23a se nalazi ... koje luče interleukin 4. Ovi procesi stimulišu nastanak IgE antitela u odgovoru na antigen, kao i vezivanje nastalog IgE za Fc ... Antigenom aktivirane Th2 ili Tfh ćelije luče citokine IL-4 i IL-13. Navedeni citokini stimulišu B-limfocite da se diferenciraju ...
... is mainly activated by cytokines interleukin-4 and interleukin-13. In the human genom, STAT6 protein is encoded by the ... STAT6 is activated by cytokines interleukin-4 (IL-4), and interleukin-13 (IL-13) with their receptors that both contain the α ... Kotanides H, Reich NC (October 1996). "Interleukin-4-induced STAT6 recognizes and activates a target site in the promoter of ... Hou J, Schindler U, Henzel WJ, Ho TC, Brasseur M, McKnight SL (September 1994). "An interleukin-4-induced transcription factor ...
Hashimoto-Uoshima M, Noguchi K, Suzuki M, Murata A, Yanagishita M, Ishikawa I (February 2002). "Effects of interleukin-4 on ... interleukin(IL) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) families of molecules. The upstream 2.5 kilobases of the perlecan ... by injury and interleukin-1alpha". J. Neurochem. 73 (2): 812-20. doi:10.1046/j.1471-4159.1999.0730812.x. PMID 10428080. S2CID ... "Alteration of proteoglycan synthesis in human lung fibroblasts induced by interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha". J ...
McInnes A, Rennick DM (February 1988). "Interleukin 4 induces cultured monocytes/macrophages to form giant multinucleated cells ... 4 (4): 128-134. doi:10.1016/j.ncrna.2019.11.002. PMC 7012776. PMID 32072080. Kong XN, Yan HX, Chen L, Dong LW, Yang W, Liu Q, ... 115 (4): 919-31. doi:10.1083/jcb.115.4.919. PMC 2289954. PMID 1955462. Pombo A, Cuello P, Schul W, Yoon JB, Roeder RG, Cook PR ... 2002). "Chapter 4: DNA and Chromosomes". Molecular Biology of the Cell (4th ed.). New York: Garland Science. pp. 191-234. ISBN ...
Th2 also produce Interleukin 4, which facilitates B cell isotype switching. In general, Th2 responses are more effective ... The Th2 response is characterized by the release of Interleukin 5, which induces eosinophils in the clearance of parasites. ... 4 (7): e229. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0040229. PMC 1479700. PMID 16774454. Meki IK, Kariithi HM, Parker AG, Vreysen MJ, Ros VI ... In humans, it takes 4-7 days for the adaptive immune system to mount a significant response. T and B lymphocytes are the cells ...
2003). "Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) regulates interleukin-4-mediated STAT6 signaling". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (5): 2787-2791. doi ... 17 (4): 377-385. doi:10.1089/dna.1998.17.377. PMID 9570154. Hooks SB, Ragan SP, Lynch KR (1998). "Identification of a novel ...
Bamborough P, Hedgecock CJ, Richards WG (1995). "The interleukin-2 and interleukin-4 receptors studied by molecular modelling ... "Interleukin-2 receptor gamma chain: a functional component of the interleukin-4 receptor" (Submitted manuscript). Science. 262 ... Interleukin+Receptor+Common+gamma+Subunit at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Overview of ... The common gamma chain (γc) (or CD132), also known as interleukin-2 receptor subunit gamma or IL-2RG, is a cytokine receptor ...
Hexameric Structure and Assembly of the Interleukin-6/IL-6 α-Receptor/gp130 Complex, Science (2003) Structure of the Quaternary ... Exploiting a natural conformational switch to engineer an interleukin-2 'superkine' Junttila, Ilkka S.; Creusot, Remi J.; ... "Redirecting cell-type specific cytokine responses with engineered interleukin-4 superkines". Nature Chemical Biology. 8 (12): ... 146 (4): 621-632. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2011.06.048. PMC 3166218. PMID 21854986. The IFN-λ-IFN-λR1-IL-10Rβ Complex Reveals ...
For example, interleukin-4 induces the rearrangements of heavy chain immunoglobulin genes. That is IL- 4 induces the switching ...
Gupta S, Jiang M, Anthony A, Pernis AB (December 1999). "Lineage-specific modulation of interleukin 4 signaling by interferon ... 169 (4): 1922-9. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.169.4.1922. PMID 12165517. David G, Alland L, Hong SH, Wong CW, DePinho RA, Dejean A (May ... 20 (4): 155-66. doi:10.1002/hon.689. PMID 12469325. S2CID 24245607. Tokuhisa T (December 2002). "[A role for Bcl6 in immune ... 92 (26): 12520-4. Bibcode:1995PNAS...9212520M. doi:10.1073/pnas.92.26.12520. PMC 40389. PMID 8618933. Shen Y, Ge B, ...
Dupilumab, a monoclonal antibody, suppresses inflammation by targeting the interleukin-4 receptor. Light therapy using ... Retrieved 4 May 2020. Bath-Hextall F, Delamere FM, Williams HC (January 2008). Bath-Hextall FJ (ed.). "Dietary exclusions for ... 54 (4): 251-8. doi:10.1111/ajd.12015. PMID 23330843. S2CID 19644659. Lodzki, M; Godin, B; Rakou, L; Mechoulam, R; Gallily, R; ... 48 (2): 262-4. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2125.1999.00004.x. PMC 2014284. PMID 10417508. Bath-Hextall FJ, Jenkinson C, Humphreys R, ...
Gupta S, Jiang M, Anthony A, Pernis AB (December 1999). "Lineage-specific modulation of interleukin 4 signaling by interferon ... Gupta S, Jiang M, Anthony A, Pernis AB (2000). "Lineage-specific modulation of interleukin 4 signaling by interferon regulatory ... interacts with NFATc2 to modulate interleukin 4 gene expression". J. Exp. Med. 195 (8): 1003-12. doi:10.1084/jem.20011128. PMC ... interacts with NFATc2 to modulate interleukin 4 gene expression". J. Exp. Med. 195 (8): 1003-12. doi:10.1084/jem.20011128. PMC ...
For instance, a pair of redundant cytokines are interleukin 4 and interleukin 13. Cytokine redundancy is associated with the ... "Molecular and structural basis of cytokine receptor pleiotropy in the interleukin-4/13 system", Cell, 132(2):259-72. Ozaki, K. ...
Interleukin-2 production by tumor cells bypasses T helper function in the generation of an antitumor response. Cell, 60(3), pp. ... Influence of interleukin 12 on p53 peptide vaccination against established Meth A sarcoma. Proceedings of the National Academy ... Treatment of established renal cancer by tumor cells engineered to secrete interleukin-4. Science, 254(5032), pp.713-716.doi: ...
... a novel CZH protein selectively induced by interleukin-4 in human B lymphocytes". Molecular Immunology. 45 (12): 3411-8. doi: ... 30 (4): 292-302, discussion 303. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2605.2007.00758.x. PMID 17488342. Côté JF, Vuori K (August 2007). "GEF what ...
Endotoxin exposure reduces release of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IFNγ, interleukin-10, and interleukin-12 from white ... This has been attributed to a T helper 2 (TH2)-predominant response driven by suppression of interleukin 12 by both the ... a subset of T cells that produce a cytokine called interleukin-4 (IL-4). These TH2 cells interact with other lymphocytes called ... interleukins, leukotrienes, and prostaglandins) from their granules into the surrounding tissue causing several systemic ...
Some interleukins prompt monocytes and macrophages to fuse to form foreign-body giant cells as part of a body's immune response ... For example, interleukin-4 can promote the activation of transcription factor STAT6 by phosphorylation. This can then trigger ... Similarly, in muscle tissue, myoblasts can be recruited for fusion by IL-4. Before cells can fuse, they must be in contact with ...
As an anti-inflammatory agent, lupeol functions primarily on the interleukin system. Lupeol to decreases IL-4 (interleukin 4) ... 4 (2): 72-74. doi:10.1016/j.phytol.2010.08.004. PMC 3099468. PMID 21617767. Stork G, Uyeo S, Wakamatsu T, Grieco P, Labovitz J ... 20 (4): 279-87. doi:10.1002/ptr.1852. PMID 16557610. Mannowetz N, Miller MR, Lishko PV (May 2017). "Regulation of the sperm ... One study has also found some activity as a Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor and prolyl oligopeptidase inhibitor at high ...
"Long-term human B cell lines dependent on interleukin-4 and antibody to CD40." Science251.4989 (1991): 70-72. Banchereau, ... During his PhD and post-doctorate time, he was involved with the discovery and functional analysis of GM-CSF, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 ...
... (trade name Aerovant) is a 15-kDa human recombinant protein of wild-type human interleukin-4 (IL-4). It is an IL-4 ... Pitrakinra is an antagonist of the interleukin-4 receptor alpha chain, a protein that is also part of IL-13. It thereby blocks ... Wenzel S, Wilbraham D, Fuller R, Getz EB, Longphre M (October 2007). "Effect of an interleukin-4 variant on late phase ... Burmeister Getz E, Fisher DM, Fuller R (September 2009). "Human pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of an interleukin-4 and ...
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1996). "Interleukins 2, 4, 7, and 15 stimulate tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates 1 and 2 in T cells. ... Izuhara K, Harada N (1997). "Interleukin-4 activates two distinct pathways of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase in the same cells ... as well as by an interleukin 4 receptor-associated kinase in response to IL4 treatment. Mice lacking IRS2 have a diabetic ... 270 (8): 3471-4. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.8.3471. PMID 7876077. Platanias LC, Uddin S, Yetter A, et al. (1996). "The type I ...
Parasitic worms generate production of interleukin 4 and interleukin 13, which are Th2 cytokines. This Th2 response restrains ... interleukin 10, and prostaglandin E2 that assist in sustaining host mucosal homeostasis. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... The prepatent period is 6 to 8 weeks and lifespan is 4 to 5 months. Pigs are the natural host for T. suis, but it can also ... Adult females measure 6 to 8 cm and adult males 3 to 4 cm. T. suis eggs are oval (60 × 25 μm) and yellow-brown with bipolar ...
Identification of a coordinate regulator of interleukins 4, 13, and 5 by cross-species sequence comparisons.. Science. 2000, ... 2003, 4 (1): 20-8. PMID 12509750.. *^ ". Our findings suggest that the deterioration of the olfactory repertoire occurred ... 人類與其他物種的基因組比較(大約)[5][4] ... 4]。對於一般
Instead, plasma cells are identified through flow cytometry by their additional expression of CD138, CD78, the Interleukin-6 ... ISBN 1-4292-0211-4.. *^ a b c Federico Caligaris-Cappio; Manlio Ferrarini (1997). Human B Cell Populations (Chemical Immunology ... 4] They divide rapidly and are still capable of internalizing antigens and presenting them to T cells.[4] A cell may stay in ... 4] Differentiation of mature B cells into plasma cells is dependent upon the transcription factors Blimp-1/PRDM1 and IRF4. ...
Interleukin-10 determines viral clearance or persistence in vivo. Nature Medicine. November 2006, 12 (11): 1301-9. PMC 2535582 ... Modulation of autoimmune diseases by interleukin (IL)-17 producing regulatory T helper (Th17) cells. The Indian Journal of ... doi:10.1016/s0092-8674(00)81905-4.. *^ Hinterberger, Maria; Aichinger, Martin; Prazeres da Costa, Olivia; Voehringer, David; ... 2010-04, 129 (4): 474-481. ISSN 1365-2567. PMC 2842494. PMID 20201977. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2567.2010.03255.x.. ...
EPO " Interleukin " G-CSF " OM " LIF " IFN " CD " TNF-α " LT " Ligand " TGF " MIF ... C5a " CCL2 " CCL5 " GSM-CSF " LPS " MCP-1 " IL-1 " IL-2 " IL-3 " IL-4 " IL-5 " IL-6 " IL-8 " IL-10 " IL-12 " IL-13 " IL-15 " IL ... ing umumne senyawa estrogen-katekol duwé wektu paruh kang cendek amarga langsung termetilasi dadi 2-methoxyestradiol lan 4- ... AP-1 " C/EBP-α " β " NF-κB " FLIP " STAT " 1 " 2 " 3 " 4 " 5 " 6 ...
... the Antigen-Presenting Cell causes a response in a TH2 lymphocyte which produce the cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4). The TH2 ... Addiction and dependence glossary[3][4][5][6]. *addiction - a brain disorder characterized by compulsive engagement in ... 374 (4): 363-371. doi:10.1056/NEJMra1511480. PMID 26816013. Substance-use disorder: A diagnostic term in the fifth edition of ... 15 (4): 431-443. PMC 3898681. PMID 24459410. Despite the importance of numerous psychosocial factors, at its core, drug ...
O'Donovan (1999). „Physical mapping of the CXC chemokine locus on human chromosome 4.". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 84: 39-42. PMID ... 4] CXCL10 gen je lociran na ljudskom hromozomu 4 u klasteru sa nekoliko drugih CXC hemokina.[5] Ovaj hemokin dejstvuje putem ...
positive regulation of interleukin-4 production. • oocyte development. • positive regulation of type IV hypersensitivity. • ... 4 (6): 457-61. doi:10.1038/ncb802. PMID 12021773. S2CID 11575790.. *. Jovine L, Qi H, Williams Z, Litscher ES, Wassarman PM ( ... 74 (4): 760-8. doi:10.1095/biolreprod.105.047522. PMID 16407501.. *. Chamberlin ME, Dean J (1990). "Human homolog of the mouse ... doi:10.1016/0092-8674(85)90084-4. PMC 7133279. PMID 2986849.. *. Furlong LI, Harris JD, Vazquez-Levin MH (2005). "Binding of ...
Stimulation of interleukin-2 production by substance p". Journal of Neuroimmunology. 37 (1-2): 65-74. doi:10.1016/0165-5728(92) ... 34 (4): 195-201. PMID 11137976.. *^ a b Gorman, James, To Study Aggression, a Fight Club for Flies, The New York Times, ... 9 (5): 350-4. doi:10.1007/s005200000199. PMID 11497388.. *^ a b Donkin JJ, Turner RJ, Hassan I, Vink R (2007). "Substance P in ... 4 (1): 21-9. PMC 3181667 . PMID 22033776.. *^ Rupniak NM (May 2002). "New insights into the antidepressant actions of substance ...
The release of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 by activated leukocytes triggered by lipopolysaccharides, ... Maier SF, Wiertelak EP, Martin D, Watkins LR (October 1993). "Interleukin-1 mediates the behavioral hyperalgesia produced by ... 4 (3): 123-30. doi:10.5055/jom.2008.0017. PMID 18717507.. *^ Okuda-Ashitaka E, Minami T, Matsumura S, et al. (February 2006). " ... doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(14)70102-4. PMID 25142459.. *^ Sindrup SH, Otto M, Finnerup NB, Jensen TS (June 2005). "Antidepressants ...
Interleukins/T-cell growth factors (see here instead). *Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... It has received regulatory approval for use as a treatment for non-small cell lung cancer,[6][4][7][8] although there is ... N-[4-[(3-Chloro-4-fluorophenyl)amino]-7-[[(3S)-tetrahydro-3-furanyl]oxy]-6-quinazolinyl]-4(dimethylamino)-2-butenamide ...
proinflamatorni citokin (IL-1, TNF-alfa) • Th1 (INF-gama i TNF-beta) • Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13) • Th17 (IL-17,IL-22 ... Biol. 9 (4): 288-292. PMID 11862220. doi:10.1038/nsb769. *↑ Daridon C, Youinou P, Pers JO (February 2008). "BAFF, APRIL, TWE- ... 4-1BB ligand • Faktor aktivacije B-ćelija • FAS ligand • Limfotoksin • OX40L • RANKL • TRAIL ... Svi ovi ligandi dejstvuju kao heterotrimeri koji interaguju sa heterotrimerskim receptorima[4], mada je za BAFF poznato da može ...
proinflamatorni citokin (IL-1, TNF-alfa) • Th1 (INF-gama i TNF-beta) • Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13) • Th17 (IL-17,IL-22 ... 1,0 1,1 1,2 1,3 1,4 Matloubian M, David A, Engel S, Ryan J, Cyster J (2000). "A transmembrane CXC chemokine is a ligand for HIV ... 4-1BB ligand • Faktor aktivacije B-ćelija • FAS ligand • Limfotoksin • OX40L • RANKL • TRAIL ...
... associations and interaction with the interleukin-1alpha-889 C/T polymorphism". Hum. Immunol. 65 (6): 622-31. doi:10.1016/j. ... 21 (4): 959-62. doi:10.1002/hep.1840210411. PMID 7705806.. *^ Muratori P, Czaja AJ, Muratori L, et al. (March 2005). "Genetic ... 30 (4): 851-6. doi:10.1002/hep.510300412. PMID 10498633.. *^ Czaja AJ, Carpenter HA, Santrach PJ, Moore SB (January 1995). " ... 26 (4): 1023-6. doi:10.1002/hep.510260434. PMID 9328330.. *^ Underhill JA, Donaldson PT, Doherty DG, Manabe K, Williams R ( ...
Theorell, T.; Hasselhorn, H.; Vingård, E.; Andersson, B. (2000). "Interleukin 6 and cortisol in acute musculoskeletal disorders ... Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 40(4), 317-324. *^ Islam, S.S., Edla, S.R., Mujuru, P., Doyle, E.J., & ... doi:10.1186/s12889-015-1954-4 *^ Parkes, K.R. (1982). Occupational stress among student nurses: A natural experiment. Journal ... International Commission on Occupational Health-Work Organisation and Psychosocial Factors [4] *^ International Commission on ...
Borges W, Augustine N, Hill H (2000). "Defective interleukin-12/interferon-gamma pathway in patients with ...
25 (4): 205-230. doi:10.1080/07388550500376166. PMID 16419618. S2CID 86109922.. *^ Sikora, Per (14 June 2012). "Identification ... In general, β-1,3 linkages are created by 1,3-Beta-glucan synthase, and β-1,4 linkages are created by cellulose synthase. The ... Yeast and fungal β-glucans contain 1-6 side branches, while cereal β-glucans contain both β-1,3 and β-1,4 backbone bonds. The ... Oats and barley differ in the ratio of trimer and tetramer 1-4 linkages. Barley has more 1-4 linkages with a degree of ...
"Polymorphisms of the interleukin-1 beta gene are associated with increased risk of non-small cell lung cancer". International ... 38 (4): 337-46. PMC 1914533. PMID 8571957.. *^ Takahashi K, Ezekowitz RA (November 2005). "The role of the mannose-binding ... 41 Suppl 7: S440-4. doi:10.1086/431987. PMID 16237644.. *^ Sweet D, Golomb H, Desser R, Ultmann JE, Yachnin S, Stein R (May ... 4] When consensus nucleotides and alternative ones were compared, homologous regions were "boxed" by the researchers.[4] The ...
... interleukin-5)可促進嗜曙紅顆粒白血球成長及分化。[13] ... 嗜中性顆粒白血球通常可在血液中發現,為最常見的吞噬細胞,占
... and interleukin-1 in modulating progesterone and oestradiol production by human luteinized granulosa cells in culture. Hum. ... 2007-02-22: 4 [29 March 2013]. ISBN 9781139462037.. *^ 18.00 18.01 18.02 18.03 18.04 18.05 18.06 18.07 18.08 18.09 18.10 18.11 ... 多囊性卵巢會受基因遺傳與環境因素影響[6][7]。其危險因子包含肥胖症、運動量不足或是有家族病史[8]。如果有以下三種症狀中的兩種便可診斷患者有多囊性卵巢:無排卵、雄性激素過高與卵巢
... interleukin-1 (IL-1) - interleukin-2 (IL-2) - interleukin-4 (IL-4) - interleukin-12 (IL-12) - interleukins - International ...
negative regulation of interleukin-6 secretion. • negative regulation of neuron death. • negative regulation of matrix ... 4. - P. 303-309. - PMID 11726033.. *Douglas J., Albertson D.G., Barclay A.N. et al. RFLP and mapping of human MOX-1 gene on ...
... interleukin 7 receptor chain α deficiency, CD45 deficiency, CD3δ/CD3ε deficiency. T-/B- SCID (both T and B cells absent): RAG 1 ... 117 (4): 883-96. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2005.12.1347. PMID 16680902. Notarangelo LD, Fischer A, Geha RS, et al. (December 2009). " ... Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia NEMO deficiency IKBA deficiency EDA-ID IRAK-4 deficiency MyD88 deficiency WHIM syndrome ( ...
Interleukins/T-cell growth factors (see here instead). *Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) ... 91 (4): 267-70. doi:10.1254/jphs.91.267. PMID 12719654.. *^ Mandel AL, Ozdener H, Utermohlen V (July 2009). "Identification of ... 107 (4): 306-10. doi:10.1002/ajmg.10133. PMID 11840487.. *^ Zimmer P, Mierau A, Bloch W, Strüder HK, Hülsdünker T, Schenk A, ... 4 (5): e389. doi:10.1038/tp.2014.26. PMC 4035720. PMID 24802307.. *^ Warner-Schmidt JL, Duman RS (2006). "Hippocampal ...
2003). "Role of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 ... Činjenica da je interleukin 8 sekrecija povećana sa oksidant stresom, i obrnuto, interleukin 8 uzrokujući regrutovanje ... Interleukin 8 receptor, beta. Reference[uredi - уреди , uredi izvor]. *↑ Wolff B, Burns AR, Middleton J, Rot A (November 1998 ... vezivanje za interleukin-8 receptor. • vezivanje za proteine. • aktivnost hemokina. Ćelijska komponenta. • ekstracelularni ...
positive regulation of interleukin-17 production. • innate immune response. • positive regulation of natural killer cell ...
Rattazzi M, Puato M, Faggin E, et al. (2004). C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 in vascular disease: culprits or passive ... Mastorakos G, Ilias I (2007). Interleukin-6: a cytokine and/or a major modulator of the response to somatic stress. Ann. N. Y. ... Nishimoto N (May 2006). Interleukin-6 in rheumatoid arthritis. Curr Opin Rheumatol 18 (3): 277-81. PMID: 16582692. DOI: 10.1097 ... Smith PC, Hobisch A, Lin DL, Culig Z, Keller ET (March 2001). Interleukin-6 and prostate cancer progression. Cytokine Growth ...
"Interleukin-23 promotes a distinct CD4 T cell activation state characterized by the production of interleukin-17". J. Biol. ... Interleukin 17 (IL-17, ili IL-17A) je osnivački član grupe citokina poznatih kao IL-17 familija. IL-17A, je originalno (1993. ... 17,0 17,1 17,2 17,3 Moseley TA, Haudenschild DR, Rose L, Reddi AH (2003). "Interleukin-17 family and IL-17 receptors". Cytokine ... IL-1 • IL-2 • IL-3 • IL-4 • IL-5 • IL-6 • IL-7 • IL-8 • IL-9 • IL-10 • IL-11 • IL-12 (B) • IL-13 • IL-14 • IL-15 • IL-16 • IL- ...
Interleukin receptors *IL2R / IL2RA/IL2RB / IL15R. *IL4R / IL13R / IL13RA1 / IL13RA2. *IL7R / IL7RA ... 272 (4): 2042-5. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.4.2042. PMID 8999898.. *^ a b c Ansieau S, Scheffrahn I, Mosialos G, Brand H, Duyster J, ... 272 (4): 2042-5. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.4.2042. PMID 8999898.. *. Lee SY, Lee SY, Choi Y (Apr 1997). "TRAF-interacting protein ( ... 30 (4): 445-59. doi:10.1002/ijc.2910300411. PMID 6754630.. *. Jung W, Krueger S, Renner C, Gause A, Sahin U, Trümper L, ...
Interleukins/T-cell growth factors (see here instead). *Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... C294H342F13N107Na28O188P28[C2H4O](m+n) (m+n≈900). ... 4] Moreover, it was also determined that the second year of ... At the end of the first year, patients continuing the study were re-randomized for the second year.[4] ...
Singh B, Schwartz JA, Sandrock C, Bellemore SM, Nikoopour E (2013). „Modulation of autoimmune diseases by interleukin (IL)-17 ... 138 (5): 591-4. PMC 3928692 . PMID 24434314.. *^ Serriari NE, Eoche M, Lamotte L, Lion J, Fumery M, Marcelo P, Chatelain D, ... Sarajevo: Institut za genetičko inženjerstvo i biotehnologiju (INGEB). ISBN 9958-9344-3-4.. ... 4] i smatraju se delom urođenog imunskog sistema. ...
2006 Apr 15;110(3-4):363-7. Epub 2006 Feb 9. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ... Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is secreted by T helper type 2 cells, mast cells, basophils and eosinophils. Detection of IL-4 can ... A monoclonal antibody to equine interleukin-4.. Wagner B1, Hillegas JM, Antczak DF. ... We used recombinant equine IL-4 to generate a monoclonal antibody (mAb) to equine IL-4. The mAb detected recombinant IL-4 in ...
Interleukin-4. In: Thomson AW, Lotze MT, eds. Cytokine Handbook. Vol 1, 4th ed. San Diego, Calif: Academic Press; 2003: 227-262 ... Interleukin 4 (IL-4) is a pleiotropic cytokine produced by activated T lymphocytes, CD3+ cells, NK-T cells, mast cells, ... In addition, IL-4 has also been shown to have antitumor activity both in vivo and in vitro.1 ... eosinophils, and basophils.1 IL-4 has multiple immune response modulation functions on a variety of cell types. It is an ...
Interleukin[Title] AND 4[Title] AND receptor[Title] AND regulation[Title] AND human[Title] AND monocytic[Title] AND cells[Title ... Synergistic effects of lipopolysaccharide and interferon-gamma in inducing interleukin-8 production in human monocytic THP-1 ... Search: Interleukin 4 receptor regulation in human monocytic cells *. Format. Summary. Summary (text). Abstract. Abstract (text ... cells is accompanied by up-regulation of CD14, Toll-like receptor 4, MD-2 and MyD88 expression. ...
Restricted production of interleukin 4 by activated human T cells. D B Lewis, K S Prickett, A Larsen, K Grabstein, M Weaver, C ... Restricted production of interleukin 4 by activated human T cells. D B Lewis, K S Prickett, A Larsen, K Grabstein, M Weaver, C ... Restricted production of interleukin 4 by activated human T cells. D B Lewis, K S Prickett, A Larsen, K Grabstein, M Weaver, ... Interleukin 4 (IL-4) is secreted by activated T cells and pleiotropically modulates both B- and T-lymphocyte function. In ...
Interleukin-12 downregulation, Interleukin-1 beta downregulation, Interleukin-2 Downregulation, Interleukin-4 upregulation, ... Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Interleukin-10 upregulation, Interleukin-1 beta downregulation, Interleukin ... Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Interleukin-10 upregulation, Interleukin-12 downregulation, Interleukin-4 ... Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Interleukin-10 upregulation, Interleukin-17 downregulation, Interleukin-2 ...
It is closely related and has functions similar to interleukin 13. Interleukin 4 has many biological roles, including the ... The interleukin 4 (IL4, IL-4) is a cytokine that induces differentiation of naive helper T cells (Th0 cells) to Th2 cells. Upon ... The receptor for interleukin-4 is known as the IL-4Rα. This receptor exists in 3 different complexes throughout the body. Type ... Interleukin-4 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Interleukin-4 from Gentaur Recombinant ...
Interleukin-4 and Interleukin-13 Signaling Connections Maps. By Ann E. Kelly-Welch, Erica M. Hanson, Mark R. Boothby, Achsah D ... Interleukin-4 and Interleukin-13 Signaling Connections Maps. By Ann E. Kelly-Welch, Erica M. Hanson, Mark R. Boothby, Achsah D ... Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13 are two cytokines produced by T helper type 2 cells, mast cells, and basophils. In addition to ... Interleukin-4 and Interleukin-13 Signaling Connections Maps Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
The interleukin 4 receptor is a type I cytokine receptor. IL4R is its human gene. This gene encodes the alpha chain of the ... Interleukin-4 receptor has been shown to interact with SHC1. The N-terminal (extracellular) portion of interleukin-4 receptor ... They are required for binding of interleukin-4 to the receptor alpha chain, which is a crucial event for the generation of a ... "Entrez Gene: IL4R interleukin 4 receptor". Thornhill, MH; Wellicome, SM; Mahiouz, DL; Lanchbury, JSS; Kyanaung, U; Haskard, DO ...
positive regulation of interleukin-10 production Source: RGD ,p>Inferred from Direct Assay,/p> ,p>Used to indicate a direct ... positive regulation of interleukin-13 production Source: Ensembl. *positive regulation of isotype switching to IgE isotypes ... sp,P20096,IL4_RAT Interleukin-4 OS=Rattus norvegicus GN=Il4 PE=2 SV=2 ... IPR009079. 4_helix_cytokine-like_core. IPR002354. IL-4. IPR001325. IL-4/IL-13. IPR018096. IL-4/IL-13_CS. ...
NF-AT-Driven Interleukin-4 Transcription Potentiated by NIP45. By Martin R. Hodge, Hyung J. Chun, Jyothi Rengarajan, Aya Alt, ... NF-AT-Driven Interleukin-4 Transcription Potentiated by NIP45. By Martin R. Hodge, Hyung J. Chun, Jyothi Rengarajan, Aya Alt, ... NF-AT-Driven Interleukin-4 Transcription Potentiated by NIP45 Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... NIP45 synergized with NF-ATp and the proto-oncogene c-Maf to activate the interleukin-4 (IL-4) cytokine promoter; transient ...
We also demonstrate that interleukin 6 (IL-6), shown to be increased in NMO, enhanced the survival of PB as well as their AQP4- ... Interleukin 6 signaling promotes anti-aquaporin 4 autoantibody production from plasmablasts in neuromyelitis optica. Norio ... 1995) Differentiation of early plasma cells on bone marrow stromal cells requires interleukin-6 for escaping from apoptosis. ... 2005) Humanized anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody treatment of multicentric Castleman disease. Blood 106:2627-2632. ...
Interleukin-4, abbreviated IL-4, is a cytokine that induces differentiation of naive helper T cells (Th0 cells) to Th2 cells. ... proinflammatory cytokine (IL-1, TNF-alpha) · Th1 (interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-beta) Th2 (interleukin 4, ... Howard M, Paul WE (1982). "Interleukins for B lymphocytes". Lymphokine Res. 1 (1): 1-4. PMID 6985399. ... Olver S, Apte S, Baz A, Kienzle N (2007). "The duplicitous effects of interleukin 4 on tumour immunity: how can the same ...
We investigated the effects of two cytokines from T lymphocytes, interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) … ... Antagonistic effects of interferon-gamma and interleukin-4 on fibroblast cultures J Invest Dermatol. 1997 Aug;109(2):158-62. ... We investigated the effects of two cytokines from T lymphocytes, interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), on ... This effect might explain the antagonistic effects of IFN-gamma on the IL-4-dependent enhancement of collagen synthesis. Thus, ...
The interleukin 4 receptor is a type I cytokine receptor. IL4R is its human gene. ... Among T cells, the encoded protein also can bind interleukin 4 to promote differentiation of Th2 cells. A soluble form of the ... Interleukin-4 receptor has been shown to interact with SHC1.[4][5] ... They are required for binding of interleukin-4 to the receptor alpha chain, which is a crucial event for the generation of a ...
... H. Darmani,1 J. L ... interferon-γ and interleukin-4: effect of fatty acid metabolism," Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 25-30, 1995. ... Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 25-30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/S0962935195000056. ...
"Interleukin-4" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Interleukin-4" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Interleukin-4" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Interleukin-4". ...
IL-4) when administered subcutaneously in patients with AIDS-related Kaposis sarcoma (AIDS-KS); to evaluate the effect of IL-4 ... To define the safety and toxicity of interleukin-4 ( ... Interleukin-4 in the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposis sarcoma ... Interleukin-4 / administration & dosage, adverse effects, therapeutic use*. Lymphocyte Count / drug effects. Male. Middle Aged ... PURPOSE: To define the safety and toxicity of interleukin-4 (IL-4) when administered subcutaneously in patients with AIDS- ...
... Enas A. S. Attia,1 ... K. Katagiri, S. Arakawa, and Y. Hatano, "In vivo levels of IL-4, IL-10, TGF-β1 and IFN-γ mRNA of the peripheral blood ... 4, no. 3, pp. 216-219, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus ... 4, pp. 549-570, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus ... 4, pp. 530-533, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus ...
Human interleukin-4 and variant R88Q: phasing X-ray diffraction data by molecular replacement using X-ray and nuclear magnetic ... 4-helical cytokines 4-helical cytokines Short-chain cytokines Interleukin-4 (IL-4) Human (Homo sapiens) [TaxId: 9606] ...
We demonstrate that pancreatic cancer tissues express receptors for interleukin (IL)-4 in situ at high density. Using the ... Targeting interleukin-4 Receptors for Effective Pancreatic Cancer Therapy Cancer Res. 2002 Jul 1;62(13):3575-80. ... We demonstrate that pancreatic cancer tissues express receptors for interleukin (IL)-4 in situ at high density. Using the ... Thus, IL-4 receptor-targeted cytotoxin represents a potent agent that may provide an effective therapy for pancreatic cancer. ...
Transient Inhibition of Interleukin 4 Signaling by T Cell Receptor Ligation. Jinfang Zhu, Hua Huang, Liying Guo, Timothy ... 1995) Interleukin 4 signals through two related pathways. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 92:7971-7975, pmid:7544011.. ... 1997) Interleukin 4 (IL-4) or IL-7 prevents the death of resting T cellsstat6 is probably not required for the effect of IL-4. ... Transient Inhibition of Interleukin 4 Signaling by T Cell Receptor Ligation. Jinfang Zhu, Hua Huang, Liying Guo, Timothy ...
Crucial Role of Interleukin-4 in the Survival of Colon Cancer Stem Cells. Maria Giovanna Francipane, Mileidys Perez Alea, ... Crucial Role of Interleukin-4 in the Survival of Colon Cancer Stem Cells ... Crucial Role of Interleukin-4 in the Survival of Colon Cancer Stem Cells ... Crucial Role of Interleukin-4 in the Survival of Colon Cancer Stem Cells ...
Recently, IL-4-induced polarization of murine bone marrow-derived macrophages has been linked to acetyl-CoA levels through the ... Recently, IL-4-induced polarization of murine bone marrow-derived macrophages has been linked to acetyl-CoA levels through the ... Our findings suggest that ACLY may not be the major regulator of nucleocytoplasmic acetyl-CoA and IL-4-induced polarization in ... Our findings suggest that ACLY may not be the major regulator of nucleocytoplasmic acetyl-CoA and IL-4-induced polarization in ...
Abstract: Objective Interleukin-4 (IL-4) can modulate neovascularization. In this study, we used a gene therapy approach to ... Inhibition of angiogenesis by interleukin-4 gene therapy in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis ... "Inhibition of angiogenesis by interleukin-4 gene therapy in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis." Arthritis & Rheumatism 54(8): 2402 ... Of interest, AxCAIL-4 also resulted in decreased EC expression of the Αv and Β3 integrin chains. Conclusion In rat AIA, IL-4 ...
Interleukin-4 is a pleiotropic cytokine that regulates diverse T and B cell responses including cell proliferation, survival ... Interleukin-4 is a pleiotropic cytokine that regulates diverse T and B cell responses including cell proliferation, survival ... Excessive IL-4 production by Th2 cells has been associated with elevated IgE production and allergy. Recombinant Human IL-4 is ... Produced by mast cells, T cells and bone marrow stromal cells, IL-4 regulates the differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells into ...
Nitrogen-doped graphene-chitosan matrix based efficient chemiluminescent immunosensor for detection of chicken interleukin-4. ... AnimalsAntibodies, ImmobilizedAntibodies, MonoclonalBiosensing TechniquesChickensChitosanGraphiteImmunoassayInterleukin-4Limit ... Chicken interleukin-4 (ChIL-4), which is released by activated type 2 helper (Th2) cells following their stimulation in vitro, ... Nitrogen-doped graphene-chitosan matrix based efficient chemiluminescent immunosensor for detection of chicken interleukin-4.. ...
A Phase I/II Study of Recombinant Interleukin-4 in AIDS and Kaposis Sarcoma. The safety and scientific validity of this study ... Miles SA, Mitsuyasu R, LaFleur F, Ryback M, Kasden P, Suckow C, Groopman J, Scadden D. Phase I/II trial of interleukin-4 in KS ... To determine the safety and tolerance of interleukin-4 (IL-4) in patients with AIDS-related Kaposis sarcoma. To determine the ... Interleukin-4. Adjuvants, Immunologic. Immunologic Factors. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Antineoplastic Agents. ...
Targeted Biologic Therapies (Interleukin Inhibitors). Class Summary. Interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13 appear to play ... Mast cell interleukin-2 production contributes to suppression of chronic allergic dermatitis. Immunity. 2011 Oct 28. 35 (4):562 ... Molecular and clinical rationale for therapeutic targeting of interleukin-5 and its receptor. Clin Exp Allergy. 2011 Sep 23. [ ... Topical Phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE-4) Inhibitors. Class Summary. A topical PDE-4 inhibitor is a nonsteroidal option for atopic ...
Due to their limited shelf life, the ImmunoTag™ ELISA kits are not typically stocked as finished goods. Please allow 2-3 weeks for delivery. Upon receipt of an order each kit is assembled and tested to ensure that it meets specifications before shipping. Minor changes may occur to the Range, Sensitivity, and Precision and is reflected in the manual supplied with the kit (online manuals are for reference only). In the event of a significant change the order would be confirmed with the customer before shipping ...
Interleukin-4, Type I information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and health ... Receptors, Interleukin *Interleukin-4 *Type Interesting Medical Articles:. *Symptoms of the Silent Killer Diseases *Online ... Description of Receptors, Interleukin-4, Type I. Receptors, Interleukin-4, Type I: An interleukin-4 receptor subtype that is ... Receptors, Interleukin-4, Type I: Related Topics. These medical condition or symptom topics may be relevant to medical ...
  • Abstract #4785: Interleukin-4 (IL-4) up-regulates 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH), a tumor suppressor and a key prostaglandin catabolic enzyme, in lung cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • IL-4 can stimulate two receptors, type I and type II, whereas IL-13 signaling is mediated only by the type II receptor (see the STKE Connections Maps). (sciencemag.org)
  • Type 1 receptors are composed of the IL-4Rα subunit with a common γ chain and specifically bind IL-4. (wikipedia.org)
  • These type 2 receptors have the ability to bind both IL-4 and IL-13, two cytokines with closely related biological functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most human meningiomas massively expresses IL-4 receptors, indicating its role in cancer progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • We demonstrate that pancreatic cancer tissues express receptors for interleukin (IL)-4 in situ at high density. (nih.gov)
  • Although IL-4 receptors (IL-4Rs) but not IL-12Rs are expressed on naive CD4 + T cells, IL-4 has no apparent advantage over IL-12 in driving naive T cell differentiation when the cells are primed with both IL-4 and IL-12 in vitro. (rupress.org)
  • Fahlman C, Jacobsen FW, Veiby OP, McNiece IK, Blomhoff HK and Jacobsen SE: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) potently enhances in vitro macrophage production from primitive murine hematopoietic progenitor cells in combination with stem cell factor and interleukin-7: Novel stimulatory role of p55 TNF receptors. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • IL-4 mediates its function by binding to receptors expressed on target cells. (biovendor.com)
  • The IL-4 receptors exhibit an affinity of approximately 10-10 M. Receptors exist on freshly prepared B and T lymphocytes and macrophages, as well as on various cell lines including lymphoid cells, mast cell lines, a variety of other hematopoietic cell lines, fibroblasts and stromal cell lines. (biovendor.com)
  • Secondly, IL-4 and IFN-γ also affect antibody class switch and expression of Fc receptors differentially, which strongly affect the effector mechanisms following antibody production. (ovid.com)
  • We have sought to characterize IL-2 and IL-4 signaling at the level of intracellular pathways activated by these receptors. (jimmunol.org)
  • Functionally, recombinant IL-4δ2 protein is an IL-4 antagonist in human T cells, B cells, and monocytes, where it probably acts as a competitive inhibitor by binding to IL-4 receptors ( 2 , 3 ). (asm.org)
  • Antibodies to interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and cytokine receptors, interleukin 1 receptor type I and the common γ chain/CD132 (γ) have no effect on me- chanically induced membrane hyperpolarization. (rupress.org)
  • In this study, we have cloned a further five novel trout IL-4/13 receptors. (springer.com)
  • Human glioblastoma but not normal brain cells express numerous receptors for the cytokine interleukin (IL)-4. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To target these receptors, we have investigated the safety and activity of directly infusing IL-4(38-37)-PE38KDEL, a chimeric protein composed of circularly permuted IL-4 and a truncated form of Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE), into recurrent malignant high-grade gliomas. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To specifically target these receptors, we first produced a recombinant chimeric protein comprised of IL-4 and a mutated form of PE. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here, we investigated the effect of pattern recognition receptors (PRR) activation in macrophages, especially the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and Nod-like receptor 3 (NLRP3), on white adipocyte browning. (springer.com)
  • Associations between toll-like receptors and interleukin-4 in the lungs of patients with tuberculosis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are implicated in the intracellular killing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and their expression is modulated by interleukin-4 (IL-4) in vitro. (semanticscholar.org)
  • To evaluate the serum levels of interleukin-4, interleukin-10, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor at the moment of diagnosis and in early second-trimester serum from women with preeclampsia and from gestational age-matched controls. (ovid.com)
  • Synergistic effects of lipopolysaccharide and interferon-gamma in inducing interleukin -8 production in human monocytic THP-1 cells is accompanied by up- regulation of CD14, Toll-like receptor 4 , MD-2 and MyD88 expression. (nih.gov)
  • In murine helper (CD4+) T-cell clones IL-4 production appears to be regulated independently of interferon gamma and interleukin 2. (pnas.org)
  • After maximal induction of lymphokine expression, IL-4 mRNA was detectable in less than 5% of CD4+ and 1-2% of unfractionated T cells, whereas approximately 33% and 60% of CD4+ cells expressed detectable mRNA for interferon gamma and interleukin 2, respectively. (pnas.org)
  • This finding correlated with dramatically lower production of IL-4 mRNA and protein than of interferon gamma and interleukin 2 by peripheral blood and tonsillar T cells. (pnas.org)
  • We investigated the effects of two cytokines from T lymphocytes, interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), on normal and scleroderma fibroblast cultures. (nih.gov)
  • Our goals are to provide additional information on the profile of Th1/Th2 responses in periodontal disease, by comparing the levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) in GCF, and to investigate the presence of novel cytokines, interleukin-33 (IL-33) and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), in periodontal tissues. (tufts.edu)
  • There is an up regulation of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 expression in patients with lymphatic filariasis and a simultaneous decrease in levels of the interferon-gamma and IL-2. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The capacity of various inhibitors to reverse TCR-mediated inhibition of IL-4 signaling suggested that activation of the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and of the calcineurin pathway contribute to desensitizing IL-4R. (rupress.org)
  • Furthermore, the nuclear factor (NF)‑κB/p65 signaling pathway was involved in the M1 polarization of macrophages and NSCs suppressed the activation of the NF‑κB/p65 pathway in an IL‑4‑dependent manner to induce M2 macrophage polarization. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • He Y, Gao Y, Zhang Q, Zhou G, Cao F and Yao S: IL-4 switches microglia/macrophage M1/M2 polarization and alleviates neurological damage by modulating the JAK1/STAT6 pathway following ICH. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Because OX40 ligand is expressed on dendritic cells, the OX40 costimulation pathway may be involved in the physiological regulation of Th cell development by augmenting the differentiation of IL-4-producing cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 21-24 More recent studies showed that naive T cells themselves may be the original source of IL-4, which they release in very small but sufficient amounts to promote their development into high IL-4 producers via an autocrine pathway. (bloodjournal.org)
  • As a result, compounds can be developed that selectively inhibit the effect of either IL‐4 or IL‐13, or alternatively, by interfering with the common pathway, inhibit the effect of both cytokines. (ersjournals.com)
  • Mechanically induced release of the chondroprotective cytokine IL-4 from HAC with subsequent autocrine/paracrine activity is likely to be an important regulatory pathway in the maintenance of articular cartilage structure and function. (rupress.org)
  • OBJECTIVE- The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) generates pancreatic β-cells apoptosis mainly through activation of the c-Jun NH 2 -terminal kinase (JNK) pathway. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This study was designed to investigate whether the long-acting agonist of the hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor exendin-4 (ex-4), which mediates protective effects against cytokine-induced β-cell apoptosis, could interfere with the JNK pathway. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • RESULTS- Ex-4 inhibited induction of the JNK pathway elicited by IL-1β. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This effect was mimicked with the use of cAMP-raising agents isobutylmethylxanthine and forskolin and required activation of the protein kinase A. Inhibition of the JNK pathway by ex-4 or IBMX and forskolin was concomitant with a rise in the levels of islet-brain 1 (IB1), a potent blocker of the stress-induced JNK pathway. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS--These results suggest that the increased adhesion of T cells to IL-4-stimulated synovial cells is mediated by VLA-4/VCAM-1 pathway. (bmj.com)
  • JAK inhibitor I and kaempferol, inhibitors of JAKs, which inhibited STAT6 phosphorylation attenuated IL-4-induced 15-PGDH expression suggesting that JAK-STAT6 pathway could be involved in the up-regulation of 15-PGDH. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Akt inhibitors, wortmannin and LY294002, and PKC inhibitor, GF109203X, also attenuated significantly IL-4-stimulated 15-PGDH expression indicating that PI-3K-Akt pathway and PKC participated in IL-4-induced up-regulation of 15-PGDH. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It is therefore possible that IL-4 synthesis by Th2 CD4+ T cells during retrovirus-induced immunosuppression serves to inhibit the perforin cytotoxic pathway that subsequently allows susceptibility to MCMV retinitis during MAIDS. (eurekamag.com)
  • Since Bcl-x expression is insufficient to ensure cell survival in the absence of IL-4, we speculate that additional molecules replace the antiapoptotic role of Bcl-2 and Bcl-x in an alternative IL-4-triggered pathway. (asm.org)
  • We investigated the role of the Th2 pathway by exploring the relationships between components of the Th2 pathway, interleukin (IL)-10, IL-4, immunoglobulin E (IgE), and eosinophils, and prognostic markers of NHL. (tjh.com.tr)
  • We found remnant increased IL-4, which could be a clue for the triggering of the Th2 pathway in the background. (tjh.com.tr)
  • In the presence of the secretion blocker Brefeldin A, the protein accumulated and was detected in 4-8% of lymphocytes stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin. (nih.gov)
  • Interleukin 4 (IL-4) is a pleiotropic cytokine produced by activated T lymphocytes, CD3+ cells, NK-T cells, mast cells, eosinophils, and basophils. (labcorp.com)
  • Interleukin 4 (also known as "B cell stimulatory factor-1"), a cytokine product of T lymphocytes and mast cells, stimulates synthesis of the extracellular matrix proteins, types I and III collagen and fibronectin, by human dermal fibroblasts in vitro. (jci.org)
  • These and other data suggest that IL-4 may be a "fibrogenic cytokine" that could be important in promoting biogenesis of extracellular matrix proteins in normal wound healing and in pathological fibrosis in which mast cells and T lymphocytes play a central role. (jci.org)
  • Lung lymphocytes harvested from IL-4-overexpressing mice post-RSV challenge showed diminished RSV-specific cytolytic activity compared with controls. (asm.org)
  • Hall, "Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of porcine interleukin 4 cDNA derived from lamina propria lymphocytes," Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining of sections for IL-4 and IL-10 cytokines and the cell phenotypic markers CD3 (T lymphocytes) and CD45 (total inflammatory cell infiltrate) was carried out using monoclonal antibodies. (bmj.com)
  • The increased number of T lymphocytes but not IL-4 or IL-10 producing cells in the lamina propria of patients with untreated than in those with treated disease suggests not only that the lamina propria is the major mucosal compartment for cytokine production but that newly recruited mucosal T lymphocytes are directed to a predominant Th1 and not a Th2 cytokine response in coeliac patients on a diet containing gluten. (bmj.com)
  • In conclusion, this study shows that IL-4 has profound effects on the morphology of B lymphocytes. (ki.se)
  • In addition, the protein was detectable in cell culture supernatants of mitogen stimulated cells by ELISA when using the new mAb for coating of the plates and a polyclonal antiserum to equine IL-4 for detection. (nih.gov)
  • In conclusion, the new mAb detects equine IL-4 and can be used for intracellular staining and ELISA to measure this important cytokine. (nih.gov)
  • IL-4 levels in individual spleens collected five days later from groups of MAIDS mice and normal mice were assessed by quantitative ELISA. (eurekamag.com)
  • Background and Objective:- To assess if gestational factors affect the resistance of C57BL/6 mice to L. major infection, this study determined the levels of IL-4 and IFN-gamma in popliteal lymph node cells of pregnant C57BL/6 mice infected with L. major at 16 hours, 5 days-, 10 days- and 15 days- post plug by PCR, ELISA and BIOASSAY. (ajol.info)
  • The levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-γ (IFNγ) for type 1 and interleukin-4, interleukin-5 and interleukin-10 (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10) for type 2 responses were estimated by ELISA in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) culture supernatants. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Besides, Interleukin 2 Receptor Gamma (IL2Rg) has been identified as an interactor of IL4, thus a binding ELISA assay was conducted to detect the interaction of recombinant rat IL4 and recombinant rat IL2Rg. (uscnk.com)
  • A number of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) were generated that reacted with rbo IL-4 in an ELISA and these cloned hybridomas were termed CC311, CC312, CC313 and CC314. (curehunter.com)
  • A pair of mAb (CC313 and CC314) was identified that together could be used to detect both recombinant and native bovine IL-4 by ELISA and a luminometric detection method was applied to the ELISA. (curehunter.com)
  • The ELISA was also able to detect recombinant ovine IL-4 . (curehunter.com)
  • The pair of mAb used for ELISA could also be used for the detection of IL-4 spot forming cells by ELISPOT. (curehunter.com)
  • The ability to detect ruminant IL-4 by three methods: ELISA, ELISPOT and by flow cytometric analysis of intracytoplasmic expression will permit studies of the role of this important cytokine in the immunology and pathogenesis of animal diseases . (curehunter.com)
  • Rat IL-4/Interleukin-4 ELISA Kit PicoKine™ (96 Tests). (bosterbio.com)
  • According to our internal validation assays using this ELISA kit, to detect IL-4, Dilution ratio of 1:1, concentration in serum is target in serum is below detection limit. (bosterbio.com)
  • Serial TAs were prospectively obtained from 36 very low birth weight infants and IL-4 and IL-13 concentrations were determined by ELISA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, IL-4 has also been shown to have antitumor activity both in vivo and in vitro. (labcorp.com)
  • We also demonstrate that interleukin 6 (IL-6), shown to be increased in NMO, enhanced the survival of PB as well as their AQP4-Ab secretion, whereas the blockade of IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) signaling by anti-IL-6R antibody reduced the survival of PB in vitro. (pnas.org)
  • In contrast to in vitro findings, there was a decrease in plasma HIV RNA after four weeks of IL-4 therapy in the majority of patients tested. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Chicken interleukin-4 (ChIL-4), which is released by activated type 2 helper (Th2) cells following their stimulation in vitro, is an important indicator for the study of cell-mediated immunity in chickens after infection or vaccination. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • IL-4 exhibits a variety of beneficial effects on the immune system and is a potent inhibitor of Kaposi's sarcoma cells in vitro. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We found that IL-4 treatment of sensitized cells during secondary stimulation in vitro had little effect on their ability to lyse virus-infected target cells in a 51Cr release assay. (asm.org)
  • In contrast to the adoptive transfer results, the treatment of PR8 virus-infected mice with IL-4 during primary infection greatly suppressed the generation of cytotoxic T-cell precursors, as assessed by secondary stimulation in vitro. (asm.org)
  • IL-4 is essential for IgE synthesis in vitro and its involvement with allergic diseases has been investigated. (biovendor.com)
  • 5 6 8 25 26 For example, cell-sorted purified and phenotypically naive murine CD4 + T cells were shown to release IL-4 at priming and to develop into Th2 effectors upon in vitro priming with a low concentration of Ag or altered peptide ligands. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Transgenic CD4 cells exhibited a 10- 100-fold increase in IL-4 production on mitogen stimulation in vitro and in vivo, and baseline levels of the Th2-controlled serum immunoglobulin isotypes, IgE and IgG1, were also selectively elevated in vivo. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Ishige K, Shoda J, Kawamoto T, et al: Potent in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of interleukin-4-conjugated Pseudomonas exotoxin against human biliary tract carcinoma. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Finally, in a therapeutic immunization study using H. felis -infected BALB/c mice, a decrease in bacterial colonization was associated with increased production of IL-4 by CD4 + spleen cells stimulated in vitro ( 43 ). (asm.org)
  • Bacterial lipopolysaccharide and interferon-γ stimulation of rodent macrophages in vitro induces up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase, whereas interleukin-4 stimulation results in increased activity of arginase-1. (eurekamag.com)
  • Macrophages exposed to the Th2 cytokines interleukin (IL) IL-4 and IL-13 exhibit a distinct transcriptional response, commonly referred to as M2 polarization. (frontiersin.org)
  • Historically, macrophage polarization was described in a dichotomous fashion with a pro-inflammatory response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide in combination with a Th1 cytokine interferon-γ (M1 response) as opposed to an anti-inflammatory response elicited by Th2 cytokines interleukin-4 (IL-4) or IL-13 (M2 response) ( 2 - 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Whereas cytokines secreted by Th1 cells, particularly gamma interferon, promote the generation of cell-mediated immunity, Th2 cells and their cytokines (interleukin-4 [IL-4], IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13) have been shown to function in recovery from parasitic infections and in antibody responses. (asm.org)
  • The aim of this study was to determine whether the T‐helper 2‐type cytokines interleukin (IL)‐13 and ‐4 are involved in mucus hypersecretion, the hallmark of chronic bronchitis (CB). (ersjournals.com)
  • Recently, a role of the T‐helper (Th)‐2 cytokines interleukin (IL)‐13 and ‐4 in the development of mucus hypersecretion and allergen-induced goblet cell metaplasia has also been suggested 7 - 9 . (ersjournals.com)
  • The two cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and interferon (IFN)-γ play major roles in the generation and regulation of immune responses. (ovid.com)
  • The cytokines interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) are key regulators of the immune system, influencing the expansion and differentiation of T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Generally, type 1 cytokines (interleukin 12 [IL-12], gamma interferon [IFN-γ], and IL-2) drive cellular immunity, whereas type 2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) regulate antibody production. (asm.org)
  • Interleukin-4 , abbreviated IL-4 , is a cytokine that induces differentiation of naive helper T cells ( Th0 cells ) to Th2 cells . (thefullwiki.org)
  • The cell that initially produces IL-4, thus inducing Th0 differentiation, has not been identified, but recent studies (2009) suggest that basophils may be the effector cell. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Interleukin 4 has many biological roles, including the stimulation of activated B-cell and T-cell proliferation, and the differentiation of B cells into plasma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among T cells , the encoded protein also can bind interleukin 4 to promote differentiation of Th2 cells . (wikidoc.org)
  • Interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-12 together with T cell receptor (TCR) engagement are crucial for the differentiation of CD4 + T cells into T helper (Th)2 or Th1 cells, respectively. (rupress.org)
  • The differentiation of naive T cells in the Th1 or Th2 direction requires both TCR-mediated and cytokine (IL-12 or IL-4)-mediated signals. (rupress.org)
  • IL-4-mediated activation of Stat6 may antagonize the capacity of IL-12 to drive Th1 differentiation ( 32 )( 33 ). (rupress.org)
  • Despite this, IL-4 has no apparent advantage over IL-12 in driving T cell differentiation when both of them are present. (rupress.org)
  • Produced by mast cells, T cells and bone marrow stromal cells, IL-4 regulates the differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells into helper Th2 cells. (cellsciences.com)
  • We have previously revealed that IL-4 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of IgG4-RD. 3-5 In particular, IL-4-producing follicular helper T cells contribute to IgG4 class-switching and plasmablast differentiation in the disease. (bmj.com)
  • Il-4 plays an important role in the activation of resting B-cells and in the subsequent proliferation and differentiation of B-cells. (biovendor.com)
  • First, IL-4 promotes T helper cell type 2 (Th2) differentiation and stability and inhibits Th1-cell differentiation. (ovid.com)
  • Produced by mast cells, T cells and bone marrow stromal cells, IL-4 regulates the differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells into helper Th2 cells, characterized by their cytokine-secretion profile that includes secretion of IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-13, which favor a humoral immune response. (creative-bioarray.com)
  • IL-4 promotes expression of CCR7, a marker linked to existing models of CD8(+) T cell differentiation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • IL-4 signalling through the IL-4 receptor (IL-4R), under the influence of Stat6, induces the differentiation of CD4 + T cells into Th2 helper cells, which themselves then secrete IL-4 along with IL-5, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • Interleukin-4 (IL-4) plays a major role in this process by promoting the differentiation of IL-4-secreting Th2 cells. (elsevier.com)
  • In this work, the first ChIL-4 chemiluminescent (CL) immunosensor was developed via the immobilization of monoclonal ChIL-4 antibodies on a nitrogen-doped graphene (NG)-chitosan nanocomposite matrix. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Neutralizing antibodies to interleukin 4 (IL-4) and IL-4 receptor α inhibit mechanically induced membrane hyperpolarization and anti-IL-4 antibodies neutralize the hyperpolarizing activity of medium from mechanically stimulated cells. (rupress.org)
  • Furthermore, anti-VLA-4 alpha or the combination of anti-VLA-4 alpha and anti-VCAM-1 antibodies blocked completely T-cell binding to IL-4 stimulated synovial cells. (bmj.com)
  • Agonist antibodies targeting the T-cell costimulatory receptor 4-1BB (CD137) are among the most effective immunotherapeutic agents across preclinical cancer models. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The capacity of 4-1BB agonist antibodies to induce liver toxicity was investigated in immunocompetent mice, with or without coadministration of checkpoint blockade, via (i) measurement of serum transaminase levels, (ii) imaging of liver immune infiltrates, and (iii) qualitative and quantitative assessment of liver myeloid and T cells via flow cytometry. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 4-1BB agonist antibodies trigger hepatitis via activation and expansion of interleukin-27-producing liver Kupffer cells and monocytes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To test the hypothesis that a Th2 response to Helicobacter pylori is necessary for protection and to address the possibility that humoral and Th2 cellular responses may compensate for each other, we generated mice deficient in both interleukin-4 (IL-4) and antibodies. (asm.org)
  • To determine whether IL-4 is necessary for protection in the absence of antibodies, we generated mice genetically deficient in production of both IL-4 and antibodies. (asm.org)
  • Generation of mice lacking both IL-4 and antibodies. (asm.org)
  • Mice genetically deficient in both IL-4 and antibodies (double knockout [DKO]) were generated by breeding female C57BL/6- Igh - 6 tm1Cgn mice (μMT) ( 25 ) (Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine) with male C57BL/6J- Il4 tm1Cgn mice (IL-4 KO) ( 29 ) (Jackson Laboratory). (asm.org)
  • this IL-4-induced priming for the two cytokines was inhibited by anti-IL-4 neutralizing antibodies. (rupress.org)
  • Using an assay to assess cell spreading, where the tissue culture wells were coated with antibodies, the majority of B cells were found to spread, forming long dendrites when treated with LPS plus IL-4. (ki.se)
  • Asthma is a complex genetic disorder that has been associated with IL-4 gene promoter polymorphism and proteins involved in IL-4 signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • The administration of a TLR-4 ligand, lipopolysaccharide, concomitant with arthritogenic serum in IL-1 receptor-deficient mice resulted in acute paw swelling, but not in MyD88-deficient mice. (rupress.org)
  • 2. Incubation of PBMCs with interleukin-4 significantly reduced both spontaneous and lipopolysaccharide-induced production of tumour necrosis factor and lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-6 production, demonstrating that the PBMCs from patients with acute and chronic disease are not refractory to the effects of interleukin-4. (portlandpress.com)
  • Addition of IL-4 and IL-13 to peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures inhibited production of IL-12, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, IL-10, and IL-1 beta induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or Staphylococcus aureus added simultaneously with the cytokines. (rupress.org)
  • transient overexpression of NIP45 with NF-ATp and c- maf in B lymphoma cells induced measurable endogenous IL-4 protein production. (sciencemag.org)
  • Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory disease affecting the optic nerve and spinal cord, in which autoantibodies against aquaporin 4 (AQP4) water channel protein probably play a pathogenic role. (pnas.org)
  • AQP4 is the most abundantly expressed water channel protein in the CNS and is highly expressed in the perimicrovessel astrocyte foot processes, glia limitans, and ependyma ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • The nucleotide sequence for human IL-4 was isolated four years later confirming its similarity to a mouse protein called B-cell stimulatory factor-1 (BCSF-1). (thefullwiki.org)
  • This gene encodes the alpha chain of the interleukin-4 receptor, a type I transmembrane protein that can bind interleukin 4 and interleukin 13 to regulate IgE antibody production in B cells . (wikidoc.org)
  • These phosphotyrosines and the immediately surrounding amino acids within IL-4Rα provide docking sites for the phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domain proteins insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1/2 ( 9 )( 10 )( 11 ), Shc ( 12 ), and IL-4R interacting protein (FRIP) ( 13 ), and for signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat)6 ( 4 )( 14 ). (rupress.org)
  • In conclusion, T‐helper‐2 and ‐1 protein expression is present in the central airways of smokers and interleukin‐4 and ‐13 could contribute to mucus hypersecretion in chronic bronchitis. (ersjournals.com)
  • and (3) IL-4 protein could be measured in the supernatant fluids of priming cultures performed in the presence of anti-IL-4R blocking MoAb, preventing IL-4 consumption by activated naive CD4 + T cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • EMSA and supershift analysis revealed that the transcription factors activator protein 4 (AP-4) and AP-1 specifically bound to the -720/-696 part of this sequence under IL-1beta treatment. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In addition, bronchial biopsy studies have shown increased expression of IL‐4, both at mRNA and protein level, in the airway mucosa of atopic and even nonatopic asthmatics, when compared to nonasthmatic controls 9 - 11 . (ersjournals.com)
  • Interestingly enough, there was no correlation between the level of either transcript and the plasma IL-4 protein level, but there was no correlation between the combined level of both transcripts and the IL-4 protein level. (asm.org)
  • The effects of interleukin-4 on the ability of PBMC supernatants to elicit an acute phase protein response from isolated human hepatocytes were also studied. (portlandpress.com)
  • Overall, interleukin-4 reduced the potential of PBMCs to stimulate production of the positive acute phase proteins C-reactive protein, α1-antichymotrypsin and α1-acid glycoprotein. (portlandpress.com)
  • IL-4 was found to induce 15-PGDH activity and protein expression in a time and dose dependent manner in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our results indicate that IL-4 up-regulates 15-PGDH by increased gene transcription and decreased protein turnover, and the up-regulation can be mediated by multiple signaling pathways. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cytokine responses, measured at the molecular and protein levels, showed increased levels of IFN-gamma in lung extracts from mice of the resistant DBA/2 strain after a pulmonary challenge, whereas the susceptible BALB/c strain manifested a predominant IL-4 response. (asm.org)
  • RESULTS: IL-4 and IL-10 mRNA and protein were detected in the lamina propria of treated and untreated coeliac patients and disease controls but not in the epithelium. (bmj.com)
  • Recombinant mouse IL-4 is a 13.5 kDa globular protein containing 120 amino acid residues. (creative-bioarray.com)
  • The lyophilized powder, though stable at room temperature for up to 3 weeks, is best stored desiccated at -20°C. Reconstituted mouse IL-4 should be used immediately or stored long-term in undiluted working aliquots at -20°C. For long-term storage it is recommended to add a carrier protein (0.1% HSA or BSA). (creative-bioarray.com)
  • Interleukin 4 mediates important pro-inflammatory functions in asthma, including induction of isotype rearrangement of IgE, expression of VCAM-1 molecules (vascular cell adhesion molecule 1), promoting eosinophilic transmigration through endothelium, mucus secretion and T helper type 2 (Th2) leading to cytokine release. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, the T-cell stimulant phytohaemagglutinin increased the expression of IL-4Rα1 and IL-4Rα2, but not IL-13Rα1/2, suggesting a role of an IL-4-like molecule in T-cell growth/activation in fish. (springer.com)
  • On recognition of the conserved, major histocompatibility complex class I- like CD1 molecule, these cells are able to release explosive bursts of interleukin 4 (IL-4), a cytokine that promotes the T helper type 2 (Th2) effector class of an immune response. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This single-chain recombinant molecule contains amino acids 38-129 of IL-4, fused via a peptide linker to amino acids 1-37, which in turn is fused to the toxin. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CD23 has been described as an adhesion molecule, the expression of which is significantly increased by IL-4. (ki.se)
  • IL-4 decreases the production of Th1 cells, macrophages, IFN-gamma, and dendritic cell IL-12. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of IL-4 in extravascular tissues promotes alternative activation of macrophages into M2 cells and inhibits classical activation of macrophages into M1 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The binding of IL-4 or IL-13 to the IL-4 receptor on the surface of macrophages results in the alternative activation of those macrophages. (wikidoc.org)
  • Recently, IL-4-induced polarization of murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) has been linked to acetyl-CoA levels through the activity of the cytosolic acetyl-CoA-generating enzyme ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY). (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, we studied how ACLY regulated IL-4-stimulated gene expression in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). (frontiersin.org)
  • Our findings suggest that ACLY may not be the major regulator of nucleocytoplasmic acetyl-CoA and IL-4-induced polarization in human macrophages. (frontiersin.org)
  • The results of the present study demonstrated that NSCs induced M2 polarization and suppressed M1 polarization of macrophages in an interleukin (IL)‑4‑dependent manner. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • IL-4 has since been shown to have multiple biological effects on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells, including B and T cells, monocytes, macrophages, mast cells, myeloid and erythroid progenitors, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells. (neuromics.com)
  • In addition, IL-4 can inhibit the production of TNF, IL-1, and IL-6 by macrophages. (biovendor.com)
  • For the panels in columns 1 and 2 macrophages were cultured for 5 days with 20 ng/ml M-CSF and then with 20 ng/ml IL-4 for an additional 6 or 24 hours as indicated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Expression of IL-4δ2 mRNA is seen in PBMC from all humans tested so far (in our lab, about 50 individuals). (asm.org)
  • Hybridoma resulting from the fusion of a mouse myeloma with B cells obtained from a mouse immunized with purified, E. coli-derived, recombinant human interleukin 2 (rhIL-2). (neuromics.com)
  • 25a ) in this issue of Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology addresses expression of mRNA for a splice variant of IL-4 called IL-4δ2. (asm.org)
  • Horohov, "Molecular cloning and sequencing of equine interleukin 4 ," Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The enhanced accumulation of transcripts for the IL-12 p35 and p40 chains by IL-4 priming was reflected in enhanced secretion of both the IL-12 free p40 chain and the p70 heterodimer. (rupress.org)
  • In addition, high level secretion of IL-4 by Fasciola hepatica specific Th2 clones, but not by a Babesia bovis specific Th1 clone, was confirmed. (curehunter.com)
  • Another dominant function of IL-4 is the regulation of immunoglobulin class switching to the IgG1 and IgE isotypes. (cellsciences.com)
  • 1 They showed remarkable effectiveness of dupilumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting the interleukin-4 (IL-4) receptor alpha, in immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) complicated with retroperitoneal fibrosis for the first time. (bmj.com)
  • The best described activity of IL-4 on B cells is perhaps in inducing immunoglobulin class switching. (ki.se)
  • The mAb detected recombinant IL-4 in mammalian cells transfected with different plasmids containing IL-4 cDNA. (nih.gov)
  • In comparison, the more sensitive technique of real-time RT-PCR assay detected copies of IL-4 cDNA in both MCMV-infected eyes and uninfected eyes of MAIDS mice. (eurekamag.com)
  • MCMV-infected eyes showed a 16-fold increase in the number of IL-4 cDNA copies when compared with uninfected eyes. (eurekamag.com)
  • Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is secreted by T helper type 2 cells, mast cells, basophils and eosinophils. (nih.gov)
  • Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13 are two cytokines produced by T helper type 2 cells, mast cells, and basophils. (sciencemag.org)
  • IL-4 is produced by a particular subset of T helper cells, the TH2 cells. (biovendor.com)
  • Mammalian interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13 are T helper type 2 (Th2) cytokines with pleiotropic functions in immunity. (springer.com)
  • IL-4 is a typical cytokine of T helper 2 (Th2) cells, which could inhibit effect on the inflammation, decrease the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reduce the destructive enzymes through monocytes [ 12 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Since the T helper-2 (Th2) cytokine, interleukin (IL)-4, is an important mediator of airway inflammation, we investigated whether IL-4 rapidly regulated BK(Ca) activity in normal airway smooth muscle cells. (umassmed.edu)
  • When fibroblasts were incubated with combinations of both cytokines, IFN-gamma completely suppressed the stimulation of collagen gene expression induced by IL-4. (nih.gov)
  • Stimulation of collagen by human recombinant (hr)IL-4 was also demonstrated in several fibroblastic synovial cell lines obtained from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. (jci.org)
  • In agreement with these observations, we previously reported that virtually every naive human CD4 + T cell of neonatal or adult origin grown in single-cell culture developed into high IL-4/IL-5 producers after multiple cycles of stimulation with anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (MoAb) immobilized on CD32/B7.1-transfected L cells and IL-2 expansion. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Overexpression of AP-4 in the BAC cultures resulted in stimulation of the transcriptional activity of the -732/+11 TGFbeta1 promoter construct through the same IL-1beta-responsive element. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • IL-2/IL-4 co-stimulation provokes prolonged activation only of STAT6. (jimmunol.org)
  • Additional effects that seem of particular importance for asthma include stimulation of mucus producing cells and fibroblasts, thus also implicating IL‐4 in the pathogenesis of airway remodelling 5 - 7 . (ersjournals.com)
  • Chondrocytes from IL-4 knockout mice fail to show a membrane hyperpolarization response to cyclical mechanical stimulation. (rupress.org)
  • RESULTS--Stimulation of synovial cells with IL-4 increased T cell-synovial cells adhesion in a time- and dose-dependent manner. (bmj.com)
  • Overexpression of Jun family proteins transactivates the promoter and restores Bcl-3 expression in the absence of IL-4 stimulation. (asm.org)
  • me found that although IL-4 stimulation of X-SCID B cells did not result in Janus tyrosine kinase-3 (JAK3) phosphorylation, other IL-4 substrates including JAK1 and IRS-1 were phosphorylated, Additionally, we detected signal transducers and activators of transcription 6 (STAT6) tyrosine phosphorylation and DNA binding activity in X-SCID B cells with a wide range of gamma(c) mutations. (cnrs.fr)
  • Neither synergistic nor inhibitory efl'ect on T -cell proliferationwas seen for the stimulation with both 11-2 and 11-4 as compared with the effect ofll-2 alone. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • The inhibitory effects of CTLA-4 were evident within 4 h, at a time when cell surface CTLA-4 expression remained undetectable. (jimmunol.org)
  • Other CTLA-4 mAbs had no detectable inhibitory effects, indicating that binding of Ab to CTLA-4 alone is not sufficient to mediate down-regulation of T cell responses. (jimmunol.org)
  • Stimulatory and inhibitory effects of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 on the production of cytokines by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells: priming for IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor alpha production. (rupress.org)
  • Interleukin (IL)-10, IL-4, IL-13, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta are usually considered to be the most important macrophage-deactivating factors, with inhibitory effects on cytokine production. (rupress.org)
  • A monoclonal antibody to equine interleukin-4. (nih.gov)
  • We used recombinant equine IL-4 to generate a monoclonal antibody (mAb) to equine IL-4. (nih.gov)
  • Dupilumab is a monoclonal antibody that inhibits IL-4 and IL-13 signaling by blocking the shared IL-4Ra. (medscape.com)
  • The increased adhesion of T cells to IL-4 stimulated synovial cells was inhibited significantly by adding anti-VCAM-1 or anti-CD29 monoclonal antibody. (bmj.com)
  • Stein M, Keshav S, Harris N and Gordon S: Interleukin 4 potently enhances murine macrophage mannose receptor activity: A marker of alternative immunologic macrophage activation. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • 29 Further studies in the murine as well as in the human system showed that IL-4 production at priming was critically dependent on CD28 costimulation. (bloodjournal.org)
  • To determine if murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV)-infected eyes of mice with murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (MAIDS) that are destined to develop MCMV retinitis display elevated intraocular levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4) mRNA when compared with uninfected eyes of mice with MAIDS and unmanipulated, uninfected, eyes of normal healthy mice. (eurekamag.com)
  • To characterize the IL-4-induced regulation of murine Bcl-3 expression, we cloned the promoter of this gene. (asm.org)
  • In both types of fibroblasts, IL-4 strongly stimulated collagen synthesis, whereas IFN-gamma was a potent inhibitor. (nih.gov)
  • SSc fibroblasts responded to IL-4 and IFN-gamma as well as normal fibroblasts. (nih.gov)
  • Northern blot and western blot analyses demonstrated that IFN-gamma induced a rapid and strong decrease in the expression of the IL-4 receptor-alpha by fibroblasts. (nih.gov)
  • This effect might explain the antagonistic effects of IFN-gamma on the IL-4-dependent enhancement of collagen synthesis. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, culture supernatants of secondarily stimulated spleen cells from IL-4-treated mice contained significantly less gamma interferon and more IL-4 than did spleen cells from controls. (asm.org)
  • There are two types of the IL-4 receptor complexes, the type I receptor consisting of the IL-4R alpha and the common gamma chain, yc and the type II receptor consisting of IL-4R alpha and the IL-13R alpha. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Culture supernatants from spleen cells derived from IL-4-deficient mice contained significantly more gamma interferon than those derived from IL-4+/+ mice at day 7 postinfection. (strath.ac.uk)
  • These results suggest that the observed reduction in mortality during the early acute phases of infection may be due to the down-regulatory effects of Il-4 or associated Th2-derived products on proinflammatory cytokines such as gamma interferon. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Roles of gamma interferon and interleukin-4 in genetically determined resistance to Coccidioides immitis. (asm.org)
  • The profiles of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) production were evaluated during the course of coccidioidomycosis in two inbred mouse strains which differ in their susceptibility to Coccidioides immitis. (asm.org)
  • These results, taken together, establish that IFN-gamma plays a pivotal role in resistance to C. immitis, whereas IL-4 down-regulates protective immunity against C. immitis. (asm.org)
  • The levels of both IL-4 and IFN-gamma increased with gestation in pregnant infected C57BL/6 mice compared with pregnant non-infected group, while only IL-4 was raised in pregnant infected mice compared with infected non pregnant mice. (ajol.info)
  • Conclusions:- It may be concluded that increased IL-4 in pregnant infected C57BL/6 mice caused the transient susceptibility to L. major infection while reduced litter weight was associated with increased IFN-gamma. (ajol.info)
  • Les taux de IL-4 et IFN-gamma les deux ont augmenté avec la gestation chez le souris fécond infecté C57BL/6 par rapport au groupe de fécond non-infecté, tandis que IL-4 seulement était levé chez le souris fécond infecté par rapport au souris fécond non infecté. (ajol.info)
  • Concluion:- On pourrait conclure qu' une augmentation de Il-4 chez le souris fécond infecté C57BL/6 a provoqué la susceptibilité transitoire à I'infection 1 grave tandis qu' un poids porté réduit était attributable à une augmentation de gamma IFN. (ajol.info)
  • GCF samples were analyzed for the presence and levels of IFN-gamma, IL-4, IL-33, and TSLP using a multiplex bead immunoassay (Luminex). (tufts.edu)
  • Conclusions Within the limitations of the current study, we could not demonstrate any statistically significant difference in the frequency of detection, amount or concentration of IFN-gamma, IL-4, IL-33 and TSLP in gingival crevicular fluid from patients with chronic periodontitis compared to patients with plaque-induced gingivitis and periodontally healthy subjects. (tufts.edu)
  • Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is an important cytokine for B and T lymphocyte function and mediates its effects via a receptor that contains gamma(c), B cells derived from patients with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID) are deficient in gamma(c) and provide a useful model in which to dissect the role of this subunit in IL-4-mediated signaling. (cnrs.fr)
  • However, reconstitution of these X-SCID B cells with gamma(c) enhanced IL-4-mediated responses including STAT6 phosphorylation and DNA binding activity and resulted in increased CD23 expression. (cnrs.fr)
  • Thus, gamma(c) is not necessary to trigger IL-4-mediated responses in B cells, but its presence is important for optimal IL-4-signaling, These results suggest that two distinct IL-4 signaling pathways exist. (cnrs.fr)
  • Upon activation by IL-4, Th2 cells subsequently produce additional IL-4. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13 appear to play critical roles in the etiology of atopic dermatitis in response to activation by epidermal cell-derived cytokines. (medscape.com)
  • OX40 ligation increases four times the expression of IL-4 mRNA after 48 hours of anti-CD3/B7.1 activation and significantly augments the release of IL-4 and IL-13 in primary cultures. (bloodjournal.org)
  • IL-1beta induces an increase of TGFbeta1 in articular chondrocytes through activation of AP-4 and AP-1 binding to the TGFbeta1 gene promoter. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • At a signaling level, IL-4 abates IL-2-stimulated activation levels of Akt, Erk and STAT5 possibly through competition for limiting amounts of common receptor subunit. (jimmunol.org)
  • This extended STAT6 activation may be critical in the IL-2/IL-4 induced synergy in T cell growth. (jimmunol.org)
  • CTLA-4 mRNA expression is confined to the CD28 + subset of T cells, and mRNA is detected within 1 h after T cell activation ( 4 , 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Cell surface expression of CTLA-4 is not detectable on resting T cells and peaks 2 to 3 days after activation ( 6 , 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • However, other evidence suggests that CTLA-4 activation opposes CD28-mediated costimulation and, in fact, may have a dominant negative regulatory role ( 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Our results demonstrate that while some CTLA-4 mAbs blocked T cell activation, others had no effect. (jimmunol.org)
  • This CTLA-4-mediated inhibition induces a novel phenotype during the first 4 h of activation whereby IL-2 induction is prevented while enhancement of the cell survival gene bcl-X L is preserved. (jimmunol.org)
  • We find that activation of 4-1BB on liver myeloid cells is essential to initiate hepatitis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A gene on chromosome 5q31.1 that encodes interleukin-4, a pleiotropic cytokine produced by activated T cells, which participates in several B-cell activation processes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • MCMV-infected mice with MAIDS exhibited an expected preferential activation of Th2 cells as determined by increased levels of IL-4 in spleen cells when compared with spleen cells of normal mice. (eurekamag.com)
  • We aimed to investigate the association of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-12B gene polymorphisms with responsiveness to the HBV vaccine in Korean infants. (elsevier.es)
  • In conclusion, those results suggest that IL-4 gene polymorphisms may play a role in the response to the HBV vaccine in Korean infants. (scielo.org.mx)
  • Associations of interleukin-4 receptor gene polymorphisms (Q551R, I50V) with rheumatoid arthritis: evidence from a meta-analysis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Interleukin-1beta, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, interleukin-4, and interleukin-10 gene polymorphisms: relationship to occurrence and severity of rheumatoid arthritis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • It was found that IL-4-induced phosphorylation of Janus kinases 1 and 3, IL-4Rα, signal transducer and activator of transcription 6, and insulin receptor substrate 2 was strikingly but transiently inhibited by TCR ligation both in conventional and TCR transgenic T cells. (rupress.org)
  • The molecular mechanisms by which IL-4 induces expression of the IL-4 gene are not known, although the IL-4-activated transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (Stat6) is required for this effect. (elsevier.com)
  • Qi Y, Zeng T, Fan S, Zhang L, Liang C. Genetic Association between Interleukin-4 Receptor Polymorphisms and Cancer Susceptibility: A Meta-Analysis Based on 53 Case-Control Studies. (jcancer.org)
  • Variation in the interleukin 4-receptor alpha gene confers susceptibility to asthma and atopy in ethnically diverse populations. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The genotyping of the IL-4 rs2243250 and rs2070874 was performed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification and single base extension assays in a 384- well plate format on the sequenom MassARRAY platform. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Heterotypic adhesion assays show that the action of IL-4 or anti-CD40 on B cells results in cell adhesion being more LFA-1 dependent and suggests a mechanism involving altered ICAM-1 presentation on B cells. (ki.se)
  • We report here that Stat6 interacts with three binding sites in the human IL-4 promoter by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. (elsevier.com)
  • To investigate the role of Stat6 in regulating IL-4 transcription, we used Stat6-deficient Jurkat T cells with different intact IL-4 promoter constructs in cotransfection assays. (elsevier.com)
  • The duplicitous effects of interleukin 4 on tumour immunity: how can the same cytokine improve or impair control of tumour growth? (thefullwiki.org)
  • IL-4 produced minimal anti-tumor effects in AIDS-KS with one partial remission in a patient with CD4 lymphocyte counts over 200/mm3. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The autocrine and paracrine effects of IL-4 render both MCCs and CSCs refractory to anticancer drugs in part due to an increase of antiapoptotic proteins. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Strikingly, ACLY inhibitors still suppressed induction of target genes by IL-4 in ACLY knockout cells, suggesting off-target effects of these drugs. (frontiersin.org)
  • Conclusion In rat AIA, IL-4 reduces synovial tissue vascularization via angiostatic effects, mediates inhibition of angiogenesis via an association with altered pro- and antiangiogenic cytokines, and may inhibit VEGF-mediated angiogenesis and exert its angiostatic role in part via ΑvΒ3 integrin. (umich.edu)
  • This knowledge of the specific angiostatic effects of IL-4 may help optimize target-oriented treatment of inflammatory arthritis. (umich.edu)
  • To determine the effects of IL-4 on tumor growth in patients with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In this study, we analyzed the effects of the dominant Th2 cytokine, IL-4, on immunity to virus infection. (asm.org)
  • We assessed the effects of IL-4 on both secondary immune responses by an adoptive transfer assay and primary immune responses by in vivo treatment of influenza virus-infected mice with IL-4. (asm.org)
  • Il-4 has anti-inflammatory effects. (biovendor.com)
  • IL-4 exerts numerous effects on various hematopoietic cell types. (biovendor.com)
  • Interleukin-1 (IL-1) and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1) play major roles in osteoarticular diseases, exerting opposite effects on both the catabolism and anabolism of cartilage matrix. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • We have assessed the functional effects of a panel of CTLA-4 mAbs on resting human CD4 + T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • We have analyzed the functional effects of a panel of CTLA-4 mAbs coimmobilized with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 mAb on resting primary human CD4 + T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Interleukin‐4 is pivotal in the pathogenesis of allergic disorders through its wide range of effects. (ersjournals.com)
  • Suppression of IB1 levels with the use of RNA interference strategy impaired the protective effects of ex-4 against apoptosis induced by IL-1β. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • OBJECTIVE--The effects were studied of interleukin 4 (IL-4) on T cell-synovial cell adhesion and on the expression of adhesion molecules on the surface of synovial fibroblast-like cells. (bmj.com)
  • 1. This study investigates whether previously documented effects of interleukin-4 in down-regulating pro-inflammatory cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy individuals would be reproducible in PBMCs isolated from patients with multiple organ failure (acute disease model) and gastrointestinal cancer (chronic disease model). (portlandpress.com)
  • The effects of interleukin-4 on the ability of PBMCs from the groups studied to elicit an acute phase response were complex and varied both between patient groups and individual acute phase proteins. (portlandpress.com)
  • Human IL-4 exerts its biological effects via signaling through its receptor system, IL-4R. (creativebiomart.net)
  • However, the long-term effects of IL-4 are detrimental, possibly because of the ability of this cytokine to inhibit proinflammatory antiparasitic products. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Effects of IL-4 and Stat6 on lysosomal gene expression as measured by quantitative PCR. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While IL-4 inhibits and activates different sets of lysosomal genes, Stat6 mediates only the activating effects of IL-4, by promoting increased expression and by neutralizing undefined inhibitory signals induced by IL-4. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Interleukin-4 (IL-4), also known as B cell-stimulatory factor-1, is a monomeric, approximately 13 kDa ‑ 18 kDa Th2 cytokine that shows pleiotropic effects during immune responses. (immunodiagnostics.com.hk)
  • The stimulatory effect of hrIL-4 on fibroblast collagen synthesis was specifically neutralized by rabbit anti-hrIL-4 Ig. (jci.org)
  • Rabbit anti Human Interleukin-4 antibody recognizes human IL-4 (Interleukin-4), also known as B-cell stimulatory factor 1, a 129 amino acid pleiotropic cytokine which interacts with multiple cell lineages, including T cells, fibroblasts and haematopoietic cells, and is one of the most important factors involved in B cell IgG1 and IgE class switching. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • Human fibroblasts synthesize elevated levels of extracellular matrix proteins in response to interleukin 4. (jci.org)
  • Quantitative analysis of the levels of Pro alpha 1(I) collagen transcripts in IL-4-treated fibroblast cultures was also corroborated by antisense RNA-mRNA hybridization and RNAse resistant hybrids which showed that IL-4-treated fibroblasts expressed higher levels of Pro alpha 1(I) collagen transcripts. (jci.org)
  • At the same time, our data indicate that IL-4δ2 is an IL-4 agonist in its effect on fibroblasts, with both IL-4 and IL-4δ2 stimulating fibroblast proliferation and collagen production (reference 5 and our unpublished data). (asm.org)
  • We addressed the safety, feasibility and preliminary clinical activity of the vaccinations using autologous glioma cells and interleukin (IL)-4 gene transfected fibroblasts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Nevertheless, the clearance of influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) virus from the lungs of infected BALB/c mice was significantly delayed after the transfer of virus-specific T cells secondarily stimulated in the presence of IL-4 in comparison to virus clearance in recipients of cells stimulated in the absence of IL-4. (asm.org)
  • Cell kinetic studies of T cells stimulated with the interleukin 2 (11-2), D-4, or both lymphokines were performed with conventional [3H] thymidine incorporation and with the bivariate BrdU/Hoechst technique. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • B cells stimulated with LPS and IL-4 display increased levels of cell aggregation as compared to cells stimulated with LPS alone. (ki.se)
  • Examination at an ultrastructural level using electron microscopy revealed induction of ribosome-containing dendrites and rnicrovilli-like structures in both spread and aggregated cells, stimulated with LPS and IL-4. (ki.se)
  • Like tacrolimus and pimecrolimus (ascomycin), cyclosporine binds to macrophilin and then inhibits calcineurin, a calcium-dependent enzyme, which, in turn, inhibits phosphorylation of nuclear factor of activated T cells and inhibits transcription of cytokines, particularly IL-4. (medscape.com)
  • IL-4 responsiveness returned at about the time (∼12 h) that IL-12-mediated signaling was first observed. (rupress.org)
  • Two major IL-4-signaling pathways are mediated by the PTB domain proteins and Stat6, respectively ( 15 )( 16 ). (rupress.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS- The data establish the requirement of IB1 in the protective action of ex-4 against apoptosis elicited by IL-1β and highlight the GLP-1 mimetics as new potent inhibitors of the JNK signaling induced by cytokines. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • To investigate further the mechanism of induction by IL-4, the roles of various signaling kinases in the IL-4-initiated signaling pathways in A549 cells were examined. (aacrjournals.org)
  • IL-4 deprivation induces downregulation of Jun expression and upregulation of Fos expression, both of which are proteins involved in the formation of AP1 and AP1-like transcription factors. (asm.org)
  • The N-terminal ( extracellular ) portion of interleukin-4 receptor is related in overall topology to fibronectin type III modules and folds into a sandwich comprising seven antiparallel beta sheets arranged in a three-strand and a four-strand beta-pleated sheet . (wikidoc.org)
  • Based on these observations we conclude that IL-4 exerts its effect on collagen and fibronectin synthesis at the pretranslational level, resulting in synthesis of these extracellular matrix proteins. (jci.org)
  • Interleukin-4 causes delayed virus clearance in influenza virus-infected mice. (asm.org)
  • More importantly, the treatment of mice with IL-4 resulted in an extremely significant delay in virus clearance. (asm.org)
  • In T cell receptor transgenic K/BxN mice interleukin (IL)-1 plays a key role in joint swelling and destruction, as suggested by the ability of anti-IL-1receptor (IL-1R) antibody treatment to delay the onset and slow the progression of this disease. (rupress.org)
  • Also, serum transferred arthritis was not sustained in TLR-4 mutant mice compared with controls. (rupress.org)
  • However, coadministration of the TLR-4 ligand, LPS, and K/BxN serum did induce paw swelling in IL-1R −/− , but not MyD88 −/− mice. (rupress.org)
  • Furthermore, mice that are mutant in TLR-4 had a shortened course of paw swelling after serum transfer. (rupress.org)
  • Accordingly diarrhoea and DSS-induced colon inflammation were impaired in ST2(-/-) BALB/c mice and exacerbated in wild-type mice by treatment with exogenous recombinant IL-33, associated respectively with reduced and enhanced expression of chemokines (CXCL9 and CXCL10), and inflammatory (IL-4, IL-13, IL-1, IL-6, IL-17) and angiogenic (vascular endothelial growth factor) cytokines in vivo. (strath.ac.uk)
  • The exacerbation effect of treatment with recombinant IL-33 on DSS-induced acute colitis was abolished in IL-4(-/-) BALB/c mice. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Overexpression of interleukin-4 delays virus clearance in mice infected with respiratory syncytial virus. (asm.org)
  • To assess the effect of IL-4 production on typical RSV infection, transgenic mice which either overexpress or fail to express IL-4 were challenged intranasally with RSV and their responses were compared to those of the parent strains. (asm.org)
  • IL-4-deficient mice eliminated virus from the lung as quickly as did C57BL/6 controls. (asm.org)
  • In contrast, mice which constitutively overexpress IL-4 showed delayed virus clearance compared with mice of the FVB/N control strain, although peak viral titers did not differ. (asm.org)
  • The course of Toxoplasma gondii infection from initiation of disease perorally until day 28 postinfection was compared between interleukin-4 (IL-4) gene knockout (IL-4-/-) mice and their wild-type (IL-4+/+) counterparts on a disease-susceptible genetic background. (strath.ac.uk)
  • The rate of mortality was significantly greater in mice deficient in Il-4 than in the immunocompetent controls. (strath.ac.uk)
  • At day 28 postinfection, histological examination of the brains indicated that IL-4+/+ mice had more severe pathological changes and more cysts than IL-4-/- mice. (strath.ac.uk)
  • In addition, although many nonencysted single organisms were present in IL-4+/+ mice within both necrotic lesions and microglial nodules, few nonencysted parasites were found, and no necrotic lesions were present in IL-4-deficient animals. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Neutralization of IL-4 in B-cell-deficient mice did not prevent protection. (asm.org)
  • Also, immunized IL-4-deficient mice were not protected from H. felis infection (F. J. Radcliff, A. J. Ramsay, and A. Lee, abstr. (asm.org)
  • In contrast, analysis of stomachs from protected immunized mice did not demonstrate elevated levels of mRNA for Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) at 4 weeks after challenge ( 15 ). (asm.org)
  • We also neutralized IL-4 in vivo in μMT mice. (asm.org)
  • MCMV-infected eyes and uninfected contralateral eyes from another group of mice with MAIDS were also collected at five days postinfection and individually subjected to competitive RT-PCR assay and real-time RT-PCR assay for detection and quantification of IL-4 mRNA. (eurekamag.com)
  • IL-4 mRNA was detected at a level of 9.7 +/- 3.4 pg mRNA per 1000 ng total RNA in 100% of MCMV-infected eyes of mice with MAIDS by competitive RT-PCR assay, but could not be detected in any of the uninfected eyes of MAIDS mice. (eurekamag.com)
  • Neither technique detected IL-4 mRNA in unmanipulated eyes of normal mice. (eurekamag.com)
  • As expected, spleen cells from mice with MAIDS expressed significantly greater levels of IL-4 when compared with spleen cells from normal mice. (eurekamag.com)
  • MCMV-infected eyes destined to develop retinitis during MAIDS also showed increased levels of detectable IL-4 mRNA when compared with uninfected eyes of mice with MAIDS. (eurekamag.com)
  • Although the treatment of DBA/2 mice with recombinant IL-4 did not alter the disease, neutralization of endogenous IL-4 in infected BALB/c mice by administration of a neutralizing anti-IL-4 antibody led to a significant reduction in the fungal load in their tissues. (asm.org)
  • Mice deficient in IL-2 were almost completely protected from arthritis, and neutralization of IL-4 reduced the severity of disease. (monash.edu)
  • Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is an important cytokine in mucosal immunity and plays a critical role in the development of colitis inT-α cell receptor mutant mice. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Mice were immunised with a plasmid encoding rbo IL-4 and boosted with rbo IL-4 . (curehunter.com)
  • nevertheless, cells with detectable IL-4 mRNA constituted less than 10% of the CD4+ CD45R- subset. (pnas.org)
  • A very low number of the GCF samples showed detectable levels for IL-4 and TSPL (4% and 3% of samples, respectively), while IL-33 was below the curve of detection for all samples collected. (tufts.edu)
  • Detectable concentrations of IL-4 and IL-10 were found in control patients which suggests that these cytokines are involved in normal mucosal immunoregulation. (bmj.com)
  • IL-4 and IL-13 were detectable in only 27 of 132 and 9 of 132 samples assayed respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • IL-4 has been found to mediate a crosstalk between the neural stem cells and neurons that undergo neurodegeneration, and initiate a regeneration cascade through phosphorylation of its intracellular effector STAT6 in an experimental Alzheimer's disease model in adult zebrafish brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genes that are regulated by IL-4 through IRS-2 and other PTB domain adapters are unknown, whereas Stat6 is directly responsible for inducing expression of a set of IL-4-inducible genes ( 18 )( 19 )( 20 )( 21 ). (rupress.org)
  • It is known that, in the presence of TCR-mediated signals, IL-4 activates Stat6, leading to the development of a Th2 response ( 22 )( 23 )( 24 )( 25 ), whereas IL-12 activates Stat4 and causes development of a Th1 response ( 29 )( 30 )( 31 ). (rupress.org)
  • IL-4 is able to activate PI 3-kinase/Akt as well as STAT6, though not Ras/Erk. (jimmunol.org)
  • IL-4 was found to induce rapidly STAT6 phosphorylation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The most strongly correlated candidate was Stat6, a factor commonly activated by interleukin-4 (IL-4) or IL-13. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We show that, whereas a multimerized response element from the germline IgE promoter was highly induced by IL-4 in Stat6-expressing Jurkat cells, the intact human IL-4 promoter was repressed under similar conditions. (elsevier.com)
  • We conclude that the function of Stat6 is highly dependent on promoter context and that this factor promotes IL-4 gene expression in an indirect manner. (elsevier.com)
  • IL-4 has a significant effect on tumor progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-4 can primitively motivate tumor cells and increase their apoptosis resistance by increasing tumor growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conversely, when conventional therapies are combined with IL-4 blockers, both MCCs and CSCs are effectively killed, rendering the tumor unable to maintain itself, and thus, to grow back ( B ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • We show here that ligation of OX40 Ag, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNF-R) family, on activated umbilical cord blood CD4 + T cells upregulates IL-4 production at priming and thereby promotes their development into effector cells producing high levels of the type 2 cytokines IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Lack of knowledge of the mechanisms underlying this toxicity has limited the potential to separate 4-1BB agonist-driven tumor immunity from hepatotoxicity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Loss of the chemokine receptor CCR2 blocks 4-1BB agonist hepatitis without diminishing tumor-specific immunity against B16 melanoma. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1 (IL-1), IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha released by the host have been reported in OM patients ( 4 , 7 ). (asm.org)
  • Specifically, cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and IL-4 are directly involved in the bone desorption and osteoclast activity regulation that occur in OM and may therefore play a role in its pathogenesis ( 1 - 3 , 10 , 13 , 14 ). (asm.org)
  • Several kinds of inflammatory factors, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6, are produced by cultured brain cells after obtaining various stimuli [ 10 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • [1] Interactions of IL-4 with TNFα promote structural changes to vascular endothelial cells, thus playing an important role in tissue inflammation. (wikidoc.org)
  • TCR engagement also blocked the expression of an IL-4-inducible gene. (rupress.org)
  • These functions of IL-4 are achieved through IL-4R-mediated signal transduction followed by specific gene expression ( 4 ). (rupress.org)
  • In the population of CSCs, apart from establishing prosurvival signals, IL-4 could lead to the expression of ATP-dependent drug efflux pumps, considered major components of multidrug resistance, such as P-glycoprotein, and of proteins involved in the metastatic process such as CD44 ( A ). Consequently, CSCs would remain viable after therapy, and consequently, be responsible for the minimum residual disease. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although multiple ACLY inhibitors attenuated IL-4-induced target gene expression, this effect could not be recapitulated by silencing ACLY expression. (frontiersin.org)
  • While these cells exhibited reduced histone acetylation levels, IL-4-induced gene expression remained intact. (frontiersin.org)
  • Of interest, AxCAIL-4 also resulted in decreased EC expression of the Αv and Β3 integrin chains. (umich.edu)
  • Interleukin-4 is a pleiotropic cytokine that regulates diverse T and B cell responses including cell proliferation, survival and gene expression. (cellsciences.com)
  • On B cells, IL-4 promotes immunological class switching to IgE and IgG1 isotypes and upregulates MHC class II and CD23 expression. (biovendor.com)
  • As key cytokines in the development of allergic inflammation, IL‐4 and ‐13 have been studied mainly with regard to the pathogenesis of asthma 10 - 13 , sotheir role in CB and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is still unclear, even if their expression seemsdifferent in CB compared with asthma 14 . (ersjournals.com)
  • 18 , have reported strong IL‐4 gene expression in the submucosal bronchial glands and in the subepithelium of smokers with CB 18 . (ersjournals.com)
  • To the best of the current authors' knowledge, however, a precise quantification of IL‐4‐expressing cells has not been carried out in the airways of subjects with CB and no data are available on IL‐13 expression in CB and in COPD. (ersjournals.com)
  • Thirdly, macrophage activities induced or enhanced by IFN-γ, such as expression of certain cytokines, surface molecules and enzymes, are antagonized by IL-4. (ovid.com)
  • Interestingly, while IL-2 production was shut off, inhibitory anti-CTLA-4 mAbs permitted induction and expression of the cell survival gene bcl-X L . Consistent with this observation, cells remained viable and apoptosis was not detected after CTLA-4 ligation. (jimmunol.org)
  • comes at a time of interest in expression of IL-4δ2 mRNA in normal and disease states. (asm.org)
  • In fact, ex-4 as well as IBMX and forskolin induced expression of IB1 at the promoter level through cAMP response element binding transcription factor 1. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Interleukin 4 increases human synovial cell expression of VCAM-1 and T cell binding. (bmj.com)
  • IL-4 considerably enhanced the expression of VCAM-1 on the surface of synovial cells, but not the expression of ICAM-1 and ELAM-1. (bmj.com)
  • The combination of IL-1 beta and IL-4 had no effect on the expression of ICAM-1 or VCAM-1 on the surface of synovial cells. (bmj.com)
  • Although interleukin-4 (IL-4) expression has been implicated in vaccine-enhanced respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease, its role in mediating the immune response to primary RSV infection remains unclear. (asm.org)
  • These data imply that constitutive IL-4 expression delays or suppresses the development of a virus-specific cytotoxic lymphocyte population important in clearing primary RSV infection. (asm.org)
  • Induction of 15-PGDH expression was also achieved by IL-13, a cytokine that has overlapping functions with IL-4, although to a lesser degree. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In addition to up-regulation of 15-PGDH in A549 cells IL-4 also stimulated 15-PGDH expression in other human lung cancer cells, such as H1435 and H358, although to a lesser extent. (aacrjournals.org)
  • IL-4 is a ligand for IL4 receptor (as is IL13), and it induces the expression of class II MHC molecules on resting B-cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We have analyzed the interleukin-4 (IL-4)-triggered mechanisms implicated in cell survival and show here that IL-4 deprivation induces apoptotic cell death but does not modulate Bcl-2 or Bcl-x expression. (asm.org)
  • Cell death is associated with Bcl-3 downregulation and Bcl-3 expression blocks IL-4 deprivation-induced apoptosis, suggesting that Bcl-3 acts as a survival factor in the absence of growth factor. (asm.org)
  • The expression of this gene can be induced by interleukin 4 in B cells, however, expression of transcripts containing the first two exons of the upstream gene is found in other cell types. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Expression of IL-4 and IL-10 messenger RNA was detected by in situ hybridisation with oligonucleotide probe cocktails for each cytokine. (bmj.com)
  • Interleukin-4 promotes human CD8 T cell expression of CCR7. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Interleukin (IL)-4 was found to dramatically promote CCR7 expression by antigen-specific CD8(+) cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In addition intracytoplasmic expression of IL-4 could be detected. (curehunter.com)
  • However, IL-4 does not appear to significantly alter the expression levels of either LFAI or ICAM- 1, neither does it alter the affinity of LFA- 1. (ki.se)
  • The expression of IL-4 mRNA in vivo. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The transgenic expression of IL-4 or IL-10 was successfully induced. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In Th2 cells, IL- 4 gene expression is tightly controlled at the level of transcription by the coordinated binding of multiple transcription factors to regulatory elements in the proximal promoter region. (elsevier.com)
  • Similarly, AxCAIL-4 inhibited capillary sprouting in the rat aortic ring assay, and vessel growth in the in vivo Matrigel plug assay. (umich.edu)
  • The study illustrates the difficulties in devising in vivo intervention strategies using cytokines such as interleukin-4. (portlandpress.com)
  • The nonreceptor tyrosine kinases Janus kinase (Jak)1 and Jak3, constitutively associated with IL-4Rα and γc, respectively ( 6 )( 7 )( 8 ), become activated after IL-4 binding to its receptor and phosphorylate some or all of the conserved tyrosines of IL-4Rα. (rupress.org)
  • Das IRAK4-Gen kodiert eine mit dem Interleukin-1-Rezeptor assoziierte Kinase des NF-kappa-B-Signalweges. (moldiag.com)
  • They express IL-4Rα and IL13Rα-1-1, but not the surface γc chain, suggesting that most human meningiomas express IL-4 type II. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recombinant Human IL-4 is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 130 amino acids. (cellsciences.com)
  • Rat, mouse and human IL-4 are species-specific in their activities. (neuromics.com)
  • IL-4 staining of frozen tissue sections of human lymph node. (neuromics.com)
  • Human IL-4 exists in molecular weight forms between 15 and 19 kDa, representing variable glycosylation. (biovendor.com)
  • The gene for Human IL-4 is found on the long arm of chromsome 5 in close association with genes for IL-13, IL-5 GM-CSF and IL-3. (biovendor.com)
  • We previously reported that anti-CD3-activated and CD28-costimulated naive human CD4 + T cells themselves release very low but sufficient levels of IL-4 to support their development into high IL-4-producing cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Inhalation of recombinant human IL‐4 has been confirmed to induce airway eosinophilia and to cause some increase in the degree of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in atopic asthmatics 8 . (ersjournals.com)
  • Both IL-4 and IL-4δ2 are present in placental villi and in amniochorionic and decidual tissue in normal human pregnancy ( 7 ). (asm.org)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS- Isolated human, rat, and mouse islets and the rat insulin-secreting INS-1E cells were incubated with ex-4 in the presence or absence of IL-1β. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We report on the detection of a novel alternatively spliced transcript of the human interleukin-4 receptor alpha (IL-4R-alpha) chain, which has been called IL-4R-alpha-IT mRNA. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Interleukin-4 receptor α (IL-4Rα) is highly expressed on the surface of various human solid tumors including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Immunoblot analysis revealed that IL-4Rα was expressed in all tested HNSCC cell lines (HSC-2, HSC-3, HSC-4, Ca9-22 and OSC-19), but not in a human normal keratinocyte (HaCaT) cell line. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The predicted molecular weight of Recombinant Human IL-4 R is Mr 50.5 kDa. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Interleukin-4- and -13-induced hypercontractility of human intestinal muscle cells-implication for motility changes in Crohn's disease. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Antisera to human IL-4 were raised by repeated immunisations of rabbits with highly purified antigen. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • Using reverse transcriptase-PCR, they found two types of mRNA for IL-4 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of Sscl patients and controls. (asm.org)
  • IL-4 and IL-13: their pathological roles in allergic diseases and their potential in developing new therapies. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Currently, we are investigating the crosstalk between these pathways and their functional roles in IL-2 and IL-4-stimulated T cell responses. (jimmunol.org)
  • Interestingly, IL-4 can induce strong signals in naive T cells whereas IL-12 fails to do so until its receptor is induced by TCR engagement for certain period of time. (rupress.org)
  • 20 Depending on the experimental system used to induce a Th2 response, different types of cells were shown to be involved in the early production of IL-4, including CD4 + NK1.1 + T cells, γδ T cells, and FcεR1-bearing cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Thus, it seems reassuring that the fibrotic autoimmune disease systemic sclerosis (Sscl) is associated with an increase in IL-4 but not IFN-γ. (asm.org)
  • We conclude that direct glioma injection of IL-4(38-37)-PE38KDEL is safe without systemic toxicity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 1 IL-4 has multiple immune response modulation functions on a variety of cell types. (labcorp.com)
  • IL-4 induces B-cell class switching to IgE , and up-regulates MHC class II production. (thefullwiki.org)
  • IL-4 (15 to 19 kDa) is produced by a variety of T cell thymocyte populations, as well as some mast cell precursors that are non-T or B cell types. (biovendor.com)
  • Th2 cell development is critically dependent on the presence of interleukin-4 (IL-4) at priming. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The cellular origin and the mechanisms regulating this early production of IL-4 at the site of naive T-cell priming are extensively investigated. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Whereas the cellular origin and the mechanisms leading to the early production of IL-12 at the time of T-cell priming have been elucidated, 17-19 the origin and the regulation of IL-4 production at priming are still under investigation. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Our results demonstrate that some CTLA-4 mAbs can inhibit proliferative responses of resting CD4 + cells and cell cycle transition from G 0 to G 1 . (jimmunol.org)
  • Previously, it has been shown that anti-CTLA-4 mAb plus anti-TCR mAb and suboptimal anti-CD28 mAb augmented proliferation in CD4 + T cell blasts ( 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Anti-CD3, anti-CD28, and anti-CTLA-4 mAb were covalently attached to polyurethan-coated tosyl-activated Dynabeads (Dynal, Lake Success, NY) per manufacturer's instructions ( 11 ) (bead-cell ratio, 1:1). (jimmunol.org)
  • One of the strategies which has been developed, is to inhibit the effect of interleukin (IL)‐4 or IL‐5, two main Th2 cell derived cytokines. (ersjournals.com)
  • IL‐4 exerts its biological activities through binding with the IL‐4 receptor which is expressed on the surface of diverse cell types. (ersjournals.com)
  • GLP-1 and its long-acting receptor agonist, exendin-4 (ex-4) ( 6 , 7 ), increase the survival of immortalized rodent β-cell lines and purified rat β-cells when challenged with various pro-apoptotic stimuli, including the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) ( 8 - 13 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Structural analysis of the mouse chromosomal gene encoding interleukin 4 which expresses B cell, T cell and mast cell stimulating activities," Nucleic Acids Research, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Conclusions: In asthma, IL-4+ and IL-13+ cells were present within the airway smooth muscle and were expressed predominantly by mast cells, suggesting that IL-4 and IL-13 may play an important role in mast cell-airway smooth muscle interactions. (soton.ac.uk)
  • AIMS: To investigate whether there is a primary deficiency of IL-4 and IL-10 producing cells and their site of production in the small intestine of patients with coeliac disease in relation to the changes in inflammatory cell infiltrate. (bmj.com)
  • 11-2 and 11-4 are able to drive phytohemagglutininactivated T cells through more than one cell cycle. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • The quantitative data ofthe cell cycle distribution ofphytohemagglutininactivated T cells suggestthat the population ofll-4-responsive cells is at least an overlapping population, if not a real subset of the ·population of the 11-2-responsive cells. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Recombinant mouse Interleukin-4 (rMu IL-4) is a potent lymphoid cell growth factor, which stimulates the growth and survivability of certain B cells and T cells. (creative-bioarray.com)
  • Unlike IL-10 and TGF-beta, which appear to act as downmodulators of many phagocytic cell functions, the mode of action of IL-4 and IL-13 is more complex. (rupress.org)
  • This thesis addresses the question of how IL-4 regulates B cell adhesion and focuses closely on induced changes in cell morphology and how these may influence cell adhesion. (ki.se)
  • The mechanism by which IL-4 modulates B-cell adhesion is not fully understood. (ki.se)
  • We found however, no evidence for CD23 influencing IL-4 induced B cell adhesion. (ki.se)
  • LPS plus IL-4 stimulated B cells aggregate in tight cell clusters that are morphology distinct from cell aggregates induced by LPS alone. (ki.se)
  • Furthermore, the possibility that IL-4 could influence how B cells communicate with other cells in close contact by presenting cell surface molecules on induced membrane extensions, is an interesting notion that is still largely unexplored. (ki.se)
  • Nuclear factor of activated T cell (NFAT) family members play a critical role in regulating IL-4 transcription and interact with up to five sequences (termed P0 through P4) in the IL-4 promoter. (elsevier.com)
  • Detection of IL-4 can contribute the evaluation of cellular immune responses during infectious diseases, immunological disorders or vaccination. (nih.gov)
  • IL-4 plays an important role in the development of certain immune disorders, particularly allergies and some autoimmune diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are required for binding of interleukin-4 to the receptor alpha chain, which is a crucial event for the generation of a Th2 -dominated early immune response . (wikidoc.org)
  • Further studies of IL-4 in AIDS-KS may be considered in patients with better immune status. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This work enables the specific detection of ChIL-4 and the further study of its role in the immune responses of poultry. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Thus, IL-4 can inhibit both primary and secondary antiviral immune responses. (asm.org)
  • Together, these functions of IL-4 and IFN-γ place the two cytokines at cardinal positions in the regulation of immune reactions. (ovid.com)
  • These results suggest that innate immune functions via TLR-4 might perpetuate inflammatory mechanisms and bypass the need for IL-1 in chronic joint inflammation. (rupress.org)
  • Innate immune mechanisms have been implicated in establishing and propagating synovitis (for a review, see reference 4 ). (rupress.org)
  • Hence, IL-33 signalling via ST2, by inducing an IL-4-dependent immune response, may be a major pathogenic factor in the exacerbation of ulcerative colitis. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Thus, if IL-4 were required for protection, it would most likely be effective during the induction phase of the immune response. (asm.org)
  • These results suggest an unexpected complexity in the regulatory role of IL-4 and IL-13 in immune responses. (rupress.org)
  • IL-4 is a cytokine that profoundly influences the outcome of an immune response. (ki.se)
  • Interleukin 4 (IL-4) is secreted by activated T cells and pleiotropically modulates both B- and T-lymphocyte function. (pnas.org)
  • IL-4 can act as a costimulant of lymphocyte growth and can prevent apoptosis ( 2 )( 3 ). (rupress.org)
  • The role of Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 in gingival tissues of chronic periodontitis subjects with type 2 diabetes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • It is now known that serum anti-aquaporin 4 (AQP4) autoantibodies can be used as a disease marker of NMO ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • A previous study reported an increased serum levels of IL-4 originated from Th2 cells in patients with stroke in the course of the acute stage [ 13 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Increased IL-4 production was found in breast, prostate, lung, renal cells and other types of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Excessive IL-4 production by Th2 cells has been associated with elevated IgE production and allergy. (cellsciences.com)
  • Collectively, these studies suggested that IL-4 production was important for protection, but most of the evidence was indirect. (asm.org)
  • Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-13 (IL-13) have been shown to inhibit production of several inflammatory cytokines important in the development of BPD. (biomedcentral.com)
  • References: Interleukin-4 induzierendes Prinzip von Schistosoma mansoni Eiern (IPSE): Klassisches Antigen oder Superantigen? (uni-marburg.de)
  • Andrews AL, Holloway JW, Holgate ST, Davies DE (2006) IL-4 receptor alpha is an important modulator of IL-4 and IL-13 receptor binding: implications for the development of therapeutic targets. (springer.com)