Respiratory muscles that arise from the lower border of one rib and insert into the upper border of the adjoining rib, and contract during inspiration or respiration. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.
The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.
The ventral rami of the thoracic nerves from segments T1 through T11. The intercostal nerves supply motor and sensory innervation to the thorax and abdomen. The skin and muscles supplied by a given pair are called, respectively, a dermatome and a myotome.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.
Paired but separate cavity within the THORACIC CAVITY. It consists of the space between the parietal and visceral PLEURA and normally contains a capillary layer of serous fluid that lubricates the pleural surfaces.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
The twelve spinal nerves on each side of the thorax. They include eleven INTERCOSTAL NERVES and one subcostal nerve. Both sensory and motor, they supply the muscles and skin of the thoracic and abdominal walls.
The act of BREATHING in.
The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the RESIDUAL VOLUME and the EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is FRC.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)
Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
An abnormal passage communicating between any component of the respiratory tract or between any part of the respiratory system and surrounding organs.
Inherited myotonic disorders with early childhood onset MYOTONIA. Muscular hypertrophy is common and myotonia may impair ambulation and other movements. It is classified as Thomsen (autosomal dominant) or Becker (autosomal recessive) generalized myotonia mainly based on the inheritance pattern. Becker type is also clinically more severe. An autosomal dominant variant with milder symptoms and later onset is known as myotonia levior. Mutations in the voltage-dependent skeletal muscle chloride channel are associated with the disorders.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.
Catalyzes the reduction of tetrazolium compounds in the presence of NADH.
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A long, narrow, and flat bone commonly known as BREASTBONE occurring in the midsection of the anterior thoracic segment or chest region, which stabilizes the rib cage and serves as the point of origin for several muscles that move the arms, head, and neck.
Characteristics of ELECTRICITY and magnetism such as charged particles and the properties and behavior of charged particles, and other phenomena related to or associated with electromagnetism.
Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.
The outer margins of the thorax containing SKIN, deep FASCIA; THORACIC VERTEBRAE; RIBS; STERNUM; and MUSCLES.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.

Short-term synchronization of intercostal motoneurone activity. (1/190)

1. The hypothesis is advanced that the joint occurrence of unitary excitatory post-synaptic potentials e.p.s.p.s) evoked in motoneurones by branches of common stem pre-synaptic fibres causes short-term synchronization of their discharge during the rising phases of the unitary e.p.s.p.s. 2. This hypothesis was tested using the pre- and post-stimulus time (PPST) histogram to detect synchronized firing among groups of intercostal motoneurones discharging in response to their natural synaptic drives. 3. Motor nerve action potentials were recorded monophasically from nerve filaments of the external intercostal muscles of anaesthetized, paralysed cats maintained on artificial ventilation. 4. Computer methods were used to measure peak spike amplitude, spike amplitude, spike interval and filament identification for simultaneous recordings from four filaments. The spike amplitude histograms were derived for each filament and groups of spikes were selected for analysis. 5. With spikes of one group designated as 'stimuli' (occurring at zero time) and those of a second as 'response' the PPST histogram was computed with different time bin widths. 6. With bin widths of 100 and 10 msec the central respiratory periodicity was apparent in the PPST histogram. With 1.0 msec bins the PPST histogram showed a narrow central peak extending to +/- 3.0 msec at its base. This 'short-term synchronization' supports the hypothesis of joint firing due to common presynaptic connectivity. 7. It was shown that detection of short-term synchronization was critically dependent on a sufficient quantity of data but that provided a simple criterion of adequate counts per bin in the PPST histogram was met, short-term synchronization could be detected between intercostal motoneurones of the same and adjacent segments.  (+info)

Pattern of expiratory muscle activation during lower thoracic spinal cord stimulation. (2/190)

Large positive airway pressures (Paws) can be generated by lower thoracic spinal cord stimulation (SCS), which may be a useful method of restoring cough in spinal cord-injured patients. Optimal electrode placement, however, requires an assessment of the pattern of current spread during SCS. Studies were performed in anesthetized dogs to assess the pattern of expiratory muscle recruitment during SCS applied at different spinal cord levels. A multicontact stimulating electrode was positioned over the surface of the lower thoracic and upper lumbar spinal cord. Recording electromyographic electrodes were placed at several locations in the abdominal and internal intercostal muscles. SCS was applied at each lead, in separate trials, with single shocks of 0.2-ms duration. The intensity of stimulation was adjusted to determine the threshold for development of the compound action potential at each electrode lead. The values of current threshold for activation of each muscle formed parabolas with minimum values at specific spinal root levels. The slopes of the parabolas were relatively steep, indicating that the threshold for muscle activation increases rapidly at more cephalad and caudal sites. These results were compared with the effectiveness of SCS (50 Hz; train duration, 1-2 s) at different spinal cord levels to produce changes in Paw. Stimulation at the T9 and T10 spinal cord level resulted in the largest positive Paws with a single lead. At these sites, threshold values for activation of the internal intercostal (7-11th interspaces) upper portions of external oblique, rectus abdominis, and transversus abdominis were near their minimum. Threshold values for activation of the caudal portions of the abdominal muscles were high (>50 mA). Our results indicate that 1) activation of the more cephalad portions of the abdominal muscles is more important than activation of caudal regions in the generation of positive Paws and 2) it is not possible to achieve complete activation of the expiratory muscles with a single electrode lead by using modest current levels. In support of this latter conclusion, a two-electrode lead system results in more uniform expiratory muscle activation and significantly greater changes in Paw.  (+info)

Respiratory mechanical advantage of the canine external and internal intercostal muscles. (3/190)

1. The current conventional view of intercostal muscle actions is based on the theory of Hamberger (1749) and maintains that as a result of the orientation of the muscle fibres, the external intercostals have an inspiratory action on the lung and the internal interosseous intercostals have an expiratory action. This notion, however, remains unproved. 2. In the present studies, the respiratory actions of the canine external and internal intercostal muscles were evaluated by applying the Maxwell reciprocity theorem. Thus the effects of passive inflation on the changes in length of the muscles throughout the rib cage were assessed, and the distributions of muscle mass were determined. The fractional changes in muscle length during inflation were then multiplied by muscle mass and maximum active stress (3.0 kg cm-2) to evaluate the potential effects of the muscles on the lung. 3. The external intercostals in the dorsal third of the rostral interspaces were found to have a large inspiratory effect. However, this effect decreases rapidly both toward the costochondral junctions and toward the base of the rib cage. As a result, it is reversed to an expiratory effect in the most caudal interspaces. The internal intercostals in the caudal interspaces have a large expiratory effect, but this effect decreases ventrally and rostrally, such that it is reversed to an inspiratory effect in the most rostral interspaces. 4. These observations indicate that the canine external and internal intercostal muscles do not have distinct inspiratory and expiratory actions as conventionally thought. Therefore, their effects on the lung during breathing will be determined by the topographic distribution of neural drive.  (+info)

Spatial distribution of external and internal intercostal activity in dogs. (4/190)

1. The observation that the external and internal interosseous intercostal muscles in the dog show marked regional differences in mechanical advantage has prompted us to re-examine the topographic distribution of electrical activity among these muscles during spontaneous breathing. 2. Inspiratory activity was recorded only from the areas of the external intercostals with an inspiratory mechanical advantage, and expiratory activity was recorded only from the areas of the internal intercostals with an expiratory mechanical advantage. The expiratory discharges previously recorded from the caudal external intercostals and the inspiratory discharges recorded from the rostral internal intercostals were probably due to cross-contamination. 3. Activity in each muscle area was also quantified relative to the activity measured during tetanic, supramaximal nerve stimulation (maximal activity). External intercostal inspiratory activity was consistently greater in the areas with a greater inspiratory advantage (i.e. the dorsal aspect of the rostral segments) than in the areas with a smaller inspiratory advantage, and internal intercostal expiratory activity was invariably greatest in the areas with the greatest expiratory advantage (i.e. the dorsal aspect of the caudal segments). 4. This topographic distribution of neural drive confers to the external intercostal muscles an inspiratory action on the lung during breathing and to the internal interosseous intercostals an expiratory action.  (+info)

The temperature sensitivity of miniature endplate currents is mostly governed by channel gating: evidence from optimized recordings and Monte Carlo simulations. (5/190)

The temperature dependence of miniature endplate current (MEPC) amplitude (A(c)), 20-80% rise time (t(r)), and 90-33% fall-time (t(f)) was determined for lizard (Anolis carolinensis) intercostal muscle using broadband extracellular (EC) and voltage clamp (VC) recordings. Voltage clamp methods were optimized for the fast MEPC rising phase using custom electronics. From 0-43 degrees C, A(c) increased by approximately 4.2-fold, while t(r) and t(f) decreased by approximately 3.6- and approximately 9.5-fold, respectively. Arrhenius plots were smoothly curved, with small apparent Q(10) (A(c)) or (Q(10))(-1) (t(r) and t(f)) values mostly well below 2.0. Nearly identical extracellular and voltage clamp results ruled out measurement artifacts, even for the shortest t(r) values (<60 microseconds). Monte Carlo simulation of MEPCs showed that a single underlying rate cannot determine the observed temperature dependence. To quantitatively reproduce the experimental t(f) results, a minimal model required activation energies of 46.0 (Q(10) approximately 2.0) and 63.6 (Q(10) approximately 2.5) kJ mol(-1) for channel opening and closing, respectively, and accounted for most of the observed changes in A(c) and t(r) as well. Thus, relatively large but offsetting temperature sensitivities of channel gating mostly govern and minimize the temperature dependence of MEPCs, preserving the safety factor for neuromuscular transmission. Additional temperature-sensitive parameters that could fine-tune the minimal model are discussed.  (+info)

Muscle kinematics for minimal work of breathing. (6/190)

A mathematical model was analyzed to obtain a quantitative and testable representation of the long-standing hypothesis that the respiratory muscles drive the chest wall along the trajectory for which the work of breathing is minimal. The respiratory system was modeled as a linear elastic system that can be expanded either by pressure applied at the airway opening (passive inflation) or by active forces in respiratory muscles (active inflation). The work of active expansion was calculated, and the distribution of muscle forces that produces a given lung expansion with minimal work was computed. The calculated expression for muscle force is complicated, but the corresponding kinematics of muscle shortening is simple: active inspiratory muscles shorten more during active inflation than during passive inflation, and the ratio of active to passive shortening is the same for all active muscles. In addition, the ratio of the minimal work done by respiratory muscles during active inflation to work required for passive inflation is the same as the ratio of active to passive muscle shortening. The minimal-work hypothesis was tested by measurement of the passive and active shortening of the internal intercostal muscles in the parasternal region of two interspaces in five supine anesthetized dogs. Fractional changes in muscle length were measured by sonomicrometry during passive inflation, during quiet breathing, and during forceful inspiratory efforts against a closed airway. Active muscle shortening during quiet breathing was, on average, 70% greater than passive shortening, but it was only weakly correlated with passive shortening. Active shortening inferred from the data for more forceful inspiratory efforts was approximately 40% greater than passive shortening and was highly correlated with passive shortening. These data support the hypothesis that, during forceful inspiratory efforts, muscle activation is coordinated so as to expand the chest wall with minimal work.  (+info)

Characterization of the early development of specific hypaxial muscles from the ventrolateral myotome. (7/190)

We have previously found that the myotome is formed by a first wave of pioneer cells generated along the medial epithelial somite and a second wave emanating from the dorsomedial lip (DML), rostral and caudal edges of the dermomyotome (Kahane, N., Cinnamon, Y. and Kalcheim, C. (1998a) Mech. Dev. 74, 59-73; Kahane, N., Cinnamon, Y. and Kalcheim, C. (1998b) Development 125, 4259-4271). In this study, we have addressed the development and precise fate of the ventrolateral lip (VLL) in non-limb regions of the axis. To this end, fluorescent vital dyes were iontophoretically injected in the center of the VLL and the translocation of labeled cells was followed by confocal microscopy. VLL-derived cells colonized the ventrolateral portion of the myotome. This occurred following an early longitudinal cell translocation along the medial boundary until reaching the rostral or caudal dermomyotome lips from which fibers emerged into the myotome. Thus, the behavior of VLL cells parallels that of their DML counterparts which colonize the opposite, dorsomedial portion of the myotome. To precisely understand the way the myotome expands, we addressed the early generation of hypaxial intercostal muscles. We found that intercostal muscles were formed by VLL-derived fibers that intermingled with fibers emerging from the ventrolateral aspect of both rostral and caudal edges of the dermomyotome. Notably, hypaxial intercostal muscles also contained pioneer myofibers (first wave) showing for the first time that lateral myotome-derived muscles contain a fundamental component of fibers generated in the medial domain of the somite. In addition, we show that during myotome growth and evolution into muscle, second-wave myofibers progressively intercalate between the pioneer fibers, suggesting a constant mode of myotomal expansion in its dorsomedial to ventrolateral extent. This further suggests that specific hypaxial muscles develop following a consistent ventral expansion of a 'compound myotome' into the somatopleure.  (+info)

Postinspiratory activity of the parasternal and external intercostal muscles in awake canines. (8/190)

Previous studies have shown in awake dogs that activity in the crural diaphragm, but not in the costal diaphragm, usually persists after the end of inspiratory airflow. It has been suggested that this difference in postinspiratory activity results from greater muscle spindle content in the crural diaphragm. To evaluate the relationship between muscle spindles and postinspiratory activity, we have studied the pattern of activation of the parasternal and external intercostal muscles in the second to fourth interspaces in eight chronically implanted animals. Recordings were made on 2 or 3 successive days with the animals breathing quietly in the lateral decubitus position. The two muscles discharged in phase with inspiration, but parasternal intercostal activity usually terminated with the cessation of inspiratory flow, whereas external intercostal activity persisted for 24.7 +/- 12.3% of inspiratory time (P < 0.05). Forelimb elevation in six animals did not affect postinspiratory activity in the parasternal but prolonged postinspiratory activity in the external intercostal to 45.4 +/- 16.3% of inspiratory time (P < 0.05); in two animals, activity was still present at the onset of the next inspiratory burst. These observations support the concept that muscle spindles are an important determinant of postinspiratory activity. The absence of such activity in the parasternal intercostals and costal diaphragm also suggests that the mechanical impact of postinspiratory activity on the respiratory system is smaller than conventionally thought.  (+info)

The intercostal muscles are a group of muscles located between the ribs (intercostal spaces) in the thoracic region of the body. They play a crucial role in the process of breathing by assisting in the expansion and contraction of the chest wall during inspiration and expiration.

There are two sets of intercostal muscles: the external intercostals and the internal intercostals. The external intercostals run from the lower edge of one rib to the upper edge of the next lower rib, forming a layer that extends from the tubercles of the ribs down to the costochondral junctions (where the rib meets the cartilage). These muscles help elevate the ribcage during inspiration.

The internal intercostals are deeper and run in the opposite direction, originating at the lower edge of a rib and inserting into the upper edge of the next higher rib. They assist in lowering the ribcage during expiration.

Additionally, there is a third layer called the innermost intercostal muscles, which are even deeper than the internal intercostals and have similar functions. The intercostal membranes connect the ends of the ribs and complete the muscle layers between the ribs. Together, these muscles help maintain the structural integrity of the chest wall and contribute to respiratory function.

In medical terms, ribs are the long, curved bones that make up the ribcage in the human body. They articulate with the thoracic vertebrae posteriorly and connect to the sternum anteriorly via costal cartilages. There are 12 pairs of ribs in total, and they play a crucial role in protecting the lungs and heart, allowing room for expansion and contraction during breathing. Ribs also provide attachment points for various muscles involved in respiration and posture.

A diaphragm is a thin, dome-shaped muscle that separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity. It plays a vital role in the process of breathing as it contracts and flattens to draw air into the lungs (inhalation) and relaxes and returns to its domed shape to expel air out of the lungs (exhalation).

In addition, a diaphragm is also a type of barrier method of birth control. It is a flexible dome-shaped device made of silicone that fits over the cervix inside the vagina. When used correctly and consistently, it prevents sperm from entering the uterus and fertilizing an egg, thereby preventing pregnancy.

Intercostal nerves are the bundles of nerve fibers that originate from the thoracic spinal cord (T1 to T11) and provide sensory and motor innervation to the thorax, abdomen, and walls of the chest. They run between the ribs (intercostal spaces), hence the name intercostal nerves.

Each intercostal nerve has two components:

1. The lateral cutaneous branch: This branch provides sensory innervation to the skin on the side of the chest wall and abdomen.
2. The anterior cutaneous branch: This branch provides sensory innervation to the skin on the front of the chest and abdomen.

Additionally, each intercostal nerve also gives off a muscular branch that supplies motor innervation to the intercostal muscles (the muscles between the ribs) and the upper abdominal wall muscles. The lowest intercostal nerve (T11) also provides sensory innervation to a small area of skin over the buttock.

Intercostal nerves are important in clinical practice, as they can be affected by various conditions such as herpes zoster (shingles), rib fractures, or thoracic outlet syndrome, leading to pain and sensory changes in the chest wall.

A muscle is a soft tissue in our body that contracts to produce force and motion. It is composed mainly of specialized cells called muscle fibers, which are bound together by connective tissue. There are three types of muscles: skeletal (voluntary), smooth (involuntary), and cardiac. Skeletal muscles attach to bones and help in movement, while smooth muscles are found within the walls of organs and blood vessels, helping with functions like digestion and circulation. Cardiac muscle is the specific type that makes up the heart, allowing it to pump blood throughout the body.

Respiratory muscles are a group of muscles involved in the process of breathing. They include the diaphragm, intercostal muscles (located between the ribs), scalene muscles (located in the neck), and abdominal muscles. These muscles work together to allow the chest cavity to expand or contract, which draws air into or pushes it out of the lungs. The diaphragm is the primary muscle responsible for breathing, contracting to increase the volume of the chest cavity and draw air into the lungs during inhalation. The intercostal muscles help to further expand the ribcage, while the abdominal muscles assist in exhaling by compressing the abdomen and pushing up on the diaphragm.

Respiratory mechanics refers to the biomechanical properties and processes that involve the movement of air through the respiratory system during breathing. It encompasses the mechanical behavior of the lungs, chest wall, and the muscles of respiration, including the diaphragm and intercostal muscles.

Respiratory mechanics includes several key components:

1. **Compliance**: The ability of the lungs and chest wall to expand and recoil during breathing. High compliance means that the structures can easily expand and recoil, while low compliance indicates greater resistance to expansion and recoil.
2. **Resistance**: The opposition to airflow within the respiratory system, primarily due to the friction between the air and the airway walls. Airway resistance is influenced by factors such as airway diameter, length, and the viscosity of the air.
3. **Lung volumes and capacities**: These are the amounts of air present in the lungs during different phases of the breathing cycle. They include tidal volume (the amount of air inspired or expired during normal breathing), inspiratory reserve volume (additional air that can be inspired beyond the tidal volume), expiratory reserve volume (additional air that can be exhaled beyond the tidal volume), and residual volume (the air remaining in the lungs after a forced maximum exhalation).
4. **Work of breathing**: The energy required to overcome the resistance and elastic forces during breathing. This work is primarily performed by the respiratory muscles, which contract to generate negative intrathoracic pressure and expand the chest wall, allowing air to flow into the lungs.
5. **Pressure-volume relationships**: These describe how changes in lung volume are associated with changes in pressure within the respiratory system. Important pressure components include alveolar pressure (the pressure inside the alveoli), pleural pressure (the pressure between the lungs and the chest wall), and transpulmonary pressure (the difference between alveolar and pleural pressures).

Understanding respiratory mechanics is crucial for diagnosing and managing various respiratory disorders, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and restrictive lung diseases.

Electromyography (EMG) is a medical diagnostic procedure that measures the electrical activity of skeletal muscles during contraction and at rest. It involves inserting a thin needle electrode into the muscle to record the electrical signals generated by the muscle fibers. These signals are then displayed on an oscilloscope and may be heard through a speaker.

EMG can help diagnose various neuromuscular disorders, such as muscle weakness, numbness, or pain, and can distinguish between muscle and nerve disorders. It is often used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests, such as nerve conduction studies, to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the nervous system.

EMG is typically performed by a neurologist or a physiatrist, and the procedure may cause some discomfort or pain, although this is usually minimal. The results of an EMG can help guide treatment decisions and monitor the progression of neuromuscular conditions over time.

Muscle spindles are specialized sensory organs found within the muscle belly, which primarily function as proprioceptors, providing information about the length and rate of change in muscle length. They consist of small, encapsulated bundles of intrafusal muscle fibers that are interspersed among the extrafusal muscle fibers (the ones responsible for force generation).

Muscle spindles have two types of sensory receptors called primary and secondary endings. Primary endings are located near the equatorial region of the intrafusal fiber, while secondary endings are situated more distally. These endings detect changes in muscle length and transmit this information to the central nervous system (CNS) through afferent nerve fibers.

The activation of muscle spindles plays a crucial role in reflexive responses, such as the stretch reflex (myotatic reflex), which helps maintain muscle tone and joint stability. Additionally, they contribute to our sense of body position and movement awareness, known as kinesthesia.

The pleural cavity is the potential space between the visceral and parietal pleura, which are the two membranes that surround the lungs. The visceral pleura covers the outside of the lungs, while the parietal pleura lines the inside of the chest wall. Under normal conditions, these two layers are in contact with each other, and the space between them is virtually nonexistent. However, when air, fluid or inflammation accumulates within this space, it results in the formation of a pleural effusion, which can cause discomfort and difficulty breathing.

Medical Definition of Respiration:

Respiration, in physiology, is the process by which an organism takes in oxygen and gives out carbon dioxide. It's also known as breathing. This process is essential for most forms of life because it provides the necessary oxygen for cellular respiration, where the cells convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and releases waste products, primarily carbon dioxide.

In humans and other mammals, respiration is a two-stage process:

1. Breathing (or external respiration): This involves the exchange of gases with the environment. Air enters the lungs through the mouth or nose, then passes through the pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchi, finally reaching the alveoli where the actual gas exchange occurs. Oxygen from the inhaled air diffuses into the blood, while carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism, diffuses from the blood into the alveoli to be exhaled.

2. Cellular respiration (or internal respiration): This is the process by which cells convert glucose and other nutrients into ATP, water, and carbon dioxide in the presence of oxygen. The carbon dioxide produced during this process then diffuses out of the cells and into the bloodstream to be exhaled during breathing.

In summary, respiration is a vital physiological function that enables organisms to obtain the necessary oxygen for cellular metabolism while eliminating waste products like carbon dioxide.

Thoracic nerves are the 12 paired nerves that originate from the thoracic segment (T1-T12) of the spinal cord. These nerves provide motor and sensory innervation to the trunk and abdomen, specifically to the muscles of the chest wall, the skin over the back and chest, and some parts of the abdomen. They also contribute to the formation of the sympathetic trunk, which is a part of the autonomic nervous system that regulates unconscious bodily functions such as heart rate and digestion. Each thoracic nerve emerges from the intervertebral foramen, a small opening between each vertebra, and splits into anterior and posterior branches to innervate the corresponding dermatomes and myotomes.

Inhalation is the act or process of breathing in where air or other gases are drawn into the lungs. It's also known as inspiration. This process involves several muscles, including the diaphragm and intercostal muscles between the ribs, working together to expand the chest cavity and decrease the pressure within the thorax, which then causes air to flow into the lungs.

In a medical context, inhalation can also refer to the administration of medications or therapeutic gases through the respiratory tract, typically using an inhaler or nebulizer. This route of administration allows for direct delivery of the medication to the lungs, where it can be quickly absorbed into the bloodstream and exert its effects.

Functional Residual Capacity (FRC) is the volume of air that remains in the lungs after normal expiration during quiet breathing. It represents the sum of the residual volume (RV) and the expiratory reserve volume (ERV). The FRC is approximately 2.5-3.5 liters in a healthy adult. This volume of air serves to keep the alveoli open and maintain oxygenation during periods of quiet breathing, as well as providing a reservoir for additional ventilation during increased activity or exercise.

Muscle contraction is the physiological process in which muscle fibers shorten and generate force, leading to movement or stability of a body part. This process involves the sliding filament theory where thick and thin filaments within the sarcomeres (the functional units of muscles) slide past each other, facilitated by the interaction between myosin heads and actin filaments. The energy required for this action is provided by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Muscle contractions can be voluntary or involuntary, and they play a crucial role in various bodily functions such as locomotion, circulation, respiration, and posture maintenance.

The phrenic nerve is a motor nerve that originates from the cervical spine (C3-C5) and descends through the neck to reach the diaphragm, which is the primary muscle used for breathing. The main function of the phrenic nerve is to innervate the diaphragm and control its contraction and relaxation, thereby enabling respiration.

Damage or injury to the phrenic nerve can result in paralysis of the diaphragm, leading to difficulty breathing and potentially causing respiratory failure. Certain medical conditions, such as neuromuscular disorders, spinal cord injuries, and tumors, can affect the phrenic nerve and impair its function.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Dogs" is not a medical term or condition. It is the common name for a domesticated carnivore of the family Canidae, specifically the genus Canis, which includes wolves, foxes, and other extant and extinct species of mammals. Dogs are often kept as pets and companions, and they have been bred in a wide variety of forms and sizes for different purposes, such as hunting, herding, guarding, assisting police and military forces, and providing companionship and emotional support.

If you meant to ask about a specific medical condition or term related to dogs, please provide more context so I can give you an accurate answer.

The abdominal muscles, also known as the abdominals or abs, are a group of muscles in the anterior (front) wall of the abdominopelvic cavity. They play a crucial role in maintaining posture, supporting the trunk, and facilitating movement of the torso. The main abdominal muscles include:

1. Rectus Abdominis: These are the pair of long, flat muscles that run vertically along the middle of the anterior abdominal wall. They are often referred to as the "six-pack" muscles due to their visible, segmented appearance in well-trained individuals. The primary function of the rectus abdominis is to flex the spine, allowing for actions such as sitting up from a lying down position or performing a crunch exercise.

2. External Obliques: These are the largest and most superficial of the oblique muscles, located on the lateral (side) aspects of the abdominal wall. They run diagonally downward and forward from the lower ribs to the iliac crest (the upper part of the pelvis) and the pubic tubercle (a bony prominence at the front of the pelvis). The external obliques help rotate and flex the trunk, as well as assist in side-bending and exhalation.

3. Internal Obliques: These muscles lie deep to the external obliques and run diagonally downward and backward from the lower ribs to the iliac crest, pubic tubercle, and linea alba (the strong band of connective tissue that runs vertically along the midline of the abdomen). The internal obliques help rotate and flex the trunk, as well as assist in forced exhalation and increasing intra-abdominal pressure during actions such as coughing or lifting heavy objects.

4. Transversus Abdominis: This is the deepest of the abdominal muscles, located inner to both the internal obliques and the rectus sheath (a strong, fibrous covering that surrounds the rectus abdominis). The transversus abdominis runs horizontally around the abdomen, attaching to the lower six ribs, the thoracolumbar fascia (a broad sheet of connective tissue spanning from the lower back to the pelvis), and the pubic crest (the front part of the pelvic bone). The transversus abdominis helps maintain core stability by compressing the abdominal contents and increasing intra-abdominal pressure.

Together, these muscles form the muscular "corset" of the abdomen, providing support, stability, and flexibility to the trunk. They also play a crucial role in respiration, posture, and various movements such as bending, twisting, and lifting.

Respiratory physiological phenomena refer to the various mechanical, chemical, and biological processes and functions that occur in the respiratory system during breathing and gas exchange. These phenomena include:

1. Ventilation: The movement of air into and out of the lungs, which is achieved through the contraction and relaxation of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles.
2. Gas Exchange: The diffusion of oxygen (O2) from the alveoli into the bloodstream and carbon dioxide (CO2) from the bloodstream into the alveoli.
3. Respiratory Mechanics: The physical properties and forces that affect the movement of air in and out of the lungs, such as lung compliance, airway resistance, and chest wall elasticity.
4. Control of Breathing: The regulation of ventilation by the central nervous system through the integration of sensory information from chemoreceptors and mechanoreceptors in the respiratory system.
5. Acid-Base Balance: The maintenance of a stable pH level in the blood through the regulation of CO2 elimination and bicarbonate balance by the respiratory and renal systems.
6. Oxygen Transport: The binding of O2 to hemoglobin in the red blood cells and its delivery to the tissues for metabolic processes.
7. Defense Mechanisms: The various protective mechanisms that prevent the entry and colonization of pathogens and foreign particles into the respiratory system, such as mucociliary clearance, cough reflex, and immune responses.

Skeletal muscle, also known as striated or voluntary muscle, is a type of muscle that is attached to bones by tendons or aponeuroses and functions to produce movements and support the posture of the body. It is composed of long, multinucleated fibers that are arranged in parallel bundles and are characterized by alternating light and dark bands, giving them a striped appearance under a microscope. Skeletal muscle is under voluntary control, meaning that it is consciously activated through signals from the nervous system. It is responsible for activities such as walking, running, jumping, and lifting objects.

Muscle denervation is a medical term that refers to the loss of nerve supply to a muscle or group of muscles. This can occur due to various reasons, such as injury to the nerves, nerve compression, or certain medical conditions like neuromuscular disorders. When the nerve supply to the muscle is interrupted, it can lead to muscle weakness, atrophy (wasting), and ultimately, paralysis.

In denervation, the communication between the nervous system and the muscle is disrupted, which means that the muscle no longer receives signals from the brain to contract and move. Over time, this can result in significant muscle wasting and disability, depending on the severity and extent of the denervation.

Denervation may be treated with various therapies, including physical therapy, medication, or surgical intervention, such as nerve grafting or muscle transfers, to restore function and prevent further muscle wasting. The specific treatment approach will depend on the underlying cause and severity of the denervation.

A respiratory tract fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between the respiratory tract (which includes the nose, throat, windpipe, and lungs) and another organ or structure, such as the skin, digestive tract, or blood vessels. This condition can lead to complications such as air leakage, infection, and difficulty breathing. The causes of respiratory tract fistulas vary and can include trauma, surgery, infection, or cancer. Treatment depends on the location and severity of the fistula and may involve surgical repair, antibiotics, or other therapies.

Myotonia Congenita is a genetic muscle disorder characterized by delayed relaxation after voluntary muscle contraction, leading to stiffness or difficulty in relaxing the muscles following use. This muscle stiffness is called myotonia and can be aggravated by voluntary muscle action, such as handgrip or walking, and also occurs after periods of rest.

There are two main forms of Myotonia Congenita: Thomsen's disease (autosomal dominant inheritance) and Becker's disease (autosomal recessive inheritance). The disorder is caused by mutations in the CLCN1 gene, which encodes a chloride channel that helps regulate muscle excitability.

Myotonia Congenita primarily affects skeletal muscles, causing stiffness and cramping, but it does not typically affect muscle strength or size. Symptoms usually begin in childhood and may improve with repeated muscle use (warm-up phenomenon). Treatment options include medication to reduce muscle stiffness and physical therapy to maintain muscle flexibility and strength.

Muscle proteins are a type of protein that are found in muscle tissue and are responsible for providing structure, strength, and functionality to muscles. The two major types of muscle proteins are:

1. Contractile proteins: These include actin and myosin, which are responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscles. They work together to cause muscle movement by sliding along each other and shortening the muscle fibers.
2. Structural proteins: These include titin, nebulin, and desmin, which provide structural support and stability to muscle fibers. Titin is the largest protein in the human body and acts as a molecular spring that helps maintain the integrity of the sarcomere (the basic unit of muscle contraction). Nebulin helps regulate the length of the sarcomere, while desmin forms a network of filaments that connects adjacent muscle fibers together.

Overall, muscle proteins play a critical role in maintaining muscle health and function, and their dysregulation can lead to various muscle-related disorders such as muscular dystrophy, myopathies, and sarcopenia.

Smooth muscle, also known as involuntary muscle, is a type of muscle that is controlled by the autonomic nervous system and functions without conscious effort. These muscles are found in the walls of hollow organs such as the stomach, intestines, bladder, and blood vessels, as well as in the eyes, skin, and other areas of the body.

Smooth muscle fibers are shorter and narrower than skeletal muscle fibers and do not have striations or sarcomeres, which give skeletal muscle its striped appearance. Smooth muscle is controlled by the autonomic nervous system through the release of neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine and norepinephrine, which bind to receptors on the smooth muscle cells and cause them to contract or relax.

Smooth muscle plays an important role in many physiological processes, including digestion, circulation, respiration, and elimination. It can also contribute to various medical conditions, such as hypertension, gastrointestinal disorders, and genitourinary dysfunction, when it becomes overactive or underactive.

Airway obstruction is a medical condition that occurs when the normal flow of air into and out of the lungs is partially or completely blocked. This blockage can be caused by a variety of factors, including swelling of the tissues in the airway, the presence of foreign objects or substances, or abnormal growths such as tumors.

When the airway becomes obstructed, it can make it difficult for a person to breathe normally. They may experience symptoms such as shortness of breath, wheezing, coughing, and chest tightness. In severe cases, airway obstruction can lead to respiratory failure and other life-threatening complications.

There are several types of airway obstruction, including:

1. Upper airway obstruction: This occurs when the blockage is located in the upper part of the airway, such as the nose, throat, or voice box.
2. Lower airway obstruction: This occurs when the blockage is located in the lower part of the airway, such as the trachea or bronchi.
3. Partial airway obstruction: This occurs when the airway is partially blocked, allowing some air to flow in and out of the lungs.
4. Complete airway obstruction: This occurs when the airway is completely blocked, preventing any air from flowing into or out of the lungs.

Treatment for airway obstruction depends on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, removing the obstruction may be as simple as clearing the airway of foreign objects or mucus. In other cases, more invasive treatments such as surgery may be necessary.

NADH-Tetrazolium Reductase, also known as NADH Dehydrogenase or Complex I, is an enzyme complex in the electron transport chain located within the inner mitochondrial membrane. It catalyzes the oxidation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydride (NADH) to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), and the reduction of ubiquinone (CoQ) to ubiquinol. This reaction contributes to the production of ATP, which is the primary source of energy for cellular metabolism.

The enzyme complex consists of several subunits, including flavoproteins and iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters, which facilitate the transfer of electrons from NADH to CoQ. The reduction of CoQ leads to the formation of a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane, which drives the synthesis of ATP by ATP synthase.

NADH-Tetrazolium Reductase is also an important site for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, particularly superoxide radicals, which can contribute to oxidative stress and cellular damage in certain pathological conditions.

Skeletal muscle fibers, also known as striated muscle fibers, are the type of muscle cells that make up skeletal muscles, which are responsible for voluntary movements of the body. These muscle fibers are long, cylindrical, and multinucleated, meaning they contain multiple nuclei. They are surrounded by a connective tissue layer called the endomysium, and many fibers are bundled together into fascicles, which are then surrounded by another layer of connective tissue called the perimysium.

Skeletal muscle fibers are composed of myofibrils, which are long, thread-like structures that run the length of the fiber. Myofibrils contain repeating units called sarcomeres, which are responsible for the striated appearance of skeletal muscle fibers. Sarcomeres are composed of thick and thin filaments, which slide past each other during muscle contraction to shorten the sarcomere and generate force.

Skeletal muscle fibers can be further classified into two main types based on their contractile properties: slow-twitch (type I) and fast-twitch (type II). Slow-twitch fibers have a high endurance capacity and are used for sustained, low-intensity activities such as maintaining posture. Fast-twitch fibers, on the other hand, have a higher contractile speed and force generation capacity but fatigue more quickly and are used for powerful, explosive movements.

A smooth muscle within the vascular system refers to the involuntary, innervated muscle that is found in the walls of blood vessels. These muscles are responsible for controlling the diameter of the blood vessels, which in turn regulates blood flow and blood pressure. They are called "smooth" muscles because their individual muscle cells do not have the striations, or cross-striped patterns, that are observed in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells. Smooth muscle in the vascular system is controlled by the autonomic nervous system and by hormones, and can contract or relax slowly over a period of time.

The thorax is the central part of the human body, located between the neck and the abdomen. In medical terms, it refers to the portion of the body that contains the heart, lungs, and associated structures within a protective cage made up of the sternum (breastbone), ribs, and thoracic vertebrae. The thorax is enclosed by muscles and protected by the ribcage, which helps to maintain its structural integrity and protect the vital organs contained within it.

The thorax plays a crucial role in respiration, as it allows for the expansion and contraction of the lungs during breathing. This movement is facilitated by the flexible nature of the ribcage, which expands and contracts with each breath, allowing air to enter and exit the lungs. Additionally, the thorax serves as a conduit for major blood vessels, such as the aorta and vena cava, which carry blood to and from the heart and the rest of the body.

Understanding the anatomy and function of the thorax is essential for medical professionals, as many conditions and diseases can affect this region of the body. These may include respiratory disorders such as pneumonia or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiovascular conditions like heart attacks or aortic aneurysms, and musculoskeletal issues involving the ribs, spine, or surrounding muscles.

The sternum, also known as the breastbone, is a long, flat bone located in the central part of the chest. It serves as the attachment point for several muscles and tendons, including those involved in breathing. The sternum has three main parts: the manubrium at the top, the body in the middle, and the xiphoid process at the bottom. The upper seven pairs of ribs connect to the sternum via costal cartilages.

Electromagnetic phenomena refer to the interactions and effects that occur due to the combination of electrically charged particles and magnetic fields. These phenomena are described by the principles of electromagnetism, a branch of physics that deals with the fundamental forces between charged particles and their interaction with electromagnetic fields.

Electromagnetic phenomena can be observed in various forms, including:

1. Electric fields: The force that exists between charged particles at rest or in motion. Positive charges create an electric field that points away from them, while negative charges create an electric field that points towards them.
2. Magnetic fields: The force that exists around moving charges or current-carrying wires. Magnets and moving charges produce magnetic fields that exert forces on other moving charges or current-carrying wires.
3. Electromagnetic waves: Self-propagating disturbances in electric and magnetic fields, which can travel through space at the speed of light. Examples include visible light, radio waves, microwaves, and X-rays.
4. Electromagnetic induction: The process by which a changing magnetic field generates an electromotive force (EMF) in a conductor, leading to the flow of electric current.
5. Faraday's law of induction: A fundamental principle that relates the rate of change of magnetic flux through a closed loop to the induced EMF in the loop.
6. Lenz's law: A consequence of conservation of energy, which states that the direction of an induced current is such that it opposes the change in magnetic flux causing it.
7. Electromagnetic radiation: The emission and absorption of electromagnetic waves by charged particles undergoing acceleration or deceleration.
8. Maxwell's equations: A set of four fundamental equations that describe how electric and magnetic fields interact, giving rise to electromagnetic phenomena.

In a medical context, electromagnetic phenomena can be harnessed for various diagnostic and therapeutic applications, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), electrocardiography (ECG), electromyography (EMG), and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS).

Muscle development, also known as muscle hypertrophy, refers to the increase in size and mass of the muscles through a process called myofiber growth. This is primarily achieved through resistance or strength training exercises that cause micro-tears in the muscle fibers, leading to an inflammatory response and the release of hormones that promote muscle growth. As the muscles repair themselves, they become larger and stronger than before. Proper nutrition, including adequate protein intake, and rest are also essential components of muscle development.

It is important to note that while muscle development can lead to an increase in strength and muscular endurance, it does not necessarily result in improved athletic performance or overall fitness. A well-rounded exercise program that includes cardiovascular activity, flexibility training, and resistance exercises is recommended for optimal health and fitness outcomes.

The thoracic wall refers to the anatomical structure that surrounds and protects the chest cavity or thorax, which contains the lungs, heart, and other vital organs. It is composed of several components:

1. Skeletal framework: This includes the 12 pairs of ribs, the sternum (breastbone) in the front, and the thoracic vertebrae in the back. The upper seven pairs of ribs are directly attached to the sternum in the front through costal cartilages. The lower five pairs of ribs are not directly connected to the sternum but are joined to the ribs above them.
2. Muscles: The thoracic wall contains several muscles, including the intercostal muscles (located between the ribs), the scalene muscles (at the side and back of the neck), and the serratus anterior muscle (on the sides of the chest). These muscles help in breathing by expanding and contracting the ribcage.
3. Soft tissues: The thoracic wall also contains various soft tissues, such as fascia, nerves, blood vessels, and fat. These structures support the functioning of the thoracic organs and contribute to the overall stability and protection of the chest cavity.

The primary function of the thoracic wall is to protect the vital organs within the chest cavity while allowing for adequate movement during respiration. Additionally, it provides a stable base for the attachment of various muscles involved in upper limb movement and posture.

In medical terms, pressure is defined as the force applied per unit area on an object or body surface. It is often measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) in clinical settings. For example, blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the arteries and is recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (when the heart beats and pushes blood out) and diastolic pressure (when the heart rests between beats).

Pressure can also refer to the pressure exerted on a wound or incision to help control bleeding, or the pressure inside the skull or spinal canal. High or low pressure in different body systems can indicate various medical conditions and require appropriate treatment.

Motor neurons are specialized nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord that play a crucial role in controlling voluntary muscle movements. They transmit electrical signals from the brain to the muscles, enabling us to perform actions such as walking, talking, and swallowing. There are two types of motor neurons: upper motor neurons, which originate in the brain's motor cortex and travel down to the brainstem and spinal cord; and lower motor neurons, which extend from the brainstem and spinal cord to the muscles. Damage or degeneration of these motor neurons can lead to various neurological disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA).

Electric stimulation, also known as electrical nerve stimulation or neuromuscular electrical stimulation, is a therapeutic treatment that uses low-voltage electrical currents to stimulate nerves and muscles. It is often used to help manage pain, promote healing, and improve muscle strength and mobility. The electrical impulses can be delivered through electrodes placed on the skin or directly implanted into the body.

In a medical context, electric stimulation may be used for various purposes such as:

1. Pain management: Electric stimulation can help to block pain signals from reaching the brain and promote the release of endorphins, which are natural painkillers produced by the body.
2. Muscle rehabilitation: Electric stimulation can help to strengthen muscles that have become weak due to injury, illness, or surgery. It can also help to prevent muscle atrophy and improve range of motion.
3. Wound healing: Electric stimulation can promote tissue growth and help to speed up the healing process in wounds, ulcers, and other types of injuries.
4. Urinary incontinence: Electric stimulation can be used to strengthen the muscles that control urination and reduce symptoms of urinary incontinence.
5. Migraine prevention: Electric stimulation can be used as a preventive treatment for migraines by applying electrical impulses to specific nerves in the head and neck.

It is important to note that electric stimulation should only be administered under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional, as improper use can cause harm or discomfort.

Innermost intercostal muscle also known as intercostalis intimus are deep layers of the internal intercostal muscles which are ... The intercostal muscles comprise many different groups of muscles that run between the ribs, and help form and move the chest ... The scalene muscles, which also move the chest wall and have a function in inhalation, are also intercostal muscles, just not ... The muscle fibers are directed downwards, forwards and medially in the anterior part. Internal intercostal muscles also known ...
Explore comprehensive knowledge about the anatomy of the sixth ribs inferior border.
Tag: intercostal muscles. Why Does It Hurt So Badly When I Breathe? And How To Fix It…. "It hurts to breathe." Have you ever ...
But, sleep doesnt have to be painful even with an intercostal muscle strain. So, how to sleep with intercostal muscle strain? ... Maintain the proper body alignment to sleep with intercostal muscle pain. ... Intercostal muscle strain is the injury affecting the muscles between the ribs. Such an injury can make sleeping painful. ... What are the intercostal muscles?. The intercostal muscles are two layers of muscle fibers. These layered muscles are located ...
MIAMI (AP) - The Marlins placed infielder Jake Burger on the 10-day injured list Monday because of a left intercostal muscle ... Marlins Jake Burger placed on injured list with left intercostal muscle strain. Apr. 15, 2024 17:44 PM EDT ...
These findings suggest that the SmO2BP measured using a portable NIRS device in the intercostal muscles is a reliable and valid ... Assessment of Intercostal Muscle Near-Infrared Spectroscopy for Estimating Respiratory Compensation Point in Trained Endurance ... Assessment of Intercostal Muscle Near-Infrared Spectroscopy for Estimating Respiratory Compensation Point in Trained Endurance ... measured in the intercostal muscles was compared to the RCP, which was identified by the increase in the VE/V. CO2 slope and ...
Rest and Recovery: How to Sleep With Intercostal Muscle Strain By Danielle Pacheco November 22, 2023 ...
Marlins Jake Burger placed on injured list with left intercostal muscle strain. ...
Intercostal retractions occur when the muscles between the ribs pull inward. The movement is most often a sign that the person ... Intercostal retractions occur when the muscles between the ribs pull inward. The movement is most often a sign that the person ... The intercostal muscles are the muscles between the ribs. During breathing, these muscles normally tighten and pull the rib ... Intercostal retractions occur when the muscles between the ribs pull inward. The movement is most often a sign that the person ...
... the external intercostal muscles, internal intercostal muscles, innermost intercostal muscles, subcostalis, and transversus ... Other minor accessory muscles that attach to the thorax include the scalene muscles and the sternocleidomastoid muscle, both of ... The diaphragm is another muscle in the thorax that serves as the main muscle of inspiration. It also makes up the floor of the ... These muscles are primarily responsible for changing the volume of the thoracic cavity during respiration. Other muscles that ...
Longest and strongest muscle, rider sits on them. Intercostal muscles. Spaces between ribs ... An Introduction to the Muscles of the horse and their uses. Muscles of the forehand Muscle / Ligament ... Muscles of the trunk, back and ribs. Muscles support the spine together with 3 ligaments and abdominal muscles. ... Muscles in the hindquarters. Hindquarters are the engine of the horse, they should be well developed, strong to move the horse ...
Puncture the intercostal muscles and parietal pleura; spread the hemostat wide to create an adequate opening ... as compared with the second intercostal location (7.9 ± 1.8 mm Hg). [11] The fifth intercostal location may be less suitable ... Needle length in persons with large pectoral muscles may be an issue, and long needles or angiocatheters may be necessary. [4, ... 10] Needle occlusion due to pigtail catheter kinking has been shown to be a risk of the fifth intercostal location in austere ...
Vastus lateralis, intercostal muscle, and tongue. Albendazole. Died. Visvesvara et al. 2005 (7). 11/M. Y/ALL. Skin lesions. ...
Doctors call the muscles in this area the intercostal muscles.. Intercostal neuralgia causes. a sharp, burning pain that ... Intercostal neuralgia. Intercostal neuralgia affects the nerves that sit just below the ribs. ... involuntary muscle twitching or cramping. Where these pains originate in the body depends on the type of neuralgia a person is ... Several potential factors may contribute to intercostal neuralgia, such as:. *injuries or surgical procedures that involve the ...
Other muscles that can be involved in inhalation include[1]: * External intercostal muscles ...
"It stretches my intercostal muscles and lengthens my spine, which helps my breathing and my running." ... "Exercise improves the conditioning of the diaphragm, the muscle that separates the chest from the abdomen, and the intercostal ... respiratory muscles and leg muscles. They found a direct link-runners whose breathing was the most strained showed the most leg ... Just as we strength-train our hamstrings and calves to improve our ability to power over hills, we can tone the muscles used ...
Additional coverage options include intercostal muscle flaps, pericardium, or autologous tissue products.. Proximal pouch ... The chest can be entered with a Veress needle in the 5th intercostal space between the mid and posterior axillary line. ...
The histogenesis of rat intercostal muscle. J. Cell Biol.. 42. , 135. -153. ... Muscle precursor cells injected into irradiated mdx mouse muscle persist after serial injury. Muscle Nerve ... Muscle precursor cells injected into irradiated mdx mouse muscle persist after serial injury. Muscle Nerve ... Dynamics of nuclei of muscle fibers and connective tissue cells in normal and denervated rat muscles. Muscle Nerve ...
4a) (data not shown). Axons that project toward intercostal and limb muscles were present in both wild-type and nestin-Itgb1Ko ... die at birth with muscle defects and non-inflated lungs. Overall muscle mass is reduced, and the remaining muscle fibers are ... β1 Integrins in Muscle, But Not in Motor Neurons, Are Required for Skeletal Muscle Innervation. Martin Schwander, Ryuichi ... We therefore asked whether the loss of β1 integrins in muscle could interfere with the formation of AChR clusters in the muscle ...
The sternum and rib bones were the most resistant to perforation, followed by the scapula and intercostal muscle. For both FSPs ...
You have intercostal muscles showing and veins on your stomach you are great shape.. [/QUOTE]. Thanks for the critique good sir ... Lift heavy and bulk for 6-12 months, eat big, and gain 15lbs of muscle. Dont worry about fat gains. Then you cut. If you cut ... Ultimately I would like to get my body fat percentage under 10% and put on some muscle as I know I have virtually none. Im ... I would advise if you choice to bulk to add some accessory work in to help with stronglifts program as it does lack some muscle ...
pectoral muscle, intercostal, or diaphragm stimulation. *. thrombosis: within access vein, inferior vena cava, right atrium ...
It is a thick, fan-shaped muscle that lies underneath the breast tissue ... The pectoralis major is the superior most and largest muscle of the anterior chest wall. ... Does chest pain feel like a pulled muscle?. Your intercostal muscles are located between your ribs. They help control your ... How do I build my pectoral muscles?. To make sure you work all the chest muscles, include a mix of motions in your chest ...
Mild sensory loss is combined with weakness in the limbs, diaphragm, intercostal muscle, and vocal cords, which can lead to ... Muscle strength was reduced to four fifths and was worse distally. Deep tendon reflexes were absent. Plantar responses were ... MRI of the muscles may also help in the differentiation between CMT1A and CMT2A. CMT1A patients have more significant ... Weakness rarely spreads to proximal leg or arm muscles. Patients with DSS are more likely to lose their ability to ambulate ...
337 - Internal Intercostal Muscle Influence on Diaphragm Strength and Postural Static Balance ...
IAP determined by strength of muscles around it. - Front and sides: transverse abdominous and interc-ostal muscles ... Stand behind patient and place thumbs on paraspinal muscles with second and third fingers over patients lower ribs, fourth and ... Excessive paraspinal muscle contra-cti-on/-ini-tiation of breathing from chest than abdomen ... Myofascial release of accessory muscles of breathing (upper traps, scalenes, ls, SCM and pecs) ...
... adjacent intercostal muscle, and surrounding tissues.. Histopathological examination of the resected specimen revealed ... As the mass steadily grew in size, the lesion was resected en bloc with the affected rib and muscle. The histopathological ... metastatic adenocarcinoma of the costal bone with invasion of the adjacent intercostal muscle. The tumor morphology closely ... posterior brunch approached from the 7th intercostal space and into the posterior brunch approached from the 9th intercostal ...
... muscle relaxants, stimulant laxatives, and antispastics. Statins, metformin, and thiazide diuretics had insignificant ... Tricyclic antidepressants, non-opioids, muscle relaxants, and vitamin E had the highest associative increases in survival ... ALS patients already have compromised respiration due to the paralyzing effects on ALS on the diaphragm and intercostal muscles ... Muscle Control. head drop, jaw jerk, toe walk, atrophy, fasciculation. Oral Muscle Control. drooling, tongue atrophy, tongue ...
The bodys main inhalation muscles are the diaphragm and inner intercostals. The main exhalation muscles are inner intercostals ... We are misled to believe that "cardio" will improve our ability to "catch our breath." We have 10 pounds of breathing muscles ... The first step is correcting the mechanics of our breath, so we are using the muscles designed for breathing. These certainly ... Yoga breathing exercises sometimes come close to truly focusing on breathing muscles, but often include an isometric hold in ...

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