Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
A constitutively expressed subfamily of the HSP70 heat-shock proteins. They preferentially bind and release hydrophobic peptides by an ATP-dependent process and are involved in post-translational PROTEIN TRANSLOCATION.
The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.
Preparative treatment of transplant recipient with various conditioning regimens including radiation, immune sera, chemotherapy, and/or immunosuppressive agents, prior to transplantation. Transplantation conditioning is very common before bone marrow transplantation.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Signaling proteins that are ligands for the EPH FAMILY RECEPTORS. They are membrane-bound proteins that are attached to the CELL MEMBRANE either through a GLYCOINOSITOL PHOSPHOLIPID MEMBRANE ANCHOR or through a transmembrane domain. Many of the ephrins are considered important intercellular signaling molecules that control morphogenic changes during embryogenesis.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A large family of receptor protein-tyrosine kinases that are structurally-related. The name of this family of proteins derives from original protein Eph (now called the EPHA1 RECEPTOR), which was named after the cell line it was first discovered in: Erythropoietin-Producing human Hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. Members of this family have been implicated in regulation of cell-cell interactions involved in nervous system patterning and development.
A GLYCOINOSITOL PHOSPHOLIPID MEMBRANE ANCHOR containing ephrin found in developing tectum. It has been shown to mediate the bundling of cortical axons and repel the axonal growth of retinal ganglia axons. It is found in a variety of adult tissues of BRAIN; HEART; and KIDNEY.
A transmembrane domain containing ephrin that is specific for EPHB1 RECEPTOR; EPHB2 RECEPTOR and EPHB3 RECEPTOR. It is widely expressed in a variety of developing and adult tissues.
An eph family receptor found widely expressed in embryonic and adult tissues. High levels of EphB2 receptor are observed in growing AXONS and NERVE FIBERS. Several isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing.
A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A family of structurally-related angiogenic proteins of approximately 70 kDa in size. They have high specificity for members of the TIE RECEPTOR FAMILY.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
The milieu surrounding neoplasms consisting of cells, vessels, soluble factors, and molecules, that can influence and be influenced by, the neoplasm's growth.
In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
A complex signaling pathway whose name is derived from the DROSOPHILA Wg gene, which when mutated results in the wingless phenotype, and the vertebrate INT gene, which is located near integration sites of MOUSE MAMMARY TUMOR VIRUS. The signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of WNT PROTEINS to cells surface WNT RECEPTORS which interact with the AXIN SIGNALING COMPLEX and an array of second messengers that influence the actions of BETA CATENIN.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
A Wnt protein subtype that plays a role in cell-cell signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and the morphogenesis of the developing NEURAL TUBE.
A Wnt protein subtype that plays a role in cell-cell signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and the morphogenesis of the developing NEURAL TUBE. Defects in Wnt3 protein are associated with autosomal recessive tetra-AMELIA in humans.
A benign tumor containing vascular, adipose, and muscle elements. It occurs most often in the kidney with smooth muscle elements (angiolipoleiomyoma) in association with tuberous sclerosis. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A disease characterized by the progressive invasion of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS into the LYMPHATIC VESSELS, and the BLOOD VESSELS. The majority of the cases occur in the LUNGS of women of child-bearing age, eventually blocking the flow of air, blood, and lymph. The common symptom is shortness of breath (DYSPNEA).
Autosomal dominant neurocutaneous syndrome classically characterized by MENTAL RETARDATION; EPILEPSY; and skin lesions (e.g., adenoma sebaceum and hypomelanotic macules). There is, however, considerable heterogeneity in the neurologic manifestations. It is also associated with cortical tuber and HAMARTOMAS formation throughout the body, especially the heart, kidneys, and eyes. Mutations in two loci TSC1 and TSC2 that encode hamartin and tuberin, respectively, are associated with the disease.
Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.
A macrolide compound obtained from Streptomyces hygroscopicus that acts by selectively blocking the transcriptional activation of cytokines thereby inhibiting cytokine production. It is bioactive only when bound to IMMUNOPHILINS. Sirolimus is a potent immunosuppressant and possesses both antifungal and antineoplastic properties.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A tumorlike condition characterized by SMOOTH MUSCLE and ENDOTHELIUM proliferation of LYMPHATIC VESSELS and LYMPH NODES in the MEDIASTINUM and retroperitoneum, also in the lung. It may be manifested by chylous PLEURAL EFFUSION and ASCITES.
Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, characterized by the presence of high serum thyroid AUTOANTIBODIES; GOITER; and HYPOTHYROIDISM.
Inflammatory disease of the THYROID GLAND due to autoimmune responses leading to lymphocytic infiltration of the gland. It is characterized by the presence of circulating thyroid antigen-specific T-CELLS and thyroid AUTOANTIBODIES. The clinical signs can range from HYPOTHYROIDISM to THYROTOXICOSIS depending on the type of autoimmune thyroiditis.
Educational institutions.
Large cells with small irregular nuclei and dense acidophilic granules due to the presence of abundant MITOCHONDRIA. Oxyphil cells, also known as oncocytes, are found in oncocytomas of the kidney, salivary glands, and endocrine glands. In the thyroid gland, oxyphil cells are known as Hurthle cells and Askenazy cells.
Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.
A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.
A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.
A platelet-specific protein which is released when platelets aggregate. Elevated plasma levels have been reported after deep venous thrombosis, pre-eclampsia, myocardial infarction with mural thrombosis, and myeloproliferative disorders. Measurement of beta-thromboglobulin in biological fluids by radioimmunoassay is used for the diagnosis and assessment of progress of thromboembolic disorders.
A phospholipid from the platelet membrane that contributes to the blood clotting cascade by forming a phospholipid-protein complex (THROMBOPLASTIN) which serves as a cofactor with FACTOR VIIA to activate FACTOR X in the extrinsic pathway of BLOOD COAGULATION.
The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.
A vitamin-K dependent zymogen present in the blood, which, upon activation by thrombin and thrombomodulin exerts anticoagulant properties by inactivating factors Va and VIIIa at the rate-limiting steps of thrombin formation.

Expression and differential regulation of connective tissue growth factor in pancreatic cancer cells. (1/7961)

CTGF is an immediate early growth responsive gene that has been shown to be a downstream mediator of TGFbeta actions in fibroblasts and vascular endothelial cells. In the present study hCTGF was isolated as immediate early target gene of EGF/TGFalpha in human pancreatic cancer cells by suppression hybridization. CTGF transcripts were found in 13/15 pancreatic cancer cell lines incubated with 10% serum. In 3/7 pancreatic cancer cell lines EGF/TGFalpha induced a significant rise of CTGF transcript levels peaking 1-2 h after the start of treatment. TGFbeta increased CTGF transcript levels in 2/7 pancreatic cancer cell lines after 4 h of treatment and this elevation was sustained after 24 h. Only treatment with TGFbeta was accompanied by a parallel induction of collagen type I transcription. 15/19 human pancreatic cancer tissues were shown to overexpress high levels of CTGF transcripts. CTGF transcript levels in pancreatic cancer tissues and nude mouse xenograft tumors showed a good correlation to the degree of fibrosis. In situ hybridization and the nude mouse experiments revealed that in pancreatic cancer tissues, fibroblasts are the predominant site of CTGF transcription, whereas the tumor cells appear to contribute to a lesser extent. We conclude that CTGF may be of paramount importance for the development of the characteristic desmoplastic reaction in pancreatic cancer tissues.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel angiopoietin family protein, angiopoietin-3. (2/7961)

Using homology-based PCR, we have isolated cDNA encoding a novel member (491 amino acids) of the angiopoietin (Ang) family from human adult heart cDNA and have designated it angiopoietin-3 (Ang3). The NH2-terminal and COOH-terminal portions of Ang-3 contain the characteristic coiled-coil domain and fibrinogen-like domain that are conserved in other known Angs. Ang3 has a highly hydrophobic region at the N-terminus (approximately 21 amino acids) that is typical of a signal sequence for protein secretion. Ang3 mRNA is most abundant in adrenal gland, placenta, thyroid gland, heart and small intestine in human adult tissues. Additionally, Ang3 is a secretory protein, but is not a mitogen in endothelial cells.  (+info)

Suppression subtractive hybridization identifies high glucose levels as a stimulus for expression of connective tissue growth factor and other genes in human mesangial cells. (3/7961)

Accumulation of mesangial matrix is a pivotal event in the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy. The molecular triggers for matrix production are still being defined. Here, suppression subtractive hybridization identified 15 genes differentially induced when primary human mesangial cells are exposed to high glucose (30 mM versus 5 mM) in vitro. These genes included (a) known regulators of mesangial cell activation in diabetic nephropathy (fibronectin, caldesmon, thrombospondin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1), (b) novel genes, and (c) known genes whose induction by high glucose has not been reported. Prominent among the latter were genes encoding cytoskeleton-associated proteins and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a modulator of fibroblast matrix production. In parallel experiments, elevated CTGF mRNA levels were demonstrated in glomeruli of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy. Mannitol provoked less mesangial cell CTGF expression in vitro than high glucose, excluding hyperosmolality as the key stimulus. The addition of recombinant CTGF to cultured mesangial cells enhanced expression of extracellular matrix proteins. High glucose stimulated expression of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1), and addition of TGF-beta1 to mesangial cells triggered CTGF expression. CTGF expression induced by high glucose was partially suppressed by anti-TGF-beta1 antibody and by the protein kinase C inhibitor GF 109203X. Together, these data suggest that 1) high glucose stimulates mesangial CTGF expression by TGFbeta1-dependent and protein kinase C dependent pathways, and 2) CTGF may be a mediator of TGFbeta1-driven matrix production within a diabetic milieu.  (+info)

Isolation of novel GRO genes and a phylogenetic analysis of the CXC chemokine subfamily in mammals. (4/7961)

Approximately 15 different alpha, or CXC, chemokines have thus far been isolated from 11 species of mammals. Among the best studied chemokines are the 12 human proteins that are encoded by 11 paralogous genes. In order to better understand the evolution and function of this group of genes, we isolated and characterized six novel GRO and GRO-related cDNA sequences from the cow (Bos taurus), the sheep (Ovis aries), the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), and the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus). The amino acid sequence of the diverged guinea pig GRO or KC gene is only 50%-60% similar to presumed orthologs from other species, while the sheep and cow GRO proteins are 90%-99% similar to each other. The presence of multiple GRO genes in the cow, the rabbit, and the sheep is consistent with what has been observed for humans. Phylogenetic analyses of amino acid sequences from 44 proteins indicate that genes orthologous to many of the 11 known from humans exist in other species. One such gene, interleukin 8, or IL8, has been isolated from nine species, including the rodent guinea pig; however, this gene is absent in the rat and the mouse, indicating a unique gene loss event in the rat/mouse (muroid rodent) lineage. The KC (or MIP2) gene of rodents appears to be orthologous to the GRO gene found in other taxonomic orders. Combined evidence from different sources suggests that IP10 and MIG share sister taxon relationships on the evolutionary tree, while the remaining paralogous genes represent independent lineages, with limited evidence for kinship between them. This observation indicates that these genes originated nearly contemporaneously via a series of gene duplication events. Relative-rate tests for synonymous and nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions in the KC and IL8 genes did not detect rate heterogeneity; however, there are several notable features regarding the IL8 genes. For example, the IL8 proteins from two Old World monkeys are as similar to one another as they are to the IL8 protein from humans, and all observed nucleotide differences between the IL8 genes of the two monkeys cause amino acid changes; in other words, there are no synonymous differences between them.  (+info)

Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor/diphtheria toxin receptor expression by acute myeloid leukemia cells. (5/7961)

Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is an EGF family member expressed by numerous cell types that binds to EGF receptor 1 (HER-1) or 4 (HER-4) inducing mitogenic and/or chemotactic activities. Membrane-bound HB-EGF retains growth activity and adhesion capabilities and the unique property of being the receptor for diphtheria toxin (DT). The interest in studying HB-EGF in acute leukemia stems from these mitogenic, chemotactic, and receptor functions. We analyzed the expression of HB-EGF in L428, Raji, Jurkat, Karpas 299, L540, 2C8, HL-60, U937, THP-1, ML-3, and K562 cell lines and in primary blasts from 12 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases, by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Northern blot and by the evaluation of sensitivity to DT. The release of functional HB-EGF was assessed by evaluation of its proliferative effects on the HB-EGF-sensitive Balb/c 3T3 cell line. HB-EGF was expressed by all myeloid and T, but not B (L428, Raji), lymphoid cell lines tested, as well as by the majority (8 of 12) of ex vivo AML blasts. Cell lines (except for the K562 cell line) and AML blasts expressing HB-EGF mRNA underwent apoptotic death following exposure to DT, thus demonstrating the presence of the HB-EGF molecule on their membrane. Leukemic cells also released a fully functional HB-EGF molecule that was mitogenic for the Balb/c 3T3 cell line. Factors relevant to the biology of leukemic growth, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), 1alpha,25-(OH)2D3, and especially all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), upregulated HB-EGF mRNA in HL-60 or ML-3 cells. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) induced HB-EGF mRNA and acquisition of sensitivity to DT in one previously HB-EGF-negative leukemia case. Moreover, the U937 and Karpas 299 cell lines expressed HER-4 mRNA. This work shows that HB-EGF is a growth factor produced by primary leukemic cells and regulated by ATRA, 1alpha, 25-(OH)2D3, and GM-CSF.  (+info)

Molecular cloning of mouse and bovine chondromodulin-II cDNAs and the growth-promoting actions of bovine recombinant protein. (6/7961)

We previously determined the complete primary sequence of a heparin-binding growth-promoting factor, chondromodulin-II (ChM-II), which stimulated the growth of chondrocytes and osteoblasts in culture. Bovine ChM-II was a 16-kDa basic protein with 133 amino acid residues and exhibited a significant sequence similarity to the repeats of the chicken mim-1 gene product. Here we report the nucleotide sequences of bovine and mouse ChM-II cDNAs. The cDNAs each contained an open-reading frame corresponding to the ChM-II precursor with 151 amino acid residues. The N-terminus of the precursor included a secretory signal sequence of 18 amino acids prior to the mature ChM-II sequence. Unlike MIM-1, there was no repeat structure in the precursor protein, indicating that ChM-II was encoded as a gene product distinct from MIM-1. We then expressed recombinant bovine ChM-II protein which was purified to homogeneity. The recombinant protein stimulated the growth of rabbit growth plate chondrocytes, mouse MC3T3-E1 cells and rat UMR-106 osteoblastic cells in vitro.  (+info)

Angiopoietins 3 and 4: diverging gene counterparts in mice and humans. (7/7961)

The angiopoietins have recently joined the members of the vascular endothelial growth factor family as the only known growth factors largely specific for vascular endothelium. The angiopoietins include a naturally occurring agonist, angiopoietin-1, as well as a naturally occurring antagonist, angiopoietin-2, both of which act by means of the Tie2 receptor. We now report our attempts to use homology-based cloning approaches to identify new members of the angiopoietin family. These efforts have led to the identification of two new angiopoietins, angiopoietin-3 in mouse and angiopoietin-4 in human; we have also identified several more distantly related sequences that do not seem to be true angiopoietins, in that they do not bind to the Tie receptors. Although angiopoietin-3 and angiopoietin-4 are strikingly more structurally diverged from each other than are the mouse and human versions of angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2, they appear to represent the mouse and human counterparts of the same gene locus, as revealed in our chromosomal localization studies of all of the angiopoietins in mouse and human. The structural divergence of angiopoietin-3 and angiopoietin-4 appears to underlie diverging functions of these counterparts. Angiopoietin-3 and angiopoietin-4 have very different distributions in their respective species, and angiopoietin-3 appears to act as an antagonist, whereas angiopoietin-4 appears to function as an agonist.  (+info)

The head inducer Cerberus is a multifunctional antagonist of Nodal, BMP and Wnt signals. (8/7961)

Embryological and genetic evidence indicates that the vertebrate head is induced by a different set of signals from those that organize trunk-tail development. The gene cerberus encodes a secreted protein that is expressed in anterior endoderm and has the unique property of inducing ectopic heads in the absence of trunk structures. Here we show that the cerberus protein functions as a multivalent growth-factor antagonist in the extracellular space: it binds to Nodal, BMP and Wnt proteins via independent sites. The expression of cerberus during gastrulation is activated by earlier nodal-related signals in endoderm and by Spemann-organizer factors that repress signalling by BMP and Wnt. In order for the head territory to form, we propose that signals involved in trunk development, such as those involving BMP, Wnt and Nodal proteins, must be inhibited in rostral regions.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Stimulation of PC cell-derived growth factor (Epithelin/Granulin precursor) expression by estradiol in human breast cancer cells. AU - Lu, Runqing. AU - Serrero, Ginette. PY - 1999/3/5. Y1 - 1999/3/5. N2 - PC cell-derived growth factor (PCDGF) is an 88 kDa glycosylated protein isolated from a highly tumorigenic mouse teratoma derived cell line which is similar to the epithelin/granulin precursor. Using Northern blot and western blot analyses, we detect the expression of PCDGF mRNA and protein in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. We show that 17-β-estradiol stimulates PCDGF mRNA and protein expression in a time and dose-dependent manner. The stimulation of PCDGF expression by 17-β-estradiol was observed as early as 4 hours and reached a maximum at 12 hours. Maximal stimulation of PCDGF mRNA and protein expression by 17-β-estradiol was observed at a concentration of 10-8 M. The stimulation of PCDGF expression by 17-β-estradiol was completely inhibited by treatment with ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Solution structure and heparin interaction of human hepatoma-derived growth factor. AU - Sue, Shih Che. AU - Chen, Jeou Yuan. AU - Lee, Shao Chen. AU - Wu, Wen Guey. AU - Huang, Tai-huang. PY - 2004/11/5. Y1 - 2004/11/5. N2 - Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF)-related proteins (HRPs) comprise a new protein family that has been implicated in nephrogenesis, tumorigenesis, vascular development, cell proliferation, and transcriptional activation. All HRPs share a conserved N-terminal homologous to the amino terminus of HDGF (HATH) domain, but vary significantly in the C-terminal region. Here, we show that in solution the N and C termini of human HDGF form two structurally independent domains. The 100 amino acid residue N-terminal HATH domain is well-structured while the 140 amino acid residue C-terminal domain is disordered. We determined the solution structure of the HATH domain by NMR. The core structure of the HATH domain is a five-stranded β-barrel followed by two α-helices, ...
PC cell-derived growth factor (PCDGF), also called epithelin/granulin precursor (GEP), is an 88-kDa secreted glycoprotein with the ability to stimulate cell proliferation in an autocrine fashion. In addition, some studies indicated that PCDGF participated in invasion, metastasis and survival of cancer cells by regulating cell migration, adhesion and proliferation. Yet the effects of PCDGF on proliferation and invasion of ovarian cancer cells in vitro and the mechanisms by which PCDGF mediates biological behaviors of ovarian cancer have rarely been reported. In the present study we investigated whether and how PCDGF/GEP mediated cell proliferation and invasion in ovarian cancer. PCDGF/GEP expression level in three human ovarian cancer cell lines of different invasion potential were detected by RT-PCR and western blot. Effects of inhibition of PCDGF expression on cell proliferation and invasion capability were determined by MTT assay and Boyden chamber assay. Expression levels of cyclin D1 and CDK4 and
Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) is a growth factor related to normal development and tumorigenesis; however, the mechanism of its mitogenic and angiogenic activity still remains unknown. Analysis of the HDGF interactome could be important for understanding its function and integrative mechanisms, because knowledge about HDGF interactors is very limited. In this study, through streptavidin-binding peptide (SBP) and Flag tag-based tandem affinity purification (SBP/Flag-TAP) coupled with LC-MS/MS, 106 proteins were shown to form complexes with HDGF. RNAs were also found in the HDGF complex through the SBP-tag based RNA co-immunoprecipitation (SBP-RIP) assay. Some of these interactions were confirmed by Co-IP and RT-PCR. We then found that the HATH domain was essential for HDGF interactions including protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions, and that in the absence of the HATH domain, NO-HATH could not form complex. The interactome suggests that HDGF is a multifunctional protein and participates
Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) belongs to a polypeptide family containing five additional members called HDGF related proteins 1-4 (HRP-1 to -4) and Lens epithelial derived growth factor. Whereas some family members such as HDGF and HRP-2 are expressed in a wide range of tissues, the expression of others is very restricted. HRP-1 and -4 are only expressed in testis, HRP-3 only in the nervous system. Here we investigated the expression of HDGF, HRP-2 and HRP-3 in the central nervous system of adult mice on the cellular level by immunohistochemistry. In addition we performed Western blot analysis of various brain regions as well as neuronal and glial cell cultures. HDGF was rather evenly expressed throughout all brain regions tested with the lowest expression in the substantia nigra. HRP-2 was strongly expressed in the thalamus, prefrontal and parietal cortex, neurohypophysis, and the cerebellum, HRP-3 in the bulbus olfactorius, piriform cortex and amygdala complex. HDGF and HRP-2 were found to be
Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) belongs to a polypeptide family containing five additional members called HDGF related proteins 1-4 (HRP-1 to -4) and Lens epithelial derived growth factor. Whereas some family members such as HDGF and HRP-2 are expressed in a wide range of tissues, the expression of others is very restricted. HRP-1 and -4 are only expressed in testis, HRP-3 only in the nervous system. Here we investigated the expression of HDGF, HRP-2 and HRP-3 in the central nervous system of adult mice on the cellular level by immunohistochemistry. In addition we performed Western blot analysis of various brain regions as well as neuronal and glial cell cultures. HDGF was rather evenly expressed throughout all brain regions tested with the lowest expression in the substantia nigra. HRP-2 was strongly expressed in the thalamus, prefrontal and parietal cortex, neurohypophysis, and the cerebellum, HRP-3 in the bulbus olfactorius, piriform cortex and amygdala complex. HDGF and HRP-2 were found to be
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition of epidermal growth factor-like growth factor secretion in tracheobronchial epithelial cells by vitamin A. AU - Miller, Lisa. AU - Cheng, Ling Zhong. AU - Wu, Reen. PY - 1993/6/1. Y1 - 1993/6/1. N2 - Vitamin A deficiency of respiratory tract epithelium results in the phenomenon of squamous cell metaplasia. The mechanisms by which vitamin A regulates airway epithelial cell growth and differentiation are not completely understood. In this study, we focused on the effects of vitamin A (retinol) on growth of human and non-human primate tracheobronchial epithelial (TBE) cells in culture. Retinol and its derivatives have little growth-stimulatory effect on TBE cells that are maintained in primary culture in a serum-free medium supplemented with 6 hormonal supple-ments: insulin, transferrin, epidermal growth factor (EGF), hydrocortisone, cholera toxin, and bovine hypothalamus extract. However, it was observed that retinol exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of TBE cell growth ...
Evidence suggests flow-induced arterial remodeling involves factors released from cells that are intrinsic to the vessel wall and recruited from the bloodstream. Understanding the molecular details has been hampered by the need to study the process in vivo. The present findings suggest that HB-EGF, which has primarily been studied in epithelial and tumor cells, plays a pivotal role in low FINR of the mouse carotid artery. Sustained low flow activated or increased the following elements within the HB-EGF signaling pathway: ROS, the ROS-sensitive HB-EGF sheddase TACE, expression of pro-HB-EGF, HB-EGF immunoreactivity, the HB-EGF receptor EGFR, ERK1/2, and the transcription factor NF-κB. These changes were associated with proliferation, increased leukocyte density, wall hypertrophy, and lumen narrowing. Heterozygous and homozygous deletion of HB-EGF alleles caused dose-dependent-like inhibition of FINR (although inhibition of lumen narrowing was in some situations spared (see below), where ...
The growth factor progranulin (acrogranin/PC-derived growth factor/granulin-epithelin precursor) promotes onset of blastocyst cavitation and is required for neonatal hypothalamic sexual differentiation. Little is known, however, of the range of devel
Accumulation of T lymphocytes has been demonstrated in atherosclerotic lesions, and T-cell-derived factors appear to modulate atherosclerotic progression.1 2 3 4 5 6 The present in vitro study demonstrates that lyso-PC can selectively upregulate the expression of HB-EGF and IL-2 receptors in T lymphocytes and suggests that this polar phospholipid increase in inflammatory and atherosclerotic lesions27 28 may be an important stimulus for T cells in atherogenesis in vivo.. Recent studies have demonstrated that human T lymphocytes isolated from peripheral blood can synthesize HB-EGF.6 Expression of HB-EGF has been shown in macrophages and SMCs in atherosclerotic lesions,20 and T lymphocytes isolated from atherosclerotic plaques have been shown to produce HB-EGF.29 Lyso-PC, therefore, may be a relevant stimulus to induce the expression of HB-EGF in atherosclerotic lesions, in addition to other pathophysiological stimuli, such as tumor necrosis factor,30 thrombin,31 and platelet-activating factor.32 ...
cDNA, FLJ94334, Homo sapiens growth arrest-specific 2 (GAS2), mRNA (Growth arrest-specific 2, isoform CRA_a) contains a PF00307 domain.. cDNA, FLJ94334, Homo sapiens growth arrest-specific 2 (GAS2), mRNA (Growth arrest-specific 2, isoform CRA_a) contains a PF02187 domain.. cDNA, FLJ94334, Homo sapiens growth arrest-specific 2 (GAS2), mRNA (Growth arrest-specific 2, isoform CRA_a) is proteolytically cut by caspase-7 (C14.004) cleavage. SRVD-GKTS.. cDNA, FLJ94334, Homo sapiens growth arrest-specific 2 (GAS2), mRNA (Growth arrest-specific 2, isoform CRA_a) is proteolytically cut by caspase-3 (C14.003) cleavage. SRVD-GKTS.. ...
Hepatoma derived growth factor Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) also known as high mobility group protein 1-like 2 (HMG-1L2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HDGF gene. Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF), a potential predictive and prognostic marker in several human cancers, is the firstly reported
Osteoblast differentiation is a pivotal event in bone formation. Runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2) is an essential factor required for osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. However, the underlying mechanism of Runx2-regulated osteogenic differentiation is still unclear. Here, we explored the corresponding mechanism using the C2C12/Runx2Dox subline, which expresses Runx2 in response to doxycycline (Dox). We found that Runx2-induced osteogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells results in a sustained decrease in the expression of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF), a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family. Forced expression of HB-EGF or treatment with HB-EGF is capable of reducing the expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a defined marker of early osteoblast differentiation. HB-EGF-mediated inhibition of ALP depends upon activation of the EGFR and the downstream extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase
The MET inhibitor INC-280 restored sensitivity to erlotinib and promoted apoptosis in nonCsmall-cell lung cancer choices rendered resistant to erlotinib by hepatocyte growth factor. to revive awareness to erlotinib and promote apoptosis in NSCLC versions rendered erlotinib resistant by HGF. These data give a preclinical rationale for a continuing phase 1 scientific trial of erlotinib plus INC-280 in mutation, among the first identified systems of EGFR TKI level of resistance involves activation from the MET receptor, resulting in restored downstream signaling in both phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/proteins Rabbit polyclonal to EGFR.EGFR is a receptor tyrosine kinase.Receptor for epidermal growth factor (EGF) and related growth factors including TGF-alpha, amphiregulin, betacellulin, heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor, GP30 and vaccinia virus growth factor. kinase B (AKT) and mitogen-activated proteins kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor by miR-212 and acquired cetuximab-resistance in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. AU - Hatakeyama, Hiromitsu. AU - Cheng, Haixia. AU - Wirth, Pamela. AU - Counsell, Ashley. AU - Marcrom, Samuel R.. AU - Wood, Carey Burton. AU - Pohlmann, Paula R.. AU - Gilbert, Jill. AU - Murphy, Barbara. AU - Yarbrough, Wendell G.. AU - Wheeler, Deric L.. AU - Harari, Paul M.. AU - Guo, Yan. AU - Shyr, Yu. AU - Slebos, Robbert J.. AU - Chung, Christine H.. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - Background: We hypothesized that chronic inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by cetuximab, a monoclonal anti-EGFR antibody, induces up-regulation of its ligands resulting in resistance and that microRNAs (miRs) play an important role in the ligand regulation in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Methodology/Principal Findings: Genome-wide changes in gene and miR expression were determined in cetuximabsensitive cell line, SCC1, and ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The present invention relates to the use of fibroblast growth factor-binding protein (FGF-BP) polypeptides, and functional variants of these polypeptides, respectively, or of nucleic acids encoding th
GRN Full-Length MS Protein Standard (NP_002078), Labeled with [U- 13C6, 15N4]-L-Arginine and [U- 13C6, 15N2]-L-Lysine, was produced in human 293 cells (HEK293) with fully chemically defined cell culture medium to obtain incorporation efficiency at Creative-Proteomics. Granulins are a family of secreted, glycosylated peptides that are cleaved from a single precursor protein with 7.5 repeats of a highly conserved 12-cysteine granulin/epithelin motif. The 88 kDa precursor protein, progranulin, is also called proepithelin and PC cell-derived growth factor. Cleavage of the signal peptide produces mature granulin which can be further cleaved into a variety of active, 6 kDa peptides. These smaller cleavage products are named granulin A, granulin B, granulin C, etc. Epithelins 1 and 2 are synonymous with granulins A and B, respectively. Both the peptides and intact granulin protein regulate cell growth. However, different members of the granulin protein family may act as inhibitors, stimulators, or have dual
Previously we discovered that the growth arrest-specific gene 6 (in oocyte maturation and fertilization using RNA interference (RNAi). but not nuclear maturation and 2) the decreased manifestation and decreased MPF activity separately or mutually influence sperm head decondensation and PN formation. Intro Mammalian oocytes in ovarian follicles have arrested growth and a large nucleus known as a germinal vesicle (GV). The meiotic cell cycle is arrested in the diplotene stage PDK1 inhibitor of the 1st prophase and some selective oocytes initiate growth following gonadotropin simulation [1] [2]. Oocyte growth and maturation are long and requisite processes for fertilization and subsequent embryo development until embryonic genome activation starts. Oocyte maturation entails nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation. Although strictly linked these are complex and different events [3] [4] [5]. The process of nuclear maturation meiotic cell cycle involves GV breakdown (GVBD) chromosome condensation and ...
HB-EGF is an EGF related growth factor that signals through the EGF receptor, and stimulates the proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMC), fibroblasts, epithelial cells, and keratinocytes. HB-EGF is expressed in numerous cell types and tissues, including vascular endothelial cells and SMC, macrophages, skeletal muscle, keratinocytes, and certain tumor cells. The ability of HB-EGF to specifically bind heparin and heparin sulfate proteoglycans is distinct from other EGF-like molecules, and may be related to the enhanced mitogenic activity, relative to EGF, that HB-EGF exerts on smooth muscle cells. The human HB-EGF gene encodes a 208 amino acid transmembrane protein, which can be proteolytically cleaved to produce soluble HB-EGF. Recombinant mouse HB-EGF produced in E. coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain of 86 amino acids (63-148 a.a.) and a molecular mass of 9.8 kDa. It has bee purified by proprietary chromatographic ...
It was reported that tumor-expressed dickkopf-related (DKK) proteins affect micro-environment. However, the influence of DKK1 on colorectal cancer (CRC) liver oligometastases (CRCLOM) remains unclear. CRC cases after resection of liver oligometastases were enrolled in Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center with intact clinical data. Serum DKK1 was detected by ELISA assay. Immunofluorescent staining examination for CD3 and CD8 in slices were also conducted. Among 65 patients included, the recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were significantly better in the low serum DKK1 group (RFS: P = 0.021; OS: P = 0.043). DKK1 was overexpressed in stage IV CRC patients in TCGA data. The number of CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in invasive margin of CRC liver oligometastases was significantly higher in low serum DKK1 group (P = 0.042). Elevated serum DKK1 level was associated with poorer RFS and OS, and less CD8+ TILs in invasive margin in CRC liver oligometastases. DKK1 might serve as a
HDGFRP2 - (untagged)-Human cDNA FLJ14447 fis, clone HEMBB1001331, weakly similar to Mus musculus mRNA for hepatoma-derived growth factor available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Adipose tissue plays an important role in energy balance by secretion of various adipokines. Obesity is excessive fat accumulation in the body. The aim of this study is to examine the association of apelin, an adipokine secreted from fat tissue, with antioxidant system, glucose and lipid parameters in obese and control cases. After approval has been taken from the Ethics Committee, 61 obese and 24 control people were included in the study. The ages in the study group ranges between 18 and 75. The body mass index (BMI) is ,24.9 in obese people, and it ranges between 18.5-24.9 in control cases. Apelin was calculated using the ELISA method, total oxidant and total antioxidant levels were calculated using the colorimetric method, fasting blood glucose, insulin, TG, LDL and HDL levels were calculated using the photometric method, insulin resistance was calculated using the HOMA-IR method. Serum apelin levels were not found to differ between obese and control groups (p,0.05). Total antioxidant level ...
The dual luciferase reporter system was then used to validate the target genes described in Fig 7. To determine whether bta-let-7i and bta-miR-2305 can directly target their predicted target genes, including MAP3K1, proheparin -binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HBEGF), serine/threonine-protein kinase (PAK1) and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 2 (RAC2), we designed luciferase reporter constructs that included either the wild- or mutant-type 3-UTR of MAP3K1, HBEGF, PAK1 and RAC2 (Fig 7C). [score:8] ...
Heparin-binding protein which binds to FGF2, prevents binding of FGF2 to heparin and probably inhibits immobilization of FGF2 on extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycans, allowing its release and subsequent activation of FGFR signaling which leads to increased vascular permeability ...
The inotropic and vasoactive properties of the ligand apelin and its cognate G-protein coupled receptor APJ have been characterized by administration of exogenous peptide, but the function of endogenous apelin on the cardiovascular system is not well described. To investigate the tonic effects of apelin-APJ in contractile function, we generated and characterized apelin and APJ null mice. We also investigated the regulation of apelin and APJ receptor expression in response to cardiac pressure overload. While knockout apelin mice were viable and fertile, APJ null mice showed evidence of fetal wastage for approximately half of the embryos. Compared to wild-type controls, APJ deficient mice reaching adulthood had significantly reduced exercise capacity (treadmill runtime: 20.30 ± 0.974 vs. 23.64 ± 0.737, P=0.009) and LV fractional shortening by echocardiography (29.88 ± 0.927% vs. 44.93 ± 2.66%, P,0.0001). Isolated myocytes from APJ knockouts exhibited reduced sarcomeric shortening (5.070 ± ...
Heparin Binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF), 50 µg. HB-EGF is an EGF related growth factor that signals through the EGF receptor, and stimulates the proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMC), fibroblasts, epithelial cells, and keratinocytes.
HDGFRP2 - HDGFRP2 (untagged)-Human hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein 2 (HDGFRP2), transcript variant 2 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is synthesized as a type I transmembrane protein (proHB-EGF) and expressed on the cell surface. The ectodomain s
Murine Heparin-binding EGF-like Growth Factor stimulates smooth muscle cell regeneration and mitogenic activity. It may be implicated in atherosclerosis.
Cross-suppression of AREG/EREG expression may explain the tight co-expression of AREG and EREG, as well as their tendency to be more highly expressed than other EGFR ligands to determine Ctx efficacy. The positive selection for Ctx-resistant tumour cells exhibiting AREG/EREG cross-suppression may ha …
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [K Tatemoto, M Hosoya, Y Habata, R Fujii, T Kakegawa, M X Zou, Y Kawamata, S Fukusumi, S Hinuma, C Kitada, T Kurokawa, H Onda, M Fujino].
GAS7 antibody [9H6] (growth arrest-specific 7) for FACS, WB. Anti-GAS7 mAb (GTX84464) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Shop Lens epithelium-derived growth factor ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Lens epithelium-derived growth factor Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
PC4 and SFRS1 interacting protein 1, also known as lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75), dense fine speckles 70kD protein (DFS 70) or transcriptional coactivator p75/p52, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PSIP1 gene. PSIP1 has not been clearly linked to a specific cellular mechanism. The term LEDGF/p75 (Lens epithelium-derived growth factor) has entered common usage based on the initial characterization of PSIP1, however this is a misnomer, as the protein is present in most tissues and has no direct role in the development of lens epithelium. LEDGF/p75, a transcription coactivator, gained prominence as a host factor that assists HIV integration and is probably the only integrase interactor whose knock-down severely affects the HIV integration levels. The interaction between HIV integrase and human LEDGF/p75 is a promising target for anti-HIV drug discovery. LEDGF/p75 recruits MLL complexes to HOX genes to regulate their expression. LEDGF/p52 is shown to recruit splicing ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of miR-335-5p in modulating osteogenic differentiation by specifically downregulating Wnt antagonist DKK1. AU - Zhang, Jin. AU - Tu, Qisheng. AU - Bonewald, Lynda F.. AU - He, Xi. AU - Stein, Gary. AU - Lian, Jane. AU - Chen, Jake. PY - 2011/8/1. Y1 - 2011/8/1. N2 - Dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK1) is essential to maintain skeletal homeostasis as an inhibitor of Wnt signaling and osteogenic differentiation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the developmental stage-specific regulation of the DKK1 protein level. We performed a series of studies including luciferase reporter assays, micro-RNA microarray, site-specific mutations, and gain- and loss-of-function analyses. We found that the DKK1 protein level was regulated via DKK1 3 UTR by miRNA control, which was restricted to osteoblast-lineage cells. As a result of decreased DKK1 protein level by miR-335-5p, Wnt signaling was enhanced, as indicated by elevated GSK-3β ...
Granulin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GRN gene. Granulins are a family of secreted, glycosylated peptides that are cleaved from a single precursor protein with 7.5 repeats of a highly conserved 12-cysteine granulin/epithelin motif. The 88 kDa precursor protein, progranulin, is also called proepithelin and prostate cancer (PC) cell-derived growth factor. Cleavage of the signal peptide produces mature granulin which can be further cleaved into a variety of active, 6 kDa peptides. These smaller cleavage products are named granulin A, granulin B, granulin C, etc. Epithelins 1 and 2 are synonymous with granulins A and B, respectively. Both the peptides and intact granulin protein regulate cell growth. However, different members of the granulin protein family may act as inhibitors, stimulators, or have dual actions on cell growth. Granulin family members are important in normal development, wound healing, and tumorigenesis. The human liver fluke (Opisthorchis viverrini) contributes to ...
Background The Wnt signalling pathway is an important regulator of adult tissue maintenance and homeostasis. Disorders in Wnt signaling cause human degenerative diseases as well as cancer. Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) is negative regulator protein of the Wnt pathway and is associated with a variety of organic diseases. Under the hypothesis that DKK-1 as a regulator protein is involved in ventricular remodelling after myocardial infarction we aimed to investigate the prognostic value of serum measurement of DKK-1 in patients with acute coronary syndromes.. Methods and results From April 2003 until April 2005 1136 consecutive patients (age 64±12 years; 347 females) with an ACS within the last 48 hours, who were referred for early invasive diagnositc were included. Follow up data were available for 1128 (99.3%) patients. Serum samples on admission were available for 1092 (97%) patients and from 820 (72%) patients a second sample the day following admission. Values are expressed as median. Values of DKK-1 on ...
ViraQuest Inc. , Uncategorized , MiR-34a targeting of Notch ligand delta-like 1 impairs CD15+/CD133+ tumor-propagating cells and supports neural differentiation in medulloblastoma ...
The investigators are hypothesizing that decreasing estrogen levels will cause serum DKK1 to peak, then decrease gradually as estrogens reach a new lowe
The novel G protein-coupled receptor APJ, recently paired with the proposed cognate peptide ligand apelin, mediates potent vasodilator and positive inotropic actions in rats. Radioligand binding showed apelin receptors in rat and human heart and human large conduit vessels. The specific cell types e …
Primary cell cultures: human fetal material, oligodendrocyte isolation, enrichment, and maturation. Human fetal spinal cord tissue was obtained from the Einstein Human Fetal Tissue Repository (New York, NY) as approved by the Institutional Review Board. Tissues from abortuses of normal women were collected after elective pregnancy termination. Informed consent was obtained from all tissue donors. The ages of the abortuses were determined by multiple parameters, including the date of the last menstrual period by history, uterine size by bimanual and abdominal examination, ultrasonography by using predominantly the maximum biparietal diameter, and, postabortally, by measurement of fetal foot length (Streeter, 1920; Hern, 1984). After retrieval of tissue the spinal cords were stored in sterile medium with antibiotics on ice and were obtained from the neuropathologist within the hour. For cultures the oligodendrocytes were obtained from 21-23 gestational weeks (gw) human fetal spinal cords. The ...
Adipocytokines are polypeptides produced by fat cells.They are associated with obesity, hyperinsulinemia, chronic vascular disease and cancer.The adipocytokines which promote angiogenesis (the growth of new blood vessels) include vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF,) hepatocyte growth factor (HGF,) leptin, tumour necrosis factor alpha, heparin-binding epidermal growth factor, insulin-like growth factor and interleukin-6 (IL-6.) Whole plant extracts […]. View Post ...
CRM197, an inhibitor of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF), produces a synergistic ovarian cancer anti-tumor effect when combined with paclitaxel, according to study results published in the March 15th issue of the International Journal of Cancer. The investigators, Dr. Shingo Miyamoto and his colleagues, are affiliated with the Fukuoka University in Japan. The treatment of…
Lrp5 ELISA Kit (Rat) (GWB-KBBAA4) | Quantitative Sandwich ELISA | Sample Types: serum, plasma and other biological fluids. | Species Reactivity: Mouse | Alias: Dickkopf-4, Dickkopf-related protein 4, Dkk-4, MGC25705
Apelin is an endogenous peptide capable of binding the apelin receptor (APJ), which was originally described as an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor. Apelin and APJ are widely expressed in various tissues and organ systems. They are implicated in different key physiological processes such as angiogenesis, cardiovascular functions, cell proliferation and energy metabolism regulation. On the other hand, this ligand receptor couple is also involved in several pathologies including diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease and cancer ...
Apelin is an endogenous peptide capable of binding the apelin receptor (APJ), which was originally described as an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor. Apelin and APJ are widely expressed in various tissues and organ systems. They are implicated in different key physiological processes such as angiogenesis, cardiovascular functions, cell proliferation and energy metabolism regulation. On the other hand, this ligand receptor couple is also involved in several pathologies including diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease and cancer ...
A population of monocytes, known as Ly6C(lo) monocytes, patrol blood vessels by crawling along the vascular endothelium. Here we show that endothelial cells control their origin through Notch signalling. Using combinations of conditional genetic deletion strategies and cell-fate tracking experiments we show that Notch2 regulates conversion of Ly6C(hi) monocytes into Ly6C(lo) monocytes in vivo and in vitro, thereby regulating monocyte cell fate under steady-state conditions. This process is controlled by Notch ligand delta-like 1 (Dll1) expressed by a population of endothelial cells that constitute distinct vascular niches in the bone marrow and spleen in vivo, while culture on recombinant DLL1 induces monocyte conversion in vitro. Thus, blood vessels regulate monocyte conversion, a form of committed myeloid cell fate regulation. ...
Apelin is an endogenous peptide capable of binding the apelin receptor (APJ), which was originally described as an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor. Apelin and APJ are widely expressed in various tissues and organ systems. They are implicated in different key physiological processes such as angiogenesis, cardiovascular functions, cell proliferation and energy metabolism regulation. On the other hand, this ligand receptor couple is also involved in several pathologies including diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease and cancer ...
Betacellulin, Human, Recombinant Recombinant, human betacellulin consisting of amino acids 32-111 and expressed in E. coli. A heparin-binding protein that is able to bind to the EGF receptor. - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) is a secreted inhibitor of the Wnt signaling pathway. We previously identified DKK-1 as a candidate tumor suppressor and demonstrated that ectopic expression of the DKK-1 suppressed
Complete information for CECR2 gene (Protein Coding), CECR2 Histone Acetyl-Lysine Reader, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against a full length recombinant HBEGF. HBEGF (AAH33097.1, 20 a.a. ~ 208 a.a) full-length recombinant protein with GST tag. MW of the GST tag alone is 26 KDa. (H00001839-M05) - Products - Abnova
CHO-Anti-Human HBEGF F(ab) stable cell line is clonally-derived from a CHO cell line, which has been transfected with an Anti-human HBEGF F(ab) gene to allow expression of the F(ab). It is an example of a cell line transfected using our proprietary CBTGS gene screening and amplification system.
Amphiregulin is an EGF related growth factor that signals through the EGF/TGF-a receptor, and stimulates growth of keratinocytes, epithelial cells and some fibroblasts.
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. amphiregulin ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
Buy our Recombinant human Amphiregulin protein. Ab104355 is an active full length protein produced in Escherichia coli and has been validated in WB, FuncS…
AREG Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated, polypeptide chain containing 98 amino acids and molecular mass of 11.3 KDa.
DKK-1 stands for Dickkopf-1 related protein. Human DKK-1 is a recombinant protein optimized for use in cell culture, differentiation studies, and functional assays. - Österreich
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Intercellular signaling peptides and proteins / ligands. Growth factors. *Epidermal growth factor. *Fibroblast growth factor ... cell-cell signaling. • ephrin receptor signaling pathway. • axon guidance. • osteoclast differentiation. • bone remodeling. ... Three transcript variants that encode distinct proteins have been identified.[6] References[edit]. *^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ...
Intercellular signaling peptides and proteins / ligands. Growth factors. *Epidermal growth factor. *Fibroblast growth factor ... In protein-ligand binding, the ligand is usually a molecule which produces a signal by binding to a site on a target protein. ... In DNA-ligand binding studies, the ligand can be a small molecule, ion,[1] or protein[2] which binds to the DNA double helix. ... Teif VB, Rippe K (October 2010). "Statistical-mechanical lattice models for protein-DNA binding in chromatin". Journal of ...
Intercellular signaling peptides and proteins / ligands. Growth factors. *Epidermal growth factor. *Fibroblast growth factor ... Reverse signaling in growth cone survival[edit]. "Reverse" signaling is one unique property of ephrin ligands that allows for ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... protein binding. Cellular component. • membrane. • plasma membrane. • anchored component of external side of plasma membrane. • ...
Intercellular signaling peptides and proteins / ligands. Growth factors. *Epidermal growth factor. *Fibroblast growth factor ... Receptor/signaling modulators. Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. Growth factor receptor modulators. Cytokine ... TGF-beta-1 is a peptide of 112 amino acid residues derived by proteolytic cleavage from the C-terminal of a precursor protein. ... These proteins interact with a conserved family of cell surface serine/threonine-specific protein kinase receptors, and ...
... carried by intercellular messengers such as peptide hormones and nitric oxide and can also function as an autocrine signal. ... It is often part of the G protein signaling cascade that is activated by low intracellular calcium levels and inhibited by high ... Scholten A, Koch K (2011). "Differential calcium signaling by cone specific guanylate cyclase-activing proteins from the ... Membrane bound guanylate cyclases include an external ligand-binding domain (e.g., for peptide hormones such as BNP and ANP), a ...
Intercellular signaling peptides and proteins templates. छुपी हुई श्रेणियाँ: *रंगीन पृष्ठभूमि वाले नैविगेशनल सन्दूक ...
... associated signaling proteins (CCN intercellular signaling protein). The CCN family of proteins shares a common molecular ... protein structure, characterized by an N-terminal secretory signal peptide followed by four distinct domains with homologies to ... WNT1-inducible-signaling pathway protein 1 (WISP-1), also known as CCN4, is a matricellular protein that in humans is encoded ... "Entrez Gene: WISP1 WNT1 inducible signaling pathway protein 1". Chen CC, Lau LF (Apr 2009). "Functions and mechanisms of action ...
Intercellular signaling peptides and proteins / ligands. Growth factors. *Epidermal growth factor. *Fibroblast growth factor ... G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • bone mineralization. • negative regulation of chondrocyte development. ... Parathyroid hormone-related protein (or PTHrP) is a protein member of the parathyroid hormone family. It is occasionally ... adenylate cyclase-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • cAMP metabolic process. • positive regulation of ...
CCN intercellular signaling protein) of secreted, extracellular matrix (ECM)-associated signaling matricellular proteins. The ... CCN proteins characteristically contain an N-terminal secretory signal peptide followed by four structurally distinct domains ... WNT1-inducible-signaling pathway protein 2, or WISP-2 (also named CCN5) is a matricellular protein that in humans is encoded by ... These proteins, together with WISP1/CCN4, WISP2 (CCN5, this gene), and WISP3 (CCN6) comprise the six-member CCN family in ...
... "signal transduction" proteins, while NGF resulted in an increase in proteins associated with the ribosome and synthesis of ... Protein differentiation was measured in each cell sample with and without treatment by NGF and JNJ460. A peptide mixture was ... JNJ460 also resulted in more structural proteins associated with intercellular growth, such as actin, myosin, and troponin. ... These receptor proteins are unable to initiate the intracellular signaling processes that enable the neuron to live, and ...
CCN intercellular signaling protein) of secreted, extracellular matrix (ECM)-associated signaling matricellular proteins. The ... CCN proteins characteristically contain an N-terminal secretory signal peptide followed by four structurally distinct domains ... WNT1-inducible-signaling pathway protein 3 (WISP3, also named CCN6) is a matricellular protein that in humans is encoded by the ... Huang W, Pal A, Kleer CG (March 2012). "On how CCN6 suppresses breast cancer growth and invasion". J Cell Commun Signal. 6 (1 ...
... associated signaling proteins (see also CCN intercellular signaling protein). The CCN acronym is derived from the first three ... The human NOV protein contains 357 amino acids with an N-terminal secretory signal peptide followed by four structurally ... protein associates with Notch1 extracellular domain and inhibits myoblast differentiation via Notch signaling pathway". The ... These proteins, together with WISP1 (CCN4), WISP2 (CCN5), and WISP3 (CCN6) comprise the six-member CCN family in vertebrates ...
Drosophila neurogenic protein 'big brain' (bib). This protein may mediate intercellular communication; it may functions by ... These proteins may allow the diffusion of water, amino acids and/or peptides from the tonoplast interior to the cytoplasm. ... allowing the transport of certain molecules(s) and thereby sending a signal for an exodermal cell to become an epidermoblast ... Aquaporins Integral membrane protein Transporter Classification Database Protein Superfamily Protein family Fu D, Libson A, ...
CRPs include a highly conserved secretion peptide signal at the N-terminus and a cysteine-rich region at the C-terminus. In an ... Characterized CRPs function as short-range intercellular signals during processes such as plant defense, bacterial symbiosis, ... Cysteine-rich proteins (also cysteine-rich peptide, CRP, disulphide-rich peptide) are small proteins that contain a large ... Kanaoka MM, Higashiyama T (December 2015). "Peptide signaling in pollen tube guidance". Current Opinion in Plant Biology. 28: ...
... is synthesized on the rough endoplasmic reticulum as a preproenzyme of 339 amino acids with a signal peptide of 17 ... Klein DM, Felsenstein KM, Brenneman DE (March 2009). "Cathepsins B and L differentially regulate amyloid precursor protein ... intercellular communication disruption, and reduced protease inhibitor expression. It is also involved in autophagy and ... Additionally, it was recently determined to have minor ligase activity with the ability to attach peptide fragments via an ...
The CCL2 protein precursor contains a signal peptide of 23 amino acids. In turn, the mature CCL2 is 76 amino acids long. The ... Basophils and mast cells that are treated with CCL2 release their granules to the intercellular space. This effect can be also ... "Induction of brain natriuretic peptide and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 gene expression by oxidized low-density lipoprotein: ... "Expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 after focal cerebral ischemia in the rat ...
... associated signaling protein of the CCN family (CCN intercellular signaling protein). CYR61 is capable of regulating a broad ... Full-length CYR61 protein contains 381 amino acids with an N-terminal secretory signal peptide followed by four structurally ... Other highly conserved homologs were later identified to comprise the CCN protein family (CCN intercellular signaling protein ... CCN proteins function as matricellular proteins, which are extracellular matrix proteins that play regulatory roles, ...
Subsequently, it was suggested that EDHF is a sulfur signal that results in activation of K channels via sulfhydration of a ... Endothelium-derived CNP has been proposed to act as an EDHF via specific C-subtype of natriuretic peptide receptor, however the ... The generation of animals that lack both endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and COX-1 (Cyclooxygenase-1, a protein that ... An alternative explanation for the EDHF phenomenon is that direct intercellular communication via gap junctions allows passive ...
... such as dendritic cells and is the receptor for the proteins CD28 (for autoregulation and intercellular association) and CTLA-4 ... This helps to signal the T-cell differentiation into a cytotoxic T-cell. CD80, often in tandem with CD86, plays a large and ... When the major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC class II)- peptide complex on a dendritic cell interacts with the ... It is closely related to CD86, another B7 protein (B7-2), and often works in tandem, binding to the same receptors to prime T ...
C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) has been shown to exert a variety of cardiovascular effects including vasodilation and ... In blood vessels Endothelium-Derived Hyperpolarizing Factor or EDHF is proposed to be a substance and/or electrical signal that ... The generation of animals that lack both Endothelium Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS) and COX-1 (Cyclooxygenase-1, a protein that ... An alternative explanation for the EDHF phenomenon is that direct intercellular communication via gap junctions allows passive ...
Through intercellular signalling mechanisms such as vasoactive intestinal peptide, the SCN signals other hypothalamic nuclei ... Methylation of a protein structure adds a methyl group and regulates the protein function or gene expression and in histone ... CCA1/LHY and TOC1 proteins repress the expression of each others genes. The result is that as CCA1/LHY protein levels start to ... It is not, however, clear precisely what signal (or signals) enacts principal entrainment to the many biochemical clocks ...
Wnt proteins constitute a large family of secreted molecules that are involved in intercellular signalling during development. ... but they share the following features characteristics of secretory proteins: a signal peptide, several potential N- ... The Wnt proteins seem to adhere to the plasma membrane of the secreting cells and are therefore likely to signal over only few ... In molecular biology, the protein domain, WIF N-terminal refers to the N terminal domain of the protein, WIF. It stands for, ...
Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases (protein kinase A) are activated by the signal chain coming from the G protein (that was ... and vary in size from small molecules to peptides to large proteins. G protein-coupled receptors are involved in many diseases ... chemokine receptors bind ligands that mediate intercellular communication between cells of the immune system; receptors such as ... GPCRs may signal independently through many proteins already mentioned for their roles in G-protein-dependent signaling such as ...
... one of the crucial intercellular signaling systems in development, cancer and stem cell biology. Yoshinori Ohsumi, Tokyo ... for developing technology that allowed the design of proteins never seen before in nature, including novel proteins that have ... linking accumulation of APP-derived beta-amyloid peptide to Alzheimer's pathogenesis and inspiring new strategies for disease ... for elucidating the unfolded protein response, a cellular quality-control system that detects disease-causing unfolded proteins ...
Juxtacrine signaling is a type of intercellular communication that is transmitted via oligosaccharide, lipid, or protein ... amines and peptide or protein hormones) are water-soluble and act on the surface of target cells via signal transduction ... Autocrine signaling is a form of signaling in which a cell secretes a hormone or chemical messenger (called the autocrine agent ... The typical mode of cell signalling in the endocrine system is endocrine signaling, that is, using the circulatory system to ...
Protease activated receptors are integral membrane proteins that are coupled to G-proteins and are activated by specific ... Although the proteolysis is the main mechanism for PAR activation, it is well known that a synthetic peptide (SLIGKV) that ... In endothelial cells PARs play a key role in promotion vascular barrier function as they provide a positive signals for ... endothelial adhesion molecules (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1), and E- ...
Chemical signals therefore are an important component of paracrine, autocrine and endocrine signaling. Neurokinin A was shown ... Each receptor demonstrates a specific affinity for either neurokinin A or substance P peptides. Both peptides, however, can act ... Either of these scenarios can result in calcium overload, protein degradation, the unfolded protein response or an accumulation ... "Molecular Mechanisms Of Intercellular Communication In The Hormonal And Neural Systems." IUBMB Life 58.5/6 (2006): 349-357 pre- ...
The ADAMTS13 protease consists of 1427 amino acids and has several protein domains: The signal peptide is thought to have a ... The ADAMTS protease family contains enzymes that process collagen, cleave inter-cellular matrix, inhibit angiogenesis and blood ... The CUB domains take part in protein-protein interactions with VWF domains, which become exposed under shear stress, and are ... The TSP1 repeats mediate extracellular matrix protein-protein interactions. The cystein-rich domain is responsible for ...
A conserved family of transmembrane proteins involved in intercellular signaling during development". Developmental Biology. ... The peptide cleaved from the C terminal of Ten-m3, TCAP-3, stimulates the production of cAMP and the proliferation of neurons. ... The proline-rich stretches are typical binding sites for SH3 proteins, which can regulate intracellular teneurin signalling ... The proteins were called Ten-ms in zebrafish, teneurins in chicken, Ten-m1-4, Odz1-4, Ten-m/Odz1-4, DOC4 in mouse, neurestin in ...
O'Connor EM, Shand RF (2002). "Halocins and sulfolobicins: the emerging story of archaeal protein and peptide antibiotics". J. ... Lykke-Andersen J, Aagaard C, Semionenkov M, Garrett RA (1997). "Archaeal introns: splicing, intercellular mobility and ... "A congruent phylogenomic signal places eukaryotes within the Archaea". Proc. R. Soc. (B rspb20121795). ... 2002). "Introns in protein-coding genes in Archaea". FEBS Lett. 510 (1-2): 27-30. PMID 11755525. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(01) ...
... through the transcription factor activity of the proteins they encode. RNA signalling includes differential recruitment of a ... and respond differently to the environment and intercellular signalling. Thus, as individuals develop, morphogens activate or ... In general, proteins fold into discrete units that perform distinct cellular functions, but some proteins are also capable of ... The first way is post translational modification of the amino acids that make up histone proteins. Histone proteins are made up ...
fusion protein against VEGF (Aflibercept). *proapoptotic peptide against ANXA2 and prohibitin (Adipotide) ... and generally excludes agents that more selectively block extracellular growth signals (i.e. blockers of signal transduction). ... generation of highly reactive free radicals that damage intercellular molecules and topoisomerase inhibition.[57] ... This fusion protein has enzyme activity that can be inhibited by imatinib, a small molecule drug.[119][120][121][122] ...
Hensley, K. (1994) "A Model for β-Amyloid Aggregation and Neurotoxicity Based on Free Radical Generation by the Peptide: ... Konopacka, Agnieszka, Filip A. Konopacki, and Jan Albrecht (2009) "Protein Kinase G Is Involved in Ammonia-induced Swelling of ... "Involvement of TLR4/Type I IL-1 Receptor Signaling in the Induction of Inflammatory Mediators and Cell Death Induced by Ethanol ... "Endothelim-derived Relaxing Factor Release on Activation of NMDA Receptors Suggests Role as Intercellular Messenger in the ...
"Plant Signaling & Behavior. 5 (2): 202-204. doi:10.4161/psb.5.2.11188. ISSN 1559-2316. PMC 2884136. PMID 20173411.. ... Reduction-Oxidation-Sensitive Green Fluorescent Protein) in Arabidopsis". Plant Physiology. 141 (2): 397-403. doi:10.1104/pp. ... "CLE14/CLE20 peptides may interact with CLAVATA2/CORYNE receptor-like kinases to irreversibly inhibit cell division in the root ... "A membrane-associated thioredoxin required for plant growth moves from cell to cell, suggestive of a role in intercellular ...
G-protein-dependent signalingEdit. There are three main G-protein-mediated signaling pathways, mediated by four sub-classes of ... and vary in size from small molecules to peptides to large proteins. G protein-coupled receptors are involved in many diseases ... Regulation of immune system activity and inflammation: chemokine receptors bind ligands that mediate intercellular ... Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases (protein kinase A) are activated by the signal chain coming from the G protein (that was ...
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a 157 amino acid inter-cellular signaling molecule (cytokine) produced mainly by activated ... For instance, misregulation of Hedgehog (Hgg) protein signalling (see subsection on Development, below) has been implicated in ... The apoptotic pathway was found to be dramatically restored in H460 cells with a Smac peptide (SmacN7) that targets IAPs. Yang ... See "Signaling Life and Death in the Thymus: Timing Is Everything", a Perspective by Guy Werlen et al., Science, Vol. 299, p. ...
"Rhomboid family pseudoproteases use the ER quality control machinery to regulate intercellular signaling". Cell. 145 (1): 79-91 ... but able to function as binding or structural proteins.[63][64] For example, the heparin-binding protein Azurocidin is a member ... 1994). "A designed peptide ligase for total synthesis of ribonuclease A with unnatural catalytic residues". Science. 266 (5183 ... Hedgehog protein (Drosophila melanogaster) N9, N10, N11 Intein-containing V-type proton ATPase catalytic subunit A ( ...
A nuclear localisation signal on the NF-κB protein allows it to be transported through the nuclear pore and into the nucleus, ... as well as other small lipid-soluble molecules involved in intercellular signaling, can diffuse through the cell membrane and ... The molecules or peptides are ubiquitinated before being released from the nucleus of the cells. The ubiquitinated molecules ... Both structures serve to mediate binding to nuclear transport proteins.[5]. Most proteins, ribosomal subunits, and some DNAs ...
Juxtacrine signaling is a type of intercellular communication that is transmitted via oligosaccharide, lipid, or protein ... Amino acid-based hormones (amines and peptide or protein hormones) are water-soluble and act on the surface of target cells via ... Cell signallingEdit. The typical mode of cell signaling in the endocrine system is endocrine signaling, that is, using the ... Main article: Autocrine signalling. Autocrine signaling is a form of signaling in which a cell secretes a hormone or chemical ...
peptide hormone binding. • protein binding. • cytokine receptor activity. • proline-rich region binding. • protein kinase ... and intercellular signal transduction pathway leading to growth. A common alternate allele of this gene, called GHRd3, lacks ... Ram, P A; Waxman D J (December 1999). "SOCS/CIS protein inhibition of growth hormone-stimulated STAT5 signaling by multiple ... signaling by cloning of GH receptor target proteins". J. Biol. Chem. UNITED STATES. 273 (26): 15906-12. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.26. ...
identical protein binding. • peptidase activity. • hydrolase activity. • virus receptor activity. • protein homodimerization ... containing peptides and include growth factors, chemokines, neuropeptides, and vasoactive peptides. DPP4 plays a major role in ... intercellular canaliculus. • membrane raft. • invadopodium membrane. • extracellular region. • plasma membrane. Biological ... signal transduction and apoptosis. It is an intrinsic membrane glycoprotein and a serine exopeptidase that cleaves X-proline ...
... activation of IP3 signaling and MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinases) such as ERK and JNK, bring about an increase in the ... Research since the mid-1990s has shown that astrocytes propagate intercellular Ca2+ waves over long distances in response to ... A litany of other neurotransmitter and neuromodulators, such as calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), adenosine triphosphate ... In this chronic signaling pathway, p38 is activated as a result of IL-1β signaling, and there is a presence of chemokines that ...
... signaling may occur via activation of G protein-coupled or nuclear receptors, and members of several different lipid ... and intercellular proteins, some glycerophospholipids in eukaryotic cells, such as phosphatidylinositols and phosphatidic acids ... Walsh CT (March 2004). "Polyketide and nonribosomal peptide antibiotics: modularity and versatility". Science. 303 (5665): 1805 ... Signaling[edit]. In recent years, evidence has emerged showing that lipid signaling is a vital part of the cell signaling.[69][ ...
REDIRECT Template:Infobox protein. ಆಕ್ಸಿಟೋಸಿನ್ ಪೆಪ್ಟೈಡ್ OXT ವಂಶವಾಹಿಯಿಂದ ಒಂದು ನಿಷ್ಕ್ರಿಯ ಮುನ್ಸೂಚಕ ಪ್ರೋಟಿನ್‌ ಹಾಗೆ ಸಂಕ್ಷೇಪಿಸಲಾಗಿದೆ. ... 2006). "Maternal oxytocin triggers a transient inhibitory switch in GABA signaling in the fetal brain during delivery". Science ... peptide YY · Liver/other: Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1, IGF-2) ... Peptides. 4 (4): 509-15. PMID 6647119.. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link). ...
Lys-N is a unique protease found in maitake.[15] Lys-N is used for proteomics experiments because of its protein cleavage ... Taouatas, Nadia; Madalina M Drugan; Albert J R Heck; Shabaz Mohammed (May 2008). "Straightforward ladder sequencing of peptides ... involvement of NK cell activation and suppression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 expression in lung vascular ... vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenesis through inhibition of reactive oxygen species and extracellular signal- ...
PROBOOST Thymic Protein A on toode, mis sisaldab vasika tüümuse rakukultuuridest eraldatud thymic Protein A-d. Toodet ... Wnt signaling in the thymus is regulated by differential expression of intracellular signaling molecules, PNAS, 28. veebruar ... V. Y. Arion, Thymic Peptides as Immunoregulators with Special Reference to T-Activin, Soviet Medical Reviewa, section B, ... Christian Koble ja Bruno Kyewski, The thymic medulla: a unique microenvironment for intercellular self-antigen transfer, J. Exp ...
activation of protein kinase B activity. • positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling. • movement of cell or subcellular ... protein disulfide oxidoreductase activity. • peptide disulfide oxidoreductase activity. • oxidoreductase activity, acting on a ... "A membrane-associated thioredoxin required for plant growth moves from cell to cell, suggestive of a role in intercellular ... signal transduction. • protein repair. • cellular oxidant detoxification. • cellular response to oxidative stress. ...
Shimkets L (1999). "Intercellular signaling during fruiting-body development of Myxococcus xanthus". Annu Rev Microbiol 53: 525 ... Kerfeld CA, Sawaya MR, Tanaka S, et al. (August 2005). "Protein structures forming the shell of primitive bacterial organelles ... Yonath A, Bashan A (2004). "Ribosomal crystallography: initiation, peptide bond formation, and amino acid polymerization are ... 37.0 37.1 Kaiser D (2004). "Signaling in myxobacteria". Annu Rev Microbiol 58: 75-98. doi:10.1146/annurev.micro.58.030603. ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BSG gene.[5][6][7] This protein is a determinant for the Ok blood group system. ... cell surface receptor signaling pathway. • decidualization. • pyruvate metabolic process. • response to mercury ion. • response ... response to peptide hormone. • extracellular matrix disassembly. • extracellular matrix organization. • odontogenesis of dentin ... As members of the immunoglobulin superfamily play fundamental roles in intercellular recognition involved in various ...
One type of inter-cellular communication by a molecular signal is called quorum sensing, which serves the purpose of ... The bacterial flagellum is made of about 20 proteins, with approximately another 30 proteins required for its regulation and ... which is made from polysaccharide chains cross-linked by peptides containing D-amino acids.[64] Bacterial cell walls are ... Shimkets LJ (1999). "Intercellular signaling during fruiting-body development of Myxococcus xanthus". Annual Review of ...
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins. Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the ... and ProteinsPeptidesIntercellular Signaling Peptides and ProteinsAdipokinesAdiponectinLeptinResistinAgouti-Related Protein ... and ProteinsProteinsIntercellular Signaling Peptides and ProteinsAdipokinesAdiponectinLeptinResistinAgouti-Related Protein ... Intercellular Signaling Peptides and ProteinsAdipokinesAdiponectinLeptinResistinAgouti-Related ProteinAgouti Signaling Protein ...
Peptide signals for protein degradation within lysosomes. Biochem Soc Symp. 1989;55:45-55.. View this article via: PubMed ... We hypothesized that intercellular transfer of proteins is not the sole consequence of cell death-mediated protein release, but ... Heat shock protein-peptide complexes, reconstituted in vitro, elicit peptide-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte response and tumor ... Rluc signals in B) and T cell activation (NFAT-CBR signals in C). Signal strength is depicted by a pseudocolor scale given in ...
Intercellular signaling peptides and proteins / ligands. Growth factors. *Epidermal growth factor. *Fibroblast growth factor ... cell-cell signaling. • ephrin receptor signaling pathway. • axon guidance. • osteoclast differentiation. • bone remodeling. ... Three transcript variants that encode distinct proteins have been identified.[6] References[edit]. *^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ...
Intercellular signaling peptides and proteins / ligands. Growth factors. *Epidermal growth factor. *Fibroblast growth factor ... In protein-ligand binding, the ligand is usually a molecule which produces a signal by binding to a site on a target protein. ... In DNA-ligand binding studies, the ligand can be a small molecule, ion,[1] or protein[2] which binds to the DNA double helix. ... Teif VB, Rippe K (October 2010). "Statistical-mechanical lattice models for protein-DNA binding in chromatin". Journal of ...
Signal Transduction/physiology*. Substance. *Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins. Grant support. *R01 GM056211/GM/ ... In its simplest incarnation, a morphogen signal forms a gradient by diffusion from a local source and clearance in surrounding ... The graded activity of morphogens within tissues exposes cells to different signal levels and leads to region-specific ... Morphogens are long-range signaling molecules that pattern developing tissues in a concentration-dependent manner. ...
Intercellular Junctions * Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism* * Lung Neoplasms / metabolism* * Lung ... Central to this process is the induction of angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) by TGFbeta via the Smad signaling pathway. TGFbeta ...
Beta-catenin and Wnt signaling mediate critical functions in cell fate specification and differentiation, but specific ... Cytoskeletal Proteins * Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins * Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc ... Wnt/beta-catenin signaling acts upstream of N-myc, BMP4, and FGF signaling to regulate proximal-distal patterning in the lung ... Wnt/beta-catenin functions upstream of BMP4, FGF signaling, and N-myc. Moreover, we show that beta-catenin and LEF/TCF activate ...
CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins * Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins * PPAR gamma * Sterol Regulatory Element ... GATA domain-binding protein 3 (GATA3), C/EBPbeta, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma2, signal transducer ... PPARG angiopoietin-related protein (PGAR), insulin-like growth factor 1, PPARgamma coactivator 1alpha, PPARgamma coactivator ... CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) alpha, C/EBPdelta, ... Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism * ...
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins. *Splenic Neoplasms. *fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3 ... The Notch signaling network is an evolutionarily conserved intercellular signaling pathway which regulates interactions between ... positive regulation of Ras protein signal transduction - protein binding - pulmonary valve morphogenesis - receptor activity - ... This protein is cleaved in the trans-Golgi network, and presented on the cell surface as a heterodimer. This protein functions ...
Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras). *Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins. *Amphiregulin. *Antineoplastic Agents ... protein binding - response to peptide hormone stimulus - wound healing Data from Gene Ontology via CGAP [Hide] ... This gene encodes a secreted peptide hormone and member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family of proteins. The encoded ... cell-cell signaling - cytokine-mediated signaling pathway - epidermal growth factor receptor binding - epidermal growth factor ...
Keywords: Intercellular signaling peptides and proteins; Periodontal ligament; Dental cementum; Bone marrow; Cells ... The effect of odontoblast conditioned media and dentin non-collagenous proteins on the differentiation and mineralization of ... by odontoblasts stimulated with proteins in demineralized dentin extracts13. ...
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / blood*. Leptin / blood*. Male. Middle Aged. Obesity / etiology. Sleep / ... 0/Adiponectin; 0/Blood Glucose; 0/Insulin; 0/Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0/Leptin ...
0/Adiponectin; 0/Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library ... Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / blood*. Male. Middle Aged. Ventricular Function, Left. ...
0 (Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4); 0 (Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins); 0 (Troponin T); 0 (Vitamins); IY9XDZ35W2 ( ... 0 (Microfilament Proteins); 0 (Muscle Proteins); 0 (Protein Isoforms); 0 (Synpo2l protein, mouse). ... Fbxo32 protein, rat); EC 2.3.2.27 (SKP Cullin F-Box Protein Ligases); EC 2.3.2.27 (Trim63 protein, rat); EC 2.3.2.27 (Ubiquitin ... Dysregulation of Z-disc proteins often result in cardiomyopathy. We have previously shown that the Z-disc protein Cytoskeletal ...
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins); 0 (Neoplasm Proteins); 0 (Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins); 0 (Nup98 protein, ... 0 (Tumor Suppressor Proteins); 0 (tuberous sclerosis complex 1 protein); 4JG2LF96VF (tuberous sclerosis complex 2 protein). ... 0 (Tumor Suppressor Proteins); 0 (tuberous sclerosis complex 1 protein); 9007-49-2 (DNA). ... Early changes in MRI signal may serve as a novel early indicator for a satisfactory response to mTOR-inhibitor therapy of AML. ...
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; Lymphokines; Pyridines; rho GTP-Binding Proteins, EC 3.6.5.2; rhoA GTP-Binding ... Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins · Lymphokines · Male · Neovascularization, Physiologic · Penis · Pyridines · rho ... GTP-Binding Proteins · rhoA GTP-Binding Protein · Signal Transduction · Umbilical Veins · Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A ... Nutrition · Aspergillus niger · Chemostat culture · Glucoamylase (GAM) · Protein secretion · Recombinant protein · Strain ...
ANGPTL4 protein, human; Chromatin; Cytokines; Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; Procetofen, 49562-28-9; Proteins; ... Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins · Introns · Liver · Mice · Mice, Inbred C57BL · Molecular Sequence Data · ... ANGPTL4 protein, human · cell receptor · protein · RNA · Signal peptide · Transcription factor · Adipocyte · Animal cell · ... At the protein level, in human and mouse blood plasma, FIAF was found to be present both as the native protein and in a ...
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; Proteolysis Research Organizations. Cell Biology: Developmental Cell Biology and ... Specialized Terms: Proteolysis; Serpins; Intercellular signaling; Morphogenesis; Disease modeling; Drosophila molecular ... Spatial regulation of developmental signaling by a serpin. Hashimoto, C., Kim, D.R., Weiss, L.A., Miller, J.W. and Morisato, D ... Hashimoto C, Kim DR, Weiss LA, Miller JW, Morisato D: Spatial regulation of developmental signaling by a serpin. Dev Cell. 2003 ...
Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins [D12]. *Peptides [D12.644]. *Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins [D12.644.276] ... A peptide factor originally identified by its ability to stimulate the phosphorylation the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-2). ... Investigating Nrg1 Signaling in the Regenerating Axolotl Spinal Cord Using Multiplexed FISH. Dev Neurobiol. 2019 05; 79(5):453- ... Neuregulin-1 signaling is essential for nerve-dependent axolotl limb regeneration. Development. 2016 08 01; 143(15):2724-31. ...
Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins [D12]. *Peptides [D12.644]. *Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins [D12.644.276] ... The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration ... Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C. ... synergistically activates PF4 gene expression in combination with ETS family proteins. J Thromb Haemost. 2013 Sep; 11(9):1742- ...
Animal intercellular signaling peptides and proteins. Growth factors. Epidermal growth factor - Fibroblast growth factor (FGF2 ... Categories: Genes on chromosome 1 , Human proteins , Cell signaling , Signal transduction , Neurotrophins , Peptide hormones , ... receptor signaling protein activity. • growth factor activity. Biological Process: • cell-cell signaling. • multicellular ... Endocrine system: hormones/endocrine glands (Peptide hormones, Steroid hormones). Hypothalamic-pituitary. Hypothalamus: TRH, ...
Animal intercellular signaling peptides and proteins. Growth factors. Epidermal growth factor - Fibroblast growth factor (FGF2 ... Categories: Genes on chromosome 4 , Human proteins , Cell signaling , Signal transduction , Growth factors , Morphogens ... EGF as Therapeutic Protein. EGF is currently being marketed as a therapeutic protein for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers ... EGF is the founding member of the EGF-family of proteins. Members of this protein family have highly similar structural and ...
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins Isoproterenol Male Myocardial Contraction Myocardial Infarction Rats Rats, Wistar ... Infusion of both peptides was made by sequentially increasing rate from 0.5 to 50 µg/kg/min. In the control group, efficacy of ...
Categories: Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, ...
GDF9 protein, human. 0. Growth Differentiation Factor 9. 0. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins. ... Genes from the ovarian bone morphogenetic signaling pathway (GDF9 and BMP15) are critical for normal human fertility. We ... in the mature protein region. For each variant, the frequencies were higher in cases compared with controls. The proportion of ...
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins. genetics. Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-5. genetics. Lumbar ... Extracellular Matrix Proteins. genetics. Female. Femur Neck. physiopathology. Fractures. Bone. genetics. Gene Expression ... Mitochondrial Membrane Transport Proteins. genetics. Osteoporosis. genetics. Phosphoproteins. genetics. Polymorphism. Single ... endochondral ossification and Wnt signaling pathways. However, we also discovered loci that were localized to genes not known ...
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins Neuropeptides Neurotransmitter Agents apelin-13 peptide Serotonin ... Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins Male Motor Activity Neuropeptides Neurotransmitter Agents Rats Rats, Sprague- ... Food intake and hypothalamic peptide and neurotransmitter levels were evaluated 2 and 24 h after injection. Compared to vehicle ... intrahypothalamic apelin-13 injection on food intake and the involvement of orexigenic and anorexigenic hypothalamic peptides ...
Intercellular signaling peptides and proteins templates. छुपी हुई श्रेणियाँ: *रंगीन पृष्ठभूमि वाले नैविगेशनल सन्दूक ...
Actually, it has been shown that these signals can use several possible modes of intercellular communication:(i)the classical ... 3. The Large Family of CSF Aβ Peptides: The Mass Spectrometry-Based Detection. The predominant protein component of amyloid ... β peptides functions. The hypothesis is based on the concept that Aβ peptides as well as other key signals in the central ... β peptides and their microenvironment targets. Finally, we suggest that Aβ peptides as well as other key signals in the central ...
... protein and 38% carbohydrate), regulates red blood cell production. Epoetin alfa is produced by Chinese hamster ovary cells ... Peptides: 22950*Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: 12097*Cytokines: 54678*Hematopoietic Cell Growth Factors: 11* ... Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: 12097*Cytokines: 54678*Hematopoietic Cell Growth Factors: 11*Colony-Stimulating ... Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: 12097*Cytokines: 54678*Hematopoietic Cell Growth Factors: 11*Colony-Stimulating ...
  • What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in? (cancerindex.org)
  • SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrated that hiPSC lines respond differently to a standard cardiac differentiation protocol and that a well-orchestrated interplay between Wnt, BMP4, FGF/MEK and Ascorbic acid MEK/ERK1/2 signaling pathways is beneficial in enhancing the differentiation outcome. (bireme.br)
  • For this, identification of its substrates and signaling pathways is crucial. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Dynamic biochemistry II - signaling pathways. (muni.cz)
  • Of the several signaling pathways involved in colonic inflammation, the activation and cr. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Multiple pathways of protein translocation have been proposed. (springer.com)
  • Thus, a prima facie argument can be made that heme trafficking within the aqueous cellular milieu must be mediated by specific intra- and intercellular pathways. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Plant defense responses to wounding and herbivore attack are regulated by signal transduction pathways that operate both at the site of wounding and in undamaged distal leaves. (pnas.org)
  • NO stimulates signal transduction pathways through protein kinases, cytosolic Ca 2+ mobilization and protein modification (i.e. nitrosylation and nitration). (wiley.com)
  • However, these models remain speculative in the absence of information regarding the proteins and pathways involved. (rupress.org)
  • In this study, we define the novel pathways and proteins necessary for AcbA-like protein (Acb1 in Pichia pastoris ) secretion in yeast. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, PASMC FoxO1 is a critical integrator of multiple signaling pathways driving PH, and reconstitution of FoxO1 activity offers a potential therapeutic option for PH. (mpg.de)
  • CD2 associates with the Src family tyrosine kinases Lck and Fyn and through these kinases couples to downstream signal transduction pathways ( 18 , 19 , 20 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Wnt signaling pathways regulate proliferation, motility, and survival in a variety of human cell types. (diva-portal.org)
  • Ephrin A4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EFNA4 gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • WNT1-inducible-signaling pathway protein 1 (WISP-1), also known as CCN4, is a matricellular protein that in humans is encoded by the WISP1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nevertheless, engagement of CD2 to CD58 in humans, or to CD48 in rodents, facilitates adhesion between T cells and APC and is proposed to promote the formation of an optimal intercellular membrane spacing (∼140 Å) suitable for TCR recognition of a peptide Ag bound to MHC ( 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • It is involved in intra- and inter-cellular signaling in organisms as diverse as bacteria, slime mold, fruit fly and humans. (moleculardevices.com)
  • Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. (nih.gov)
  • Morphogens are long-range signaling molecules that pattern developing tissues in a concentration-dependent manner. (nih.gov)
  • MAIN METHODS: Following a standard cardiac differentiation protocol using small molecules targeting the canonical Wnt signaling, growth factors (BMP4 and FGF2) and ascorbic acid were added further in order to increase the cardiac differentiation efficiency. (bireme.br)
  • TrkA is a receptor tyrosine kinase (meaning it mediates its actions by causing the addition of phosphate molecules on certain tyrosines in the cell, activating cellular signaling). (bionity.com)
  • Indeed, there is increasing evidence that intercellular transfer of membrane fragments and molecules occurs frequently during cell-cell close contact, thereby modifying the phenotype and probably the function of immune cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • The intercellular transfer of membrane molecules was also observed in vivo in several models: rat T cells transferred in irradiated SCID mice acquired MHC molecules as well as adhesion and costimulatory molecules ( 5 ), and encephalitogenic T cells were shown to express abundant surface MHC class II molecules in rat and mouse models of EAE ( 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • We found that an actin-dependent process caused TCR and adhesion proteins to cluster at the cell periphery, but these molecules appeared to segregate from one another at the earliest stages of microdomain formation. (pnas.org)
  • The TCR-peptide-major histocompatibility complex (MHC), cytoplasmic signaling proteins, and adhesion molecules [e.g., the integrin leukocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1 on the T cell and its ligand, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, on the APC] concentrate at the cell-cell interface and segregate into a distinctive structure known as the immunological synapse (IS) ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Because of its high concentration of the TCR and other signaling molecules, it was originally thought the IS might be needed for sustained signaling, which is required for T cell activation ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • The cytoplasmic domain is required for CD2-mediated activation ( 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 ), but as it has no intrinsic enzymatic activity, it depends on physical interactions with other signaling molecules to propagate the stimulus received upon ligand binding. (jimmunol.org)
  • These signaling molecules are usually small peptides, polypeptides or proteins that have corresponding receptors on the outer membranes of their target cells. (longnaturalhealth.com)
  • Central to this process is the induction of angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) by TGFbeta via the Smad signaling pathway. (nih.gov)
  • The Notch signaling network is an evolutionarily conserved intercellular signaling pathway which regulates interactions between physically adjacent cells. (cancerindex.org)
  • In Drosophilia, notch interaction with its cell-bound ligands (delta, serrate) establishes an intercellular signaling pathway that plays a key role in development. (cancerindex.org)
  • KEY FINDINGS: Using NP0040 hiPSCs, the CM yield resulting from modulation of the Wnt signaling pathway alone was inefficient compared to previous studies while the addition of BMP4, FGF2 and ascorbic acid resulted in enhanced cardiac differentiation outcome. (bireme.br)
  • Genes from the ovarian bone morphogenetic signaling pathway (GDF9 and BMP15) are critical for normal human fertility. (edu.au)
  • Proteins routed to the secretory pathway start their journey by being transported across biological membranes, such as the endoplasmic reticulum. (springer.com)
  • cDNA array analyses revealed that secreted Frizzled-related protein 1 (sFRP1), an antagonist of Frizzled receptors and Wnt pathway activation on chromosome 8p12-11.1, is frequently downregulated in bladder cancer. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Genetic analysis in tomato indicates that systemin and its precursor protein, prosystemin, are upstream components of a wound-induced, intercellular signaling pathway that involves both the biosynthesis and action of jasmonic acid (JA). (pnas.org)
  • Taken together, the results show that activation of the jasmonate biosynthetic pathway in response to wounding or (pro)systemin is required for the production of a long-distance signal whose recognition in distal leaves depends on jasmonate signaling. (pnas.org)
  • These findings suggest that JA, or a related compound derived from the octadecanoid pathway, may act as a transmissible wound signal. (pnas.org)
  • Proteins that are secreted in an unconventional manner typically lack an N-terminal secretion signal, fail to traffic thorough the ER and Golgi, and do not possess protein modifications indicative of transit through the secretory pathway ( Nickel and Seedorf, 2008 ). (rupress.org)
  • The ephrins and EPH-related receptors comprise the largest subfamily of receptor protein-tyrosine kinases and have been implicated in mediating developmental events, especially in the nervous system and in erythropoiesis . (wikipedia.org)
  • Neuropeptides modulate intercellular communication through binding on cell surface receptors. (uclahealth.org)
  • Generally, they act on metabotropic or G-protein-coupled receptors expressed by selective populations of target cells. (uclahealth.org)
  • However, it is still unclear in most cases whether these receptors interact with rafts through lipid-based amino acid modifications or whether raft insertion is driven by protein-protein interactions. (jimmunol.org)
  • In mammals, extracellular ligands, such as peptide hormones or neurotransmitters, interact with transmembrane proteins called G-coupled receptors (GPCR). (moleculardevices.com)
  • Moreover, with the exception of vitamin D, they all contain the same cyclopentanophenanthrene ring and atomic numbering system as cholesterol.The particular steroid hormone class synthesized by a given cell type depends upon its complement of peptide hormone receptors, its response to peptide hormone stimulation and its genetically expressed complement of enzymes. (majortests.com)
  • First artificial receptors and chemosensors toward phosphorylated peptide in aqueous solution. (creative-peptides.com)
  • Neuropeptides are small protein-like substances produced and released through regulated secretory routes. (uclahealth.org)
  • 19: It has become clear that many of the substances in colostrum function as signal transducers that turn on or off different cell functions, particularly those of the immune system. (longnaturalhealth.com)
  • This protein functions as a receptor for membrane bound ligands, and may play a role in vascular, renal and hepatic development. (cancerindex.org)
  • A connexin43 (Cx43)-based peptide mimetic, αCT1 was developed to competitively block interactions at the PDZ2 domain of ZO-1, thereby inhibiting ligands that selectively bind to this domain. (arvojournals.org)
  • ICAM proteins are ligands for the leukocyte adhesion protein LFA-1 (integrin alpha-L/beta-2). (uniprot.org)
  • Beta-catenin and Wnt signaling mediate critical functions in cell fate specification and differentiation, but specific functions during branching morphogenesis have remained unclear. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we show that Wnt/beta-catenin signaling regulates proximal-distal differentiation of airway epithelium. (nih.gov)
  • Nerve growth factor ( NGF ), is a small secreted protein which induces the differentiation and survival of particular target neurons (nerve cells). (bionity.com)
  • A quantitative phospho-proteomic approach allowed to identify novel potential Syk substrates involved in intercellular adhesion and epithelial polarity, both characteristics of cell differentiation that are lost during tumor invasion and metastasis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Plays a role in the cellular breakdown of insulin, I APP , glucagon, bradykinin, kallidin and other peptides, and thereby plays a role in intercellular peptide signaling. (rcsb.org)
  • Synthetic peptide within Human Insulin degrading enzyme/ IDE aa 50-150. (abcam.com)
  • The CCN family of proteins shares a common molecular protein structure, characterized by an N-terminal secretory signal peptide followed by four distinct domains with homologies to insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP), von Willebrand type C repeats (vWC), thrombospondin type 1 repeat (TSR), and a cysteine knot motif within the C-terminal (CT) domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • In smooth muscle, cGMP is the signal for relaxation, and is coupled to many homeostatic mechanisms including regulation of vasodilation, vocal tone, insulin secretion, and peristalsis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tyrosine kinase activity, in turn, initiates a signal transduction cascade that results in a variety of biochemical changes within the cell - a rise in intracellular calcium levels, increased glycolysis and protein synthesis, and increases in the expression of certain genes including the gene for EGFR - that ultimately lead to DNA synthesis and cell proliferation. (bionity.com)
  • Mechanism of signal transduction mediated by G-proteins. (muni.cz)
  • The role of intracellular calcium and calmodulin in signal transduction. (muni.cz)
  • Receptor diseases" - disorders connected with impairments of signal transduction. (muni.cz)
  • In T lymphocytes, lipid rafts are preferred sites for signal transduction initiation and amplification. (jimmunol.org)
  • Concomitantly with its function as an adhesion molecule, CD2 has a role in the process of signal transduction. (jimmunol.org)
  • WISP-1 is highly homologous to CYR61 (CCN1) and CTGF (CCN2), and is a member of the CCN family of secreted, extracellular matrix (ECM)-associated signaling proteins (CCN intercellular signaling protein). (wikipedia.org)
  • Members of this Type 1 transmembrane protein family share structural characteristics including an extracellular domain consisting of multiple epidermal growth factor-like (EGF) repeats, and an intracellular domain consisting of multiple, different domain types. (cancerindex.org)
  • This gene encodes a secreted peptide hormone and member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family of proteins. (cancerindex.org)
  • The encoded protein is a ligand of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the structurally related erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 4 (ERBB4). (cancerindex.org)
  • EGF acts by binding with high affinity to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on the cell surface and stimulating the intrinsic protein-tyrosine kinase activity of the receptor (see the second diagram). (bionity.com)
  • The immune response appears therefore as an exchange of signals between cells displaying well-defined phenotypes, and the specificity of the interaction is ensured by receptor/ligand interaction or binding of soluble cytokines on their receptor. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cytokines are key factors regulating immune response and intercellular communication in tumour microenvironment. (mdpi.com)
  • This recombinant erythropoietin, a 165-amino acid glycoprotein (about 62% protein and 38% carbohydrate), regulates red blood cell production. (curehunter.com)
  • Signal transducers are one way the body regulates itself by "talking" to the trillions of cells that make up the body. (longnaturalhealth.com)
  • Their regulation of protein coding genes has been shown to play a vital role in plants and animals but little is known about their role in other organisms. (diva-portal.org)
  • Expression of genes required for conjugative horizontal transfer of certain Enterococcus faecalis plasmids is activated through cell-cell signaling by peptide sex pheromones ( 10 ). (asm.org)
  • In such systems, the biosynthetic machinery for producing the signal and the sensing machinery for signal detection are typically encoded by the same genetic unit (normally the chromosome), and often both sets of genes are linked. (asm.org)
  • This paper describes the results of experiments designed to examine the role of the pheromone plasmid-encoded membrane protein PrgY in blocking self-induction of the conjugal transfer genes of tetracycline resistance plasmid pCF10 ( 15 ) by endogenous pheromone in donor cells. (asm.org)
  • To date, the human genome is found to contain 90 genes encoding neuropeptide precursors and about 100 different peptides have been identified to be released by different populations of neurons and/or peripheral cells. (uclahealth.org)
  • Of relevance to the mechanism of wound-induced intercellular signaling is the observation that genes encoding prosystemin and some JA biosynthetic enzymes are expressed in vascular bundle cells, whereas defensive PI genes are expressed in adjacent palisade and spongy mesophyll cells ( 24 - 27 ). (pnas.org)
  • Results: mRNA sequencing and proteomic analysis revealed that EVs are packed with several pro-angiogenic genes and proteins, such as vascular endothelial growth factor. (elsevier.com)
  • Human EGF is a 6045-Da protein with 53 amino acid residues and three intramolecular disulfide bonds . (bionity.com)
  • The detection of N-terminal truncated A β peptides (especially A β x-42) in young Down's syndrome and in preclinical AD brains suggests that the amino-truncated species are implicated in the very first step of amyloidosis [ 10 - 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Alternatively, targeting is facilitated by uncleaved amino-terminal signals termed signal anchors (SA). (springer.com)
  • Low- M r compounds such as amino acids, organic acids, sugars, phenolics, and various other secondary metabolites are believed to comprise the majority of root exudates, whereas high- M r exudates primarily include mucilage (high- M r polysaccharides) and proteins. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The amino peptide that is implicated in intercellular signaling is secreted but remains tightly associated with expressing cells. (biologists.org)
  • Peptides are small (low molecular weight, LMW) proteins, built up of amino acids connected by peptide bonds. (hindawi.com)
  • The shortest peptide is two amino acids long, and with increasing length of the amino acid chain, the name changes from peptide over polypeptide to protein, with a fuzzy border between them. (hindawi.com)
  • A somewhat arbitrary but quite generally acknowledged definition puts the boundary between a peptide and a protein at a chain length of 50 amino acids (WIKIPEDIA). (hindawi.com)
  • In this system, the 16-20 amino acid 2A peptide from RNA viruses allows synthesis of multiple gene products from single transcripts. (diva-portal.org)
  • The mechanism of peptide phosphorylation is that the process of transferring the phosphoric acid group of GTP or ATP γ-position to the protein amino acid residue on the basis of kinase catalysis, which occurs mainly on the hydroxyl groups of serine, tyrosine and threonine residue side chains. (creative-peptides.com)
  • Although multiple phosphorylated amino acids can be added, they can negatively affect peptide synthesis and purification. (creative-peptides.com)
  • A polypeptide is a single linear polymer chain of amino acids bonded together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of. (absoluteastronomy.com)
  • This family of peptides is characterized by having a greater frequency of the amino acid proline in their makeup than is normally found in peptides and proteins, hence the name Proline-rich Polypeptides, or PRPs. (longnaturalhealth.com)
  • The primary structure, or amino acid sequence identity, of the proteins between paralogs is ~60% identical and between orthologs is ~90%, whilst between vertebrates and Drosophila or C. elegans is only 33-41% identical. (wikipedia.org)
  • All teneurins, especially in mouse, are type II transmembrane proteins that are composed of a large extracellular C terminal domain of ~2400 amino acid residues, a single transmembrane helical domain of ~30 hydrophobic residues and an intracellular N terminal domain of ~300-375 residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • RPE-barrier dysfunction might result from attenuation/disruption of intercellular tight junctions (TJs). (arvojournals.org)
  • We hypothesized that targeting ZO-1 signaling using αCT1 would maintain BRB integrity and reduce RPE pathophysiology by stabilizing gap- and/or tight-junctions and reducing cytokine activity. (arvojournals.org)
  • Connexin-assembled gap junctions (GJs) and hemichannels coordinate intercellular signaling processes. (ugent.be)
  • Nowadays, it is generally accepted that different neuropeptides are involved in a wide range of functions, and in many cases peptides secreted from cells other than neurons, function in the periphery as neuropeptides. (uclahealth.org)
  • Neuropeptides that are thought to play a potentially key role in IBD include substance P, corticotropin-releasing hormone, neurotensin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, mu-opioid receptor agonists, and galanin. (uclahealth.org)
  • Based on their structures and sequence relationships, ephrins are divided into the ephrin-A (EFNA) class, which are anchored to the membrane by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol linkage, and the ephrin-B (EFNB) class, which are transmembrane proteins . (wikipedia.org)
  • Intercellular signaling peptides and proteins that regulate the proliferation of new blood vessels under normal physiological conditions (ANGIOGENESIS, PHYSIOLOGICAL). (bioportfolio.com)
  • It also can conduct extracellular signals and coordinate intercellular information, regulate gene expression and protein synthesis. (creative-peptides.com)
  • These peptides modulate, balance, regulate or initiate indirectly most of the biochemical processes in the mammalian body. (longnaturalhealth.com)
  • Recent studies have shown that 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, a cyclopentenone precursor of JA/MeJA, is a signal for defense gene expression without its previous conversion to JA ( 20 ). (pnas.org)
  • The secretome data revealed gene expression that correlate with infection and intercellular growth in the biotrophic phase and invasive growth and plant cellular death in the necrotrophic phase. (usda.gov)
  • Many of these proteins are evolutionarily conserved, reinforcing their physiological relevance, and their secretion is often regulated. (rupress.org)
  • As such, peptide signals secreted into the extracellular medium, reflect the state of a cell in a certain condition, and, by definition, are potential biomarkers indicative for specific physiological/pathological processes [ 9 - 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Deriving from the endosomal compartment, exosomes are cell-secreted nanovesicles within the 70-150 nm diameter range that have recently aroused a great interest in the scientific and clinical community for their roles in intercellular communication in almost all physiological and pathological processes ( 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Maintaining homeostatic Ca 2+ signaling is a fundamental physiological process in living cells. (jove.com)
  • For example, the physiological activity of casein phosphate peptide (CPP) has been applied to functional food. (creative-peptides.com)
  • Specifically, we focused our attention on the heterogeneity of the CSF A β world discussing (1) basic research studies and what has been translated to clinical practice, (2) monomers and other soluble circulating A β assemblies, and (3) communication modes for A β peptides and their microenvironment targets. (hindawi.com)
  • Inhibition of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling, either by expression of Dkk1 or by tissue-specific deletion of beta-catenin, results in disruption of distal airway development and expansion of proximal airways. (nih.gov)
  • Evaluation of the protein expression by IHC using tissue microarrays containing 776 bladder cancers revealed loss or strong reduction of sFRP1 expression in 66% of cases. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • EGF is the founding member of the EGF-family of proteins. (bionity.com)
  • Here we investigated the regulation of Cx43-hemichannel activity by actomyosin contractility and intracellular [Ca2+] ([Ca2+](i)) using plasma membrane-permeable TAT peptides (100 mu M) designed to interfere with interactions between the cytoplasmic loop (CL) and carboxy-terminal (CT) in primary bovine corneal endothelial cells and HeLa, C6 glioma, and Xenopus oocytes ectopically expressing Cx43. (ugent.be)
  • Since then, numerous observations have highlighted the multiple interactions, which occur at various steps of the immune response: in particular, antigen-presenting cells are likely to provide three signals to T lymphocytes, which in turn trigger antibody production by B cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Sonic hedgehog (Shh) encodes a signal that is implicated in both short- and long-range interactions that pattern the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS), somite and limb. (biologists.org)
  • However, we can find no direct evidence for long-range diffusion of the 19 × 10(3) Mr peptide which is thought to mediate both short- and long-range cell interactions. (biologists.org)
  • see the Perspective by Snell) now show that gamete interactions in Arabidopsis depend on small cysteine-rich EC1 proteins that accumulate in storage vesicles of the egg cell and that are released during sperm-egg interaction. (sciencemag.org)
  • In this review we will examine the synthesis of NO, its effects, functions and signalling giving rise to the hypersensitive response and systemic acquired resistance during plant-pathogen interactions. (wiley.com)
  • Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C. (harvard.edu)
  • Spatial regulation of developmental signaling by a serpin. (yale.edu)
  • Depending on cell type, it can drive adaptive/developmental changes requiring protein synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Body fluids, such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), plasma, serum, or urine represent a cellular protein-rich information reservoir that contains traces of what has been secreted into these fluids. (hindawi.com)
  • Since protein synthesis occurs in the cytosol, translocation of proteins across biological membranes is essential for cellular function. (springer.com)
  • The phosphorylation of peptides plays an important role in the cell signaling process, which plays a role in regulating many cellular biological functions. (creative-peptides.com)
  • Biosynthesis of peptide and protein hormones. (muni.cz)
  • Like cAMP, cGMP is an important second messenger that internalizes the message carried by intercellular messengers such as peptide hormones and nitric oxide and can also function as an autocrine signal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Membrane bound guanylate cyclases include an external ligand-binding domain (e.g., for peptide hormones such as BNP and ANP), a transmembrane domain, and an internal catalytic domain homologous to adenylyl cyclases. (wikipedia.org)
  • PRPs are now available in a concentrated spray form that delivers maximum amounts of the immunomodulatory peptides to help modulate your immune system. (longnaturalhealth.com)
  • The spleen tyrosine kinase Syk was mainly studied in immunoreceptor-activated signaling in hematopoietic cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Creative Peptides has developed a reliable procedure for the synthesis of phosphorylated peptides. (creative-peptides.com)
  • Every step of peptide synthesis is subject to Creative Peptides' stringent quality control. (creative-peptides.com)
  • Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression. (cancerindex.org)
  • VGF Nerve Growth Factor-inducible, a protein which expression is induced by NGF. (bionity.com)
  • In mice, VEGF-A165b expression was upregulated by conditions associated with impaired limb revascularization, including leptin deficiency, diet-induced obesity, genetic ablation of the secreted frizzled-related protein 5 (Sfrp5) adipokine and transgenic overexpression of Wnt5a in myeloid cells. (nih.gov)
  • VEGF-A165b protein expression was measured by western immunoblot analysis in the presence or absence of recombinant Wnt5a in cultured RAW264.7 cells after treatment for 24 hours. (nih.gov)
  • SC35 protein expression was measured by western blot analysis in the presence or absence of stimulation with recombinant Wnt5a. (nih.gov)
  • In quorum sensing, all members of a microbial population participate in both production of the extracellular signal and response to the signal, such that expression of the biological behavior controlled by the quorum-sensing system is dependent on population density. (asm.org)
  • Aberrant expression of angiogenic proteins during disease states such as tumorigenesis can also result in PATHOLOGICAL ANGIOGENESIS. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Temporal expression of Shh peptides is consistent with induction of sclerotome in somites and floor plate and motor neurons in the CNS, as well as the regulation of anterior-posterior polarity in the limb. (biologists.org)
  • To examine the role of JA in systemic signaling, reciprocal grafting experiments were used to analyze wound-induced expression of the proteinase inhibitor II gene in a JA biosynthetic mutant ( spr - 2 ) and a JA response mutant ( jai - 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • It was also determined that a graft-transmissible signal produced in response to ectopic expression of prosystemin in rootstocks was recognized by spr - 2 but not by jai - 1 scions. (pnas.org)
  • In their landmark study of wound-inducible PIs, Green and Ryan ( 2 ) proposed that specific signals generated at the wound site travel through the plant and activate PI expression in undamaged responding leaves. (pnas.org)
  • The cell-type-specific expression pattern of these signaling components has led to the hypothesis that wound-induced release of systemin into the vascular system activates JA biosynthesis in surrounding vascular tissues in which JA biosynthetic enzymes are located ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • A tool for stoichiometric co-expression of effector and target proteins to study intracellular protein trafficking processes has been provided by the so called 2A peptide technology. (diva-portal.org)
  • in 1999 from the original name, Ten-a, and the major site of the protein expression being in the nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ligand binding to a receptor protein alters the conformation by affecting the three-dimensional shape orientation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The conformation of a receptor protein composes the functional state. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is a critical upstream regulator of proximal-distal patterning in the lung, in part, through regulation of N-myc, BMP4, and FGF signaling. (nih.gov)
  • To further characterize FIAF, we studied regulation of FIAF mRNA and protein in liver and adipose cell lines as well as in human and mouse plasma. (tudelft.nl)
  • Recently, also peptidomics is becoming more and more a "hot topic" as it is recognized that peptides play complex regulatory roles in many if not all biological processes, for example, intercellular signaling [ 7 , 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Ligand binding leads to a conformational change in the receptor that allows its association with a GTP-binding regulatory protein (Gprotein). (moleculardevices.com)
  • Phosphorylation of peptides is the most common and important method of post-translational modification of peptides, which is the most important regulatory modification form in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. (creative-peptides.com)
  • IDE belongs to a protease family responsible for intercellular peptide signalling. (thermofisher.com)
  • Using mass spectrometry we identified the tyrosine residues phosphorylated by Syk and generated phospho-Tyr-peptide-specific (pY) antibodies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We focus on techniques which can be employed prior to liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry for peptide detection and identification and indicate their advantages as well as their shortcomings when it comes to the untargeted analysis of native peptides from complex biological matrices. (hindawi.com)
  • Analysis of protein phosphorylation using mass spectrometry: deciphering the phosphoproteome. (creative-peptides.com)
  • It has been suggested that all intracellular signaling by cAMP during development of Dictyostelium is mediated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, PKA, since cells carrying null mutations in the acaA gene that encodes adenylyl cyclase can develop so as to form fruiting bodies under some conditions if PKA is made constitutive by overexpressing the catalytic subunit. (diva-portal.org)
  • A. phagocytophilum induces ticks to express Ixodes scapularis antifreeze glycoprotein (iafgp), which encodes a protein with several properties, including the ability to alter bacterial biofilm formation. (diva-portal.org)
  • Either pharmacological reconstitution of FoxO1 activity using intravenous or inhaled paclitaxel, or reconstitution of the transcriptional activity of FoxO1 by gene therapy, restored the physiologically quiescent PASMC phenotype in vitro, linked to changes in cell cycle control and bone morphogenic protein receptor type 2 (BMPR2) signaling, and reversed vascular remodeling and right-heart hypertrophy in vivo. (mpg.de)
  • Phosphorylation assays with recombinant proteins demonstrated that E-Cadherin (E-Cdh), α, β and p120-catenin (Ctn) are direct Syk substrates. (aacrjournals.org)
  • If you cannot find the target and/or product is not available in our catalog, please click here to contact us and request the product or submit your request for custom elisa kit production , custom recombinant protein production or custom antibody production . (mybiosource.com)
  • Custom ELISA Kits, Recombinant Proteins and Antibodies can be designed, manufactured and produced according to the researcher's specifications. (mybiosource.com)
  • The IS consists of a central supramolecular activation cluster (cSMAC) that is highly enriched in the T cell receptor (TCR) and its associated peptide-MHC (pMHC) and is surrounded by a peripheral ring [peripheral (p)SMAC] of the LFA-1-ICAM-1 adhesion proteins ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • The encoded protein may be involved in a wide range of biological processes including inflammation, wound healing, oocyte maturation, and cell proliferation. (cancerindex.org)
  • Heme is a cytotoxic, hydrophobic tetrapyrrole that crosses multiple biological membranes for incorporation into proteins critical for numerous biological processes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • However, this gaseous free radical rapidly diffuses across biological membranes and can play a part in cell-to-cell signalling in brief periods of time ( Beligni and Lamattina, 2001 ). (wiley.com)
  • Although big progress has been made in sample pretreatment over the last years, there are still considerable limitations when it comes to overcoming complexity and dynamic range problems associated with peptide analyses from biological matrices. (hindawi.com)
  • As proteomics is for proteins, peptidomics is the comprehensive study of all (native) peptides in a biological sample. (hindawi.com)
  • p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge. (uniprot.org)
  • Proteins are biochemical compounds consisting of one or more polypeptides typically folded into a globular or fibrous form, facilitating a biological function. (absoluteastronomy.com)