A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
Cell surface proteins that bind interleukins and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
A ligand that binds to but fails to activate the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR. It plays an inhibitory role in the regulation of INFLAMMATION and FEVER. Several isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-1. Included under this heading are signaling receptors, non-signaling receptors and accessory proteins required for receptor signaling. Signaling from interleukin-1 receptors occurs via interaction with SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as MYELOID DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 88.
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
A multilineage cell growth factor secreted by LYMPHOCYTES; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and ASTROCYTES which stimulates clonal proliferation and differentiation of various types of blood and tissue cells.
A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.
A cytokine which resembles IL-1 structurally and IL-12 functionally. It enhances the cytotoxic activity of NK CELLS and CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES, and appears to play a role both as neuroimmunomodulator and in the induction of mucosal immunity.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Receptors present on a wide variety of hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cell types that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-4. They are involved in signaling a variety of immunological responses related to allergic INFLAMMATION including the differentiation of TH2 CELLS and the regulation of IMMUNOGLOBULIN E production. Two subtypes of receptors exist and are referred to as the TYPE I INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR and the TYPE II INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR. Each receptor subtype is defined by its unique subunit composition.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-6. They are present on T-LYMPHOCYTES, mitogen-activated B-LYMPHOCYTES, and peripheral MONOCYTES. The receptors are heterodimers of the INTERLEUKIN-6 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
A lymphohematopoietic cytokine that plays a role in regulating the proliferation of ERYTHROID PRECURSOR CELLS. It induces maturation of MEGAKARYOCYTES which results in increased production of BLOOD PLATELETS. Interleukin-11 was also initially described as an inhibitor of ADIPOGENESIS of cultured preadipocytes.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Cytokine that stimulates the proliferation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and shares biological activities with IL-2. IL-15 also can induce proliferation and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A cytokine produced by bone marrow stromal cells that promotes the growth of B-LYMPHOCYTE precursors and is co-mitogenic with INTERLEUKIN-2 for mature T-LYMPHOCYTE activation.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
An interleukin receptor subunit with specificity for INTERLEUKIN-13. It dimerizes with the INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT to form the TYPE II INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR which has specificity for both INTERLEUKIN-4 and INTERLEUKIN-13. Signaling of this receptor subunit occurs through the interaction of its cytoplasmic domain with JANUS KINASES such as the TYK2 KINASE.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-13. Included under this heading are the INTERLEUKIN-13 RECEPTOR ALPHA2 which is a monomeric receptor and the INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR TYPE II which has specificity for both INTERLEUKIN-4 and INTERLEUKIN-13.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
Cytolytic lymphocytes with the unique capacity of killing natural killer (NK)-resistant fresh tumor cells. They are INTERLEUKIN-2-activated NK cells that have no MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX restriction or need for antigen stimulation. LAK cells are used for ADOPTIVE IMMUNOTHERAPY in cancer patients.
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
An interleukin-1 subtype that occurs as a membrane-bound pro-protein form that is cleaved by proteases to form a secreted mature form. Unlike INTERLEUKIN-1BETA both membrane-bound and secreted forms of interleukin-1alpha are biologically active.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-23 is comprised of a unique 19 kDa subunit and 40 kDa subunit that is shared with INTERLEUKIN-12. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells
An interleukin-1 receptor subtype that is involved in signaling cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The binding of this receptor to its ligand causes its favorable interaction with INTERLEUKIN-1 RECEPTOR ACCESSORY PROTEIN and the formation of an activated receptor complex.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A cytokine receptor that acts through the formation of oligomeric complexes of itself with a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-5. They are heterodimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-5 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT. Signaling from interleukin-5 receptors can occur through interaction of their cytoplasmic domains with SYNTENINS.
A long pro-domain caspase that has specificity for the precursor form of INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. It plays a role in INFLAMMATION by catalytically converting the inactive forms of CYTOKINES such as interleukin-1beta to their active, secreted form. Caspase 1 is referred as interleukin-1beta converting enzyme and is frequently abbreviated ICE.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-4. Stat6 has been shown to partner with NF-KAPPA B and CCAAT-ENHANCER-BINDING PROTEINS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of interleukin-4 responsive GENES.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-10. They exist as a tetramer of two alpha chains (INTERLEUKIN-10 RECEPTOR ALPHA CHAIN) and two beta chains (INTERLEUKIN-10 RECEPTOR, BETA CHAIN). Signaling from interleukin-10 receptors occurs through their interaction with JANUS KINASES.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-7. They are present on T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTE precursors. The receptors are heterodimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-5 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT.
High affinity receptors for INTERLEUKIN-3. They are found on early HEMATOPOIETIC PROGENITOR CELLS; progenitors of MYELOID CELLS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS. Interleukin-3 receptors are formed by the dimerization of the INTERLEUKIN-3 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT.
A cytokine subunit that is a component of both interleukin-12 and interleukin-23. It binds to the INTERLEUKIN-12 SUBUNIT P35 via a disulfide bond to form interleukin-12 and to INTERLEUKIN-23 SUBUNIT P19 to form interleukin-23.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
A subunit of the interleukin-18 receptor that is responsible of extracellular binding of IL-18.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-18 found on a variety of cell types including MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; NK CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; and SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS. They are formed as a heterodimer of alpha and beta subunits.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A multifunctional cytokine secreted by primarily by activated TH2 CELLS that may play a role as a regulator of allergic INFLAMMATION. It has been shown to enhance the growth and CELL DIFFERENTIATION of MAST CELLS, and can act on a variety of other immune cells.
Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-12. They exist as dimers of beta 1 and beta 2 subunits. Signaling from interleukin-12 receptors occurs through their interaction with JANUS KINASES.
Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Glycoproteins found in a subfraction of normal mammalian plasma and urine. They stimulate the proliferation of bone marrow cells in agar cultures and the formation of colonies of granulocytes and/or macrophages. The factors include INTERLEUKIN-3; (IL-3); GRANULOCYTE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (G-CSF); MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (M-CSF); and GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (GM-CSF).
Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-15. They are widely-distributed heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-15 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2, 15 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.
Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-17. Several subtypes of receptors have been found, each with its own in specificity for interleukin-17 subtype.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.
The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
A low affinity interleukin-11 receptor subunit that combines with the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130 to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-11. Multiple isoforms of this protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its MRNA.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
A cytokine produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that stimulates the migration of CD4-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES and monocytes. It has been reported to suppress HIV replication.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
An early local inflammatory reaction to insult or injury that consists of fever, an increase in inflammatory humoral factors, and an increased synthesis by hepatocytes of a number of proteins or glycoproteins usually found in the plasma.
An INTERLEUKIN-6 related cytokine that exhibits pleiotrophic effects on many physiological systems that involve cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Leukemia inhibitory factor binds to and acts through the lif receptor.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
An interleukin receptor subunit that was originally discovered as a component of the INTERLEUKIN 2 RECEPTOR. It was subsequently found to be a component of several other receptors including the INTERLEUKIN 4 RECEPTOR, the INTERLEUKIN 7 RECEPTOR, the INTERLEUKIN-9 RECEPTOR, the INTERLEUKIN-15 RECEPTOR, and the INTERLEUKIN-21 RECEPTOR. Mutations in the gene for the interleukin receptor common gamma chain have been associated with X-LINKED COMBINED IMMUNODEFICIENCY DISEASES.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.
A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.
Glycoprotein molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes, that react with molecules of antilymphocyte sera, lectins, and other agents which induce blast transformation of lymphocytes.
Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
A Janus kinase subtype that is predominantly expressed in hematopoietic cell. It is involved in signaling from a broad variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS including ones that utilize the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA SUBUNIT.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A cell surface receptor that specifically mediates the biological effects of INTERLEUKIN-9. The functional IL9 receptor signals through interaction of its cytoplasm domain with JANUS KINASES and requires the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA SUBUNIT for activity.
Proteins that are secreted into the blood in increased or decreased quantities by hepatocytes in response to trauma, inflammation, or disease. These proteins can serve as inhibitors or mediators of the inflammatory processes. Certain acute-phase proteins have been used to diagnose and follow the course of diseases or as tumor markers.
A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
An interleukin-1 receptor subtype that competes with the INTERLEUKIN-1 RECEPTOR TYPE I for binding to INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The interleukin-1 type II receptor appears to lack signal transduction capability. Therefore it may act as a "decoy" receptor that modulates the activity of its ligands. Both membrane-bound and soluble forms of the receptor have been identified.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
A cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory actions that depend upon the cellular microenvironment. Oncostatin M is a 28 kDa monomeric glycoprotein that is similar in structure to LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR. Its name derives from the the observation that it inhibited the growth of tumor cells and augmented the growth of normal fibroblasts.
A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Cell surface receptors that bind TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.

Reactive oxygen intermediate-dependent NF-kappaB activation by interleukin-1beta requires 5-lipoxygenase or NADPH oxidase activity. (1/9413)

We previously reported that the role of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) in NF-kappaB activation by proinflammatory cytokines was cell specific. However, the sources for ROIs in various cell types are yet to be determined and might include 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and NADPH oxidase. 5-LOX and 5-LOX activating protein (FLAP) are coexpressed in lymphoid cells but not in monocytic or epithelial cells. Stimulation of lymphoid cells with interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) led to ROI production and NF-kappaB activation, which could both be blocked by antioxidants or FLAP inhibitors, confirming that 5-LOX was the source of ROIs and was required for NF-kappaB activation in these cells. IL-1beta stimulation of epithelial cells did not generate any ROIs and NF-kappaB induction was not influenced by 5-LOX inhibitors. However, reintroduction of a functional 5-LOX system in these cells allowed ROI production and 5-LOX-dependent NF-kappaB activation. In monocytic cells, IL-1beta treatment led to a production of ROIs which is independent of the 5-LOX enzyme but requires the NADPH oxidase activity. This pathway involves the Rac1 and Cdc42 GTPases, two enzymes which are not required for NF-kappaB activation by IL-1beta in epithelial cells. In conclusion, three different cell-specific pathways lead to NF-kappaB activation by IL-1beta: a pathway dependent on ROI production by 5-LOX in lymphoid cells, an ROI- and 5-LOX-independent pathway in epithelial cells, and a pathway requiring ROI production by NADPH oxidase in monocytic cells.  (+info)

Synergistic activation of JNK/SAPK by interleukin-1 and platelet-derived growth factor is independent of Rac and Cdc42. (2/9413)

The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are activated strongly by inflammatory cytokines and environmental stresses, but only weakly by growth factors. Here we show that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) strongly potentiates activation of JNK by interleukin 1 (IL-1) in human fibroblasts and a pig aortic endothelial (PAE) cell line. This synergistic activation of JNK by IL-1 and PDGF was unaffected by bacterial toxins that inactivate Rho proteins and Ras. Since Rho proteins have been implicated in JNK activation, their possible involvement was investigated further using stably expressed, inducible N17 or V12 mutants in PAE cell lines. N17 Rac non-selectively reduced JNK activity by 30% in resting or stimulated cells (IL-1 alone, or with PDGF). N17 Cdc42 had no effect. V12 Rac weakly activated JNK and synergized with IL-1, but not with PDGF. V12 Cdc42 weakly activated JNK, but synergized with PDGF and not IL-1. Our results imply that Rho GTPases are not directly involved in mediating IL-1-induced JNK activation, or in the potentiation of this activation by PDGF.  (+info)

Involvement of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1beta in enhancement of pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures caused by Shigella dysenteriae. (3/9413)

Neurologic manifestations, mainly convulsions, are the most frequent extraintestinal complications of shigellosis. We used an animal model to study the roles of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta) in Shigella-related seizures. Administration of Shigella dysenteriae 60R sonicate enhanced the sensitivity of mice to the proconvulsant pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) within 7 h. This was indicated by a significantly higher mean convulsion score and an increased number of mice responding with clonic-tonic seizures in the Shigella-pretreated group. Preinjection of mice with anti-murine TNF-alpha (anti-mTNF-alpha) or anti-murine IL-1beta (anti-mIL-1beta) 30 min prior to administration of Shigella sonicate abolished their enhanced response to PTZ at 7 h. Mean convulsion scores were reduced by anti-mTNF-alpha from 1.2 to 0.8 (P = 0.017) and by anti-mIL-1beta from 1.3 to 0.7 (P = 0.008). Preinjection of anti-mTNF-alpha also reduced the percentage of mice responding with clonic-tonic seizures, from 48 to 29% (P = 0.002), and preinjection of anti-mIL-1beta reduced it from 53 to 21% (P = 0. 012). Neutralization of TNF-alpha or IL-1beta did not protect the mice from death due to S. dysenteriae 60R. These findings indicate that TNF-alpha and IL-1beta play a role in the very early sensitization of the central nervous system to convulsive activity after S. dysenteriae administration. Similar mechanisms may trigger neurologic disturbances in other infectious diseases.  (+info)

Emergent immunoregulatory properties of combined glucocorticoid and anti-glucocorticoid steroids in a model of tuberculosis. (4/9413)

In Balb/c mice with pulmonary tuberculosis, there is a switch from a protective Th1-dominated cytokine profile to a non-protective profile with a Th2 component. This switch occurs while the adrenals are undergoing marked hyperplasia. Treatment with the anti-glucocorticoid hormones dehydroepiandrosterone or 3 beta, 17 beta-androstenediol, during the period of adrenal hyperplasia, maintains Th1 dominance and is protective. We investigated the effects of these hormones as therapeutic agents by administering them from day 60, when the switch to the non-protective cytokine profile was already well established. Given at this time (day 60), doses that were protective when given early (from day 0) were rapidly fatal. A physiological dose of the glucocorticoid corticosterone was also rapidly fatal. However when the corticosterone and the anti-glucocorticoid (AED or DHEA) were co-administered, there was protection, with restoration of a Th1-dominated cytokine profile, enhanced DTH responses, and enhanced expression of IL-1 alpha and TNF alpha. Therefore this combination of steroids has an emergent property that is quite unlike that of either type of steroid given alone. It may be possible to exploit the ant-inflammatory properties of glucocorticoids while preserving a Th1 bias, by combining glucocorticoids with DHEA or suitable metabolites.  (+info)

Inhibition of transforming growth factor beta production by nitric oxide-treated chondrocytes: implications for matrix synthesis. (5/9413)

OBJECTIVE: Nitric oxide (NO) is generated copiously by articular chondrocytes activated by interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). If NO production is blocked, much of the IL-1beta inhibition of proteoglycan synthesis is prevented. We tested the hypothesis that this inhibitory effect of NO on proteoglycan synthesis is secondary to changes in chondrocyte transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta). METHODS: Monolayer, primary cultures of lapine articular chondrocytes and cartilage slices were studied. NO production was determined as nitrite accumulation in the medium. TGFbeta bioactivity in chondrocyte- and cartilage-conditioned medium (CM) was measured with the mink lung epithelial cell bioassay. Proteoglycan synthesis was measured as the incorporation of 35S-sodium sulfate into macromolecules separated from unincorporated label by gel filtration on PD-10 columns. RESULTS: IL-1beta increased active TGFbeta in chondrocyte CM by 12 hours; by 24 hours, significant increases in both active and latent TGFbeta were detectable. NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMA) potentiated the increase in total TGFbeta without affecting the early TGFbeta activation. IL-1beta stimulated a NO-independent, transient increase in TGFbeta3 at 24 hours; however, TGFbeta1 was not changed. When NO synthesis was inhibited with L-NMA, IL-1beta increased CM concentrations of TGFbeta1 from 24-72 hours of culture. L-arginine (10 mM) reversed the inhibitory effect of L-NMA on NO production and blocked the increases in TGFbeta1. Anti-TGFbeta1 antibody prevented the restoration of proteoglycan synthesis by chondrocytes exposed to IL-1beta + L-NMA, confirming that NO inhibition of TGFbeta1 in IL-1beta-treated chondrocytes effected, in part, the decreased proteoglycan synthesis. Furthermore, the increase in TGFbeta and proteoglycan synthesis seen with L-NMA was reversed by the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamide. Similar results were seen with cartilage slices in organ culture. The autocrine increase in CM TGFbeta1 levels following prior exposure to TGFbeta1 was also blocked by NO. CONCLUSION: NO can modulate proteoglycan synthesis indirectly by decreasing the production of TGFbeta1 by chondrocytes exposed to IL-1beta. It prevents autocrine-stimulated increases in TGFbeta1, thus potentially diminishing the anabolic effects of this cytokine in chondrocytes.  (+info)

Expression of both P1 and P2 purine receptor genes by human articular chondrocytes and profile of ligand-mediated prostaglandin E2 release. (6/9413)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the expression and function of purine receptors in articular chondrocytes. METHODS: Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to screen human chondrocyte RNA for expression of P1 and P2 purine receptor subtypes. Purine-stimulated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release from chondrocytes, untreated or treated with recombinant human interleukin-1alpha (rHuIL-1alpha), was assessed by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: RT-PCR demonstrated that human articular chondrocytes transcribe messenger RNA for the P1 receptor subtypes A2a and A2b and the P2 receptor subtype P2Y2, but not for the P1 receptor subtypes A1 and A3. The P1 receptor agonists adenosine and 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine did not change PGE2 release from chondrocytes. The P2Y2 agonists ATP and UTP stimulated a small release of PGE2 that was potentiated after pretreatment with rHuIL-1alpha. PGE2 release in response to ATP and UTP cotreatment was not additive, but release in response to coaddition of ATP and bradykinin (BK) or UTP and BK was additive, consistent with ATP and UTP competition for the same receptor site. The potentiation of PGE2 release in response to ATP and UTP after rHuIL-1alpha pretreatment was mimicked by phorbol myristate acetate. CONCLUSION: Human chondrocytes express both P1 and P2 purine receptor subtypes. The function of the P1 receptor subtype is not yet known, but stimulation of the P2Y2 receptor increases IL-1-mediated PGE2 release.  (+info)

Effects of lipopolysaccharide on production of interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 by bovine mammary epithelial cells in vitro. (7/9413)

This investigation was performed to determine the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on production of interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6 by bovine mammary epithelial cells in vitro. After confluence, the cells were stimulated with LPS (0.1, 1.0 or 10 micrograms/ml) for 4, 8, 24, and 48 hr. LPS increased production of both IL-1 and IL-6 production from mammary cells in a dose dependent manner. The expression of mRNA for IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) was demonstrated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in bovine mammary epithelial cells.  (+info)

Mechanisms of prostaglandin E2 release by intact cells expressing cyclooxygenase-2: evidence for a 'two-component' model. (8/9413)

Prostaglandin (PG) release in cells expressing constitutive cyclooxygenase-1 is known to be regulated by liberation of arachidonic acid by phospholipase A2 followed by metabolism by cyclooxygenase. However, the relative contribution of phospholipase A2 to the release of PGs in cells expressing cyclooxygenase-2 is not clear. We addressed this question by using radioimmunoassay to measure PGE2 release by human cells (A549) induced to express cyclooxygenase-2 (measured by Western blot analysis) by interleukin-1beta. Cells were either unstimulated or stimulated with agents known to activate phospholipase A2 (bradykinin, Des-Arg10-kallidin, or the calcium ionophore A23187) or treated with exogenous arachidonic acid. When cells were treated to express cyclooxygenase-2, the levels of PGE2 released over 15 min were undetectable; however, in the same cells stimulated with bradykinin, A23187, or arachidonic acid, large amounts of prostanoid were produced. Using selective inhibitors/antagonists, we found that the effects of bradykinin were mediated by B2 receptor activation and that prostanoid release was due to cyclooxygenase-2, and not cyclooxygenase-1, activity. In addition, we show that the release of PGE2 stimulated by either bradykinin, A23187, or arachidonic acid was inhibited by the phospholipase A2 inhibitor arachidonate trifluoromethyl ketone. Hence, we have demonstrated that PGE2 is released by two components: induction of cyclooxygenase-2 and supply of substrate, probably via activation of phospholipase A2. This is illustrated in A549 cells by a clear synergy between the cytokine interleukin-1beta and the kinin bradykinin.  (+info)

Okuda, K and David, C S., A new lymphocyte-activating determinant locus expressed on t cells, and mapping in i-c subregion. (1978). Subject Strain Bibliography 1978. 1765 ...
An interleukin-13 receptor subunit that is closely-related to the INTERLEUKIN-13 RECEPTOR ALPHA1 SUBUNIT. The receptor is found as a monomeric protein and has been considered to be a decoy receptor for interleukin-13 due the fact that it lacks cytoplasmic signaling domains.
The Interleukin-6 ELISA Test Kit is now available. The kit is for human serum or plasma. Research use only. Interleukin-6 ELISA. ...
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Read Interleukin-10 in Health and Disease by with Rakuten Kobo. This volume provides a set of reviews dedicated to the biology of Interleukin (IL)-10. It includes chapters on its impor...
Combining with interleukin-10 and transmitting the signal from one side of the membrane to the other to initiate a change in cell activity.
Receptors, Interleukin-4, Type I information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and health issues.
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白血球介素或介白素(interleukin(是一組細胞因子(分泌的信號分子(》最早發現在白血球中表達作為細胞間信號傳遞的手段》實際上3白血球介素可以由多種細胞產生》免疫系統的功能3在很大程度上依賴於白細胞介素》一些罕見的白細胞介素缺陷不足都常出現自身免疫性疾病或免疫缺陷》 ...
IL-8 is a potent neutrophil chemoattractant that has been detected in high concentrations at acutely inflamed sites in vivo. Many cell types, including peripheral blood neutrophils, produce IL-8 that can be released by a variety of pro-inflammatory stimuli. However, the functional importance of neutrophil IL-8 during exudation is not yet known. We now report that neutrophils, harvested from skin lesions on the forearms of normal human volunteers (exudative neutrophils), expressed 100-fold higher levels of cell-associated IL-8 and spontaneously released up to 50-fold more IL-8 than freshly isolated peripheral blood neutrophils from the same donor. Furthermore, cell-associated IL-8 in peripheral blood neutrophils increased 20-fold during incubation at 37 degrees C in vitro and was increased over 200-fold after treatment with the Ca2+ ionophore A23187. More than 35% of the cell-associated IL-8 could be released by stimulation with either Ca2+ ionophore A23187 or phorbol myristate acetate. IL-8 was ...
Human skin fibroblasts were exposed to various concentrations (from 0.01 to 5.0 units/ml) of human recombinant interleukin-1 alpha and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta). Both IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta were found to increase dermatan-sulphate-proteoglycan (DSPG) core-protein mRNA levels. Maximal increase (3.0-fold) was seen at 48 h after addition of 1 unit of IL-1 beta/ml. In spite of the elevated DSPG-core-protein mRNA only a slight increase (from 10 to 18%) could be seen in the production of DSPG to cell-culture medium. No changes in the molecular mass of DSPG could be detected. ...
NEX232 Interleukin-1 (IL-1) refers to a group of three polypeptides (interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra)), that play a central role in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses.. IL-1β is a pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in immune defense against infection. ...
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Brain tumor news: Cytotoxicity in glioma cells due to interleukin-12 and interleukin-18-stimulated macrophages mediated by interferon-gamma-regulated nitric oxide.
Interleukin-12 is a disulfide-linked heterodimeric protein (p70), composed of two subunits, p35 and p40, which are encoded by two different genes. Accumulating data indicate that p40 secretion precedes that of IL-12 expression. In addition to its ability to covalently bind to p35 to form IL-12, p40 can bind to p19 to form IL-23. Recombinant human IL-12 p40 is a 40 kDa protein containing 306 amino acid residues ...
Genetic exploration of novel behavioral phenotypes in interleukin-7 and interleukin-18 receptor knockout mice. by Amy F. Eisener-Dorman full download exe or rar online without authorization for free.
Interleukin-6 (IL-6), 1 mg. Interleukin-6 is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine primarily produced by activated T cells and an assortment of other cells including endothelial cells and macrophages.
Interleukin-6 (IL-6), 2 µg. Interleukin-6 is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine primarily produced by activated T cells and an assortment of other cells including endothelial cells and macrophages.
When your immune system detects a threat, your white blood cells release interleukin-6. Once secreted, IL-6 triggers what is known as the inflammatory cascade.
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The Interleukin-1 family (IL-1 family) is a group of 11 cytokines, which plays a central role in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses to infections or sterile insults. Rec. E. coli interleukin-1 for cell culture or antibody production. ...
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MIP3 beta antibody [10J38] (chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19) for Neut, WB. Anti-MIP3 beta mAb (GTX53262) is tested in Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
IL-1β promotes extravasation of immunocompetent cells into affected tiβues and stimulates Th17 differentiation and B cell proliferation.
Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-PI4KB/PI4KIII beta Antibody. Validated: IHC, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat. 100% Guaranteed.
Rabbit polyclonal 14-3-3 beta antibody validated for WB and tested in Human, Mouse and Rat. With 1 independent review. Immunogen corresponding to recombinant…
Rabbit polyclonal TSH beta antibody validated for WB, ELISA and tested in Human. Referenced in 1 publication. Immunogen corresponding to synthetic peptide
Product Name: Mouse mAb anti- human Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Clone 9D8Collection: AntibodySub Category: Monoclonal AntibodyImmunogen: Purified recombinant human
Fisher Scientific - Elicit a range of responses from many cell types Shop Corning™ Interleukin-2 (IL-2), Human Recombinant at Fishersci.co.uk
Interleukin-16: A cytokine produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that stimulates the migration of CD4-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES and monocytes. It has been reported to suppress HIV replication.
人IL-2 ELISA试剂盒(Interleukin-2) ELISA试剂盒datasheet (ab100566).Abcam抗体、ELISA、激动剂拮抗剂、表观遗传试剂、蛋白多肽,使用效果保证,中国70%以上现货。
IL1F5 Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated, Polypeptide chain containing 155 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 17kDa.
The zebrafish possesses all of the interleukin 2 receptor family except interleukin 2 receptor alpha and removal of the common signalling component interleukin 2 receptor gamma causes a human like severe combined immunodeficiency ...
Rekombinantes Ratten IL-13, in E.Coli exprimiert, ist ein einzelnes, nichtglykosyliertes Peptid aus 111 Aminosäuren mit der Gesamtmasse von 12192 Dal…
产品名称:HumanIL-5ELISAReady-SET-Go规格:10plates货号:88-7056-88厂商:eBioscience产品介绍:Alsoknownas:Interleukin-5ReactivityHumanSensitivity4pg/mLStandardCurveRange4-500pg/mLComponentsCaptureAntibody.Pre-titrated,pu
TY - JOUR. T1 - Histamine release from human leukocytes by human recombinant interleukin-3. AU - Kanamori, S.. AU - Urisu, A.. AU - Iimi, K.. AU - Kondo, Y.. AU - Horiba, F.. AU - Masuda, S.. AU - Tsuruta, M.. AU - Yazaki, T.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0025120802&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0025120802&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 1697456. AN - SCOPUS:0025120802. VL - 39. SP - 452. EP - 458. JO - Japanese Journal of Allergology. JF - Japanese Journal of Allergology. SN - 0021-4884. IS - 5. ER - ...
An interleukin receptor is a cytokine receptor for interleukins. There are two main families of Interleukin receptors, type 1 and type 2 cytokine receptors. Type 1 interleukin receptors include: Interleukin-2 receptor Interleukin-3 receptor Interleukin-4 receptor Interleukin-5 receptor Interleukin-6 receptor Interleukin-7 receptor Interleukin-9 receptor Interleukin-11 receptor Interleukin-12 receptor Interleukin-13 receptor Interleukin-15 receptor Interleukin-21 receptor Interleukin-23 receptor Interleukin-27 receptor Type 2 interleukin receptors include: Interleukin-10 receptor Interleukin-20 receptor Interleukin-22 receptor Interleukin-28 receptor Interleukin-1 receptor and interleukin-18 receptor belong to the immunoglobulin superfamily. Interleukin-8 receptor, RANTES receptors (CCR1, CCR3, CCR5), MIP-1 receptor, PF4 receptor, M-CSF receptor and NAP-2 receptor belong to the chemokine receptor family. Subramaniam S, Stansberg C, Cunningham C (May 2004). The interleukin 1 receptor family. ...
克拉玛尔专业提供Recombinant Human Interleukin-5高品质试剂,可查询Recombinant Human Interleukin-5价格,提供Recombinant Human Interleukin-5技术资料,Recombinant Human Interleukin-5定制合成和大包装,是专业生产各种高端试剂的制造商和供应商.联系电话4001650900
Aberrant monocyte mediator production is pivotal in the development of posttrauma immunosuppression. We have previously shown that immunodepressed trauma patients monocytes produce elevated interleukin-6, suggesting their in vivo preactivation. This study confirms that preactivated patients Mo produce greater levels of IL-6 than normals Mo to the same in the in vitro Fc gamma RI stimulation. We also demonstrate the capacity of interleukin-4 to downregulate the elevated interleukin-6 production of trauma patients in vivo preactivated monocytes. Monocyte interleukin-6 downregulation by interleukin-4 is dose dependent and occurs whether Fc gamma RI cross-linking, muramyl dipeptide, indomethacin plus muramyl dipeptide, or interferon-gamma plus muramyl dipeptide is the interleukin-6 inducing stimulus. Furthermore, interleukin-4-dependent downregulation of monocyte interleukin-6 expression is confirmed at both the supernatant and the mRNA levels. Simultaneous downregulation of posttrauma elevated
This study has examined the effect of the cytokine interleukin 1 (IL-1) on metastasis formation by the human melanoma A375M in nude mice. We have found that human recombinant IL-1β (a single injection ,0.01 µg per mouse i.v. given before tumor cells) induced an augmentation of experimental lung metastases from the A375M tumor cells in nude mice. This effect was rapidly induced and reversible within 24 h after IL-1 injection. A similar effect was induced by human recombinant IL-1α and human recombinant tumor necrosis factor, but not by human recombinant interleukin 6. 5-[125I]Iodo-2′-deoxyuridine-radiolabeled A375M tumor cells injected i.v. remained at a higher level in the lungs of nude mice receiving IL-1 than in control mice. In addition, IL-1 injected 1 h, but not 24 h, after tumor cells enhanced lung colonization as well, thus suggesting an effect of IL-1 on the vascular transit of tumor cells. These findings may explain the observation of enhanced secondary localization of tumor cells ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of chronic treatment with recombinant interleukin-2 on the central nervous system of adult and old mice. AU - Nemni, Raffaello. AU - Iannaccone, Sandro. AU - Quattrini, Angelo. AU - Smirne, Salvatore. AU - Sessa, Maria. AU - Lodi, Monica. AU - Erminio, Cristina. AU - Canal, Nicola. PY - 1992/9/25. Y1 - 1992/9/25. N2 - We have studied the effects of chronic treatment with recombinant interleukin-2 on the central nervous system of adult and old mice. Treatment with high doses of recombinant interleukin-2, on a schedule similar to that used in humans, was started at the age of 4 and 17 months, respectively, and ended 3 months later. At that time, all the mice were tested for acquisition of a passive-avoidance task and then sacrificed for histological examination. Three of the four groups (treated and control adults and control old mice) did not differ from one another in task performance or neuron density in frontal cortex, cerebellum, dentate gyrus or CA1-2, CA3, CA4 ...
Objectives:. The aim of the Anti-Interleukin-1 in Diabetes Action trial (AIDA) study is to test the feasibility, safety/tolerability and potential efficacy of anti-IL-1 therapy in maintaining or enhancing beta-cell function in people with new onset Type 1 diabetes.. Trial Design:. A randomized, placebo controlled, double masked, parallel group, multicentre trial of IL-1 antagonism in subjects with newly-diagnosed Type 1 diabetes. Patients are instructed to inject 100 mg human recombinant interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (anakinra, Kineret®, Amgen, CA) or placebo s.c. once daily for 2 years. Endpoints will be evaluated every three months, with an interim analysis after 6 months.. Trial population:. The design will be a two-stage phase 2a study to address feasibility, safety/tolerability and potential efficacy. In the first phase 80 patients between 18 and 35 years of age with new on-set Type 1 diabetes will be randomized to anakinra or placebo, and endpoints will be analyzed as an interim ...
Epinephrine acts on alpha receptors causing vasoconstriction and on beta receptors causing vasodilation. The affinity of epinephrine for beta receptors is somewhat greater than its affinity for alpha receptors. When given in low doses, or by slow IV infusion in humans, the beta effects of epinephrine may predominate. When given in a large IV bolus dose, as here, the alpha effects (vasoconstriction) predominate when the concentration of epinephrine is high, and the beta effects (vasodilation) may sometimes be seen as the concentration is falling. From these facts you may be able to infer the relative affinity of epinephrine for alpha receptors on the one hand, and beta receptors on the other hand.The fact that vasoconstriction predominates when both alpha and beta receptors are activated shows that the capacity for vasoconstriction mediated by alpha receptors is very great, whereas the capacity for vasodilation mediated by beta receptors is somewhat limited. ...
|strong|Rabbit anti Human Interleukin-2 antibody|/strong| recognizes human IL-2 (Interleukin-2), otherwise known as T-cell growth factor, a 133 amino acid glycoprotein and potent immunoregulatory cyto…
This phase I trial studies the side effects and best dose of pembrolizumab and recombinant interleukin-12 in treating patients with solid tumors. Monoclonal
Rabbit anti Human Interleukin-10 antibody recognizes human IL-10 (Interleukin-10), an 18.5kDa immunosuppressive cytokine originally known
Rat microglial interleukin-3.: Interleukin-3 (IL-3, multi-CSF) is a growth factor for a variety of hematopoietic progenitor cells. Recently, microglial cells, t
receptors, interleukin-1 specific molecular sites or structures on cells with which interleukin-1 reacts or to which it binds to modify the function of the cells. The il-1 receptor on t-lymphocytes and fibroblasts is composed of a single polypeptide chain that binds both il-1 alpha and il-1 beta. The molecular weight of this high-affinity receptor is believed to be 80 kD. ...
Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) is a potent inflammatory cytokine involved in type 1 diabetes and acts through defined IL-1beta signaling pathways. In the present work we describe induction of DNA binding activity to signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) in response to IL-1beta in clo …
Human CellExp IL-27, human recombinant protein, p28, IL30, IL-27, IL-27A, IL27p28, Interleukin-27, EBI3 validated in (PBV10859r-10), Abgent
Recombinant Interleukin-17F, IL-17F, Interleukin-24, IL-24, cytokine stimulates PBMC and T-cell proliferation, expressed in HEK293 cells
Gupte AN, Selvaraju S, Gaikwad S, Mave V, Kumar P, Babu S, Andrade BB, Checkley W, Bollinger R, Gupta A. Higher interleukin-6 levels and changes in transforming growth factor-β are associated with lung impairment in pulmonary tuberculosis. ERJ Open Res. 2021 Jan 18;7(1):00390-2020. doi: 10.1183/23120541.00390-2020. PMID: 33532468; PMCID: PMC7836581 ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in negative regulation of interleukin-5 production pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification
These findings suggest that soluble products from renal tumors may suppress T-cell responses by blocking both IL-2 production and normal IL-2 receptor signaling.
Antibodies for proteins involved in interleukin-6 receptor activity pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification
Interleukin-7 (IL-7) signaling is essential for the development and peripheral maintenance of several blood cell types. Deficiencies in IL-7 or either component...
Interleukin-19 in Breast Cancer. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Ono has cloned and expressed the gene for interleukin-4. The molecule, which stimulates B-cells and T-cells in vitro, was being studied preclinically as an
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a small quaternary structure|monomeric protein 133 amino acid|amino acids in length. It is a very important cytokine in the immu...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , GenWay \ Recombinant Human IL-4 \ 10-006-220045 for more molecular products just contact us
IL-22 Rat Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated, polypeptide chain containing 146 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 16.6kDa.
|p|Recombinant Human IL1-alpha is a single non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 159 amino acids.|/p| |p|Background: Interleukin-1 alpha is a non-secreted proinflammatory cytokine produced in a variety of cells including monocytes, tissue macroph
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
PAA563Hu01, Polyclonal Antibody to Interleukin 1 Beta (IL1b), 白介素1β(IL1b)多克隆抗体, IL1-B; IL1-Beta; IL1F2; IL-1β; Interleukin-1 Family Member 2; Catabolin | 仅供体外研究使用,不用于临床诊断!请索取进口关税税单及报关单!
The Interleukin-1 family (IL-1 family) is a group of 11 cytokines, which plays a central role in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses to infections or sterile insults. Rec. E. coli interleukin-1 for cell culture or antibody production. ...
Your trusted lab partner for Interleukin-8 (IL-8) Serum testing, Viracor Eurofins delivers your results faster, when it matters most.
产品名称:MouseIL-21ELISPOTReady-SET-Go规格:10plates货号:88-7210-88厂商:eBioscience产品介绍:Alsoknownas:Interleukin-21,IL21ReactivityMouseComponentsCaptureAntibody.Pre-titrated,FunctionalGrade(lowendotoxin)purifieda
Interleukin-1 Monocytes, Leukocytes Stimulate synthesis of IL-2 10 Interleukin-2 Lymphocytes Stimulate growth and maturation of ... 15 (1): 11-5. doi:10.1590/s1555-79602013000100004. PMID 23396236.. *^ Yang S, Geng Z, Ma K, Sun X, Fu X (June 2016). "Efficacy ... 6 (1): e1231276. doi:10.1080/21592535.2016.1231276. PMC 5098722. PMID 27740881.. *^ Tenchurin, T.H.; Lyundup, A.V.; Demchenko, ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ...
Taichman, R. S.; Hauschka, P. V. (1992). "Effects of interleukin-1? And tumor necrosis factor-? On osteoblastic expression of ... www.nims.go.jp Nanocoated film as a bacteria killer 23/1/2009 , www.nanowerk.com Silver pyrophosphate www.chemicalbook.com ...
Interleukin-1 inhibitors, such as canakinumab, showed moderate effectiveness for pain relief and reduction of joint swelling, ... Sivera, F; Wechalekar, M. D; Andrés, M; Buchbinder, R; Carmona, L (2014). "Interleukin-1 inhibitors for acute gout". Cochrane ... which converts pro-interleukin 1β into active interleukin 1β, one of the key proteins in the inflammatory cascade. An ... "Interleukin-1 inhibitors for acute gout". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 9 (9): CD009993. doi:10.1002/14651858. ...
... is an interleukin 1 inhibitor. Rilonacept is a dimeric fusion protein consisting of the ligand-binding domains of ... October 2009). "The interleukin 1 inhibitor rilonacept in treatment of chronic gouty arthritis: results of a placebo-controlled ... deficiency of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist; and recurrent pericarditis. ... the extracellular portions of the human interleukin-1 receptor component (IL-1R1) and IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcP ...
Bartfai's group showed interleukin-1, then called the endogenous pyrogen, is released from the adrenal medulla and brain and ... Cytokines, such as interleukin-1 can be synthesized and released by neurons. ... "Interleukin-1 in adrenal chromaffin cells". Neuroscience. 30 (3): 805-10. doi:10.1016/0306-4522(89)90171-1. PMID 2788829. S2CID ... and as a consultant to Novartis the sphingosine 1-phosphate agonist gilenya-fingolimod as the first oral multiple sclerosis ...
Interleukin 1 is suspected to be a cytokine mediator that promotes hair loss. The fact that hair loss is cumulative with age ... Hoffmann, R.; Happle, R. (1995). "Does interleukin-1 induce hair loss?". Dermatology. 191 (4): 273-275. doi:10.1159/000246567. ... These include Grades 1, 2, 3 of balding in women based on their scalp showing in the front due to thinning of hair. KRT37 is ... Types 1 and 2 5α reductase enzymes are present at pilosebaceous units in papillae of individual hair follicles. They catalyze ...
It has no cross-reactivity with other members of the interleukin-1 family, including interleukin-1 alpha. Common side effects ... Sivera F, Wechalekar MD, Andrés M, Buchbinder R, Carmona L (September 2014). "Interleukin-1 inhibitors for acute gout". The ... It is a human monoclonal antibody targeted at interleukin-1 beta. ... 2 (1): 3-13. doi:10.4161/mabs.2.1.10328. PMC 2828573. PMID 20065636. Lachmann HJ, Kone-Paut I, Kuemmerle-Deschner JB, Leslie KS ...
... works by blocking the actions of interleukin-1 beta, a protein involved in the inflammation and destruction of ... It works by inhibiting interleukin-1 beta. An updated 2014 Cochrane review found diacerein had a small beneficial effect on ...
Interleukin-1 family member 10 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL1F10 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... "Entrez Gene: IL1F10 interleukin 1 family, member 10 (theta)". Nicklin MJ, Weith A, Duff GW (1994). "A physical map of the ... This gene and eight other interleukin 1 family genes form a cytokine gene cluster on chromosome 2. This cytokine is thought to ... Bensen JT, Dawson PA, Mychaleckyj JC, Bowden DW (Dec 2001). "Identification of a novel human cytokine gene in the interleukin ...
... a subunit also shared by the receptor complex for interleukin 10 (IL10). This gene and interleukin 28 receptor, alpha (IL28RA) ... Interleukin 22 receptor, alpha 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL22RA1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene ... "Entrez Gene: Interleukin 22 receptor, alpha 1". Bleicher L, de Moura PR, Watanabe L, Colau D, Dumoutier L, Renauld JC, ... Shioya M, Andoh A, Kakinoki S, Nishida A, Fujiyama Y (March 2008). "Interleukin 22 receptor 1 expression in pancreas islets". ...
Wong, M.-L.; Bongiorno, P. B.; Rettori, V.; McCann, S. M.; Licinio, J.; Wong, M.-L. (7 January 1997). "Interleukin (IL) 1beta, ... Licinio, J.; Wong, M.-L.; Gold, P. W. (July 1991). "Localization of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist mRNA in rat brain". ... They also showed that interleukin 1 receptor antagonist is an endogenous neuroprotective agent. They have shown that the ... Licinio, J.; Wong, M.-L. (March 1994). "Localization of interleukin 1 type I receptor mRNA in rat brain". Neuroimmunomodulation ...
"Interleukin-1-inducible genes in endothelial cells. Cloning of a new gene related to C-reactive protein and serum amyloid P ... 7 (1): 1-8. doi:10.1016/j.micinf.2004.09.004. PMID 15716076. Latini R, Maggioni AP, Peri G, Gonzini L, Lucci D, Mocarelli P, ... Lee GW, Lee TH, Vilcek J (March 1993). "TSG-14, a tumor necrosis factor- and IL-1-inducible protein, is a novel member of the ... 107 (1): 151-8. doi:10.1182/blood-2005-03-1112. PMID 16166594. Mantovani A, Garlanda C, Bottazzi B (June 2003). "Pentraxin 3, a ...
Bin LH, Xu LG, Shu HB (2003). "TIRP, a novel Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing adapter protein involved in ... TIRP is a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (IL1R; MIM 147810) (TIR) domain-containing adaptor protein involved in Toll receptor ... 2004). "TIR-containing adapter molecule (TICAM)-2, a bridging adapter recruiting to toll-like receptor 4 TICAM-1 that induces ... 2007). "Evidence for evolving Toll-IL-1 receptor-containing adaptor molecule function in vertebrates". J. Immunol. 178 (7): ...
1988). "A human urine-derived interleukin 1 inhibitor. Homology with deoxyribonuclease I". J. Exp. Med. 168 (5): 1767-79. doi: ... 47 (1): 121-6. PMC 1683738. PMID 2349940. Kabsch W, Mannherz HG, Suck D, et al. (1990). "Atomic structure of the actin:DNase I ... 59 (Pt 1): 1-15. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.1995.tb01601.x. PMID 7762978. S2CID 23914004. Yasuda T, Nadano D, Iida R, et al. (1995 ... 260 (1): 280-3. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1999.0900. PMID 10381379. Oliveri M, Daga A, Cantoni C, et al. (2001). "DNase I mediates ...
Interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), Interleukin-12 (IL-12), Interferon-gamma (IFN-Gamma) and tumor necrosis factor ... Interleukin-1 is the same cytokine released when a macrophage chews on a bacteria, which then travels up your vagus nerve, ... Besedovsky, H.; del Rey, A.; Sorkin, E.; Dinarello, C. A. (1986-08-08). "Immunoregulatory feedback between interleukin-1 and ... Papanicolaou DA, Wilder RL, Manolagas SC, Chrousos GP (1998). "The pathophysiologic roles of interleukin-6 in human disease". ...
Interleukin-36 alpha also known as interleukin-1 family member 6 (IL1F6) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL36A ... 2004). "Interleukin (IL)-1F6, IL-1F8, and IL-1F9 signal through IL-1Rrp2 and IL-1RAcP to activate the pathway leading to NF- ... "Entrez Gene: IL1F6 interleukin 1 family, member 6 (epsilon)". Nicklin MJ, Weith A, Duff GW (1994). "A physical map of the ... Smith DE, Renshaw BR, Ketchem RR, Kubin M, Garka KE, Sims JE (Feb 2000). "Four new members expand the interleukin-1 superfamily ...
... and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Minor endogenous pyrogens include interleukin-8, tumor necrosis factor-β, macrophage inflammatory ... The LBP-LPS binding to CD14 results in cellular synthesis and release of various endogenous cytokines, e.g., interleukin 1 (IL- ... Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) also acts as a pyrogen, mediated by interleukin 1 (IL-1) release. These cytokine factors are ... Dinarello CA (31 March 2015). "The history of fever, leukocytic pyrogen and interleukin-1". Temperature. 2 (1): 8-16. doi: ...
"IL1R2 interleukin 1 receptor, type II [ Homo sapiens (human) ]". ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. National Center for Biotechnology ... 1994). "The type II "receptor" as a decoy target for interleukin 1 in polymorphonuclear leukocytes: characterization of ... VEGFR-1 inhibits the activity of VEGFR-2 by sequestering VEGF, thus preventing VEGFR-2 from binding to VEGF. Axl receptor ... VEGFR-1 is a kinase-defective receptor tyrosine kinase that negatively modulates angiogenesis by acting as a decoy receptor. ...
November 2006). "Intracellular trafficking of interleukin-1 receptor I requires Tollip". Current Biology. 16 (22): 2265-70. doi ... "The IL1 receptor accessory protein is responsible for the recruitment of the interleukin-1 receptor associated kinase to the ... "The IL1 receptor accessory protein is responsible for the recruitment of the interleukin-1 receptor associated kinase to the ... 341 (1): 143-9. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.12.156. PMID 16412388. Lim J, Hao T, Shaw C, Patel AJ, Szabó G, Rual JF, et al. (May ...
IRAK-4 (interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4), in the IRAK family, is a protein kinase involved in signaling innate ... Martin M, Böl GF, Eriksson A, Resch K, Brigelius-Flohé R (July 1994). "Interleukin-1-induced activation of a protein kinase co- ... Cao Z, Henzel WJ, Gao X (February 1996). "IRAK: a kinase associated with the interleukin-1 receptor". Science. 271 (5252): 1128 ... IRAK4 is involved in signal transduction pathways stimulated by the cellular receptors belonging to the Toll/Interleukin-1 ...
Instead it involves Interleukin-1β converting enzyme (ICE; also known as Caspase 1) activation, which is similar to granzyme B ...
1993). "The C. elegans cell death gene ced-3 encodes a protein similar to mammalian interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme". Cell ... July 1994). "Structure and mechanism of interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme". Nature. 370 (6487): 270-5. doi:10.1038/370270a0 ... "Gasdermin D is an executor of pyroptosis and required for interleukin-1β secretion". Cell Research. 25 (12): 1285-1298. doi: ... The pro-caspase-1 is brought into close proximity with other pro-caspase molecule in order to dimerise and undergo auto- ...
Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-like 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the IRAK2 gene. IRAK2 encodes the ... "Entrez Gene: IRAK2 interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 2". Wesche H, Gao X, Li X, Kirschning CJ, Stark GR, Cao Z (Jul 1999 ... Wesche H, Gao X, Li X, Kirschning CJ, Stark GR, Cao Z (Jul 1999). "IRAK-M is a novel member of the Pelle/interleukin-1 receptor ... Bin LH, Xu LG, Shu HB (Jul 2003). "TIRP, a novel Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing adapter protein involved ...
Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the IRAK3 gene. Using in vivo liposome- ... "Entrez Gene: IRAK3 interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 3". Soni D, Wang DM, Regmi SC, Mittal M, Vogel SM, Schlüter D, ... Wesche H, Gao X, Li X, Kirschning CJ, Stark GR, Cao Z (July 1999). "IRAK-M is a novel member of the Pelle/interleukin-1 ... Su J, Xie Q, Wilson I, Li L (July 2007). "Differential regulation and role of interleukin-1 receptor associated kinase-M in ...
Dinarello, Charles A. (2015). "The history of fever, leukocytic pyrogen and interleukin-1". Temperature (Austin). 2015 Jan-Mar ... 2 (1): 8-16. doi:10.1080/23328940.2015.1017086. PMC 4843879. PMID 27226996. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Paul Bruce ... 40 (1): 1-30. doi:10.1097/00005792-196102000-00001. PMID 13734791. S2CID 11287582. Bouchier, Ian A. D. (February 1972). "Review ...
Lin SL, Tsai RY, Tai YH, Cherng CH, Wu CT, Yeh CC, Wong CS (February 2010). "Ultra-low dose naloxone upregulates interleukin-10 ... Activation of TLR4 leads to downstream release of inflammatory modulators including TNF-α and Interleukin-1, and constant low- ... Shavit Y, Wolf G, Goshen I, Livshits D, Yirmiya R (May 2005). "Interleukin-1 antagonizes morphine analgesia and underlies ... "Dual regulation of mu opioid receptors in SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells by morphine and interleukin-1β: evidence for opioid- ...
The protein encoded by this gene was identified by its interaction with interleukin 1 receptor-like 1 (IL1RL1). This protein ... lacks any similarity to other interleukin 1 ligands. The functional significance of its interaction with IL1RL1 is not known. ... "Entrez Gene: TMED1 transmembrane emp24 protein transport domain containing 1". Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, et al. (2005). " ... Transmembrane emp24 domain-containing protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TMED1 gene. ...
X-linked interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein-like 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL1RAPL2 gene. The ... 2006). "Analysis of interleukin (IL)-1beta IL-1 receptor antagonist, soluble IL-1 receptor type II and IL-1 accessory protein ... "Entrez Gene: IL1RAPL2 interleukin 1 receptor accessory protein-like 2". Grundtman C, Salomonsson S, Dorph C, et al. (2007). " ... Jin H, Gardner RJ, Viswesvaraiah R, Muntoni F, Roberts RG (May 2000). "Two novel members of the interleukin-1 receptor gene ...
He is an expert on inflammatory cytokines, specifically Interleukin 1. Dinarello received his Doctor of Medicine in 1969 at ... Dinarello is considered one of the founding fathers of cytokines having purified and cloned interleukin-1.[citation needed] ... "for their pioneering work to isolate interleukins, determine their properties and explore their role in the onset of ... Current studies blocking IL-1 in humans supports Dinarello's and his co-workers pivotal contributions to cytokine biology and ...
The ligand for ST2 is the cytokine interleukin-33 (IL-33). Binding of IL-33 to the ST2 receptor, in response to cardiac disease ... ST2 is a member of the interleukin 1 receptor family. The ST2 protein has two isoforms and is directly implicated in the ... The ST2 cardiac biomarker (also known as soluble interleukin 1 receptor-like 1) is a protein biomarker of cardiac stress ... Rehman SU, Mueller T, Januzzi JL (October 2008). "Characteristics of the novel interleukin family biomarker ST2 in patients ...
Identification of a coordinate regulator of interleukins 4, 13, and 5 by cross-species sequence comparisons.. Science. 2000, ... 蛋白質編碼序列(也就是外顯子)在人類基因組中少於1.5%[1]。在基因與調控序列之外,仍然有許多功能未知的廣大區域。科學家估計這些區域在人類基因組中約占有97%,其中許多是屬於重複序列(重複序列)、轉位子(transposon)與
Instead, plasma cells are identified through flow cytometry by their additional expression of CD138, CD78, the Interleukin-6 ... ISBN 1-4292-0211-4.. *^ a b c Federico Caligaris-Cappio; Manlio Ferrarini (1997). Human B Cell Populations (Chemical Immunology ... ISBN 0-323-01639-1.. *^ Bona, Constantin; Francisco A. Bonilla (1996). "5". Textbook of Immunology. Martin Soohoo (2 ed.). CRC ... The surface antigen CD138 (syndecan-1) is expressed at high levels.[9] ...
Interleukin-10 determines viral clearance or persistence in vivo. Nature Medicine. November 2006, 12 (11): 1301-9. PMC 2535582 ... T细胞耗竭的直接原因包括持续的抗原刺激、以及CD4细胞的缺失[42]。长时间的抗原暴露和高病毒负载可以加重T细胞耗竭的程度。2-4周的持续抗原暴露就可导致T细胞耗竭[43]。另一个可以导致T细胞耗竭的因素是包括
EPO " Interleukin " G-CSF " OM " LIF " IFN " CD " TNF-α " LT " Ligand " TGF " MIF ... C5a " CCL2 " CCL5 " GSM-CSF " LPS " MCP-1 " IL-1 " IL-2 " IL-3 " IL-4 " IL-5 " IL-6 " IL-8 " IL-10 " IL-12 " IL-13 " IL-15 " IL ... Kaunduh 30/1/13) *↑ "Ovarian Cancer Risk and Polymorphisms Involved in Estrogen Catabolism". Program in Epidemiology, Division ... AP-1 " C/EBP-α " β " NF-κB " FLIP " STAT " 1 " 2 " 3 " 4 " 5 " 6 ...
... the Antigen-Presenting Cell causes a response in a TH2 lymphocyte which produce the cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4). The TH2 ... ISBN 0-7167-6037-1. *^ Nestler EJ (December 2013). "Cellular basis of memory for addiction". Dialogues Clin. Neurosci. 15 (4): ... 1-60, PMID 15193778, doi:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2004.03.009. *^ Teicher MH, Glod CA, Surrey J, Swett C, Jr (1993). "Early ... 1] Sensitization often is characterized by an enhancement of response to a whole class of stimuli in addition to the one that ...
1]. [2]. CXCL10, hemokin (C-X-C motiv) ligand 10, ili IP-10[1] je mali citokin iz CXC hemokin familije koji je takođe poznat ... CXCL10; C7; IFI10; INP10; IP-10; SCYB10; crg-2; gIP-10; mob-1. ...
positive regulation of interleukin-4 production. • oocyte development. • positive regulation of type IV hypersensitivity. • ... 81 (1): 7-15. doi:10.1095/biolreprod.108.074716. PMID 19246320.. *. Bleil JD, Wassarman PM (1980). "Mammalian sperm-egg ... 289 (1-2): 10-5. doi:10.1016/j.mce.2008.01.029. PMID 18502569. S2CID 3455166.. ...
Stimulation of interleukin-2 production by substance p". Journal of Neuroimmunology. 37 (1-2): 65-74. doi:10.1016/0165-5728(92) ... 48: 1-9. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2013.07.024. PMID 23933301.. *^ Berger M, Neth O, Ilmer M, Garnier A, Salinas-Martín MV, de ... 4 (1): 21-9. PMC 3181667 . PMID 22033776.. *^ Rupniak NM (May 2002). "New insights into the antidepressant actions of substance ... 64 (1): 18-21. PMID 9051855.. *^ Douglas SD, Ho WZ, Gettes DR, Cnaan A, Zhao H, Leserman J, Petitto JM, Golden RN, Evans DL ( ...
The release of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 by activated leukocytes triggered by lipopolysaccharides, ... Maier SF, Wiertelak EP, Martin D, Watkins LR (October 1993). "Interleukin-1 mediates the behavioral hyperalgesia produced by ... 8 (1): 51-7. doi:10.2165/00126839-200708010-00005. PMID 17249849.. *^ Vorobeychik Y, Chen L, Bush MC, Mao J (September 2008). " ... Prostaglandins E and F are largely responsible for sensitizing the nociceptors.[1] Temporary increased sensitivity to pain also ...
Interleukins/T-cell growth factors (see here instead). *Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... 1][2][3] It belongs to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor family of medications.[4] It is taken by mouth.[4] ... LUX-Lung 1): a phase 2b/3 randomised trial". The Lancet. Oncology. 13 (5): 528-38. doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(12)70087-6. PMID ...
1-50. CD1 (a-c, 1A, 1D, 1E) • CD2 • CD3 (γ, δ, ε) • CD4 • CD5 • CD6 • CD7 • CD8 (a) • CD9 • CD10 • CD11 (a, b, c) • CD13 • CD14 ... proinflamatorni citokin (IL-1, TNF-alfa) • Th1 (INF-gama i TNF-beta) • Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13) • Th17 (IL-17,IL-22 ... CD201 • CD202b • CD204 • CD205 • CD206 • CD207 • CD208 • CD209 • CDw210 (a, b) • CD212 • CD213a (1, 2) • CD217 • CD218 (a, b) ... 1]. [2]. Faktor aktivacije B-ćelija, (BAFF) koji je takođe poznat kao faktor nekroze tumora ligand superfamilija član 13B, je ...
proinflamatorni citokin (IL-1, TNF-alfa) • Th1 (INF-gama i TNF-beta) • Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13) • Th17 (IL-17,IL-22 ... 1,0 1,1 1,2 1,3 1,4 Matloubian M, David A, Engel S, Ryan J, Cyster J (2000). "A transmembrane CXC chemokine is a ligand for HIV ... 6 • 11 • 27 • 30 • 31 (+ne IL Onkostatin M, Inhibitorni faktor leukemije, Cilijarni neurotrofni faktor, Kardiotrofin 1) ... 2,0 2,1 Abel S, Hundhausen C, Mentlein R, Schulte A, Berkhout T, Broadway N, Hartmann D, Sedlacek R, Dietrich S, Muetze B, ...
... associations and interaction with the interleukin-1alpha-889 C/T polymorphism". Hum. Immunol. 65 (6): 622-31. doi:10.1016/j. ... HLA A1-B8-DR3-DQ2 haplotype (Also: AH8.1, COX,[1] Super B8, ancestral MHC 8.1[2] or 8.1 ancestral haplotype[3]) is a multigene ... 22 (1): 59-65. doi:10.3109/08916939508995300. PMID 8882423.. *^ Mackay IR, Morris PJ (October 1972). "Association of autoimmune ... In type 1 diabetes both DR3 and DQ2 appear to play a role. DR3-DQ2.5 can be established to other genes like TNF-305A (TNF2) ...
Theorell, T.; Hasselhorn, H.; Vingård, E.; Andersson, B. (2000). "Interleukin 6 and cortisol in acute musculoskeletal disorders ... 1] *^ a b Everly, G.S., Jr. (1986). An introduction to occupational health psychology. In P.A. Keller & L.G. Ritt (Eds.), ... Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 39(1), 44-50. *^ a b LaMar W.J., Gerberich, S.G., Lohman, W.H., Zaidman, B ... Work & Stress, 20, 1-5. doi:10.1080/02678370600739795 *^ a b c Barling, J., & Griffiths, A. (2011). A history of occupational ...
Borges W, Augustine N, Hill H (2000). "Defective interleukin-12/interferon-gamma pathway in patients with ... Hyperimmunoglobulinemia E syndrome[1] (HIES), of which the autosomal dominant form is called Job's syndrome[1] or Buckley ... syndrome,[1] is a heterogeneous group of immune disorders. Job's is also very rare at about 300 cases currently in the ...
978-1-118-35411-7. .. *^ a b Volman, Julia J (20 November 2007). "Dietary modulation of immune function by β-glucans". ... 135 (1): 19-30. doi:10.1042/bj1350019. PMC 1165784. PMID 4359920.. *^ Teas, J (1983). "The dietary intake of Laminarin, a brown ... 5 (1): 26-44. doi:10.1159/000335319. PMC 4030412. PMID 22516953.. *^ Simpson, H. L.; Campbell, B. J. (2015). "Review article: ... 1,3)-β-D-glucan medical application[edit]. An assay to detect the presence of (1,3)-β-D-glucan in blood is marketed as a means ...
"Polymorphisms of the interleukin-1 beta gene are associated with increased risk of non-small cell lung cancer". International ... doi:10.1186/2045-3701-1-23. PMC 3142196. PMID 21711503.. *^ a b Chioin R, Stritoni P, Scognamiglio R, Boffa GM, Daliento L, ... In molecular biology, the TATA box (also called the Goldberg-Hogness box)[1] is a sequence of DNA found in the core promoter ... Figure 1. TATA box structural elements. The TATA box consensus sequence is TATAWAW, where W is either A or T. ...
... interleukin-5)可促進嗜曙紅顆粒白血球成長及分化。[13] ... 顆粒白血球是一類細胞質中包含顆粒體(英語:Granule_(cell biology))的白血球,又因其細胞核形態多樣而稱多形核白血球,(PMN或PML)。術語多形核白血球通常特指最常見的嗜中性顆粒白血球[1]。顆粒白血球由補體調節蛋白調控從骨髓中
... and interleukin-1 in modulating progesterone and oestradiol production by human luteinized granulosa cells in culture. Hum. ... 2010, 17 (1): 4-16. PMID 20634211. doi:10.1093/humupd/dmq027.. *^ Gleicher N, Weghofer A, Lee IH, Barad DH. FMR1 genotype with ... 2004, 19 (1): 41-7. PMID 14688154. doi:10.1093/humrep/deh098.. *^ Carmina E. Diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome: from NIH ... 2004, 56 (1): 1-6. PMID 14973405.. *^ Hart R, Hickey M, Franks S. Definitions, prevalence and symptoms of polycystic ovaries ...
... interleukin-2 (IL-2) - interleukin-4 (IL-4) - interleukin-12 (IL-12) - interleukins - International Center for Research on ... herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) - herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) - herpes varicella zoster virus (VZV) - herpes viruses - highly ... HIV-1) - human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) - human leukocyte antigens (HLA) - human papilloma virus (HPV) - human T ... HIV-1 - HIV-2 - HIV-associated dementia - HIV-related tuberculosis - HLA - Hodgkin's disease - holistic medicine - homology ( ...
negative regulation of interleukin-6 secretion. • negative regulation of neuron death. • negative regulation of matrix ... Douglas J., Albertson D.G., Barclay A.N. et al. RFLP and mapping of human MOX-1 gene on chromosome 3 (англ.) // Nucleic Acids ... 1. - P. 55-65. - DOI:10.1101/gr.4039406. - PMID 16344560.. *Matsue H. CD 200-mediated regulation of skin immunity (англ.) // J ... CD200 является мембранным белком 1-го типа, содержит два иммуноглобулиновых домена. Костимулятор пролиферации T-лимфоцитов. ...
... interleukin 7 receptor chain α deficiency, CD45 deficiency, CD3δ/CD3ε deficiency. T-/B- SCID (both T and B cells absent): RAG 1 ... About 1 in 500 people in the United States are born with a primary immunodeficiency. Immune deficiencies can result in ... 5 (162): 1-33. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2014.00162. Notarangelo L, Casanova JL, Conley ME, et al. (2006). "Primary immunodeficiency ... A survey of 10,000 American households revealed that the prevalence of diagnosed primary immunodeficiency approaches 1 in 1200 ...
Interleukins/T-cell growth factors (see here instead). *Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) ... 6 (1): 79-85. doi:10.3758/CABN.6.1.79. PMID 16869232.. *^ a b c d e Baj G, Carlino D, Gardossi L, Tongiorgi E (October 2013). " ... doi:10.1016/S0896-6273(00)80540-1. PMID 9728912. S2CID 13983709.. *^ a b c d e Bartkowska K, Paquin A, Gauthier AS, Kaplan DR, ... 1 (3): 191-98. doi:10.1038/35044558. PMID 11257907. S2CID 9750498.. *^ a b Zhong L, Yan CH, Lu CQ, Xu J, Huang H, Shen XM ( ...
When interleukin-1 is produced in response to external stimuli, it can bind to cell-surface receptors on the same cell that ... Interleukin 6 ACRONYM (IL-6) is a cytokine that is important for many aspects of cellular biology including immune responses, ... An example of an autocrine agent is the cytokine interleukin-1 in monocytes. ... 75 (1): 196-207. doi:10.1124/mol.108.049544. PMC 2669785 . PMID 18849352. Yi, Eun Hee; Lee, Chang Seok; Lee, Jin-Ku; Lee, Young ...
IL-1 family: IL1A/IL1F1 · IL1B/IL1F2 · 1Ra/IL1F3 · IL1F5 · IL1F6 · IL1F7 · IL1F8 · IL1F9 · IL1F10 · 33/IL1F11 · 18/IL1G ... proinflammatory cytokine (IL1, TNFA) Monokine · Lymphokine (Th1 (IFNG and TNFB) · Th2 (IL4, IL5, IL6, IL10, IL13) ) ...
Činjenica da je interleukin 8 sekrecija povećana sa oksidant stresom, i obrnuto, interleukin 8 uzrokujući regrutovanje ... interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 in the pathogenesis of the otitis media with effusion". Eur. Cytokine Netw. 13 (2): 161-72. ... Interleukin 8 receptor, beta. Reference[uredi - уреди , uredi izvor]. *↑ Wolff B, Burns AR, Middleton J, Rot A (November 1998 ... vezivanje za interleukin-8 receptor. • vezivanje za proteine. • aktivnost hemokina. Ćelijska komponenta. • ekstracelularni ...
The most necessary are interleukin 2 (IL-2), interleukin 3 (IL-3) and interferon γ (IFN-γ).[1] Moreover, additional stimulation ... TI-1 antigen[edit]. TI-1 antigens have an intrinsic B cell activating activity, that can directly cause proliferation and ... TI-1 antigen, which has an activity that can directly activate B cells and TI-2 antigen, which has highly repetitive structure ... TI-1 antigens activate B-cells via Toll like receptors, which are, in human, expressed on the surface of B lymphocytes after ...
positive regulation of interleukin-17 production. • innate immune response. • positive regulation of natural killer cell ... SLAMF6‏ (SLAM family member 6) هوَ بروتين يُشَفر بواسطة جين SLAMF6 في الإنسان.[1][2] ... 2006). "The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1". Nature. 441 (7091): 315-21. PMID 16710414. doi: ... HTLV-1) p12I down-modulates ICAM-1 and -2 and reduces adherence of natural killer cells, thereby protecting HTLV-1-infected ...
Rattazzi M, Puato M, Faggin E, et al. (2004). C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 in vascular disease: culprits or passive ... Mastorakos G, Ilias I (2007). Interleukin-6: a cytokine and/or a major modulator of the response to somatic stress. Ann. N. Y. ... Nishimoto N (May 2006). Interleukin-6 in rheumatoid arthritis. Curr Opin Rheumatol 18 (3): 277-81. PMID: 16582692. DOI: 10.1097 ... Smith PC, Hobisch A, Lin DL, Culig Z, Keller ET (March 2001). Interleukin-6 and prostate cancer progression. Cytokine Growth ...
"Interleukin-23 promotes a distinct CD4 T cell activation state characterized by the production of interleukin-17". J. Biol. ... IL-1 • IL-2 • IL-3 • IL-4 • IL-5 • IL-6 • IL-7 • IL-8 • IL-9 • IL-10 • IL-11 • IL-12 (B) • IL-13 • IL-14 • IL-15 • IL-16 • IL- ... Interleukin 17 (IL-17, ili IL-17A) je osnivački član grupe citokina poznatih kao IL-17 familija. IL-17A, je originalno (1993. ... proinflamatorni citokin (IL-1, TNF-alfa) • Th1 (INF-gama i TNF-beta) • Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13) • Th17 (IL-17,IL-22 ...
Interleukin-1 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that has numerous biological effects, including activation of many inflammatory ... Interleukin-1 and neuronal injury.. Allan SM1, Tyrrell PJ, Rothwell NJ. ... There is now extensive evidence to support the direct involvement of interleukin-1 in the neuronal injury that occurs in both ... This article discusses the key evidence of a role for interleukin-1 in acute neurodegeneration - for example, stroke and brain ...
Interleukin-1 conserved site (IPR020877). Short name: IL-1_CS Description. Interleukin-1 alpha and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 ... Crystallographic refinement of interleukin 1 beta at 2.0 A resolution.. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86 9667-71 1989 ... Patterns of structure and sequence in the Kunitz inhibitors interleukins-1 beta and 1 alpha and fibroblast growth factors.. J. ... The highest degree of similarity is to the human and murine interleukin-1 receptors, although both proteins are related to a ...
Interleukin 1 is processed and released during apoptosis. K A Hogquist, M A Nett, E R Unanue, and D D Chaplin ... Interleukin (IL-) 1 alpha and 1 beta are synthesized as 31- to 34-kDa pro molecules. They are released from monocytes and ... IL-1 is not released via the classic secretory pathway. The pro molecules are synthesized as cytosolic proteins without signal ... We demonstrate here that release of IL-1 is efficiently induced by cell injury. When the injury causes cellular necrosis, IL-1 ...
Crystallographic refinement of interleukin 1 beta at 2.0 A resolution.. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86 9667-71 1989 ... Interleukin-1 alpha and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta) are cytokines that participate in the regulation of ... Interleukin-1 receptor family (IPR015621) *Interleukin-1 receptor type I/II (IPR004074) *Interleukin-1 receptor type 1 ( ... This entry represents Interleukin-1 receptor type 1 (IL1R1), the crystal structure of the soluble extracellular part of type-I ...
H. England, H. R. Summersgill, M. E. Edye, N. J. Rothwell, and D. Brough, "Release of interleukin-1α or interleukin-1β depends ... B. Kim, Y. Lee, E. Kim et al., "The interleukin-1α precursor is biologically active and is likely a key alarmin in the IL-1 ... S. Shrivastava, A. Mukherjee, R. Ray, and R. B. Raya, "Hepatitis C virus induces interleukin-1β (IL-1β)/IL-18 in circulatory ... Y. Gu, K. Kuida, H. Tsutsui et al., "Activation of interferon-γ inducing factor mediated by interleukin-1β converting enzyme," ...
... ,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in ... Interleukin 2by ELISA. 2. Interleukin 6 by Chemiluminescence. 3. Interleukin 2 Receptorby Chemiluminescence. 4. Interleukin 8by ...
C A Dinarello, "Interleukin-1 and its biologically related cytokines," Advances in Immunology, vol. 44, pp. 153-205, 1989. View ... interleukin-1. β. , and interleukin-1 receptor type I mRNA during preimplantation mouse development," Journal of Reproductive ... S W Kauma, "Interleukin-1 beta stimulates colony-stimulating factor-1 production in human term placenta," The Journal of ... R Romero, Y K Wu, D T Brody, E Oyarzun, G W Duff, and S K Durum, "Human decidua: a source of interleukin-1," Obstetrics & ...
... , Anti-IL6 Monoclonal Antibody, Anakinra, Kineret. ... Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist. Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist Aka: Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist, Anti-IL6 ... These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist." Click on the image (or ... Anakinra blocks the action of interleukin 1 (IL-1). It is a type of interleukin receptor antagonist. ...
The cytokine, interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), adopts a beta-trefoil fold. It is known to be much slower folding than similarly ... Topological frustration and the folding of interleukin-1 beta.. Gosavi S1, Chavez LL, Jennings PA, Onuchic JN. ... 1. Center for Theoretical Biological Physics, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.. ...
In an open-label pilot study of 10 patients with refractory acute gout treated with the interleukin (IL)-1 antagonist anakinra ... Is the interleukin (IL)-1 antagonist anakinra effective in the treatment of gout?. Updated: Jan 26, 2021 ... In an open-label pilot study of 10 patients with refractory acute gout treated with the interleukin (IL)-1 antagonist anakinra ... A pilot study of IL-1 inhibition by anakinra in acute gout. Arthritis Res Ther. 2007. 9(2):R28. [Medline]. ...
Anti-Interleukin-1 in Diabetes Action (AIDA). The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the ... The anti-interleukin-1 in type 1 diabetes action trial--background and rationale. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2009 May;25(4):321-4 ... Interleukin-1 antagonism in type 1 diabetes of recent onset: two multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled ... The aim of the Anti-Interleukin-1 in Diabetes Action trial (AIDA) study is to test the feasibility, safety/tolerability and ...
Synergizes with IL12/interleukin-12 to induce IFNG synthesis from T-helper 1 (Th1) cells (PubMed:10653850). UniProt ...
... generalized reaction despite the fact that most disease processes which induce circulating IL-1 produced at the site of the ... Cloning and expression of murine interleukin-1 in Escherchia coli. Nature 312:458, (1984).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Interleukin-1 activity in the synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatol. Internat. 2:49, (1982).CrossRef ... Human large granular lymphocytes are potent producers of interleukin-1. Nature 309:56, (1984).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
Circulating interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor in septic shock and experimental endotoxin fever. J Infect Dis. 1990;161:79 ... Downregulation of Renin Gene Expression by Interleukin-1. Nenad Petrovic, Colleen M. Kane, Curt D. Sigmund, Kenneth W. Gross ... Interleukin-1 and interleukin-1 antagonism in sepsis, systemic inflamatory response syndrome, and septic shock. Shock. 1995;3: ... Downregulation of Renin Gene Expression by Interleukin-1. Nenad Petrovic, Colleen M. Kane, Curt D. Sigmund and Kenneth W. Gross ...
Interleukin-18 Promoter Polymorphisms in Type 1 Diabetes. Adam Kretowski, Katarzyna Mironczuk, Anna Karpinska, Urszula Bojaryn ... Interleukin-18 Promoter Polymorphisms in Type 1 Diabetes. Adam Kretowski, Katarzyna Mironczuk, Anna Karpinska, Urszula Bojaryn ... Hong TP, Andersen NA, Nielsen K, Karlsen AE, Fantuzzi G, Eizirik DL, Dinarello CA, Mandrup-Poulsen T: Interleukin-18 mRNA, but ... It was recently found that interleukin (IL)-18 acts as a proinflammatory cytokine and, in synergy with IL-12, promotes ...
Interleukin-1 inhibitors for acute gout. Background: what is an acute gout flare and what are interleukin-1 inhibitors? ... Interleukin-1 inhibitors (canakinumab, rilonacept and anakinra) modify the immune system and reduce inflammation. They can be ... This summary of a Cochrane review presents what we know from research about the effect of interleukin-1 inhibitors for treating ... Sivera F, Wechalekar MD, Andrés M, Buchbinder R, Carmona L. Interleukin-1 inhibitors for acute gout. Cochrane Database of ...
Interleukin-1 up-regulation Related Articles. Medical Errors Kill Enough People to Fill 4 Jumbo Jets a Week. - 7 Tips on ... 2 Abstracts with Interleukin-1 up-regulation Research. Filter by Study Type. Animal Study. ... Adverse Pharmacological Actions : Cycloogenase-2 enzyme upregulation, Inflammatory, Interleukin-1 up-regulation, Interleukin-6 ... 2 Diseases Researched for Interleukin-1 up-regulation Name. AC. CK. Focus. ...
... Treatment with ... Treatment with Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist (IL-1ra) in Patients with Chronic Inflammatory Myopathies. ... 1) Disease activity by the IMACS score: a) Patients global assessment on an visual analogue scale b) Physicians global ... Treatment resistant myositis: (1) Men/women age: 18- 80 years (2) Diagnosis of polymyositis, dermatomyositis or inclusion body ...
Interleukin 3 or interleukin 1 abrogates the reconstituting ability of hematopoietic stem cells. Y Yonemura, H Ku, F Hirayama, ... Interleukin 3 or interleukin 1 abrogates the reconstituting ability of hematopoietic stem cells ... Interleukin 3 or interleukin 1 abrogates the reconstituting ability of hematopoietic stem cells ... Interleukin 3 or interleukin 1 abrogates the reconstituting ability of hematopoietic stem cells ...
The Mammalian Phenotype (MP) Ontology is a community effort to provide standard terms for annotating phenotypic data. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated phenotype data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
... Nature. 2000 Mar 23;404(6776):398-402. doi: ... E M El-Omar 1 , M Carrington, W H Chow, K E McColl, J H Bream, H A Young, J Herrera, J Lissowska, C C Yuan, N Rothman, G Lanyon ... The association with disease may be explained by the biological properties of interleukin-1-beta, which is an important pro- ... Host genetic factors that affect interleukin-1-beta may determine why some individuals infected with H. pylori develop gastric ...
INTERLEUKIN-2 AND THE INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR. Physiological role and function.. Understanding the role of interleukin (IL)-2 in ... Interleukin-2 production and interleukin-2 receptor expression in children with newly diagnosed diabetes. Clin Immunol ... Soluble interleukin 2 receptors are released from activated human lymphoid cells in vitro. J Immunol 1985;135:3172-3177pmid: ... Interleukin-2 reverses the defect in activation-induced apoptosis in T cells from autoimmune lpr mice. Cell Immunol 1998;183:1- ...
... By Ivan Suarez Robles 08 Feb, 2011 A cytokine that is involved with various inflammatory activities. ...
Interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) is a cytokine receptor which binds interleukin 1. Two forms of the receptor exist. The type I ... Arend WP (1991). "Interleukin 1 receptor antagonist. A new member of the interleukin 1 family". J. Clin. Invest. 88 (5): 1445- ... Receptors,+Interleukin-1 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) v t e. ... Wesche H, Korherr C, Kracht M, Falk W, Resch K, Martin MU (March 1997). "The interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcP ...
"IL37 interleukin 37 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2019-08-31. "IL1F10 interleukin 1 ... Liu N, Li X, Liu C, Zhao Y, Cui B, Ning G (April 2010). "The association of interleukin-1alpha and interleukin-1beta ... "Interleukins and interleukin receptors - HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee". www.genenames.org. Archived from the original on 15 ... Yoshimoto T, Okamura H, Tagawa YI, Iwakura Y, Nakanishi K (April 1997). "Interleukin 18 together with interleukin 12 inhibits ...
Home Brain & Behavior Polymorphisms of the interleukin-1 gene complex may influence alcohol dependence ... Polymorphisms of the interleukin-1 gene complex may influence alcohol dependence. September 18, 2009. ... A study of three polymorphisms of the interleukin-1 gene complex (IL-1) and one of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) has ... "On the other hand, analysis of the IL-1 gene complex revealed a higher frequency of the IL-1a -889C / IL-1b +3953C / IL-1RA A2 ...
Interleukin-1-alfa, one form of interleukin-1, is made mainly by one type of white blood cell, the macrophage, and helps ... interleukin-1-alfa listen (in-ter-LOO-kin ... AL-fuh) One of a group of related proteins made by leukocytes (white blood cells ... Interleukin-1-alfa, one form of interleukin-1, is made mainly by one type of white blood cell, the macrophage, and helps ... Interleukin-1-alfa made in the laboratory is used as a biological response modifier to boost the immune system in cancer ...
... members of the interleukin-1 superfamily (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-18, and the newest members: IL-33, IL-36, IL-37, and IL-38) are now ... We have tried to apply the concept of trained immunity to liver diseases, based on the role of the members of the IL-1 ... We have tried to apply the concept of trained immunity to liver diseases, based on the role of the members of the IL-1 ... The role of the IL-1 superfamily of cytokines and receptors in liver diseases can be either protective or pro-inflammatory, ...
Interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) as one of the most prevalent inflammatory mediated surface receptors, participates not only in ... 4. Interleukin 1 receptor. IL-1R family belongs to one category of TIR domain-containing receptor superfamily. The TIR domain- ... Interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) as one of the most prevalent inflammatory mediated surface receptors, participates not only in ... Inflammasomes are responsible for the maturation of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin IL-1, IL-18, and IL-33 and ...
Interleukin-1 gene polymorphisms and toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. Cynthia A. Cordeiro,1 Paula R. Moreira,2 Germano C. Costa,2 ... interleukin-1beta, and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist genes. Genomics. 1994; 19:382-4. [PMID: 8188271] ... Interleukin-1 beta +3953 allele 2: association with disease status in adult periodontis. J Clin Periodontol. 1998; 25:781-5. [ ... TaqI polymorphism in the human interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) gene correlates with IL-1 beta secretion in vitro. Eur J Clin ...
  • Interleukin-1 alpha and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta) are cytokines that participate in the regulation of immune responses, inflammatory reactions, and hematopoiesis [ PMID: 2969618 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • A novel method for virus immune evasion has been proposed in which the product of one or both of these proteins may bind interleukin-1 and/or interleukin-6, preventing these cytokines reaching their natural receptors [ PMID: 1826022 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • IL-33, an interleukin-1-like cytokine that signals via the IL-1 receptor-related protein ST2 and induces T helper type 2-associated cytokines," Immunity , vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 479-490, 2005. (hindawi.com)
  • The interleukin-1 α precursor is biologically active and is likely a key alarmin in the IL-1 family of cytokines," Frontiers in Immunology , vol. 4, article 391, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • The hypotension in septicemia is believed to be mediated by the combined action of many modulators including cytokines, and data presented here suggest direct involvement of interleukin-1 in this process. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cytokines, especially alpha and beta types of IL-1α and IL-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor, have been implicated as primary mediators of the physiological response to septicemia. (ahajournals.org)
  • Because of their known myelopoietic activities, both interleukin (IL)-3 and IL-1 are often used in combination with other cytokines for in vitro (ex vivo) expansion of stem cells. (pnas.org)
  • The results suggest that these cytokines may have a modulatory role on the self-renewal of stem cells and further indicate that the use of IL-3 and IL-1 for in vitro expansion of human stem cells needs to be cautiously evaluated. (pnas.org)
  • Clinical observation of increased circulating levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1 and TNFα in patients with alcohol liver disease suggests that they might play a role on the pathogenesis of the disease. (scienceblog.com)
  • The role of the IL-1 superfamily of cytokines and receptors in liver diseases can be either protective or pro-inflammatory, depending on timing and the environment. (frontiersin.org)
  • The story of the IL-1 superfamily of cytokines began in the 1940s when Menkin ( 1 ), Beeson ( 2 ), and then Atkins ( 3 ) described a group of proteins, named "endogenous pyrogens," responsible for fever, produced by leucocytes, and able to mediate multiple biological activities ( 4 - 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • This is how, over the years, IL-18, IL-33, IL-36, IL-37, and IL-38, which share several functional and structural properties, have been added to and included in the IL-1 superfamily of cytokines. (frontiersin.org)
  • IL-1β is a member of the interleukin 1 family of cytokines . (wikidoc.org)
  • Proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNFalpha and IL-1, produced in the lung by type II epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages, have been strongly implicated in the formation of these lesions. (cdc.gov)
  • IL-1β along with IL-1α cytokines secreted from local inflammatory cells, are belong to IL-1 family. (proteopedia.org)
  • 1] The former is dominate (90% of Interleukin-1) and the two cytokines could be distinguished by the cells with which they interact. (proteopedia.org)
  • The active mature IL-1 cytokines could mediate a large range of biological activities such as innate and adaptive immunity as well as bio-components of the acute phase reaction, including the febrile response, secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACIH), and the synthesis of acute phase proteins . (proteopedia.org)
  • 3D structure was showed here, and the cartoon (right) showed the formation of the ternary complex paradigm,the primary receptors( IL-1R ) first bind their corresponding cytokine ligands( IL-1β ) and then engage the accessory receptor( IL-1RAcP ) (which is incapable of binding cytokines by itself). (proteopedia.org)
  • Because IL-1 cytokines family are usually over-expressed at tumor sites or inflammatory, these cytokines could be used as bio-markers to help diagnose in advance. (proteopedia.org)
  • Interleukin 1, one of the first cytokines discovered in the 1980s, and a potent mediator of fever, pain and inflammation, is at present experiencing a revival in biology and medicine. (smw.ch)
  • The cytokines that have proved essential at the onset of inflammation and during an innate immune response include the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1). (smw.ch)
  • The Interleukin-1 family (IL-1 family) is a group of 11 cytokines that plays a central role in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses to infections or sterile insults. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-1 family is a group of 11 cytokines, which induces a complex network of proinflammatory cytokines and via expression of integrins on leukocytes and endothelial cells, regulates and initiates inflammatory responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. Is the similarity between cytokines and stressors a result of IL-1 producing sickness, which then induces stress-like effects, or do cytokines activate central processes independent of malaise experienced by the animal? (mcmaster.ca)
  • 2. While cytokines have many effects similar to those elicited by stressors, we found that IL-1 and stressor effects are distinguishable particularly and mesolimbic sites. (mcmaster.ca)
  • Furthermore, using pharmacological inhibitors, we demonstrated that AGE-induced inflammatory cytokines are dependent on MAPK/NF-κB/AP-1 signaling and reactive oxygen species production in placental cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • There is evidence that pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) are critically involved with tumour progression. (diva-portal.org)
  • IL-1ß is part of a wide family of cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1ß, IL-18, IL-33, IL-36), receptor antagonists (IL-1Ra, IL-36Ra, IL-38) and the anti-inflammatory IL-37. (frontiersin.org)
  • Interleukin-1β (IL-1 beta) is one of a family of biologically active small protein molecules known as cytokines. (salimetrics.com)
  • 2004). Tissue production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNFα, and IL-6) correlates with the intensity of the systemic inflammatory response and with corticosteroid requirements in giant-cell arteritis. (salimetrics.com)
  • Chondrocytes secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), that may contribute to the progression of OA ( 11 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In bacterial meningitis, LPS induces production in cerebrospinal fluid of the cytokines IL-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), which are the principle mediators of meningeal inflammation. (jci.org)
  • Migliorini P, Italiani P, Pratesi F, Puxeddu I, Boraschi D. Cytokines and soluble receptors of the interleukin-1 family in Schnitzler syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • This IL-1 Beta assay kit has also been formatted to minimize cross reactivity for related cytokines.Interleukin-1 Beta is widely accepted as a biomarker of systemic inflammation. (salimetrics.com)
  • IL-1 Beta serves an important role in activating the production of other pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1α, as well as inducing the acute phase response. (salimetrics.com)
  • IL-1 Beta is considered the prototypic 'multi-functional' cytokine, affecting nearly all cell types, either alone, or in combination with other cytokines. (salimetrics.com)
  • Correlation of IL-1 Beta levels in blood and saliva has not been reported in humans, but blood-saliva correlations for other pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, have generally been found to be only modest. (salimetrics.com)
  • Proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor α were overexpressed in the joints, indicating regulatory roles of IL-1ra in the cytokine network. (rupress.org)
  • Moreover, various proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α, are overexpressed in the joints of RA patients ( 2 ). (rupress.org)
  • These data further support the role of the IL-1 system of cytokines in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cytokines, including interleukin-1 (IL-1), seem to contribute towards the pathogenesis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), so this study was designed to evaluate the associations of IL-1 gene cluster and IL-1 receptor ( IL-1R ) gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with JIA proneness in Iranian population. (elsevier.es)
  • Clonal T cells and CTCL skin lesions typically express Th2 cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-10, but fail to produce Th1 cytokines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We examined plasma of 95 CTCL patients and skin of 20 CTCL patients for IL-18, caspase-1, IL-12, and other cytokines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Two types of IL-1 receptor, each with three extracellular immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains, limited sequence similarity (28%) and different pharmacological characteristics have been cloned from mouse and human cell lines: these have been termed type I and type II receptors [ PMID: 8702856 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The receptors both exist in transmembrane (TM) and soluble forms: the soluble IL-1 receptor is thought to be post-translationally derived from cleavage of the extracellular portion of the membrane receptors. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Both IL-1 receptors appear to be well conserved in evolution, and map to the same chromosomal location [ PMID: 1833184 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The receptors can both bind all three forms of IL-1 (IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-1RA). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The highest degree of similarity is to the human and murine interleukin-1 receptors, although both proteins are related to a wide range of Ig superfamily members, including the interleukin-6 receptor. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • All of their receptors are heteropolymers of which at least one sub-unit is a member of the family of IL-1 receptors (IL-1R), which are characterized by extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and an intracellular Toll/Interleukin-1R (TIR) domain within their cytoplasmic tail. (frontiersin.org)
  • Interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) as one of the most prevalent inflammatory mediated surface receptors, participates not only in peripheral inflammation but also in AD-related neuroinflammation. (intechopen.com)
  • Inteleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) is one of the inflammation-related surface receptors that are distributed widely in various tissues and cells in the body. (intechopen.com)
  • The type I receptor is primarily responsible for transmitting the inflammatory effects of interleukin-1 (IL-1) while type II receptors may act as a suppressor of IL-1 activity by competing for IL-1 binding. (wikidoc.org)
  • IL-33 and IL-18 have been included into the IL-1 superfamily due to structural similarities, overlap in function and the receptors involved in their signalling. (wikipedia.org)
  • But this is not a common feature for all IL-1 family members, since IL-1β and IL-18 precursor forms do not bind their receptors and require proteolytic cleavage by either intracellular caspase-1 or extracellular neutrophilic proteases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent findings suggest there is an interleukin-1 axis in the follicular T cell control of B cell responses, involving interleukin-1 receptors (IL-1R1 and IL-1R2) and receptor antagonists (IL-1Ra). (frontiersin.org)
  • Receptors present on a wide variety of hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cell types that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-4. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Two subtypes of receptors exist and are referred to as the TYPE I INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR and the TYPE II INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-1. (curehunter.com)
  • Signaling from interleukin-1 receptors occurs via interaction with SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as MYELOID DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 88. (curehunter.com)
  • Canakinumab reduces inflammation by preventing interaction of IL-1 beta with cell surface receptors. (medscape.com)
  • The IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) is a secreted protein product of a gene adjacent to the IL-1B gene and binds to IL-1 type I and II receptors without signaling. (ahajournals.org)
  • Although recombinant IL-1β and IL-1α bind to the same receptors and exert the same array of biological functions, they differ in the compartments in which they are active in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Description The receptors are ligand binding factors of type 1, 2 or 3 and protein-molecules that receive chemical-signals from outside a cell. (gentaur.com)
  • Abstract -The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1 is expressed mainly within the endothelium of atherosclerotic plaques and may be linked with inflammatory mechanisms of atherogenesis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Caspase-1-independent, Fas/Fas ligand-mediated IL-18 secretion from macrophages causes acute liver injury in mice," Immunity , vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 359-367, 1999. (hindawi.com)
  • S Yagel, P K Lala, W A Powell, and R F Casper, "Interleukin-1 stimulates human chorionic gonadotropin secretion by first trimester human trophoblast," The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism , vol. 68, no. 5, pp. 992-995, 1989. (hindawi.com)
  • Studies on the synthesis and secretion of interleukin-1. (springer.com)
  • The association with disease may be explained by the biological properties of interleukin-1-beta, which is an important pro-inflammatory cytokine and a powerful inhibitor of gastric acid secretion. (nih.gov)
  • OBJECTIVE Interleukin (IL)-1 impairs insulin secretion and induces β-cell apoptosis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Whereas the mechanism of activation and secretion of interleukin 1β, which critically regulates the function of this molecule, has remained mysterious for some 30 years following its discovery, the identification of a new cytoplasmic complex of proteins regulating IL-1β activation and secretion has carried our understanding of the role of IL1 in biology and disease one big step further. (smw.ch)
  • In human placental tissue cultures, AGEs significantly increased IL-1β secretion, as well as IL-1β and NLRP3 mRNA expression. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In human placental cell culture, although AGE treatment did not stimulate IL-1β secretion, AGEs significantly increased IL-1β mRNA expression and intracellular IL-1β production. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • After pre-incubation with AGEs, nano-silica treatment (well known as an inflammasome activator) increased IL-1β secretion in placental cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • However, after pre-incubation with lipopolysaccharide to produce pro-IL-1β, AGE treatment did not affect IL-1β secretion in placental cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These findings suggest that AGEs stimulate pro-IL-1β production within placental cells, but do not activate inflammasomes to stimulate IL-1β secretion. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In the present study, the HSM extract suppresses IL-1β and IL-18 secretion and ATP-induced activation of caspase-1. (nature.com)
  • It is worthy of note that the mechanism of IL-1ß secretion is not the conventional endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi route ( 13 ), but is not well understood yet and may depend on many parameters, such as stimulus strength and IL-1 requirement ( 14 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Caspase-11 controls interleukin 1β (IL-1β) secretion by potentiating caspase-1 activation and induces caspase-1-independent pyroptosis downstream of noncanonical NLRP3 inflammasome activators such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Gram-negative bacteria. (harvard.edu)
  • TRPC1 deficiency increases the secretion of IL-1β without modulating caspase-1 cleavage or cell death in cultured macrophages. (harvard.edu)
  • Consistently, trpc1−/− mice show higher IL-1β secretion in the sepsis model of intraperitoneal LPS injection. (harvard.edu)
  • Altogether, our data suggest that caspase-11 modulates the cationic channel composition of the cell and thus regulates the unconventional secretion pathway in a manner independent of caspase-1. (harvard.edu)
  • Adiponectin also augmented TIMP-1 secretion into the media, whereas MMP-9 secretion and activity were unchanged. (ahajournals.org)
  • Adiponectin significantly increased interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA expression at the transcriptional level within 6 hours and significantly increased IL-10 protein secretion within 24 hours. (ahajournals.org)
  • Systemic administration of the cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) results in increased secretion of ACTH and corticosterone in rats. (jneurosci.org)
  • The available evidence suggests that the acute effects of IL-1 are exerted ultimately at the level of the hypothalamus to increase corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) secretion into the hypophyseal portal circulation, and hence the central drive on the pituitary-adrenal system. (jneurosci.org)
  • These observations show that activated platelets induce IL-8 secretion via membrane-associated IL-1 activity, and provide a novel relationship between coagulation and inflammation that could be relevant to several diseases. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Attenuation of interleukin- 1β secretion in mice by post-inflammatory treatment with azithromycin and clarithromycin. (srce.hr)
  • The S. aureus activated chemokine production was preceded by significant IL-1α and IL-1β secretion. (jimmunol.org)
  • Surprisingly, we further found that LTA and PGN initiated chemokine secretion is dependent upon endocrine IL-1α, but not IL-1β, signaling. (jimmunol.org)
  • IL-18 acts as a proinflammatory factor and, in synergy with IL-12, promotes development of Th1 lymphocyte response by induction of γ-interferon (IFN-γ) production, modulates activity of NK cells, increases tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-1 production by macrophages, upregulates the expression of adhesion molecules, and induces nitric oxide production in the area of chronic inflammation ( 2 , 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Interleukin-1 inhibitors (canakinumab, rilonacept and anakinra) modify the immune system and reduce inflammation. (cochrane.org)
  • Our review provides an overview of current understanding of the IL-1 family members in liver inflammation, highlighting recent key investigations, and therapeutic perspectives. (frontiersin.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS IL-1 blockade with anakinra induces improvement of the PI/I ratio and markers of systemic inflammation lasting 39 weeks after treatment withdrawal. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Monotherapy blocking IL-1 activity in autoinflammatory syndromes results in a rapid and sustained reduction in disease severity, including reversal of inflammation-mediated loss of sight, hearing and organ function. (nih.gov)
  • In mouse models recapitulating mutations observed in CAPS, neutrophilic inflammation of the skin is a cardinal feature, in a manner similar to several autoinflammatory diseases with skin involvement such as PAPA (pyoderma gangrenosum, acne and pyogenic arthritis) and Schnitzler's syndrome, in which IL-1β very probably plays a pathogenic role. (smw.ch)
  • In all types of tissue harmful stimuli such as trauma, pathogens or irritants induce a very complex response which is called inflammation [1]. (smw.ch)
  • Recently evidence has accumulated showing that low-grade chronic inflammation can cause or contribute to the development of further diseases such as type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer`s disease, artherosclerosis, and cancer [1, 3]. (smw.ch)
  • Interleukin (IL)-1 causes airway inflammation, enhances airway smooth muscle responsiveness, and alters neurotransmitter expression in sensory, sympathetic, and myenteric neurons. (cdc.gov)
  • The role of interleukin-1 in the regulation of humoral responses is poorly documented, in contrast to its role in inflammation. (frontiersin.org)
  • IL-1 pleiotropic functions have so far mainly been linked to inflammation, orchestrating a first line of defense against pathogens ( 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • However, when released after cell damage, IL-1 alpha becomes a powerful activator of inflammation. (wingsforlife.com)
  • The Lacroix laboratory recently discovered that in addition to its role in inflammation, IL-1 alpha triggers the death of oligodendrocytes and may also activate nociceptors. (wingsforlife.com)
  • Since exposure to O3 leads to inflammation in the lung and IL-1 is known to be involved in that process, it can be hypothesized that ozone exposure induces a measurable change in the release of IL-1 and surface expression of its receptor. (epa.gov)
  • 4,5) IL-1β is therefore frequently used as a bio-marker of inflammation. (salimetrics.com)
  • The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of carvacrol against inflammation in interleukin 1β (IL‑1β)‑stimulated human chondrocytes. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of carvacrol against inflammation in IL-1β-stimulated human chondrocytes, and the results demonstrated that carvacrol pretreatment inhibited IL-1β-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production, and reduced the expression levels of iNOS, COX-2 and MMPs in human OA chondrocytes by suppressing the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a cytokine that is thought to be connected to neurodegeneration and in central nervous system-mediated defense reactions to inflammation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • IL-1 beta may play an important role in inflammation regulating cytokine networks. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These data suggest that IL-1β may play a pivotal role in mediating a chronic neuroinflammation status by a single LPS exposure in early postnatal life, and blockading IL-1β might be a novel approach to protect the dopaminergic system against perinatal infection/inflammation exposure. (mdpi.com)
  • 8. The method of claim 1, further comprising the step of reducing inflammation. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Interleukin (IL)-1 is a proinflammatory cytokine that plays important roles in inflammation, host defense, and the neuro-immuno-endocrine network. (rupress.org)
  • IL-1 is a major mediator of inflammation and is produced by various types of cells, including macrophages, monocytes, and synovial lining cells ( 8 ). (rupress.org)
  • These factors, together with IL-1 or in a cascade, exhibit pleiotropic effects on an animal, including induction of inflammation and acute phase responses, host defense against bacterial and viral infection, activation of the immune system including thymocyte maturation and Th2 cell proliferation, and enhancement of bone metabolism by activating osteoclasts to secrete metalloproteases ( 19 )( 20 ). (rupress.org)
  • Of special relevance to the process of inflammation and malignant transformation are interleukin 1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα). (aacrjournals.org)
  • IL-1 is a master cytokine of local and systemic inflammation. (altmetric.com)
  • With the availability of specific IL-1 targeting therapies, a broadening list of diseases has revealed the pathologic role of IL-1-mediated inflammation. (altmetric.com)
  • By specifically blocking IL-1, we have learned a great deal about the role of this cytokine in inflammation but equally important, reducing IL-1 activity has lifted the burden of disease for many patients. (altmetric.com)
  • Vaccinia and cowpox viruses encode a novel secreted interleukin-1-binding protein. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Cutting edge: generation of IL-18 receptor-deficient mice: evidence for IL-1 receptor-related protein as an essential IL-18 binding receptor," The Journal of Immunology , vol. 162, no. 9, pp. 5041-5044, 1999. (hindawi.com)
  • The IL-1 receptor accessory protein ( IL1RAP ) is a transmembrane protein that interacts with IL-1R and is required for IL-1 signal transduction. (wikidoc.org)
  • Interleukin 1 beta ( IL-1β ) also known as leukocytic pyrogen , leukocytic endogenous mediator , mononuclear cell factor , lymphocyte activating factor and other names, is a cytokine protein that in humans is encoded by the IL1B gene . (wikidoc.org)
  • All of the members of IL-1 family, except IL-1Ra, are first synthesized as a precursor protein, which means it is synthesized as a long form of a protein which has to be proteolytically cleaved to a shorter, active molecule, which is generally called a mature protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we report that the SIV-infection led to dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) phosphorylation at serine 579 and mitochondrial fission in PAMs. (mdpi.com)
  • Furthermore, the requirement of the kinase activity of receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) for the IL-1β production and RIPK1-DRP1 association suggested that RIPK1 is an upstream kinase for DRP1 phosphorylation. (mdpi.com)
  • The folding of the all-beta sheet protein, interleukin-1 beta, was studied with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, circular dichroism, and fluorescence. (sciencemag.org)
  • Ninety percent of the beta structure present in the native protein, as monitored by far-ultraviolet circular dichroism, was attained within 25 milliseconds, correlating with the first kinetic phase determined by tryptophan and 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonate fluorescence. (sciencemag.org)
  • IL22RA1 protein is composed of six putative domains, including the signal peptide (residue 1 to 15), the extracellular domain (residue 16 to 228), the transmembrane domain (residue 229 to 249), the cytoplasmic domain (residue 250 to 574), and two fibronectin type-III domains (residue 18-115 and 141-221). (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • These intracellular host molecules, called danger signals, include the inflammatory protein interleukin (IL)-1 alpha. (wingsforlife.com)
  • An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. (curehunter.com)
  • This protein inhibits the activities of interleukin 1, alpha (IL1A) and interleukin 1, beta (IL1B), and modulates a variety of interleukin 1 related immune and inflammatory responses. (prospecbio.com)
  • Carvacrol also suppressed the protein expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‑3 and MMP‑13 in IL‑1β‑stimulated human OA chondrocytes. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Full length recombinant protein corresponding to human Interleukin-1 beta. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Evaluated by Western Blot in lysate from cells expressing human Interleukin-1 beta recombinant protein. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Western Blot Analysis: 0.5 µg/mL of this antibody detected 10 µg of human Interleukin-1 beta recombinant protein. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This cumulative meta-analysis confirmed higher mean levels of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein in patients with major depression. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Cumulative meta-analysis of interleukins 6 and 1β, tumour necrosis factor α and C-reactive protein in patients with major depressive disorder. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • In this report, the effects of elevated temperature and dexamethasone on LPS-stimulated IL-1 beta and TNF alpha mRNA gene expression and protein synthesis were studied in human astrocytoma cell lines and primary cultures of human fetal astrocytes. (jci.org)
  • Cells cultured at 40 degrees C exhibited smaller peaks of IL-1 beta and TNF alpha transcription and protein synthesis compared with cells cultured at 37 degrees C. The addition of dexamethasone before, during, or after exposure of the cells to LPS resulted in temperature-dependent inhibition of IL-1 beta transcription and protein synthesis. (jci.org)
  • In human tissue culture models IL-1α and IL-1β increased mRNA and protein production of the neutrophil chemotactic CXCL1, CXCL2 and IL-8. (jimmunol.org)
  • Using cluster analysis, we observed coordinate upregulation of EGF, IL-6, macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta and vascular endothelial growth factor. (diva-portal.org)
  • The precursor form of IL-1 α is an intracrine proinflammatory activator of transcription," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , vol. 101, no. 8, pp. 2434-2439, 2004. (hindawi.com)
  • Nucleotide sequence of human monocyte interleukin-1 precursor cDNA. (springer.com)
  • The molecular cloning of human interleukin-1 precursor cDNA and its expression in monkey cells. (springer.com)
  • I. A 33,000 molecular weight precursor interleukin-1. (springer.com)
  • IL-1β precursor is cleaved by cytosolic caspase 1 (interleukin 1 beta convertase) to form mature IL-1β. (wikidoc.org)
  • IL-1β precursor(31KDa) need to be activated by protease (convertase or IL-1β converting enzyme[2]) to form IL-1 active species(17KDa)[3]. (proteopedia.org)
  • 3] Mizutani H, Rapid and specific conversion of precursor interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) to an active IL-1 species by human mast cell chymase . (proteopedia.org)
  • The similar feature of IL-1α and IL-33 is that their precursor forms can bind to their respective receptor and can activate signal transduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Briefly, IL-1 is produced as an inactive precursor, pro-IL-1ß, in response to pathogen-specific signals. (frontiersin.org)
  • Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane. (curehunter.com)
  • In order to be active, IL-1β requires cleavage of its inactive precursor by caspase-1, followed by release of the mature molecules from macrophages and other cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In contrast, IL-1α is active either as an intracellular molecule or as an integral membrane form and is only rarely secreted by cells, mainly macrophages, following processing of the precursor by calpain (reviewed in refs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • IL-18, like IL-1β, is synthesized as an inactive precursor (pro-IL-18, 24 kDa) and then cleaved by the IL-1β-converting enzyme, caspase-1, into an active 18-kDa mature form and secreted. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cloning and characterization of an alternatively processed human type II interleukin-1 receptor mRNA. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • and interleukin-1 receptor type I mRNA during preimplantation mouse development," Journal of Reproductive Immunology , vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 27-35, 1996. (hindawi.com)
  • Levels of renin mRNA in As4.1 cells are decreased in a dose-dependent manner by the addition of physiological concentrations of cytokine interleukin-1 to the media. (ahajournals.org)
  • Stability of renin mRNA and initial rates of release of active renin and prorenin were not significantly altered by interleukin-1. (ahajournals.org)
  • Moreover, it was recently shown that IL-18 acts in synergy with IL-12 in enhancing IFN-γ mRNA transcription and also that IL12p40 gene locus is associated with type 1 diabetes (IDDM18) ( 3 , 14 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Recently, a number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which quantitatively affect mRNA synthesis, have been identified in the TNFalpha promoter and IL-1 gene cluster and their frequency is associated with certain chronic inflammatory diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • Unstimulated SMC contain little or no IL-1 mRNA. (harvard.edu)
  • However, exposure to bacterial endotoxin caused accumulation of IL-1 mRNA in SMC cultured from human vessels. (harvard.edu)
  • Endotoxin maximally increased IL-1 beta mRNA in SMC after 4-6 h. (harvard.edu)
  • The lowest effective concentration of endotoxin was 10 pg/ml. 10 ng/ml produced maximal increases in IL-1 beta mRNA. (harvard.edu)
  • Interleukin-1 alpha mRNA was detected when SMC were incubated with endotoxin under "superinduction" conditions with cycloheximide. (harvard.edu)
  • Adiponectin treatment dose-dependently increased TIMP-1 mRNA levels without affecting MMP-9 mRNA levels. (ahajournals.org)
  • Time course experiments indicated that TIMP-1 mRNA levels started to increase at 24 hours of adiponectin treatment and were significantly elevated at 48 hours. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cotreatment of adiponectin with anti-IL-10 monoclonal antibody completely abolished adiponectin-induced TIMP-1 mRNA expression. (ahajournals.org)
  • In this study, in situ histochemical techniques were used to investigate the distribution of cells expressing type I IL-1 receptor mRNA in the CNS, pituitary, and adrenal gland of the mouse. (jneurosci.org)
  • Discrete and unilateral interruption of ascending catecholaminergic projections from the medulla attenuated IL-1-stimulated increases in Fos immunoreactivity and CRF mRNA in the PVH on the ipsilateral side. (jneurosci.org)
  • The effects of another antiinflammatory agent, indomethacin, on LPS induction of IL-1 beta and TNF alpha mRNA were temperature and cell line dependent. (jci.org)
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: ST2 mRNA was induced in cardiac myocytes by mechanical strain (4.7+/-0.9-fold) and interleukin-1beta (2.0+/-0.2-fold). (biomedsearch.com)
  • 1 out of 100 people withdrew due to side effects after treatment with canakinumab or injection of triamcinolone. (cochrane.org)
  • So far, three IL-1-targeted agents have been approved: the IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra, the soluble decoy receptor rilonacept and the neutralizing monoclonal anti-IL-1β antibody canakinumab. (nih.gov)
  • and canakinumab, the anti-IL-1β monoclonal antibody. (dovepress.com)
  • The aim of our study was to evaluate the frequency of known polymorphisms in the IL-18 promoter in patients with type 1 diabetes in comparison with healthy control subjects, since higher levels of IL-18 were recently reported in the subclinical stage of type 1 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Our study suggests the first evidence of an association between type 1 diabetes and polymorphisms in the promoter of IL-18 gene. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • To our knowledge, there have been no published studies that have estimated the role of IL-18 promoter polymorphisms in the predisposition to type 1 diabetes in humans. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Here we report that interleukin-1 gene cluster polymorphisms suspected of enhancing production of interleukin-1-beta are associated with an increased risk of both hypochlorhydria induced by H. pylori and gastric cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Proteins that are known to have genetic polymorphisms associated with type 1 diabetes risk are highlighted in red underlined text. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A study of three polymorphisms of the interleukin-1 gene complex (IL-1) and one of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) has found that IL-1 may directly contribute to AD among Spanish Caucasian males. (scienceblog.com)
  • All of the Spanish Caucasian participants were genotyped for four polymorphisms ?IL-1α -889 C/T, IL-1ß +3953 C/T, IL-1RA (86bp)n, and TNFα -308A/G - and assessed at baseline and again at six months for alcohol intake, addiction severity, and biomarkers of alcohol intake. (scienceblog.com)
  • Considering the relevance of interleukin-1 (IL-1) in the pathogenesis of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis (TR), we investigated whether IL1A −889 C/T and IL1B +3954C/T promoter polymorphisms are associated with TR in humans. (molvis.org)
  • This inadequate IL-1 antagonism seems to be a genetic trait because genetic polymorphisms in the gene encoding IL-1Ra are associated with altered serum levels of IL-1Ra ( 12 - 15 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Association of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 gene polymorphisms with silicosis. (cdc.gov)
  • Associates with IL1R1 bound to IL1B to form the high affinity interleukin-1 receptor complex which mediates interleukin-1-dependent activation of NF-kappa-B and other pathways. (uniprot.org)
  • 25908590 ). May play a role in IL1B-mediated costimulation of IFNG production from T-helper 1 (Th1) cells (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
  • Interleukin -1β (IL1B) is a key pro-inflammatory cytokine that is released after infection, injury, or antigenic challenge. (salimetrics.com)
  • Results We identified increased serum levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF) (mean 323 vs. 36 6 pg mL(-1), P = 0 0001), interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist (mean 39 1 vs. 14 6 pg mL(-1), P = 0 02) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (mean 7 5 vs. 4 5 pg mL(-1), P = 0 04) at baseline in patients with psoriasis compared with matched controls. (diva-portal.org)
  • Anakinra binds to the IL-1 receptor, thereby blocking the binding of the IL-1 to and activation of its receptor. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Anakinra blocks the action of interleukin 1 (IL-1). (fpnotebook.com)
  • Is the interleukin (IL)-1 antagonist anakinra effective in the treatment of gout? (medscape.com)
  • In an open-label pilot study of 10 patients with refractory acute gout treated with the interleukin (IL)-1 antagonist anakinra, pain was substantially reduced in all patients within 2 days, without side effects. (medscape.com)
  • A draw trial of the effect of Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist (anakinra, Kineret®) on the insulin production in patients with new onset Type 1 diabetes. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patients are instructed to inject 100 mg human recombinant interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (anakinra, Kineret®, Amgen, CA) or placebo s.c. once daily for 2 years. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In the first phase 80 patients between 18 and 35 years of age with new on-set Type 1 diabetes will be randomized to anakinra or placebo, and endpoints will be analyzed as an interim analysis after 6 months by an independent data and safety monitoring board (DSMB). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The patients are instructed to administer anti-IL-1 therapy in the form of recombinant human non-glycosylated interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (anakinra) at a dose of 100 mg once daily or placebo by subcutaneous injection at the same time-point in the morning. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • 2 mg/L. Six HF patients underwent a modified ramp cardiopulmonary exercise protocol at baseline and upon completion of 2 weeks treatment with daily subcutaneous injection of recombinant human IL-1 receptor antagonist (anakinra [Kineret®] 100 mg). (ahajournals.org)
  • IL-1 blockade with anakinra was associated with a significant improvement in peak VO2 in patients with systolic HF and elevated hsCRP. (ahajournals.org)
  • Goal of this study is to investigate the effect of the Interleukin 1( IL-1) receptor antagonist Anakinra/Kineret® on laboratory and clinical features in women with PCOS. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • IL-1 receptor antagonist Anakinra is a recombinant, non-glycosylated form of the human IL-1Ra in a 100 mg/ 0.67 ml solution for subcutaneous injection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Absolute change in fasting serum androstenedione level (nmol/l) from start (baseline, day 1) to one week after treatment start with Anakinra. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Anakinra is a recombinant, nonglycosylated form of the human IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra). (medscape.com)
  • Three IL-1blockers have been approved: the IL-1 receptor antagonist, anakinra, blocks the IL-1 receptor and therefore reduces the activity of IL-1α and IL-1β. (altmetric.com)
  • Interleukin-1 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that has numerous biological effects, including activation of many inflammatory processes (through activation of T cells, for example), induction of expression of acute-phase proteins, an important function in neuroimmune responses and direct effects on the brain itself. (nih.gov)
  • cDNA expression cloning of the IL-1 receptor, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • A novel IL-1 receptor, cloned from B cells by mammalian expression, is expressed in many cell types. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Cloning and expression of murine interleukin-1 in Escherchia coli. (springer.com)
  • Here we present evidence that suggests that IL-1β may have direct actions on the RAS, namely downregulation of renin gene expression. (ahajournals.org)
  • Thus, As4.1 cells may represent a unique model of juxtaglomerular cells with which to study in greater detail the mechanism of IL-1β effects on renin expression during septicemia. (ahajournals.org)
  • Pancreatic β-cell IL-1 expression is increased and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) expression reduced in patients with type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The six goals that have been set forth to test the hypothesis are: 1) to document the expression of cell-associated IL-1 by lavageable cells and lung tissues at discrete time points following in vivo exposure to O3. (epa.gov)
  • Inducible interleukin-1 gene expression in human vascular smooth muscle cells. (harvard.edu)
  • In conclusion, the present results demonstrated that carvacrol was able to inhibit IL‑1β‑induced NO and PGE2 production, as well as iNOS, COX‑2 and MMPs expression in human chondrocytes by suppressing the activation of NF‑κB signaling pathway. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Conclusions- Adiponectin selectively increased TIMP-1 expression in human monocyte-derived macrophages through IL-10 induction. (ahajournals.org)
  • Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1B) maintains mitogen-induced proliferation, IL-2 production and expression of IL-2R. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In this study, we show that intravenous injection of IL-1 beta provokes time- and dose-dependent increases in the expression of the immediate-early gene c-fos, in identified CRF and oxytocin- producing cells of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH). (jneurosci.org)
  • This is evidenced by a sustained activation of microglia and elevated interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels, as well as reduced tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in the substantia nigra (SN) of P70 rat brain. (mdpi.com)
  • Temperature-dependent modulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha expression in cultured human astroglial cells by dexamethasone and indomethacin. (jci.org)
  • IL-1 beta and TNF alpha induce fever, and elevated temperature may affect cytokine expression. (jci.org)
  • When the 2-DE profiles were compared to those obtained from subjects considered to be heavy cigarette smokers, three saliva proteins, including interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, thioredoxin and lipocalin-1, showed significant enhanced expression. (mdpi.com)
  • Webb, A. C., L. J. Roseswasser, P. E. Auron (1987) "Molecular organization and expression of the prointerleukin-1.beta. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Expression and regulation of ST2, an interleukin-1 receptor family member, in cardiomyocytes and myocardial infarction. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Stimulation and activation of ECs by the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1 causes multiple responses within the endothelium but most notably induces the expression of adhesion molecules, which promote monocyte recruitment and infiltration into the arterial wall. (ahajournals.org)
  • Expression of IL-1α was significantly higher than that of IL-1β. (jimmunol.org)
  • The expression of cell-associated IL-1α by tumor cells increases their immunogenicity by activating effective antitumor responses that lead to tumor regression and the establishment of an immune memory that protects mice from the malignant WT cells ( 18 - 22 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • A recombinant human nonglycosylated interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor antagonist with potential antineoplastic activity. (fpnotebook.com)
  • 4 We used recombinant human interleukin-10 (IL-10) (Pepro Tech Ec, Inc), monoclonal anti-human IL-10 antibody (Genzyme Techne), and mouse IgG (Sigma). (ahajournals.org)
  • There is now extensive evidence to support the direct involvement of interleukin-1 in the neuronal injury that occurs in both acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders. (nih.gov)
  • This article discusses the key evidence of a role for interleukin-1 in acute neurodegeneration - for example, stroke and brain trauma - and provides a rationale for targeting the interleukin-1 system as a therapeutic strategy. (nih.gov)
  • The acute phase response is a systemic, generalized reaction despite the fact that most disease processes which induce circulating IL-1 produced at the site of the disease, for example, the lung in pneumonia. (springer.com)
  • The ability of the various IL-1's to activate lymphocytes, induce the synthesis of acute phase proteins, alter various metabolic and hematologic parameters and to produce fever and sleep has provided the evidence that IL-1's are more than interleukins but rather multifunctional molecules capable of acting on different cells types. (springer.com)
  • Background: what is an acute gout flare and what are interleukin-1 inhibitors? (cochrane.org)
  • This summary of a Cochrane review presents what we know from research about the effect of interleukin-1 inhibitors for treating acute gout flares. (cochrane.org)
  • 1,2,3) IL-1β is an example of a pro-inflammatory cytokine, since it is involved in the body's inflammatory response to acute or chronic infections, or to conditions that are associated with a persistent low-grade inflammatory state, such as obesity. (salimetrics.com)
  • BACKGROUND: We identified an interleukin-1 receptor family member, ST2, as a gene markedly induced by mechanical strain in cardiac myocytes and hypothesized that ST2 participates in the acute myocardial response to stress and injury. (biomedsearch.com)
  • IL-1ra is an acute-phase reactant, and levels in a number of biological systems vary in parallel with IL-1. (ahajournals.org)
  • Blockade of IL-1 activity may inhibit the cascade of downstream pro-angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial cell growth factor, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and IL-6, resulting in inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Recently, C. sinensis extracts were shown to inhibit the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β in lipopolysaccharide-treated macrophages. (nature.com)
  • In addition, whether H. sinensis mycelium (HSM) extracts also inhibit the production of IL-1β has not been investigated. (nature.com)
  • Yin MH, Wang YT, Li Q and Lv GF: Oligomeric proanthocyanidins inhibit apoptosis of chondrocytes induced by interleukin-1β. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • IL-1β was reported to enhance the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and to inhibit the synthesis of extracellular matrix (ECM), thus contributing the progression of OA ( 12 , 13 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • All four isoforms can inhibit IL-1 activities. (rupress.org)
  • An update on human interleukin-1: from molecular biology to clinical relevance. (springer.com)
  • Isolation and characterization of human interleukin-1 mRNS by molecular cloning. (springer.com)
  • In this article, we will focus on studies of type 1 diabetes noting deficient IL-2 signaling and build what we believe forms the molecular framework for their contribution to the disease. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The molecular weight of the proteolytically processed IL-1β is 17.5 kDa . (wikidoc.org)
  • specific molecular sites or structures on cells with which interleukin-1 reacts or to which it binds to modify the function of the cells . (biology-online.org)
  • In addition, a monoclonal antibody directed against the IL-1 receptor and a neutralizing anti-IL-1α antibody are in clinical trials. (nih.gov)
  • Endotoxin-stimulated SMC also released biologically functional IL-1, measured as thymocyte costimulation activity inhibitable by anti-IL-1 antibody. (harvard.edu)
  • Anti-Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1B) Antibody, clone 4A7 is an antibody against Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1B) for use in WB. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • IL-1 seems especially crucial, because injection of IL-1 into normal rabbit joints causes severe arthritis ( 3 ), and injection of anti-IL-1 antibody or IL-1 receptor antagonist (ra) into affected joints ameliorates the disease ( 4 )( 5 )( 6 )( 7 ). (rupress.org)
  • A similar gene product from Cowpox virus (CPV) has also been shown to specifically bind murine IL-1 beta [ PMID: 1339315 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Crystallographic refinement of interleukin 1 beta at 2.0 A resolution. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Patterns of structure and sequence in the Kunitz inhibitors interleukins-1 beta and 1 alpha and fibroblast growth factors. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Interleukin (IL-) 1 alpha and 1 beta are synthesized as 31- to 34-kDa pro molecules. (pnas.org)
  • When the injury causes cellular necrosis, IL-1 alpha is released as a mixture of unprocessed and processed molecules but IL-1 beta is released exclusively as the biologically inactive pro form. (pnas.org)
  • In contrast, when cells undergo apoptosis, maturation of both IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta is efficient. (pnas.org)
  • C Simon, G N Piquette, A Frances, and M L Polan, "Localization of interleukin-1 type I receptor and interleukin-1 beta in human endometrium throughout the menstrual cycle," The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism , vol. 77, no. 2, pp. 549-555, 1993. (hindawi.com)
  • Interleukin-1 beta regulates human cytotrophoblast metalloproteinase activity and invasion in vitro," The Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 269, no. 25, pp. 17125-17131, 1994. (hindawi.com)
  • S W Kauma, "Interleukin-1 beta stimulates colony-stimulating factor-1 production in human term placenta," The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism , vol. 76, no. 3, pp. 701-703, 1993. (hindawi.com)
  • Topological frustration and the folding of interleukin-1 beta. (nih.gov)
  • The cytokine, interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), adopts a beta-trefoil fold. (nih.gov)
  • The hypothesis is that anti-IL-1 treatment as add-on therapy to conventional insulin therapy will preserve or enhance beta-cell function. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The aim of the Anti-Interleukin-1 in Diabetes Action trial (AIDA) study is to test the feasibility, safety/tolerability and potential efficacy of anti-IL-1 therapy in maintaining or enhancing beta-cell function in people with new onset Type 1 diabetes. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Host genetic factors that affect interleukin-1-beta may determine why some individuals infected with H. pylori develop gastric cancer while others do not. (nih.gov)
  • The other form of interleukin-1, interleukin-1-beta, acts the same as interleukin-1-alfa. (cancer.gov)
  • IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta (this gene). (wikidoc.org)
  • It was not until 1984 that interleukin 1 was discovered to consist of two distinct proteins, now called interleukin-1 alpha and interleukin-1 beta. (wikidoc.org)
  • This cytokine plays a fundamental role in regulating systemic, but also certain cutaneous inflammatory responses, and recently acquired knowledge regarding the processing and activation of IL-1 beta (IL-1β) has taught us that it is implicated in the pathogenesis of an emerging family of autoinflammatory diseases and fever syndromes [4, 6]. (smw.ch)
  • All three of them include a beta trefoil fold and bind IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) and activate signaling via MyD88 adaptor, which is described in the Signaling section of this page. (wikipedia.org)
  • Park H-S, Liu G, Liu Q, Zhou Y. Swine Influenza Virus Induces RIPK1/DRP1-Mediated Interleukin-1 Beta Production. (mdpi.com)
  • To document the in vivo interactions occurring between the immune system and HIV replicating cells, we analyzed using in situ hybridization the production of IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-2, and INF-gamma in eight hyperplastic lymph nodes from HIV-1 infected patients. (jci.org)
  • Numerous IL-1 beta- and IL-6-producing cells associated in clusters were detected in sinuses. (jci.org)
  • Few individual IL-1 beta- and IL-6-producing cells were present in interfollicular and follicular areas. (jci.org)
  • The amount and distribution of IL-1 beta, IL-6-, and IL-2-producing cells in HIV lymph nodes were not different from those found in six HIV unrelated hyperplastic lymph nodes. (jci.org)
  • The Immunotag™ Bovine IL-1b (Interleukin 1 Beta) ELISA is based on a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technology. (fishersci.com)
  • The il-1 receptor on t-lymphocytes and fibroblasts is composed of a single polypeptide chain that binds both il-1 alpha and il-1 beta . (biology-online.org)
  • There are two forms of interleukin-1, alpha and beta. (reportbuyer.com)
  • This collection protocol features general considerations to maximize salivary IL-1 Beta analysis. (salimetrics.com)
  • Thus, human SMC can express IL-1 beta and IL-1 alpha genes, or very similar ones, and secrete biologically active product in response to a pathological stimulus. (harvard.edu)
  • IL-1 beta also seems to have the ability to boost the number of cells that move into the G1 phase of the cell cycle. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • IL-1 beta also has the capacity to stimulate apoptosis on normal human fetal membranes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Dexamethasone treatment improves outcome in bacterial meningitis possibly by inhibiting IL-1 beta and TNF alpha. (jci.org)
  • Jobling, S. A., P. E. Auron, G. Gurka, A. C. Webb, B. McDonald, L. J. Rosenwasser, and L. Gehrke (1988) "Biological activity and receptor binding of human prointerleukin-1.beta. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Priesle, J. P., H. P. Schar, M. G. Grutter (1988) "Crystal structure of the cytokine interleukin-1.beta. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The Salimetrics Salivary IL-1 Beta (IL-1B, Interleukin-1 beta, IL-1β) Enzyme Immunoassay Kit was specifically designed to standardize the detection of IL-1 Beta in saliva samples for research and biomedical laboratories. (salimetrics.com)
  • Using a small sample volume, this assay kit has an extended range that spans the expected IL-1 Beta levels found in human saliva. (salimetrics.com)
  • IL-1 Beta is present in the saliva of both healthy and diseased individuals. (salimetrics.com)
  • The sources of IL-1 Beta production in the oral cavity include macrophages, monocytes, fibroblasts, and mucosal epithelial cells. (salimetrics.com)
  • IL-1 Beta has also been found to be synthesized and released from acinar and ductal cells in mouse salivary glands. (salimetrics.com)
  • Levels of IL-1 Beta in saliva and CGF have been studied in relation to gingival and periodontal disease, as well as in relation to other oral diseases such as Sjögren's syndrome and oral cancer. (salimetrics.com)
  • Levels of IL-1 Beta in saliva and GCF have also been observed to change in response to various types of physical and psychological stressors, similar to the response seen in the circulation. (salimetrics.com)
  • Additionally, IL-1 Beta levels in saliva and GCF have been reported to have a circadian rhythm. (salimetrics.com)
  • Dysregulation of IL-1 Beta synthesis or control mechanisms can be involved in numerous disease processes. (salimetrics.com)
  • Studies in humans report that IL-1 Beta levels are generally higher in saliva than in plasma or serum, and serum/plasma levels are often below the limit of detection. (salimetrics.com)
  • IL-1 Beta has also been found to be released from mouse parotid acinar cells in response to alpha- and beta-adrenergic stimulation. (salimetrics.com)
  • The Salimetrics IL-1 Beta ELISA kit is a sandwich immunoassay specifically designed and validated for the quantitative measurement of salivary IL-1β. (salimetrics.com)
  • Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta) is a proinflammatory cytokine produced in a variety of cells including monocytes, tissue macrophages, keratinocytes and other epithelial cells. (cellsciences.com)
  • Hou, L.T., Liu, C.M. and Rossomando, E.F. (1995) Crevicular interleukin 1 beta in moderate and severe periodontitis patients and the effect of phase I periodontal treatment. (scirp.org)
  • The fever-producing property of human leukocytic pyrogen (interleukin 1) was purified by Dinarello in 1977 (PNAS) with a specific activity of 10-20 nanograms/kg. (wikidoc.org)
  • 1 ) that interleukin (IL)-18 serum levels are increased in the subclinical stage of type 1 diabetes in first-degree relatives of type 1 diabetic patients. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Interleukin 1β polymorphism and serum level are associated with pediatric asthma. (ovid.com)
  • Transgenic mice that overexpress IL-18 ( 18 ) or caspase-1 ( 19 ) in their keratinocytes showed high serum IL-18 and IgE levels. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In vitro, long-term exposure to high glucose and the peptide hormone leptin secreted by adipose tissue induce β-cell apoptosis and production of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1 in β-cells and pancreatic islets, respectively ( 7 , 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The signal transduction pathways activated by the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) have been the focus of much attention because of the important role that IL-1 plays in inflammatory diseases. (sciencemag.org)
  • Differential activation of the inflammasome by caspase-1 adaptors ASC and Ipaf," Nature , vol. 430, no. 6996, pp. 213-218, 2004. (hindawi.com)
  • Increased production of IL-1β causes a number of different autoinflammatory syndromes , most notably the monogenic conditions referred to as Cryopyrin-Associated Periodic Syndromes (CAPS) , due to mutations in the inflammasome receptor NLRP3 which triggers processing of IL-1B. (wikidoc.org)
  • In this article the role of the inflammasome in IL-1 biology, autoinflammation and disease is reviewed, together with new avenues for the therapy of these diseases. (smw.ch)
  • We previously showed that the swine influenza virus (SIV) infection induced NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated IL-1β production in primary porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs), and we were interested in examining the upstream signaling events that are involved in this process. (mdpi.com)
  • IL-1β production was dependent on the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and DRP1 phosphorylation resulted in the upregulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. (mdpi.com)
  • Our results reveal a critical role of the RIPK1/DRP1 signaling axis, whose activation leads to mitochondrial fission and ROS release, in modulating porcine NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated IL-1β production in SIV-infected PAMs. (mdpi.com)
  • NLRP3 inflammasome activates interleukin-23/interleukin-17 axis during ischaemia-reperfusion injury in cerebral ischaemia in mice. (bioportfolio.com)
  • IL-1 is not released via the classic secretory pathway. (pnas.org)
  • Combined genetic and immunological studies now highlight deficiencies in both the interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor and its downstream signaling pathway as a central defect in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This activity results in the identification of a series of potentially novel therapeutic targets that could restore proper immune regulation in type 1 diabetes by augmenting the IL-2 pathway. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Here, we revisit the literature on this topic and conclude that targeting the interleukin-1 pathway should be a valuable therapeutic approach in many diseases involving excessive production of (auto)antibodies, such as autoimmune diseases or allergy. (frontiersin.org)
  • The IL-1 activation pathway has been reviewed elsewhere ( 10 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • 1999). Virus infection activates IL-1β and IL-18 production in human macrophages by a caspase-1-dependent pathway. (salimetrics.com)
  • Furthermore, carvacrol suppressed the activation of nuclear factor (NF)‑κB signaling pathway in IL‑1β‑induced human chondrocytes. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Human and murine interleukin-1 share sequence similarities. (springer.com)
  • Purification to apparent homogeneity of murine interleukin-1. (springer.com)
  • We have investigated the effects of IL-3 and IL-1 on in vitro expansion of murine hematopoietic stem cells with long-term engraftment capabilities, using a highly purified progenitor population. (pnas.org)
  • Hybridization of 35S-labeled antisense cRNA probes derived from a murine T-cell IL-1 receptor cDNA revealed a distinct regional distribution of the type I IL-1 receptor, both in brain and in the pituitary gland. (jneurosci.org)
  • cDNA cloning of an intracellular form of the human interleukin 1 receptor antagonist associated with epithelium," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , vol. 88, no. 9, pp. 3681-3685, 1991. (hindawi.com)
  • arrest of a human melanoma cell line by IL-1," Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications , vol. 173, no. 1, pp. 186-192, 1990. (hindawi.com)
  • The four biochemically distinct species of human interleukin-1 all exhibit similar biologic activities. (springer.com)
  • Cleavage of human interleukin-1: isolation of a fragment isolated from the plasma of febrile humans and monocytes. (springer.com)
  • Interleukin-1 activity in normal human urine. (springer.com)
  • Amino acid sequence analysis of human interleukin 1 (IL-1). (springer.com)
  • In 1985 two distinct, but distantly related complementary DNAs encoding proteins sharing human IL-1 activity were reported to be isolated from a macrophage cDNA library, thus defining two individual members of the IL-1 family - IL-1α and IL-1β. (wikipedia.org)
  • Production of interleukins in human immunodeficiency virus-1-replicating lymph nodes. (jci.org)
  • Advanced glycation end products regulate interleukin-1β production in human placenta. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In conclusion, AGEs regulate pro-IL-1β production and inflammatory responses, resulting in the activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes in human placenta. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Human interleukin family 1, member 5 (IL-1F5 / FIL1-delta) belongs to the interleukin 1 cytokine family. (prospecbio.com)
  • Mosley, B., S. K. Dower, S. Gillis, D. Cosman (1987) "Determination of the minimum polypeptide lengths of the functionally active sites of human interleukins 1.alpha. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Human tear fluid and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), which may be present as components of whole saliva, also contain IL-1β. (salimetrics.com)
  • This study has examined the effect of the cytokine interleukin 1 (IL-1) on metastasis formation by the human melanoma A375M in nude mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A similar effect was induced by human recombinant IL-1α and human recombinant tumor necrosis factor, but not by human recombinant interleukin 6. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Interleukin (IL)-18 is a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by monocytes/macrophages lineage, Kupffer cells, and dendritic cells as well as epithelial cells, such as human keratinocytes ( 13 , 14 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Activation of interferon- γ inducing factor mediated by interleukin-1 β converting enzyme," Science , vol. 275, no. 5297, pp. 206-209, 1997. (hindawi.com)
  • Altered cytokine export and apoptosis in mice deficient in interleukin-1beta converting enzyme," Science , vol. 267, no. 5206, pp. 2000-2003, 1995. (hindawi.com)
  • 3 Moreover, mice with both chromosomal copies of the IL-1β-converting enzyme gene inactivated were resistant to endotoxic shock. (ahajournals.org)
  • This key system activates caspase 1 (also called ICE for Interleukin-1 Converting Enzyme), an enzyme able to cleave pro-IL-1ß ( 12 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • TIMP-1, MMP-9, and IL-10 concentrations of media were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits (Biotrac). (ahajournals.org)
  • Additional blood, procured at the time of the blood culture, was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for TNF, IL-1, and IL-6. (aappublications.org)
  • Plasma levels of IL-18 and its converting enzyme, caspase-1, were significantly elevated in CTCL. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 2 Also, specific blockade of IL-1β at the receptor level with an IL-1β receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) has been found to eliminate septic shock-induced hypotension in rabbits. (ahajournals.org)
  • It also reviews the effects of IL-1 blockade in CAPS and other disorders, in particular systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, adult-onset Still's disease, and gout. (dovepress.com)
  • We hypothesized that IL-1 blockade would improve exercise performance in patients with systolic HF and evidence of elevated inflammatory activity. (ahajournals.org)
  • IL-1 blockade may represent a potential treatment modality to improve exercise capacity HF patients. (ahajournals.org)
  • Thus it was not unexpected that specific pharmacological blockade of IL-1 activity in inflammatory diseases would be beneficial. (altmetric.com)
  • In common conditions such as heart failure and gout arthritis, IL-1 blockade can be effective therapy. (altmetric.com)
  • The interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL1Ra) family of molecules now includes one secreted isoform (sIL1Ra) and three intracellular isoforms (icIL1Ra1, 2, and 3). (bmj.com)
  • Synergizes with IL12/interleukin-12 to induce IFNG synthesis from T-helper 1 (Th1) cells (PubMed:10653850). (rcsb.org)
  • On the basis of our findings, we conclude that downregulation of renin synthesis caused by interleukin-1 occurs primarily at the level of transcription and that DNA sequence or sequences mediating that effect are positioned within 4.1 kilobases upstream of the renin gene. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1998). IL-1β and IL-6 in mouse parotid acinar cells: Characterization of synthesis, storage, and release. (salimetrics.com)
  • 1 Local plaque synthesis of IL-1 is well established in atherosclerosis, and in particular, ECs are an abundant source of IL-1 at the luminal surface and in the adventitial capillaries. (ahajournals.org)
  • Because IL-1β is upregulated in the endothelium of atherosclerotic vessels, we studied the distribution and synthesis of IL-1ra in atherosclerosis and in cultured ECs. (ahajournals.org)
  • IL-1 inhibits the function and induces apoptosis of β-cells ( 9 ) and has been implicated as a mediator of the β-cell destruction leading to type 1 diabetes ( 10 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The present study aimed to investigate the effect of OPC on interleukin‑1β (IL‑1β)‑induced apoptosis in chondrocytes, and to determine the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of OPC. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The results demonstrated that OPC increased the survival rate of chondrocytes against IL‑1β‑induced apoptosis. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • OPC reversed the increased ROS content and MMP levels, and inhibited IL‑1β‑induced apoptosis in chondrocytes. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Understanding the role of interleukin (IL)-2 in the etiology of type 1 diabetes requires knowledge of the regulation of-as well as the structural and functional consequences of-IL-2 binding to its cognate receptor (IL-2R). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 1. To investigate the role of interleukin-1β in chronic ulcerative colitis, we quantified interleukin-1β steady-state release into the colonic lumen. (clinsci.org)
  • Type 1 diabetes in humans is also believed to be a Th1 lymphocyte-mediated disease, and both environmental and genetic factors play a role in its pathogenesis ( 9 - 11 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • There is considerable evidence obtained from experimental data and from studies involving humans to suggest a relevant role for IL-1 in the pathogenesis of TR. (molvis.org)
  • Disclosed are novel muteins of IL-1 compounds which can be used to regulate excess IL-1 produced in various diseases in humans and animals. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Saurat JH, Schifferli J, Steiger G, Dayer JM, Didierjean L. Anti-interleukin-1 alpha autoantibodies in humans: characterization, isotype distribution, and receptor-binding inhibition--higher frequency in Schnitzler's syndrome (urticaria and macroglobulinemia). (medscape.com)
  • Interleukin 1 receptor antagonist mediates the antiinflammatory and antifibrotic effect of mesenchymal stem cells during lung injury. (prospecbio.com)
  • Interleukin-1 (IL-1) mediates many components of generalized host response to injury and may also contribute to local vascular pathology during immune or inflammatory responses. (harvard.edu)
  • IL-1β is a pivotal inflammatory cytokine associated with obesity and pregnancy complications, and its production is regulated by NLR family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • MCC950 blocks enhanced interleukin-1β production in patients with NLRP3 low penetrance variants. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Enhanced IL-1β production is mediated by a TLR2-MYD88-NLRP3 signaling axis during coinfection with influenza A virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Interleukin 1 (IL1) - Interleukin-1 is a cytokine which plays an important role regulation of immune and inflammatory responses. (reportbuyer.com)
  • Methanol extracts of natural C. sinensis have been shown to suppress bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cell proliferation and to reduce IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production in LPS-activated BALF cell cultures 24 . (nature.com)
  • To determine the utility of plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF), interleukin 1β (IL-1), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in the prediction of occult bacteremia in febrile, young children. (aappublications.org)
  • Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF), interleukin 1β (IL-1), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) are well known and important early mediators in the host's initial response to bacterial infection. (aappublications.org)
  • The active substance in Kineret is interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, a blocker of an immune-signal molecule named interleukin-1. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The IL-1 family consists of three homologous proteins: IL-1α and IL-1β, which are pro-inflammatory proteins, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), a molecule with antiinflammatory properties. (molvis.org)
  • The complex has approximate dimensions of 97Å×52 Å ×35 Å with one s-IL1R molecule wrapping around the IL-1β molecule with 1:1 ratio. (proteopedia.org)
  • IL-1α and IL-1β bind to the same receptor molecule, which is called type I IL-1 receptor (IL-1RI). (wikipedia.org)
  • The interleukin 1 receptor antagonist was originally described as a secreted molecule (sIL1Ra) from monocytes and macrophages. (bmj.com)
  • The IL-1 muteins can be prepared by site-directed mutagenesis whereby a positively charged residue is replaced with a negatively charged or neutral residue at a designated position in the molecule. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • After discovery of another 5 members the updated nomenclature was generally accepted which included all members of IL-1 cytokine family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin-1 ra is a member of the interleukin 1 cytokine family. (prospecbio.com)
  • As measured by its binding ability in a functional ELISA, immobilized IL1F5 at 1 µg/ml (100 µl/well) can bind rHuIL-1 Rrp2/Fc Chimera with a linear range of 0.15- 5 µg/ml. (prospecbio.com)
  • Interleukin-1β was measured by ELISA, polymorphonuclear elastase by immunoactivation and leukotriene B 4 by specific RIA. (clinsci.org)
  • Two vaccinia virus proteins structurally related to the interleukin-1 receptor and the immunoglobulin superfamily. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • We have tried to apply the concept of trained immunity to liver diseases, based on the role of the members of the IL-1 superfamily, first of all IL-1β but also IL-18 and IL-33, in modulating innate lymphoid immunity carried by natural killer cells, innate lymphoid cells or innate T-αβ lymphocytes. (frontiersin.org)
  • IL-1 superfamily ( 7 ) is divided into three sub-families according to the length of the N-term pro-pieces: IL-1 sub-family (IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-33, IL-1Ra), IL-18 sub-family (IL-18 and IL-37), and IL-36 sub-family (IL-36 α, β, γ, and IL-38) ( Table 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • IL-1 cytokine superfamily characteristics. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, IL-18 and IL-33 are on different chromosomes and there is insufficient sequence or chromosomal anatomy evidence to suggest they share common ancestry with the other IL-1 superfamily members. (wikipedia.org)
  • The interleukin-1 superfamily has 11 members, which have similar gene structure, although originally it contained only four members IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-1Ra and IL-18. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has also emerged that the type I IL-1 receptor (termed IL-1RI) is a member of an expanding receptor superfamily. (sciencemag.org)
  • IL-1 has systemic effects that trigger fever, cortisol production, and liver stimulation (with production of C-reactive and complement proteins) and local effects on innate and adaptive immune cell stimulation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Because of the similarity of IL-1RI to Toll, the conserved sequence in the cytosolic region of these proteins has been termed the Toll-IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain. (sciencemag.org)
  • Embryonic implantation in mice is blocked by interleukin-1 receptor antagonist [see comments]," Endocrinology , vol. 134, no. 2, pp. 521-528, 1994. (hindawi.com)
  • Lineage-negative, Ly-6A/E+, c-kit+ bone marrow cells from male mice were cultured in suspension in the presence of stem cell factor, IL-6, IL-11, and erythropoietin with or without IL-3 or IL-1. (pnas.org)
  • 5-[ 125 I]Iodo-2′-deoxyuridine-radiolabeled A375M tumor cells injected i.v. remained at a higher level in the lungs of nude mice receiving IL-1 than in control mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The capacity of azithromycin and clarithromycin (500 μg/ear) to exert anti-inflammatory effects, similar to those of dexamethasone (50 μg/ear), was confirmed by the inhibition by all three agents of ear swelling and interleukin- 1β concentration in the ear tissue of PMA-treated mice, supporting this clinically relevant treatment mode. (srce.hr)
  • Subcutaneous infections in mice trigger neutrophil recruitment in an IL-1β, but not IL-1α, dependent manner. (jimmunol.org)
  • In mice, topical application of IL-1, S. aureus or the bacterial cell wall components lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and peptidoglycan (PGN) triggered neutrophil recruitment to the skin surface. (jimmunol.org)
  • The role of microenvironment interleukin 1 (IL-1) on 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MCA)-induced carcinogenesis was assessed in IL-1-deficient mice, i.e. (aacrjournals.org)
  • IL-1β −/− , IL-1α −/− , IL-1α/β −/− (double knockout), and mice deficient in the naturally occurring inhibitor of IL-1, the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Tumors developed in all wild-type (WT) mice, whereas in IL-1β-deficient mice, tumors developed slower and only in some of the mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Tumor incidence was similar in WT and IL-1α-deficient mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A sparse leukocyte infiltrate was found at the site of carcinogen injection in IL-1β-deficient mice, whereas in IL-1Ra-deficient mice, a dense neutrophilic infiltrate was observed. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The late leukocyte infiltrate (day 70), which was dominated by macrophages, was also apparent in WT and IL-1α-deficient mice, but was nearly absent in IL-1β-deficient mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • cell lines from IL-1-deficient mice were the least invasive. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In support of this concept, IL-1β −/− mice fail to develop B16 melanoma tumors, due to the absence of host-derived IL-1β required for angiogenesis and invasiveness ( 20 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • It competitively and selectively inhibits IL-1 binding to the type I receptor. (medscape.com)
  • The IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), also a member of the IL-1 family, binds to the IL-1 type I receptor and specifically prevents either IL-1β or IL-1α from triggering a signal (reviewed in refs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A Nilkaeo, K Green, and S Kauma, "Interleukin-1 (IL-1) stimulation of trophoblast proliferation is mediated by the induction of interleukin-6 (IL-6) production," Journal of the Society for Gynecologic Investigation , vol. 7, no. 1 suppl, p. 162A, 2000. (hindawi.com)
  • A Nilkaeo, P Takacs, and S Kauma, "Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) stimulates trophoblast proliferation and is upregulated in trophoblast by IL-1," Journal of the Society for Gynecologic Investigation , vol. 7, no. 1 suppl, p. 210A, 2000. (hindawi.com)
  • Interleukin-36 (IL-36) ligands require processing for full agonist (IL-36 α , IL-36 β , and IL-36 γ ) or antagonist (IL-36Ra) activity," Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 286, no. 49, pp. 42594-42602, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • phase growth-arresting action of interleukin-1 is independent of p53 and p21/WAF1 function," The Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 273, no. 46, pp. 30517-30523, 1998. (hindawi.com)
  • Once released into the circulation, IL-1 acts on multiple target organs and induces a variety of biological changes. (springer.com)
  • Interleukin-1-alfa made in the laboratory is used as a biological response modifier to boost the immune system in cancer therapy. (cancer.gov)
  • The basis for the term "interleukin" was to streamline the growing number of biological properties attributed to soluble factors from macrophages and lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The resulting IL-1 muteins have reduced biological activity but retain receptor binding affinity. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Role of caspase-1 in nuclear translocation of IL-37, release of the cytokine, and IL-37 inhibition of innate immune responses," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , vol. 111, no. 7, pp. 2650-2655, 2014. (hindawi.com)
  • Type 1 diabetes presents clinically with overt hyperglycemia resulting from progressive immune-mediated destruction of pancreatic β-cells and associated metabolic dysfunction. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • By the late 1970s, the term "interleukin" was being used to describe the pleiotropic factors implicated in inflammatory immune response and the designation "IL-1" was then used to define the factors secreted by macrophages ( 4 , 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • This review describes how the study of CAPS has helped us to understand better the way the innate immune system works, the pathogenesis of autoinflammatory syndromes, and the key role of IL-1. (dovepress.com)
  • Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is known as the key cytokine of innate immune responses and has been described as the "quintessential inflammatory cytokine" ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Under normal conditions, IL-1 alpha is sequestrated inside microglia, a resident population of immune cells in the spinal cord. (wingsforlife.com)
  • Agents in this category antagonize immune responses activated by interleukin (IL)‒1 receptor binding. (medscape.com)
  • IL-1β and its associated signaling systems may also play a role in mediating the response of the circadian timing system to immune challenge, as well as the basal functioning of the SCN clock. (salimetrics.com)
  • A multifaceted IL-1 scheme involving IL-1α in the skin and IL-1β in underlying tissues may represent a fail-safe system, which protects the host against genetic variation and immune evasion mechanisms developed by pathogens. (jimmunol.org)
  • Intestinal dysbiosis has been observed to induce osteomyelitis through a IL-1β dependent manner. (wikidoc.org)
  • It has been shown that IL-1 can induce many other genes. (rupress.org)
  • Oct 18, 2020 (Profound via COMTEX) -- A recent report provides crucial insights along with application based and forecast information in the Global Interleukin 1 (IL1) Market. (marketwatch.com)
  • The genotype distribution differed significantly between patients with type 1 diabetes and control subjects. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Addition of IL-1 also significantly suppressed the numbers of colony-forming cells. (pnas.org)
  • The cells expanded from enriched cells in the absence of IL-3 and IL-1 revealed engraftment at 2, 4, 5, and 6 months, whereas addition of IL-3 or IL-1 to the cultures significantly reduced the reconstituting ability. (pnas.org)
  • TNF and IL-1 levels were not significantly different between cases and controls. (aappublications.org)
  • Several cell groups known to be involved in central visceromotor regulation also displayed comparable time- and dose-related activation to systemic IL-1, including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the central nucleus of the amygdala, the lateral parabrachial nucleus, and cell groups of the dorsomedial and ventrolateral medulla. (jneurosci.org)
  • 5. Our results demonstrate under conditions in vivo that active colitis is associated with enhanced interleukin-1β release into the colonic lumen whereas such release does not occur in remission, supporting the concept that ulcerative colitis flare-ups involve increased interleukin-1β production. (clinsci.org)
  • Interleukin-1 receptor ( IL-1R ) is a cytokine receptor which binds interleukin 1 . (wikidoc.org)
  • domain 3 provides a 'lid' which covers most of the top of the IL-1β β-barrel, whereas domains 1 and 2 from a groove which binds to the lower rim of the barrel[5]. (proteopedia.org)
  • This cytokine is produced by activated macrophages as a proprotein, which is proteolytically processed to its active form by caspase 1 (CASP1/ICE). (wikidoc.org)
  • IL-1 is predominantly produced by monocytes and macrophages ( 2 , 3 ) following an external stimulus such as through Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) activation. (frontiersin.org)
  • 1 2 The original 17 kDa isoform of IL1Ra is secreted as variably glycosylated species of 22-25 kDa from monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, hepatocytes, microglial cells, and other cells. (bmj.com)
  • Here, we identify the cationic channel subunit transient receptor potential channel 1 (TRPC1) as a substrate of caspase-11. (harvard.edu)
  • An interleukin receptor subunit that was originally discovered as a component of the INTERLEUKIN 2 RECEPTOR. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) has a number of biologic activities, including pronounced effects on the nervous and neuroendocrine systems. (jneurosci.org)
  • Combining interleukin-2 with interleukin-12 may kill more tumor cells. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Interleukin-12 may kill tumor cells by stopping blood flow to the tumor. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In addition, IL-1 injected 1 h, but not 24 h, after tumor cells enhanced lung colonization as well, thus suggesting an effect of IL-1 on the vascular transit of tumor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although the proteases that convert the pro molecules to the mature forms are cytosolic enzymes, processed IL-1 is not detected associated with the cell but is found only in culture supernatants. (pnas.org)
  • ASC is essential for LPS-induced activation of procaspase-1 independently of TLR-associated signal adaptor molecules," Genes to Cells , vol. 9, no. 11, pp. 1055-1067, 2004. (hindawi.com)
  • Interleukin 1 (IL1) pipeline Target constitutes close to 36 molecules. (reportbuyer.com)
  • Similarly, the universities portfolio in Preclinical stages comprises 1 molecules, respectively. (reportbuyer.com)
  • We have assessed the differential roles of tumor cell-derived IL-1α compared with tumor-derived IL-1β on tumor-host interactions, using fibrosarcoma cell lines overexpressing either of the active forms of the IL-1 molecules. (aacrjournals.org)