A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-1. Included under this heading are signaling receptors, non-signaling receptors and accessory proteins required for receptor signaling. Signaling from interleukin-1 receptors occurs via interaction with SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as MYELOID DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 88.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Receptors present on a wide variety of hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cell types that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-4. They are involved in signaling a variety of immunological responses related to allergic INFLAMMATION including the differentiation of TH2 CELLS and the regulation of IMMUNOGLOBULIN E production. Two subtypes of receptors exist and are referred to as the TYPE I INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR and the TYPE II INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR. Each receptor subtype is defined by its unique subunit composition.
A lymphohematopoietic cytokine that plays a role in regulating the proliferation of ERYTHROID PRECURSOR CELLS. It induces maturation of MEGAKARYOCYTES which results in increased production of BLOOD PLATELETS. Interleukin-11 was also initially described as an inhibitor of ADIPOGENESIS of cultured preadipocytes.
Gene Expression Regulation
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Tumor Cells, Cultured
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Killer Cells, Natural
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha1 Subunit
An interleukin receptor subunit with specificity for INTERLEUKIN-13. It dimerizes with the INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT to form the TYPE II INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR which has specificity for both INTERLEUKIN-4 and INTERLEUKIN-13. Signaling of this receptor subunit occurs through the interaction of its cytoplasmic domain with JANUS KINASES such as the TYK2 KINASE.
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
STAT3 Transcription Factor
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte
Killer Cells, Lymphokine-Activated
Cytolytic lymphocytes with the unique capacity of killing natural killer (NK)-resistant fresh tumor cells. They are INTERLEUKIN-2-activated NK cells that have no MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX restriction or need for antigen stimulation. LAK cells are used for ADOPTIVE IMMUNOTHERAPY in cancer patients.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Disease Models, Animal
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Receptors, Interleukin-1 Type I
An interleukin-1 receptor subtype that is involved in signaling cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The binding of this receptor to its ligand causes its favorable interaction with INTERLEUKIN-1 RECEPTOR ACCESSORY PROTEIN and the formation of an activated receptor complex.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Mice, Inbred Strains
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Cytokine Receptor gp130
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-5. They are heterodimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-5 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT. Signaling from interleukin-5 receptors can occur through interaction of their cytoplasmic domains with SYNTENINS.
A long pro-domain caspase that has specificity for the precursor form of INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. It plays a role in INFLAMMATION by catalytically converting the inactive forms of CYTOKINES such as interleukin-1beta to their active, secreted form. Caspase 1 is referred as interleukin-1beta converting enzyme and is frequently abbreviated ICE.
STAT6 Transcription Factor
High affinity receptors for INTERLEUKIN-3. They are found on early HEMATOPOIETIC PROGENITOR CELLS; progenitors of MYELOID CELLS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS. Interleukin-3 receptors are formed by the dimerization of the INTERLEUKIN-3 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT.
Interleukin-12 Subunit p40
Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Bone Marrow Cells
Interleukin-18 Receptor alpha Subunit
Polymerase Chain Reaction
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Promoter Regions, Genetic
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Amino Acid Sequence
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid
Glycoproteins found in a subfraction of normal mammalian plasma and urine. They stimulate the proliferation of bone marrow cells in agar cultures and the formation of colonies of granulocytes and/or macrophages. The factors include INTERLEUKIN-3; (IL-3); GRANULOCYTE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (G-CSF); MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (M-CSF); and GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (GM-CSF).
The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Interleukin-11 Receptor alpha Subunit
Transforming Growth Factor beta
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Leukemia Inhibitory Factor
Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Recombinant Fusion Proteins
Interleukin Receptor Common gamma Subunit
An interleukin receptor subunit that was originally discovered as a component of the INTERLEUKIN 2 RECEPTOR. It was subsequently found to be a component of several other receptors including the INTERLEUKIN 4 RECEPTOR, the INTERLEUKIN 7 RECEPTOR, the INTERLEUKIN-9 RECEPTOR, the INTERLEUKIN-15 RECEPTOR, and the INTERLEUKIN-21 RECEPTOR. Mutations in the gene for the interleukin receptor common gamma chain have been associated with X-LINKED COMBINED IMMUNODEFICIENCY DISEASES.
Toll-Like Receptor 4
Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.
Janus Kinase 3
Proteins that are secreted into the blood in increased or decreased quantities by hepatocytes in response to trauma, inflammation, or disease. These proteins can serve as inhibitors or mediators of the inflammatory processes. Certain acute-phase proteins have been used to diagnose and follow the course of diseases or as tumor markers.
Receptors, Interleukin-1 Type II
An interleukin-1 receptor subtype that competes with the INTERLEUKIN-1 RECEPTOR TYPE I for binding to INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The interleukin-1 type II receptor appears to lack signal transduction capability. Therefore it may act as a "decoy" receptor that modulates the activity of its ligands. Both membrane-bound and soluble forms of the receptor have been identified.
A cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory actions that depend upon the cellular microenvironment. Oncostatin M is a 28 kDa monomeric glycoprotein that is similar in structure to LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR. Its name derives from the the observation that it inhibited the growth of tumor cells and augmented the growth of normal fibroblasts.
A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
Culture Media, Conditioned
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic
Jun kinase phosphorylates and regulates the DNA binding activity of an octamer binding protein, T-cell factor beta1. (1/9598)POU domain proteins have been implicated as key regulators during development and lymphocyte activation. The POU domain protein T-cell factor beta1 (TCFbeta1), which binds octamer and octamer-related sequences, is a potent transactivator. In this study, we showed that TCFbeta1 is phosphorylated following activation via the T-cell receptor or by stress-induced signals. Phosphorylation of TCFbeta1 occurred predominantly at serine and threonine residues. Signals which upregulate Jun kinase (JNK)/stress-activated protein kinase activity also lead to association of JNK with TCFbeta1. JNK associates with the activation domain of TCFbeta1 and phosphorylates its DNA binding domain. The phosphorylation of recombinant TCFbeta1 by recombinant JNK enhances the ability of TCFbeta1 to bind to a consensus octamer motif. Consistent with this conclusion, TCFbeta1 upregulates reporter gene transcription in an activation- and JNK-dependent manner. In addition, inhibition of JNK activity by catalytically inactive MEKK (in which methionine was substituted for the lysine at position 432) also inhibits the ability of TCFbeta1 to drive inducible transcription from the interleukin-2 promoter. These results suggest that stress-induced signals and T-cell activation induce JNK, which then acts on multiple cis sequences by modulating distinct transactivators like c-Jun and TCFbeta1. This demonstrates a coupling between the JNK activation pathway and POU domain proteins and implicates TCFbeta1 as a physiological target in the JNK signal transduction pathway leading to coordinated biological responses. (+info)
Requirement for transcription factor NFAT in interleukin-2 expression. (2/9598)The nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) transcription factor is implicated in expression of the cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2). Binding sites for NFAT are located in the IL-2 promoter. Furthermore, pharmacological studies demonstrate that the drug cyclosporin A inhibits both NFAT activation and IL-2 expression. However, targeted disruption of the NFAT1 and NFAT2 genes in mice does not cause decreased IL-2 secretion. The role of NFAT in IL-2 gene expression is therefore unclear. Here we report the construction of a dominant-negative NFAT mutant (dnNFAT) that selectively inhibits NFAT-mediated gene expression. The inhibitory effect of dnNFAT is mediated by suppression of activation-induced nuclear translocation of NFAT. Expression of dnNFAT in cultured T cells caused inhibition of IL-2 promoter activity and decreased expression of IL-2 protein. Similarly, expression of dnNFAT in transgenic mice also caused decreased IL-2 gene expression. These data demonstrate that NFAT is a critical component of the signaling pathway that regulates IL-2 expression. (+info)
A technique for dual determination of cytotoxic and helper lymphocyte precursor frequency by a miniaturized dye release method. (3/9598)Helper (HTLPf) and cytotoxic (CTLPf) lymphocyte precursor frequency assays are increasingly used in bone marrow stem cell and organ transplant compatibility testing. Current techniques require large cell numbers and radioisotopes. To improve the technique, we developed a miniaturized fluorescent read-out combined HTLPf/CTLPf limiting dilution assay. The assay requires only 5 x 10(6) stimulators, 2 x 10(6) responders and 0.24 x 10(6) target cells in Terasaki plates (40 microl/well). For the HTLPf, culture supernatants from each well were assayed for IL-2 production. The IL-2-dependent proliferation of the mouse 9.12 cell line was detected by a semi-automated fluorescent dye technique. After addition of rhIL-2 (recombinant human IL-2) on days 3 and 7, CTLPs were detected on day 10 by measuring the lysis of dye-labeled targets. Results were comparable to standard radioisotope-based techniques. The assay had a coefficient of variation of approximately 30%. The assay detected helper CD4 cells, pure cytotoxic CD8, helper CD8 cells and helper/cytotoxic CD8 cells. Discrimination was demonstrated between HLA-matched related and non-related pairs. The ease of testing and small cell numbers required should facilitate further evaluation of HTLPf and CTLPf for compatibility testing in unrelated donor transplantation and monitoring immune responses following adoptive transfer of lymphocytes. (+info)
Distinct clinical and laboratory activity of two recombinant interleukin-2 preparations. (4/9598)Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a potent lymphokine that activates natural killer cells, T cells, and other cells of the immune system. Several distinct recombinant human IL-2 preparations have shown antitumor activity, particularly for renal cell cancer and melanoma. Somewhat distinct immune and clinical effects have been noted when different IL-2 preparations have been tested clinically; however, the regimens and doses used were not identical. To compare these more directly, we have evaluated two clinical recombinant IL-2 preparations in vitro and in vivo using similar regimens and similar IUs of IL-2. We used the Food and Drug Administration-approved, commercially available Chiron IL-2 and the Hoffmann LaRoche (HLR) IL-2 supplied by the National Cancer Institute. Using equivalent IUs of IL-2, we noted quantitative differences in vitro and in vivo in the IL-2 activity of these two preparations. In patients receiving comparable IUs of the two preparations, HLR IL-2 induced the release of more soluble IL-2 receptor alpha into the serum than Chiron IL-2. In addition, more toxicities were noted in patients receiving 1.5 x 10(6) IU of HLR IL-2 than were seen in patients treated with 1.5 x 10(6) or even 4.5 x 10(6) IU of Chiron IL-2. These toxicities included fever, nausea and vomiting, and hepatic toxicity. In vitro proliferative assays using IL-2-dependent human and murine cell lines indicated that the IU of HLR IL-2 was more effective than Chiron IL-2 at inducing tritiated thymidine incorporation. Using flow cytometry, we also found quantitative differences in the ability of these two preparations to bind to IL-2 receptors. These findings indicate that approximately 3-6 IU of Chiron IL-2 are required to induce the same biological effect as 1 IU of HLR IL-2. (+info)
Presentation of renal tumor antigens by human dendritic cells activates tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes against autologous tumor: implications for live kidney cancer vaccines. (5/9598)The clinical impact of dendritic cells (DCs) in the treatment of human cancer depends on their unique role as the most potent antigen-presenting cells that are capable of priming an antitumor T-cell response. Here, we demonstrate that functional DCs can be generated from peripheral blood of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) by culture of monocytes/macrophages (CD14+) in autologous serum containing medium (RPMI) in the presence of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin (IL) 4. For testing the capability of RCC-antigen uptake and processing, we loaded these DCs with autologous tumor lysate (TuLy) using liposomes, after which cytometric analysis of the DCs revealed a markedly increased expression of HLA class I antigen and a persistent high expression of class II. The immunogenicity of DC-TuLy was further tested in cultures of renal tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) cultured in low-dose IL-2 (20 Biologic Response Modifier Program units/ml). A synergistic effect of DC-TuLy and IL-2 in stimulating a T cell-dependent immune response was demonstrated by: (a) the increase of growth expansion of TILs (9.4-14.3-fold; day 21); (b) the up-regulation of the CD3+ CD56- TcR+ (both CD4+ and CD8+) cell population; (c) the augmentation of T cell-restricted autologous tumor lysis; and (d) the enhancement of IFN-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and IL-6 mRNA expression by TILs. Taken together, these data implicate that DC-TuLy can activate immunosuppressed TIL via an induction of enhanced antitumor CTL responses associated with production of Thl cells. This indicates a potential role of DC-TuLy vaccines for induction of active immunity in patients with advanced RCC. (+info)
Characterization of CD4+ CD8alphaalpha+ and CD4-CD8alphaalpha+ intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes in rats. (6/9598)Intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (i-IEL) of aged rats comprise CD4+CD8alphaalpha+ and CD4-CD8alphaalpha+ T cells expressing TCR alphabeta. In the present study, we compared characteristics between CD4+CD8alphaalpha+ and CD4-CD8alphaalpha+ i-IEL, which were purified by a cell sorter from the i-IEL of 6-month-old Lewis rats. Most of the CD4+CD8alphaalpha+ i-IEL were of the CD44(hlgh) phenotype, while CD4-CD8alphabeta+ i-IEL were CD44(low). Vbeta usage in the CD4-CD8alphaalpha+ i-IEL was much diversified, while CD4+CD8alphaalpha+ i-IEL showed a skewed Vbeta repertoire. The CD4+CD8alphaalpha+ i-IEL but not the CD4-CD8alphaalpha+ i-IEL proliferated in response to syngeneic spleen cells, which was partially inhibited by addition of anti-MHC class I mAb. The CD4+CD8alphaalpha+ i-IEL produced IFN-gamma and IL-2 but no IL-4 or transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta in response to syngeneic spleen cells, while CD4-CD8alphaalpha+ i-IEL produced abundant levels of TGF-beta but no IL-2, IFN-gamma or IL-4. CD4+CD8alphaalpha+ i-IEL proliferated in response to exogenous IL-2 but not to IL-15, while CD4-CD8alphaalpha+ i-IEL could respond to IL-15 as well as IL-2. These results suggest that a significant fraction of CD4+CD8alphaalpha+ i-IEL belongs to Th1-type T cells capable of responding to self-MHC class I, while CD4-CD8alphaalpha+ i-IEL are a unique population with a diversified Vbeta repertoire that respond to IL-15 in rats. (+info)
Systemic administration of interleukin 2 enhances the therapeutic efficacy of dendritic cell-based tumor vaccines. (7/9598)We have reported previously that murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DC) pulsed with whole tumor lysates can mediate potent antitumor immune responses both in vitro and in vivo. Because successful therapy was dependent on host immune T cells, we have now evaluated whether the systemic administration of the T cell stimulatory/growth promoting cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) could enhance tumor lysate-pulsed DC-based immunizations to further promote protective immunity toward, and therapeutic rejection of, syngeneic murine tumors. In three separate approaches using a weakly immunogenic sarcoma (MCA-207), the systemic administration of nontoxic doses of recombinant IL-2 (20,000 and 40,000 IU/dose) was capable of mediating significant increases in the potency of DC-based immunizations. IL-2 could augment the efficacy of tumor lysate-pulsed DC to induce protective immunity to lethal tumor challenge as well as enhance splenic cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity and interferon-gamma production in these treated mice. Moreover, treatment with the combination of tumor lysate-pulsed DC and IL-2 could also mediate regressions of established pulmonary 3-day micrometastases and 7-day macrometastases as well as established 14- and 28-day s.c. tumors, leading to either significant cure rates or prolongation in overall survival. Collectively, these findings show that nontoxic doses of recombinant IL-2 can potentiate the antitumor effects of tumor lysate-pulsed DC in vivo and provide preclinical rationale for the use of IL-2 in DC-based vaccine strategies in patients with advanced cancer. (+info)
Interferon gamma expressed by a recombinant respiratory syncytial virus attenuates virus replication in mice without compromising immunogenicity. (8/9598)Interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) has pleiotropic biological effects, including intrinsic antiviral activity as well as stimulation and regulation of immune responses. An infectious recombinant human respiratory syncytial virus (rRSV/mIFN-gamma) was constructed that encodes murine (m) IFN-gamma as a separate gene inserted into the G-F intergenic region. Cultured cells infected with rRSV/mIFN-gamma secreted 22 microg mIFN-gamma per 10(6) cells. The replication of rRSV/mIFN-gamma, but not that of a control chimeric rRSV containing the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene as an additional gene, was 63- and 20-fold lower than that of wild-type (wt) RSV in the upper and lower respiratory tract, respectively, of mice. Thus, the attenuation of rRSV/mIFN-gamma in vivo could be attributed to the activity of mIFN-gamma and not to the presence of the additional gene per se. The mice were completely resistant to subsequent challenge with wt RSV. Despite its growth restriction, infection of mice with rRSV/mIFN-gamma induced a level of RSV-specific antibodies that, on day 56, was comparable to or greater than that induced by infection with wt RSV. Mice infected with rRSV/mIFN-gamma developed a high level of IFN-gamma mRNA and an increased amount of interleukin 12 p40 mRNA in their lungs, whereas other cytokine mRNAs tested were unchanged compared with those induced by wt RSV. Because attenuation of RSV typically is accompanied by a reduction in immunogenicity, expression of IFN-gamma by an rRSV represents a method of attenuation in which immunogenicity can be maintained rather than be reduced. (+info)
PubPeer - Regulatory T-cell responses to low-dose interleukin-2 in HCV...
There are comments on PubPeer for publication: Regulatory T-cell responses to low-dose interleukin-2 in HCV-induced vasculitis (2011)
US5587302A - T cell growth factor - Google Patents
The present invention relates generally to a T cell growth factor. More particularly, the present invention relates to a T cell growth factor which comprises a glycoprotein which supports interleukin 2- and interleukin 4-independent growth of helper T cells especially from murine and human sources and further which is capable of augmenting proliferation of IL3- or IL4-responsive cells. Even more particularly, the present invention relates to the helper T cell growth factor P40, pharmaceutical compositions thereof, antibodies thereto and recombinant DNA clones thereof. The present invention also contemplates a method for inducing the proliferation of helper T cells as well as IL3- and Il4-responsive cells. The helper T cells growth factor contemplated herein is useful in the stimulation of specific cells in the immune system, either alone or in combination with IL3 or IL4.
Anti Mouse Interleukin-22 Antibody | Bio-Rad Antibodies (formerly AbD Serotec)
Rabbit anti Mouse Interleukin-22 antibody recognizes mouse interleukin-22 (IL-22), a regulatory cytokine and member of the IL-10 family, s
The promise of low-dose interleukin-2 therapy for autoimmune and inflammatory diseases | Nature Reviews Immunology
The dominant role of interleukin-2 (IL-2) is in the maintenance of regulatory T cells rather than of effector T cells. This has led to clinical interest in the use of low-dose IL-2 to control autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, with promising initial results. Depletion of regulatory T (TReg) cells in otherwise healthy individuals leads to multi-organ autoimmune disease and inflammation. This indicates that in a normal immune system, there are self-specific effector T cells that are ready to attack normal tissue if they are not restrained by TReg cells. The data imply that there is a balance between
357 Increased peripheral cd8 t cell responses in sle by low-dose il-2 treatment | Lupus Science & Medicine
Results Most patients showed good clinical responses after low-dose IL-2 treatment (7 out of 9). Clinical improvement was observed with SIR-4 response (6 out of 9), improved complement 3 and 4 serum level (9 out of 9) and decreased anti-ds-DNA serum level (8 out of 9). Functional profiling of CD8 T cells in low-dose IL-2 treated patients revealed increased frequencies of CEF viral peptide specific TNF-a+ and Granzyme-B+ CD8 T cells. Moreover, these patients showed stronger antigen-specific response demonstrated by an increased stimulated/non-stimulate TNF-a-producing CD8 T cells proliferation fold. Compared with HC, SLE patients showed significantly lower frequencies of CEF specific Granzyme-B producing CD8 T cell, and low-dose IL-2 significantly increased the frequency of these Granzyme-B+ CD8 T cells in SLE patients. ...
Phase I/II Study Evaluating the Infusion of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes (TILs) and Low-Dose Interleukin-2 (IL-2) Therapy...
This study will see how safe and useful infusion of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and interleukin-2 therapy following a preparative regimenregimen is in
Trial of Regulatory T-cells Plus Low-Dose Interleukin-2 for Steroid-Refractory Chronic Graft-versus-Host-Disease - Tabular View...
After the screening procedures confirm that you are eligible to participate in the research study: If you take part in this research study, you (and your donor) will have the following tests and procedures:. Donor Lymphocytes Collection: Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell involved with the immune system. Your original marrow/stem cell donor will undergo one white blood cell collection procedures called leukapheresis. Blood from the vein in one arm will be circulated through a special machine to remove the white blood cells, and the rest of the blood will be returned to the donors other arm. The cells collected from the leukapheresis will be sent to the laboratory where the amount of white blood cells collected will be measured. A sample will be removed for study testing, and the remaining lymphocytes will be set-aside for infusion.. Donor Lymphocyte Processing: Once the lymphocytes are collected from your donor, the CliniMACS System device will enrich (preferentially select) the number ...
Low-dose interleukin-2 as a modulator of Treg homeostasis after HSCT: current understanding and future perspectives | Springer...
CD4+CD25+Foxp3+Treg is a functionally distinct subset of mature T cells with broad suppressive activity and has been shown to play an important role in the establishment of immune tolerance after...
Vaccine Plus Interleukin-2 in Treating Patients With Advanced Melanoma - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
PRIMARY OBJECTIVES:. I. Determine clinical response rates in patients with advanced melanoma treated with gp100:209-217(210M) melanoma vaccine and low-dose interleukin-2.. II. Assess response duration and progression-free intervals in these patients receiving this treatment.. OUTLINE:. Patients receive gp100:209-217(210M) emulsified in Montanide ISA-51 subcutaneously (SC) on day 1 and interleukin-2 SC on days 1-5 and 8-13. Courses repeat every 21 days in the absence of unacceptable toxicity or disease progression. Patients with a complete response (CR) receive 3 additional courses after achieving CR.. Patients are followed every 9 weeks for 3 years or until disease recurrence.. PROJECTED ACCRUAL: A total of 25-50 patients will be accrued for this study within 3.5 years. ...
Recombinant Mouse Interleukin-11/IL-11 (C-Fc) | Bon Opus Biosciences
Recombinant Mouse Interleukin-11 is produced by our Mammalian expression system and the target gene encoding Pro22-Leu199 is expressed with a Fc tag at the C-terminus. Bon Opus Cat. #CJ59
IL-2 Antibody, anti-mouse, REAfinity™ - Recombinant antibodies - MACS Antibodies - Products - Miltenyi Biotec - Nederland
Clone REA665 recognizes the mouse interleukin-2 (IL-2) antigen. The T cell growth factor IL-2, mainly produced by activated CD4+ T cells, is a central regulator of the immune response. It induces cell cycle progression of resting cells in an antigen non-specific manner and allows clonal expansion of activated T cells. IL-2 has been found to stimulate growth and differentiation of B cells, NK cells, monocytes, and oligodendrocytes. In addition, IL-2 plays a role in hematopoiesis, tumor surveillance, and anti-inflammatory reactions.Additional information: Clone REA665 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Nederland
The IL-15 receptor α chain cytoplasmic domain is critical for normal IL-15Rα function but is not required for trans...
IL-15 is important for the development and normal function of NK cells, NKT cells, and memory CD8+ T cells. In this study, we investigated the importance of the cytoplasmic domain of IL-15Rα by replacing it with that from IL-2Rα. Although the chimeric construct had similar mRNA expression to that observed for WT IL-15Rα, its cell-surface expression was diminished, ostensibly due to increased intracellular trapping of the chimeric receptor. Like IL-15Rα, IL-2Rα also recycles to the cell surface; thus, these results indicate that the IL-15Rα cytoplasmic domain is more efficient for this process than is the IL-2Rα cytoplasmic domain. In addition to the importance of the IL-15Rα cytoplasmic domain for cell-surface expression, it is also needed for normal signaling, given defective proliferation to submaximal concentrations of IL-15 in 32D-IL-2Rβ transfectants in which similar levels of WT and the KI constructs were expressed.. IL-15Rαext/IL-2Rαint KI mice had reduced numbers of thymic ...
Anti Human Interleukin-2 Antibody | Bio-Rad
|strong|Rabbit anti Human Interleukin-2 antibody|/strong| recognizes human IL-2 (Interleukin-2), otherwise known as T-cell growth factor, a 133 amino acid glycoprotein and potent immunoregulatory cyto…
Analysis of the role of the interleukin-2 receptor gamma chain in ligand binding
Interleukin-2 is the primary T cell growth factor secreted by activated T cells. IL-2 is an alpha-helical cytokine that binds to a multisubunit receptor expressed on the surface of a variety of cell types. IL-2Ralpha, IL-2Rbeta, and IL-2Rgammac receptor subunits expressed on the surface of cells may …
Tumor-induced dysfunction in interleukin-2 production and interleukin-2 receptor signaling: a mechanism of immune escape
These findings suggest that soluble products from renal tumors may suppress T-cell responses by blocking both IL-2 production and normal IL-2 receptor signaling.
Anti-Mouse/Rat IL-17A PE eBio17B7 中国教育装备采购网
Anti-Mouse/Rat IL-17A PerCP-Cy5.5 eBio17B7 中国教育装备采购网
For each of the following parametric tests, ident... - OpenStudy
For each of the following parametric tests, identify the appropriate non-parametric counterpart: a. Dependent t test b. Independent samples t tes...
北京大学医学部机构知识库([email protected]): Safety and Efficiency of Low-Dose Interleukin-2 Treatment in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
He, Jing,Zhang, Xia,Sun, Xiaolin,et al. Safety and Efficiency of Low-Dose Interleukin-2 Treatment in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus[J]. ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATOLOGY,2014,suppl.10(SI):S290-S290 ...
Low-dose interleukin-2 and retinoic acid give unexpected 5-year survival rates for patients with advanced cancers. In a clinical trial of 500 patients with different types of stage 4 solid tumors who had responded to chemotherapy, a maintenance regimen with low-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) and 13-cis retinoic acid (RA) has shown unexpected 5-year survival rates.. Francesco Recchia, MD, director of oncology at the Civilian Hospital in Avezzano, Italy, is scheduled to present findings from this extended phase II study in a presentation at the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2012 in Chicago on April 2.. The open, nonrandomized trial showed substantial improvements for these patients with metastatic cancer compared with corresponding U.S. National Cancer Institute Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data for 5-year overall survival (OS) rates. The OS rate was 42.7% for patients in the study versus 23.3% for breast cancer patients accounted for in SEER data, and ...
Results from a randomized phase III study comparing combined treatment with histamine dihydrochloride plus interleukin-2 versus...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Results from a randomized phase III study comparing combined treatment with histamine dihydrochloride plus interleukin-2 versus interleukin-2 alone in patients with metastatic melanoma. AU - Agarwala, S. S.. AU - Glaspy, J.. AU - ODay, S. J.. AU - Mitchell, M.. AU - Gutheil, J.. AU - Whitman, E.. AU - Gonzalez, R.. AU - Hersh, E.. AU - Feun, L.. AU - Belt, R.. AU - Meyskens, F.. AU - Hellstrand, K.. AU - Wood, D.. AU - Kirkwood, J. M.. AU - Gehlsen, K. R.. AU - Naredi, P.. PY - 2002/1/1. Y1 - 2002/1/1. N2 - Purpose: Reactive oxidative species (ROS) produced by phagocytic cells have been ascribed a role in the localized suppression of lymphocyte function within malignant tumors. Histamine has been shown to inhibit ROS formation and possibly synergize with cytokines to permit activation of natural killer cells and T cells. This study was designed to determine whether the addition of histamine to a subcutaneous (SC) regimen of interleukin-2 (IL-2) would improve the survival of ...
A retrospective analysis of High-Dose Interleukin-2 HD IL-2 following Ipilimumab in metastatic melanoma - pdf descargar
A retrospective analysis of High-Dose Interleukin-2 HD IL-2 following Ipilimumab in metastatic melanoma. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
SP0189 Induction of Remission by Low-Dose IL-2-Therapy in One SLE Patient with Increased Disease Activity Refractory to...
IL-2 deficiency and associated regulatory T cell (Treg) defects critically contribute to SLE pathogenesis. In our previous translational work we proved the efficacy and safety of a low-dose IL-2 therapy in animal models and identified a reversible IL-2 deprivation of Treg also in human SLE patients. Together, these studies provided the rationales for an IL-2-based immunotherapy of SLE in order to restore Treg activity and thus to re-establish endogenous mechanisms of tolerance that can counteract autoimmunity.. Here we report that a cyclic and subcutaneously applied low-dose IL-2-therapy induced a rapid, strong and sustained reduction of disease activity in parallel to a remarkable and selective expansion of the Treg population in a SLE patient with increased disease activity (SELENA-SLEDAI 14) refractory to a large variety of approved and experimental therapies. Already after the first therapeutic cycle, signs of arthritis and later also myositis and active skin eruptions disappeared. In ...
Low-Dose IL-2 May Be Safe, Effective in the Treatment of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus - Rheumatology Advisor
Researchers evaluated the safety and efficacy of low-dose IL-2 therapy in systemic lupus erythematosus in a double-blind and placebo-controlled trial.
Adoptive immunotherapy for stage IV renal cell carcinoma: A novel protocol utilizing periodate and interleukin-2-activated autologous leukocytes and continuous infusions of low-dose interleukin-2. The American Journal of Medicine. 1987 ...
Mouse Interleukin-5 (IL-5) - Gemini Bio
Interleukin-5 (IL-5) is a hematopoietic growth factor expressed in Th2, mast cells and eosinophils. IL-5 acts through its receptor, the IL-5 receptor (IL-5R) and is involved in B-cell growth and eosinophil activation. IL-5 has been shown to be and is regulated by GATA-3, in addition to other transcription factors. Human and mouse IL-5 are cross-reactive. Recombinant mouse IL-5 is a non-glycosylated, disulfide-linked homodimer. It is comprised of two 113 amino acid chains with a total molecular weight of 26.2 kDa. Ships ambient. Store frozen at -20 to -10C. ...
Effect of chronic treatment with recombinant interleukin-2 on the central nervous system of adult and old mice<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of chronic treatment with recombinant interleukin-2 on the central nervous system of adult and old mice. AU - Nemni, Raffaello. AU - Iannaccone, Sandro. AU - Quattrini, Angelo. AU - Smirne, Salvatore. AU - Sessa, Maria. AU - Lodi, Monica. AU - Erminio, Cristina. AU - Canal, Nicola. PY - 1992/9/25. Y1 - 1992/9/25. N2 - We have studied the effects of chronic treatment with recombinant interleukin-2 on the central nervous system of adult and old mice. Treatment with high doses of recombinant interleukin-2, on a schedule similar to that used in humans, was started at the age of 4 and 17 months, respectively, and ended 3 months later. At that time, all the mice were tested for acquisition of a passive-avoidance task and then sacrificed for histological examination. Three of the four groups (treated and control adults and control old mice) did not differ from one another in task performance or neuron density in frontal cortex, cerebellum, dentate gyrus or CA1-2, CA3, CA4 ...
Recombinant Mouse Interleukin-17A | Cell Sciences
Interleukin-17A (IL-17A), also known as CTLA-8, is a pro-inflammatory cytokine member of a six-species family of proteins (IL-17A-17F).
Modulation by IL-2 of CD70 and CD27 Expression on CD8+ T Cells: Importance for the Therapeutic Effectiveness of Cell Transfer...
Signaling mediated through the IL-2R, in conjunction with signals mediated through the T cell Ag receptor, promotes the proliferation and effector function of T cells (32). Some of the signals, such as up-regulation of the IL-2R α-chain, result from cooperative signals mediated both through the T cell Ag receptor as well as through the IL-2R itself; however, the relative role of signals delivered through these pathways has not been fully elucidated. Human tumor-reactive effector T cells have been shown to proliferate extensively in vitro in the presence of high-dose IL-2 alone (33). In addition, between 15 and 20% of melanoma and renal cancer patients treated with high-dose IL-2 alone respond to therapy (6), which may reflect the ability of IL-2 to maintain the proliferation of T cells that were activated by prior exposure to tumor Ags.. Interactions between the costimulatory receptor CD27 and its ligand, CD70, have also been found to play a key role in T lymphocyte activation, proliferation, ...
Recombinant Mouse Interleukin-11 | Cell Sciences
|p|Recombinant Mouse IL-11 is a a single non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 179 amino acids.|/p| |p|Background: Interleukin 11 is a pleiotropic cytokine that was originally detected in the conditioned medium of an IL-1α-stimulated primat
High-dose interleukin-2 and interferon as first-line immunotherapy for metastatic melanoma: long-term follow-up in a large...
Fingeraftryk Dyk ned i forskningsemnerne om High-dose interleukin-2 and interferon as first-line immunotherapy for metastatic melanoma: long-term follow-up in a large unselected Danish patient cohort. Sammen danner de et unikt fingeraftryk. ...
IL-1 and IL-4 as reciprocal regulators of IL-2 induced lymphocyte cytotoxicity.
Author(s): Ebina, N; Gallardo, D; Shau, H; Golub, SH | Abstract: Interleukin 4 (IL-4) suppresses the interleukin 2 (IL-2) induced lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cell development from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Suppression is observed at high (1,000 U ml-1) as well as low (10 U ml-1) concentrations of IL-2. IL-4 needs to be present at the beginning of the IL-2 culture to exert the suppressive effect. IL-4 also inhibits the development of CD25 (Tac) antigen on the PBMC cultured in IL-2. Interleukin 1 (IL-1) can reverse the suppressive effect of IL-4 on LAK induction when added at the early phase of the IL-2 culture. IL-1 enhances IL-2 induced LAK development, which may partially explain the reversion of IL-4 inhibition by IL-1. IL-1 also reverses the inhibitory effect of IL-4 on the development of CD25 antigen expression, although IL-1 alone does not enhance the induction of CD25 expression in PBMC cultured by IL-2. Furthermore, IL-4 suppresses IL-2 induced IL-1 production in PBMC
V-PLEX Plus Mouse IL-12p70 Kit | Meso Scale Discovery
Mouse interleukin-12p70 (IL-12p70) is a disulfide-linked heterodimer consisting of IL-12a (p35 subunit) and IL-12b (p40 subunit) that is mainly produced by macrophages and T lymphocytes. The IL-12a subunit also dimerizes with Ebi3 to form IL-35, and the IL-12b subunit dimerizes with IL-23a to form IL-23. IL-12, IL-23, IL-27, and IL-35 are all heterodimeric proteins and members of IL-12 cytokine family. IL-12p70 activates T cells and natural killer cells that stimulate the production of IFN-γ. It is involved in a number of disorders including peritonitis and chronic toxoplasmosis.The Mouse IL-12p70 Kit provides assay-specific components for the quantitative determination of endogenous IL-12p70 in mouse urine, serum, plasma, and cell culture supernatants. ...
Enhanced IL-2 signaling renders IL-12 primed CD8+ T-cells superior in adoptive immunotherapy. (131.20) | The Journal of...
Sustained persistence and function of adoptively transferred T-cells are critical parameters for effective anti-tumor activity. To address this, our group has explored the mechanisms by which TLR agonist-induced cytokines, such as IL-12, are capable of efficiently priming CD8+ T-cells. IL-12 primed CD8+ T-cells upregulate the expression of the high affinity IL-2 receptor (CD25) and STAT5. Enhancement of these signaling components increases IL-2 mediated signaling events at low concentrations of IL-2. Blockade with anti-CD25 antibody effectively terminates this enhanced IL-2 signaling in IL-12 primed CD8+ T-cells. More importantly, IL-12 priming of CD8+ T-cells significantly increases in vivo proliferation as measured by CFSE dilution, and ex vivo recovery from lymphoid organs. Utilization of in vivo bioluminescent imaging of firefly luciferase transduced IL-12 primed T-cells demonstrated their ability to traffic into the tumor area, through lymph nodes and bone marrow. Finally, adoptive transfer ...
Bio X Cell - InVivoMAb anti-mouse IL-12 p75
The R2-9A5 monoclonal antibody reacts with mouse interleukin-12 (IL-12), a heterodimeric 75 kDa (p75) cytokine consisting of two covalently linked subunits, 40 kDa (p40) and 35 kDa (p35). IL-12 is secreted by activated monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells and T cells in response to bacterial pathogens or products such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS). IL-12 is a potent regulator of cell-mediated immune responses and plays a key role in the development of Th1 responses, leading to IFNγ and IL-2 production. The R2-9A5 antibody has been shown to neutralize the biological effects of IL-12 when administered |em|in vivo|/em|.
A Phase 1 Study of Pembrolizumab (MK-3475) in Combination With Recombinant Interleukin-12 in Patients With Solid Tumors -...
This phase I trial studies the side effects and best dose of pembrolizumab and recombinant interleukin-12 in treating patients with solid tumors. Monoclonal
Recombinant Mouse Interleukin 6 Il6-76M - Creative BioMart
Recombinant Mouse Interleukin-6 produced inE.Coliis a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 187 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 21709 Dalton. The IL-6 is purified by proprietary chromatographic techniques.
IL-1β (mouse) AlphaLISA Detection Kit, 5,000 Assay Points | PerkinElmer
AlphaLISA no-wash assay kit for detection and quantitation of Mouse Interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) in serum, buffered solution or cell culture medium.
Survival improved with personalized tumor vaccines added to IL-2 for melanoma - ONA
Combining high-dose interleukin-2 and personalized vaccines to activate patients immune systems improves survival of metastatic melanoma even more than IL-2 alone.
Fluidigm | Consumables | Anti-Human IL-2 (MQ1-17H12)-158Gd-100 Tests
Interleukin-2 (IL-2), originally known as T cell growth factor (TCGF), is a cytokine that plays a critical role in promoting and controlling T cell response and function.
Recombinant Human IL-17F, IL-24 Protein, his tag, 50µg
Recombinant Interleukin-17F, IL-17F, Interleukin-24, IL-24, cytokine stimulates PBMC and T-cell proliferation, expressed in HEK293 cells
C-X-C Chemokin-Rezeptor Typ 1
Mollereau C et. al. (1993) The high-affinity interleukin 8 receptor gene (IL8RA) maps to the 2q33-q36 region of the human genome: cloning of a pseudogene (IL8RBP) for the low-affinity receptor.. [^] ...
IL22 Protein Rat Recombinant | Interleukin-22 | ProSpec
IL-22 Rat Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated, polypeptide chain containing 146 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 16.6kDa.
Human Interleukin 2 (IL-2) Promotion of Immune Regulation and ClinicalOutcomes: A Review | OMICS International
Interleukin 2 (IL-2) is a monomeric glycoprotein that is primarily produced by activated CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and dendritic cells. It is characterized as a proinfla..
Rat IL-10 also known as TGIF, MCSF III, CSIF & B TCGF is a pleiotropic cytokine playing an important role as a regulator of lymphoid & myeloid cell function
Gentaur Molecular :FabGennix \ Interleukin 32 or NK4, WB control \ PC-IL32
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , FabGennix \ Interleukin 32 or NK4, WB control \ PC-IL32 for more molecular products just contact us
Gentaur Molecular :Accu \ Interleukin 4, Rat anti Mouse \ ACLANT108B
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Accu \ Interleukin_4, Rat anti_Mouse \ ACLANT108B for more molecular products just contact us
介白素(interleukin) - 小小整理網站 Smallcollation
T cell growth factors from adult T cell leukemia virus-transformed cell lines<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - T cell growth factors from adult T cell leukemia virus-transformed cell lines. AU - Okai, Yasuji. AU - Oka, Takashi. AU - Akagi, Tadaatsu. AU - Kurata, Sayuri. AU - Fujiyoshi, Nobuo. PY - 1984/11/19. Y1 - 1984/11/19. N2 - Some characteristics of T cell growth factors derived from adult T cell leukemia virus (ATLV)-transformed cell lines, MT 1 and MT 2 were analyzed. MT 1 cells release significant interleukin 2 (IL 2) activity into the culture medium, which showed the same elution pattern of gel filtration and isoelectric focusing of IL 2 from lectin-stimulated normal human lymphocytes. This activity was also detected in the cell extract of MT 1. In contrast, MT 2 cell line did not produce IL 2 activity, but non-IL 2 type growth factor was observed. The significance of these factors from MT cell lines is discussed from the viewpoint of autokine in ATLV-transformed cells. ALTV-transformed cell T cell growth factor.. AB - Some characteristics of T cell growth factors derived from ...
interleukin 7 recombinant human interleukin 7 Gentaur Molecular Products
interleukin 7 recombinant human interleukin 7 | order interleukin 7 recombinant human interleukin 7 | How to use: interleukin 7 recombinant human interleukin 7 | suppo
Differentiation of T cell lymphokine gene expression: the in vitro acquisition of T cell memory. | JEM
A simple in vitro experimental system was devised to reflect the in vivo generation of a T cell anamnestic response so that T cell differentiation could be examined at the level of lymphokine gene expression. Comparison of neonatal and adult T cells revealed that both populations expressed the genes for interleukin 2 (IL-2) and its receptor, but only adult T cells were capable of transcribing mRNAs for IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, interferon gamma, and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor. However, neonatal T cells could be induced to undergo functional differentiation in vitro, thereby acquiring the capacity to express the lymphokine gene repertoire characteristic for adult T cells. These data suggest that the T cells generated from neonatal blood by a primary stimulation in vitro are functionally indistinguishable from the T cells in adult blood that presumably have undergone primary stimulation in vivo. Therefore, we propose that the term memory cell be applied to those T cells that ...
A novel model for antigen-dependent activation of normal human T cells. Transmembrane signaling by crosslinkage of the CD3/T...
Transmembrane signaling of normal human T cells was explored with mAbs directed at TCR, CD2, CD4, CD5, or CD8 antigens and highly purified CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells. Our experiments explicitly show that: (a) crosslinkage of TCR with the CD2 antigen, and not independent crosslinking of TCR and of CD2 antigen or crosslinking of either protein with the CD4 or CD8 antigen induces significant proliferation independent of co-stimulatory signals (e.g., accessory cells, recombinant lymphokines, or tumor promoter), (b) F(ab)2 fragments of mAb directed at the TCR and F(ab)2 anti-CD2, crosslinked with F(ab)2 fragments of rabbit anti-mouse IgG, promote the proliferation of highly purified T cells, (c) a prompt and sustained increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration results from crosslinkage of TCR with the CD2 antigen, (d) T cell proliferation induced by this novel approach is curtailed by EGTA and by direct or competitive inhibitors of PKC, (e) crosslinkage of TCR with the CD2 antigen ...
Recombinant Human Interleukin 34 protein (ab109933) References
References for Abcams Recombinant Human Interleukin 34 protein (ab109933). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Aldesleukin | Health Professional Version | Printable Version | AIDSinfo
Mechanism of Action: Immune modulator. Aldesleukin (recombinant IL-2; rIL-2) is a non-glycosylated interleukin-2 (IL-2) product. It is made via recombinant DNA technology that uses an E. coli strain containing an analog of the human IL-2 gene. The biological activity of aldesleukin is similar to that of endogenous IL-2. Aldesleukin is currently FDA-approved for treating metastatic renal cell carcinoma and melanoma.3 In HIV-related clinical trials, aldesleukin is the most commonly studied IL-2 product.6. IL-2 is a type I cytokine belonging to a subfamily of cytokines that uses the common γ-chain receptor. Physiologically, IL-2 is produced in secondary lymphoid organs, primarily by CD4 cells, following activation by antigen. Once bound to the IL-2 receptor, IL-2 can activate multiple signaling pathways, including the JAK-STAT, PI3K-AKT, and MAPK pathways.2,7-9. IL-2 is a T cell growth factor that promotes T cell proliferation and survival. It stimulates the cytotoxic activity of CD8 and natural ...
ActoFactor™ Recombinant Human Interleukin 2 (HEK) | Creative Bioarray
IL-2 is a secreted cytokine that is important for the proliferation of T and B lymphocytes. The receptor of this cytokine is a heterotrimeric protein complex whose gamma chain is also shared by interleukin 4 (IL-4) and interleukin 7 (IL-7). The expression of this gene in mature thymocytes is monoallelic, which represents an unusual regulatory mode for controlling the precise expression of a single gene. The targeted disruption of a similar gene in mice leads to ulcerative colitis-like disease, which suggests an essential role of this gene in the immune response to antigenic stimuli. Recombinant Human Interleukin-2 (rHu IL-2) produced in HEK cells is a glycosylated monomer, having a total molecular weight of 15 kDa. It has been purified by proprietary chromatographic techniques ...
High Levels of Circulating Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells after Continuous Infusion of High Dose Interleukin-2 in Cancer...
Over the past few years recombinant human interleukin-2 (IL-2), with or without infusion of in vitro generated lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells, has been administered to patients with...
Expansion of Human Peripheral Blood γδ T Cells using Zoledronate | Protocol (Translated to Italian)
Un metodo per espandere γδ cellule T dalle cellule mononucleate del sangue periferico (PBMC) è descritta. PBMC cellule derivate γδ T...
Novel Agents Revolutionize Melanoma Treatment
Until recently, the cornerstone of therapy for metastatic melanoma had been chemotherapy with dacarbazine (DTIC) and immunotherapy with high-dose interleukin-2 (HD IL-2) or interferon-Î± (IFN-Î±).
2N Access Unit M | ProVu Communications
The 2N® Access Unit M offers a simple to install access control unit ideal for office environments. With a unique compact design, the Access Unit M can be easily installed on to a door frame through the connection of a single UTP cable. Offering a controller and reader in one, this discreet device works without the need to communicate with a server.. With an in-built controller, this smart reader is ideal for environments where two-factor authentication is required and can be installed both in indoor and outdoor applications.. Available in a range of variants, the 2N® Access Unit M can be purchased with the following funtionalities:. ...
Preferential exclusion of sucrose from recombinant interleukin-1 receptor antagonist: Role in restricted conformational...
Preferential exclusion of sucrose from recombinant interleukin-1 receptor antagonist: Role in restricted conformational mobility and compaction of native state Journal Article ...
ActoFactor™ Recombinant Human Interleukin 12-p40 (CHO) | Creative Bioarray
Interleukin-12 is a disulfide-linked heterodimeric protein (p70), composed of two subunits, p35 and p40, which are encoded by two different genes. Accumulating data indicate that p40 secretion precedes that of IL-12 expression. In addition to its ability to covalently bind to p35 to form IL-12, p40 can bind to p19 to form IL-23. Recombinant human IL-12 p40 is a 40 kDa protein containing 306 amino acid residues ...
Interleukin-1β (human, recombinant), [125I], 10µCi | PerkinElmer
NEX232 Interleukin-1 (IL-1) refers to a group of three polypeptides (interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra)), that play a central role in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses.. IL-1β is a pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in immune defense against infection. ...
Volume 13 - Issue 11 - November 2016 | Vascular Disease Management
The FDA recently approved a new, more concentrated format of the high-dose bolus of the GP IIb/IIIa agent tirofiban (premixed, ready to use, at 250 mcg/mL in a 15 mL vial). Craig Walker, MD, answers questions about the use of GP IIb/IIIa agents in pe ...
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) - PA1081 | acris-antibodies.com
Interleukin-6 (IL-6), 2 µg. Interleukin-6 is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine primarily produced by activated T cells and an assortment of other cells including endothelial cells and macrophages.
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) - PA1080XC | acris-antibodies.com
Interleukin-6 (IL-6), 1 mg. Interleukin-6 is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine primarily produced by activated T cells and an assortment of other cells including endothelial cells and macrophages.
大鼠 IL-4R/CD124 基因ORF全长cDNA克隆(表达载体), N-Flag 标签 | SinoBiological
rat IL-4R/CD124 gene cDNA, cloning vector & expression plasmid, mutiple tags. Optimized for high expression in mammalian cells. Save up to 60%.
Interleukin synonyms, interleukin antonyms - FreeThesaurus.com
Synonyms for interleukin in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for interleukin. 1 word related to interleukin: lymphokine. What are synonyms for interleukin?
人IL-2 ELISA试剂盒(Interleukin-2) | Abcam中国官方网站
人IL-2 ELISA试剂盒(Interleukin-2) ELISA试剂盒datasheet (ab100566).Abcam抗体、ELISA、激动剂拮抗剂、表观遗传试剂、蛋白多肽，使用效果保证，中国70%以上现货。
人IL-17 ELISA试剂盒(Interleukin-17) | Abcam中国官方网站
人IL-17 ELISA试剂盒(Interleukin-17) ELISA试剂盒datasheet (ab100556).Abcam抗体、ELISA、激动剂拮抗剂、表观遗传试剂、蛋白多肽，使用效果保证，中国70%以上现货。
Receptors, Interleukin-4, Type I - RightDiagnosis.com
Receptors, Interleukin-4, Type I information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and health issues.
INT28363 - wiki-pain
The antiviral effects of tenidap may be independent of its ability to reduce IL-6 production based on the observations that these effects were as prominent in IL-6 nonresponsive lines as in IL-6 responsive lines and that the inhibition of p24 production was not reversed by exogenous IL-6 ...
Echobaby: Hilltop Camp - Mtwazi Lodge
Frost is sulky about getting up early and only complies because he is able to ride, unbuckled, in the trunk of the SUV. He has a big soft blanket and cuddles up in it and groans things like how much longer? Are we THERE yet? He did like to get out of the car at the picnic sight and saw nyala coming down to drink and spotted a troop of baboons running from the river, eating tasty seed pods and then galloping across the packed earth to the distant scrub. Game viewing by car is a slow process - you drive along at about 10 mph and look in the bush beside you for shadows or movement. If you are lucky someone else has spotted an animal and you can just stop and see what it is. Occasionally, animals cross the road in front of you and you get a glimpse of a buck. Larger animals can also hide and I have wondered how many elephants we have driven past already ...
The Biggest Upset in Idol History
Gasps, cries, and boos erupted when Ryan Seacrest announced that Melinda Doolittle was going home on Wednesday nights American Idol. I swore I heard t ...
Epidermal growth factor
Interleukin-1 Monocytes, Leukocytes Stimulate synthesis of IL-2 10 Interleukin-2 Lymphocytes Stimulate growth and maturation of ... 15 (2): 120-5. doi:10.1177/1534734616645444. PMID 27151755. S2CID 43897291.. *^ a b Martí-Carvajal AJ, Gluud C, Nicola S, ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... doi:10.1016/S0014-4827(02)00105-2. PMID 12648462.. *^ Carpenter G, Cohen S (May 1990). "Epidermal growth factor". The Journal ...
"Biotechnology Report, Medicines in Development, 2006 , Interleukin 2 , Monoclonal Antibody". Scribd. Retrieved 2017-09-25. " ... 77 (2): 316-327. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.77.2.316. ISSN 0009-7322. PMID 3257422. Berger, Harvey J.; Eisner, Robert; DePuey, E. ...
... and Interleukin 2 (IL2). A summary of these proteins is shown below with their suspected functions. The HSH2D protein has been ... "IL2 Interleukin 2". Clark, Peter (2012). "Bioinformatics analysis reveals transcriptome and microRNA signatures and drug ... Isoform 2 has a variant 5' UTR and a different start codon, as well as a shorter N-terminus. The mRNA has a short 5' UTR and a ... Isoform 2 has six exons and is 2,936 bp long. Although isoform 2 has longer mRNA, it still produces the smaller isoform in the ...
Interleukin-2 receptor binder golimumab Simponi rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, ulcerative ... Diphtheria toxin engineered protein combining Interleukin-2 and Diphtheria toxin ... 2 Feb 2012. Retrieved 8 April 2014.. *^ Walsh G (2003). Biopharmaceuticals: Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Second Edition. ... 29 (4): 310-2. doi:10.1038/nbt.1839. PMID 21478841.. *^ Lamanna WC, Holzmann J, Cohen HP, Guo X, Schweigler M, Stangler T, ...
Interleukin-2 receptor alpha chain (also called CD25) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL2RA gene. The interleukin ... "Entrez Gene: IL2RA interleukin 2 receptor, alpha". Triplett, Todd A.; et al. (July 2012). "Defining a functionally distinct ... Leonard WJ, Donlon TA, Lebo RV, Greene WC (Aug 1985). "Localization of the gene encoding the human interleukin-2 receptor on ... Kuziel WA, Greene WC (June 1990). "Interleukin-2 and the IL-2 receptor: new insights into structure and function". J. Invest. ...
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and the discovery of human retroviruses. After listening to a talk by biologist David Baltimore and ... interleukin-2) by the Interlaken cytokine nomenclature committee. Although earlier reports had described soluble molecules ... 2] Consortium Awards $23.4 Million for Promising HIV/AIDS Preventive Vaccine Candidate Developed by Institute of Human Virology ... The discovery of IL-2 allowed T cells, previously thought to be dead end cells, to be grown significantly in culture for the ...
List of recombinant proteins
Baigent G (May 2002). "Recombinant Interleukin-2 (rIL-2), aldesleukin". Journal of Biotechnology. 95 (3): 277-80. doi:10.1016/ ... 66 (2): 235-44. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(88)90360-5. PMID 3049246. Jeha S, Kantarjian H, Irwin D, Shen V, Shenoy S, Blaney S, et ... 5 (2): 187-193. doi:10.1046/j.1468-1331.1998.520187.x. PMID 10210831. Pritchard J, Gray IA, Idrissova ZR, Lecky BR, Sutton IJ, ... 96 (2): 358-64. doi:10.1128/JB.96.2.358-364.1968. PMC 252306. PMID 4877123. Mehta P, Woo P, Venkataraman K, Karzai AW (2012). " ...
... and endothelial cells encoding an alternate type-II interleukin-4/interleukin-13 receptor". European Journal of Immunology. 27 ... "Characterization of the interaction between interleukin-13 and interleukin-13 receptors". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. ... "Entrez Gene: IL13RA2 interleukin 13 receptor, alpha 2". Fujisawa T, Joshi B, Nakajima A, Puri RK (November 2009). "A novel role ... Interleukin-13 receptor subunit alpha-2 (IL-13Rα2), also known as CD213A2 (cluster of differentiation 213A2), is a membrane ...
Common gamma chain
Interleukin+Receptor+Common+gamma+Subunit at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Overview of ... The common gamma chain (γc) (or CD132), also known as interleukin-2 receptor subunit gamma or IL-2RG, is a cytokine receptor ... Cytokine receptor common subunit gamma also known as interleukin-2 receptor subunit gamma or IL-2RG is a protein that in humans ... Kondo M, Takeshita T, Ishii N, Nakamura M, Watanabe S, Arai K, Sugamura K (December 1993). "Sharing of the interleukin-2 (IL-2 ...
This gene and four other interleukin 1 receptor family genes, including interleukin 1 receptor, type I (IL1R1), interleukin 1 ... Interleukin-1 receptor-like 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL1RL2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... "Entrez Gene: IL1RL2 interleukin 1 receptor-like 2". McMahan CJ, Slack JL, Mosley B, et al. (1991). "A novel IL-1 receptor, ... 1993). "Interleukin-1 type II receptor: a decoy target for IL-1 that is regulated by IL-4". Science. 261 (5120): 472-5. doi: ...
Janus kinase 3
Johnston JA, Wang LM, Hanson EP, Sun XJ, White MF, Oakes SA, Pierce JH, O'Shea JJ (December 1995). "Interleukins 2, 4, 7, and ... Rolling C, Treton D, Beckmann P, Galanaud P, Richard Y (May 1995). "JAK3 associates with the human interleukin 4 receptor and ... Kumar N, Mishra J, Narang VS, Waters CM (October 2007). "Janus kinase 3 regulates interleukin 2-induced mucosal wound repair ... Mishra J, Waters CM, Kumar N (March 2012). "Molecular mechanism of interleukin-2-induced mucosal homeostasis". American Journal ...
Beadling C, Johnson KW, Smith KA (April 1993). "Isolation of interleukin 2-induced immediate-early genes". Proc. Natl. Acad. ... 16 (1-2): 129-40. doi:10.1615/critrevoncog.v16.i1-2.120. PMC 3268054. PMID 22150313. Guo W, Dong Z, Guo Y, Chen Z, Kuang G, ... 88 (1-2): 95-6. doi:10.1159/000015496. PMID 10773677. S2CID 45495955. Yi YW, Kim D, Jung N, Hong SS, Lee HS, Bae I (2000). " ... 213 (2): 121-9. doi:10.1016/j.mce.2003.10.050. PMID 15062559. S2CID 54408868. Zerbini LF, Wang Y, Czibere A, Correa RG, Cho JY ...
Stimulation of interleukin-2 production by substance p". Journal of Neuroimmunology. 37 (1-2): 65-74. doi:10.1016/0165-5728(92) ... 22 (2): 93-8. PMID 18597700. Meshki J, Douglas SD, Hu M, Leeman SE, Tuluc F (2011). "Substance P induces rapid and transient ... 494 (2-3): 233-9. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2004.05.016. PMID 15212980. O'Connor TM, O'Connell J, O'Brien DI, Goode T, Bredin CP, ... 98 (1-2): 55-62. doi:10.1016/S0167-0115(00)00228-7. PMID 11179779. S2CID 33205594. Gobbi G, Cassano T, Radja F, Morgese MG, ...
Beadling, C.; Johnson, K.W.; Smith, K.A. (1993). "Isolation of interleukin 2-induced immediate-early genes". Proceedings of the ...
... interleukin 3, interleukin 5) that: a) cause bone marrow precursor cells, i.e. CFU-Eos, to proliferate and mature into ... interleukin 3, or interleukin 13. The disorder is usually indolent but infrequently progresses to T-cell lymphoma or Sezary ... interleukin 3, interleukin 5, and colony stimulating factor 2. However, no functional sequence genetic polylmophisms are found ... Prakash Babu S, Chen YK, Bonne-Annee S, Yang J, Maric I, Myers TG, Nutman TB, Klion AD (2017). "Dysregulation of interleukin 5 ...
This interaction inhibits interleukin 2 transcription in T cells. TOB1 has been shown to interact with: CNOT7, MAPK1 MARCKS, ... 6 (2): 131-8. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2443.2001.00406.x. PMID 11260258. S2CID 21599032. Jin Cho S, La M, Ahn JK, Meadows GG, Joe CO ... 283 (2): 273-7. doi:10.1006/bbrc.2001.4773. PMID 11327693. Suzuki T, Matsuda S, Tsuzuku JK, Yoshida Y, Yamamoto T (Feb 2001). " ... 2 (12): 1174-82. doi:10.1038/ni730. PMID 11694881. S2CID 38103879. Suzuki T, K-Tsuzuku J, Ajima R, Nakamura T, Yoshida Y, ...
Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-like 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the IRAK2 gene. IRAK2 encodes the ... "Entrez Gene: IRAK2 interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 2". Wesche H, Gao X, Li X, Kirschning CJ, Stark GR, Cao Z (Jul 1999 ... Wesche H, Gao X, Li X, Kirschning CJ, Stark GR, Cao Z (Jul 1999). "IRAK-M is a novel member of the Pelle/interleukin-1 receptor ... Bin LH, Xu LG, Shu HB (Jul 2003). "TIRP, a novel Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing adapter protein involved ...
Expression of this gene is up-regulated by interleukin-2.. References. *^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... 259 (2): 401-7. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1999.0700. PMID 10362521.. *. Brown J, Matutes E, Singleton A, et al. (1998). "Lymphopain, a ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the interleukin 1 receptor family. This protein is similar to the interleukin 1 ... X-linked interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein-like 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL1RAPL2 gene. ... 2006). "Analysis of interleukin (IL)-1beta IL-1 receptor antagonist, soluble IL-1 receptor type II and IL-1 accessory protein ... "Entrez Gene: IL1RAPL2 interleukin 1 receptor accessory protein-like 2". Grundtman C, Salomonsson S, Dorph C, et al. (2007). " ...
"A humanized antibody that binds to the interleukin 2 receptor". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 86 (24): 10029-33. doi:10.1073/pnas. ... 61 (Suppl 2): 70-3. doi:10.1136/ard.61.suppl_2.ii70. PMC 1766697. PMID 12379628. Stacy JE, Kausmally L, Simonsen B, Nordgard SH ... 58 (Suppl 1): I70-2. doi:10.1136/ard.58.2008.i70. PMC 1766582. PMID 10577977. Rau R (Nov 2002). "Adalimumab (a fully human anti ... 283 (1-2): 247-59. doi:10.1016/j.jim.2003.09.015. PMID 14659916. http://www.theraclone-sciences.com/pdf/Theraclone_ISTAR.pdf ...
Martin Turner (scientist)
Buchan, G., Barrett, K., Turner, M., Chantry, D., Maini, R. N., and Feldmann, M. (1988). "Interleukin 1 and tumour necrosis ... Turner, M., Chantry, D., Buchan, G., Barrett, K., and Feldmann, M. (1989). "Regulation of expression of human interleukin 1 ... "Excessive production of interleukin 6 (BSF-2) in rheumatoid arthritis." Eur. J. Immunol. 18:1797-1801. ... 2018) "RNA-binding proteins control gene expression and cell fate in the immune system." Nature Immunology 19(2):120-129. ...
Mice made hypereosinophilic by the forced overexpression of an interleukin-5 transgene (interleukin 5 stimulates eosinophil ... In the latter model, endocarditis is reduced by inhibiting the cytokine interleukin-4 or eosinophils and is exacerbated by ... Other drugs: digoxin, ranitidine, lenalidomide, methyldopa, interleukin 2, dobutamine, acetazolamide. Contaminants: ... are elevated in the cardiac tissue of myosin-immunized mice that are concurrently depleted of interferon gamma and interleukin- ...
Targeted interleukin-2 therapy for spontaneous neuroblastoma metastases to bone marrow. Journal of the National Cancer ... Natural killer cell-mediated eradication of neuroblastoma metastases to bone marrow by targeted interleukin-2 therapy. Blood ... Tumor-targeted IL-2 amplifies T cell-mediated immune response induced by gene therapy with single-chain IL-12. Proc Natl Acad ... Melanoma immunotherapy by targeted IL-2 depends on CD4(+) T-cell help mediated by CD40/CD40L interaction [In Process Citation ...
Tumor antigens recognized by T lymphocytes
gp100 peptide vaccine and interleukin-2 in patients with advanced melanoma ". The New England Journal of Medicine. 364(22): ... 14(2): 135-146. Van den Eynde B., Lethé B., Van Pel A., De Plaen E., Boon T. 1991. " The gene coding for a major tumor ... 18(2): 160-175. Khammari A., Knol A.C., Nguyen J.M., Bossard C., Denis M.G., Pandolfino M.C., Quéreux G., Bercegeay S., Dréno B ... A clinical and immunologic phase 2 trial of Wilms tumor gene product 1 (WT1) peptide vaccination in patients with AML and MDS ...
Li C, Lai CF, Sigman DS, Gaynor RB (1991). "Cloning of a cellular factor, interleukin binding factor, that binds to NFAT-like ... Nirula A, Moore DJ, Gaynor RB (1997). "Constitutive binding of the transcription factor interleukin-2 (IL-2) enhancer binding ... 2003). "Solution structure of the DNA-binding domain of interleukin enhancer binding factor 1 (FOXK1a)". Proteins. 49 (4): 543- ... and to the similar purine-rich motif in the interleukin 2 (IL2) promoter. It may be involved in the regulation of viral and ...
Graham Hill (academic)
"Treatment of ocular squamous cell carcinomas in cattle with interleukin-2". The Veterinary Record (abstract). London: British ... Retrieved 2 January 2009. Bingham, J.; Schumacher, C.L.; Hill, F.W.G.; Aubert, A. (1999). "Efficacy of SAG-2 oral rabies ... 55 (2): 82-85. doi:10.1111/j.1751-0813.1979.tb15171.x. Archived from the original on 5 January 2013. Retrieved 4 January 2009. ...
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
Two case reports of using interleukin-2 successfully have been published. Some success have been reported with mirtazapine, but ... "Nonmyeloablative allogeneic stem cell transplantation for refractory Hodgkin's lymphoma complicated by interleukin-2 responsive ... 9 Suppl 1 (2): 38-41. doi:10.1080/13550280390195261. PMID 12709870. S2CID 17171153. Kappos, Ludwig; Bates, David; Edan, Gilles ... 37 (2): 1263-1268. doi:10.1097/01.qai.0000136093.47316.f3. PMID 15385733. S2CID 23613081. Gray, Françoise; Salmon, Dominique; ...
Its target is the alpha chain of the interleukin-2 receptor. Piñana JL, Valcárcel D, Martino R, et al. (November 2006). " ... "Encouraging results with inolimomab (anti-IL-2 receptor) as treatment for refractory acute graft-versus-host disease". Biology ...
The combination of histamine dihydrochloride and interleukin-2 was approved for use in AML patients within the European Union ... Histamine dihydrochloride is administered in conjunction with low doses of the immune-activating cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) ... "Post-consolidation immunotherapy with histamine dihydrochloride and interleukin-2 in AML". Scand. J. Immunol. 70 (3): 194-205. ... "Improved leukemia-free survival after postconsolidation immunotherapy with histamine dihydrochloride and interleukin-2 in acute ...
人類基因組 - 维基百科，自由的百科全
Identification of a coordinate regulator of interleukins 4, 13, and 5 by cross-species sequence comparisons.. Science. 2000, ... 人類擁有23對不同的染色體，其中22對屬於常染色體，另外還有1對能夠決定性別的性染色體，分別是X染色體與Y染色體。1號到22號染色體的編號順序，大致符合他們由大到小的尺寸排列。最大的染色體約含有2億5千萬個鹼基對，最小的則約有3800萬個鹼基對。這 ... 2004, 2 (1): E5. PMID
Instead, plasma cells are identified through flow cytometry by their additional expression of CD138, CD78, the Interleukin-6 ... ISBN 0-7817-6507-2.. *^ a b c d e Walport, Mark; Murphy, Kenneth; Janeway, Charles; Travers, Paul J. (2008). Janeway's ... ISBN 0-12-053641-2.. *^ Bertil Glader; Greer, John G.; John Foerster; Rodgers, George G.; Paraskevas, Frixos (2008). Wintrobe's ... Some B cells will undergo a process known as affinity maturation. This process favors, by selection for the ability to bind ...
T细胞 - 维基百科，自由的百科全书
Interleukin-10 determines viral clearance or persistence in vivo. Nature Medicine. November 2006, 12 (11): 1301-9. PMC 2535582 ... T细胞耗竭的直接原因包括持续的抗原刺激、以及CD4细胞的缺失。长时间的抗原暴露和高病毒负载可以加重T细胞耗竭的程度。2-4周的持续抗原暴露就可导致T细胞耗竭。另一个可以导致T细胞耗竭的因素是包括PD-
EPO " Interleukin " G-CSF " OM " LIF " IFN " CD " TNF-α " LT " Ligand " TGF " MIF ... C5a " CCL2 " CCL5 " GSM-CSF " LPS " MCP-1 " IL-1 " IL-2 " IL-3 " IL-4 " IL-5 " IL-6 " IL-8 " IL-10 " IL-12 " IL-13 " IL-15 " IL ... Wondene 2-methyoxyestradiol duwé aktivitas antitumorigenik kanti ngalonake proliferasi lan angiogenesis ing sèl tumor. ... ing umumne senyawa estrogen-katekol duwé wektu paruh kang cendek amarga langsung termetilasi dadi 2-methoxyestradiol lan 4- ...
... the Antigen-Presenting Cell causes a response in a TH2 lymphocyte which produce the cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4). The TH2 ... 158 (2): 89-94. doi:10.1007/s004310051024. PMID 10048601. *^ Barnes KC, Grant AV, Hansel NN, Gao P, Dunston GM (2007). "African ... After Squire and Kandel, 1999). In 2000, Eric Kandel was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his research ... Rosen JB, Schulkin J (1998). "From normal fear to pathological anxiety". Psychol Rev 105(2): 325-350, doi:10.1037/0033-295X. ...
CXCL10 - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија
2]. CXCL10, hemokin (C-X-C motiv) ligand 10, ili IP-10 je mali citokin iz CXC hemokin familije koji je takođe poznat kao 10 ... U te ćelijske tipove spadaju monociti, endotelijalne ćelije i fibroblasti. CXCL10 hemokinu je bilo pripisano nekoliko uloga ... CXCL10; C7; IFI10; INP10; IP-10; SCYB10; crg-2; gIP-10; mob-1. ...
positive regulation of interleukin-4 production. • oocyte development. • positive regulation of type IV hypersensitivity. • ... 23 (2): 394-402. doi:10.1093/humrep/dem373. PMID 18033806.. *. Han L, Monné M, Okumura H, Schwend T, Cherry AL, Flot D, Matsuda ... 3 (2): E59-64. doi:10.1038/35055178. PMID 11175768. S2CID 6172791.. *. Zhao M, Boja ES, Hoodbhoy T, et al. (2004). "Mass ... 66 (2): 407-14. doi:10.1095/biolreprod66.2.407. PMID 11804956.. *. Monné M, Han L, Schwend T, Burendahl S, Jovine L (2008). " ...
Stimulation of interleukin-2 production by substance p". Journal of Neuroimmunology. 37 (1-2): 65-74. doi:10.1016/0165-5728(92) ... 201 (2): 167-80. doi:10.1002/jcp.20061. PMID 15334652.. *^ Bossaller C, Reither K, Hehlert-Friedrich C, Auch-Schwelk W, Graf K ... 112 (2-3): 147-62. doi:10.1007/BF02244906. PMID 7532865.. *^ Park SW, Yan YP, Satriotomo I, Vemuganti R, Dempsey RJ (Sep 2007 ... 85 (2): 129-33. doi:10.1006/clin.1997.4446. PMID 9344694.. *^ Pinto FM, Almeida TA, Hernandez M, Devillier P, Advenier C, ...
The release of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 by activated leukocytes triggered by lipopolysaccharides, ... Maier SF, Wiertelak EP, Martin D, Watkins LR (October 1993). "Interleukin-1 mediates the behavioral hyperalgesia produced by ... 98 (2): 246-54. doi:10.1093/bja/ael344. PMID 17251214.. *^ Warncke T, Stubhaug A, Jørum E (August 1997). "Ketamine, an NMDA ...
Interleukins/T-cell growth factors (see here instead). *Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... Phase II results for breast cancer that over-expresses the protein human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2-positive ... N-[4-[(3-Chloro-4-fluorophenyl)amino]-7-[[(3S)-tetrahydro-3-furanyl]oxy]-6-quinazolinyl]-4(dimethylamino)-2-butenamide ...
Faktor aktivacije B-ćelija
proinflamatorni citokin (IL-1, TNF-alfa) • Th1 (INF-gama i TNF-beta) • Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13) • Th17 (IL-17,IL-22 ... CD201 • CD202b • CD204 • CD205 • CD206 • CD207 • CD208 • CD209 • CDw210 (a, b) • CD212 • CD213a (1, 2) • CD217 • CD218 (a, b) ... 2]. Faktor aktivacije B-ćelija, (BAFF) koji je takođe poznat kao faktor nekroze tumora ligand superfamilija član 13B, je ... protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran genom TNFLSF13B. BAFF je isto tako poznat kao B limfocit stimulator (BLyS), TNF-, APOL- ...
proinflamatorni citokin (IL-1, TNF-alfa) • Th1 (INF-gama i TNF-beta) • Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13) • Th17 (IL-17,IL-22 ... 1,0 1,1 1,2 1,3 1,4 Matloubian M, David A, Engel S, Ryan J, Cyster J (2000). "A transmembrane CXC chemokine is a ligand for HIV ... 2,0 2,1 Abel S, Hundhausen C, Mentlein R, Schulte A, Berkhout T, Broadway N, Hartmann D, Sedlacek R, Dietrich S, Muetze B, ... 2] CXCL16 proizvode dendritiske ćelije koje se mogu naći u T ćelijskim zonama limfoidnih organa, i ćelije iz crvene pulpe ...
... associations and interaction with the interleukin-1alpha-889 C/T polymorphism". Hum. Immunol. 65 (6): 622-31. doi:10.1016/j. ... HLA A1-B8-DR3-DQ2 haplotype (Also: AH8.1, COX, Super B8, ancestral MHC 8.1 or 8.1 ancestral haplotype) is a multigene ... 19 (2): 129-32. doi:10.1002/art.1780190201. PMID 1259797.. *^ Parks CG, Pandey JP, Dooley MA, et al. (June 2004). "Genetic ... 56 (2): 130-3. doi:10.1590/S0043-31442007000200005. PMID 17910142.. *^ Hirsch TJ, Enlow RW, Bias WB, Arnett FC (October 1981). ...
Occupational health psychology
Theorell, T.; Hasselhorn, H.; Vingård, E.; Andersson, B. (2000). "Interleukin 6 and cortisol in acute musculoskeletal disorders ... 33(2).  Retrieved July 28, 2014. *^ a b Cox, T., & Tisserand, M. (2006). Editorial: Work & Stress comes of age: Twenty years ... What is occupational health psychology  *^ a b Tetrick, L.E., & Quick, J.C. (2011). Overview of occupational health ... a b Schmitt, L. (2008). OHP interventions: Wellness programs (Part 2). Newsletter of the Society for Occupational Health ...
Hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome
Borges W, Augustine N, Hill H (2000). "Defective interleukin-12/interferon-gamma pathway in patients with ... 65 (5 Pt 2): 32R-37R. doi:10.1203/PDR.0b013e31819dc8c5. ISSN 0031-3998. PMC 2919366. PMID 19190525.. ... Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; Jorizzo, Joseph L. (2007). Dermatology: 2-Volume Set. St. Louis: Mosby. ISBN 1-4160-2999- ... It is characterized by recurrent "cold" staphylococcal infections (due to impaired recruitment of neutrophils), unusual ...
39 (2): 199-205. doi:10.1086/421944. PMID 15307029.. *^ Mennink-Kersten MA, Warris A, Verweij PE (2006). "1,3-β-D-Glucan in ... Manners, David J. (2 February 1973). "The Structure of a β-(1→3)-D-Glucan from Yeast Cell Walls". Biochemical Journal. 135 (1 ... A particular interest in oat β-glucan arose after a cholesterol lowering effect from oat bran reported in 1981. ... 94 (2): 276-284. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2007.11.045. PMID 18222501. S2CID 24758421.. ...
"Polymorphisms of the interleukin-1 beta gene are associated with increased risk of non-small cell lung cancer". International ... 42 (2): 1047-51. doi:10.1101/sqb.1978.042.01.105. PMID 98262.. *^ a b c d e f Smale ST, Kadonaga JT (2003). "The RNA polymerase ... 2 (3): 188-200. doi:10.1038/nrc749. PMID 11990855.. *^ a b Zhang M, Lv Y, Wang Y, Rose JK, Shen F, Han Z, Zhang X, Xu X, Wu T, ... Figure 2. Mechanism for transcription initiation at the TATA box. Transcription factors, TATA binding protein (TBP), and RNA ...
顆粒白血球 - 維基百科，自由的百科全
... interleukin-5）可促進嗜曙紅顆粒白血球成長及分化。 ... 嗜鹼顆粒白血球是骨髓和血液中最不常見的細胞之一，其數量小於細胞總數的2%。該細胞也也具備分葉的細胞核，但其細胞核僅有兩葉，連接兩葉之間的
多囊卵巢綜合症 - 维基百科，自由的百
... and interleukin-1 in modulating progesterone and oestradiol production by human luteinized granulosa cells in culture. Hum. ... 2011, 62 (2): 120-8. PMID 21528473.. *^ Munir, Iqbal; Yen, Hui-Wen; Geller, David H.; Torbati, Donna; Bierden, Rebecca M.; ... doi:10.1016/S0015-0282(02)03275-2.. *^ 24.0 24.1 Crosignani PG, Nicolosi AE. Polycystic ovarian disease: heritability and ... doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61729-2.. *^ Polson DW, Adams J, Wadsworth J, Franks S. Polycystic ovaries-a common finding in normal ...
Index of HIV/AIDS-related articles
... interleukin-4 (IL-4) - interleukin-12 (IL-12) - interleukins - International Center for Research on Women - intramuscular (IM ... HIV-2) - human leukocyte antigens (HLA) - human papilloma virus (HPV) - human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) - human ... herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) - herpes varicella zoster virus (VZV) - herpes viruses - highly active antiretroviral therapy ( ... HIV-2 - HIV-associated dementia - HIV-related tuberculosis - HLA - Hodgkin's disease - holistic medicine - homology (biology) ...
CD200 - Википедия
negative regulation of interleukin-6 secretion. • negative regulation of neuron death. • negative regulation of matrix ... 2. - P. 117-126. - DOI:10.1093/dnares/12.2.117. - PMID 16303743.. *Kimura K., Wakamatsu A., Suzuki Y. et al. Diversification of ... Альтернативный сплайсинг приводит к образованию нескольких изоформ белка. Примечания[править , править код]. *↑ P41217 (OX2G ... McCaughan G.W., Clark M.J., Barclay A.N. Characterization of the human homolog of the rat MRC OX-2 membrane glycoprotein (англ ...
... interleukin 7 receptor chain α deficiency, CD45 deficiency, CD3δ/CD3ε deficiency. T-/B- SCID (both T and B cells absent): RAG 1 ... 41 Suppl 2: S83-6. doi:10.1038/bmt.2008.61. PMID 18545252. Naik, S; Nicholas, S; Martinez, C; Leen, A; Hanley, P; Gottschalk, S ... 6 (2): 59-83. doi:10.1016/S1525-1578(10)60493-X. PMC 1867474 . PMID 15096561. Conley ME, Notarangelo LD, Etzioni A (1999). " ... Immunodeficiency with hypopigmentation or albinism: Chédiak-Higashi syndrome, Griscelli syndrome type 2 Familial hemophagocytic ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor
Interleukins/T-cell growth factors (see here instead). *Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) ... 88 (2): 595-603. doi:10.1152/jn.2002.88.2.595. PMID 12163512.. *^ Chou WH, Wang D, McMahon T, Qi ZH, Song M, Zhang C, Shokat KM ... 16 (2): 477-83. doi:10.1017/S1461145712000685. PMC 3802523. PMID 22827965.. *^ Egan MF, Kojima M, Callicott JH, Goldberg TE, ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ...
An example of an autocrine agent is the cytokine interleukin-1 in monocytes. When interleukin-1 is produced in response to ... Interleukin 6 ACRONYM (IL-6) is a cytokine that is important for many aspects of cellular biology including immune responses, ... 20 (2): 158-72. doi:10.1016/j.ccr.2011.07.011. PMID 21840482. Petersen, Sean L.; Wang, Lai; Yalcin-Chin, Asligul; Li, Lin; ... 14 (2): 115-22. doi:10.1016/j.semcancer.2003.09.016. PMID 15018895. Jechlinger, M.; Sommer, A; Moriggl, R; Seither, P; Kraut, N ...
साँचा:Cytokines - विकिपीडिया
proinflammatory cytokine (IL1, TNFA) Monokine · Lymphokine (Th1 (IFNG and TNFB) · Th2 (IL4, IL5, IL6, IL10, IL13) ) ...
2003). "Role of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 ... Činjenica da je interleukin 8 sekrecija povećana sa oksidant stresom, i obrnuto, interleukin 8 uzrokujući regrutovanje ... Interleukin 8 receptor, beta. Reference[uredi - уреди , uredi izvor]. *↑ Wolff B, Burns AR, Middleton J, Rot A (November 1998 ... vezivanje za interleukin-8 receptor. • vezivanje za proteine. • aktivnost hemokina. Ćelijska komponenta. • ekstracelularni ...
T independent antigen (TI)
The most necessary are interleukin 2 (IL-2), interleukin 3 (IL-3) and interferon γ (IFN-γ). Moreover, additional stimulation ... ISBN 978-80-7387-713-2. *^ a b c d MURPHY, Kenneth. Janeway's immunobiology. 8th ed. London: Garland Science, c2012, xix, 868 s ... TI-2 antigen. Second group of TI antigens consists mainly of highly repetitive surface structures (epitopes) of ... There are 2 distinct subgroups of TI antigens, different in mechanism of activating B lymphocytes. TI-1 antigen, which has an ...
SLAMF6 - ويكيبيديا، الموسوعة الحرة
positive regulation of interleukin-17 production. • innate immune response. • positive regulation of natural killer cell ... SLAMF6 (SLAM family member 6) هوَ بروتين يُشَفر بواسطة جين SLAMF6 في الإنسان. ... 18 (2): 241-7. PMID 16410313. doi:10.1093/intimm/dxh358. *Gregory SG، Barlow KF، McLay KE، وآخرون. (2006). "The DNA sequence ... Eissmann P، Watzl C (2006). "Molecular analysis of NTB-A signaling: a role for EAT-2 in NTB-A-mediated activation of human NK ...
Rattazzi M, Puato M, Faggin E, et al. (2004). C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 in vascular disease: culprits or passive ... Mastorakos G, Ilias I (2007). Interleukin-6: a cytokine and/or a major modulator of the response to somatic stress. Ann. N. Y. ... Nishimoto N (May 2006). Interleukin-6 in rheumatoid arthritis. Curr Opin Rheumatol 18 (3): 277-81. PMID: 16582692. DOI: 10.1097 ... Smith PC, Hobisch A, Lin DL, Culig Z, Keller ET (March 2001). Interleukin-6 and prostate cancer progression. Cytokine Growth ...
"Interleukin-23 promotes a distinct CD4 T cell activation state characterized by the production of interleukin-17". J. Biol. ... Interleukin 17 (IL-17, ili IL-17A) je osnivački član grupe citokina poznatih kao IL-17 familija. IL-17A, je originalno (1993. ... IL-1 • IL-2 • IL-3 • IL-4 • IL-5 • IL-6 • IL-7 • IL-8 • IL-9 • IL-10 • IL-11 • IL-12 (B) • IL-13 • IL-14 • IL-15 • IL-16 • IL- ... proinflamatorni citokin (IL-1, TNF-alfa) • Th1 (INF-gama i TNF-beta) • Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13) • Th17 (IL-17,IL-22 ...
Interleukin-2 - MeSH - NCBI
... and ProteinsPeptidesIntercellular Signaling Peptides and ProteinsCytokinesInterleukinsInterleukin-2 ... and ProteinsProteinsIntercellular Signaling Peptides and ProteinsCytokinesInterleukinsInterleukin-2 ... Interleukin-2. A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in ... Chemicals and Drugs CategoryBiological FactorsIntercellular Signaling Peptides and ProteinsCytokinesInterleukinsInterleukin-2 ...
Interleukin-2 (IPR000779) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI
Interleukin-2 (IPR000779). Short name: IL-2 Overlapping homologous superfamilies *Four-helical cytokine-like, core (IPR009079) ... Use of a cDNA expression vector for isolation of mouse interleukin 2 cDNA clones: expression of T-cell growth-factor activity ... Cloning, sequence, and expression of bovine interleukin 2.. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 83 3223-7 1986 ... Cloning, sequence, and expression of bovine interleukin 2.. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 83 3223-7 1986 ...
Interleukin 2 | Define Interleukin 2 at Dictionary.com
... secreted by T cells in response to antigen and interleukin 1, that stimulates the proliferation of T cells. See more. ... First recorded in 1980-85; see origin at interleukin 1. Dictionary.com Unabridged Based on the Random House Unabridged ... a lymphokine protein, secreted by T cells in response to antigen and interleukin 1, that stimulates the proliferation of T ...
140812: Interleukin-2, Plasma | LabCorp
Interleukin-2. In: Thomson AW, Lotze MT, eds. Cytokine Handbook. 4th ed, vol 1. London, UK and San Diego, Calif: Academic Press ... Interleukin 2 (IL-2) is a pleiotropic cytokine produced primarily by mitogen- or antigen-activated T lymphocytes.1 IL-2 plays a ... In vitro studies suggest that IL-2 may also be produced by dendritic cells and certain lymphoma cell lines.1 In addition, IL-2 ... IL-2 stimulates the proliferation of thymocytes; stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of activated B cells; ...
Interleukin 2 - definition of interleukin 2 by The Free Dictionary
... interleukin 2 translation, English dictionary definition of interleukin 2. n. a T-cell protein that stimulates the production ... Interleukin 4. interleukin 2. n. a T-cell protein that stimulates the production of more T cells and other immune defenses: ... More recently, interleukin 2 (IL2) engendered enthusiastic support.. Number 12 steps up to bat; will this immune system ... interleukin 2. Also found in: Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.. Related to interleukin 2: ...
Interleukin-13 Receptor Alpha 2-Targeted Glioblastoma Immunotherapy
... Sadhak Sengupta,1,2 Bart Thaci,2 Andrew C. Crawford,3 and ... Simone Mori, Pamela Maher, and Bruno Conti, "Neuroimmunology of the Interleukins 13 and 4," Brain Sciences, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. ... interleukin-13 labeled liposome encapsulating gadolinium-DTPA," Neuro-Oncology, pp. nov263, 2015. View at Publisher · View at ... "Cigarette smoke extracts induce overexpression of the proto-oncogenic gene interleukin-13 receptor α2 through activation of the ...
Interleukin 2 - Wikipedia
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is an interleukin, a type of cytokine signaling molecule in the immune system. It is a 15.5-16 kDa protein ... Interleukin-2 (Aldesleukin). Date accessed: 07 Nov 10. Shi VY, Tran K, Patel F, Leventhal J, Konia T, Fung MA, Wilken R, Garcia ... Wang X, Rickert M, Garcia KC (November 2005). "Structure of the quaternary complex of interleukin-2 with its alpha, beta, and ... Aldesleukin is a form of recombinant interleukin-2. It is manufactured using recombinant DNA technology and is marketed as a ...
The Role of Interleukin-2 in Memory CD8 Cell Differentiation | SpringerLink
The current literature on the role of interleukin (IL)-2 in memory CD8+ T-cell differentiation indicates a significant ... contribution of IL-2 during primary and also secondary expansion of CD8+T... ... A function for interleukin 2 in Foxp3-expressing regulatory T-cells. Nat Immunol 2005; 6:1142-51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Interleukin-7 mediates the homeostasis of naive and memory CD8 T-cells in vivo. Nat Immunol 2000; 1:426-32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle ...
... Human Interleukin 2 crystal structure Available structures: 1irl, 1m47, 1m48, 1m49, 1m4a, 1m4b, ... Human Interleukin 2 crystal structure Available structures: 1irl, 1m47, 1m48, 1m49, 1m4a, 1m4b, 1m4c, 1nbp, 1pw6, 1py2, 1qvn, ... interleukin-2 receptor binding. • kinase activator activity. Cellular Component: • extracellular region. • extracellular space ... Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is an interleukin, a type of cytokine immune system signalling molecule, that is instrumental in the ...
Interleukin-2 (Proleukin®, IL-2, Aldesleukin) | OncoLink
Interleukin-2 is a biologic response modifier and immune therapy used in the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma and ... How to Take Interleukin-2. Interleukin-2 is given in two different ways. It can be given in higher doses into a vein ( ... About: Interleukin-2 (Proleukin®, IL-2, Aldesleukin) Interleukin-2 is in the class of medications called biologic response ... The interleukin-2 infusion (the high dose regimen) can cause a reaction that may include low blood pressure, increased heart ...
Interleukin-2 - Related Articles - Citizendium
See also changes related to Interleukin-2, or pages that link to Interleukin-2 or to this page or whose text contains " ... Interleukin [r]: Soluble cytokines that stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types, ... Retrieved from "https://en.citizendium.org/wiki?title=Interleukin-2/Related_Articles&oldid=100704738" ...
IL12RB2 interleukin 12 receptor subunit beta 2 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI
interleukin 12 receptor subunit beta 2provided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:5972 See related. Ensembl:ENSG00000081985 MIM ... interleukin-12 receptor subunit beta-2. Names. IL-12 receptor subunit beta-2. IL-12R subunit beta-2. interleukin 12 receptor, ... IL12RB2 interleukin 12 receptor subunit beta 2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ] Gene ID: 3595, updated on 1-Jun-2020 ... IL12RB2 interleukin 12 receptor subunit beta 2 [Homo sapiens] IL12RB2 interleukin 12 receptor subunit beta 2 [Homo sapiens]. ...
Interleukin-2 programs mouse alpha beta T lymphocytes for apoptosis
... Nature. 1991 Oct 31;353(6347):858-61. doi: 10.1038/353858a0 ... Here I show that interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a critical determinant of the choice between these two fates. Both CD4+ and CD8+ T ... Antibody blockade of IL-2 but not IL-4 reverses the marked reduction of lymph node V beta 8+ T cells caused in mice by the ... bacterial superantigen Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B. IL-2 may thus participate in a feedback regulatory mechanism by ...
Interleukin-2 in Metastatic Melanoma - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Interleukin-2 in Metastatic Melanoma. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study ... Interleukin-2. Antineoplastic Agents. Analgesics, Non-Narcotic. Analgesics. Sensory System Agents. Peripheral Nervous System ... To determine whether Interleukin-2 at the dose and schedule will help to increase tumor shrinkage ... Phase II Trial of Moderate Dose Bolus Interleukin-2 in Metastatic Melanoma. ...
Interleukin-2 in Metastatic Melanoma - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
The purpose of this study is to determine whether Interleukin-2 at the dose and schedule used in this study will help to ... Interleukin-2. Antineoplastic Agents. Analgesics, Non-Narcotic. Analgesics. Sensory System Agents. Peripheral Nervous System ... Median survival of patients treated with this moderate dose bolus Interleukin-2 schedule. [ Time Frame: 9 weeks ]. ... Phase II Trial of Moderate Dose Bolus Interleukin-2 in Metastatic Melanoma. ...
Interleukin-2 treatment for persistent cryptococcal meningitis in...: Ingenta Connect
Interleukin-2 treatment for persistent cryptococcal meningitis in a child with idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia ... Keywords: CD4 lymphocytopenia; T cells; cryptococcal infection; fungal infection; immunodeficiency; interleukin-2; meningitis ... Authors: Yilmaz-Demirdag, Yesim1; Wilson, Brian1; Lowery-Nordberg, Mary2; Bocchini, Joseph A.3; Bahna, Sami L.1 ... Treatment with rIL-2 and prophylactic antifungal therapy continued and he has been asymptomatic for almost 20 months so far. ...
NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20032665 - Impaired cutaneous wound healing in interleukin-6 deficient mice.
Aldesleukin (interleukin-2, IL-2) | Davis's Drug Guide
Interleukin-2 Receptor Beta-Related Protein | Science Signaling
have identified a cytokine receptor gene termed novel interleukin receptor (NILR), whose sequence is quite similar to that of ... the interleukin (IL)-2 receptor beta (IL2Rβ) chain. NILR transcripts are most abundant in thymus and spleen, but are also ... NILR and Jak1, a tyrosine kinase involved in IL-2 signaling that binds to IL2Rβ, immunoprecipitated together in untransfected ... Cloning of a type I cytokine receptor most related to the IL-2 receptor chain. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97: 11439-11444. [ ...
Interleukin-2 Downregulation | GreenMedInfo | Pharmacological Action
This topic contains 3 study abstracts on Interleukin-2 Downregulation agents such as Lactobacillus casei, Boswellia, and Milk ... Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Interleukin-10 downregulation, Interleukin-18 down-regulation, Interleukin- ... Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Interleukin-10 upregulation, Interleukin-17 downregulation, Interleukin-2 ... Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Interleukin-10 upregulation, Interleukin-12 downregulation, Interleukin-1 ...
Can personalized tumor vaccines improve interleukin-2 treated metastatic melanoma? | EurekAlert! Science News
... but treatment with high-dose interleukin-2 (IL2) can extend survival. Now, a combination of IL2 therapy and activation of ... can-personalized-tumor-vaccines-improve-survival-of-patients-with-interleukin-2-treated-metastatic-melanoma/. 1370/. ... Can personalized tumor vaccines improve interleukin-2 treated metastatic melanoma? Mary Ann Liebert, Inc./Genetic Engineering ... New Rochelle, NY, January 22, 2014--Metastatic melanoma has a poor prognosis, but treatment with high-dose interleukin-2 (IL2) ...
RCSB PDB - 1Z92: structure of interleukin-2 with its alpha receptor
The structure of interleukin-2 complexed with its alpha receptor.. Rickert, M., Wang, X., Boulanger, M.J., Goriatcheva, N., ... Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is an immunoregulatory cytokine that binds sequentially to the alpha (IL-2Ralpha), beta (IL-2Rbeta), and ... Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is an immunoregulatory cytokine that binds sequentially to the alpha (IL-2Ralpha), beta (IL-2Rbeta), and ... structure of interleukin-2 with its alpha receptor. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1Z92/pdb ...
NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20032184 - Interleukin 6 plays a critical role in cutaneous wound healing.
... such as interleukin 6 (lL-6), might intimately involved in this process. Herein, we demonstrate that IL6 deficient transgenic ... such as interleukin 6 (lL-6), might intimately involved in this process. Herein, we demonstrate that IL6 deficient transgenic ... NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search. Search Results. Search for NIOSH Publications:. *Advanced Search ...
Therapeutic Window of Interleukin-2 for Autoimmune Diseases | Diabetes
Low-dose interleukin-2 fosters a dose-dependent regulatory T cell tuned milieu in T1D patients. J Autoimmun 2015;58:48-58pmid: ... The role of interleukin-2 during homeostasis and activation of the immune system. Nat Rev Immunol 2012;12:180-190pmid:22343569 ... Interleukin-2 and regulatory T cells in graft-versus-host disease. N Engl J Med 2011;365:2055-2066pmid:22129252. ... Regulatory T-cell responses to low-dose interleukin-2 in HCV-induced vasculitis. N Engl J Med 2011;365:2067-2077pmid:22129253. ...
JCI - An interleukin-2 receptor gamma chain mutation with normal thymus morphology.
An interleukin-2 receptor gamma chain mutation with normal thymus morphology.. N Sharfe, M Shahar, and C M Roifman Division of ... most common human immunodeficiencies is an X-linked condition arising from mutations of the gamma subunit of the interleukin-2 ... patient T cells demonstrate a reduced ability to bind IL-2 and this appears sufficient to cause a deficiency in their ability ... receptor (IL-2Rgamma). The IL-2Rgamma protein is one chain of the heterotrimeric (alpha, beta, gamma) IL-2 receptor, but also ...
Alemtuzumab versus interleukin-2 receptor antibodies induction in living donor kidney transplantation
The promise of low-dose interleukin-2 therapy for autoimmune and inflammatory diseases | Nature Reviews Immunology
Proof-of-concept clinical trials, now supported by robust mechanistic studies, have shown that low-dose interleukin-2 ... The dominant role of interleukin-2 (IL-2) is in the maintenance of regulatory T cells rather than of effector T cells. This has ... led to clinical interest in the use of low-dose IL-2 to control autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, with promising initial ... Interleukin-2 and regulatory T cells in graft-versus-host disease. N. Engl. J. Med. 365, 2055-2066 (2011). The first clinical ...
Central Role for Interleukin-2 in Type 1 Diabetes | Diabetes
Soluble interleukin 2 receptors are released from activated human lymphoid cells in vitro. J Immunol 1985;135:3172-3177pmid: ... Interleukin-2 reverses the defect in activation-induced apoptosis in T cells from autoimmune lpr mice. Cell Immunol 1998;183:1- ... Preassembly of interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor subunits on resting Kit 225 K6 T cells and their modulation by IL-2, IL-7, and IL- ... Interleukin-2 receptor signaling: at the interface between tolerance and immunity. Immunity 2010;33:153-165pmid:20732639. ...
Il2 - Interleukin-2 precursor - Rattus norvegicus (Rat) - Il2 gene & protein
interleukin-2 receptor binding Source: RGD ,p>Inferred from Mutant Phenotype,/p> ,p>Describes annotations that are concluded ... interleukin-2 receptor binding Source: RGD ,p>Inferred from Mutant Phenotype,/p> ,p>Describes annotations that are concluded ... positive regulation of interleukin-17 production Source: RGDInferred from sequence orthologyi*16482511 ... R-RNO-451927. Interleukin-2 family signaling. R-RNO-5673001. RAF/MAP kinase cascade. R-RNO-912526. Interleukin receptor SHC ...
Interleukin 2 - wikidoc
Interleukin-2 (Aldesleukin). Date accessed: 07 Nov 10. *↑ 13.0 13.1 Shi VY, Tran K, Patel F, Leventhal J, Konia T, Fung MA, ... Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is an interleukin, a type of cytokine signaling molecule in the immune system. It is a 15,5 - 16 kDa ... Clinical trial number NCT03113773 for "Low Dose Interleukin-2 in Patients With Stable Ischaemic Heart Disease and Acute ... Aldesleukin is a form of recombinant interleukin-2. It is manufactured using recombinant DNA technology and is marketed as a ...
ReceptorsCytokinesLymphocytesImmunologyImmunotherapySolubleGeneHigh doseRecombinant humanRenal cell carcSubunit of the interleukin 12 recepTumorMelanomaAntibodyAldesleukinSecretionBinding interleukin-2 receptProliferationSubcutaneouslyLymphocytePhaseInfectionsBiologicSignaling pathwayHumanProteinsToxicityCDNAProleukinSmith KAImmune systemTCGFCellsLymphokineInductionTherapySerumSequenceReceptor gamma chainMiceResponsesTreatmentInducesBolusType 1 diabetSubcutaneousSystemicCytokine receptorMoleculeCutaneous woundSurvivalCancerComputationally designedAutoimmunityPathwaysMediates
- IL-2 mediates its effects by binding to IL-2 receptors , which are expressed by lymphocytes , the cells that are responsible for immunity. (bionity.com)
- Antigen binding to the T cell receptor (TCR) stimulates the secretion of IL-2, and the expression of IL-2 receptors IL-2R . (bionity.com)
- As Tregs constitutively express high-affinity receptors for IL-2, low-dose IL-2, in theory, should preferentially boost Tregs without causing global immune activation. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The IL-2 receptor is often modeled as a stand-alone structure consisting of the individual α/β/γc subunits complexed with IL-2 ( Fig. 2 A ). This schematic conveys the notion that IL-2 receptors are diffusely distributed across the cell surface. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Receptors present on activated T- Lymphocytes and B- Lymphocytes that are specific for Interleukin-2 and play an important role in Lymphocyte activation . (jove.com)
- Compensatory energetic mechanisms mediating the assembly of signaling complexes between interleukin-2 and its alpha, beta, and gamma(c) receptors. (wikipathways.org)
- Soluble interleukin 2 receptors in patients with polymyositis/dermatomyositis. (bmj.com)
- We have sought to characterize IL-2 and IL-4 signaling at the level of intracellular pathways activated by these receptors. (jimmunol.org)
- IL-2 receptors are known to activate the Ras/Erk and phosphoinositide (PI) 3-kinase pathways as well as the STAT5 transcription factor. (jimmunol.org)
- Patients with human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy (HAM) show increased serum levels of soluble interleukin-2 receptors (sIL-2R), a marker of T cell activation. (ajtmh.org)
- Interleukin-2 belongs to a family of cytokines, which includes IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, IL-15 and IL-21. (bionity.com)
- IL-2 signals through a receptor complex consisting of IL-2 specific IL-2 receptor alpha ( CD25 ), IL-2 receptor beta ( CD122 ) and a common gamma chain (γc), which is shared by all members of this family of cytokines. (bionity.com)
- Together with other polarizing cytokines, IL-2 stimulates naive CD4+ T cell differentiation into Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes while it impedes differentiation into Th17 and folicular Th lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
- It has been postulated that an inflammatory response following cutaneous wounding is a prerequisite for healing, and inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 6 (lL-6), might intimately involved in this process. (cdc.gov)
- The docking molecule gab2 is induced by lymphocyte activation and is involved in signaling by interleukin-2 and interleukin-15 but not other common gamma chain-using cytokines. (wikipathways.org)
- Expression of Th2 cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, and IL-13, and inflammation are strongly associated with parasitic infections and asthma ( 1 , 2 ). (rupress.org)
- Recent studies have shown that inflammatory cytokines play important roles in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). (omicsonline.org)
- Inflammatory cytokines have been postulated to be important pathogenic factors in the development of type 2 DM [ 1 , 2 ]. (omicsonline.org)
- Meanwhile, we analyzed the correlation between IL-17 mRNA expression and mRNA expression of inflammation cytokines involved in type 2 DM in PBMC from diabetic patients. (omicsonline.org)
- IL-2 plays a central role in the activation of regulatory T cells to produce the cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ). (omicsonline.org)
- The cytokines interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) are key regulators of the immune system, influencing the expansion and differentiation of T cells. (jimmunol.org)
- Since ferritin expression is known to be modulated by cytokines, we decided to investigate the mechanism by which IL-2 activates TfR gene expression in B6.1 cells. (epfl.ch)
- The mammalian interleukin 17 (IL-17) family is considered one of the most ancient cytokine families, and is comprised of six cytokines, namely IL-17A, IL-17B, IL-17C, IL-17D, IL-17E, and IL-17F. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Interleukin 2 (IL-2) is a pleiotropic cytokine produced primarily by mitogen- or antigen-activated T lymphocytes. (labcorp.com)
- Antibody blockade of IL-2 but not IL-4 reverses the marked reduction of lymph node V beta 8+ T cells caused in mice by the bacterial superantigen Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B. IL-2 may thus participate in a feedback regulatory mechanism by predisposing mature T lymphocytes to apoptosis. (nih.gov)
- Schematic diagram illustrating the hierarchy of IL-2 responsiveness of human peripheral blood lymphocytes. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The isolated lymphocytes were cultured in the presence of interleukins (IL)-2, IL-4, and IL-12. (dovepress.com)
- Mixed cell populations of peripheral blood lymphocytes and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes treated with IL-2 plus IL-12 showed a marked and significant elevation in IFN-γ levels in their culture media, a significant decrease in the percentage of cluster of differentiation (CD)4 + CD25 + regulatory T-cells, and a nonsignificant increase in the percentage of CD8 + cytotoxic T-cells. (dovepress.com)
- Paradoxically, this modified IL-2R expression does not lead to increased IL-2 responsiveness, except for B lymphocytes. (pnas.org)
- Moreover, cells involved in cellular immunity and CD4 T lymphocytes have the capacity to respond to IL-2 after TCT. (pnas.org)
- The primary role of interleukin-2 (IL-2) is to expand the population of activated T lymphocytes ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
- We have previously shown that IL-2 is the main cytokine controlling the proliferation of anti-CD3-stimulated CD4 T lymphocytes ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
- IL-2 also stimulates the cytotoxic activity of CD8 T lymphocytes and NK cells, proliferation and Ig production by activated B lymphocytes, and some monocyte functions (for review see refs. (pnas.org)
- Interleukin-2 receptor gamma-chain mutations in severe combined immunodeficiency with B-lymphocytes. (biomedsearch.com)
- Incubation of IL-2 with sheep neutrophils but not sheep lymphocytes, platelets, or bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cell monolayers led to TxB 2 generation. (aacrjournals.org)
- Decreased production of and response to interleukin-2 by cultured lymphocytes from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. (jci.org)
- We studied the production of and response to interleukin-2 (IL-2) by peripheral blood T lymphocytes from 19 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients who received no treatment at the time they were studied. (jci.org)
- Interleukin (IL)-17 (IL-17A) is a newly identified inflammatory cytokine produced by activated and memory T lymphocytes [ 3 ]. (omicsonline.org)
- 5. Interleukin-2 -Biology and Immunology: G. Parmiani, C. Gambacorti-Passerini. (bookdepository.com)
- These results allow us to anticipate a beneficial role of IL-2 immunotherapy in combination with TCT. (pnas.org)
- Synergistic antitumor effects of combination immunotherapy with recombinant interleukin-2 and recombinant hybrid alphainterferon in the treatment of established murine hepatic metastases. (springer.com)
- To determine the incidence, clinical magnitude, and risk factors for nosocomial bacteremia in patients given interleukin-2 with or without (±) lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cells for cancer immunotherapy. (annals.org)
- All patients entering the interleukin-2 ±LAK cancer immunotherapy protocol during a 28-month period. (annals.org)
- Interleukin-2 (IL-2) treatment is a type of immunotherapy that stimulates the body's immune system to recognize and kill tumor cells. (vcu.edu)
- Rosenberg SA (1988) Immunotherapy of patients with advanced cancer using interleukin-2 alone or in combination with lymphokine activated killer cells. (springer.com)
- West WH, Taner KW, Yannel JR, Marshall GD, Orr DW, Thurman GB, Oldham GK (1987) Constant-infusion recombinant interleukin-2 in adoptive immunotherapy of advanced cancer. (springer.com)
- Interleukins (IL) are potent biomolecules used for immunotherapy in cancer and infectious diseases. (aacrjournals.org)
- The concentration of soluble interleukin 2 receptor was determined in serum samples from 19 patients with polymyositis/dermatomyositis by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (bmj.com)
- The concentration of soluble interleukin 2 receptor in serum samples from patients with polymyositis/dermatomyositis was higher than that in samples from normal subjects. (bmj.com)
- To review the biologic origin, functional characteristics, and current and potential clinical applications of a novel marker of immune system activation, the soluble interleukin-2 receptor (SIL-2R). (annals.org)
- mouse cells transfected with human IL-2 soluble receptor γ. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Monoclonal anti-Interleukin-2 Soluble Receptor γ antibody can be used to block biological activity facilitated by IL-2. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Mouse anti-Interleukin-2 Soluble Receptor γ antibody reacts specifically with human IL-2 soluble receptor γ. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Monoclonal anti-Interleukin-2 Soluble Receptor γ antibody can be used in immunoblotting and ELISA for detecting IL-2 R γ. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Gupta, "Molecular cloning and evolution of the gene encoding the precursor of Nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus) interleukin 2 ," DNA Sequence, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Primers were designed manually for first 3 exons of human Interleukin 2 gene sequence deduced from Ensemble Gene Location NCBI36:4:123591475:123597930:-1. (thefreedictionary.com)
-  Thus, despite being designated the number 2 interleukin, it was the first interleukin molecule, gene and receptor to be discovered. (bionity.com)
- The protein encoded by this gene is a type I transmembrane protein identified as a subunit of the interleukin 12 receptor complex. (nih.gov)
- have identified a cytokine receptor gene termed novel interleukin receptor (NILR), whose sequence is quite similar to that of the interleukin (IL)-2 receptor beta (IL2Rβ) chain. (sciencemag.org)
- Gene expression regulation for IL-2 can be on multiple levels or by different ways. (wikipedia.org)
- Interleukin-2 (IL-2) gene regulation was investigated in primary cultures of highly purified human peripheral blood CD28+T cells. (umich.edu)
- Two discrete mechanisms for induction of T-cell proliferation could be distinguished by examining cell cycle progression and the expression of the IL-2 gene. (umich.edu)
- Costimulation of T cells with CD3 MoAb and either CD28 MoAb or PMA, but not calcium ionophore, induced a 50-100-fold increased in IL-2 gene expression and secretion. (umich.edu)
- High levels of IL-2 gene expression could also be achieved by stimulation with calcium ionophore and PMA or CD28 MoAb and PMA, but not by CD28 MoAb plus calcium ionophore. (umich.edu)
- IL-2 gene expression and T-cell proliferation induced by CD3 MoAb plus PMA or calcium ionophore plus PMA were completely suppressible by cyclosporine. (umich.edu)
- In contrast, IL-2 gene expression and T-cell proliferation induced by CD28 MoAb plus PMA were unaffected by cyclosporine. (umich.edu)
- gene revealed that two AP-1 sites were essential for 1,2-NQ-induced promoter activities. (nii.ac.jp)
- by 1983, the IL-2 gene was cloned, and in 1992, the IL-2 crystal structure was described [ 1 ]. (omicsonline.org)
- The results revealed a 3-fold increase in TfR gene transcription and a 6-fold rise in nuclear TfR RNA reaching its steady-state level within 2 h. (epfl.ch)
- HHV-6B and HHV-6A inhibit IL-2 gene transcription in T cells. (asm.org)
- The interleukin-2 infusion (the high dose regimen) can cause a reaction that may include low blood pressure, increased heart rate or arrhythmias, shortness of breath, rash, nausea, diarrhea and joint and muscle stiffness. (oncolink.org)
- New Rochelle, NY, January 22, 2014--Metastatic melanoma has a poor prognosis, but treatment with high-dose interleukin-2 (IL2) can extend survival. (eurekalert.org)
- One challenge to this approach is that other T cells and natural killer (NK) cells constitutively express CD122 and CD132 that can respond to high-dose IL-2, leading to their activation and tissue destruction. (diabetesjournals.org)
- In mouse models, high-dose IL-2 precipitated diabetes in a few days in prediabetic mice ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- High dose IL-2 gives great benefit to a small percentage of patients, including well documented remissions that are ongoing after over a decade and which are almost certainly cures. (cancerguide.org)
- These probable cures are the reason to try high dose IL-2. (cancerguide.org)
- They are the key results for high dose IL-2. (cancerguide.org)
- Despite this, many different drug treatments have been tried since high dose IL-2 started getting results in the mid 1980's, and in my opinion, none have yet proven as successful as high dose IL-2. (cancerguide.org)
- Selecting patients who are in good enough shape to withstand the rigors of high dose IL-2 treatment automatically selects against sicker patients who won't do as well on average. (cancerguide.org)
- Arm II: Patients receive high dose IL-2 IV every 8 hours for up to 15 doses. (knowcancer.com)
- Rosenberg SA, Lotze MT, Muul LM, Chang AE, et al (1987) A progress report on the treatment of 157 patients with advanced cancer using lymphokine-activated killer cells and interleukin-2 or high-dose interleukin-2 alone. (springer.com)
- 1 ) concerning the effect of high-dose IL-2 on immunoregulatory cell subsets in patients with advanced melanoma and renal cell cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
- The decrease in NKT cells directly after 5 days of high-dose IL-2 may reflect an acute response to massive IL-2 exposure, and assessment of what happens to the cells over time may be more immunologically relevant. (aacrjournals.org)
- High-dose recombinant interleukin 2 therapy for patients with metastatic melanoma: analysis of 270 patients treated between 1985 and 1993. (aacrjournals.org)
- To identify prognostic factors associated with survival beyond 4 years and overall response in patients with metastatic melanoma treated with high-dose bolus i.v. interleukin-2 (IL-2) given either alone or in combination with a variety of melanoma vaccines. (aacrjournals.org)
- 684 consecutive patients with metastatic melanoma received high-dose bolus i.v. IL-2 either alone or in conjunction with a variety of melanoma vaccines. (aacrjournals.org)
- We performed a pilot study of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) followed by high-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) to assess safety and tumor response rate and perform exploratory immune monitoring studies. (sciencemag.org)
- 27 kg/m 2 and were randomly assigned to receive 13 weeks of anakinra, a recombinant human IL-1Ra, or placebo, 67 completed treatment and were included in this double-blind 39-week follow-up study. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Among 70 ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes and A1C and body mass index higher than 7.5% and 27, respectively, randomly assigned to receive 13 weeks of anakinra, a recombinant human IL-1Ra, or placebo, 67 completed treatment and were included in this double-blinded 39 week follow-up study. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Recombinant human interleukin-2 became available for clinical use in the mid 1980s. (bookdepository.com)
- Concomitant administration of recombinant human interleukin-2 and recombinant interferon-alpha-2A in cancer patients: a phase I study. (springer.com)
- The product has shown no cross-reactivity with recombinant human IL-2 R α, IL-2 R β, IL-1 RI, IL-1 RII, IL-4 R, IL-6 R, IL-7 R and IL-10 R. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- METHODS: In this double-blind, parallel-group trial involving 70 patients with type 2 diabetes, we randomly assigned 34 patients to receive 100 mg of anakinra (a recombinant human interleukin-1-receptor antagonist) subcutaneously once daily for 13 weeks and 36 patients to receive placebo. (uzh.ch)
Renal cell carc5
- In fact, the current U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved use of IL-2 is for enhancing immunity in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma and melanoma. (diabetesjournals.org)
- When used at high doses in patients with melanoma or renal cell carcinoma, IL-2 induces relatively rare (around 7%) but durable complete responses, at the expense of severe side effects. (nature.com)
- Recent years have seen an enormous amount of clinical research with this cytokine and interleukin-2 has now been registered for use in a number of European countries for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. (bookdepository.com)
- Stage lV Renal Cell Carcinoma, Interleukin 2 therapy anyone? (healthboards.com)
- But when administered correctly, IL-2 can be safe and is capable of causing long-term cancer regression in some patients with metastatic melanoma and renal cell carcinoma. (vcu.edu)
Subunit of the interleukin 12 recep1
- Interleukin 12 receptor, beta 2 subunit is a subunit of the interleukin 12 receptor. (wikipedia.org)
- Can personalized tumor vaccines improve interleukin-2 treated metastatic melanoma? (eurekalert.org)
- The fact that IL-2 causes tumor shrinkage in some patients doesn't prove it has actual benefit. (cancerguide.org)
- Although interleukin-6 (IL-6) is considered as a key growth factor for myeloma cells, only a few subpopulations of tumor cells, such as CD45(+) immature cells, proliferate in response to IL-6. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- This phase II study in patients with advanced head and neck cancer evaluated the efficacy of combination systemic recombinant interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-alpha (INF-a) and evaluated laboratory correlates between tumor response and a) tumor differentiation and b) NK cell activation. (springer.com)
- This preliminary phase II study shows that combination IL-2/INF-a therapy has clinical anti-tumor activity and that the level of NK cell activation and the degree of tumor differentiation may correlate with response. (springer.com)
- Interleukin (IL)-13 has recently been shown to play important and unique roles in asthma, parasite immunity, and tumor recurrence. (rupress.org)
- Kinetic analysis showed that the administration of anti-CD25 mAb (PC61) later than day 2 after tumor inoculation caused no tumor regression, irrespective of depletion of CD4 + CD25 + immunoregulatory cells. (aacrjournals.org)
- One might speculate that such effects of IL-2 could suppress some cellular immune responses against the tumor and thus be detrimental to the patient. (aacrjournals.org)
- In this phase II trial, the previously described IL-2 schedule (daily IL-2 for 5 days (per week) every 3 weeks) will be tested in a larger cohort of patients with melanoma to attempt to determine the response rate, median duration of response, and median survival. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- While there are many good treatment choices available for melanoma and renal cell cancer patients, IL-2 therapy is a valid option that can be curative. (vcu.edu)
- IL-2 is involved in treatment of cancers such as melanoma and renal cell cancer. (acris-antibodies.com)
- IL-2 can produce a modest response rate in patients with metastatic melanoma including patients with durable complete responses. (aacrjournals.org)
- The Affibody molecules were, on biosensor analysis, found to compete for the same binding site as the natural ligand IL-2 and the IL-2 blocking monoclonal antibody 2A3. (biomedsearch.com)
- RPC4046 is a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against interleukin-13 (IL-13), a target which has been validated in other related allergic indications. (cnbc.com)
- The Company is also developing RPC4046, an anti-interleukin-13 (IL-13) antibody for an allergic/immune-mediated orphan disease, eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). (cnbc.com)
- This Interleukin-2 antibody stained formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of human breast invasive ductal carcinoma. (acris-antibodies.com)
- The antibody will neutralize human cell surface IL-2 Rγ mediated-bioactivity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The induction of IFN gamma mRNA and protein by IL-2 was completely blocked by a monoclonal antibody to IL-2 receptor p75 (beta chain), but not by the monoclonal antibody to p55 (alpha chain). (bloodjournal.org)
-  Its expression and secretion is tightly regulated and functions as part of both transient positive and negative feedback loops in mounting and dampening immune responses. (wikidoc.org)
- OBJECTIVE Interleukin (IL)-1 impairs insulin secretion and induces β-cell apoptosis. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Secretion of TCGF is detectable 1 day after stimulation of splenocytes with the T-cell mitogen phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and peaks following 2 to 3 days of stimulation. (hindawi.com)
- Although it is well known that IL-2 secretion is impaired during HIV infection, up to now IL-2R expression has not been extensively studied in HIV-infected patients despite the use of IL-2 in clinical therapy trials. (pnas.org)
- It encodes several virulence-associated components including a type III protein secretion and translocation system (TTS), * the surface exposed adhesin YadA, anti-host effector proteins, which are probably injected by a needle-like mechanism into the cytosol of target cells ( 2 ), and proteins which are released into the environment ( 1 , 3 ). (rupress.org)
- BACKGROUND: The expression of interleukin-1-receptor antagonist is reduced in pancreatic islets of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and high glucose concentrations induce the production of interleukin-1beta in human pancreatic beta cells, leading to impaired insulin secretion, decreased cell proliferation, and apoptosis. (uzh.ch)
Binding interleukin-2 recept1
- Generation of Affibody ligands binding interleukin-2 receptor alpha/CD25. (biomedsearch.com)
- a lymphokine protein, secreted by T cells in response to antigen and interleukin 1 , that stimulates the proliferation of T cells. (dictionary.com)
- Interleukin 15 controls both proliferation and survival of a subset of memory-phenotype CD8(+) T-cells. (springer.com)
- The IL-2 molecule was first characterized as a variably glycosylated 15,500 Dalton protein capable of supporting long-term T lymphocyte (T cell) proliferation,  and was first purified to homogeneity by immunoaffinity chromatography . (bionity.com)
- Interleukin-2 (IL-2) was discovered as a cytokine that supports the proliferation and differentiation of effector T cells. (nature.com)
- IL-2 is a potent lymphoid cell growth factor which exerts its biological activity primarily on T cells promoting proliferation and maturation. (acris-antibodies.com)
- Expression of DeltaPHGab-2 reduced IL-3-dependent proliferation and long-term activation of ERK1 and 2 and PKB by IL-3. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Interleukin-2 (IL-2) controls the proliferation of the murine T cell line B6.1 and induces transferrin receptor (TfR) mRNA steady-state levels 50-fold when added to arrested, IL-2-deprived cells. (epfl.ch)
- Patients receive interleukin-2 (IL-2) subcutaneously on days 1-5 during weeks 1-3 and on days 1-3 and 5 during week 4. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The hypothesis of the study is that adjuvant interleukin-2 administered subcutaneously at the time of vaccination improves the response rate. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Typical dosing for IL-2 is 4.5 million units subcutaneously for 5 days repeated every 8 weeks or so until a target CD4 count is reached and then used intermittently depending on the CD4 count. (thebody.com)
- Patients receive IL-2 subcutaneously daily 5 days a week for 6 weeks. (knowcancer.com)
- Instead, IL-2 stimulated G1 progression to S phase, or lymphocyte "blastic transformation. (sciencemag.org)
- Kornfeld H, Berman JS, Beer DJ, Center DM (1985) Induction of human T lymphocyte motility by interleukin-2. (springer.com)
- Body temperature rose from 39.2-39.8°C. The Pa o 2 , WBC, lymphocyte, and platelet counts were unaffected. (aacrjournals.org)
- T cells from SLE patients, whether activated with phytohemagglutinin or in autologous mixed lymphocyte reactions, were found to yield little IL-2, to have a low response to IL-2 from its own, or other sources, and to absorb IL-2 poorly, IL-2 produced by SLE cells, albeit scant, was absorbed normally by activated T cells from normal subjects. (jci.org)
- Moreover, during the contraction phase of an immune response where most antigen-specific CD8 + T cells disappear by apoptosis, IL-2 signals are able to rescue CD8 + T cells from cell death and provide a durable increase in memory CD8 + T-cell counts. (springer.com)
- PURPOSE: Phase I trial to study the effectiveness of interleukin-2 in treating patients who have mycosis fungoides. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- This study will characterize the safety and tolerability and identify the recommended Phase 2 dose (RP2D) of subcutaneous (SC) ALKS 4230 as monotherapy and in combination with pembrolizumab. (cancer.gov)
- SAN DIEGO, Oct. 3, 2014 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Receptos, Inc. (Nasdaq:RCPT), a biopharmaceutical company developing therapeutic candidates for the treatment of immune and metabolic diseases, today announced that the first patient has been treated in a Phase 2 trial of RPC4046, Receptos' development candidate for eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). (cnbc.com)
- Under the terms of the agreement, AbbVie holds an exclusive option to enter into a global co-development collaboration for RPC4046 with Receptos following results from the Phase 2 study and regulatory discussions with the FDA. (cnbc.com)
- Receptos began enrollment of a randomized Phase 2 trial in the second half of 2014. (cnbc.com)
- Recombinant interleukin-2 toxicity, pharmacokinetics, and immunomodulatory effects in a phase I trial. (springer.com)
- IL-2 also promotes the differentiation of T cells into effector T cells and into memory T cells when the initial T cell is also stimulated by an antigen, thus helping the body fight off infections. (wikipedia.org)
- Furthermore, in tumors and in viral infections, IL-17D recruited natural killer (NK) cells via the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2). (spandidos-publications.com)
- Combined genetic and immunological studies now highlight deficiencies in both the interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor and its downstream signaling pathway as a central defect in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Downstream cellular response to IL-2 depends not only upon surface expression of the receptor but also upon local cytokine concentration, target cell population, and modification of the various response elements in this complex pleiotropic signaling pathway. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Secondary structure of human interleukin 2 from 3D heteronuclear NMR experiments. (ebi.ac.uk)
- Here we present the 2.8 angstrom crystal structure of a complex between human IL-2 and IL-2Ralpha, which interact in a docking mode distinct from that of other cytokine receptor complexes. (rcsb.org)
- One of the most common human immunodeficiencies is an X-linked condition arising from mutations of the gamma subunit of the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2Rgamma). (jci.org)
- Biologically active TCGF eluted from SDS-PAGE displays a M r of 16 kD and lectin-affinity chromatography indicates that the three-dimensionmal configuration of carbohydrates on TCGF and human IL-2 is similar. (hindawi.com)
- Finally, despite the biological and physical similarities between Xenopus TCGF and mammalian IL-2, anti-human IL-2 monoclonal antibodies do not recognize Xenopus TCGF. (hindawi.com)
- Affibody molecules specific for human IL-2Ralpha, the IL-2 (interleukin-2) receptor alpha subunit, also known as CD25, were selected by phage-display technology from a combinatorial protein library based on the 58-residue Protein A-derived Z domain. (biomedsearch.com)
- Mechanism involved in interleukin-21-induced phagocytosis in human monocytes and macrophages. (wikipathways.org)
- Distinct spatial relationship of the interleukin-9 receptor with interleukin-2 receptor and major histocompatibility complex glycoproteins in human T lymphoma cells. (wikipathways.org)
- Kasahara T, Hooks JJ, Dougherty SF, Oppenheim JJ (1983) Interleukin-2 mediated immune interferon (IFN-gamma) production by human T-cells in T-cell subsets. (springer.com)
- Lotze MT, Frana LW, Sharrow SO, Robb RJ, Rosenberg SA (1985) In vivo administration of purified human interleukin-2. (springer.com)
- Human recombinant interleukin-2 as an experimental therapeutic. (aspetjournals.org)
- IL-2 and ITs prepared with the catalytic A chain of the plant toxin, ricin (RTA), and other toxins, damage human ECs in vitro and in vivo . (pnas.org)
- Based on these results, we considered the possibility that ricin A chain (RTA), other toxins, ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs), and IL-2 contain homologous structural motifs that may effect cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and thereby damage human ECs. (pnas.org)
- Human IL-2 (also known as T-cell growth factor) is produced by T-cells in response to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation. (acris-antibodies.com)
- Basic scientific investigations delineating the biochemical and molecular features of the human interleukin-2 receptor complex and the sIL-2R protein were reviewed. (annals.org)
- The negative effects on NKT cells reported in this study are, however, in apparent contrast to the expansion of these cells we have observed recently in patients with primary human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection undergoing IL-2 treatment in conjunction with effective antiretroviral therapy ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- First, there may be disease-specific factors that affect the response to IL-2, which differ between these conditions, although both human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection and cancer are associated with NKT cell loss ( 3 , 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- It would certainly be important to determine if there is a consistent NKT cell response to IL-2 in vivo or if human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects and cancer patients respond differently to this treatment. (aacrjournals.org)
- Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a serine/threonine phosphatase, releases the brake by dephosphorylating these proteins, thus enhancing IL-2 signaling ( 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Determine the maximum tolerated dose and toxicity of interleukin-2 in patients with stage IIB-IV mycosis fungoides. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- This book is designed to provide the clinical oncologist wishing to use interleukin-2 with a basic background concerning the biology of the agent, a discussion concerning practical aspects, of its clinical use including management of toxicity and an overview of the clinical results together with a description of how this interesting cytokine might be developed in the future. (bookdepository.com)
- The dose-limiting toxicity of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and immunotoxin (IT) therapy in humans is vascular leak syndrome (VLS). (pnas.org)
- We previously reported that oxidative stress induces up-regulation of interleukin-11 (IL-11), a member of the IL-6 family that ameliorates acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity. (nii.ac.jp)
- Use of a cDNA expression vector for isolation of mouse interleukin 2 cDNA clones: expression of T-cell growth-factor activity after transfection of monkey cells. (ebi.ac.uk)
-  The IL-2 molecule was also the first interleukin found to be encoded by a complementary DNA (cDNA),  and to mediate its effects via a specific IL-2 receptor . (bionity.com)
- Proleukin, a prescription form of IL-2, has an explicit warning for exacerbation of a variety of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Interleukin-2 ( IL-2 ) is an interleukin, a type of cytokine immune system signalling molecule, that is instrumental in the body's natural response to microbial infection and in discriminating between foreign (nonself) and self. (bionity.com)
- T-Regs do so by preventing the responding cells from producing IL-2  Thus, IL-2 is required to discriminate between self and non-self, another one of the unique characteristics of the immune system. (bionity.com)
- By increasing levels of IL-2, the immune system gets a kick-start (specifically T cells and natural killer cells) to attack the cancer cells. (oncolink.org)
- Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is an interleukin, a type of cytokine signaling molecule in the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
- IL-2 has essential roles in key functions of the immune system, tolerance and immunity, primarily via its direct effects on T cells. (wikipedia.org)
- Interleukin-2 is a cytokine that plays a central role in immune system homeostasis, exerting paradoxical immunostimulatory and immunoregulatory effects based on its interactions with various receptor subunits differentially expressed across different cell types. (washington.edu)
- IL-2 therapy uses a synthetic kind of IL-2 to give the immune system a boost to fight cancer cells. (vcu.edu)
- IL-2 gives the opportunity to exert influence on the cellular immune system. (springer.com)
- This study further defines the physical and biological properties of this cytokine and demonstrates that TCGF is biochemically similar to mammalian interleukin-2 (IL-2). (hindawi.com)
- These factors, which include interleukin-2 (IL2), are secreted by lectin- or antigen-stimulated T-cells, and have various physiological effects. (ebi.ac.uk)
- 1 IL-2 plays a role in promoting the clonal expansion of antigen-specific cytotoxic and suppressor T cells. (labcorp.com)
- In vitro studies suggest that IL-2 may also be produced by dendritic cells and certain lymphoma cell lines. (labcorp.com)
- T he current literature on the role of interleukin (IL)-2 in memory CD8 + T-cell differentiation indicates a significant contribution of IL-2 during primary and also secondary expansion of CD8 + T cells. (springer.com)
- Significantly, only CD8 + T cells that have received IL-2 signals during initial priming are able to mediate efficient secondary expansion following renewed antigenic challenge. (springer.com)
- Thus, IL-2 signals during different phases of an immune response are key in optimizing CD8 + T-cell functions, thereby affecting both primary and secondary responses of these T cells. (springer.com)
- Interleukin-7 mediates the homeostasis of naive and memory CD8 T-cells in vivo. (springer.com)
- Interleukin 15 is required for proliferative renewal of virus-specific memory CD8 T-cells. (springer.com)
- Interleukin 7 regulates the survival and generation of memory CD4 cells. (springer.com)
- The IL-2/IL-2R interaction then stimulates the growth, differentiation and survival of antigen-selected cytotoxic T cells via the activation of the expression of specific genes. (bionity.com)
- IL-2 is also necessary during T cell development in the thymus for the maturation of a unique subset of T cells that are termed regulatory T cells (T-regs). (bionity.com)
- Both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells previously exposed to IL-2 undergo apoptosis after antigen-receptor stimulation. (nih.gov)
- The major sources of IL-2 are activated CD4+ T cells and activated CD8+ T cells. (wikipedia.org)
- IL-2 can signalize either via intermediate-affinity dimeric CD122/CD132 IL-2R (Kd~ 10−9 M) or high-affinity trimeric CD25/CD122/CD132 IL-2R (Kd~ 10−11 M). Dimeric IL-2R is expressed by memory CD8+ T cells and NK cells, whereas regulatory T cells and activated T cells express high levels of trimeric IL-2R. (wikipedia.org)
- It associates with CD122 and CD132 to form the high-affinity receptor for interleukin (IL)-2, a growth factor for T cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Therefore, Tregs can better respond to IL-2 than other T cells in the steady state, prompting the consideration of using IL-2 therapeutically to expand Tregs for restoration of immune homeostasis. (diabetesjournals.org)
- In vitro, activated CD4 + T cells expressed a higher level of CD25 but were still less responsive to IL-2 than Tregs. (diabetesjournals.org)
- While the T cell receptor repertoire appears complete, suggesting normal T cell differentiation occurs, patient T cells demonstrate a reduced ability to bind IL-2 and this appears sufficient to cause a deficiency in their ability to participate in antigenic responses. (jci.org)
- This was later explained by a defect in regulatory T (T Reg ) cells, and the discovery that IL-2 is the key cytokine for T Reg cell function and survival. (nature.com)
- Further studies showed that IL-2 also favours the development of activated CD4 + T cells towards the T helper 1 (T H 1), T H 2, T H 9 and peripherally induced T Reg (pT Reg ) cell lineages, rather than the T H 17 and T follicular helper (T FH ) cell lineages. (nature.com)
- Figure 2: Effector T cells and regulatory T cells show differential use of signalling pathways and differential sensitivity to interleukin-2. (nature.com)
- A simplified schematic of IL-2 signaling in both Tregs and conventional T cells (Tconv), or differentiated (i.e. (diabetesjournals.org)
- For Tconv cells, high concentrations of IL-2 can cause activation-induced cell death (AICD), whereas moderate to low concentrations of IL-2 induce effector or memory phenotypes, respectively ( 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Despite this critical requirement, Tregs do not produce their own IL-2 and are dependent on Tconv or dendritic cells (DCs) for signals needed to maintain viability and function. (diabetesjournals.org)
- RATIONALE: Interleukin-2 may stimulate a person's white blood cells to kill cancer cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- In vitro, long-term exposure to high glucose and the peptide hormone leptin secreted by adipose tissue induce β-cell apoptosis and production of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1 in β-cells and pancreatic islets, respectively ( 7 , 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Exogenous addition of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), a naturally occurring competitive inhibitor of IL-1 signaling, protects the β-cells from the deleterious effects of high glucose and leptin exposure ( 7 , 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Our lab and others have also found that exposure of WAS subject NK cells to IL-2 in vitro restores NK cell function and allows for normal F-actin reorganization. (knowcancer.com)
- Modulation of IL-2 production by submaximally stimulated Jurkat cells was determined in response to treatment with extracts prepared from dried aerial parts of Echinacea purpurea. (bastyr.edu)
- Thus, alkylamides present in E. purpurea suppress the ability of activated Jurkat T cells to produce IL-2 independently of direct, cytotoxic effects. (bastyr.edu)
- Furthermore, immunofluorescence microscopy and flow-cytometric analysis of CD25-expressing cells demonstrated that the selected Affibody molecules bound to CD4+ CD25+ PMBCs (peripheral-blood mononuclear cells), the IL-2-dependent cell line NK92 and phytohaemagglutinin-activated PMBCs. (biomedsearch.com)
- Several large clinical studies (such as SILCAAT and ESPRIT) are evaluating whether the increase in CD4 cells seen with IL-2 results in a clinical benefit. (thebody.com)
- By metabolic and morphologic criteria, it was found that activation of the T-cell antigen receptor rendered the cells responsive to interleukin-2 (IL-2), but did not move them through the cell cycle. (sciencemag.org)
- Our data suggested that IL-12 together with IL-2 caused a suppression of CD4 + CD25 + regulatory T-cells and an elevation of IFN-γ levels, which play a crucial immunotherapeutic role in the management of HCC patients. (dovepress.com)
- It has repeatedly shown that oncogenic mutations as well as the bone marrow matrix (BMM) stimulate IL-6-independent signalling pathways that protect MM cells from apoptosis.Hyperdiploid MM tumors contain multiple trisomies involving chromosomes 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 15 , 19 , and 21, but rarely have IgH translocations, although CCND-1 / CCND-2 / CCND-3 dysregulation appears to occur as an early event. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- Our results have strong implications for the possible association of TCT and IL-2 in future HIV therapies because IL-2 is known to enhance the level of CD4 T cells in HIV-infected patients ( 19 , 20 ). (pnas.org)
- Phillips JH, Gemlo BT, Myers WW, Rayner AA, Lanier LL: In vivo and in vitro activation of natural killer cells in advanced cancer patients undergoing combined recombinant interleukin-2 and LAK cell therapy. (springer.com)
- In mice lacking the interleukin-2 receptor beta chain (IL-2R beta), T cells were shown to be spontaneously activated, resulting in exhaustive differentiation of B cells into plasma cells and the appearance of high serum concentrations of immunoglobulins G1 and E as well as autoantibodies that cause hemolytic anemia. (sciencemag.org)
- Stimulation of cells by CD3 MoAb induced only transiently expressed, small amounts of IL-2 mRNA that was completely suppressed by cyclosporine. (umich.edu)
- IL-2 is a type of cytokine signaling molecule that is produced by some immune cells to regulate the activities of other immune cells. (vcu.edu)
- Src homology 2 (SH2) domains play a critical role in signal transduction in mammalian cells by binding to phosphorylated Tyr (pTyr). (rcsb.org)
- Paciucci PA, Holland JF, Glidewell O, Odchimar R (1989) Recombinant IL-2 by continuous infusion and adoptive transfer of recombinant Interleukin-2-activated cells in patients with advanced cancer. (springer.com)
- To investigate the role of the pleckstrin homology domain of Gab-2 in this process, epitope-tagged wild type Gab-2 (WTGab-2), Gab-2 lacking its PH domain (DeltaPHGab-2) and the Gab-2 PH domain alone (PHGab-2) were inducibly expressed in IL-3-dependent BaF/3 cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Interleukin-2 (IL-2) increases the number of CD4 cells in HIV-1 infected patients with a CD4 cell count over 200/mm3, but its activity in patients with treatment failure and low CD4 cell counts is unknown. (nih.gov)
- IL-2 is produced naturally in the body and helps CD4 cells multiply. (nih.gov)
- In laboratory studies, treatment with one type of modified IL-2 prolonged survival in a mouse model of graft-versus-host disease and blocked the growth in vitro of T-cells from a patient with chronic/smoldering adult T-cell leukemia, a rare form of cancer, they note. (healthcanal.com)
- Here we measured serum concentrations of IL-17, and mRNA expression of IL-17 and its transcription factor RORγt in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 30 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 DM and 20 healthy subjects. (omicsonline.org)
- CCL2/MCP- 1, CXCL1/KC, and CXCL2/MIP-2) from a large variety of cells [ 4 , 5 ]. (omicsonline.org)
- Based on these observations, in this study, we investigated mRNA levels of IL-17 and its transcription factor RORγt in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and serum concentrations of IL-17 from patients with newly diagnosed type 2 DM. (omicsonline.org)
- Indeed, the data indicate that already at the "pre 2" time point, the absolute counts of NKT cells have actually increased. (aacrjournals.org)
- Expansion of CD1d-restricted NKT cells in patients with primary HIV-1 infection treated with interleukin-2. (aacrjournals.org)
- Interleukin 2 (IL-2) is a monomeric glycoprotein that is primarily produced by activated CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and dendritic cells. (omicsonline.org)
- IL-2 may also enhance the cytolytic activity of natural killer cells, thereby ensuring their significance in the control of the immune response, and effectively participate in the pathogenesis of several pathological conditions, such as cancer and metabolic, infectious, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. (omicsonline.org)
- We now report that PA682BM-1 can be triggered by the protein kinase C (PKC) activators, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and (-)Indolactam-v, to secrete IFN gamma, whereas JLP(c) cells spontaneously produce low levels of IFN gamma that can be enhanced by PKC activators and interleukin-2 (IL-2). (bloodjournal.org)
- There was a significant increase of IL-2 activity in the culture supernatants of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) after 2-3 days cultivation. (ajtmh.org)
- Moreover, deprivation of growing B6.1 cells of IL-2 resulted in cell arrest and a rapid decay of TfR mRNA, which was not prevented by the activation of IRF with desferrioxamine. (epfl.ch)
- The characterization of interleukin 2 (IL-2) as a T-cell growth factor was consolidated in 1975 at the Second International Lymphokine Workshop. (omicsonline.org)
- These studies suggest the existence of two biochemical pathways for the induction of IL-2 production, one that occurs at the transcriptional level and is mediated by intracellular calcium release and protein kinase C and is cyclosporine-sensitive, and one that acts post-transcriptionally, is mediated by CD28 stimulation, and is cyclosporine-resistant. (umich.edu)
- Protein tyrosine kinase Syk is associated with and activated by the IL-2 receptor: possible link with the c-myc induction pathway. (wikipathways.org)
- Here we report that recombinant LcrV signals in a CD14- and toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-dependent fashion leading to immunosuppression by interleukin 10 induction. (rupress.org)
- Induction by IL-2 of both nuclear and cytoplasmic TfR RNA was compared with run-on transcription rates in isolated nuclei. (epfl.ch)
- Eight months after the initial diagnosis, recombinant IL-2 therapy was initiated and within a few months, his CD4 + cell count started to increase. (ingentaconnect.com)
- Treatment with rIL-2 and prophylactic antifungal therapy continued and he has been asymptomatic for almost 20 months so far. (ingentaconnect.com)
- This case is the first reported pediatric idiopathic CD4 + T-lymphocytopenia case with cryptococcal meningitis that was successfully treated by the addition of rIL-2 therapy to antifungal therapy. (ingentaconnect.com)
- While this is shown to be true in mouse models ( 3 , 4 ), many issues remain in applying IL-2 therapy to humans. (diabetesjournals.org)
- In this issue of Diabetes , Malek and colleagues ( 5 ) report their investigation of the cellular basis of Treg responsiveness to IL-2 and their findings help to address many of these crucial issues in applying IL-2 therapy for treatment of T1D. (diabetesjournals.org)
- In patients receiving triple combination therapy (TCT, two reverse transcriptase inhibitors and one protease inhibitor) that has triggered a drastic reduction in plasma viral load and an increase in CD4 counts (group 2 patients), IL-2R expression is significantly lower than in group 1 patients. (pnas.org)
- Combination therapy with interleukin-2 and alpha-interferon for the treatment of patients with advanced cancer. (springer.com)
- Staphylococcal bacteremia is more frequent in patients receiving interleukin-2 therapy and is associated with substantial morbidity and toxic skin reactions. (annals.org)
- Since he is so young (34) they want to try a more aggressive treatment of Interleukin 2 therapy and a facility in Chicago. (healthboards.com)
- Despite its durability, IL-2 therapy is not commonly used due to its potentially severe side effects, which require specially trained and experienced physicians and nurses to administer the drug, as it has a narrow therapeutic window. (vcu.edu)
- If IL-2 therapy is recommended, it is given in an inpatient setting requiring approximately five days of hospitalization. (vcu.edu)
- To learn more about IL-2 therapy, please contact Dr. Giao Q. Phan at (804) 828-9325 or [email protected] . (vcu.edu)
- The dose-limiting side effect of dgRTA-IT therapy is vascular leak syndrome (VLS), which is characterized by an increase in vascular permeability resulting in interstitial edema and organ failure ( 2 - 4 ). (pnas.org)
- The purpose of this study is to see if it is effective to give HIV positive patients recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) in addition to anti-HIV therapy. (nih.gov)
- Doctors hope that giving patients recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) in addition to their anti-HIV therapy will help improve their immune systems and keep them healthier over a longer period of time. (nih.gov)
- In earlier studies in HIV-infection, most of the patients with a controlled viral load and a high level of CD4 count (over 200/mm3) who received IL-2, experienced an increase of their CD4 cell count superior to what is observed with antiretroviral therapy alone. (nih.gov)
- Both β-cell expression and serum levels of IL-1Ra are reduced in patients with type 2 diabetes ( 8 , 11 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Cloning, sequence, and expression of bovine interleukin 2. (ebi.ac.uk)
- In this paper, we provide evidence that a three amino acid sequence motif, ( x )D( y ), in toxins and IL-2 damages ECs. (pnas.org)
- Thus, when peptides from RTA or IL-2 containing this sequence motif are coupled to mouse IgG, they bind to and damage ECs both in vitro and, in the case of RTA, in vivo . (pnas.org)
- Our results suggest that deletions or mutations in this sequence or the use of nondamaging blocking peptides may increase the therapeutic index of both IL-2, as well as ITs prepared with a variety of plant or bacterial toxins. (pnas.org)
Receptor gamma chain1
- An interleukin-2 receptor gamma chain mutation with normal thymus morphology. (jci.org)
- Impaired cutaneous wound healing in interleukin-6 deficient mice. (cdc.gov)
- Surprisingly, knockout of the genes encoding IL-2 or IL-2 receptor in mice led to severe autoimmunity, rather than the predicted immune deficiency. (nature.com)
- Male IL-13R α 2 − / − mice were generated from (129 × C57BL/6) mice and were backcrossed onto the BALB/c strain. (rupress.org)
- 1 In addition, IL-2 has been shown to mediate multiple immune responses on a variety of cell types. (labcorp.com)
-   The primary differences between IL-2 and IL-15 are found in adaptive immune responses. (bionity.com)
- The pleckstrin homology domain of Gab-2 is required for optimal interleukin-3 signalsome-mediated responses. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The scientists developed altered forms of IL-2 where activity can be tuned to either boost or block immune responses depending on the desired therapeutic application. (healthcanal.com)
- various interleukins (ILs) stand out in these responses [ 2 ]. (omicsonline.org)
- Currently, we are investigating the crosstalk between these pathways and their functional roles in IL-2 and IL-4-stimulated T cell responses. (jimmunol.org)
- Interleukin-2 treatment for persistent cryptococcal meningitis in. (ingentaconnect.com)
- Experimental treatments are appropriate if IL-2 has been tried without success, or if you are ineligible for IL-2 treatment for some reason. (cancerguide.org)
- Treatment with recombinant IL-1Ra improves glycemia and β-cell function and reduces inflammatory markers in patients with type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
- During the course of the disease, β-cell function progressively declines irrespective of treatment with glucose-lowering drugs ( 2 - 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- We showed previously that 13 weeks of IL-1Ra treatment improved β-cell function and reduced A1C and markers of systemic inflammation in patients with type 2 diabetes ( 16 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- The investigators will also use the in vivo treatment of WAS subjects to forward our mechanistic studies of how IL-2 may facilitate F-actin reorganization in the absence of WASp function. (knowcancer.com)
- Eosinophilia and Pruritus With Interleukin-2 Treatment in Pa. (lww.com)
- Interleukin-2 has not been approved for the treatment of HIV infection since there has been no study that has clearly demonstrated a significant clinical benefit (prevention of death or AIDS related problems). (thebody.com)
- Meanwhile, IL-2 plus IL-4 treatment demonstrated nonsignificant effects. (dovepress.com)
- Hitherto IL-2, IFNalpha, IFNbeta IFNgamma, IL-6, IL-12 have been used for anti tumour treatment of advanced breast cancer either to induce or increase hormone sensitivity and/or to stimulate cellular immunity. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- Conditions caused by Interleukin 2 treatment. (cancer.org)
- We met oncologist last week and she said that Interleukin 2 is probable going to be the best treatment option for him. (healthboards.com)
- Local patients can be screened in the outpatient setting to see if they are eligible to receive IL-2 treatment and if IL-2 treatment would be appropriate for them. (vcu.edu)
- Ninety eight HIV-1-infected patients experiencing advanced treatment failure with a CD4 count below 200/mm3 and a plasma viral load above 10,000 HIV RNA copies/ml, will be randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: with or without IL-2. (nih.gov)
- Interleukin-1 (IL-1) induces hypophagia, which can be reduced by cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors. (aspetjournals.org)
- Median survival of patients treated with this moderate dose bolus Interleukin-2 schedule. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- IL-2, 10 5 units/kg ( n = 6), or its excipient control ( n = 5) was given as an i.v. bolus over 2 min. (aacrjournals.org)
- IL-2 (600,000 IU per kilogram by means of intravenous bolus infusion) was given every 8 hours for a maximum of 14 doses with a second cycle after a 2-week rest. (sciencemag.org)
Type 1 diabet4
- In this article, we will focus on studies of type 1 diabetes noting deficient IL-2 signaling and build what we believe forms the molecular framework for their contribution to the disease. (diabetesjournals.org)
- This activity results in the identification of a series of potentially novel therapeutic targets that could restore proper immune regulation in type 1 diabetes by augmenting the IL-2 pathway. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Understanding the role of interleukin (IL)-2 in the etiology of type 1 diabetes requires knowledge of the regulation of-as well as the structural and functional consequences of-IL-2 binding to its cognate receptor (IL-2R). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Therefore, a reduction in IL-2 signaling in type 1 diabetes may contribute to Treg decline and the emergence of effector phenotypes. (diabetesjournals.org)
- β-Cell mass is reduced through apoptosis ( 5 ) and type 2 diabetes is associated with a low-grade systemic inflammation ( 6 ), but the mechanisms underlying β-cell failure and destruction in type 2 diabetes remain elusive. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Rosenstein M, Ettinghausen SE, Rosenberg SA (1986) Extravasation of intravascular fluid mediated by the systemic administration of recombinant interleukin-2. (springer.com)
- CONCLUSIONS: The blockade of interleukin-1 with anakinra improved glycemia and beta-cell secretory function and reduced markers of systemic inflammation. (uzh.ch)
- Analysis of the three-dimensional structure of the IL-2 molecule shows that it is composed of four "packed" α-helices. (omicsonline.org)
- Interleukin 6 plays a critical role in cutaneous wound healing. (cdc.gov)
- No pretreatment factors could be identified that were strongly associated with increased rate of objective response or long-term survival in patients receiving IL-2 alone. (aacrjournals.org)
- Neoleukin 2/15 is a computationally designed mimic of IL-2 that was designed to avoid common side effects. (wikidoc.org)
- For my work in this dissertation, I have computationally designed minimalist interleukin-2 mimetics that retain only the structural elements necessary for binding and signal transduction with decreased dependence on biochemical context. (washington.edu)
- After costimulation from CD28 the optimal activation of expression of IL-2 and these pathways is induced. (wikipedia.org)
- These trials and additional experimental work also showed that IL-2 mediates immunoregulation without immunosuppression. (nature.com)