Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)
A type of junction that attaches one cell to its neighbor. One of a number of differentiated regions which occur, for example, where the cytoplasmic membranes of adjacent epithelial cells are closely apposed. It consists of a circular region of each membrane together with associated intracellular microfilaments and an intercellular material which may include, for example, mucopolysaccharides. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Anchoring points where the CYTOSKELETON of neighboring cells are connected to each other. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON attach to the membrane through the transmembrane linkers, CADHERINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to cadherins in the neighboring cell membranes. In sheets of cells, they form into adhesion belts (zonula adherens) that go all the way around a cell.
Connections between cells which allow passage of small molecules and electric current. Gap junctions were first described anatomically as regions of close apposition between cells with a narrow (1-2 nm) gap between cell membranes. The variety in the properties of gap junctions is reflected in the number of CONNEXINS, the family of proteins which form the junctions.
Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.
A 195-kDa zonula occludens protein that is distinguished by the presence of a ZU5 domain at the C-terminal of the molecule.
A family of membrane glycoproteins localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS that contain two extracellular Ig-like domains, a single transmembrane segment, and a cytoplasmic tail of variable length.
Desmoplakins are cytoskeletal linker proteins that anchor INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS to the PLASMA MEMBRANE at DESMOSOMES.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
A MARVEL domain protein that plays an important role in the formation and regulation of the TIGHT JUNCTION paracellular permeability barrier.
A CALCIUM-dependent adhesion molecule of DESMOSOMES that also plays a role in embryonic STEM CELL proliferation.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
An integral membrane protein that is localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS, where it plays a role in controlling the paracellular permeability of polarized cells. Mutations in the gene for claudin-1 are associated with Neonatal Ichthyosis-Sclerosing Cholangitis (NISCH) Syndrome.
A group of desmosomal cadherins with cytoplasmic tails that are divergent from those of classical CADHERINS. Their intracytoplasmic domains bind PLAKOGLOBIN; PLAKOPHILINS; and DESMOPLAKINS.
A multi-functional catenin that is highly homologous to BETA CATENIN. Gamma catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It is also found in DESMOSOMES where it mediates the link between DESMOSOMAL CADHERINS and DESMOPLAKIN.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Members of the armadillo family of proteins that are found in DESMOSOMES and interact with various proteins including desmocadherins; DESMOPLAKIN; ACTIN FILAMENTS; and KERATINS.
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A group of desmosomal cadherins with cytoplasmic tails that resemble those of classical CADHERINS.
A 43-kDa peptide which is a member of the connexin family of gap junction proteins. Connexin 43 is a product of a gene in the alpha class of connexin genes (the alpha-1 gene). It was first isolated from mammalian heart, but is widespread in the body including the brain.
A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
A group of homologous proteins which form the intermembrane channels of GAP JUNCTIONS. The connexins are the products of an identified gene family which has both highly conserved and highly divergent regions. The variety contributes to the wide range of functional properties of gap junctions.
A single-pass transmembrane glycoproteins that mediate CALCIUM-dependent CELL ADHESION and are core components of DESMOSOMES.
A family of cytoskeletal proteins that play essential roles in CELL ADHESION at ADHERENS JUNCTIONS by linking CADHERINS to the ACTIN FILAMENTS of the CYTOSKELETON.
A zonula occludens protein subtype found in epithelial cell junctions. Several isoforms of zonula occludens-2 protein exist due to use of alternative promoter regions and alternative mRNA splicings.
The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.
A catenin that binds F-ACTIN and links the CYTOSKELETON with BETA CATENIN and GAMMA CATENIN.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.
Lanthanum. The prototypical element in the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol La, atomic number 57, and atomic weight 138.91. Lanthanide ion is used in experimental biology as a calcium antagonist; lanthanum oxide improves the optical properties of glass.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Highly differentiated epithelial cells of the visceral layer of BOWMAN CAPSULE of the KIDNEY. They are composed of a cell body with major CELL SURFACE EXTENSIONS and secondary fingerlike extensions called pedicels. They enwrap the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS capillaries with their cell surface extensions forming a filtration structure. The pedicels of neighboring podocytes interdigitate with each other leaving between them filtration slits that are bridged by an extracellular structure impermeable to large macromolecules called the slit diaphragm, and provide the last barrier to protein loss in the KIDNEY.
A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
The area covering the terminal portion of ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of STOMACH at the cardiac orifice.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.
Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Proteins that take part in the formation or structure of TIGHT JUNCTIONS.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Enzymes that recognize CRUCIFORM DNA structures and introduce paired incisions that help to resolve the structure into two DNA helices.
Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A cross-shaped DNA structure that can be observed under the electron microscope. It is formed by the incomplete exchange of strands between two double-stranded helices or by complementary INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES that refold into hairpin loops on opposite strands across from each other.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.

Freeze-fracture studies of frog atrial fibres. (1/2154)

The freeze-fracturing technique was used to characterize the junctional devices involved in the electrical coupling of frog atrial fibres. These fibres are connected by a type of junction which can be interpreted as a morphological variant of the "gap junction" or "nexus". The most characteristic features are rows of 9-nm junctional particles forming single or anastomosed circular profiles on the inner membrane face, and corresponding pits on the outer membrane face. Very seldom aggregates consisting of few geometrically disposed 9-nm particles are found. The significance of the junctional structures in the atrial fibres is discussed, with respect to present knowledge about junctional features of gap junctions in various tissues, including embryonic ones.  (+info)

Cell junctions in the developing compound eye of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria. (2/2154)

Intercellular junctions in the developing retina of the locust Schistocerca gregaria have been examined by electron microscopy. Different types of junction appear in a well defined sequence during development. Five stages of ommatidial development are described. Close junctions and punctate junctions are present throughout development. Gap junctions appear transiently amongst the undifferentiated cells, before clearly defined preommatidia can be distinguished. The subsequent disappearance of gap junctions may be correlated with cell determination. Lanthanum studies confirm these findings. The later sequential appearance of adhesive junction types is described. These include septate desmosomes and two types of desmosomes. In the fully differentiated ommatidium only two types of junction remain, these are: desmosomes and rhabdomeric junctions.  (+info)

PETA-3/CD151, a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily, is localised to the plasma membrane and endocytic system of endothelial cells, associates with multiple integrins and modulates cell function. (3/2154)

The Transmembrane 4 Superfamily member, PETA-3/CD151, is ubiquitously expressed by endothelial cells in vivo. In cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells PETA-3 is present on the plasma membrane and predominantly localises to regions of cell-cell contact. Additionally, this protein is abundant within an intracellular compartment which accounts for up to 66% of the total PETA-3 expressed. Intracellular PETA-3 showed colocalisation with transferrin receptor and CD63 suggesting an endosomal/lysosomal localisation which was supported by immuno-electronmicroscopy studies. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments investigating possible interactions of PETA-3 with other molecules demonstrated associations with several integrin chains including beta1, beta3, beta4, (alpha)2, (alpha)3, (alpha)5, (alpha)6 and provide the first report of Transmembrane 4 Superfamily association with the (alpha)6beta4 integrin. Using 2-colour confocal microscopy, we demonstrated similar localisation of PETA-3 and integrin chains within cytoplasmic vesicles and endothelial cell junctions. In order to assess the functional implications of PETA-3/integrin associations, the effect of anti-PETA-3 antibodies on endothelial function was examined. Anti-PETA-3 mAb inhibited endothelial cell migration and modulated in vitro angiogenesis, but had no detectable effect on neutrophil transendothelial migration. The broad range of integrin associations and the presence of PETA-3 with integrins both on the plasma membrane and within intracellular vesicles, suggests a primary role for PETA-3 in regulating integrin trafficking and/or function.  (+info)

Intercellular junctions in the ciliary epithelium. (4/2154)

The fine structure of the intercellular junctions in the ciliary epithelium of rhesus monkeys and rabbits was studied with conventional electron microscopy of thin-sectioned specimens and the freeze-fracturing technique. In the rhesus monkey, a zonula occludens, zonula adhaerens, gap junctions, and desmosomes interconnect the nonpigmented cells, whereas gap junctions, puncta adhaerentia, and desmosomes connect pigmented to nonpigmented cells, and pigmented cells to one another. In the rabbit, desmosomes are absent between nonpigmented cells, and substituted for by puncta adhaerentia. The zonula occludens between nonpigmented cells greatly varies in its complexity in different regions of the cell perimeter, and in places, it may consist of very few intramembrane strands; this suggests that the ciliary epithelium is relatively leaky to ions and small molecules. Gap junctions are ubiquitous in the ciliary epithelium and particularly numerous at the interface between pigmented and nonpigmented layers; this finding indicates that the cells of the ciliary epithelium are joined in a metabolic syncytium. All gap junctions are characterized by the crystalline configuration which is typical of the uncoupled state; furthermore, in specimens fixed by immersion, they may be caused by uncoupling and take place in the time interval elapsing between interruption of the blood supply and arrival of the fixative fluid. Puncta adhaerentia resemble zonulae adhaerentes in their structural details but are macular in shape instead of encompassing the cell perimeter in a beltlike fashion. In contrast with desmosomes, the intercellular cleft of puncta adhaerentia has an irregular width and contains opaque material, but this never gives rise to the central band typical of desmosomes. On the inner aspect of the junctional membranes, there is a layer of fluffy material but no plaque of insertion for a bundle of tonofilaments. Finally, puncta adhaerentia have no representation in the interior of the plasmalemma and are intimately associated with cytoplasmic microfilaments. They probably anchor to the plasmalemma the contractile apparatus of the ciliary epithelial cells.  (+info)

Facilitation and depression of ATP and noradrenaline release from sympathetic nerves of rat tail artery. (5/2154)

1. Excitatory junction currents (EJCs) were used to measure ATP release; noradrenaline (NA) oxidation currents and fractional overflow of labelled NA, [3H]NA, were used to monitor the release of endogenous and exogenous NA, respectively, from post-ganglionic sympathetic nerves of rat tail artery. 2. During nerve stimulation with 100 pulses at 5-20 Hz the EJCs initially grew in size (maximally by 23 %, at 2-10 Hz), and then depressed, maximally by 68 % at 20 Hz. 3. The peak amplitude of NA oxidation currents in response to nerve stimulation with 100 pulses at 2-20 Hz grew in size with frequency, while the area was independent of frequency and roughly constant. 4. The size of the NA oxidation currents evoked by nerve stimulation with 4-100 pulses at 20 Hz grew linearly with train length between pulses 4-16. Between pulses 20-100 there was a train length-dependent depression of the signal. 5. Fractional overflow of [3H]NA in response to nerve stimulation with 5-100 pulses at 20 Hz behaved similarly to the EJCs. It initially grew roughly linearly between pulses 5-25, and then showed a dramatic depression similar to that of the EJCs. 6. The alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonists rauwolscine and yohimbine increased the overflow of [3H]NA and the amplitude of NA oxidation currents, but not that of the EJCs. 7. It is concluded that during high-frequency stimulation (i) the release of ATP and NA is first briefly facilitated then markedly depressed, (ii) facilitation and depression of the two transmitters are similar in magnitude and time course, and (iii) alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonists differentially modify EJCs and the NA signals. The results obtained in the absence of drugs are compatible with the hypothesis that ATP and NA are released in parallel, while the effects of alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonists seem to suggest dissociated release.  (+info)

Characterization of the 4C8 antigen involved in transendothelial migration of CD26(hi) T cells after tight adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers. (6/2154)

In extravasation of T cells, little is known about the mechanisms of transendothelial migration subsequent to the T cells' tight adhesion to endothelium. To investigate these mechanisms, we developed a monoclonal antibody (mAb), termed anti-4C8, that blocks transmigration but not adhesion in a culture system in which high CD26-expressing (CD26(hi)) T cells preferentially migrate through human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayers cultured on collagen gels. Anti-4C8 reacted with all CD3(+) T cells and monocytes but not neutrophils or HUVECs. The structure defined by this antibody was an 80-kD molecule. The mAb at 1 mug/ml inhibited 80-90% of migration of CD3(+) T cells through unstimulated and interferon gamma-stimulated HUVEC monolayers without interfering with adhesion and cell motility. When added to the cultures after the adhesion, anti-4C8 completely blocked subsequent transmigration of adherent T cells. Phase-contrast and electron microscopy revealed that T cells are arrested at the intercellular junctions of HUVECs in the presence of anti-4C8. Anti-4C8 exhibited agonistic effects on resting T cells without other stimuli under culture conditions in which anti-4C8 can stimulate T cells. First, in the checkerboard assay using collagen gels, the antibody promoted chemokinetic migration of the cells in a dose-dependent manner from 0.1 to 10 mug/ml. The predominant population of T cells that migrated into collagen gels with impregnated anti-4C8 were CD26(hi). Second, solid-phase-immobilized anti-4C8 induced adhesion of T cells to the substrate, often with polarizations in cell shape and large pseudopods rich in filamentous (F-) actin. Third, soluble anti-4C8 augmented F-actin content preferentially in CD26(hi) T cells when added to T cells at a high dose of 10 mug/ml. Finally, both anti-4C8-induced chemokinetic migration and transendothelial migration were inhibited by pretreatment of T cells with pertussis toxin. These findings suggest that stimulation via the 4C8 antigen increases cell motility of CD26(hi) cells with profound cytoskeletal changes through signaling pathways including G proteins. The 4C8 antigen may be involved in preferential transmigration of CD26(hi) cells adherent to HUVECs.  (+info)

Synapses involving auditory nerve fibers in primate cochlea. (7/2154)

The anatomical mechanisms for processing auditory signals are extremely complex and incompletely understood, despite major advances already made with the use of electron microscopy. A major enigma, for example, is the presence in the mammalian cochlea of a double hair cell receptor system. A renewed attempt to discover evidence of synaptic coupling between the two systems in the primate cochlea, postulated from physiological studies, has failed. However, in the outer spiral bundle the narrow and rigid clefts seen between pairs of presumptive afferent fibers suggest the possibility of dendro-dendritic interaction confined to the outer hair cell system. The clustering of afferent processes within folds of supporting cells subjacent to outer hair cells is in contrast to the lack of such close associations in the inner hair cell region. The difference reinforces the suggestion of functional interaction of some sort between the outer hair cell afferent nerve processes.  (+info)

Agonist-stimulated cytoskeletal reorganization and signal transduction at focal adhesions in vascular smooth muscle cells require c-Src. (8/2154)

Thrombin and angiotensin II (angII) have trophic properties as mediators of vascular remodeling. Focal adhesions and actin cytoskeleton are involved in cell growth, shape, and movement and may be important in vascular remodeling. To characterize mechanisms by which thrombin and angII modulate vessel structure, we studied the effects of these G protein-coupled receptor ligands on focal adhesions in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Both thrombin and angII stimulated bundling of actin filaments to form stress fibers, assembly of focal adhesions, and protein tyrosine phosphorylation at focal adhesions, such as p130Cas, paxillin, and tensin. To test whether c-Src plays a critical role in focal adhesion rearrangement, we analyzed cells with altered c-Src activity by retroviral transduction of wild-type (WT) and kinase-inactive (KI) c-Src into rat VSMCs, and by use of VSMCs from WT (src+/+) and Src-deficient (src-/-) mice. Tyrosine phosphorylation of Cas, paxillin, and tensin were markedly decreased in VSMCs expressing KI-Src and in src-/- VSMCs. Expression of KI-Src did not inhibit stress fiber formation by thrombin. Surprisingly, actin bundling was markedly decreased in VSMCs from src-/- mice both basally and after thrombin stimulation, compared with src+/+ mice. We also studied the effect of KI-Src and WT-Src on VSMC spreading. Expression of KI-Src reduced the rate of VSMC spreading on collagen, whereas WT-Src enhanced cell spreading. In conclusion, c-Src plays a critical role in agonist-stimulated cytoskeletal reorganization and signal transduction at focal adhesions in VSMCs. c-Src kinase activity is required for the cytoskeletal turnover that occurs in cell spreading, whereas c-Src appears to regulate actin bundling via a kinase-independent mechanism.  (+info)

Cadherin has an intimate spatial relationship with actin filaments (AF) in various types of cells, forming the cell-to-cell adherens junction (AJ). We compared the AJ/AF relationship between non-polarized fibroblasts (NRK cells) and polarized epithelial cells (MTD-1A cells). E/P-cadherin, alpha-catenin, ZO-1 and vinculin were localized with reference to AF in these cells using laser scan microscopy as well as conventional light and electron microscopy. NRK cells adhered to each other at the tips of thin cellular processes, where spot-like AJ were formed, where P-cadherin, alpha-catenin, ZO-1 and vinculin were concentrated. Some stress-fiber-like AF bundles ran axially in these processes and terminated at spot-like AJ on their tips. At the electron microscopic level these spot-like AJ were seen as aggregates of small units of AJ, where AF were densely and perpendicularly associated with the plasma membrane. In MTD-1A cells, the AJ/AF relationship was investigated during the cell polarization ...
Myr 3, a member of the myosin-I family from rat, is shown in this study to be localized at adherens-type intercellular junctions in epithelial and nonepithelial tissues. Formation of intercellular junctions and the accompanying recruitment of myr 3 to these junctions involves signaling by the Rho subfamily of small GTP-binding proteins. This conclusion is based on studies with HtTA-1 HeLa cells that were induced by overexpression of constitutively active Cdc42Hs to form typical adherens-type intercellular junctions enriched in cadherins (N-cadherin), beta-catenin, filamentous actin and myr 3. Recruitement of myr 3 to Cdc42-induced adherens junctions in HeLa cells was dependent on a short region of the tail domain and a functional myosin motor domain, but was independent of its myosin-I tail homology and SH3 regions. Overexpression of constitutively active Rac1 induced a distinct type of adherens junction in HeLa cells that was characterized by elaborate intercellular interdigitations enriched in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Glycoproteins of coated pits, cell junctions, and the entire cell surface revealed by monoclonal antibodies and immunoelectron microscopy.. AU - Murphy, T. L.. AU - Decker, G.. AU - August, Thomas. PY - 1983/8. Y1 - 1983/8. N2 - Topographical descriptions of three major plasma membrane glycoproteins of murine 3T3 cells were obtained by immunoelectron microscopy with monoclonal antibodies. A glycoprotein of Mr 80,000 was distributed throughout the total cell surface. A second of Mr 90,000 was concentrated in coated pits, and a third of Mr 100,000 was localized at cell junctions.. AB - Topographical descriptions of three major plasma membrane glycoproteins of murine 3T3 cells were obtained by immunoelectron microscopy with monoclonal antibodies. A glycoprotein of Mr 80,000 was distributed throughout the total cell surface. A second of Mr 90,000 was concentrated in coated pits, and a third of Mr 100,000 was localized at cell junctions.. UR - ...
Endothelial leakiness or permeability directly determines the access of any bionanotechnology to the target tissue site. Currently, cancer nanotechnology relies on tumor-derived endothelial leakiness, which suffers from unreliability, inhomogeneity of leakiness, and uncontrollability. Nanomaterials by themselves are capable of inducing endothelial leakiness (NanoEL) without any tumor involvement by targeting the endothelial cell junctions; this NanoEL phenomenon not well understood. Here, we showed that the negatively charged Au nanoparticles (NPs) induce significantly higher NanoEL than positively charged nanoparticles. We hypothesized and showed that in both in vitro and in silico models that cell junction targeting arose for the negatively charged particles due to a succession of repulsive-sedimentary interactions between the negative particle and the negatively charged glycocalyx found on the cell membrane surface. On the contrary, NPs with positive charges are attracted stably by the ...
Epithelial tubes of the correct size and shape are vital for the function of the lungs, kidneys, and vascular system, yet little is known about epithelial tube size regulation. Mutations in the Drosophila gene sinuous have previously been shown to cause tracheal tubes to be elongated and have diameter increases. Our genetic analysis using a sinuous null mutation suggests that sinuous functions in the same pathway as the septate junction genes neurexin and scribble , but that nervana 2 , convoluted , varicose , and cystic have functions not shared by sinuous . Our molecular analyses reveal that sinuous encodes a claudin that localizes to septate junctions and is required for septate junction organization and paracellular barrier function. These results provide important evidence that the paracellular barriers formed by arthropod septate junctions and vertebrate tight junctions have a common molecular basis despite their otherwise different molecular compositions, morphologies, and subcellular ...
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Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Masaya Akashi, Tomohito Higashi, Sayuri Masuda, Takahide Komori, Mikio Furuse].
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Understanding the factors that regulate endothelial cell-cell junctions is important for many pathophysiological processes in which functional vascular integrity is compromised, such as development of neovasculature during angiogenesis and chronic inflammatory disorders. The present study shows that IQGAP1 colocalizes and forms a complex with VE-cadherin at the site of cell-cell contacts in unstimulated confluent HUVECs, and VEGF stimulation reduces their localization at the cell margin without affecting their complex formation. Knockdown of IQGAP1 using siRNA inhibits localization of VE-cadherin at cell-cell contacts as well as the following VEGF-stimulated events: (1) recruitment of VEGF2 to and the dissociation of α-catenin from the VE-cadherin/β-catenin complex; (2) ROS-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of VE-cadherin, which is required for loss of cell-cell contacts8,9; and (3) capillary tube formation in 3-dimensional collagen gels. We also found that IQGAP1 expression is markedly ...
Endothelial junctions have been described as key regulators of blood vessel permeability. Consistent with their distribution at endothelial cell junctions, PVR and Nectin-2 may thus participate in the events that regulate leukocyte extravasation through the endothelium. Having demonstrated that PVR is the major ligand of DNAM-1 on endothelial cells, we investigated the potential role of the PVR-DNAM-1 interaction during the TEM of monocytes. We controlled that anti-PVR mAbs readily access to the junctions of live HUVECs (not depicted), and we showed that anti-PVR mAbs do not modify the endothelial permeability (not depicted) and the endothelial integrity (see Fig. 7). Their ability to block monocyte transmigration in an in vitro TEM model was explored. Anti-PVR mAbs induced a significant blocking in monocyte transmigration when compared with isotype-matched irrelevant antibodies (Fig. 6 a, anti-CD34 and anti-Nectin-4 mAbs). Inhibition of monocyte transmigration was observed with five different ...
Rabbit polyclonal N Cadherin antibody - Intercellular Junction Marker. Validated in WB, IP, IHC, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF and tested in Mouse, Rat, Human, Pig, Xenopus laevis. Cited in 251 publication(s)…
Anti-N Cadherin antibody - Intercellular Junction Marker (ab18203) has been cited in 251 publications. References for Human, Mouse, Rat in ICC/IF, IF, IHC, IHC-Fr, IHC-P, IP, WB
Clone REA697 recognizes the rat CD146 (LSEC) antigen, also known as Gicerin, MCAM, MUC18, or MEL-CAM. CD146 is a putative cell adhesion molecule of an immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily which shows homophilic and heterophilic binding activities with two isoforms: S-gicerin, which has small cytoplasmic domain and the same extracellular domain as l-gicerin, shows stronger cell adhesion activity. CD146 is expressed on endothelial cells and a variety of tumor cells and is involved in cell adhesion and in cohesion of the endothelial monolayer at intercellular junctions in vascular tissue. In rat, neurite promotion activity of CD146 from hippocampal neurons is reported. Additional information: Clone REA697 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Belgique
FHF3 span between extending and Be anxious image resolution (Fig. 3C). Measurements at 10s periods offered identical outcomes STF-62247 (Fig. H4G). Pretreatment with GdCl3 to stretch-loading got no impact prior, and dominated out advantages from stretch-activated Ca2+ stations (not really demonstrated). Cadherin inactivation with obstructing DECMA-1 antibody ablated the response (Fig. 3D). This instant, reversible switching suggests that -catenin features like an flexible springtime in series with the cytoskeleton, which deforms with the extracellular substrate and matrix. Assessment of the nanoprobe and MTC measurements shows that the Be anxious/ECFP reduce during bead rotating (Fig. 2B) can be credited to constant, mechanised perturbation than biochemical adaptation rather. Shape 3 Exogneous mechanised extend induce instant, reversible -catenin conformation switching at intercellular junctions Biochemical indicators STF-62247 during the 3s span between base extend and image resolution could ...
Plays a role in cell adhesion, and in cohesion of the endothelial monolayer at intercellular junctions in vascular tissue. Its expression may allow melanoma cells to interact with cellular elements of the vascular system, thereby enhancing hematogeneous tumor spread. Could be an adhesion molecule active in neural crest cells during embryonic development. Acts as surface receptor that triggers tyrosine phosphorylation of FYN and PTK2/FAK1, and a transient increase in the intracellular calcium concentration.
From UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: Plays a role in cell adhesion, and in cohesion of the endothelial monolayer at intercellular junctions in vascular tissue. Its expression may allow melanoma cells to interact with cellular elements of the vascular system, thereby enhancing hematogeneous tumor spread. Could be an adhesion molecule active in neural crest cells during embryonic development. Acts as surface receptor that triggers tyrosine phosphorylation of FYN and PTK2/FAK1, and a transient increase in the intracellular calcium concentration.
We described recently that DNAM-1 is involved in NK cell-mediated target cell killing of tumor cells by interacting specifically with PVR and Nectin-2 (2). Although PVR and Nectin-2 are expressed on tumor cell lines, they are also widely expressed on normal cells that are protected from NK cell-mediated lysis by their expression of HLA class I molecules. The aim of our analysis was to clarify the role of DNAM-1 interactions with its ligands in a normal setting. Nectins are homophilic and heterophilic cell adhesion molecules involved in several cell recognition processes, including the formation of cell junctions between epithelial cells and between neurons (10). For the first time, we demonstrate that PVR is the major ligand of DNAM-1 on endothelial cells. Our results highlight a role for DNAM-1 and PVR during leukocyte extravasation because they appear to be crucial for monocyte migration through endothelial junctions during the diapedesis step. This hypothesis is supported by the following ...
The work of Soda et al. (9) forces us to confront the role of endocytosis in the maintenance and regulation of the slit diaphragm and perhaps all junctional complexes. Significant advances in structural and basic cell biology have led to a clearer understanding of the structure and function of epithelial junctions, but what role could endocytosis be playing? The formation of adherent junction was thought to be made in two steps: delivery of cadherins to the surface resulted in a mobile pool, which then - apparently stabilized by cell-cell cadherin contacts - accumulated first into spots and then into long linear junctions. Advances in video microscopy have demonstrated that tight and adherent junctions are dynamic structures both in vivo and in the established junctions of confluent epithelial cell cultures. de Beco et al. studied mature epithelial junctions and found that most E-cadherin molecules did not diffuse in the plane of the membrane, but rather had a rapid turnover that was mediated ...
As for PKC, we found and identified ASIP, atypical PKC-specific interacting protein, as a physiological binding partner of atypical PKJKC isotypes. ASIP is a PDZ domain-containing adaptor-like protein and is the mammalian orthologue of C. elegans PAR-3 and Drosophila Bazooka, both of which are involved in the establishment of cell polarity. ASIP as well as aPKC localize to the tight junctions of vertebrate epithelial cells and are required for the establishment of epithelial cell polarith that include the development of epithelia-specific junctional structures ...
At vero eos et accusamus et iusto odio dignissimos ducimus qui blanditiis praesentium voluptatum deleniti atque corrupti quos dolores et quas molestias excepturi sint occaecati cupiditate non provident, similique sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollitia animi, id est laborum et dolorum fuga. Et harum quidem rerum facilis est et expedita distinctio ...
Intercellular junctions are structures that provide adhesion & communication between cells. They are mostly present in epithelial cells that are especially characterized by their strong attachment one to another and to the extracellular matrix ...
Figure 8. AdhRhoA2 induced changes in ZO-1 distribution in SC cells. Monolayers of 4-day confluent SC cells were infected with 500 pfu/cell AdhRhoA2. After 48 h, cells were fixed, permeablized and double-stained with specific antibodies against RhoA and ZO-1 using Cy2 (RhoA) and Cy3 (ZO-1) conjugated secondary antibodies. ZO-1 staining is present in the vehicle-treated cells at the cell-cell junctions and appear as a segmented border. Cells infected with AdhRhoA2 are devoid of this apportioned ZO-1 staining at the intercellular junctions. Original magnification noted at the right of the microphotographs.. ...
Hello can anyone help with how to move off at uphill junctions and traffic lights uphill without the handbrake how would you do it. I can do it with handbrake I set gas and bite then release handbrake but how do you do this when you are only there for a few seconds and dont use the handbrake and just clutch down and keep the brake on ...
Blocking PVR-DNAM-1 transinteractions arrest monocytes over intercellular junctions at the apical surface of endothelial cells. Staining was performed after a
Research Interest: Ultrastructure and cell biology of the eye; structure-function relationship of intercellular junctions, cell membrane and cytoskeleton of the lens ...
Chapter 5 Histology• Study of Tissues• Epithelial Tissue• Connective Tissue• Nervous and Muscular Tissue• Intercellular Junctions, Glands an…
Karakesisoglou, I., Yang, Y. M. & Fuchs, E. (2000). An epidermal plakin that integrates actin and microtubule networks at cellular junctions. Journal Of Cell Biology 149(1): 195-208. ...
GO:0034331. The organization process that preserves a cell junction in a stable functional or structural state. A cell junction is a specialized region of connection between two cells or between a cell and the extracellular matrix. ...
ആവരണകലയിലെ കോശങ്ങളെ നന്നായി അടുക്കി ക്രമീകരിച്ചിരിക്കുന്നതിനാൽ കോശങ്ങൾക്കിടയിൽ കോശാന്ത്ര സ്ഥലം കുറവാണ്. അടുത്തടുത്ത രണ്ട് കോശങ്ങളുടെ പ്ലാസ്മാ സ്തരങ്ങൾ ചിലയിടങ്ങളിൽ കൂട്ടിയുറപ്പിച്ചിരിക്കുന്നു. ഇത്തരം സ്ഥാനങ്ങൾ കോശസന്ധികൾ (cell junctions). ടൈറ്റ് ജംങ്ഷനുകൾ ഉദാഹരണം. ഇത്തരം കോശസന്ധികൾ പദാർത്ഥസംവഹനത്തെ വൃതിവ്യാപനം (ഓസ്മോസിസ്), അന്തർവ്യാപനം (ഡിഫ്യൂഷൻ) എന്നിവ വഴി ...
This gene encodes a multi-domain scaffolding protein that is required for normal development. This protein may have a role in septate junction formation, signal transduction, cell proliferation, synaptogenesis and lymphocyte activation. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene, but the full-length nature of some of the variants is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011 ...
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Ill try to explain this best i can . We have 2 6509s running port channels down to 2 Nexus 7000 where the 7000s are running vpc . All the routing is still being done on the 6509s . The nexus 7000s only have routing running via
..., Are you so unhappy that you need to believe you will be happy after you die? In short, will that question get through a theists defenses? After my tw…
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So to answer the first question, yes I followed the stickied guide up top, and yes, it successfully flashed the bootloader, wiped all data, and flashed st…
An intercellular cleft is a channel between two cells through which molecules may travel and gap junctions and tight junctions may be present. Most notably, intercellular clefts are found between epithelial cells and the endothelium of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, also helping to form the blood-nerve barrier surrounding nerves. Intercellular clefts are important for allowing the transportation of fluids and small solute matter through the endothelium. The dimensions of intercellular clefts vary throughout the body, however cleft lengths have been determined for a series of capillaries. The average cleft length for capillaries is about 20m/cm2. The depths of the intercellular clefts, measured from the luminal to the abluminal openings, vary among different types of capillaries, but the average is about 0.7 μm. The width of the intercellular clefts is about 20 nm outside the junctional region (i.e. in the larger part of the clefts). In intercellular clefts of capillaries, it has been ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparative analysis of armadillo family proteins in the regulation of A431 epithelial cell junction assembly, adhesion and migration. AU - Setzer, Shannon V.. AU - Calkins, Cathárine C.. AU - Garner, Jennifer. AU - Summers, Susan. AU - Green, Kathleen J.. AU - Kowalczyk, Andrew P.. N1 - Funding Information: The authors are grateful to Drs A. Reynolds and M. Hatzfeld for sharing cDNA reagents. Funding for this study was provided by National Institutes of Health grants to A.K. (R01 AR048266) and K.J.G. (P01DE012328, Project 4). S.V.S. was supported by NIH T32AR007587. Additional funding was provided by the Emory Skin Diseases Research Center (NIH P30AR042687).. PY - 2004/9. Y1 - 2004/9. N2 - p0071 is an armadillo family protein related to both the adherens junction protein p120ctn and to the desmosomal proteins plakophilins 1-3. p0071 assembles into both adherens junctions and desmosomes, suggesting that this protein may regulate the balance between adherens junction and ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [I Martìn-Padura, S Lostaglio, M Schneemann, L Williams, M Romano, P Fruscella, C Panzeri, A Stoppacciaro, L Ruco, A Villa, D Simmons, E Dejana].
TY - JOUR. T1 - Calcium-dependent dynamics of cadherin interactions at cell-cell junctions. AU - Kim, Sally A.. AU - Tai, Chin Yin. AU - Mok, Lee Peng. AU - Mosser, Eric A.. AU - Schuman, Erin M.. PY - 2011/6/14. Y1 - 2011/6/14. N2 - Cadherins play a key role in the dynamics of cell-cell contact formation and remodeling of junctions and tissues. Cadherin-cadherin interactions are gated by extracellular Ca2+, which serves to rigidify the cadherin extracellular domains and promote trans junctional interactions. Here we describe the direct visualization and quantification of spatiotemporal dynamics of N-cadherin interactions across intercellular junctions in living cells using a genetically encodable FRET reporter system. Direct measurements of transjunctional cadherin interactions revealed a sudden, but partial, loss of homophilic interactions (τ = 1.17 ± 0.06 s-1) upon chelation of extracellular Ca2+. A cadherin mutant with reduced adhesive activity (W2A) exhibited a faster, more substantial ...
Here, we isolated a novel F-actin-binding protein with a molecular mass of ∼205 kD (p205). This protein was copurified with another protein with a molecular mass of 190 kD (p190) that lacked the F-actin-binding activity on various column chromatographies. The molecular cloning of the cDNAs of these two proteins revealed that the nucleotide sequence of the p190 cDNA was identical to that of the p205 cDNA, except for the two splicing regions. FISH analysis revealed that the genes of these two proteins were localized at the same locus. These results suggest that p205 and p190 are splicing variants derived from the same gene. Because a computer homology search revealed that the aa sequence of p190 was almost identical to that of human AF-6 protein, we theorize that p190 may be a rat counterpart of human AF-6 protein. We named p205 and p190 l- and s-afadins, respectively. Further purification steps of l-afadin, including Mono S column and Superdex 200 column chromatographies, did not separate l- ...
1959: Furshpan and Potter report that electrical stimulation that is insufficient to generate and action potential still allows current transfer between some nerve cells. [6] 1962: Dewey and Barr coin the term nexus to describe an intercellular connection between smooth muscle cells. [7] This term is now used interchangeably with the term gap junction 1963: Loewenstein and Kanno use microelectrodes and flurescent tracers to analyze the membrane permeability of epithelial cell junctions on Drosophilla salivary glands. The find that the junctional membrane surface is highly permeable so that small ions and fluorescent markers can move freely from one cell to the next.[8] 1963: Using thin slices of permanganate and osmium-fixed material, David Robinson discovers an array of hexagonal subunits in electrical synapses of Mauthner cells of goldfish. [9] 1963-1967: Difference between gap junction and tight junction remains unclear and confusing.[10] 1967: Karnovsky and Revel use a lanthanum salt ...
1959: Furshpan and Potter report that electrical stimulation that is insufficient to generate and action potential still allows current transfer between some nerve cells. [6] 1962: Dewey and Barr coin the term nexus to describe an intercellular connection between smooth muscle cells. [7] This term is now used interchangeably with the term gap junction 1963: Loewenstein and Kanno use microelectrodes and flurescent tracers to analyze the membrane permeability of epithelial cell junctions on Drosophilla salivary glands. The find that the junctional membrane surface is highly permeable so that small ions and fluorescent markers can move freely from one cell to the next.[8] 1963: Using thin slices of permanganate and osmium-fixed material, David Robinson discovers an array of hexagonal subunits in electrical synapses of Mauthner cells of goldfish. [9] 1963-1967: Difference between gap junction and tight junction remains unclear and confusing.[10] 1967: Karnovsky and Revel use a lanthanum salt ...
Looking for online definition of lateral surface of shaft of radius in the Medical Dictionary? lateral surface of shaft of radius explanation free. What is lateral surface of shaft of radius? Meaning of lateral surface of shaft of radius medical term. What does lateral surface of shaft of radius mean?
A-CAM (adherens-junction-specific cell adhesion molecule) is a calcium-dependent adhesion molecule which is associated with intercellular adherens junctions in various tissues (Volk & Geiger, 1986, J. Cell Biol. 103, 1441-1450 and 1451-1464). In the present report, we have investigated the distribution of A-CAM during avian morphogenesis by immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoblotting. A-CAM appeared at the onset of gastrulation on developing mesodermal and endodermal cells and was then expressed on tissues derived from the three primary germ layers. During embryonic life, A-CAM was constitutively expressed in a number of tissues including the central and peripheral nervous system, myocardium, muscles, notochord, skin and lens whereas it was found transiently in many tissues ranging from the nephritic tubules and the endoderm of visceral arches to ectodermal placodes. In the adult, in addition to the nervous system, A-CAM was restricted to the skin, lens, heart and testis, and exhibited an ...
ED01-03 Preclinical data have generated an interesting hypothesis that suggests that the sensitivity of NSCLC, pancreatic and colon cell lines and/or tumor xenografts to EGFR inhibitors is dependant upon the degree to which they have undergone an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). NSCLC lines which express the epithelial cell junction protein E-cadherin showed greater sensitivity to EGFR inhibition in vitro and in xenografts. In contrast, NSCLC lines having undergone EMT, expressing vimentin and/or fibronectin, were insensitive to the growth inhibitory effects of erlotinib. In the E-cadherin positive cells inhibition of EGFR activity leads to a reduction in the phosphorylation of Akt. In contrast, however, those cells that have lost E-cadherin expression and gained the expression of mesenchymal markers, do not show a reduction in phosphorylation of Akt even though EGFR is present and can be inhibited. Interestingly the E-cadherin expressing cells also express ErbB3 and we believe that ...
The trafficking of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumour suppressor protein in mammalian cells is a perennially controversial topic. Immunostaining evidence for an actin-associated APC localisation at intercellular junctions has been previously presented, though live imaging of mammalian junctional APC has not been documented. Using live imaging of transfected COS-7 cells we observed intercellular junction-associated pools of GFP-APC in addition to previously documented microtubule-associated GFP-APC and a variety of minor localisations. Although both microtubule and junction-associated populations could co-exist within individual cells, they differed in their subcellular location, dynamic behaviour and sensitivity to cytoskeletal poisons. GFP-APC deletion mutant analysis indicated that a protein truncated immediately after the APC armadillo repeat domain retained the ability to localise to adhesive membranes in transfected cells. Supporting this, we also observed junctional APC immunostaining in
Plakins: A family of related proteins that associate with cytoskeletal elements and junctional complexes at INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS. Plakins share a common plakin domain or a plakin repeat domain.
Author(s): Liu, Jian J; Stockton, Rebecca A; Gingras, Alexandre R; Ablooglu, Ararat J; Han, Jaewon; Bobkov, Andrey A; Ginsberg, Mark H | Abstract: Activation of Rap1 small GTPases stabilizes cell--cell junctions, and this activity requires Krev Interaction Trapped gene 1 (KRIT1). Loss of KRIT1 disrupts cardiovascular development and causes autosomal dominant familial cerebral cavernous malformations. Here we report that native KRIT1 protein binds the effector loop of Rap1A but not H-Ras in a GTP-dependent manner, establishing that it is an authentic Rap1-specific effector. By modeling the KRIT1-Rap1 interface we designed a well-folded KRIT1 mutant that exhibited a ~40-fold-reduced affinity for Rap1A and maintained other KRIT1-binding functions. Direct binding of KRIT1 to Rap1 stabilized endothelial cell-cell junctions in vitro and was required for cardiovascular development in vivo. Mechanistically, Rap1 binding released KRIT1 from microtubules, enabling it to locate to cell--cell junctions, where it
No músculo cardíaco, a beta-catenina forma un complexo coa N-cadherina nas unións adherentes nas estruturas dos discos intercalares, que son responsables do acoplamento mecánico e eléctrico de células cardíacas adxacentes. En estudos feitos nun modelo de ratas adultas atopouse que nos cardiomicitos ventriculares a aparición e distribución da beta-catenina está regulada espazo-temporalmente durante a rediferenciación desas células en cultivo. Especificamente, a beta-catenina forma parte dun complexo coa N-cadherina e a alfa-catenina, que é abundante nas unións adherentes nos estadios temperáns despois do illamento dos cardiomicitos para a reforma dos contactos célula-célula.[43] Observouse que a beta-catenina forma un complexo coa emerina nos cardiomiocitos nas unións adherentes dos discos intercalares; e esta interacción é dependente da presenza na beta-catenina de sitios de fosforilación para a GSK 3-beta. Ao facer un knockout da emerina altérase significativamente a ...
Tumor blood vessels are leaky and immature, which causes inadequate blood supply to tumor tissues resulting in hypoxic microenvironment and promotes metastasis. Here we have explored tumor vessel modulating activity of Sac-1004, a recently developed molecule in our lab, which directly potentiates VE-cadherin-mediated endothelial cell junction. Sac-1004 could enhance vascular junction integrity in tumor vessels and thereby inhibit vascular leakage and enhance vascular perfusion. Improved perfusion enabled Sac-1004 to have synergistic anti-tumor effect on cisplatin-mediated apoptosis of tumor cells. Interestingly, characteristics of normalized blood vessels namely reduced hypoxia, improved pericyte coverage and decreased basement membrane thickness were readily observed in tumors treated with Sac-1004. Remarkably, Sac-1004 was also able to inhibit lung and lymph node metastasis in MMTV and B16BL6 tumor models. This was in correlation with a reduction in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of ...
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FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene encodes a protein with an N-terminal filamin-binding domain, a central proline-rich domain, and, multiple C-terminal LIM domains. This protein localizes at cell junctions and may link cell adhesion structures to the actin cytoskeleton. This protein may be involved in the assembly and stabilization of actin-filaments and likely plays a role in modulating cell adhesion, cell morphology and cell motility. This protein also localizes to the nucleus and may affect cardiomyocyte differentiation after binding with the CSX/NKX2-5 transcription factor. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
A low-resistance hydrocarbon-adsorptive cartridge for an air intake of an internal combustion engine comprising a structure for being mounted into a portion of an engine air intake system. The structure is adapted to orient and retain one or more thin sheets of activated carbon sheeting in the intake system. Preferably, a plurality of sheets is oriented such that the leading edge of each sheet is presented to the engine intake air stream, thereby minimizing reduction in total cross-sectional area of the intake system. Preferably, the one or more sheets are spaced apart by a distance that is small relative to the extent of the elements in the direction of engine air flow such that a high probability is created that hydrocarbons migrating out of a shut down engines intake manifold will encounter a surface of at least one of the adsorptive sheets and thus be adsorbed.
Epidermal junctions can be maintained in cell-adhesion mutants and RNAi treated animals.We used an AJM-1::GFP transgene (jcIs1) to examine epidermal morphology
Figure 3. The CeAJ and cell-cell adhesion. (A) Schematic representation of known components CeAJ components. Like in vertebrates and Drosophila, C. elegans epithelial cells contain two adhesion complexes, the cadherin-catenin (CCC) and the DLG-1/AJM-1 (DAC) complexes. C. elegans is unique in three respects: (i) there is a single electron-dense area in the CeAJ (see Figure 1B); (ii) LET-413 does not colocalize with DLG-1 (as its homologue Scribble in Drosophila); (iii) PAR-3, PAR-6, PKC-3 and CRB-1 are present at the apical membrane in tubular organs (the existence of apical polarity determinants in epidermal cells is an open question). CeAJs from different epithelia contain the same set of proteins; notable differences concern the identity of the classical claudin-like protein (CLC-1 present in the pharynx, vulva and spermatheca; CLC-2 present in the lateral epidermis). The DAC complex might correspond to the electron-density in the CeAJ. Indeed, immunogold staining experiments localize AJM-1 at ...
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In 1975, Orci et al. (1) reported that human islet cells contain specialized membrane domains that are compatible with the ultrastructural features of two types of intercellular junctions: tight junctions and gap junctions. Since then, numerous reports have demonstrated critical functions for these cell-cell junctional complexes in islet cells (2-8). Eventually, a number of proteins were identified that regulated cell aggregation, islet cell-type segregation, architectural organization within islets of Langerhans, and state of differentiation, cell growth, and hormone secretion (9-16). Hints that direct islet cell-to-islet cell interactions are required for proper insulin secretion were uncovered in the 1980s when it was observed that single (isolated) β-cells are unresponsive to glucose unless they are given the opportunity to reaggregate into small clusters (17). Even more interesting, it was observed that islet cell types harbor specific cell-to-cell recognition signatures that drive their ...
Cadherins, Ca2+-dependent adhesion molecules, are crucial for cell-cell junctions and remodeling. Cadherins form inter-junctional lattices by the formation of both cis and trans dimers. Here, we directly visualize and quantify the spatiotemporal dynamics of wild-type and dimer mutant N-cadherin interactions using time-lapse imaging of junction assembly, disassembly and a FRET reporter to assess Ca2+-dependent interactions. A trans dimer mutant (W2A) and a cis mutant (V81D/V174D) exhibited an increased Ca2+-sensitivity for the disassembly of trans dimers compared to the WT, while another mutant (R14E) was insensitive to Ca2+-chelation. Time-lapse imaging of junction assembly and disassembly, monitored in 2D and 3D (using cellular spheroids), revealed kinetic differences in the different mutants as well as different behaviors in the 2D and 3D environment. Taken together, these data provide new insights into the role that the cis and trans dimers play in the dynamic interactions of cadherins ...
Northbound: Leave the M1 at Junction 6 for the A405, signposted to St Albans. Follow the tight bend of the slip road round and join the southbound A405 towards Watford (stay in the right-hand lane to join the A405 safely).. Southbound: Leave the M1 at Junction 6 for the A405, signposted North Watford.. Once on the A405 heading towards Watford, after half a mile, turn left at the traffic lights into Bucknalls Lane (signposted to BRE). Our entrance is on the left at the end of the lane, after the motorway bridge.. ...
View Notes - Exam 2 Qwizdom from BIO 172 at University of Michigan. Mutations in one of the junctional complexes below causes an irregular heartbeat. Which one do you think it is. A) B) C) D) E)
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The junction between neurons and their target cells at which an impulse is transmitted by either electrical or chemical means; the two cells are separated by a small gap called the synaptic...
I wish I had a copy of the images to show you, because theyre kind of amazing. Imagine a cross-section shot of a head and what isnt brain, is tumor. In the small gap at the base of the brain, there it is, and its huge. Tumor, all of it. So large you cant see…
I wish I had a copy of the images to show you, because theyre kind of amazing. Imagine a cross-section shot of a head and what isnt brain, is tumor. In the small gap at the base of the brain, there it is, and its huge. Tumor, all of it. So large you cant see…
Displaying a unique look, this ring by Swarovski is inspired by the elements of Air and Fire. Its silhouette is adorned with two distinct, brilliantly faceted crystals on either side, one in a red hue and one clear, with a small gap in between. This ring is a subtle and sublimely beautiful must-have for everyday looks.
Whenever we found an opening in the rock falls dad would use a candle to check the oxygen levels were OK and then hed squeeze me though a small gap to see what was on the other side. Some people might think it was an odd pastime for a kid, but I thought it was amazing ...
So after being diagnosed and treated in November last year i had a small gap before starting my hormone treatment and i would definitely say that these were the best few weeks for a long time in my...
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Ultrastructural analysis shows tumor cells closely apposed to each other by continuous basal laminae and rudimentary cell junctions. Cells show abundant
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1995). Intercellular communication through gap junctions. Amsterdam ; New York: Elsevier. ISBN 0-444-81929-0.. ... Some research has found that when gap junction genes were transfected into tumor cells that did not have the gap junction genes ... Animal cells contain gap junctions and can communicate through these junctions in a process called cell-cell recognition. Plant ... Epithelial cells especially rely on these junctions because when one is injured, these junctions provide the means and ...
As an MGH pathology resident, he co-authored research papers on intercellular junctions, cancer cell, and red cell membranes. ... Weinstein, Ronald S.; Merk, Frederick B.; Alroy, Joseph (1976). The Structure and Function of Intercellular Junctions in Cancer ... McNutt, N. Scott; Weinstein, Ronald S. (1969-08-08). "Carcinoma of the Cervix: Deficiency of Nexus Intercellular Junctions". ... Scott McNutt, N.; Weinstein, Ronald S. (1973). "Membrane ultrastructure at mammalian intercellular junctions". Progress in ...
Are gap junctions required for intercellular coupling?". Experientia. 46 (10): 1002-5. doi:10.1007/BF01940654. PMID 2226711. ... Gap junctions have been demonstrated in rare circumstances as one coupling mechanism between ICC and smooth muscle cells. ... Electron microscopic and dye coupling studies to date have confirmed gap junctions as the major coupling mechanisms between ... Hanani, Menachem; Farrugia, Gianrico; Komuro, Terumasa (2004). "Intercellular Coupling of Interstitial Cells of Cajal in the ...
Takai Y, Nakanishi H (Jan 2003). "Nectin and afadin: novel organizers of intercellular junctions". Journal of Cell Science. 116 ... Tight junction protein 1, and USP9X. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000130396 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89 ... A novel actin filament-binding protein with one PDZ domain localized at cadherin-based cell-to-cell adherens junction". The ... and vinculin-binding protein localized at cell-cell and cell-matrix adherens junctions". The Journal of Cell Biology. 144 (5): ...
Fan J, Ray P, Lu Y, Kaur G, Schwarz J, Wan L (24 October 2018). "Cell chirality regulates intercellular junctions and ...
Intercellular junctions Gametogenesis Spectrin Cyclin Telfer, W. H. 1975. Development and physiology of the oocyte-nurse cell ... 2011). Germ Cell Intercellular Bridges. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 3:a005850 doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a005850 de Cuevas, M ... Intercellular bridges also connect developing germ cells in mammals, contributing to cell cycle synchrony and gamete quality ... Future studies are required to elucidate all of the functions that arise from cell-cell communication through intercellular ...
Desmosomes are intercellular junctions that tightly link adjacent cells. Desmoplakin is an obligate component of functional ... a pivotal role for plakoglobin in the recruitment of desmoplakin to intercellular junctions". J. Cell Sci. 111 (20): 3045-57. ... "VE-cadherin and desmoplakin are assembled into dermal microvascular endothelial intercellular junctions: ... desmoplakin from cell-cell interfaces disrupts anchorage of intermediate filament bundles and alters intercellular junction ...
... a pivotal role for plakoglobin in the recruitment of desmoplakin to intercellular junctions". Journal of Cell Science. 111 (20 ... a protein common to different kinds of intercellular adhering junctions". Cell. 46 (7): 1063-73. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(86)90706 ... a protein common to different kinds of intercellular adhering junctions". Cell. 46 (7): 1063-73. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(86)90706 ... "VE-cadherin and desmoplakin are assembled into dermal microvascular endothelial intercellular junctions: ...
"Immunolocalization of MP70 in lens fiber 16-17-nm intercellular junctions". The Journal of Cell Biology. 104 (3): 565-572. doi: ...
"Tight junctions (zonula occludens) are composed of transmembrane proteins that make contact across the intercellular space and ... Blaskewicz CD, Pudney J, Anderson DJ (July 2011). "Structure and function of intercellular junctions in human cervical and ... The three types of structural adhesions between epithelial cells are: tight junctions, adherens junctions, and desmosomes. " ... Adherens junctions (zonula adherens) connect bundles of actin filaments from cell to cell to form a continuous adhesion belt, ...
ISBN 978-1-4939-3099-9. Blaskewicz CD, Pudney J, Anderson DJ (July 2011). "Structure and function of intercellular junctions in ...
3FTx binding interferes with cholinergic intercellular signaling particularly at neuromuscular junctions and causes paralysis. ... Most members of the family are neurotoxins that act on cholinergic intercellular signaling; the alpha-neurotoxin family ... the subunit composition of tissue-specific nAChRs and the detailed pharmacological understanding of the neuromuscular junction ...
Intercellular gap junctions in vertebrates, including humans, are formed by the connexin family of proteins. Structurally, ... or intercellular gap junctions. These hemichannels can be present in plasma, ER and Golgi membranes. They transport Ca2+, ATP, ... Panchin Y, Kelmanson I, Matz M, Lukyanov K, Usman N, Lukyanov S (June 2000). "A ubiquitous family of putative gap junction ... While innexins are responsible for forming gap junctions in invertebrates, the pannexins have been shown to predominantly exist ...
Regulation depends on the intercellular tight junctions which have the most influence on paracellular transport. Disruption of ... Most people do not experience adverse symptoms, but the opening of intercellular tight junctions (increased intestinal ... a modulator of intercellular tight junctions. This process takes place in all individuals who ingest gluten. For the majority, ... It is regulated by cellular junctions that are localized in the laminal membranes of the cells. This is the main route of ...
Rosselló, RA; Kohn, DH (2009). "Gap junction intercellular communication: A review of a potential platform to modulate ...
"Intercellular signaling via cyclic GMP diffusion through gap junctions restarts meiosis in mouse ovarian follicles". ... This results in a rapid decrease in cGMP levels in the granulosa cells and the oocytes through the gap junctions. PDE5 is also ... It proposed that the diffusion of cGMP away from the oocyte occurs before LH-induced closure of gap junctions between somatic ... ISBN 1605358223 Jaffe, Laurinda A.; Egbert, Jeremy R. (2017-02-10). "Regulation of Mammalian Oocyte Meiosis by Intercellular ...
... is a component of the intercellular junction that holds membranes of adjacent cells together (2). The components ... and intercellular junction (1). Dermatopontins are expressed primarily in fibroblasts, heart tissue, skeletal muscle, brain and ...
... a critical scaffold for PKC alpha that regulates intercellular junction assembly". The Journal of Cell Biology. 181 (4): 605-13 ... and mediates crosstalk between intercellular junctions and membrane excitability. Mutations in PKP2 have been associated with, ... "A novel kind of tumor type-characteristic junction: plakophilin-2 as a major protein of adherens junctions in cardiac myxomata ... Plakophilin-2 over time has shown to be more than components of cell-cell junctions; rather the plakophilins are emerging as ...
Each gap junction intercellular channel is formed by the conjunction of 2 connexons. See GJB2 for additional background ... Gap junction delta-2 protein (GJD2) also known as connexin-36 (Cx36) or gap junction alpha-9 protein (GJA9) is a protein that ... 2007). "Gap junction coding genes and schizophrenia: a genetic association study". J. Hum. Genet. 52 (6): 498-501. doi:10.1007/ ... Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: Q9UKL4 (Gap junction delta-2 protein) at the PDBe- ...
"Nephrin and Neph1 co-localize at the podocyte foot process intercellular junction and form cis hetero-oligomers". J. Biol. Chem ... KIRREL has been shown to interact with Nephrin and Tight junction protein 1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000183853 - ...
It is a peptide analog that has been shown to increase gap junction intercellular conductance in cardiac muscle cells. Gap ... Mantz J, Cordier J, Giaume C (1993). Effects of general anesthetics on inter-cellular communications mediated by gap junctions ... increases gap junction intercellular communication in cardiac myocytes and HeLa cells expressing connexin 43. British Journal ... Each gap junction is composed of a series of connexons in close proximity to each other. Each connexon is made up of 6 ...
1998). "Identification of a novel cadherin (vascular endothelial cadherin-2) located at intercellular junctions in endothelial ...
... unique to animal cells are the following intercellular junctions: tight junctions, gap junctions, and desmosomes.[16] ...
... passive flow of electric current through special intercellular connections called gap junctions. These gap junctions allow for ... via gap junctions), as in an electrical synapse, but most commonly occurs via the vesicular release of neurotransmitters from ... small-molecule neurotransmitter involved in synaptic transmission at neuromuscular junctions controlling the vagus nerve and ...
... a component of intercellular desmosome junctions, is related to the cadherin family of cell adhesion molecules". Proceedings of ... Desmosomes are cell-cell junctions between epithelial, myocardial and certain other cell types. Desmoglein-1 is a calcium- ... "Chromosomal assignment of the human genes coding for the major proteins of the desmosome junction, desmoglein DGI (DSG), ... "Coexpression of both types of desmosomal cadherin and plakoglobin confers strong intercellular adhesion". Journal of Cell ...
Ohno, S (2001). "Intercellular junctions and cellular polarity: the PAR-aPKC complex, a conserved core cassette playing ... "An atypical PKC directly associates and colocalizes at the epithelial tight junction with ASIP, a mammalian homologue of ...
The desmosomes are the intercellular junctions within the epidermis and genes like Dsg1 regulate cadherin expression within ... these junctions. The development and differentiation of epidermal cells is regulated by Grhl1 in a tissue-specific manner in ...
... which is made possible due to the organism's efficient intercellular gap junction communication. While further studies have ... "Extract from the zooxanthellate jellyfish Cotylorhiza tuberculata modulates gap junction intercellular communication in human ...
... a modulator of intercellular tight junctions. This process takes place in all individuals who ingest gluten. Verbeke, K ( ... Gluten alters cellular morphology and motility, cytoskeleton organization, oxidative balance and intercellular contact (tight ... junction proteins). Some people may have a reaction to other proteins (α-amylase/trypsin inhibitors [ATIs]) present in gluten- ...
... two connexons from opposing cells normally come together to form the complete intercellular gap junction channel. However, in ... Gap junctions are often present at nerve endings such as in cardiac muscle and are important in maintaining homeostasis in the ... The gap junction itself is a structure that is a specialized transmembrane protein formed by a connexon hemichannel. ... The gap junctions in these tissues supported by endocrine signaling arbitrate intracellular signals between cells and larger ...
The cells of the spongy layer are more branched and not so tightly packed, so that there are large intercellular air spaces ... Veins successively branching into equally sized veins from a common point, forming a Y junction, fanning out. Amongst temperate ... The pores or stomata of the epidermis open into substomatal chambers, which are connected to the intercellular air spaces ... with intercellular air spaces between them. Its cells contain many more chloroplasts than the spongy layer. Cylindrical cells, ...
動物也有類似的構造,允許動物細胞間的物質交流,包含間隙連接(gap junctions)[7]和膜奈米管(英语:membrane nanotubes)(membrane nanotubes)[8][9] ... In: Intercellular communications in plants: studies on plasmodesmata. Edited by BES Gunning and AW Robards Springer-Verlag ... 15.0 15.1 RL Overall, J Wolfe, BES Gunning (1982) Intercellular communication in Azolla roots: I. Ultrastructure of ... Not just another hole in the wall: understanding intercellular protein trafficking. Genes Dev.
An intercellular cleft is a channel between two cells through which molecules may travel and gap junctions and tight junctions ... The intercellular cleft is imperative for cell-cell communication. The cleft contains gap junctions, tight junctions, ... These tight junctions localize to the luminal side of the intercellular clefts, where the glycocalyx, which is important in ... Endothelial tight junctions are most commonly found in the intercellular cleft and provide for regulation of diffusion through ...
An alternative explanation for the EDHF phenomenon is that direct intercellular communication via gap junctions allows passive ... It is more likely that K+ ions and gap junctions can be involved in EDHF-mediated relaxation simultaneously, and may also act ... Contact-mediated mechanisms bestow endothelial hyperpolarization that passively spreads to the smooth muscle through inter-cellular ... "Endothelium-dependent smooth muscle hyperpolarization: do gap junctions provide a unifying hypothesis?". British Journal of ...
These genes are often turned on or off by signal transduction, although in some systems where syncytia or gap junctions are ... and respond differently to the environment and intercellular signalling. Thus, as individuals develop, morphogens activate or ...
The most common cellular products observed to be released in this manner are intercellular signaling molecules such as hormones ... In addition to gap junctions, pulse coordination is managed by ATP signaling. α and δ cells in the pancreas also share secrete ... become synchronized via electrical coupling resulting from gap junctions, and osculate more regularly (3 to 6 minutes). ATP ... oscillations become synchronized by electrical coupling between closely located beta cells that are connected by gap junctions ...
... and intercellular adhesion.[1] ... Cell junctions. *Glycocalyx. *Lipid raft/microdomains. * ...
cell-cell adherens junction. • apical junction complex. • trans-Golgi network. • extracellular region. • perinuclear region of ... a cause of loss of intercellular adhesiveness in human cancer cell lines". Cancer Research. 54 (23): 6282-7. PMID 7954478.. ... cell junction. • cytoplasm. • plasma membrane. Biological process. • negative regulation of cell-cell adhesion. • positive ... adherens junction organization. • homophilic cell adhesion via plasma membrane adhesion molecules. • entry of bacterium into ...
The response can then be recorded using cAMP concentration fluctuations in gap junction-coupled cells using FRET-based sensor ... "Pertussis Toxin B-Pentamer Mediates Intercellular Transfer of Membrane Proteins and Lipids". PLoS ONE. 8 (9): e72885. doi: ... "Fast structural responses of gap junction membrane domains to AB5 toxins". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of ... that CDRs could perhaps be linked with rapid rearrangement of lipids and protein in connexin channels within the gap junction ...
... is the tissue made up of cells and intercellular spaces that fills the interior of the body of a flatworm, which is ... The cells are often attached to each other and also to their nearby epithelial cells mainly by gap junctions and hemidesmosomes ...
"Capsaicin Protects Mouse Neuromuscular Junctions from the Neuroparalytic Effects of Botulinum Neurotoxin A." Journal of ... "Endothelim-derived Relaxing Factor Release on Activation of NMDA Receptors Suggests Role as Intercellular Messenger in the ...
Bennett M, Contreras J, Bukauskas F, Sáez J (2003). "New roles for astrocytes: gap junction hemichannels have something to ... "Propagation of intercellular calcium waves in retinal astrocytes and Müller cells". The Journal of neuroscience : the official ...
Neuromuscular junctionsEdit. Main articles: Neuromuscular junction, Acetylcholine receptor, and Cholinesterase enzyme ... "Oscillations, intercellular coupling, and insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells". PLoS Biol. 4 (2): e49. doi:10.1371/ ... A special case of a chemical synapse is the neuromuscular junction, in which the axon of a motor neuron terminates on a muscle ... Brink PR, Cronin K, Ramanan SV (1996). "Gap junctions in excitable cells". J. Bioenerg. Biomembr. 28 (4): 351-8. doi:10.1007/ ...
CCN intercellular signaling protein *Cysteine-rich protein 61. *Connective tissue growth factor ...
By contrast, a true epithelial tissue is present only in a single layer of cells held together via occluding junctions called ... This tissue gives a tensile strength to the plant and the cells are compactly arranged and have very little inter-cellular ... They are compactly arranged without inter-cellular spaces between them. Each cell contains a dense cytoplasm and a prominent ... The cells comprising an epithelial layer are linked via semi-permeable, tight junctions; hence, this tissue provides a barrier ...
adherens junction. • cell periphery. • GABA-ergic synapse. Biological process. • positive regulation of synapse assembly. • ... CCN intercellular signaling protein *Cysteine-rich protein 61. *Connective tissue growth factor ...
"Immunolocalization of MP70 in lens fiber 16-17-nm intercellular junctions". The Journal of Cell Biology. 104 (3): 565-572. doi: ...
Detection in other locations such as intercellular and areas below the epidermis (subepidermal), as well as along the ... intraepidermal antibodies as well as along the dermoepidermal junction. Patients with low concentration of antibodies only ... loss of intercellular connections leading to breaking apart of the skin; lesion) Direct immunofluorescence showing ... Patients with high concentration of antibodies show intercellular, ...
... tight junctions, adherens junctions, desmosomes, hemidesmosomes, and gap junctions. Tight junctions are a pair of trans- ... They have almost no intercellular spaces. All epithelia is usually separated from underlying tissues by an extracellular ... Cell junctionsEdit. Cell junctions are especially abundant in epithelial tissues. They consist of protein complexes and provide ... Gap junctions connect the cytoplasm of two cells and are made up of proteins called connexins (six of which come together to ...
Fleming TP, Papenbrock T, Fesenko I, Hausen P, Sheth B (August 2000). "Assembly of tight junctions during early vertebrate ... a cause of loss of intercellular adhesiveness in human cancer cell lines". Cancer Res. 54 (23): 6282-7. PMID 7954478.. ...
Bauer, HC; Krizbai, IA; Bauer, H; Traweger, A (2014). ""You Shall Not Pass"-tight junctions of the blood brain barrier". ... The fenestrated type in center shows fenestrations; the sinusoidal type on the right shows intercellular gaps and an incomplete ... Some sinusoids are distinctive in that they do not have the tight junctions between cells. They are called discontinuous ... These capillaries lack pinocytotic vesicles, and therefore utilize gaps present in cell junctions to permit transfer between ...
They are responsible for the encoding of the structural units of the gap-junctions. These proteins may alter the intercellular ...
cell junction. • lamellipodium. • apical plasma membrane. • membrane. • focal adhesion. • cell surface. • intercellular ...
... s are linked by gap junctions, creating an electrically coupled (functional) syncytium.[37] Because of this ability of ... Research since the mid-1990s has shown that astrocytes propagate intercellular Ca2+ waves over long distances in response to ... Mechanisms of calcium wave propagation include diffusion of calcium ions and IP3 through gap junctions and extracellular ATP ... it is the tight junctions and basal lamina of the cerebral endothelial cells that play the most substantial role in maintaining ...
... and inter-cellular exchange of material between compartments, etc.). In each of these roles, complex mixtures of become ... hook-filament junction, hook, and rod proteins all in darker blue.[4] ...
Cell-cell junctionsEdit. Cell-cell junctions can occur in different forms. In anchoring junctions between cells such as ... such as intercellular cell adhesion molecules (ICAMs) or vascular cell adhesion molecules (VCAMs) undergo heterophilic binding ... apart from holding cells together and provide structural stability like anchoring junctions or tight junctions.[1] Gap junction ... Adherens junctionsEdit. Adheren junction showing homophilic binding between cadherins and how catenin links it to actin ...
Gap junctions are a specialized intercellular connection between a multitude of animal cell-types.[1][2][3] They directly ... One gap junction channel is composed of two connexons (or hemichannels), which connect across the intercellular space.[4][5][6] ... At gap junctions, the intercellular space is between 2 and 4 nm[6] and unit connexons in the membrane of each cell are aligned ... "gap junction" and "gap junction plaque" non-interchangeable.[115] In other words, the commonly used term "gap junction" always ...
... junction or nexus, a specialized intercellular connection between a multitude of animal cell-types ...
Achantholytic: Intercellular clefts or lacunae in the lowermost epidermal layer that result from anaplastic changes; these ... directly beneath the dermal-epidermal junction.[33] ... produce dyskeratotic cells with disrupted intercellular bridges ...
Gap junctions are a specialized intercellular connection between a multitude of animal cell-types.[1][2][3] They directly ... "gap junction" and "gap junction plaque" non-interchangeable.[116] In other words, the commonly used term "gap junction" always ... At gap junctions, the intercellular space is between 2 and 4 nm[6] and hemichannels in the membrane of each cell are aligned ... "gap junction" and "gap junction plaque" non-interchangeable as the area of the gap junction plaque may contain proteins other ...
... there are different kinds of intercellular junctions:. Desmosomes. Desmosomes are junctions that provide mechanical stability. ... Tight junctions are primarily found in epithelial cells because they provide a barrier between the intercellular space on "the ... Gap junctions are essential to intercellular signalling and provide important means for the transportation of metabolistically ... Tight junctions. Also called zona occludens. These are junctions where the outer membranes of two cells have fused together. ...
Transient Disruption of Intercellular Junctions Enables Baculovirus Entry into Nondividing Hepatocytes John P. Bilello, William ... Herpes Simplex Virus gE/gI Sorts Nascent Virions to Epithelial Cell Junctions, Promoting Virus Spread David C. Johnson, Mike ... Herpes Simplex Virus gE/gI Must Accumulate in the trans-Golgi Network at Early Times and Then Redistribute to Cell Junctions To ... The Extracellular Domain of Herpes Simplex Virus gE Is Sufficient for Accumulation at Cell Junctions but Not for Cell-to-Cell ...
Only one type of intercellular junction, the C. elegans apical junction (CeAJ) (Fig. 1C), has been described at the ... tight junction; ZA, zonula adherens; SJ, septate junction; CeAJ, C. elegans apical junction) correspond with those used in Fig ... Formation of Intercellular Junctions in the DrosophilaEmbryo. Because the Drosophila embryo is readily accessible to genetic ... Composition and Formation of Intercellular Junctions in Epithelial Cells Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ...
In lens cells these junctions contain A-CAM, while the same type of intercellular junctions in liver cells contain another cell ... Junctional adhesion molecule, a novel member of the immunoglobulin superfamily that distributes at intercellular junctions and ... The lipid phosphatase activity of PTEN is critical for stabilizing intercellular junctions and reverting invasiveness. ... diagnostic and therapeutic context of Intercellular Junctions. *Confocal microscopy localized TSP within intercellular ...
Intercellular Junction Marker. Validated in WB, IP, IHC, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF and tested in Mouse, Rat, Human, Pig, Xenopus laevis ... Primary - Rabbit Anti-N Cadherin antibody - Intercellular Junction Marker (ab18203) IHC-Fr, WB, IHC-P, IP, ICC/IF, Flow Cyt ... All lanes : Anti-N Cadherin antibody - Intercellular Junction Marker (ab18203) at 1 µg/ml. Lane 1 : Brain (Rat) Tissue Lysate ... Immunohistochemistry (Frozen sections) abreview for Anti-N Cadherin antibody - Intercellular Junction Marker. Excellent ...
Intercellular Junction Marker (ab18203) has been cited in 251 publications. References for Human, Mouse, Rat in ICC/IF, IF, IHC ... Anti-N Cadherin antibody - Intercellular Junction Marker (ab18203). Rabbit polyclonal N Cadherin antibody. Validated in WB, IP ... Burch A et al. A novel synaptic junction preparation for the identification and characterization of cleft proteins. PLoS One 12 ... Bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation rescues the glomerular filtration barrier and epithelial cellular junctions in a ...
Epithelial intercellular junctions as dynamic hubs to integrate forces, signals and cell behaviour ...
... we present a protocol for a novel gap junction intercellular communication assay designed for the high-throughput screening of ... Gap junctions (GJs) act as intercellular channels to allow the diffusion of small molecules of ,1 kDa such as nutrients, ... Yeo, J. H., Lee, J. An Iodide-Yellow Fluorescent Protein-Gap Junction-Intercellular Communication Assay. J. Vis. Exp. (144), ... An Iodide-Yellow Fluorescent Protein-Gap Junction-Intercellular Communication Assay. Joo Hye Yeo1, Jinu Lee1 ...
Tight junctions are the most apical components of endothelial and epithelial intercellular cleft. In the endothelium these ... Junctional adhesion molecule, a novel member of the immunoglobulin superfamily that distributes at intercellular junctions and ... that is selectively concentrated at intercellular junctions of endothelial and epithelial cells of different origins. Confocal ... Thus, JAM is a new component of endothelial and epithelial junctions that play a role in regulating monocyte transmigration. ...
Inhibition of gap junction intercellular communication is involved in silica nanoparticles-induced H9c2 cardiomyocytes ... Gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) between cardiomyocytes is essential for synchronous heart contraction and ... Inhibition of gap junctions by gap junction blocker carbenoxolone disodium resulted in decreased survival and increased ... Furthermore, SNPs-induced apoptosis through the disrupted functional gap junction was correlated with abnormal expressions of ...
However, the exact role of TNTs and gap junctions for intercellular communication and their impact on disease is still ... However, the exact role of TNTs and gap junctions for intercellular communications and their impact on disease is still ... Intercellular communication is mediated by soluble factors (including growth factors, neurotransmitters, and cytokines/ ... chemokines), gap junctions, exosomes and recently described tunneling nanotubes (TNTs). It is unknown whether a combination of ...
Polyclonal Antibody Immunoprecipitation Intercellular Junction Assembly and Maintenance, Polyclonal Antibody ... Polyclonal Antibody Immunoprecipitation Intercellular Junction Assembly and Maintenance Polyclonal Antibody Immunoprecipitation ... Category listing: Polyclonal Antibody Immunoprecipitation Intercellular Junction Assembly and Maintenance to Polyclonal ... Intercellular Junction Assembly and Maintenance: Polyclonal Antibody - Smad3 Antibody, UniProt ID P84022, Entrez ID 4088 #9513 ...
Decreased Gap Junction Intercellular Communication Activity and Apoptosis in Microvascular Endothelial Cells ... Decreased Gap Junction Intercellular Communication Activity and Apoptosis in Microvascular Endothelial Cells ... A.-F. Li, T. Sato, S. Roy; Decreased Gap Junction Intercellular Communication Activity and Apoptosis in Microvascular ...
Intercellular dye transfer was blocked by the gap junction inhibitor 18 alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid. In imaging experiments, the ... It is concluded that gap junctions mediate intercellular signal transduction in cartilage cells and may provide a mechanism for ... The functional expression of gap junctions was assessed, in confluent chondrocyte cultures, by the intercellular transfer of ... Under these conditions, Ca2+ spikes propagate from cell to cell giving rise to intercellular Ca2+ waves. ...
Formation of intercellular junctions and the accompanying recruitment of myr 3 to these junctions involves signaling by the Rho ... Targeting of the myosin-I myr 3 to intercellular adherens type junctions induced by dominant active Cdc42 in HeLa cells ... Targeting of the myosin-I myr 3 to intercellular adherens type junctions induced by dominant active Cdc42 in HeLa cells ... Targeting of the myosin-I myr 3 to intercellular adherens type junctions induced by dominant active Cdc42 in HeLa cells ...
... and focal separation between cells in the region of the junction (F). Arrows: tight junction; arrowheads: adherens junction. ... and focal separation between cells in the region of the junction (F). Arrows: tight junction; arrowheads: adherens junction. ... and focal separation between cells in the region of the junction (F). Arrows: tight junction; arrowheads: adherens junction. ... and focal separation between cells in the region of the junction (F). Arrows: tight junction; arrowheads: adherens junction. ...
... an mAb to a previously undescribed 135-kD externally disposed integral membrane protein that is enriched in the intercellular ... A human endothelial cell-restricted, externally disposed plasmalemmal protein enriched in intercellular junctions. W A Muller , ... externally disposed plasmalemmal protein enriched in intercellular junctions.. J Exp Med 1 August 1989; 170 (2): 399-414. doi: ... This protein may mediate endothelial-specific functions restricted to the intercellular domain. It may also serve as a unique ...
2008). "Gap junction mediated intercellular metabolite transfer in the cochlea is compromised in connexin30 null mice." PLoS ... 2005). "Gap junction-mediated intercellular biochemical coupling in cochlear supporting cells is required for normal cochlear ... 2005). "Cochlear gap junctions coassembled from Cx26 and 30 show faster intercellular Ca2+ signaling than homomeric ... Vice versa, we found defective gap junction coupling and intercellular IP3-dependent Ca2+ signaling the cochlea of mice with ...
... enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis through the upregulation of death receptor 5 and inhibition of gap junction intercellular ... enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis through the upregulation of death receptor 5 and inhibition of gap junction intercellular ... CBX enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis through upregulation of death receptor 5, blockade of GJ intercellular communication, and ... with gap junction (GJ) inhibitory effect of carbenoxolone (CBX) to target orthotopic glioma. MSC were engineered to express ...
Tag: intercellular junctions. Enhancement of Drug Absorption through the Blood Brain Barrier and Inhibition of Intercellular ... Keywords: E-cadherin; cell-cell adhesion; HAV peptides; ADT peptides; intercellular junctions; adherens junction; Caco-2 cell ... A new intercellular-junction resealing assay was also developed using Caco-2 monolayers to evaluate new peptides (BLG2, BLG3, ... The positive control peptides (ADT10, ADT6, and HAV10) block the resealing of the intercellular junctions in a concentration- ...
Cell adhesion molecules, Cell junctions types, definition & function Intercellular junctions are structures that provide ...
Intercellular. Junctions. /drug effects ; Intercellular. Junctions. /pathology ; Intercellular. Junctions. /ultrastructure ; ... Intercellular. Junctions. /genetics ; Membrane Proteins/genetics ; Tight Junctions. /chemistry ; Tight Junctions. /genetics. ... Junctions. /*chemistry Intercellular. Junctions. /*chemistry Membrane Proteins/*chemistry. Adherens Junctions. /genetics ; ... Intercellular. Junctions. /drug effects ; Intercellular. Junctions. /metabolism ; Male ; Mice ; Risk Factors ; Testosterone/ ...
download intercellular communication through gap junctions, Place, and Time. This vertical and civil download intercellular ... You move download intercellular communication through gap junctions 1995 creates always be! The download intercellular ... 6D download intercellular communication through gap junctions can tell from the full. If versatile, Even the look in its easy ... This download intercellular communication through gap junctions does left in such a risk far to increase as an left education ...
Intercellular communication networks for the establishment of an optimal luminal environment for sperm maturation ... Cell-cell interactions and intercellular junctions. Cell-cell interactions and intercellular junctions. ...
Chapter 7: Intercellular Calcium Wave Communication via Gap Junction Dependent and Independent Mechanisms. Current Topics in ... Scemes, E., Suadicani, S. O., & Spray, D. C. (1999). Chapter 7: Intercellular Calcium Wave Communication via Gap Junction ... Scemes, Eliana ; Suadicani, Sylvia O. ; Spray, David C. / Chapter 7 : Intercellular Calcium Wave Communication via Gap Junction ... Chapter 7 : Intercellular Calcium Wave Communication via Gap Junction Dependent and Independent Mechanisms. / Scemes, Eliana; ...
HomeUncategorizedTight junctions are intercellular seams sealing and preventin. Tight junctions are intercellular seams sealing ...
title = "Synthesis, assembly and structure of gap junction intercellular channels",. abstract = "Gap junction membrane channels ... assembly and structure of gap junction intercellular channels. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Gap Junctions ... Yeager, M., Unger, V. M., & Falk, M. M. (1998). Synthesis, assembly and structure of gap junction intercellular channels. ... Yeager, Mark ; Unger, Vinzenz M. ; Falk, Matthias M. / Synthesis, assembly and structure of gap junction intercellular channels ...
After 10 min to allow dye uptake and diffusion through gap junctions, we observed a LY-positive cell band of 179 ± 8 μm width. ... We conclude that the GNOME LP technique allows a high-throughput automated analysis of gap junction coupling in cells. Moreover ... The presence of the gap junction channel blocker carbenoxolone during the optoperforation reduced the LY-positive band to 95 ± ... Additionally, a forskolin-related enhancement of gap junction coupling, recently found using the scrape loading technique, was ...
Since ICAM-1 is pivotal in cell conjugation and intercellular HIV-1 transfer, this study examines ps20 effects on HIV-1 spread ... marker of CD4+ T-cells rendered vulnerable to HIV-1 infection by regulating the fundamental biologic process of intercellular ... lymphocytes rendered vulnerable to cell-cell HIV-1 transfer by promoting intercellular adhesive junctions. ... Since ICAM-1 is pivotal in cell conjugation and intercellular HIV-1 transfer, this study examines ps20 effects on HIV-1 spread ...
Cross-talk between fibroblast growth factor and bone morphogenetic proteins regulates gap junction-mediated intercellular ... Cross-talk between fibroblast growth factor and bone morphogenetic proteins regulates gap junction-mediated intercellular ...
  • Recruitement of myr 3 to Cdc42-induced adherens junctions in HeLa cells was dependent on a short region of the tail domain and a functional myosin motor domain, but was independent of its myosin-I tail homology and SH3 regions. (biologists.org)
  • To evaluate the effect of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on the integrity and function of tight junctions and adherens junctions in the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) monolayer. (arvojournals.org)
  • Untreated explants consisted of polarized cells with apical microvilli and well-developed tight and adherens junctions. (arvojournals.org)
  • After HGF treatment, the explants showed loss of tight and adherens junctions ultrastructurally, diffusion of fluorescent label from apical to lateral membrane domains, and increased chemotactic migration of RPE cells from the monolayer. (arvojournals.org)
  • Treatment of RPE explants with HGF results in rapid disassembly of tight and adherens junctions associated with loss or redistribution of junctional proteins, decreased TER, and increased migration of RPE cells from the monolayer. (arvojournals.org)
  • Adherens junctions bind to a continuous belt of actin filaments (the adhesion belt), where they function to hold neighboring cells together through the family of Ca 2+ -dependent cell-cell adhesion molecules known as cadherins. (arvojournals.org)
  • The morphological feature is shared by desmosomes and adherens junctions, which contain members of the cadherin superfamily. (nih.gov)
  • AJ adherens junctions). (nature.com)
  • b Newborn epidermal whole-mount immunofluorescence analysis for tension-high (vinculin) adherens junctions (E-cadherin). (nature.com)
  • The intercellular space in cell-cell junctions is maintained at 20 nm Adhesive junctions Adherens junctions (or zonula adherens, intermediate junction, or 'belt desmosome'[1]) are protein complexes that occur at cell-cell junctions in epithelial tissues, usually more basal than tight junctions. (prezi.com)
  • 4) Adherens junctions play a role in intracellular adhesion and the interaction of the actomyosin cytoskeleton with the plasma membrane. (davidson.edu)
  • Tight junctions, desmosomes, gap junctions, and adherens junctions (not depicted here) are present in all epithelial cells along the lateral surface. (davidson.edu)
  • Component of intercellular desmosome junctions. (rcsb.org)
  • Two of these, the adherens junction and the desmosome, contain cadherin cell adhesion molecules. (stanford.edu)
  • The extracellular regions of these transmembrane proteins mediate intercellular binding, while their cytoplasmic domains are linked to the actin- (adherens junction) or intermediate filament- (desmosome) based cytoskeletons. (stanford.edu)
  • These desmosomal family members, along with the desmogleins, are found primarily in epithelial cells where they constitute the adhesive proteins of the desmosome cell-cell junction and are required for cell adhesion and desmosome format. (genecards.org)
  • At the same time, these germ cells must maintain stable attachment with Sertoli cells via testis-unique intermediate filament- (i.e. desmosome-like junctions) and actin- (i.e. ectoplasmic specializations, ESs) based cell junctions to prevent sloughing of immature germ cells from the seminiferous epithelium, which may result in infertility. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In essence, both desmosome-like junctions and basal ESs are known to coexist between Sertoli cells at the level of the blood-testis barrier where they cofunction with the well-studied tight junction in maintaining the immunological barrier. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • However, the type of anchoring device that is present between Sertoli and germ cells depends on the developmental stage of the germ cell, i.e. desmosome-like junctions are present between Sertoli and germ cells up to, but not including, step 8 spermatids after which this junction type is replaced by the apical ES. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • While little is known about the biology of the desmosome-like junction in the testis, we have a relatively good understanding of the molecular architecture and the regulation of the ES. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The polarized nature of epithelial cells is manifested by the nonrandom partitioning of organelles within the cells, the concentration of intercellular junctions at one pole, and the asymmetric distribution of proteins and lipids within the plasma membrane. (sciencemag.org)
  • The only known integral membrane protein localized at sites of membrane-membrane interaction of tight junctions is occludin, which is linked inside the cells to a complex network of cytoskeletal and signaling proteins. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Furthermore, SNPs-induced apoptosis through the disrupted functional gap junction was correlated with abnormal expressions of the proteins involved in the mitochondrial pathway-related apoptosis such as Bcl-2/Bax, cytochrome C, Caspase-9, and Caspase-3. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Formation of intercellular junctions and the accompanying recruitment of myr 3 to these junctions involves signaling by the Rho subfamily of small GTP-binding proteins. (biologists.org)
  • A number of tight junction-associated proteins have been identified and cloned, including the cytoplasmic anchor proteins ZO-1, -2, and -3 and the transmembrane protein occludin. (arvojournals.org)
  • 2 3 4 The claudin family of transmembrane proteins has also been identified as a critical component of this tight junction barrier function. (arvojournals.org)
  • Steps in the synthesis, assembly and turnover of gap junction channels appear to follow the general secretory pathway for membrane proteins. (northwestern.edu)
  • The assembly of gap junctions was investigated in mammalian cells expressing connexin (Cx) 26, 32 and 43 fused to green, yellow or cyan fluorescent proteins (GFP, YFP, CFP). (gcu.ac.uk)
  • In vertebrates , gap junction hemichannels are primarily homo- or hetero - hexamers of connexin proteins . (wikipedia.org)
  • Invertebrate gap junctions comprise proteins from the innexin family . (wikipedia.org)
  • genes can produce only the proteins that make up gap junction channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • When two identical hemichannel proteins come together to form a Gap junction channel, it is called a homotypic GJ channel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together with the claudin group of proteins, it is the main component of the tight junctions. (lumenlearning.com)
  • When situations occur where molecules need get through the layer (in the gap indicated by 'paracellular signaling' in Figure 2) their transport is a multi-step process, involving several signal pathways, regulation of junction proteins, and alternations in cytoskeletal organization. (davidson.edu)
  • Transmembrane proteins of the tight junctions are responsive to glycoprotein immunoglobin G (IgG) from cells and to surface antigens on bacteria. (davidson.edu)
  • Tight junctions also help to distinguish the apical and basolateral domains of the cell by acting as intracellular barriers to macromolecules and proteins between these two regions. (davidson.edu)
  • 2) Claudins proteins compose the major structural and functional elements of tight junctions. (davidson.edu)
  • Formation begins with a signal cascade that results in the production of tight junction proteins, including occludin proteins and claudins proteins. (davidson.edu)
  • abstract = "Gap junctions serve as intercellular conduits that allow the exchange of small molecular weight molecules (up to 1 kDa) including ions, metabolic precursors and second messengers. (elsevier.com)
  • Desmosomes are junctions that provide mechanical stability. (everything2.com)
  • There are also junctions called adhesion plaque s and zona adherens that fulfill similar functions as the desmosomes but have a different structure. (everything2.com)
  • Desmosomes are adhesive complexes found at sites of intercellular contact that are essential for mediating cell-cell adhesion. (northwestern.edu)
  • tight junctions , gap junctions , and desmosomes . (wikipedia.org)
  • Desmosomes are intercellular adhesive junctions that impart strength to vertebrate tissues. (pnas.org)
  • Desmosomes are spot-weld-like intercellular adhesive junctions that link the intermediate filament networks of adjacent cells to impart strength to the solid tissues of vertebrates ( 1 ⇓ - 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Desmosomes are cell-cell junctions that help resist shearing forces and are found in high concentrations in cells subject to mechanical stress. (genecards.org)
  • Plasmodesmata are junctions between plant cells, whereas animal cell contacts are carried out through tight junctions, gap junctions, and desmosomes. (lumenlearning.com)
  • Myr 3, a member of the myosin-I family from rat, is shown in this study to be localized at adherens-type intercellular junctions in epithelial and nonepithelial tissues. (biologists.org)
  • Gap junctions occur in virtually all tissues of the body, with the exception of adult fully developed skeletal muscle and mobile cell types such as sperm or erythrocytes . (wikipedia.org)
  • These data strongly suggest that the underlying mechanisms by which pre- and postsynaptic membranes adhere to one another in the CNS may be the same as those that generate intercellular adhesion in other, non-neural tissues. (jneurosci.org)
  • Gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) between cardiomyocytes is essential for synchronous heart contraction and relies on connexin-containing channels. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Connexin 26 (Cx26) and connexin 30 (Cx30) form gap junction channels that allow the intercellular diffusion of the Ca2+ mobilizing second messenger IP3. (unipd.it)
  • Transduction of connexin deficient cochlear cultures with a bovine adeno associated virus vectors encoding Cx26 or Cx30 restored protein expression, rescued both gap junction coupling and Ca2+ signaling. (unipd.it)
  • Electron cryocrystallography of recombinant gap junction channels has recently provided direct evidence for α-helical folding of at least two of the transmembrane domains within each connexin subunit. (northwestern.edu)
  • The potential to correlate the structure and biochemistry of gap junction channels with recently identified human diseases involving connexin mutations makes this a particularly exciting area of research. (northwestern.edu)
  • Gap junctions are connexin-formed channels that play an important role in intercellular communication in most cell types. (unesp.br)
  • In this study, we examined the effects of S. aureus-derived PGN on Cx43, the major connexin in microglial gap junction channels, and functional gap junction communication using single-cell microinjections of Lucifer yellow (LY). (elsevier.com)
  • Space junctions are specialized intercellular conversation channels which are shaped by two hexameric connexin hemichannels, 1 provided by each one of the two adjacent cells. (mln4924.com)
  • 2001). Although it may be feasible that we now have up to now unidentified connexins in neuronal space junctions, newer studies possess implicated Cx36 because the main connexin in mediating electric synapses in neurons from the spinal-cord (Bautista et al. (mln4924.com)
  • The results provide a protein trafficking basis for specifying and regulating connexin composition of gap junctions and thus selectivity of intercellular signaling, with Cx32 and 43 trafficking through the secretory pathway and Cx26 also following an alternative pathway. (gcu.ac.uk)
  • Intercellular coupling mediated by gap junction channels composed of connexin protein underlies numerous physiological processes such as cellular differentiation tissue synchronization and metabolic homoeostasis. (cell-signaling-pathways.com)
  • Rotigaptide (50 nM) increased intercellular dye transfer in myocytes and atrial HL-1 cells, where Cx43 is the dominant connexin. (gcu.ac.uk)
  • This conclusion is based on studies with HtTA-1 HeLa cells that were induced by overexpression of constitutively active Cdc42Hs to form typical adherens-type intercellular junctions enriched in cadherins (N-cadherin), beta-catenin, filamentous actin and myr 3. (biologists.org)
  • Overexpression of constitutively active Rac1 induced a distinct type of adherens junction in HeLa cells that was characterized by elaborate intercellular interdigitations enriched in N-cadherin, beta-catenin and F-actin. (biologists.org)
  • PLEKHG4B enables actin cytoskeletal remodeling during epithelial cell-cell junction formation. (wroc.pl)
  • Using quantitative whole-mount imaging, genetic ablation, and traction force microscopy and atomic force microscopy, we find that ubiquitously localized E-cadherin coordinates tissue polarization of tension-bearing adherens junction (AJ) and F-actin organization to allow formation of an apical TJ network only in the uppermost viable layer. (nature.com)
  • Caco-2 cells labeled for tight junction molecule cingulin (green), actin (red), vinculin (pink) and DNA (blue). (weizmann.ac.il)
  • An adherens junction is defined as a cell junction whose cytoplasmic face is linked to the actin cytoskeleton. (prezi.com)
  • Tight junctions are primarily found in epithelial cell s because they provide a barrier between the intercellular space on "the inside" and the "other side", thereby inhibiting the exchange of matter (e.g. like preventing the escape of water molecules and such). (everything2.com)
  • Vertebrate epithelial cells develop a tight junction (TJ), a specialized plasma membrane microdomain apical to the ZA. (sciencemag.org)
  • For example, although epithelial cells in Drosophila do not develop TJs, a distinct region apical to the ZA, the subapical region (SAR), harbors protein complexes that colocalize with tight junctions in vertebrate cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Tight junctions are the most apical components of endothelial and epithelial intercellular cleft. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Confocal and immunoelectron microscopy shows that JAM codistributes with tight junction components at the apical region of the intercellular cleft. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 1 The tight junction, which is the most apical component of the junctional complex, represents the anatomic substrate of the outer blood-retinal barrier. (arvojournals.org)
  • The extracellular domain of occludin binds to another occludin molecule on an adjacent cell, forming the tight junction responsible for the permeability barrier. (arvojournals.org)
  • E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell interactions in the zonula adherens play an important role in the formation of the intercellular tight junctions found in the blood-brain barrier. (unas.ac.id)
  • As the first detailed overview of the subject, Tight Junctions brought together diverse perspectives from leading investigators to provide a multidisciplinary overview of the field. (routledge.com)
  • Since its publication in 1992, there has been an explosion of information about tight junctions, particularly in the area of molecular structure, cell and molecular biology, genetics and physiology. (routledge.com)
  • Tight junctions (TJs) seal the intercellular space of epithelial cells, while individual epithelial cells move against adjacent cells in cellular sheets. (elsevier.com)
  • Generation of a barrier in multi-layered epithelia like the epidermis requires restricted positioning of functional tight junctions (TJ) to the most suprabasal viable layer. (nature.com)
  • Borneol contained serum was prepared and using Matin-Darby canine kidney epithelium (MDCKE) cell line as the in vitro BBB model to observe the effects of borneol on intercellular tight junction (ICTJ) and pinocytosis vesicles of BBB model. (bvsalud.org)
  • Whittembury, G, Rawlins, FA: Evidence of a paracellular pathway for ion flow in the kidney proximal tubule: Electronmicroscopic demonstration of lanthanum precipitate in the tight junction. (springer.com)
  • A tight junction is a watertight seal between two adjacent animal cells, which prevents materials from leaking out of cells. (lumenlearning.com)
  • 1) Tight Junctions form the closest contact between adjacent cells known in nature. (davidson.edu)
  • Introduction to Tight Junctions- What are they? (davidson.edu)
  • Tight junctions are multiprotein complexes that mediate cell-cell adhesion and regulate transportation through the extra-cellular matrix. (davidson.edu)
  • A defining feature of epithelial cells, tight junctions are found in no other cell type. (davidson.edu)
  • Because tight junctions encircle the cell and attach it tightly to its neighbors, these junctions act as a barrier preventing molecules from diffusing across an epithelial sheet between adjacent cells. (davidson.edu)
  • Tight junctions are a major regulator of permeability, expressing different levels of 'tightness' based on location and chemical stimuli. (davidson.edu)
  • Tight junctions are regulated by multiple signaling pathways in a multistep process. (davidson.edu)
  • This figure depicts the complexity of protein interactions between tight junctions. (davidson.edu)
  • Tight junctions act as one type of specialized intercellular junctional complex that mediates transport of molecules between cells, deemed the barrier function. (davidson.edu)
  • Tight junctions maintain apico-basal polarity via protein complexes (CRB3 and Par3 complexes). (davidson.edu)
  • Tight junctions are composed of three main protein families. (davidson.edu)
  • Most of those junction structures are anchored to the cytoskeleton , thereby connecting the cytoskeleton s of adjacent cells with each other, giving tissue its mechanical stability. (everything2.com)
  • This positioning necessitates tissue-level polarization of junctions and the cytoskeleton through unknown mechanisms. (nature.com)
  • For example, apico-basolateral polarity promotes the asymmetric positioning of intercellular junctions and the cytoskeleton within the cell to drive functional barrier formation in simple epithelia 1 . (nature.com)
  • Inhibition of gap junction intercellular communication is involved in silica nanoparticles-induced H9c2 cardiomyocytes apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Inhibition of gap junctions by gap junction blocker carbenoxolone disodium resulted in decreased survival and increased apoptosis, whereas enhancement of the gap junctions by retinoic acid led to enhanced survival but decreased apoptosis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The behavior of a phosphorylation-deficient DP mutant that associates more tightly with IF is mimicked by PKP2- and PKCalpha knockdown and PKC pharmacological inhibition, all of which impair junction assembly. (northwestern.edu)
  • In addition, the Hippo pathway component, TAZ, is expressed in the embryonic SMG, localizing to intercellular junctions in ductal cells, which is enhanced by partial inhibition of DPAGT1. (umich.edu)
  • A new intercellular-junction resealing assay was also developed using Caco-2 monolayers to evaluate new peptides (BLG2, BLG3, and BLG4) derived from the bulge regions of the EC2, EC3, and EC4 domains of E-cadherin. (unas.ac.id)
  • g SG2 projections from apical to subapical cell-cell junctions stained for vinculin, E-cadherin, and ZO-1 showing an basolateral AJs network and an apical TJ network. (nature.com)
  • Here, I show a dramatic defect in desmosomal cadherin assembly (but not adherens junction assembly) in cells deficient for PKP2. (northwestern.edu)
  • In Drosophila epithelial cells, the septate junction (SJ) lies basal to the ZA and forms a region of close membrane contacts that extends over large parts of the lateral plasma membrane domain. (sciencemag.org)
  • Gap junction membrane channels assemble as dodecameric complexes, in which a hexameric hemichannel (connexon) in one plasma membrane docks end to end with a connexon in the membrane of a closely apposed cell. (northwestern.edu)
  • 3) Gap junctions consist of intercellular channels in the plasma membrane of adjacent cells. (davidson.edu)
  • Here, we present a protocol for a novel gap junction intercellular communication assay designed for the high-throughput screening of gap junction-modulating chemicals for drug discovery and toxicological assessment. (jove.com)
  • Intercellular communication is mediated by soluble factors (including growth factors, neurotransmitters, and cytokines/chemokines), gap junctions, exosomes and recently described tunneling nanotubes (TNTs). (frontiersin.org)
  • It is unknown whether a combination of these communication mechanisms such as TNTs and gap junctions may be important, but further research is required. (frontiersin.org)
  • Gap junction-mediated intercellular communication has been implicated in a variety of cellular functions. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Intercellular junctions are structures that provide adhesion & communication between cells. (online-sciences.com)
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  • Scemes, E , Suadicani, SO & Spray, DC 1999, ' Chapter 7: Intercellular Calcium Wave Communication via Gap Junction Dependent and Independent Mechanisms ', Current Topics in Membranes and Transport , vol. 49, no. (elsevier.com)
  • Advantages and limitations of commonly used methods to assay the molecular permeability of gap junctional intercellular communication. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A rapid and simple technique to study gap junctional intercellular communication. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A novel iodide-yellow fluorescent protein-gap junction-intercellular communication (I-YFP-GJIC) assay fulfills this need. (elsevier.com)
  • Yeo, JH & Lee, J 2019, ' An Iodide-Yellow Fluorescent Protein-Gap Junction-Intercellular Communication Assay ', Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE , no. 144. (elsevier.com)
  • Based on recent reports demonstrating the ability of tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ to induce gap junction coupling in macrophages and microglia, it is possible that pro-inflammatory mediators released from PGN-activated microglia are capable of inducing microglial gap junction communication. (elsevier.com)
  • These results indicate that PGN stimulation can induce the formation of a functional microglial syncytium, suggesting that these cells may be capable of influencing neuroinflammatory responses in the context of CNS bacterial infections through gap junction intercellular communication. (elsevier.com)
  • Garg, S, Syed, MM & Kielian, T 2005, ' Staphylococcus aureus-derived peptidoglycan induces Cx43 expression and functional gap junction intercellular communication in microglia ', Journal of Neurochemistry , vol. 95, no. 2, pp. 475-483. (elsevier.com)
  • Townsend and Scheld 1998), all of which may be affected, in part, by changes in space junction communication both within the abscess and surrounding normal mind parenchyma. (saracatinib.info)
  • Further studies are required to ascertain the relationship between adhesion molecule manifestation and the induction of space junction coupling in PGN-stimulated microglia, which may provide insights into element(s) controlling the nature and degree of microglial/homocellular space junction communication. (saracatinib.info)
  • Intercellular communication via calcium waves therefore is sustained in Cx43 null mice by a finely tuned interaction between gap junction-dependent and independent mechanisms. (elsevier.com)
  • Scemes, E , Suadicani, SO & Spray, DC 2000, ' Intercellular communication in spinal cord astrocytes: Fine tuning between gap junctions and P2 nucleotide receptors in calcium wave propagation ', Journal of Neuroscience , vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 1435-1445. (elsevier.com)
  • Targeting of Cx32-CFP and 43-GFP to gap junctions and gap junctional communication was inhibited in cells treated with Brefeldin A, a drug that disassembles the Golgi. (gcu.ac.uk)
  • We investigated the effects of rotigaptide (ZP123), a stable hexapeptide with antiarrhythmic properties, on gap junction mediated intercellular communication in contracting rat neonatal cardiac myocytes, HL-1 cells derived from cardiac atrium and in HeLa cells transfected with cDNA encoding Cx43-GFP, Cx32-GFP, Cx26-GFP, wild-type Cx43 or wild-type Cx26. (gcu.ac.uk)
  • Intercellular communication was monitored before and after treatment with rotigaptide following microinjection of small fluorescent dyes (MWkDa). (gcu.ac.uk)
  • In contrast, HeLa cells expressing Cx43-GFP exposed to 50 nM rotigaptide for 5 h showed a 40% increase in gap junction mediated communication. (gcu.ac.uk)
  • Intercellular communication refers to the communication between cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intercellular Communication: How Neurons Communicate: Gap Junctions and Neurosecretion9. (indigo.ca)
  • Here, we investigated the involvement of gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) during anchorage-independent clustering of MCF7 breast adenocarcinoma cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Intercellular Ca(2+) wave propagation in human retinal pigment epithelium cells induced by mechanical stimulation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This last step involves a specific receptor-mediated adhesion event of the neutrophil to the epithelium, followed by a rapid and highly coordinated reversible opening of the epithelial intercellular junctions that allows the transmigration of the neutrophils. (nih.gov)
  • Unlike kidney epithelia cells, G12 promotes the formation and maintenance of cell junctions in the bronchial epithelium by affecting E-cadherine and ZO-1 stability. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Membrane vesicle trafficking has an important role in intercellular communications in humans and animals, e.g., in synaptic transmission, hormone secretion via vesicular exocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • These are junctions where the outer membranes of two cells have fused together. (everything2.com)
  • They are plaque-shaped, communicative junctions where adjacent cells exchange substances. (everything2.com)
  • Two particular features allow epithelial cells to fulfill their specialized functions during morphogenesis and in the differentiated state, where they may be subjected to mechanical stresses or strong pressures, e.g., in the intestine or the bladder: (i) they have a polarized phenotype and (ii) they form highly elaborate cell-cell junctions. (sciencemag.org)
  • We report here the identification of a novel protein (junctional adhesion molecule [JAM]) that is selectively concentrated at intercellular junctions of endothelial and epithelial cells of different origins. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We have raised an mAb to a previously undescribed 135-kD externally disposed integral membrane protein that is enriched in the intercellular junctional domain of cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells. (rupress.org)
  • iii) spatially graded impairment of the PIP2-IP3-Ca2+ signaling pathway in cochlear non-sensory cells affects the level of gap junction coupling. (unipd.it)
  • Therefore ps20 is a novel marker of CD4 + T-cells rendered vulnerable to HIV-1 infection by regulating the fundamental biologic process of intercellular conjugate formation and consequently of potential importance in HIV-1 pathogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The present report evaluates the advantages of using the gold nanoparticle-mediated laser perforation (GNOME LP) technique as a computer-controlled cell optoperforation to introduce Lucifer yellow (LY) into cells in order to analyze the gap junction coupling in cell monolayers. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Gap junctions (GJs) are cell membrane channels that allow diffusion of molecules smaller than 1 kDa between adjacent cells. (elsevier.com)
  • H1N1 Influenza Virus Cross-Activates Gli1 to Disrupt the Intercellular Junctions of Alveolar Epithelial Cells. (illumina.com)
  • Gap junction channels connect the cytoplasms of apposed cells via an intercellular conduit formed by the end-to-end docking of two hexameric hemichannels called connexons. (northwestern.edu)
  • This review deals with the role of cell coupling in tissue function and some of the issues discussed are the relationship between electrical synchronization and gap junctions, metabolic coupling, and the role of interstitial cells of Cajal in coupling. (springer.com)
  • Although such a difference in junctional conductance was expected to result in the reduced diffusion of signaling molecules through the Cx43 KO spinal cord syncytium, intercellular calcium waves were found to propagate with the same velocity and amplitude and to the same number of cells as between WT astrocytes. (elsevier.com)
  • 2005). It has additionally been proven using FRIL evaluation that leptomeningeal cells within the rats midthoracic spinal-cord are highly tagged for Cx26, and that a lot of astrocyte difference junctions within the parenchyma of adult spinal-cord are tagged for both Cx26 and Cx30 or Cx26 by itself (Nagy et al. (mln4924.com)
  • These findings suggest that this peculiar internalization of claudins plays a crucial role in the remodeling of TJs, and that the fine regulation of this endocytosis is important for TJs to seal the intercellular space of epithelial cells that are moving against adjacent cells within cellular sheets. (elsevier.com)
  • Borneol could obviously loosen the ICTJ in BBB, accelerate the transportation of substance through the intercellular passage, it also could increase the number and volume of pinocytosis vesicles in BBB cells , thus to accelerate the transportation of substance by way of cell pinocytosis . (bvsalud.org)
  • Co-expression of Cx26-YFP and Cx32-CFP in cells treated with Brefeldin A resulted in assembly of gap junctions constructed of Cx26-YFP. (gcu.ac.uk)
  • The hemichannel pair connect across the intercellular space bridging the gap between two cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Large biomolecules, for example, nucleic acid and protein , are precluded from cytoplasmic transfer between cells through gap junction hemichannel paris. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several distinct intercellular junctions connect epithelial cells. (stanford.edu)
  • Intercellular Ca 2+ waves are believed to propagate through networks of glial cells in culture in one of two ways: by diffusion of IP 3 between cells through gap junctions or by release of ATP, which functions as an extracellular messenger. (jneurosci.org)
  • Stimulation of glial cells often evokes increases in intracellular Ca 2+ that propagate into neighboring glial cells as intercellular Ca 2+ waves. (jneurosci.org)
  • whereas at the neuromuscular junction Ca 2+ increases in perisynaptic Schwann cells result in a reduction in neurotransmitter release ( Robitaille, 1998 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Glial cells in culture and in situ are coupled extensively by gap junctions ( Ransom, 1995 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • 2. Hemidesmosomes Communicating (gap) junctions THANKS for your attention :) Prof. Dr. Wael Abu Zaid Prof. Dr. Mohamed Zayed Prof. Dr. Nehad Samir Specialized junctions form when cells come into contact with one another and with the extracellular matrix at specific sites on the contacting cell membranes. (prezi.com)
  • Intercellular junctions provide plant and animal cells with the ability to communicate through direct contact. (lumenlearning.com)
  • Plasmodesmata are intercellular junctions between plant cells that enable the transportation of materials between cells. (lumenlearning.com)
  • Similar to plasmodesmata, gap junctions are channels between adjacent cells that allow for the transport of ions, nutrients, and other substances. (lumenlearning.com)
  • An assembly of six connexins forming a bridge called a gap junction between the cytoplasms of two adjacent cells. (lumenlearning.com)
  • However, cells are also capable of communicating with each other via direct contact through intercellular junctions. (lumenlearning.com)
  • There are four major types of junctions in epithelial cells. (davidson.edu)
  • Collectively, these findings suggest that the establishment of adhesive relationships is definitely a prerequisite for the formation of functional space junction channels in PGN-activated microglia. (saracatinib.info)
  • Roles of gap junctions and hemichannels in bone cell functions and in signal transmission of mechanical stress. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Reactive sites were slightly different than those identified for gap junction hemichannels (Zhou et al. (uthscsa.edu)
  • One gap junction channel is composed of two protein heximers (or hemichannels) called connexons in vertebrates and innexons in invertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gap junction channels formed from two identical hemichannels are called homotypic, while those with differing hemichannels are heterotypic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two hemichannels, joined together across a cell membrane comprise a Gap Junction channel. (wikipedia.org)
  • When two heteromeric hemichannels join, it is also called a heterotypic Gap Junction channel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pannexin1 (Panx1) forms non-selective membrane channels, structurally similar to gap junction hemichannels, and are permeable to ions, nucleotides, and other small molecules below 900 Da. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the immune system, specifically in macrophages, the expression of connexins and the establishment of functional gap junctions are still controversial issues. (unesp.br)
  • In oligodendrocytes, Cx29, Cx32, and Cx47 are portrayed in parts of the corticospinal system and so are localized to oligodendrocytic cell systems in addition to abaxonal membranes of myelinated fibres, and these three connexins have already been shown to take part in astrocytic/oligodendritic difference junctions (Kleopa et al. (mln4924.com)
  • [8] Though differing in sequence to connexins, innexins are similar enough to connexins to state that innexins form gap junctions in vivo in the same way connexins do. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans , only a single, tripartite junction, the C. elegans apical junction (CeAJ), has been identified, which resembles the ZA of Drosophila and vertebrates ( 1-3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Studies performed on epithelia of different species have uncovered a high degree of similarity between them in structural and molecular terms, but have also revealed remarkable differences, e.g., with regard to the organization and composition of cellular junctions (Figs. 1 and 2). (sciencemag.org)
  • Bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation rescues the glomerular filtration barrier and epithelial cellular junctions in a renovascular hypertension model. (abcam.com)
  • The pore-lining residues of gap junction channels determine their permeability to ions and small cellular metabolites. (uthscsa.edu)
  • The endocytosis of claudins was facilitated when the intercellular motility was upregulated by wounding the cellular sheets. (elsevier.com)
  • Their dense, ordered intercellular attachments are formed by desmogleins (Dsgs) and desmocollins (Dscs), but the nature of trans -cellular interactions between these specialized cadherins is unclear. (pnas.org)
  • Cadherins are homophilic adhesion molecules that, together with their intracellular binding partners the catenins, mediate adhesion and signaling at a variety of intercellular junctions. (jneurosci.org)
  • PRI-724 novel inhibtior 1990), suggesting that it may promote the formation of space junction plaques. (saracatinib.info)
  • Retromer Controls Planar Polarity Protein Levels and Asymmetric Localization at Intercellular Junctions. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, in DPAGT1 silenced glands, TAZ exhibited enhanced localization to intercellular junctions. (umich.edu)
  • Thus, JAM is a new component of endothelial and epithelial junctions that play a role in regulating monocyte transmigration. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A human endothelial cell-restricted, externally disposed plasmalemmal protein enriched in intercellular junctions. (rupress.org)
  • This protein may mediate endothelial-specific functions restricted to the intercellular domain. (rupress.org)
  • In contrast, the flux densities across the capillary surface and the endothelial junctions are higher in goats than in dogs. (biomedsearch.com)
  • PKPs localize to the cytoplasmic plaque of intercellular junctions and participate in linking the intermediate filament (IF)-binding protein desmoplakin (DP) to desmosomal cadherins. (northwestern.edu)
  • Kazrin regulates keratinocyte cytoskeletal networks, intercellular junctions and differentiation. (nih.gov)
  • Their intercellular attachments are assembled from desmogleins (Dsgs) and desmocollins (Dscs), two families of specialized cadherins whose structures and interactions have remained uncharacterized. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we focus on some of the best-studied junctions and membrane-associated protein complexes and their relation to cell polarity. (sciencemag.org)
  • Released ATP in turn activates G-protein coupled P2Y2 and P2Y4 receptors, PLC-dependent generation of IP3, release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores, permitting the regenerative propagation of intercellular Ca2+ signals. (unipd.it)
  • Comparisons between fly, worm, and vertebrate epithelia reveal marked similarities with respect to the molecules used, and pronounced differences in the organization of the junctions themselves. (sciencemag.org)
  • In addition, they are sites of intensive intercellular signaling, and defects in their organization may result in apoptosis or uncontrolled cell division. (sciencemag.org)
  • Junctional adhesion molecule, a novel member of the immunoglobulin superfamily that distributes at intercellular junctions and modulates monocyte transmigration. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These domains mediate cell-cell adhesion by forming elaborate junctions visible under the electron microscope. (sciencemag.org)
  • Electrophysiological properties of gap junction channels and mechanisms involved in the propagation of intercellular calcium waves were studied in cultured spinal cord astrocytes from sibling wild-type (WT) and connexin43 (Cx43) knock-out (KO) mice. (elsevier.com)
  • 2014). Using FRIL, there is no proof for the current presence of Cx26 in neuronal Rabbit Polyclonal to HGS space junctions within the perinatal or adult spinal-cord (Nagy et al. (mln4924.com)
  • However, application of this technique to intercellular channels is more complicated than for their transmembrane counterparts. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Two amino acids that distinguish Cx26 from Cx32 in transmembrane domains were mutated in Cx32 to investigate underlying mechanisms determining trafficking routes to gap junctions. (gcu.ac.uk)
  • In general, allows transmembrane movement of molecules smaller than 485 Daltons [21] (1,100 Daltons through invertebrate gap junctions [22] ), although different hemichannel subunits may impart different pore sizes and different charge selectivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • 70% des mutations identifiées sur le gène responsable de la mucoviscidose correspondent à la délétion de la phénylalanine en position 508 (F508del) de la protéine CFTR (Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator). (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • The ability to form homotypic and heterotypic channels that consist of two identical or two different connexons, respectively, adds even greater versatility to the functional modulation of gap junction channels. (northwestern.edu)
  • These space junction channels have the ability to sharpen neuronal activity by improving the effectiveness and accuracy of synchronous oscillatory activity in neurons (Hormuzdi et al. (mln4924.com)
  • Channel composition influences the function of gap junction channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gap junction channels (tens to thousands) assemble within a macromolecular complex called a gap junction plaque. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other paradigms, the NCA cation channels act upstream of gap junctions. (genetics.org)
  • Gap junctions mediate intercellular calcium signalling in cultured articular chondrocytes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In conclusion, we survey that em S. aureus /em -produced PGN induces useful difference junction intercellular conversation in principal microglia that coincides with an increase of Cx43 expression. (saracatinib.info)
  • However gap junctions constructed of Cx26-GFP were only minimally affected by Brefeldin A. Nocodazole, a microtubule disruptor, had little effect on the assembly of Cx43-GFP gap junctions, but perturbed assembly of Cx26-GFP gap junctions. (gcu.ac.uk)
  • Vice versa, we found defective gap junction coupling and intercellular IP3-dependent Ca2+ signaling the cochlea of mice with targeted ablation Cx26 or Cx30, as well as in mice knock in for a point mutation (Cx30T5M) associated with human congenital deafness. (unipd.it)