Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.
Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.
A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).
Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.
Peptides that have the ability to enter cells by crossing the plasma membrane directly, or through uptake by the endocytotic pathway.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A 36-amino acid peptide produced by the L cells of the distal small intestine and colon. Peptide YY inhibits gastric and pancreatic secretion.
DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.
A PEPTIDE of 22 amino acids, derived mainly from cells of VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM. It is also found in the BRAIN, major endocrine glands, and other tissues. It shares structural homology with ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR. It has vasorelaxant activity thus is important in the regulation of vascular tone and blood flow. Several high molecular weight forms containing the 22 amino acids have been identified.
Peptides that regulate the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in the body, also known as natriuretic peptide hormones. Several have been sequenced (ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR; BRAIN NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE; C-TYPE NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE).
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Neuropeptide and gut hormone that helps regulate GASTRIC ACID secretion and motor function. Once released from nerves in the antrum of the STOMACH, the neuropeptide stimulates release of GASTRIN from the GASTRIN-SECRETING CELLS.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that was originally identified by its ability to bind N-formyl peptides such as N-FORMYLMETHIONINE LEUCYL-PHENYLALANINE. Since N-formyl peptides are found in MITOCHONDRIA and BACTERIA, this class of receptors is believed to play a role in mediating cellular responses to cellular damage and bacterial invasion. However, non-formylated peptide ligands have also been found for this receptor class.
A 27-amino acid peptide with histidine at the N-terminal and isoleucine amide at the C-terminal. The exact amino acid composition of the peptide is species dependent. The peptide is secreted in the intestine, but is found in the nervous system, many organs, and in the majority of peripheral tissues. It has a wide range of biological actions, affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and central nervous systems.
Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
Cell surface receptors that bind peptide messengers with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The endogenous peptides with opiate-like activity. The three major classes currently recognized are the ENKEPHALINS, the DYNORPHINS, and the ENDORPHINS. Each of these families derives from different precursors, proenkephalin, prodynorphin, and PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN, respectively. There are also at least three classes of OPIOID RECEPTORS, but the peptide families do not map to the receptors in a simple way.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
The structure of one molecule that imitates or simulates the structure of a different molecule.
A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Peptide sequences, generated by iterative rounds of SELEX APTAMER TECHNIQUE, that bind to a target molecule specifically and with high affinity.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Cell surface proteins that bind VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE; (VIP); with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Cell surface proteins that bind ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. They contain intrinsic guanylyl cyclase activity.
Proteins obtained from species in the class of AMPHIBIANS.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
Basic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It contains 26 amino acids, has cytolytic properties, causes contracture of muscle, releases histamine, and disrupts surface tension, probably due to lysis of cell and mitochondrial membranes.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
Peptides derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of pancreatic GLUCAGON. Despite expression of proglucagon in multiple tissues, the major production site of glucagon-like peptides (GLPs) is the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLPs include glucagon-like peptide 1, glucagon-like peptide 2, and the various truncated forms.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
Family of antimicrobial peptides that have been identified in humans, animals, and plants. They are thought to play a role in host defenses against infections, inflammation, wound repair, and acquired immunity.
Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.
Peptides composed of two amino acid units.
A class of antimicrobial peptides discovered in the skin of XENOPUS LAEVIS. They kill bacteria by permeabilizing cell membranes without exhibiting significant toxicity against mammalian cells.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
Cell surface proteins that bind CALCITONIN GENE-RELATED PEPTIDE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. CGRP receptors are present in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and the periphery. They are formed via the heterodimerization of the CALCITONIN RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN and RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEIN 1.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Antimicrobial cationic peptides with a highly conserved amino terminal cathelin-like domain and a more variable carboxy terminal domain. They are initially synthesized as preproproteins and then cleaved. They are expressed in many tissues of humans and localized to EPITHELIAL CELLS. They kill nonviral pathogens by forming pores in membranes.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
One of the three major groups of endogenous opioid peptides. They are large peptides derived from the PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN precursor. The known members of this group are alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin. The term endorphin is also sometimes used to refer to all opioid peptides, but the narrower sense is used here; OPIOID PEPTIDES is used for the broader group.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
A tetradecapeptide originally obtained from the skins of toads Bombina bombina and B. variegata. It is also an endogenous neurotransmitter in many animals including mammals. Bombesin affects vascular and other smooth muscle, gastric secretion, and renal circulation and function.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.
A 33-amino acid peptide derived from the C-terminal of PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. It stimulates intestinal mucosal growth and decreased apoptosis of ENTEROCYTES. GLP-2 enhances gastrointestinal function and plays an important role in nutrient homeostasis.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Cell surface proteins that bind bombesin or closely related peptides with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Gastrin- releasing peptide (GRP); GRP 18-27 (neuromedin C), and neuromedin B are endogenous ligands of bombesin receptors in mammals.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
DEFENSINS found mainly in epithelial cells.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The enzymatic synthesis of PEPTIDES without an RNA template by processes that do not use the ribosomal apparatus (RIBOSOMES).
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A cyclized derivative of L-GLUTAMIC ACID. Elevated blood levels may be associated with problems of GLUTAMINE or GLUTATHIONE metabolism.
N-(N-(N(2)-(N-(N-(N-(N-D-Alanyl L-seryl)-L-threonyl)-L-threonyl) L-threonyl)-L-asparaginyl)-L-tyrosyl) L-threonine. Octapeptide sharing sequence homology with HIV envelope protein gp120. It is potentially useful as antiviral agent in AIDS therapy. The core pentapeptide sequence, TTNYT, consisting of amino acids 4-8 in peptide T, is the HIV envelope sequence required for attachment to the CD4 receptor.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
DEFENSINS found in azurophilic granules of neutrophils and in the secretory granules of intestinal PANETH CELLS.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of AMYLOID PLAQUES are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
One of the three major families of endogenous opioid peptides. The enkephalins are pentapeptides that are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the adrenal medulla.
A 52-amino acid peptide with multi-functions. It was originally isolated from PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA and ADRENAL MEDULLA but is widely distributed throughout the body including lung and kidney tissues. Besides controlling fluid-electrolyte homeostasis, adrenomedullin is a potent vasodilator and can inhibit pituitary ACTH secretion.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).
A non-aqueous co-solvent that serves as tool to study protein folding. It is also used in various pharmaceutical, chemical and engineering applications.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.
A pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide receptor subtype found in LYMPHOCYTES. It binds both PACAP and VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE and regulates immune responses.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
A cyclic nonadecapeptide antibiotic that can act as an ionophore and is produced by strains of Trichoderma viride. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A molluscan neuroactive peptide which induces a fast excitatory depolarizing response due to direct activation of amiloride-sensitive SODIUM CHANNELS. (From Nature 1995; 378(6558): 730-3)
A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
Enzymes that act at a free C-terminus of a polypeptide to liberate a single amino acid residue.

Expression and differential regulation of connective tissue growth factor in pancreatic cancer cells. (1/7961)

CTGF is an immediate early growth responsive gene that has been shown to be a downstream mediator of TGFbeta actions in fibroblasts and vascular endothelial cells. In the present study hCTGF was isolated as immediate early target gene of EGF/TGFalpha in human pancreatic cancer cells by suppression hybridization. CTGF transcripts were found in 13/15 pancreatic cancer cell lines incubated with 10% serum. In 3/7 pancreatic cancer cell lines EGF/TGFalpha induced a significant rise of CTGF transcript levels peaking 1-2 h after the start of treatment. TGFbeta increased CTGF transcript levels in 2/7 pancreatic cancer cell lines after 4 h of treatment and this elevation was sustained after 24 h. Only treatment with TGFbeta was accompanied by a parallel induction of collagen type I transcription. 15/19 human pancreatic cancer tissues were shown to overexpress high levels of CTGF transcripts. CTGF transcript levels in pancreatic cancer tissues and nude mouse xenograft tumors showed a good correlation to the degree of fibrosis. In situ hybridization and the nude mouse experiments revealed that in pancreatic cancer tissues, fibroblasts are the predominant site of CTGF transcription, whereas the tumor cells appear to contribute to a lesser extent. We conclude that CTGF may be of paramount importance for the development of the characteristic desmoplastic reaction in pancreatic cancer tissues.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel angiopoietin family protein, angiopoietin-3. (2/7961)

Using homology-based PCR, we have isolated cDNA encoding a novel member (491 amino acids) of the angiopoietin (Ang) family from human adult heart cDNA and have designated it angiopoietin-3 (Ang3). The NH2-terminal and COOH-terminal portions of Ang-3 contain the characteristic coiled-coil domain and fibrinogen-like domain that are conserved in other known Angs. Ang3 has a highly hydrophobic region at the N-terminus (approximately 21 amino acids) that is typical of a signal sequence for protein secretion. Ang3 mRNA is most abundant in adrenal gland, placenta, thyroid gland, heart and small intestine in human adult tissues. Additionally, Ang3 is a secretory protein, but is not a mitogen in endothelial cells.  (+info)

Suppression subtractive hybridization identifies high glucose levels as a stimulus for expression of connective tissue growth factor and other genes in human mesangial cells. (3/7961)

Accumulation of mesangial matrix is a pivotal event in the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy. The molecular triggers for matrix production are still being defined. Here, suppression subtractive hybridization identified 15 genes differentially induced when primary human mesangial cells are exposed to high glucose (30 mM versus 5 mM) in vitro. These genes included (a) known regulators of mesangial cell activation in diabetic nephropathy (fibronectin, caldesmon, thrombospondin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1), (b) novel genes, and (c) known genes whose induction by high glucose has not been reported. Prominent among the latter were genes encoding cytoskeleton-associated proteins and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a modulator of fibroblast matrix production. In parallel experiments, elevated CTGF mRNA levels were demonstrated in glomeruli of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy. Mannitol provoked less mesangial cell CTGF expression in vitro than high glucose, excluding hyperosmolality as the key stimulus. The addition of recombinant CTGF to cultured mesangial cells enhanced expression of extracellular matrix proteins. High glucose stimulated expression of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1), and addition of TGF-beta1 to mesangial cells triggered CTGF expression. CTGF expression induced by high glucose was partially suppressed by anti-TGF-beta1 antibody and by the protein kinase C inhibitor GF 109203X. Together, these data suggest that 1) high glucose stimulates mesangial CTGF expression by TGFbeta1-dependent and protein kinase C dependent pathways, and 2) CTGF may be a mediator of TGFbeta1-driven matrix production within a diabetic milieu.  (+info)

Isolation of novel GRO genes and a phylogenetic analysis of the CXC chemokine subfamily in mammals. (4/7961)

Approximately 15 different alpha, or CXC, chemokines have thus far been isolated from 11 species of mammals. Among the best studied chemokines are the 12 human proteins that are encoded by 11 paralogous genes. In order to better understand the evolution and function of this group of genes, we isolated and characterized six novel GRO and GRO-related cDNA sequences from the cow (Bos taurus), the sheep (Ovis aries), the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), and the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus). The amino acid sequence of the diverged guinea pig GRO or KC gene is only 50%-60% similar to presumed orthologs from other species, while the sheep and cow GRO proteins are 90%-99% similar to each other. The presence of multiple GRO genes in the cow, the rabbit, and the sheep is consistent with what has been observed for humans. Phylogenetic analyses of amino acid sequences from 44 proteins indicate that genes orthologous to many of the 11 known from humans exist in other species. One such gene, interleukin 8, or IL8, has been isolated from nine species, including the rodent guinea pig; however, this gene is absent in the rat and the mouse, indicating a unique gene loss event in the rat/mouse (muroid rodent) lineage. The KC (or MIP2) gene of rodents appears to be orthologous to the GRO gene found in other taxonomic orders. Combined evidence from different sources suggests that IP10 and MIG share sister taxon relationships on the evolutionary tree, while the remaining paralogous genes represent independent lineages, with limited evidence for kinship between them. This observation indicates that these genes originated nearly contemporaneously via a series of gene duplication events. Relative-rate tests for synonymous and nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions in the KC and IL8 genes did not detect rate heterogeneity; however, there are several notable features regarding the IL8 genes. For example, the IL8 proteins from two Old World monkeys are as similar to one another as they are to the IL8 protein from humans, and all observed nucleotide differences between the IL8 genes of the two monkeys cause amino acid changes; in other words, there are no synonymous differences between them.  (+info)

Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor/diphtheria toxin receptor expression by acute myeloid leukemia cells. (5/7961)

Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is an EGF family member expressed by numerous cell types that binds to EGF receptor 1 (HER-1) or 4 (HER-4) inducing mitogenic and/or chemotactic activities. Membrane-bound HB-EGF retains growth activity and adhesion capabilities and the unique property of being the receptor for diphtheria toxin (DT). The interest in studying HB-EGF in acute leukemia stems from these mitogenic, chemotactic, and receptor functions. We analyzed the expression of HB-EGF in L428, Raji, Jurkat, Karpas 299, L540, 2C8, HL-60, U937, THP-1, ML-3, and K562 cell lines and in primary blasts from 12 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases, by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Northern blot and by the evaluation of sensitivity to DT. The release of functional HB-EGF was assessed by evaluation of its proliferative effects on the HB-EGF-sensitive Balb/c 3T3 cell line. HB-EGF was expressed by all myeloid and T, but not B (L428, Raji), lymphoid cell lines tested, as well as by the majority (8 of 12) of ex vivo AML blasts. Cell lines (except for the K562 cell line) and AML blasts expressing HB-EGF mRNA underwent apoptotic death following exposure to DT, thus demonstrating the presence of the HB-EGF molecule on their membrane. Leukemic cells also released a fully functional HB-EGF molecule that was mitogenic for the Balb/c 3T3 cell line. Factors relevant to the biology of leukemic growth, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), 1alpha,25-(OH)2D3, and especially all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), upregulated HB-EGF mRNA in HL-60 or ML-3 cells. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) induced HB-EGF mRNA and acquisition of sensitivity to DT in one previously HB-EGF-negative leukemia case. Moreover, the U937 and Karpas 299 cell lines expressed HER-4 mRNA. This work shows that HB-EGF is a growth factor produced by primary leukemic cells and regulated by ATRA, 1alpha, 25-(OH)2D3, and GM-CSF.  (+info)

Molecular cloning of mouse and bovine chondromodulin-II cDNAs and the growth-promoting actions of bovine recombinant protein. (6/7961)

We previously determined the complete primary sequence of a heparin-binding growth-promoting factor, chondromodulin-II (ChM-II), which stimulated the growth of chondrocytes and osteoblasts in culture. Bovine ChM-II was a 16-kDa basic protein with 133 amino acid residues and exhibited a significant sequence similarity to the repeats of the chicken mim-1 gene product. Here we report the nucleotide sequences of bovine and mouse ChM-II cDNAs. The cDNAs each contained an open-reading frame corresponding to the ChM-II precursor with 151 amino acid residues. The N-terminus of the precursor included a secretory signal sequence of 18 amino acids prior to the mature ChM-II sequence. Unlike MIM-1, there was no repeat structure in the precursor protein, indicating that ChM-II was encoded as a gene product distinct from MIM-1. We then expressed recombinant bovine ChM-II protein which was purified to homogeneity. The recombinant protein stimulated the growth of rabbit growth plate chondrocytes, mouse MC3T3-E1 cells and rat UMR-106 osteoblastic cells in vitro.  (+info)

Angiopoietins 3 and 4: diverging gene counterparts in mice and humans. (7/7961)

The angiopoietins have recently joined the members of the vascular endothelial growth factor family as the only known growth factors largely specific for vascular endothelium. The angiopoietins include a naturally occurring agonist, angiopoietin-1, as well as a naturally occurring antagonist, angiopoietin-2, both of which act by means of the Tie2 receptor. We now report our attempts to use homology-based cloning approaches to identify new members of the angiopoietin family. These efforts have led to the identification of two new angiopoietins, angiopoietin-3 in mouse and angiopoietin-4 in human; we have also identified several more distantly related sequences that do not seem to be true angiopoietins, in that they do not bind to the Tie receptors. Although angiopoietin-3 and angiopoietin-4 are strikingly more structurally diverged from each other than are the mouse and human versions of angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2, they appear to represent the mouse and human counterparts of the same gene locus, as revealed in our chromosomal localization studies of all of the angiopoietins in mouse and human. The structural divergence of angiopoietin-3 and angiopoietin-4 appears to underlie diverging functions of these counterparts. Angiopoietin-3 and angiopoietin-4 have very different distributions in their respective species, and angiopoietin-3 appears to act as an antagonist, whereas angiopoietin-4 appears to function as an agonist.  (+info)

The head inducer Cerberus is a multifunctional antagonist of Nodal, BMP and Wnt signals. (8/7961)

Embryological and genetic evidence indicates that the vertebrate head is induced by a different set of signals from those that organize trunk-tail development. The gene cerberus encodes a secreted protein that is expressed in anterior endoderm and has the unique property of inducing ectopic heads in the absence of trunk structures. Here we show that the cerberus protein functions as a multivalent growth-factor antagonist in the extracellular space: it binds to Nodal, BMP and Wnt proteins via independent sites. The expression of cerberus during gastrulation is activated by earlier nodal-related signals in endoderm and by Spemann-organizer factors that repress signalling by BMP and Wnt. In order for the head territory to form, we propose that signals involved in trunk development, such as those involving BMP, Wnt and Nodal proteins, must be inhibited in rostral regions.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Stimulation of PC cell-derived growth factor (Epithelin/Granulin precursor) expression by estradiol in human breast cancer cells. AU - Lu, Runqing. AU - Serrero, Ginette. PY - 1999/3/5. Y1 - 1999/3/5. N2 - PC cell-derived growth factor (PCDGF) is an 88 kDa glycosylated protein isolated from a highly tumorigenic mouse teratoma derived cell line which is similar to the epithelin/granulin precursor. Using Northern blot and western blot analyses, we detect the expression of PCDGF mRNA and protein in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. We show that 17-β-estradiol stimulates PCDGF mRNA and protein expression in a time and dose-dependent manner. The stimulation of PCDGF expression by 17-β-estradiol was observed as early as 4 hours and reached a maximum at 12 hours. Maximal stimulation of PCDGF mRNA and protein expression by 17-β-estradiol was observed at a concentration of 10-8 M. The stimulation of PCDGF expression by 17-β-estradiol was completely inhibited by treatment with ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Solution structure and heparin interaction of human hepatoma-derived growth factor. AU - Sue, Shih Che. AU - Chen, Jeou Yuan. AU - Lee, Shao Chen. AU - Wu, Wen Guey. AU - Huang, Tai-huang. PY - 2004/11/5. Y1 - 2004/11/5. N2 - Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF)-related proteins (HRPs) comprise a new protein family that has been implicated in nephrogenesis, tumorigenesis, vascular development, cell proliferation, and transcriptional activation. All HRPs share a conserved N-terminal homologous to the amino terminus of HDGF (HATH) domain, but vary significantly in the C-terminal region. Here, we show that in solution the N and C termini of human HDGF form two structurally independent domains. The 100 amino acid residue N-terminal HATH domain is well-structured while the 140 amino acid residue C-terminal domain is disordered. We determined the solution structure of the HATH domain by NMR. The core structure of the HATH domain is a five-stranded β-barrel followed by two α-helices, ...
PC cell-derived growth factor (PCDGF), also called epithelin/granulin precursor (GEP), is an 88-kDa secreted glycoprotein with the ability to stimulate cell proliferation in an autocrine fashion. In addition, some studies indicated that PCDGF participated in invasion, metastasis and survival of cancer cells by regulating cell migration, adhesion and proliferation. Yet the effects of PCDGF on proliferation and invasion of ovarian cancer cells in vitro and the mechanisms by which PCDGF mediates biological behaviors of ovarian cancer have rarely been reported. In the present study we investigated whether and how PCDGF/GEP mediated cell proliferation and invasion in ovarian cancer. PCDGF/GEP expression level in three human ovarian cancer cell lines of different invasion potential were detected by RT-PCR and western blot. Effects of inhibition of PCDGF expression on cell proliferation and invasion capability were determined by MTT assay and Boyden chamber assay. Expression levels of cyclin D1 and CDK4 and
Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) is a growth factor related to normal development and tumorigenesis; however, the mechanism of its mitogenic and angiogenic activity still remains unknown. Analysis of the HDGF interactome could be important for understanding its function and integrative mechanisms, because knowledge about HDGF interactors is very limited. In this study, through streptavidin-binding peptide (SBP) and Flag tag-based tandem affinity purification (SBP/Flag-TAP) coupled with LC-MS/MS, 106 proteins were shown to form complexes with HDGF. RNAs were also found in the HDGF complex through the SBP-tag based RNA co-immunoprecipitation (SBP-RIP) assay. Some of these interactions were confirmed by Co-IP and RT-PCR. We then found that the HATH domain was essential for HDGF interactions including protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions, and that in the absence of the HATH domain, NO-HATH could not form complex. The interactome suggests that HDGF is a multifunctional protein and participates
Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) belongs to a polypeptide family containing five additional members called HDGF related proteins 1-4 (HRP-1 to -4) and Lens epithelial derived growth factor. Whereas some family members such as HDGF and HRP-2 are expressed in a wide range of tissues, the expression of others is very restricted. HRP-1 and -4 are only expressed in testis, HRP-3 only in the nervous system. Here we investigated the expression of HDGF, HRP-2 and HRP-3 in the central nervous system of adult mice on the cellular level by immunohistochemistry. In addition we performed Western blot analysis of various brain regions as well as neuronal and glial cell cultures. HDGF was rather evenly expressed throughout all brain regions tested with the lowest expression in the substantia nigra. HRP-2 was strongly expressed in the thalamus, prefrontal and parietal cortex, neurohypophysis, and the cerebellum, HRP-3 in the bulbus olfactorius, piriform cortex and amygdala complex. HDGF and HRP-2 were found to be
Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) belongs to a polypeptide family containing five additional members called HDGF related proteins 1-4 (HRP-1 to -4) and Lens epithelial derived growth factor. Whereas some family members such as HDGF and HRP-2 are expressed in a wide range of tissues, the expression of others is very restricted. HRP-1 and -4 are only expressed in testis, HRP-3 only in the nervous system. Here we investigated the expression of HDGF, HRP-2 and HRP-3 in the central nervous system of adult mice on the cellular level by immunohistochemistry. In addition we performed Western blot analysis of various brain regions as well as neuronal and glial cell cultures. HDGF was rather evenly expressed throughout all brain regions tested with the lowest expression in the substantia nigra. HRP-2 was strongly expressed in the thalamus, prefrontal and parietal cortex, neurohypophysis, and the cerebellum, HRP-3 in the bulbus olfactorius, piriform cortex and amygdala complex. HDGF and HRP-2 were found to be
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition of epidermal growth factor-like growth factor secretion in tracheobronchial epithelial cells by vitamin A. AU - Miller, Lisa. AU - Cheng, Ling Zhong. AU - Wu, Reen. PY - 1993/6/1. Y1 - 1993/6/1. N2 - Vitamin A deficiency of respiratory tract epithelium results in the phenomenon of squamous cell metaplasia. The mechanisms by which vitamin A regulates airway epithelial cell growth and differentiation are not completely understood. In this study, we focused on the effects of vitamin A (retinol) on growth of human and non-human primate tracheobronchial epithelial (TBE) cells in culture. Retinol and its derivatives have little growth-stimulatory effect on TBE cells that are maintained in primary culture in a serum-free medium supplemented with 6 hormonal supple-ments: insulin, transferrin, epidermal growth factor (EGF), hydrocortisone, cholera toxin, and bovine hypothalamus extract. However, it was observed that retinol exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of TBE cell growth ...
Evidence suggests flow-induced arterial remodeling involves factors released from cells that are intrinsic to the vessel wall and recruited from the bloodstream. Understanding the molecular details has been hampered by the need to study the process in vivo. The present findings suggest that HB-EGF, which has primarily been studied in epithelial and tumor cells, plays a pivotal role in low FINR of the mouse carotid artery. Sustained low flow activated or increased the following elements within the HB-EGF signaling pathway: ROS, the ROS-sensitive HB-EGF sheddase TACE, expression of pro-HB-EGF, HB-EGF immunoreactivity, the HB-EGF receptor EGFR, ERK1/2, and the transcription factor NF-κB. These changes were associated with proliferation, increased leukocyte density, wall hypertrophy, and lumen narrowing. Heterozygous and homozygous deletion of HB-EGF alleles caused dose-dependent-like inhibition of FINR (although inhibition of lumen narrowing was in some situations spared (see below), where ...
The growth factor progranulin (acrogranin/PC-derived growth factor/granulin-epithelin precursor) promotes onset of blastocyst cavitation and is required for neonatal hypothalamic sexual differentiation. Little is known, however, of the range of devel
Accumulation of T lymphocytes has been demonstrated in atherosclerotic lesions, and T-cell-derived factors appear to modulate atherosclerotic progression.1 2 3 4 5 6 The present in vitro study demonstrates that lyso-PC can selectively upregulate the expression of HB-EGF and IL-2 receptors in T lymphocytes and suggests that this polar phospholipid increase in inflammatory and atherosclerotic lesions27 28 may be an important stimulus for T cells in atherogenesis in vivo.. Recent studies have demonstrated that human T lymphocytes isolated from peripheral blood can synthesize HB-EGF.6 Expression of HB-EGF has been shown in macrophages and SMCs in atherosclerotic lesions,20 and T lymphocytes isolated from atherosclerotic plaques have been shown to produce HB-EGF.29 Lyso-PC, therefore, may be a relevant stimulus to induce the expression of HB-EGF in atherosclerotic lesions, in addition to other pathophysiological stimuli, such as tumor necrosis factor,30 thrombin,31 and platelet-activating factor.32 ...
cDNA, FLJ94334, Homo sapiens growth arrest-specific 2 (GAS2), mRNA (Growth arrest-specific 2, isoform CRA_a) contains a PF00307 domain.. cDNA, FLJ94334, Homo sapiens growth arrest-specific 2 (GAS2), mRNA (Growth arrest-specific 2, isoform CRA_a) contains a PF02187 domain.. cDNA, FLJ94334, Homo sapiens growth arrest-specific 2 (GAS2), mRNA (Growth arrest-specific 2, isoform CRA_a) is proteolytically cut by caspase-7 (C14.004) cleavage. SRVD-GKTS.. cDNA, FLJ94334, Homo sapiens growth arrest-specific 2 (GAS2), mRNA (Growth arrest-specific 2, isoform CRA_a) is proteolytically cut by caspase-3 (C14.003) cleavage. SRVD-GKTS.. ...
Hepatoma derived growth factor Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) also known as high mobility group protein 1-like 2 (HMG-1L2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HDGF gene. Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF), a potential predictive and prognostic marker in several human cancers, is the firstly reported
Osteoblast differentiation is a pivotal event in bone formation. Runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2) is an essential factor required for osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. However, the underlying mechanism of Runx2-regulated osteogenic differentiation is still unclear. Here, we explored the corresponding mechanism using the C2C12/Runx2Dox subline, which expresses Runx2 in response to doxycycline (Dox). We found that Runx2-induced osteogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells results in a sustained decrease in the expression of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF), a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family. Forced expression of HB-EGF or treatment with HB-EGF is capable of reducing the expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a defined marker of early osteoblast differentiation. HB-EGF-mediated inhibition of ALP depends upon activation of the EGFR and the downstream extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase
The MET inhibitor INC-280 restored sensitivity to erlotinib and promoted apoptosis in nonCsmall-cell lung cancer choices rendered resistant to erlotinib by hepatocyte growth factor. to revive awareness to erlotinib and promote apoptosis in NSCLC versions rendered erlotinib resistant by HGF. These data give a preclinical rationale for a continuing phase 1 scientific trial of erlotinib plus INC-280 in mutation, among the first identified systems of EGFR TKI level of resistance involves activation from the MET receptor, resulting in restored downstream signaling in both phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/proteins Rabbit polyclonal to EGFR.EGFR is a receptor tyrosine kinase.Receptor for epidermal growth factor (EGF) and related growth factors including TGF-alpha, amphiregulin, betacellulin, heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor, GP30 and vaccinia virus growth factor. kinase B (AKT) and mitogen-activated proteins kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor by miR-212 and acquired cetuximab-resistance in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. AU - Hatakeyama, Hiromitsu. AU - Cheng, Haixia. AU - Wirth, Pamela. AU - Counsell, Ashley. AU - Marcrom, Samuel R.. AU - Wood, Carey Burton. AU - Pohlmann, Paula R.. AU - Gilbert, Jill. AU - Murphy, Barbara. AU - Yarbrough, Wendell G.. AU - Wheeler, Deric L.. AU - Harari, Paul M.. AU - Guo, Yan. AU - Shyr, Yu. AU - Slebos, Robbert J.. AU - Chung, Christine H.. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - Background: We hypothesized that chronic inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by cetuximab, a monoclonal anti-EGFR antibody, induces up-regulation of its ligands resulting in resistance and that microRNAs (miRs) play an important role in the ligand regulation in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Methodology/Principal Findings: Genome-wide changes in gene and miR expression were determined in cetuximabsensitive cell line, SCC1, and ...
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The present invention relates to the use of fibroblast growth factor-binding protein (FGF-BP) polypeptides, and functional variants of these polypeptides, respectively, or of nucleic acids encoding th
GRN Full-Length MS Protein Standard (NP_002078), Labeled with [U- 13C6, 15N4]-L-Arginine and [U- 13C6, 15N2]-L-Lysine, was produced in human 293 cells (HEK293) with fully chemically defined cell culture medium to obtain incorporation efficiency at Creative-Proteomics. Granulins are a family of secreted, glycosylated peptides that are cleaved from a single precursor protein with 7.5 repeats of a highly conserved 12-cysteine granulin/epithelin motif. The 88 kDa precursor protein, progranulin, is also called proepithelin and PC cell-derived growth factor. Cleavage of the signal peptide produces mature granulin which can be further cleaved into a variety of active, 6 kDa peptides. These smaller cleavage products are named granulin A, granulin B, granulin C, etc. Epithelins 1 and 2 are synonymous with granulins A and B, respectively. Both the peptides and intact granulin protein regulate cell growth. However, different members of the granulin protein family may act as inhibitors, stimulators, or have dual
Previously we discovered that the growth arrest-specific gene 6 (in oocyte maturation and fertilization using RNA interference (RNAi). but not nuclear maturation and 2) the decreased manifestation and decreased MPF activity separately or mutually influence sperm head decondensation and PN formation. Intro Mammalian oocytes in ovarian follicles have arrested growth and a large nucleus known as a germinal vesicle (GV). The meiotic cell cycle is arrested in the diplotene stage PDK1 inhibitor of the 1st prophase and some selective oocytes initiate growth following gonadotropin simulation [1] [2]. Oocyte growth and maturation are long and requisite processes for fertilization and subsequent embryo development until embryonic genome activation starts. Oocyte maturation entails nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation. Although strictly linked these are complex and different events [3] [4] [5]. The process of nuclear maturation meiotic cell cycle involves GV breakdown (GVBD) chromosome condensation and ...
HB-EGF is an EGF related growth factor that signals through the EGF receptor, and stimulates the proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMC), fibroblasts, epithelial cells, and keratinocytes. HB-EGF is expressed in numerous cell types and tissues, including vascular endothelial cells and SMC, macrophages, skeletal muscle, keratinocytes, and certain tumor cells. The ability of HB-EGF to specifically bind heparin and heparin sulfate proteoglycans is distinct from other EGF-like molecules, and may be related to the enhanced mitogenic activity, relative to EGF, that HB-EGF exerts on smooth muscle cells. The human HB-EGF gene encodes a 208 amino acid transmembrane protein, which can be proteolytically cleaved to produce soluble HB-EGF. Recombinant mouse HB-EGF produced in E. coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain of 86 amino acids (63-148 a.a.) and a molecular mass of 9.8 kDa. It has bee purified by proprietary chromatographic ...
It was reported that tumor-expressed dickkopf-related (DKK) proteins affect micro-environment. However, the influence of DKK1 on colorectal cancer (CRC) liver oligometastases (CRCLOM) remains unclear. CRC cases after resection of liver oligometastases were enrolled in Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center with intact clinical data. Serum DKK1 was detected by ELISA assay. Immunofluorescent staining examination for CD3 and CD8 in slices were also conducted. Among 65 patients included, the recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were significantly better in the low serum DKK1 group (RFS: P = 0.021; OS: P = 0.043). DKK1 was overexpressed in stage IV CRC patients in TCGA data. The number of CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in invasive margin of CRC liver oligometastases was significantly higher in low serum DKK1 group (P = 0.042). Elevated serum DKK1 level was associated with poorer RFS and OS, and less CD8+ TILs in invasive margin in CRC liver oligometastases. DKK1 might serve as a
HDGFRP2 - (untagged)-Human cDNA FLJ14447 fis, clone HEMBB1001331, weakly similar to Mus musculus mRNA for hepatoma-derived growth factor available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Adipose tissue plays an important role in energy balance by secretion of various adipokines. Obesity is excessive fat accumulation in the body. The aim of this study is to examine the association of apelin, an adipokine secreted from fat tissue, with antioxidant system, glucose and lipid parameters in obese and control cases. After approval has been taken from the Ethics Committee, 61 obese and 24 control people were included in the study. The ages in the study group ranges between 18 and 75. The body mass index (BMI) is ,24.9 in obese people, and it ranges between 18.5-24.9 in control cases. Apelin was calculated using the ELISA method, total oxidant and total antioxidant levels were calculated using the colorimetric method, fasting blood glucose, insulin, TG, LDL and HDL levels were calculated using the photometric method, insulin resistance was calculated using the HOMA-IR method. Serum apelin levels were not found to differ between obese and control groups (p,0.05). Total antioxidant level ...
The dual luciferase reporter system was then used to validate the target genes described in Fig 7. To determine whether bta-let-7i and bta-miR-2305 can directly target their predicted target genes, including MAP3K1, proheparin -binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HBEGF), serine/threonine-protein kinase (PAK1) and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 2 (RAC2), we designed luciferase reporter constructs that included either the wild- or mutant-type 3-UTR of MAP3K1, HBEGF, PAK1 and RAC2 (Fig 7C). [score:8] ...
Heparin-binding protein which binds to FGF2, prevents binding of FGF2 to heparin and probably inhibits immobilization of FGF2 on extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycans, allowing its release and subsequent activation of FGFR signaling which leads to increased vascular permeability ...
The inotropic and vasoactive properties of the ligand apelin and its cognate G-protein coupled receptor APJ have been characterized by administration of exogenous peptide, but the function of endogenous apelin on the cardiovascular system is not well described. To investigate the tonic effects of apelin-APJ in contractile function, we generated and characterized apelin and APJ null mice. We also investigated the regulation of apelin and APJ receptor expression in response to cardiac pressure overload. While knockout apelin mice were viable and fertile, APJ null mice showed evidence of fetal wastage for approximately half of the embryos. Compared to wild-type controls, APJ deficient mice reaching adulthood had significantly reduced exercise capacity (treadmill runtime: 20.30 ± 0.974 vs. 23.64 ± 0.737, P=0.009) and LV fractional shortening by echocardiography (29.88 ± 0.927% vs. 44.93 ± 2.66%, P,0.0001). Isolated myocytes from APJ knockouts exhibited reduced sarcomeric shortening (5.070 ± ...
Heparin Binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF), 50 µg. HB-EGF is an EGF related growth factor that signals through the EGF receptor, and stimulates the proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMC), fibroblasts, epithelial cells, and keratinocytes.
HDGFRP2 - HDGFRP2 (untagged)-Human hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein 2 (HDGFRP2), transcript variant 2 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is synthesized as a type I transmembrane protein (proHB-EGF) and expressed on the cell surface. The ectodomain s
Murine Heparin-binding EGF-like Growth Factor stimulates smooth muscle cell regeneration and mitogenic activity. It may be implicated in atherosclerosis.
Cross-suppression of AREG/EREG expression may explain the tight co-expression of AREG and EREG, as well as their tendency to be more highly expressed than other EGFR ligands to determine Ctx efficacy. The positive selection for Ctx-resistant tumour cells exhibiting AREG/EREG cross-suppression may ha …
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [K Tatemoto, M Hosoya, Y Habata, R Fujii, T Kakegawa, M X Zou, Y Kawamata, S Fukusumi, S Hinuma, C Kitada, T Kurokawa, H Onda, M Fujino].
GAS7 antibody [9H6] (growth arrest-specific 7) for FACS, WB. Anti-GAS7 mAb (GTX84464) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Shop Lens epithelium-derived growth factor ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Lens epithelium-derived growth factor Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
PC4 and SFRS1 interacting protein 1, also known as lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75), dense fine speckles 70kD protein (DFS 70) or transcriptional coactivator p75/p52, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PSIP1 gene. PSIP1 has not been clearly linked to a specific cellular mechanism. The term LEDGF/p75 (Lens epithelium-derived growth factor) has entered common usage based on the initial characterization of PSIP1, however this is a misnomer, as the protein is present in most tissues and has no direct role in the development of lens epithelium. LEDGF/p75, a transcription coactivator, gained prominence as a host factor that assists HIV integration and is probably the only integrase interactor whose knock-down severely affects the HIV integration levels. The interaction between HIV integrase and human LEDGF/p75 is a promising target for anti-HIV drug discovery. LEDGF/p75 recruits MLL complexes to HOX genes to regulate their expression. LEDGF/p52 is shown to recruit splicing ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of miR-335-5p in modulating osteogenic differentiation by specifically downregulating Wnt antagonist DKK1. AU - Zhang, Jin. AU - Tu, Qisheng. AU - Bonewald, Lynda F.. AU - He, Xi. AU - Stein, Gary. AU - Lian, Jane. AU - Chen, Jake. PY - 2011/8/1. Y1 - 2011/8/1. N2 - Dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK1) is essential to maintain skeletal homeostasis as an inhibitor of Wnt signaling and osteogenic differentiation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the developmental stage-specific regulation of the DKK1 protein level. We performed a series of studies including luciferase reporter assays, micro-RNA microarray, site-specific mutations, and gain- and loss-of-function analyses. We found that the DKK1 protein level was regulated via DKK1 3 UTR by miRNA control, which was restricted to osteoblast-lineage cells. As a result of decreased DKK1 protein level by miR-335-5p, Wnt signaling was enhanced, as indicated by elevated GSK-3β ...
Granulin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GRN gene. Granulins are a family of secreted, glycosylated peptides that are cleaved from a single precursor protein with 7.5 repeats of a highly conserved 12-cysteine granulin/epithelin motif. The 88 kDa precursor protein, progranulin, is also called proepithelin and prostate cancer (PC) cell-derived growth factor. Cleavage of the signal peptide produces mature granulin which can be further cleaved into a variety of active, 6 kDa peptides. These smaller cleavage products are named granulin A, granulin B, granulin C, etc. Epithelins 1 and 2 are synonymous with granulins A and B, respectively. Both the peptides and intact granulin protein regulate cell growth. However, different members of the granulin protein family may act as inhibitors, stimulators, or have dual actions on cell growth. Granulin family members are important in normal development, wound healing, and tumorigenesis. The human liver fluke (Opisthorchis viverrini) contributes to ...
Background The Wnt signalling pathway is an important regulator of adult tissue maintenance and homeostasis. Disorders in Wnt signaling cause human degenerative diseases as well as cancer. Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) is negative regulator protein of the Wnt pathway and is associated with a variety of organic diseases. Under the hypothesis that DKK-1 as a regulator protein is involved in ventricular remodelling after myocardial infarction we aimed to investigate the prognostic value of serum measurement of DKK-1 in patients with acute coronary syndromes.. Methods and results From April 2003 until April 2005 1136 consecutive patients (age 64±12 years; 347 females) with an ACS within the last 48 hours, who were referred for early invasive diagnositc were included. Follow up data were available for 1128 (99.3%) patients. Serum samples on admission were available for 1092 (97%) patients and from 820 (72%) patients a second sample the day following admission. Values are expressed as median. Values of DKK-1 on ...
ViraQuest Inc. , Uncategorized , MiR-34a targeting of Notch ligand delta-like 1 impairs CD15+/CD133+ tumor-propagating cells and supports neural differentiation in medulloblastoma ...
The investigators are hypothesizing that decreasing estrogen levels will cause serum DKK1 to peak, then decrease gradually as estrogens reach a new lowe
The novel G protein-coupled receptor APJ, recently paired with the proposed cognate peptide ligand apelin, mediates potent vasodilator and positive inotropic actions in rats. Radioligand binding showed apelin receptors in rat and human heart and human large conduit vessels. The specific cell types e …
Primary cell cultures: human fetal material, oligodendrocyte isolation, enrichment, and maturation. Human fetal spinal cord tissue was obtained from the Einstein Human Fetal Tissue Repository (New York, NY) as approved by the Institutional Review Board. Tissues from abortuses of normal women were collected after elective pregnancy termination. Informed consent was obtained from all tissue donors. The ages of the abortuses were determined by multiple parameters, including the date of the last menstrual period by history, uterine size by bimanual and abdominal examination, ultrasonography by using predominantly the maximum biparietal diameter, and, postabortally, by measurement of fetal foot length (Streeter, 1920; Hern, 1984). After retrieval of tissue the spinal cords were stored in sterile medium with antibiotics on ice and were obtained from the neuropathologist within the hour. For cultures the oligodendrocytes were obtained from 21-23 gestational weeks (gw) human fetal spinal cords. The ...
Adipocytokines are polypeptides produced by fat cells.They are associated with obesity, hyperinsulinemia, chronic vascular disease and cancer.The adipocytokines which promote angiogenesis (the growth of new blood vessels) include vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF,) hepatocyte growth factor (HGF,) leptin, tumour necrosis factor alpha, heparin-binding epidermal growth factor, insulin-like growth factor and interleukin-6 (IL-6.) Whole plant extracts […]. View Post ...
CRM197, an inhibitor of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF), produces a synergistic ovarian cancer anti-tumor effect when combined with paclitaxel, according to study results published in the March 15th issue of the International Journal of Cancer. The investigators, Dr. Shingo Miyamoto and his colleagues, are affiliated with the Fukuoka University in Japan. The treatment of…
Lrp5 ELISA Kit (Rat) (GWB-KBBAA4) | Quantitative Sandwich ELISA | Sample Types: serum, plasma and other biological fluids. | Species Reactivity: Mouse | Alias: Dickkopf-4, Dickkopf-related protein 4, Dkk-4, MGC25705
Apelin is an endogenous peptide capable of binding the apelin receptor (APJ), which was originally described as an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor. Apelin and APJ are widely expressed in various tissues and organ systems. They are implicated in different key physiological processes such as angiogenesis, cardiovascular functions, cell proliferation and energy metabolism regulation. On the other hand, this ligand receptor couple is also involved in several pathologies including diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease and cancer ...
Apelin is an endogenous peptide capable of binding the apelin receptor (APJ), which was originally described as an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor. Apelin and APJ are widely expressed in various tissues and organ systems. They are implicated in different key physiological processes such as angiogenesis, cardiovascular functions, cell proliferation and energy metabolism regulation. On the other hand, this ligand receptor couple is also involved in several pathologies including diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease and cancer ...
A population of monocytes, known as Ly6C(lo) monocytes, patrol blood vessels by crawling along the vascular endothelium. Here we show that endothelial cells control their origin through Notch signalling. Using combinations of conditional genetic deletion strategies and cell-fate tracking experiments we show that Notch2 regulates conversion of Ly6C(hi) monocytes into Ly6C(lo) monocytes in vivo and in vitro, thereby regulating monocyte cell fate under steady-state conditions. This process is controlled by Notch ligand delta-like 1 (Dll1) expressed by a population of endothelial cells that constitute distinct vascular niches in the bone marrow and spleen in vivo, while culture on recombinant DLL1 induces monocyte conversion in vitro. Thus, blood vessels regulate monocyte conversion, a form of committed myeloid cell fate regulation. ...
Apelin is an endogenous peptide capable of binding the apelin receptor (APJ), which was originally described as an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor. Apelin and APJ are widely expressed in various tissues and organ systems. They are implicated in different key physiological processes such as angiogenesis, cardiovascular functions, cell proliferation and energy metabolism regulation. On the other hand, this ligand receptor couple is also involved in several pathologies including diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease and cancer ...
Elabela/Toddler-32, Elabela/Toddler-21, Elabela/Toddler-11, [Pyr1]apelin-13, apelin-13, apelin-36, apelin-17, apelin receptor early endogenous ligand. ...
Betacellulin, Human, Recombinant Recombinant, human betacellulin consisting of amino acids 32-111 and expressed in E. coli. A heparin-binding protein that is able to bind to the EGF receptor. - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) is a secreted inhibitor of the Wnt signaling pathway. We previously identified DKK-1 as a candidate tumor suppressor and demonstrated that ectopic expression of the DKK-1 suppressed
Complete information for CECR2 gene (Protein Coding), CECR2 Histone Acetyl-Lysine Reader, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against a full length recombinant HBEGF. HBEGF (AAH33097.1, 20 a.a. ~ 208 a.a) full-length recombinant protein with GST tag. MW of the GST tag alone is 26 KDa. (H00001839-M05) - Products - Abnova
CHO-Anti-Human HBEGF F(ab) stable cell line is clonally-derived from a CHO cell line, which has been transfected with an Anti-human HBEGF F(ab) gene to allow expression of the F(ab). It is an example of a cell line transfected using our proprietary CBTGS gene screening and amplification system.
Amphiregulin is an EGF related growth factor that signals through the EGF/TGF-a receptor, and stimulates growth of keratinocytes, epithelial cells and some fibroblasts.
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. amphiregulin ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
Buy our Recombinant human Amphiregulin protein. Ab104355 is an active full length protein produced in Escherichia coli and has been validated in WB, FuncS…
AREG Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated, polypeptide chain containing 98 amino acids and molecular mass of 11.3 KDa.
DKK-1 stands for Dickkopf-1 related protein. Human DKK-1 is a recombinant protein optimized for use in cell culture, differentiation studies, and functional assays. - Österreich
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... carried by intercellular messengers such as peptide hormones and nitric oxide and can also function as an autocrine signal. ... Scholten A, Koch K (2011). "Differential calcium signaling by cone specific guanylate cyclase-activing proteins from the ... diphosphate It is often part of the G protein signaling cascade that is activated by low intracellular calcium levels and ... Membrane bound guanylate cyclases include an external ligand-binding domain (e.g., for peptide hormones such as BNP and ANP), a ...
Intercellular+Signaling+Peptides+and+Proteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Cell+ ... signal Oscillation Protein dynamics Systems biology Lipid signaling Redox signaling Signaling cascade Cell Signaling Technology ... This can be contrasted with paracrine signaling, intracrine signaling, or classical endocrine signaling. In paracrine signaling ... known as juxtacrine signaling (e.g., notch signaling). Autocrine signaling is a special case of paracrine signaling where the ...
... associated signaling proteins (CCN intercellular signaling protein). The CCN family of proteins shares a common molecular ... protein structure, characterized by an N-terminal secretory signal peptide followed by four distinct domains with homologies to ... WNT1-inducible-signaling pathway protein 1 (WISP-1), also known as CCN4, is a matricellular protein that in humans is encoded ... "Entrez Gene: WISP1 WNT1 inducible signaling pathway protein 1". Chen CC, Lau LF (Apr 2009). "Functions and mechanisms of action ...
CCN intercellular signaling protein) of secreted, extracellular matrix (ECM)-associated signaling matricellular proteins. The ... CCN proteins characteristically contain an N-terminal secretory signal peptide followed by four structurally distinct domains ... WNT1-inducible-signaling pathway protein 2, or WISP-2 (also named CCN5) is a matricellular protein that in humans is encoded by ... These proteins, together with WISP1/CCN4, WISP2 (CCN5, this gene), and WISP3 (CCN6) comprise the six-member CCN family in ...
... "signal transduction" proteins, while NGF resulted in an increase in proteins associated with the ribosome and synthesis of ... Protein differentiation was measured in each cell sample with and without treatment by NGF and JNJ460. A peptide mixture was ... JNJ460 also resulted in more structural proteins associated with intercellular growth, such as actin, myosin, and troponin. ... These receptor proteins are unable to initiate the intracellular signaling processes that enable the neuron to live, and ...
CCN intercellular signaling protein) of secreted, extracellular matrix (ECM)-associated signaling matricellular proteins. The ... CCN proteins characteristically contain an N-terminal secretory signal peptide followed by four structurally distinct domains ... WNT1-inducible-signaling pathway protein 3 (WISP3, also named CCN6) is a matricellular protein that in humans is encoded by the ... Huang W, Pal A, Kleer CG (March 2012). "On how CCN6 suppresses breast cancer growth and invasion". J Cell Commun Signal. 6 (1 ...
... associated signaling proteins (see also CCN intercellular signaling protein). The CCN acronym is derived from the first three ... The human NOV protein contains 357 amino acids with an N-terminal secretory signal peptide followed by four structurally ... protein associates with Notch1 extracellular domain and inhibits myoblast differentiation via Notch signaling pathway". The ... These proteins, together with WISP1 (CCN4), WISP2 (CCN5), and WISP3 (CCN6) comprise the six-member CCN family in vertebrates ...
Drosophila neurogenic protein 'big brain' (bib). This protein may mediate intercellular communication; it may functions by ... These proteins may allow the diffusion of water, amino acids and/or peptides from the tonoplast interior to the cytoplasm. ... allowing the transport of certain molecules(s) and thereby sending a signal for an exodermal cell to become an epidermoblast ... Aquaporins Integral membrane protein Transporter Classification Database Protein Superfamily Protein family Fu D, Libson A, ...
CRPs include a highly conserved secretion peptide signal at the N-terminus and a cysteine-rich region at the C-terminus. In an ... Characterized CRPs function as short-range intercellular signals during processes such as plant defense, bacterial symbiosis, ... Cysteine-rich proteins (also cysteine-rich peptide, CRP, disulphide-rich peptide) are small proteins that contain a large ... CS1 maint: others, Proteins, Sulfides, Protein classification, Cysteine-rich proteins). ...
... is synthesized on the rough endoplasmic reticulum as a preproenzyme of 339 amino acids with a signal peptide of 17 ... Klein DM, Felsenstein KM, Brenneman DE (March 2009). "Cathepsins B and L differentially regulate amyloid precursor protein ... intercellular communication disruption, and reduced protease inhibitor expression. It is also involved in autophagy and ... Additionally, it was recently determined to have minor ligase activity with the ability to attach peptide fragments via an ...
The CCL2 protein precursor contains a signal peptide of 23 amino acids. In turn, the mature CCL2 is 76 amino acids long. The ... Basophils and mast cells that are treated with CCL2 release their granules to the intercellular space. This effect can be also ... "Induction of brain natriuretic peptide and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 gene expression by oxidized low-density lipoprotein: ... "Expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 after focal cerebral ischemia in the rat ...
... associated signaling protein of the CCN family (CCN intercellular signaling protein). CYR61 is capable of regulating a broad ... Full-length CYR61 protein contains 381 amino acids with an N-terminal secretory signal peptide followed by four structurally ... Other highly conserved homologs were later identified to comprise the CCN protein family (CCN intercellular signaling protein ... CCN proteins function as matricellular proteins, which are extracellular matrix proteins that play regulatory roles, ...
Subsequently, it was suggested that EDHF is a sulfur signal that results in activation of K channels via sulfhydration of a ... Endothelium-derived CNP has been proposed to act as an EDHF via specific C-subtype of natriuretic peptide receptor, however the ... The generation of animals that lack both endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and COX-1 (Cyclooxygenase-1, a protein that ... An alternative explanation for the EDHF phenomenon is that direct intercellular communication via gap junctions allows passive ...
Through intercellular signalling mechanisms such as vasoactive intestinal peptide, the SCN signals other hypothalamic nuclei ... Methylation of a protein structure adds a methyl group and regulates the protein function or gene expression and in histone ... CCA1/LHY and TOC1 proteins repress the expression of each other's genes. The result is that as CCA1/LHY protein levels start to ... It is not, however, clear precisely what signal (or signals) enacts principal entrainment to the many biochemical clocks ...
Wnt proteins constitute a large family of secreted molecules that are involved in intercellular signalling during development. ... but they share the following features characteristics of secretory proteins: a signal peptide, several potential N- ... The Wnt proteins seem to adhere to the plasma membrane of the secreting cells and are therefore likely to signal over only few ... In molecular biology, the protein domain, WIF N-terminal refers to the N terminal domain of the protein, WIF. It stands for, ...
Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases (protein kinase A) are activated by the signal chain coming from the G protein (that was ... and vary in size from small molecules to peptides to large proteins. G protein-coupled receptors are involved in many diseases ... chemokine receptors bind ligands that mediate intercellular communication between cells of the immune system; receptors such as ... GPCRs may signal independently through many proteins already mentioned for their roles in G-protein-dependent signaling such as ...
Integrin beta-5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ITGB5 gene. Integrin, beta 5 has been shown to interact with PTK2 ... It also plays a potential role in intercellular communication during tumor progression and metastasis. Elevated levels of ITGB5 ... "Alpha v beta 5 integrin-dependent programmed cell death triggered by a peptide mimic of annexin V". Mol. Cell. 11 (5): 1151-62 ... beta5 in vascular endothelial growth factor signaling". J. Cell Biol. 157 (1): 149-60. doi:10.1083/jcb.200109079. ISSN 0021- ...
Juxtacrine signaling is a type of intercellular communication that is transmitted via oligosaccharide, lipid, or protein ... amines and peptide or protein hormones) are water-soluble and act on the surface of target cells via signal transduction ... Autocrine signaling is a form of signaling in which a cell secretes a hormone or chemical messenger (called the autocrine agent ... The typical mode of cell signalling in the endocrine system is endocrine signaling, that is, using the circulatory system to ...
... including cAMP cyclization by a pollen signalling protein (PSiP). Corn silk can control the types of pollen that an ear of corn ... Potential antioxidant peptides in the hydrolysate have also been identified. "The definition of corn silk". "Silk development ... requiring only 24 hours to create a foot-long pathway within the intercellular space of the corn silk through which the sperm ... Chai, T.-T.; Ang, S.-Y.; Goh, K.; Lee, Y.-H.; Ngoo, J.-M.; Teh, L.-K.; Wong, F.-C. Trypsin-hydrolyzed corn silk proteins: ...
The heavy glycosylation of these proteins can mask peptide epitopes, making designing antibodies targeted to certain proteins ... For example, cytokines and the subgroup chemokines are small signaling proteins that are involved in the immune response. Many ... Since glycans play an important role in intercellular interactions and protein, they serve as viable targets for various ... Many proteins are glycosylated on certain residues, which can affect the proteome. Glycans can interact with receptors, which ...
Protease activated receptor peptides (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Protein ... In endothelial cells PARs play a key role in promotion vascular barrier function as they provide a positive signals for ... endothelial adhesion molecules (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1), and E- ... Protease activated receptors are integral membrane proteins that are coupled to G-proteins and are activated by specific ...
Intercellular signals, a non-local form or cell signaling, encompassing both first messengers and second messengers, are ... These small molecules bind and activate protein kinases, ion channels, and other proteins, thus continuing the signaling ... Because peptide hormones and neurotransmitters typically are biochemically hydrophilic molecules, these first messengers may ... In the case of G protein-coupled receptors, the conformation change exposes a binding site for a G-protein. The G-protein ( ...
Chemical signals therefore are an important component of paracrine, autocrine and endocrine signaling. Neurokinin A was shown ... Each receptor demonstrates a specific affinity for either neurokinin A or substance P peptides. Both peptides, however, can act ... Either of these scenarios can result in calcium overload, protein degradation, the unfolded protein response or an accumulation ... "Molecular Mechanisms Of Intercellular Communication In The Hormonal And Neural Systems." IUBMB Life 58.5/6 (2006): 349-357 pre- ...
The ADAMTS13 protease consists of 1427 amino acids and has several protein domains: The signal peptide is thought to have a ... The ADAMTS protease family contains enzymes that process collagen, cleave inter-cellular matrix, inhibit angiogenesis and blood ... The CUB domains take part in protein-protein interactions with VWF domains, which become exposed under shear stress, and are ... The TSP1 repeats mediate extracellular matrix protein-protein interactions. The cystein-rich domain is responsible for ...
A conserved family of transmembrane proteins involved in intercellular signaling during development". Developmental Biology. ... The peptide cleaved from the C terminal of Ten-m3, TCAP-3, stimulates the production of cAMP and the proliferation of neurons. ... The proline-rich stretches are typical binding sites for SH3 proteins, which can regulate intracellular teneurin signalling ... The proteins were called Ten-ms in zebrafish, teneurins in chicken, Ten-m1-4, Odz1-4, Ten-m/Odz1-4, DOC4 in mouse, neurestin in ...
... in the extracellular medium by Cos cells and recaptured by cocultured neurons acting as a potential intercellular peptide ... Identification of a signal sequence necessary for the unconventional secretion of Engrailed homeoprotein. par Joliot A, Maizel ... His team then demonstrated the involvement of Engrailed-1/2 proteins in the development and survival of dopaminergic neurons by ... His laboratory having moved to the École normale supérieure, he then became interested in the molecular signals responsible for ...
... is the ligand for the proteins CD28 (for autoregulation and intercellular association) and CTLA-4 (for attenuation of ... This helps to signal the T-cell differentiation into a cytotoxic T-cell. The expression of CD80, as well as CD86, is increased ... When the major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC class II)-peptide complex on a dendritic cell interacts with the ... Finally, CD80 signaling on activated B-cells may regulate antibody secretion during infection. Another ligand of CD80 is ...
"Accumulation of dynamic catch bonds between TCR and agonist peptide-MHC triggers T cell signaling". Cell. 157 (2): 357-68. doi: ... This is possible due to the bacterial protein FimH, which mediates high adhesion in response to high flow. The lectin domain is ... integrin alpha L beta 2 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), integrin alpha 4 beta 1 with vascular adhesion molecule ... "Isolation of a Structural Mechanism for Uncoupling T Cell Receptor Signaling from Peptide-MHC Binding". Cell. 174 (3): 672-687. ...
... intercellular adhesion molecules 1 through 3), and also functions in lymphocyte costimulatory signaling. CD11a is one of the ... and beta-LFA-1 peptides on LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction". Peptides. 22 (12): 1955-62. doi:10.1016/S0196-9781(01)00546-0. PMID ... Chirmule N, Oyaizu N, Saxinger C, Pahwa S (1994). "Nef protein of HIV-1 has B-cell stimulatory activity". AIDS. 8 (6): 733-4. ... It is involved in cellular adhesion and costimulatory signaling. It is the target of the drug efalizumab. ITGAL gene encodes ...
Activation of the GAST gene promoter was also shown to be dependent on other signalling signals: enhanced or suppressed by co- ... Moreover, the existence of a phonetically identical peptide, the Pro-Gastrin Releasing Peptide (proGRP), accentuated a possible ... is a common script for the progastrin protein and the number 80 corresponds to the size of the protein: 80 amino acids. The ... Intercellular contacts integrity is essential for electrolyte uptake regulation as well as for tumor metastasis prevention. In ...
"Protein Engineering Design and Selection. 24 (9): 633-34. doi:10.1093/protein/gzr012.. ... Though nitric oxide (NO) is commonly used by the nervous system in inter-neuron communication and signaling, it can be active ... "RAGE and Amyloid-β Peptide Neurotoxicity in Alzheimer's Disease". Nature. 382 (6593): 685-91. Bibcode:1996Natur.382..685Y. doi: ... "Endothelim-derived Relaxing Factor Release on Activation of NMDA Receptors Suggests Role as Intercellular Messenger in the ...
... differential behaviour of the sulphated and unsulphated peptides". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Protein Structure and ... in a paracrine manner via local diffusion in the intercellular spaces, but also systemically through its release into the local ... Rozengurt E, Walsh JH (2001). "Gastrin, CCK, signaling, and cancer". Annual Review of Physiology. 63: 49-76. doi:10.1146/ ... gastroinhibitory peptide), VIP (vasoactive intestinal peptide), glucagon and calcitonin. The presence of gastrin stimulates ...
... and the proteins (or peptides): fractalkine (CX3CL1), interleukin-8 (IL-8), complement components C3a and C5a, split tyrosyl ... the plasma membrane as a intercellular adhesion molecule is sent out as a 60 kDa fragment during apoptosis as a find me signal ... Find-me signals Cells destined for apoptosis release molecules referred to as find me signals. These signal molecules are used ... They sense the find-me signal gradient and migrate to the vicinity of the signaling cell. Using the presented find-me signal ...
... signal peptide - signal recognition particle - signal sequence - signal transduction - sincalide - skeleton - skin - smooth ER ... insect protein - Insulin - insulin receptor - insulin-like growth factor I - Integral membrane protein - intein - intercellular ... protein - protein biosynthesis - Protein Data Bank - protein design - protein expression - protein folding - protein isoform - ... peptide - peptide bond - peptide elongation factor - peptide elongation factor tu - peptide fragment - peptide initiation ...
... adapter proteins and signaling complexes to regulate cytoskeletal linking, cell polarity, cell signaling and vesical ... Näslund, Erik; Hellström, Per M. (10 September 2007). "Appetite signaling: from gut peptides and enteric nerves to brain". ... Regulation depends on the intercellular tight junctions which have the most influence on paracellular transport. Studies using ... These interactions include those between proteins in the same membrane ("cis") and proteins in adjacent cells ("trans"). In ...
... a conserved family of transmembrane proteins involved in intercellular signaling during development". Dev. Biol. 290 (2): 237- ... A peptide derived from the terminus of the extracellular domain shares structural homology with certain neuropeptides. There ... a conserved family of transmembrane proteins involved in intercellular signaling during development". Dev. Biol. 290 (2): 237- ... Additionally, they have been known to interact with the cytoskeleton adaptor protein, CAP/ponsin, suggesting cell signalling ...
... and inter-cellular signaling processes. Certain kinds of membrane proteins are involved in the process of fusing two bilayers ... Kim J, Mosior M, Chung LA, Wu H, McLaughlin S (July 1991). "Binding of peptides with basic residues to membranes containing ... Alternatively, some membrane proteins penetrate all the way through the bilayer and serve to relay individual signal events ... Lipid bilayers are also involved in signal transduction through their role as the home of integral membrane proteins. This is ...
CLV1 has been shown to interact with several cytoplasmic proteins that are most likely involved in downstream signalling. For ... CLE peptide signalling, and KAPP interaction, similar to that seen in the CLV1,2,3 system. LjKLAVIER also exhibits a nodule ... Meristematic cells are packed closely together without intercellular spaces. The cell wall is a very thin primary cell wall. ... These proteins may act as an intermediate between the CLV complex and a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), which is often ...
Each peptide can be used individually to send a signal to other cells, but also sequentially or together in different ... Trichoplax lack a homologue of the Boule protein that appears to be ubiquitous and conserved in males of all species of other ... are drawn through the intercellular gaps (cellular interstices) of the epitheloid by the fibre cells and then digested by ... Individual cells contain and secrete a variety of small peptides, made up of between four and 20 amino acids, which are ...
Protein and Peptide Letters, 16, 543-551. Combier, J., Vernie, T., Billy, F., Yahyaoui, F., Mathis, R., & Gamas, P. (2007). The ... The ECM is composed of the primary and secondary cell walls, along with the intercellular gap between its neighboring cells. ... The important role of MMP function in the extracellular matrix modification and subsequent mammalian development and signaling ... Protein and Peptide Letters, 16, 543-551. Combier, J., Vernie, T., Billy, F., Yahyaoui, F., Mathis, R., & Gamas, P. (2007). The ...
"A Pair of Bacterial Siderophores Releases and Traps an Intercellular Signal Molecule: An Unusual Case of Natural Nitrone ... which is then attached to the peptidyl carrier protein domain (PCP) of the same protein. In one instance, after condensation, ... Then it is activated by the pchD enzyme and is tethered to the pantothenate containing domain of the pchE non-ribosomal peptide ...
... it has been shown that SeV can activate signal transduction by mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein signaling (MAVS), ... Higher MHC I expression leads to higher presentation of viral and abnormal peptides from cancer cells to cytotoxic T cells, ... It has been shown that in cancer cell lines, UV-inactivated SeV triggers the production of an intercellular adhesion molecule - ... matrix protein (M), fusion protein (F), neuraminidase (NA) and large protein (L). All these proteins have variable functions ...
... the pqs system is involved in quinolone signaling, and the iqs system plays an important role in intercellular communication. ... The higher percentage of aeruginosa-core proteins in this latter analysis could partly be attributed to the use of complete ... compensates for a lack of lipopolysaccharide aminoarabinose modification-dependent resistance to the antimicrobial peptide ... At the top of the signaling hierarchy is the las system, since the las regulator initiates the QS regulatory system by ...
β-catenin is a subunit of the cadherin protein complex and acts as an intracellular signal transducer in the Wnt signaling ... Since the surface of the ARM domain can typically accommodate only one peptide motif at any given time, all these proteins ... a cause of loss of intercellular adhesiveness in human cancer cell lines". Cancer Research. 54 (23): 6282-6287. PMID 7954478. ... Through its N-terminal regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) domain, it recruits the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein ...
The aliphatic part of the side chain sometimes remains below the surface of the protein. Arginine residues in proteins can be ... Arginine is the immediate precursor of NO, an important signaling molecule which can act as a second messenger, as well as an ... "Nomenclature and Symbolism for Amino Acids and Peptides". IUPAC-IUB Joint Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature. 1983. ... intercellular messenger which regulates vasodilation, and also has functions in the immune system's reaction to infection. ...
Third, hyperglycemia causes an increase in diacylglycerol, which is also an activator of the Protein Kinase C (PKC) signaling ... alter intracellular signalling. Also, AGEs can be exported to the intercellular space where they can bind AGE receptors (RAGE ... there are no changes in perfusion or in atrial natriuretic peptide levels up until the very late stages of the disease, when ... This produces N-acetyl glucosamine that can add on serine and threonine residues and alter signaling pathways as well as cause ...
This protein consists of three domains which have a tendency to aggregate and form amyloid fibrils: a single peptide, a 22- ... to amyloid like protein aggregations in the organism which leads to destruction of pathway and interferes with cell signaling. ... Hammar M, Bian Z, Normark S (June 1996). "Nucleator-dependent intercellular assembly of adhesive curli organelles in ... The curli protein's main components (subunits) consist of the CsgA and CsgB protein. CsgA is the major subunit of the curli ...
... relaying the signal from the nerve. AChE, also located on the post-synaptic membrane, terminates the signal transmission by ... In either case, the ColQ or PRiMA anchor serves to maintain the enzyme in the intercellular junction, ColQ for the ... Taylor P, Radić Z (1994). "The cholinesterases: from genes to proteins". Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology. 34: 281- ... and contains a cleavable hydrophobic peptide with a PI-anchor site. It associates with membranes through the phosphoinositide ( ...
Martin Shreeve S (Feb 2002). "Identification of G-proteins coupling to the vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor VPAC(1) using ... "Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a human liver vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor". Cellular Signalling ... and intercellular spreading of Shigella flexneri". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (37): 28893-901. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... VPAC1 is a receptor for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), a small neuropeptide. Vasoactive intestinal peptide is involved in ...
... (Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1) also known as CD54 (Cluster of Differentiation 54) is a protein that in humans is ... The reticular nature of signaling cascades necessitates that the downstream effectors of ICAM-1 mediated signaling through ... and beta-LFA-1 peptides on LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction". Peptides. 22 (12): 1955-62. doi:10.1016/S0196-9781(01)00546-0. PMID ... The protein encoded by this gene is a type of intercellular adhesion molecule continuously present in low concentrations in the ...
A series of studies that looked at the presence and absence of members of gene families and signalling pathways (e.g., ... In ctenophores, bioluminescence is caused by the activation of calcium-activated proteins named photoproteins in cells called ... by forming intercellular connections with the opposite adhesive strip. This tight closure streamlines the front of the animal ... ctenophoran neurons share the same foundation as cnidarian neurons after findings shows that peptide-expressing neurons are ...
By expressing a recombinant form of the N-terminal domain I of the protein and demonstrating that digestion of the peptide with ... Pre-implantation blastocyst development is a controlled cascade of gene regulation and intercellular signaling. Extracellular ... Protein Kinase C signaling is putatively responsible for upregulating transcription and translation of certain proteoglycans ... The HSPG2 gene codes for a 4,391 amino acid protein with a molecular weight of 468,829. It is one of the largest known proteins ...
The Egfl7 protein (29 kDa) is composed of several putative domains: a putative cleavable signal peptide at the N-terminal end, ... "Epidermal growth factor-like domain 7 suppresses intercellular adhesion molecule 1 expression in response to hypoxia/ ... EGF-like domain-containing protein 7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EGFL7 gene. Intron 7 of EGFL7 hosts the miR- ... "A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration". Cell. 125 (4): ...
The other proteins are EsaA, EssB, EssA, that are membrane proteins that function alongside EssC to mediate protein secretion. ... Multiple two component signal transduction pathways helps S. aureus to express genes that are required to survive under ... Otto M (April 2010). "Staphylococcus colonization of the skin and antimicrobial peptides". Expert Review of Dermatology. 5 (2 ... and polysaccharide intercellular antigen (PIA). Not all S. aureus biofilms contain PIA. S. aureus biofilms are important in ...
... which is a member of the Dickkopf WNT signaling pathway inhibitor family, is considered to be a tumor suppressor, due to its ... Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / deficiency * Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics* ... Dickkopf‑related protein 3 (DKK3), which is a member of the Dickkopf WNT signaling pathway inhibitor family, is considered to ... Keywords: head and neck squamous cell carcinoma; Dickkopfrelated protein 3; phosphoinositide 3-kinase; protein kinase B; ...
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins. 1. 2016. 1758. 0.020. Why? Microsatellite Repeats. 1. 2010. 812. 0.020. Why? ... Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 3. 1. 2015. 31. 0.140. Why? ...
Categories: Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, ...
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins 61% * Erythropoietin 39% * Mutation Rate 19% * 2013 ...
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins (Growth Factors)IBA 03/2011 - 02/2005. ...
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins Medicine & Life Sciences 26% View full fingerprint ...
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins 9% * Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase 41% * Phosphoglycerate Kinase 34% ...
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins 12% * Immune System 11% * Population 11% * Cell Death 11% ...
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins Medicine & Life Sciences 31% * Neutrophils Medicine & Life Sciences 30% ...
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins Engineering & Materials Science 43% View full fingerprint ... PESO: Microfabricated surfaces for analysis of exosome-based paracrine signaling in hepatocellular carcinomas. Revzin, A., ...
Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6 [D12.644.276.954.200.600]. *Proteins [D12.776]. *Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins [ ... A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of BONE formation. It plays additional roles in regulating CELL ... "Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6" by people in this website by ...
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins Medicine & Life Sciences 29% * Growth Medicine & Life Sciences 17% ...
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins Medicine & Life Sciences 68% * Blood Vessels Medicine & Life Sciences 62% ...
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins Medicine & Life Sciences 67% * Protein Chemistry 34% ... protein, Janus kinase (JAK-2) and the Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase isoforms ERK 1 and ERK 2. IL-3 also stimulated a ... protein, Janus kinase (JAK-2) and the Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase isoforms ERK 1 and ERK 2. IL-3 also stimulated a ... protein, Janus kinase (JAK-2) and the Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase isoforms ERK 1 and ERK 2. IL-3 also stimulated a ...
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins 13% * Kidney 8% * Proteins 30% * Ribonucleases 18% ... RNA binding by the Wilms tumor suppressor zinc finger proteins. A A Caricasole, Antonio Duarte, S H Larsson, N D Hastie, M ... Dive into the research topics of RNA binding by the Wilms tumor suppressor zinc finger proteins. Together they form a unique ...
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins 84% * Fibroblasts 80% * Somites 73% 11 Scopus citations ...
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins 37% * Apatite 36% * Polymers 35% * Hydrogen bonds 33% ...
Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 [D12.644.276.954.200.400]. *Proteins [D12.776]. *Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins [ ... Bone morphogenetic protein signalling in airway epithelial cells during regeneration. Cell Signal. 2011 Feb; 23(2):398-406. ... growth factor I suppresses bone morphogenetic protein signaling in prostate cancer cells by activating mTOR signaling. Cancer ... A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation ...
In normal cellular context this protein is excreted into intercellular space and inhibits signaling peptides of BMP (Bone ... IRE3 activates transcription factor XBP1 (X-box binding protein 1) which regulates a number of proteins involved in protein ... CREB-binding protein in androgen receptor-mediated signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:2122-2127 ... Bernales S, Papa FR, Walter P. Intracellular signaling by the unfolded protein response. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2006;22:487- ...
The autophagy-mediated release of immune modulating proteins changes the immunosuppresive TME and may promote an invasive ... aid in anterograde trafficking or alterations in homeostasis and/or autonomous cell signaling. ... The autophagy mediated release of immune modulating proteins change the immunosuppresive tumor microenvironment and may promote ... or alterations in homeostasis and/or autonomous cell signaling. ... Peptides, proteins, and hormones that fail to enter the ...
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins 90% * Platelet-Rich Fibrin 90% * fibrin 87% ... MLN4924, a protein neddylation inhibitor, suppresses the growth of human chondrosarcoma through inhibiting cell proliferation ...
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins Engineering & Materials Science 100% * Zoledronic Acid Chemical Compounds 92% ...
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins 16% 3 Citations (Scopus) * Oral submucous fibrosis as an overhealing wound: ... Molecular implications of HOX genes targeting multiple signaling pathways in cancer. Shenoy, U. S., Adiga, D., Kabekkodu, S. P. ... The Role of Calcium Signaling in Regulation of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition. Adiga, D., Radhakrishnan, R., Chakrabarty, S. ... Signaling pathways promoting epithelial mesenchymal transition in oral submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma. ...
Tec protein-tyrosine kinase 100% * Insulin-Like Growth Factor I 59% * Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins 48% ... Himpe, E., Abdul Rahim, S., Verdood, P., Mano, H. & Kooijman, R., 2013, In: Cellular Signalling. 25, blz. 666-673 8 blz.. ... Attenuation of IGF-I receptor signaling inhibits serum-induced proliferation of prostate cancer cells. Himpe, E., Potikanond, S ... ATTENUATION OF IGF-I RECEPTOR SIGNALLING INHIBITS SERUM-INDUCED PROLIFERATION OF PROSTATE CANCER CELLS. Himpe, E., Potikanond, ...
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins 45% * Antioxidants 41% * Stomach Ulcer 26% 48 Citations (Scopus) ... Identification of functional peptides from natural and synthetic products on their anticancer activities by tumor targeting. KO ... The human cathelicidin peptide LL-37 inhibits pancreatic cancer growth by suppressing autophagy and reprogramming of the tumor ... Astragalus saponins induce apoptosis via an ERK-independent NF-κB signaling pathway in the human hepatocellular HepG2 cell line ...
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins 4% * Epithelium 4% * Immunohistochemistry 4% * Western Blotting 4% ...
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins 12% * Robotics 12% * Trajectories 12% * Glycosaminoglycans 12% ...
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins Medicine & Life Sciences 51% * B-Lymphocytes Medicine & Life Sciences 48% ...
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins Engineering & Materials Science 58% * Growth Factor Chemical Compounds 45% ...
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins 100% * Stem cells 93% * Chitosan 92% * Microfiber 81% ... Direct observation of molecular transport between triplet cells via membrane proteins using a microfluidic system. Inoue, K., ...
  • Therefore, interactions between cytokines at the level of cytoplasmic signalling pathways were investigated. (
  • 1] Neutrophils move to the site of invasion by means of chemotaxis, which occurs in response to microbial products, activated complement proteins, and cytokines. (
  • Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION . (
  • These data supported the hypothesis and indicated that DKK3 may contribute to the malignant phenotype of HNSCC cells via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK signaling pathways. (
  • These results suggest that ERK 2 activation represents a point at which the two signalling pathways, stimulated by IL-3 and SCF, interact synergistically. (
  • Conclusions: Using causal network reconstruction methods, we have identified three major signaling pathways related to MAPK/PI3K cascade that may indeed contribute synergistically to the ERG dependent tumor development. (
  • The changes in the metabolism and the activation of control and signaling pathways may be important for the correct parasite development and be target for further studies. (
  • As a result, we found proteins that are involved in important processes during development, such as energy metabolism, control pathways and cellular communication. (
  • The synergy observed was not due to SCF stimulated alterations in the mRNA, protein levels or affinity of the IL-3 receptors. (
  • Studies were also presented on novel molecules involved in the recognition of carbohydrate antigens such as specific intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-grabbing nonintegrins, which are C-type lectins that show substantial expression in many tissues, and toll-like receptors, which function as pattern recognition receptors for conserved pathogen structures and serve as key links between innate and adaptive immunity. (
  • These receptors trigger inflammation through the NFkB-dependent and interferon regulatory factor-dependent signaling pathway. (
  • Furthermore, phosphorylation of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) (Ser2448) was slightly decreased in HSC‑3 shDKK3 cells, which may be due to the increased expression of DEP domain‑containing mTOR‑interacting protein. (
  • Wahdan-Alaswad RS, Song K, Krebs TL, Shola DT, Gomez JA, Matsuyama S, Danielpour D. Insulin-like growth factor I suppresses bone morphogenetic protein signaling in prostate cancer cells by activating mTOR signaling. (
  • In addition, in HSC‑3 shDKK3 cells, the expression levels of phosphorylated (p)‑protein kinase B (Akt) (Ser473), p‑phosphoinositide 3‑kinase (PI3K) p85 (Tyr467), p‑PI3K p55 (Try199), p‑3‑phosphoinositide‑dependent protein kinase‑1 (PDK1) (Ser241) and total p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK) were reduced. (
  • mitogen-activated protein kinase. (
  • Some of these proteins were identified as the Src Homology Collagen (SHC) protein, Janus kinase (JAK-2) and the Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase isoforms ERK 1 and ERK 2. (
  • Here we demonstrate that TCR-mediated tyrosine kinase signaling in naïve T cells occurred primarily at the periphery of the synapse and was largely abated before mature immunological synapses had formed. (
  • The lack of RNA-dependent protein kinase enhances susceptibility of mice to genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection. (
  • Nanosecond pulsed electric fields activate AMP-activated protein kinase: implications for calcium-mediated activation of cellular signaling [med. (
  • Chemotaxis of neutrophils involves movement of pseudopodia and polymerization of cytoskeletal proteins or actin. (
  • 8] This small 8-amino-acid peptide has been associated with suppression of cell growth, increases in transcellular permeability, and lowering of levels of proteins that form intercellular junctional complexes. (
  • Details] Effects of 50 Hz magnetic fields on gap junctional intercellular communication in NIH3T3 cells [med. (
  • Dickkopf‑related protein 3 (DKK3), which is a member of the Dickkopf WNT signaling pathway inhibitor family, is considered to be a tumor suppressor, due to its reduced expression in cancer cells and its ability to induce apoptosis when overexpressed by adenovirus. (
  • These data suggest that many hours of TCR signaling are not required for T cell activation. (
  • This review summarizes some immunological factors involved in the development and control of this oral disease, such as: the participation of inflammatory cells in local inflammation, the synthesis of chemotaxis proteins with activation of the complement system and a range of antimicrobial peptides, such as defensins, cathelicidin and saposins. (
  • Exosomes have been found to play important roles in regulating intercellular communication and maintaining cellular and systematic homeostasis. (
  • These effects may be either direct or indirect through facilitating formation of the mobilized vesicle, aid in anterograde trafficking, or alterations in homeostasis and/or autonomous cell signaling. (
  • Autophagy is a catabolic process required to maintain cellular homeostasis by lysosomal degradation of aged/damaged organelles (e.g., mitochondria), protein aggregates, and pathogens. (
  • Yet, accumulating research shows that the homeostatic role of autophagy and its related proteins is more elaborate than the degradation of cytoplasmic content alone. (
  • Masterson JC, Molloy EL, Gilbert JL, McCormack N, Adams A, O'Dea S. Bone morphogenetic protein signalling in airway epithelial cells during regeneration. (
  • Using gene expression dataset from matched prostate tumor and normal epithelial cells from an 80 GeneChip experiment examining 40 tumors and their matching normal pairs in 40 patients with known ERG status, we conducted a cancer signaling-focused functional analysis of prostatic carcinoma representing moderate and aggressive cancers stratified by ERG expression. (
  • While studies of peptide and protein antigens have been facilitated by the rapid advances in genomics and proteomics, studies of sugar chains, which are abundantly expressed on the outer surfaces of viral, bacterial, protozoan, and fungal pathogens and on the membranes of mammalian cells, have not kept pace with technologic advances. (
  • A number of presentations were focused on the role of CD1 proteins, which present lipid antigens (e.g., from mycobacteria or Francisella tularensis , a potential weapon of bioterrorism) to T cells. (
  • Although its exact function is unknown, one model suggests that it allows for T cell receptor (TCR) clustering and for sustained signaling in T cells for many hours. (
  • Decrease of interleukin (IL)17a gene expression in leucocytes and in the amount of IL-17a protein in CD4+ T cells in children with Down syndrome. (
  • These proteins were mainly involved in metabolic, regulatory and signaling processes. (
  • Here, we show that muscle fibers secrete and concentrate the fibroblast growth factor binding protein 1 ( FGFBP1 ) at NMJs. (
  • The autophagy-mediated secreted factors may stimulate cellular proliferation via auto- and paracrine signaling. (
  • The autophagy-mediated release of immune modulating proteins changes the immunosuppresive TME and may promote an invasive phenotype. (
  • During the last decade, extensive research revealed that at least 38 autophagy-related proteins (ATGs) comprise the core autophagy machinery that mediate initiation, elongation, cargo recruitment, and fusion with lysosomes ( 1 ). (
  • Furthermore, the yeast atg8 orthologs of the LC3/GABARAP protein family fulfill specialized roles in the execution of autophagy ( 2 ). (
  • Despite the high grade of homology, the protein family members harbor individual roles in autophagy and are associated with autophagy unrelated functions, such as receptor trafficking, too ( 2 ). (
  • Investigations are ongoing to determine how these molecules function in bacterial clearance and in signaling innate and adaptive responses. (
  • Prostate cancer induces bone metastasis through Wnt-induced bone morphogenetic protein-dependent and independent mechanisms. (
  • Understanding the molecular basis of arrestin-mediated regulation of GPCRs is critical for deciphering signaling mechanisms and designing functional selectivity. (
  • Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of BONE formation. (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6" by people in this website by year, and whether "Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6" by people in Profiles. (
  • The design of optimal vaccines against such pathogens should include lipid and peptide antigens. (
  • Whole microbes, microbial subunits and extracts, and peptide and protein antigens have been the focus of much vaccine research and development. (
  • In situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting showed robust and sustained increases in FGF-2 and FGFR1 mRNA and protein in reactive astrocytes around the lesion in scarring rats, a response that was attenuated substantially in the nonscarring neonate. (
  • IL-3 stimulated the rapid and transient tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins (including those of molecular weights 130, 110, 100, 95, 80, 65, 50 and 45 kDa). (
  • The end-products are recycled into the cytosol and are reused in processes including protein synthesis and ATP production. (
  • The proteins responsible for the key molecular events leading to the structural changes between the developmental stages of Echinococcus granulosus remain unknown. (
  • Cell Signal. (
  • T cell receptor signaling precedes immunological synapse formation. (
  • Our integrative approach yields structural insights into protein-protein complexes in a biologically relevant live-cell environment and provides information inaccessible to classical structural methods, while also revealing the dynamics of the system. (