Conflict of Interest: A situation in which an individual might benefit personally from official or professional actions. It includes a conflict between a person's private interests and official responsibilities in a position of trust. The term is not restricted to government officials. The concept refers both to actual conflict of interest and the appearance or perception of conflict.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Disclosure: Revealing of information, by oral or written communication.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Career Choice: Selection of a type of occupation or profession.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.United StatesDrug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Scientific Misconduct: Intentional falsification of scientific data by presentation of fraudulent or incomplete or uncorroborated findings as scientific fact.Financial Support: The provision of monetary resources including money or capital and credit; obtaining or furnishing money or capital for a purchase or enterprise and the funds so obtained. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed.)Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Gift Giving: The bestowing of tangible or intangible benefits, voluntarily and usually without expectation of anything in return. However, gift giving may be motivated by feelings of ALTRUISM or gratitude, by a sense of obligation, or by the hope of receiving something in return.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Research Personnel: Those individuals engaged in research.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Patient Advocacy: Promotion and protection of the rights of patients, frequently through a legal process.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Research Subjects: Persons who are enrolled in research studies or who are otherwise the subjects of research.Pattern Recognition, Automated: In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Ethics, Research: The moral obligations governing the conduct of research. Used for discussions of research ethics as a general topic.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Phantoms, Imaging: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Great BritainGene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Genetic Testing: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Human Experimentation: The use of humans as investigational subjects.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Ethics Committees, Research: Hospital or other institutional committees established to protect the welfare of research subjects. Federal regulations (the "Common Rule" (45 CFR 46)) mandate the use of these committees to monitor federally-funded biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Artifacts: Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Public Opinion: The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.Biometry: The use of statistical and mathematical methods to analyze biological observations and phenomena.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Moral Obligations: Duties that are based in ETHICS, rather than in law.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Internship and Residency: Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Informed Consent: Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Anisotropy: A physical property showing different values in relation to the direction in or along which the measurement is made. The physical property may be with regard to thermal or electric conductivity or light refraction. In crystallography, it describes crystals whose index of refraction varies with the direction of the incident light. It is also called acolotropy and colotropy. The opposite of anisotropy is isotropy wherein the same values characterize the object when measured along axes in all directions.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Beneficence: The state or quality of being kind, charitable, or beneficial. (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). The ethical principle of BENEFICENCE requires producing net benefit over harm. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Monte Carlo Method: In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Academic Medical Centers: Medical complexes consisting of medical school, hospitals, clinics, libraries, administrative facilities, etc.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Diagnostic Imaging: Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Codes of Ethics: Systematic statements of principles or rules of appropriate professional conduct, usually established by professional societies.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Personal Autonomy: Self-directing freedom and especially moral independence. An ethical principle holds that the autonomy of persons ought to be respected. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Genetic Techniques: Chromosomal, biochemical, intracellular, and other methods used in the study of genetics.Artificial Intelligence: Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Patient Rights: Fundamental claims of patients, as expressed in statutes, declarations, or generally accepted moral principles. (Bioethics Thesaurus) The term is used for discussions of patient rights as a group of many rights, as in a hospital's posting of a list of patient rights.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Mice, Inbred C57BLProtein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Bias (Epidemiology): Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Likelihood Functions: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Organizational Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Schools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Information Dissemination: The circulation or wide dispersal of information.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Lobbying: A process whereby representatives of a particular interest group attempt to influence governmental decision makers to accept the policy desires of the lobbying organization.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.
... "arouse interest/feelings". Sharf (2002: 120) says interpreting the Chinese philosophical term gan "stimulus; affect; etc." is ... Kan-ying may be defined, in the final analysis, as the power of things to affect and to be affected in such a way as to bring ... affect" the Buddha, which elicits the Buddha's compassionate ying "response". For example, the expressions ganfo 感佛 "affect the ... These affect later seeing and thinking, so that the mind is not truly 'empty' and unbiased.) It should be like a river gorge ...
Effect upon mutual British-Arab interests. Anglo-Arab relations were of vital importance to British strategic concerns both ... and movement in and out of the affected areas required a permit. British soldiers conducted searches throughout the affected ... The British believed that it would be in their and the West's strategic interest if they maintained de facto control of a land ... Up to 300,000 Jews were affected. Jewish residents in areas under martial law were put under curfew for all but three hours of ...
6 Brain areas of interest *6.1 Stress hormones affect memory. *7 Brain mapping *7.1 fMRI study ... An fMRI study of the misinformation effect". Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci. 10 (3): 339-348. doi:10.3758/CABN.10.3.339. PMID ... Brain areas of interest[edit]. There is extensive evidence that the amygdala is involved in effectively influencing memory.[12] ... Stress hormones affect memory[edit]. Effects of stress-related hormones, such as epinephrine and glucocorticoids are mediated ...
Affect is sad, not flat. Severe anhedonia, loss of interest, and psychomotor retardation are typically present. Psychotic ...
The individuals' opinions, attitudes, and adaptations affect group behavior and group behavior, in turn, affects those opinions ... For example, i/o psychology showed increased interest in behaviorally anchored rating scales. What critics there were of i/o ... positive affect, and the absence of negative affect. Productive behavior is defined as employee behavior that contributes ... Organizational support systems affect the team effectiveness and provide resources for teams operating in the multi-team ...
This can result in an interesting spatial phenomena. Time can also affect pattern formation. As the time passed, one pattern ... There are factors that can affect pattern formation. Changes in pattern formation are not homogeneous and can be caused by ... This resulting surface tension effect isn't required to produce the instability. Small holes were also found in the lid of ... These facts indicate that oxygen affects the chemical reaction and this plays a fundamental role in the pattern formation. ...
"Love interest for John Watson in new Sherlock episode The Sign of Three?". metro.co.uk. Metro. 10 April 2013. Retrieved 2 ... "Foxhounder Films: Sherlock Season 3: "The Sign of Three" Review". The Punk Effect. Retrieved 29 January 2014. Dixon, Hayley; ... Oliver Jia of The Punk Effect stated it as "no doubt the odd duck of the entire Sherlock canon," but proceeded to call the ... and self-interested", listing "bizarre" policies including a "recently-mocked concept of putting an airport in the middle of ...
The main problem is that there is no interest in the content of the brand. Using the method of the "Fan-gating" you confuse ... This affects advertisers. In August 2014 Facebook updated its platform policy to combat fan-gating, with an explanation that ...
The fallout from these events affected him deeply, and it took him a few years to land on his feet and move forward. Parker and ... For more interest in political and social issues, see Grodzins (2002), p. 403. Grodzins (2002), pp. 412, 431 Grodzins (2002), p ... He would later use a similar paraphrasing to great effect in two famous speeches and his final sermon: "How Long, Not Long", ... His travels also seemed to stimulate a growing interest in political and social issues. Returning to the United States, Parker ...
Group self-interest. Low knowledge of black people. According to Whitley and Kite, those who hold symbolic racist beliefs tend ... Implicitly anti-black affect and negative stereotypes. Racialized belief in traditional values. Belief in equality of ... Symbolic racism has been found to have a major effect on attitudes regarding legal policies and Black political candidates. It ... Group self-interest reflects the idea that people try to do what is best for their group. This idea manifests itself in the ...
It really affected me." Growing up, however, he became more interested in house music, siding away from the pop genre he was ... He watched people in bands rehearse and make music, which prompted him to develop interest in the same. This interest was ... When you play something and see people's reactions when they hear it... It really affected me." in an interview with Billboard ...
... to reduced sharing of interests, emotions, or affect; to failure to initiate or respond to social interactions. Deficits in ... to absence of interest in peers." "B. Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities, as manifested by ... excessively circumscribed or perseverative interests). Hyper- or hyporeactivity to sensory input or unusual interest in sensory ... Impairments must be significant, and must affect important areas of function, and the diagnosis is excluded if criteria are ...
While sections of the Bill do technically extend to Wales, the effect of the provisions will only permit an Academy to be ... A later list published by the Department for Education said a total of 1,907 schools had expressed an interest. By 23 July 2010 ... The Act will only affect schools in England. Prior to the 2010 General Election there were 203 academies in England. After the ... Of the 1,567 schools initially expressing interest, 828 were rated "outstanding" and could be fast-tracked into academies by ...
... if Germany has an economic interest she may require Russia to declare war on Germany or else back down and lose her interest), ... A "US election", affecting both theatres, occurs after the 1945 YSS (i.e. the November 1944 Presidential Election, which in ... Research may also negate an enemy covert operation, or reduce the effect of a harbour attack. Britain and Germany (Ultra) and ... Germany starts the game with a 10 BRP economic interest in Russia, which ends when Russo-German Tensions reach 45; this does ...
Generally whether people are in a good or bad mood when they hear music affects how they feel about the type of music and also ... Familiarity and complexity both have interesting effects on musical preferences. As seen in other types of artistic media, an ... Music is heard by people daily in many parts of the world, and affects people in various ways from emotion regulation to ... Instead of personality affecting music preference, here classical music altered the assessment of their own personalities and ...
These risks may affect children's growth and development. The Court highlighted that the case should be decided in accordance ... Nevertheless, children's rights have a superior interest. In the case of a 4-year-old, the child does not have the age and ... The existence of a Facebook account in the name of XX affects her right to honour, as her intimate details could be exposed ... The information included in the account could affect how third parties perceive XX, when she may prefer to disclose her ...
", "JCB Interest", "Joint Integration" or "Independent". Independent proposals affect only a single service component. Joint ... "JROC Interest" programs apply to any program the JROC decides to review and all Acquisition Category (ACAT) 1/1A programs. ... A proposal receives one of three designations based on the degree in which it applies to all three services: "JROC Interest ...
The main interest of the painter was the face. The eyes are becoming more understood as the actual lifeblood. This can be ... The sitter have seen large-frame effect. The clothing according to the contemporary fashion most was simple; the most ... Representatives from different walks of life interested Diogg primarily as individuals; the state indicating attributes and ... Diogg sought a natural effect. The art historian Walter Hugelshofer emphasizes the stately formats of images as well as the ...
This will affect the interest rate banks charge by influencing the quantity of money in the economy (more spending by the ... it could influence interest rates that other banks charged to businesses and consumers by altering its interest rate for the ... If banks charge interest that people cannot afford, or if banks lend too much money to ventures that are unproductive, economic ... This affects growth and employment. Under BEA 1998 section 11 its objectives are to (a) "maintain price stability, and (b) ...
... interest in politics, and belief in the efficacy of voting. Demographics also have an effect. Older people tend to vote more ... as they are interested in political life but believe that their individual effect would be negligible. These individuals often ... "interested bystander". According to Google's study, 48.9% of adult Americans can be classified as "interested bystanders", as ... Mark N. Franklin argues that salience, the perceived effect that an individual vote will have on how the country is run, has a ...
The effect sizes are smaller. There is both a greater number and lesser preselection of tested relationships. There is greater ... There is prejudice (financial interest or otherwise). More teams are involved in a particular scientific field and chasing ... The premise is that the scatter of points should reflect a funnel shape, indicating that the reporting of effect sizes is not ... Factors cited as underlying this effect include investigators assuming they must have made a mistake, failure to support a ...
The law took effect on 9 December 2015 upon publication in the country's official gazette. In 2010, the Permanent Secretary at ... Chrysostomou, Annette (20 January 2016). "First civil partnership to be signed, interest grows". Cyprus Mail. Archived from the ... It was published in the official gazette on 9 December 2015 and took effect upon publication. The country's first civil ... "Civil Unions Bill in effect". Cyprus Weekly. 22 December 2015. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. ...
Maher was most interested in human psychopathology, especially schizophrenia. One of his major contributions was to introduce ... Martha Mitchell effect Gottesman, Irving; Lenzenweger, Mark F.; Maher, Winifred B. (2009). "Brendan A. Maher". Academia.edu. ...
Cognition (Awareness/learning) → Affect (Feeling/ interest/ desire) → Behavior (Action e.g. purchase/ trial/ consumption/ usage ... Having attention it must create "Interest," 3d. Having the reader's interest it must create "Desire to Buy," 4th. Having ... AIDAS Model: Attention → Interest → Desire → Action → Satisfaction[21]. AISDALSLove model: Awareness → Interest → Search → ... Interest - The consumer becomes interested by learning about brand benefits & how the brand fits with lifestyle ...
Loss of interest in activity. *detachment from others. *restricted range of affect ... The relationship between all the areas in the limbic system is an area of interest for psychic numbing because it encapsulates ... See also: Identifiable victim effect. Robert Jay Lifton spearheaded the psychic numbing movement and his concentration was on a ... The chronic exposure to stress affects organisms that deal with daily activities and it also interferes with one's coping ...
While working there she gained her interest in Asia that would later affect her choice of fieldwork as a working anthropologist ... Fulton was deeply affected by her husband's passing. Any mention of him caused her to be overwhelmed by grief; every March she ... Abram Kardiner was also affected by these ideas, and in time, the concept of "modal personality" was born: the cluster of ... Sapir and Benedict shared an interest in poetry, and read and critiqued each other's work, both submitting to the same ...
Any information tending to affect the eligibility of Hunaid Basrai on moral, ethical or other grounds should be furnished to ... Mail Stop Assignment All assignment documents, security interests, Recordation Services and other documents to be recorded in ... 37 CFR § 11.7 Accordingly, any information tending to affect the eligibility of any of the following persons on moral ethical ... of the Director of the Office of Enrollment and Discipline that granting the petition is not contrary to the public interest, ...
I am interested in the idea of mycotoxins as a confounder to recovery in ME/CFS.. Yesterday I watched once again Dr. Ritchie ... he thinks that something changed in 1980 and that chronic Lyme is an effect rather than a cause of whatever that is. ... Brewer has shown interest in identifying causes of or confounders associated with the immune dysfunction in ME/CFS. After his ... I was particularly interested to read about "Probiotics and Dietary Interventions" - "These treatments have the potential to ...
A lake-effect snow warning is canceling after-school activities at some area schools. The storm warning is in ... ... Im interested in (please check all that apply) *. Daily Newsletter. *. Breaking News. ...
The interest rate is one of many external factors that can change the inputs in the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) ... The Impact of Interest Rates The Federal Reserve (Fed) has an enormous influence over short-term interest rates and WACC ... How Higher Interest Rates Raise a Companys WACC When the Fed raises interest rates, the risk-free rate immediately increases. ... Other Factors That Affect WACC Other external factors that can affect WACC include corporate tax rates, economic conditions, ...
... exposes the deceptions and conflicts of interest that occur in almost all facets of health care today for no reason other than ... exposes the deceptions and conflicts of interest that occur in almost all facets of health care today for no reason other than ... Conflicts of Interest Abound in Research. In the Ghost in the Machine series, we will review conflicts of interest in ... Drug Trials Now Riddled With Conflicts of Interest. The faster Pharma can get a drug to market, the more money it makes - even ...
... 4 min read . Updated: 18 Dec 2017, 05:32 PM IST Promotional Feature, HT ... For this, it is important to understand the factors affecting your car loan interest rate:. ● Maintain a good credit score: ... How can you get a low interest car loan?. The higher the interest rate, the higher is the cost of your car loan. There are ways ... Calculate the total interest payment for the chosen loan tenure and settle for one wherein your total interest payment is less. ...
... It is loose monetary policy that undermines the stock of real ... What will happen to interest rates because of an increase in money supply? An increase in the supply of money, all other things ... Furthermore, an increase in the growth momentum of money supply sets in motion a temporary fall in interest rates. Meanwhile, a ... Hence, the increase in the pool of real wealth will be associated with a lowering in the interest rate structure. ...
Im really hoping its a side effect that goes away after a while ...
If you are interested in the title for your course we can consider offering an examination copy. To register your interest ... It uses the voyage to great affect, as a model of outstanding interdisciplinary cooperation. It links people from anthropology ... to affect population health. Imagine Amartya Sen meets Erving Goffman..." - Dalton Conley, New York University ...
In this segment he focuses on interest rates. ... How Interest Rates Can Affect Your Bonds Value. by: MonkeySee. ... Permalink: How Interest Rates Can Affect Your Bonds Value http://www.articlecity.com/videos/business_and_finance/How-Interest- ... In this segment he focuses on interest rates. Share , Embed This Video: ArticleCity.com Videos then hit Ctrl+X on your keyboard ... Rates-Can-Affect-Your-Bonds-Value-516942563.php. More Videos on "Business And Finance".... Your Resume Objective. This video ...
Interesting - Virus That Only Affects Females.... page: 2 #liveFeed1, #liveFeed2, #liveFeed3 { margin: 40px 2px 50px 4px; width ...
... and the Feds interest rate decisions and their impact on foreign exchange rates. ... The Fed has now raised interest rates several times, and U.S. interest rates are consequently now higher than interest rates in ... despite widespread expectations of interest rate increases and - in the Feds case - actual interest rate increases. This ... Economic Theory: Rising Interest Rates Should Cause Exchange Rates to Rise. When central banks raise their policy rates - the ...
Interesting read - how certain compounds affect our bodies By LookingforAnswers15, January 9, 2016. in Related Issues & ... I came home and began thinking... my immune system was already overreacting so what affect this could have on me. Luckily, I ...
Prenatal exposure to male hormones influences which activities girls are interested and engage in, but the effects of those ... Hormones may affect girls interests, but not their gender identity or playmates. March 2, 2018. ... Prenatal exposure to male hormones influences which activities girls are interested and engage in, but the effects of those ... They interviewed the girls about their activity interests, gender identity and attitudes about gender roles, among other things ...
Hormones May Affect Girls Interests, But Not Gender Identity Or Playmates. March 5, 2018. Eurasia Review 0 Comments ... Prenatal exposure to male hormones influences which activities girls are interested and engage in, but the effects of those ... They interviewed the girls about their activity interests, gender identity and attitudes about gender roles, among other things ... So were trying to delve into how hormones and socialization both affect gender development." ...
Find out more about placebo effect. Kingston University London has a large variety of academics who are regarded as experts in ... If you already know the title of the course youre interested in, use our A-Z ... If you already know the title of the course youre interested in, use our A-Z ...
... including the effect of reinvested interest and the effect of the "pull to maturity" (a bond whose value is knocked down by an ... the instantaneous effect of an instantaneous interest rise. I wanted to see the effect of gradual rises and I wanted to see the ... Affect of Rising Interest Rates on Vanguard Total Bond Index. Have a question about your personal investments? No matter how ... Re: Affect of Rising Interest Rates on Vanguard Total Bond Index. * Quote ...
Interest in genetic testing among affected men from hereditary prostate cancer families and their unaffected male relatives.. ... 25%). There were several variables that were significantly correlated with interest in either affected or unaffected men, but ... Family members affected with prostate cancer (n = 559) and their unaffected male relatives (n = 370) completed a mailed survey ... Forty-five percent of affected and 56% of unaffected men reported that they definitely would take a genetic test for prostate ...
... is issuing an interim regulation describing the circumstances under which certain financial interests arising from Federal ... Certain Miscellaneous Exemptions Under 18 U.S.C. 208(b)(2) (Acts Affecting a Personal Financial Interest). A Rule by the ...
Interest rate rises depend on the pounds effect on inflation, says new BoE policymaker Kristin Forbes. By Camilla Canocchi for ... Economy tables: GDP, interest rates, inflation history, unemployment * RBS accused of widespread inappropriate treatment of ... New Bank of England policymaker Kristen Forbes has said a rise in interest rates would depend on whether inflation edges up or ... This mixed data over the past few days means interest rate rises should remain on the agenda at next weeks MPC meeting, ...
Prenatal exposure to male hormones influences which activities girls are interested and engage in, but the effects of those ... Hormones may affect girls interests, but not their gender identity or playmates. by Pennsylvania State University ... Hormones may affect girls interests, but not their gender identity or playmates. ... Citation: Hormones may affect girls interests, but not their gender identity or playmates (2018, March 1) retrieved 21 May ...
Factors Affecting Your CA Loan Interest Rate. Maria Gallucci. March 7, 2018. ... Check the interest rate: reputed lenders often provide competitive CA loan interest rates. Review every aspect of the loan ... The CA loan interest rate is often lowered, as compared to a regular personal loan or small business loan. ... It is also important to check the repayment tenor under each option and acquaint yourself with the interest rates. These ...
Using the Simon Effect in Simultaneity/Asynchrony Discrimination Tasks: Interest, Methods, and Limits. In: Timing and Time ... Using the Simon Effect in Simultaneity/Asynchrony Discrimination Tasks: Interest, Methods, and Limits ... The typical Simon effect, which represents the bias to press on the side of a single stimulus, may also affect the results: if ... Van der Lubbe R.H.J. , & E.L. Abrahamse (2011). The premotor theory of attention and the Simon effect. Acta Psychologica , 136 ...
Financial competing interests are varied; we were only able to evaluate the effect of three financial COI statements compared ... Does declaration of competing interests affect readers perceptions? A randomised trial. BMJ 2002;325:1391-2.doi:10.1136/bmj. ... Effect of different financial competing interest statements on readers perceptions of clinical educational articles: a ... Effect of different financial competing interest statements on readers perceptions of clinical educational articles: a ...
Leach has decided to borrow from State Bank, which charges 14% interest on loans. The loan will be due in... - 80876 ... 1 Answer to Effect on the accounting equation on payment of interest on the loan payable in due and in advance. On July 1, 2007 ... Effect on the accounting equation on payment of interest on the loan payable in due and in advance.... 1 answer below » ... Effect on the accounting equation on payment of interest on the loan payable in due and in advance. On July 1, 2007, Leach ...
  • The Royal Society of Chemistry offered £1000 for the best and most creative explanation of this phenomenon, known as the Mpemba effect. (rsc.org)
  • The Royal Society of Chemistry investigated the Mpemba Effect with Hermes2012 . (rsc.org)
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate potential sociodemographic, medical, psychosocial, and behavioral correlates of interest in genetic testing in men from hereditary prostate cancer families. (nih.gov)
  • To overcome this problem, the elicitor effect of water-soluble COS on the biosynthesis of both xanthones and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was evaluated in the present study. (springer.com)
  • The aims of this study were to determine the effect of MO leaf capsules on glucose control in therapy-naïve type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and to evaluate its safety. (hindawi.com)
  • The aim of this study is to explore the effect GJ extracts on transient focal CIR injury and neurons apoptosis and to clarify its possible underlying mechanisms in vivo . (hindawi.com)
  • We thank Dr. Shah for his interest in our study. (cmaj.ca)
  • When the answers do not coincide, the random-effects estimate may not reflect the actual effect in any particular population being studied and reflects a more conservative approach to the effect estimate because it directly incorporates between- studies variance (or inter-study heterogeneity) into the estimation algorithm. (cmaj.ca)
  • According to four Canadian psychologists, a study they have conducted shows that math anxiety, 'the feeling of fear and dread of performing mathematical calculations,' can negatively affect mathematical tasks much simpler and more basic than previously thought. (slashdot.org)
  • The University of Waterloo's news release about the study includes this interesting note: 'Previous studies have shown that a weakness in basic math abilities has a greater negative effect on employment opportunities than reading difficulties [do]. (slashdot.org)
  • A study explores historical fire activity associated with bison hunting by indigenous groups in North America, and suggests that fire use by indigenous hunters might have amplified the effect of climate variability on fire activity in the North American Great Plains. (pnas.org)
  • A study explores how various types of food affect both human health and the environment. (pnas.org)
  • The aim of the present prospective clinical study was the use of the HPF-MBWO technique to investigate the effect of thoraco-abdominal surgery on the lung, and to compare the changes in FRC and VI indices with the changes in conventional monitoring parameters. (ersjournals.com)
  • In conclusion, atorvastatin and rosuvastatin did not exert a significant effect on serum 25(OH)D levels in this study. (vitamindcouncil.org)
  • Comparative Effect of Atorvastatin and Rosuvastatin on 25-hydroxy-Vitamin D Levels in Non-diabetic Patients with Dyslipidaemia: A Prospective Randomized Open-label Pilot Study. (vitamindcouncil.org)
  • 5) The increasing mobility of workforce worldwide.The Reasons of Growing Interest in Culture Study 1) The globalization of business. (scribd.com)
  • The authors said that based on evidence and scientific literature, Zika targets astrocytes but until now, there is no study showing how it affects the cell's functioning. (news-medical.net)
  • The elder Steenburgh and Trevor Alcott of the National Weather Service have published a new study showing that mountains surrounding the Great Salt Lake play an important role in triggering some lake-effect snowstorms. (livescience.com)
  • Nearby mountains can enhance or dampen a lake-effect storm, depending on where they sit in relation to the lake, and they may even be necessary to triggersome lake-effect snowfall, the study finds. (livescience.com)
  • It is going to help us with weather prediction - helping forecasters recognize that in some lake-effect events, the mountains or hills can play an important role in triggering lake-effect snow bands" over large bodies of water,study author Jim Steenburgh said in a university release. (livescience.com)
  • Use these social-bookmarking links to share Pregnancy loss affects young women: study . (abc.net.au)
  • How might climate change affect I. ricinus host-seeking behavior (questing)? (wiley.com)
  • 2013 ). Vector-borne diseases are of major importance to the health and welfare of humans and other animals and to global economics (Harrus and Baneth 2005 ) and of particular concern is how vectors may respond to climate change, thus affecting disease risk. (wiley.com)
  • Primary and secondary outcomes Confidence in the article's conclusions (primary outcome), its importance, their level of interest in the article and their likelihood to change practice after reading it. (bmj.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS Addressing smokers' sensory experience that Light and Ultra Light cigarettes feel less harsh may be a promising strategy for changing their misconceptions about these cigarettes and enhancing their interest in quitting. (bmj.com)
  • 3. We determined whether any single trial exerted an undue influence on the overall results by conducting sensitivity analyses in which each trial was removed and the effect size recalculated. (cmaj.ca)
  • The sensitivity analysis did not identify any of the studies as exerting undue influence on the LDL-C effect estimate. (cmaj.ca)
  • Kobayashi N, Aoki S, Oba MS, Takahashi T, Hirahara F. Effect of umbilical cord entanglement and position on pregnancy outcomes. (nature.com)
  • Prenatal exposure to male hormones influences which activities girls are interested and engage in, but the effects of those hormones don't extend to gender identity or who they socialize with, according to Penn State researchers. (scienceblog.com)
  • By making research easy to access, and puts the academic needs of the researchers before the business interests of publishers. (intechopen.com)
  • University of Utah researchers explored the role that local topography plays in driving lake-effect snow with computer simulations of a lake-effect storm around Utah's Great Salt Lake , even with the relatively gentle terrain around the lake. (livescience.com)
  • I don't see any support for the hypothesis that math anxiety "affects" or "impacts" (per the article) basic math tasks. (slashdot.org)
  • In the following experiments, you'll learn whether each factor has a positive or negative effect on the solubility of different compounds. (education.com)
  • Given these metrics, and assuming no other factors come into play (i.e. all things equal), I would think there might be some negative affect on price but this may be more than offset by the yield. (bogleheads.org)
  • We aimed to clarify cardiopulmonary factors affecting the 6-min walk distance in patients who were able to walk without leg pain or fatigue. (springer.com)
  • Problem 9-9 Interest in Advance versus Interest Paid When Loan Is Due On July 1, 2014, Leach Company. (transtutors.com)
  • Problem 9-9 Interest in Advance versus Interest Paid When Loan Is Due On July 1, 2014, Leach Company needs exactly $103,200 in cash to pay an existing obligation. (transtutors.com)
  • Interest in Advance versus Interest Paid When Loan Is Due On July 1, 2008, Leach Company needs. (transtutors.com)
  • The biodiesel industry is rapidly expanding due to increasing awareness towards the alarming situation of global warming and the "food versus fuel debate" among policymakers, stakeholders, and the scientific community, giving rise to rejuvenated interest to develop a green biotechnological process for biodiesel feedstock microbial oil. (mdpi.com)
  • Nehme and coworkers tested out the effect of air versus oxygen on myocardial injury in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).1 When administered in the first 12 hours after STEMI oxygen was associated with a dose-dependent increase in troponin and creatine kinase. (bmj.com)
  • State Department spokesperson Heather Nauert had previously confirmed an "incident" occured, but the number of Americans affected had not been known. (usatoday.com)
  • State Department spokesperson Heather Nauert had previously confirmed an "incident" occurred in 2016, but the number of Americans affected had not been known. (usatoday.com)
  • An interesting fact about liver cancer is that there are two basic forms, which are primary and metastatic liver cancer. (reference.com)
  • No long-term effect of the chronic pain self-management course was found in comparison with a low-impact physical activity intervention for the primary outcome patient activation or for any secondary outcome. (springer.com)
  • Calculate the total interest payment for the chosen loan tenure and settle for one wherein your total interest payment is less. (livemint.com)
  • The aim of the chapter is to provide all the necessary information for the reader to train and calculate effects like the Simon effect by including some example data files (see Annex). (brill.com)
  • The direct effect of good economic conditions is to lower the risk of default, which reduces the default premium and the WACC. (investopedia.com)
  • The risks are lower if there's a more distant relative, such as a cousin or uncle affected with autism. (go.com)
  • Universities now have a "renewed interest in partnering with pharmaceutical companies and are investing resources to ensure successful collaborations," writes Pharma Voice. (mercola.com)
  • In conclusion, impaired DLCO due to interstitial lung disease was suggested to be a fundamental parameter affecting exercise capacity, in addition to heart involvement, in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. (springer.com)
  • Therefore, we hypothesized that accompanying interstitial lung disease may be a factor affecting exercise capacity in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, and examined which pulmonary function parameters affect exercise capacity. (springer.com)
  • MBWO can be advantageously used to measure the effect of surgery on the lung. (ersjournals.com)
  • We hypothesised that this technique can be advantageously used in a clinical setting to measure the effect of surgery on the lung. (ersjournals.com)
  • There were several variables that were significantly correlated with interest in either affected or unaffected men, but only age and familiarity with genetics were significant in both groups. (nih.gov)
  • For the gout review, participants rated articles with advisory board and consultancies COI as significantly less interesting than those with no COI (p=0.028 with Bonferroni correction). (bmj.com)
  • What we're showing here is a situation where the terrain is complicated.There are multiple mountain barriers, not just one, and they affect the air flow in a way that influences the development of the lake-effect storm over the lake and lowlands, rather than just over the mountains. (livescience.com)
  • Additionally, they found that the majority of girls with classical CAH identified as girls and had typical attitudes about gender, which could contribute to their interacting mainly with other girls, a pattern that suggests that hormones may not have an effect on gender identity and attitudes, according to Berenbaum. (scienceblog.com)
  • A recent report by Kozlowski and colleagues 5 suggests that exposure to a campaign to counter-market L/UL cigarettes via messages helped to change beliefs about these brands and to promote interest in cessation in a real world setting. (bmj.com)
  • They found that androgen exposure was not associated with girls spending more or less time in activities with other girls, but it was associated with an increased interest and more time spent in activities that have traditionally been thought of as masculine, like building things or playing or watching sports. (scienceblog.com)
  • The dynamics behaviors of Kaldor-Kalecki business cycle model with diffusion effect and time delay under the Neumann boundary conditions are investigated. (hindawi.com)
  • Redundancy analysis of the sequence data at the genus level indicated that sucrose addition ( P = 0.001), time point ( P = 0.001), and their interaction ( P = 0.001) affected microbial community composition in both phases. (frontiersin.org)
  • In summary, of the pre-ensiling treatments tested sucrose addition had the largest effect on the microbiota, and together with sampling time point affected microbiota composition in both phases of the rumen simulation system. (frontiersin.org)
  • Nielsen Digital Brand Effect is a market-leading solution that allows the entire digital media ecosystem to collaborate around measuring and optimizing brand lift metrics in real-time. (nielsen.com)
  • Nielsen Digital Brand Effect provides brand lift metrics in real-time via an intuitive, always-on interface. (nielsen.com)
  • When paired with our viewability and attention metrics, Nielsen's Digital Brand Effect provides us with an unparalleled view of how our campaigns are driving brand awareness for our clients in real -time. (nielsen.com)
  • Using Nielsen Digital Brand Effect gave us visibility into how our marketing efforts were impacting brand awareness in real-time. (nielsen.com)
  • In some cases, though, your credit card interest charges might fall below IRS penalties and interest you'd owe if you don't pay on time. (yahoo.com)
  • In view of the rising number of people affected by type-2 diabetes, and the fact that at least 30% of patients with diabetes suffer from an underlying chronic kidney disease, the experts believe it is high time that the diabetes population and the general public are warned. (news-medical.net)
  • The first area affected was the Chatham Islands where the tsunami struck at about 1am (New Zealand time) on 15 August. (wikipedia.org)
  • These observations help explain the effect of lithium on cell-fate determination and could provide insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of bipolar disorder. (pnas.org)
  • Smokers exposed to the message improved their factual understanding of the issue, and increased their reported interest in quitting smoking. (bmj.com)
  • The contrast between low levels of familiarity with genetics and high test interest among unaffected men highlights the need for increased educational efforts targeting hereditary prostate cancer families. (nih.gov)
  • The data from these surveys provide evidence of excessively high mortality (particularly among children), highlight the impact of ongoing violence, and underscore the need for humanitarian efforts to scale up access to treatment services in conflict-affected areas. (cdc.gov)
  • In theory, rational investors will select an investment with a return that is high enough to compensate for the lost opportunity of earning interest from the guaranteed Treasury note and for taking on additional risk. (investopedia.com)
  • Therefore, a company has to work harder to generate higher returns in a high-interest environment. (investopedia.com)
  • The potential tumor promoting effect of high folate status has been further suggested in other organs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The eye-catching colors of the lake stem from the fact that Great Salt Lake is hypersaline, typically 3-5 times saltier than the ocean, and the high salinities support sets of plants and animals that affect the light-absorbing qualities of the water. (nasa.gov)
  • But the simulations of lake-effect storms around the Great Salt Lake that Steenburgh and his colleagues ran showed that sometimes the influence of the mountains extended below the high mountain altitudes, triggering snow over lowlands and the lake itself when the mountains were downstream of the body of water. (livescience.com)
  • Here, we constructed various mutants by deleting sequences within the 3′ NTR of AlMV subgenomic (sg) RNA4 (same as of RNA3) and examined the effect of these deletions on replication and translation of chimeric Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) expressing AlMV sgRNA4 from the TMV CP sg promoter (Av/A4) in tobacco protoplasts and Nicotiana benthamiana plants. (mdpi.com)
  • To test the effect of including an additional harm anchor reference point in visual displays of laboratory test results, which indicates how far outside of the standard range values would need to be in order to suggest substantial patient risk. (jmir.org)
  • Effect of Powdered Activated Carbon to Reduce Fouling in Membrane Bioreactors: A Sustainable Solution. (mdpi.com)