Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases: An enzyme group that specifically dephosphorylates phosphotyrosyl residues in selected proteins. Together with PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE, it regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cellular signal transduction and may play a role in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 1: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that includes two distinctive targeting motifs; an N-terminal motif specific for the INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal motif specific for the SH3 domain containing proteins. This subtype includes a hydrophobic domain which localizes it to the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 2: A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain multiple extracellular immunoglobulin G-like domains and fibronectin type III-like domains. An additional memprin-A5-mu domain is found on some members of this subclass.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 11: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain two SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Mutations in the gene for protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 are associated with NOONAN SYNDROME.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 2: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase that is closely-related to PROTEIN TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE, NON-RECEPTOR TYPE 1. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for this phosphatase results in the production at two gene products, one of which includes a C-terminal nuclear localization domain that may be involved in the transport of the protein to the CELL NUCLEUS. Although initially referred to as T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase the expression of this subtype occurs widely.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 6: A Src-homology domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase found in the CYTOSOL of hematopoietic cells. It plays a role in signal transduction by dephosphorylating signaling proteins that are activated or inactivated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 3: A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain a single cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphate domain and multiple extracellular fibronectin III-like domains.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 4: A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain short highly glycosylated extracellular domains and two active cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphatase domains.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Non-Receptor: A subcategory of protein tyrosine phosphatases that occur in the CYTOPLASM. Many of the proteins in this category play a role in intracellular signal transduction.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 5: A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain an extracellular fibronectin III-like domain along with a carbonic anhydrase-like domain.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases: A subcategory of protein tyrosine phosphatases that are bound to the cell membrane. They contain cytoplasmic tyrosine phosphatase domains and extracellular protein domains that may play a role in cell-cell interactions by interacting with EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX components. They are considered receptor-like proteins in that they appear to lack specific ligands.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 12: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of a N-terminal catalytic domain and a large C-terminal domain that is enriched in PROLINE, GLUTAMIC ACID, SERINE, and THREONINE residues (PEST sequences). The phosphatase subtype is ubiquitously expressed and implicated in the regulation of a variety of biological processes such as CELL MOVEMENT; CYTOKINESIS; focal adhesion disassembly; and LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.SH2 Domain-Containing Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases: A subcategory of protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain SH2 type SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Many of the proteins in this class are recruited to specific cellular targets such as a cell surface receptor complexes via their SH2 domain.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 13: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of an amino-terminal FERM domain, an intervening region containing five different PDZ domains, and a carboxyl-terminal phosphatase domain. In addition to playing a role as a regulator of the FAS RECEPTOR activity this subtype interacts via its PDZ and FERM domains with a variety of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PROTEINS and CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.Vanadates: Oxyvanadium ions in various states of oxidation. They act primarily as ion transport inhibitors due to their inhibition of Na(+)-, K(+)-, and Ca(+)-ATPase transport systems. They also have insulin-like action, positive inotropic action on cardiac ventricular muscle, and other metabolic effects.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 7: A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain a short extracellular domain, a cytosolic kinase-interaction domain, and single protein tyrosine kinase domain.Phosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 22: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of an N-terminal catalytic domain and a C-terminal PROLINE-rich domain. The phosphatase subtype is predominantly expressed in LYMPHOCYTES and plays a key role in the inhibition of downstream T-LYMPHOCYTE activation. Polymorphisms in the gene that encodes this phosphatase subtype are associated with a variety of AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 8: A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain an extracellular RDGS-adhesion recognition motif and a single cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphate domain.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 3: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of an amino-terminal FERM domain, an intervening region containing one or more PDZ domains, and a carboxyl-terminal phosphatase domain. Expression of this phosphatase subtype has been observed in BONE MARROW; fetal LIVER; LYMPH NODES; and T LYMPHOCYTES.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Phosphotyrosine: An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Protein Phosphatase 2: A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.Protein Phosphatase 1: A eukayrotic protein serine-threonine phosphatase subtype that dephosphorylates a wide variety of cellular proteins. The enzyme is comprised of a catalytic subunit and regulatory subunit. Several isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. A large number of proteins have been shown to act as regulatory subunits for this enzyme. Many of the regulatory subunits have additional cellular functions.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Acid Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC Homology Domains: Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 4: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of an amino-terminal FERM domain, an intervening region containing one or more PDZ domains, and a carboxyl-terminal phosphatase domain. The subtype was originally identified in a cell line derived from MEGAKARYOCYTES.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Lymphocyte Specific Protein Tyrosine Kinase p56(lck): This enzyme is a lymphoid-specific src family tyrosine kinase that is critical for T-cell development and activation. Lck is associated with the cytoplasmic domains of CD4, CD8 and the beta-chain of the IL-2 receptor, and is thought to be involved in the earliest steps of TCR-mediated T-cell activation.Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases: A group of hydrolases which catalyze the hydrolysis of monophosphoric esters with the production of one mole of orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.PhosphoproteinsSubstrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Genistein: An isoflavonoid derived from soy products. It inhibits PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE and topoisomerase-II (DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE II); activity and is used as an antineoplastic and antitumor agent. Experimentally, it has been shown to induce G2 PHASE arrest in human and murine cell lines and inhibits PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Proto-Oncogene Proteins pp60(c-src): Membrane-associated tyrosine-specific kinases encoded by the c-src genes. They have an important role in cellular growth control. Truncation of carboxy-terminal residues in pp60(c-src) leads to PP60(V-SRC) which has the ability to transform cells. This kinase pp60 c-src should not be confused with csk, also known as c-src kinase.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Dual-Specificity Phosphatases: A sub-class of protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain an additional phosphatase activity which cleaves phosphate ester bonds on SERINE or THREONINE residues that are located on the same protein.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fyn: Src-family kinases that associate with T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR and phosphorylate a wide variety of intracellular signaling molecules.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Glucose-6-Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate and water to D-glucose and orthophosphate. EC 3-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymescdc25 Phosphatases: A subclass of dual specificity phosphatases that play a role in the progression of the CELL CYCLE. They dephosphorylate and activate CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Okadaic Acid: A specific inhibitor of phosphoserine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 and 2a. It is also a potent tumor promoter. (Thromb Res 1992;67(4):345-54 & Cancer Res 1993;53(2):239-41)Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Tyrphostins: A family of synthetic protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors. They selectively inhibit receptor autophosphorylation and are used to study receptor function.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Nerve Tissue ProteinsProtein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Receptor, Insulin: A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Mice, Inbred C57BLFocal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Janus Kinase 2: A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTORS; PROLACTIN RECEPTORS; and a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS such as ERYTHROPOIETIN RECEPTORS and INTERLEUKIN RECEPTORS. Dysregulation of Janus kinase 2 due to GENETIC TRANSLOCATIONS have been associated with a variety of MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Paxillin: Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.STAT3 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Focal Adhesion Kinase 1: A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.GRB2 Adaptor Protein: A signal transducing adaptor protein that links extracellular signals to the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM. Grb2 associates with activated EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR and PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTORS via its SH2 DOMAIN. It also binds to and translocates the SON OF SEVENLESS PROTEINS through its SH3 DOMAINS to activate PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS).Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.PhosphopeptidesDNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Immunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Arsenicals: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain arsenic.Noonan Syndrome: A genetically heterogeneous, multifaceted disorder characterized by short stature, webbed neck, ptosis, skeletal malformations, hypertelorism, hormonal imbalance, CRYPTORCHIDISM, multiple cardiac abnormalities (most commonly including PULMONARY VALVE STENOSIS), and some degree of INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. The phenotype bears similarities to that of TURNER SYNDROME that occurs only in females and has its basis in a 45, X karyotype abnormality. Noonan syndrome occurs in both males and females with a normal karyotype (46,XX and 46,XY). Mutations in a several genes (PTPN11, KRAS, SOS1, NF1 and RAF1) have been associated the the NS phenotype. Mutations in PTPN11 are the most common. LEOPARD SYNDROME, a disorder that has clinical features overlapping those of Noonan Syndrome, is also due to mutations in PTPN11. In addition, there is overlap with the syndrome called neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome due to mutations in NF1.Phospholipase C gamma: A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and pleckstrin homology domains located between two halves of the CATALYTIC DOMAIN.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Crk-Associated Substrate Protein: Crk-associated substrate was originally identified as a highly phosphorylated 130 kDa protein that associates with ONCOGENE PROTEIN CRK and ONCOGENE PROTEIN SRC. It is a signal transducing adaptor protein that undergoes tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION in signaling pathways that regulate CELL MIGRATION and CELL PROLIFERATION.Contactin 1: A contactin subtype that is predominantly expressed in the CEREBELLUM; HIPPOCAMPUS; NEOCORTEX; and HYPOTHALAMUS.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Janus Kinase 1: A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from a broad variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 1: A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain heavily glycosylated and cysteine-rich extracellular regions that include fibronectin type III-like domains.Dual Specificity Phosphatase 3: A dual specificity phosphatase subtype that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by inactivating MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. It has specificity for EXTRACELLULAR SIGNAL-REGULATED MAP KINASES.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Benzoquinones: Benzene rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.Quinones: Hydrocarbon rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Lactams, Macrocyclic: LACTAMS forming compounds with a ring size of approximately 1-3 dozen atoms.Dual Specificity Phosphatase 1: A dual specificity phosphatase subtype that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by inactivating MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. It has specificity for P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)Focal Adhesion Kinase 2: A non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinase that is expressed primarily in the BRAIN; OSTEOBLASTS; and LYMPHOID CELLS. In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM focal adhesion kinase 2 modulates ION CHANNEL function and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES activity.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.LEOPARD Syndrome: An autosomal dominant disorder with an acronym of its seven features (LENTIGO; ELECTROCARDIOGRAM abnormalities; ocular HYPERTELORISM; PULMONARY STENOSIS; abnormal genitalia; retardation of growth; and DEAFNESS or SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS). This syndrome is caused by mutations of PTPN11 gene encoding the non-receptor PROTEIN TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE, type 11, and is an allelic to NOONAN SYNDROME. Features of LEOPARD syndrome overlap with those of NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1 which is caused by mutations in the NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1 GENES.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Epidermal Growth Factor: A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.Vanadium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain vanadium as an integral part of the molecule.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule L1: A member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of neuronal cell adhesion molecules that is required for proper nervous system development. Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 consists of six Ig domains, five fibronectin domains, a transmembrane region and an intracellular domain. Two splicing variants are known: a neuronal form that contains a four-amino acid RSLE sequence in the cytoplasmic domain, and a non-neuronal form that lacks the RSLE sequence. Mutations in the L1 gene result in L1 disease. Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is predominantly expressed during development in neurons and Schwann cells; involved in cell adhesion, neuronal migration, axonal growth and pathfinding, and myelination.Yersinia: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rod- to coccobacillus-shaped bacteria that occurs in a broad spectrum of habitats.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Antibodies, Phospho-Specific: Antibodies directed against immunogen-coupled phosphorylated PEPTIDES corresponding to amino acids surrounding the PHOSPHORYLATION site. They are used to study proteins involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathways. (From Methods Mol Biol 2000; 99:177-89)Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Type C Phospholipases: A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC, it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Isoflavones: 3-Phenylchromones. Isomeric form of FLAVONOIDS in which the benzene group is attached to the 3 position of the benzopyran ring instead of the 2 position.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)ZAP-70 Protein-Tyrosine Kinase: A protein tyrosine kinase that is required for T-CELL development and T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR function.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.HEK293 Cells: A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.STAT1 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Enzyme Precursors: Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Alternative Splicing: A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.Contactins: A family of immunoglobulin-related cell adhesion molecules that are involved in NERVOUS SYSTEM patterning.
Harrod TR, Justement LB (2003). "Evaluating function of transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase CD148 in lymphocyte biology ... SDCBP has been shown to interact with: EFNB1, GRIK1, GRIK2, Interleukin 5 receptor alpha subunit, Merlin, RAB5A, SOX4, TRAF6, ... Lin D, Gish GD, Songyang Z, Pawson T (1999). "The carboxyl terminus of B class ephrins constitutes a PDZ domain binding motif ... Syntenin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SDCBP gene. The protein encoded by this gene was initially identified ...
"The zyxin-related protein TRIP6 interacts with PDZ motifs in the adaptor protein RIL and the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP- ... Thyroid receptor-interacting protein 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TRIP6 gene. This gene is a member of the ... Lee JW, Choi HS, Gyuris J, Brent R, Moore DD (Feb 1995). "Two classes of proteins dependent on either the presence or absence ... interacts with the second PDZ domain of the cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphatase hPTP1E". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ...
"The zyxin-related protein TRIP6 interacts with PDZ motifs in the adaptor protein RIL and the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP- ... Tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 13 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PTPN13 gene. The protein ... Lin D, Gish GD, Songyang Z, Pawson T (1999). "The carboxyl terminus of B class ephrins constitutes a PDZ domain binding motif ... "Entrez Gene: PTPN13 protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 13 (APO-1/CD95 (Fas)-associated phosphatase)". Gross, C; ...
"Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha participates in the m1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-dependent regulation of ... It belongs to the delayed rectifier class, members of which allow nerve cells to efficiently repolarize following an action ... KCNA2 has been shown to interact with KCNA4, DLG4, PTPRA, KCNAB2, RHOA and Cortactin. Mutations in this gene have been ... "Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha participates in the m1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-dependent regulation of ...
The abrogation of ITAM activation signaling is caused by inhibition of protein tyrosine kinases of Src family, and by ... Firan M, Bawdon R, Radu C, Ober RJ, Eaken D, Antohe F, Ghetie V, Ward ES (Aug 2001). "The MHC class I-related receptor, FcRn, ... These allergen-bound IgE molecules interact with Fcε receptors on the surface of mast cells. Activation of mast cells following ... the phosphatases SHP-1 and SHIP-1 inhibit signaling by Fcγ receptors. Binding of ligand to FcγRIIB leads to phosphorylation of ...
The literature-based adhesome contains enzymes, such as protein tyrosine and serine/threonine kinases and phosphatases, guanine ... "A promiscuous biotin ligase fusion protein identifies proximal and interacting proteins in mammalian cells". The Journal of ... and αv-class integrins. The adhesome contains multi domain proteins with various functions, some of which are specifically ... The term Adhesome was first used by Richard Hynes to describe the complement of cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion receptors in ...
... that binds the SH2-domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 in response to mitogens and cell adhesion". Mol. Cell. ... Malik KF, Jaffe H, Brady J, Young WS (1997). "The class III POU factor Brn-4 interacts with other class III POU factors and the ... Husi H, Ward MA, Choudhary JS, Blackstock WP, Grant SG (2000). "Proteomic analysis of NMDA receptor-adhesion protein signaling ... Hahm B, Cho OH, Kim JE, Kim YK, Kim JH, Oh YL, Jang SK (1998). "Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein interacts with HnRNP L". ...
Yoshida K, Kufe D (December 2001). "Negative regulation of the SHPTP1 protein tyrosine phosphatase by protein kinase C delta in ... PKC family members also serve as major receptors for phorbol esters, a class of tumor promoters. Each member of the PKC family ... and tyrosine residues including Y311 (by SRC). PRKCD has been shown to interact with: C1QBP, HER2/neu, INSR, MUC1, mTOR, PLD2, ... "Identification of phospholipase C gamma1 as a protein tyrosine phosphatase mu substrate that regulates cell migration". J. Cell ...
Like STag, MTag can bind protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) through the same physical mechanism, interacting with the A subunit in a ... functions of the phosphorylated MTag have been described as behaving like a mimic of a constitutively active receptor tyrosine ... Fluck, M. M.; Schaffhausen, B. S. (31 August 2009). "Lessons in Signaling and Tumorigenesis from Polyomavirus Middle T Antigen ... but has a number of protein-protein interaction sites that mediate interactions with proteins in the host cell. Particularly in ...
"The receptor-like protein-tyrosine phosphatase DEP-1 is constitutively associated with a 64-kDa protein serine/threonine kinase ... of the atypical protein kinase C-interacting protein p62/ZIP with nerve growth factor receptor TrkA regulates receptor ... belongs to a new class of ubiquitin-binding proteins". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (34): 20235-7. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.34.20235. PMID ... Also known as the ubiquitin-binding protein p62, it is an autophagosome cargo protein that targets other proteins that bind to ...
Wu DW, Stark KC, Dunnington D, Dillon SB, Yi T, Jones C, Pelus LM (February 2000). "SH2-Containing protein tyrosine phosphatase ... the GM-CSF receptor family (IL-3R, IL-5R and GM-CSF-R), the gp130 receptor family (e.g., IL-6R), and the single chain receptors ... "The human homologue of the yeast proteins Skb1 and Hsl7p interacts with Jak kinases and contains protein methyltransferase ... "Findings of scientific misconduct". NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts / U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. 24 ...
2000). "Prenylation-dependent association of protein-tyrosine phosphatases PRL-1, -2, and -3 with the plasma membrane and the ... FNTA has been shown to interact with TGF beta receptor 1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000168522 - Ensembl, May 2017 ... 2000). "Structure of human guanylate-binding protein 1 representing a unique class of GTP-binding proteins". Nature. 403 (6769 ... 1996). "Interaction of the transforming growth factor-beta type I receptor with farnesyl-protein transferase-alpha". J. Biol. ...
"FcεR1-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of multiple proteins, including phospholipase Cγ1 and the receptor βγ2 complex, in RBL- ... Different SNARE proteins interact to form different complexes that catalyze fusion. Rab3 guanosine triphosphatases and Rab- ... "pattern recognition receptors" thought to be involved in recognizing broad classes of pathogens; and mice without mast cells ... associated kinases and phosphatases regulate granule membrane fusion in resting mast cells. Mast cells are activated in ...
... receptor tyrosine kinases, Ras or Raf proteins. Although no MKK1/2 or ERK1/2 inhibitors were developed for clinical use, kinase ... some tyrosine phosphatases are also involved in inactivating MAP kinases (e.g. the phosphatases HePTP, STEP and PTPRR in ... Caffrey DR, O'Neill LA, Shields DC (Nov 1999). "The evolution of the MAP kinase pathways: coduplication of interacting proteins ... Hayashi M, Lee JD (Dec 2004). "Role of the BMK1/ERK5 signaling pathway: lessons from knockout mice". Journal of Molecular ...
"High mobility group box 1 protein interacts with multiple Toll-like receptors". Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 290 (3): C917-24. ... "High affinity binding and overlapping localization of neurocan and phosphacan/protein-tyrosine phosphatase-zeta/beta with ... Ge H, Roeder RG (1994). "The high mobility group protein HMG1 can reversibly inhibit class II gene transcription by interaction ... High mobility group box 1 protein, also known as high-mobility group protein 1 (HMG-1) and amphoterin, is a protein that in ...
... channels in mice lacking protein tyrosine phosphatase epsilon". The EMBO Journal. 19 (15): 4036-45. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.15. ... It belongs to the delayed rectifier class, the function of which could restore the resting membrane potential of beta cells ... KCNA5 has been shown to interact with DLG4 and Actinin, alpha 2. Voltage-gated potassium channel GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Receptors & Channels. 3 (3): 213-20. PMID 8821794. Holmes TC, Fadool DA, Ren R, Levitan IB (Dec 1996). "Association of Src ...
"Human natural killer cell receptors for HLA-class I molecules. Evidence that the Kp43 (CD94) molecule functions as receptor for ... The protein encoded by CD94 gene is a lectin, cluster of differentiation and a receptor that is involved in cell signaling and ... The CD94/NKG2 complex, on the surface of natural killer cells interacts with Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-E on target cells. ... Lazetic S, Chang C, Houchins JP, Lanier LL, Phillips JH (Dec 1996). "Human natural killer cell receptors involved in MHC class ...
Q-soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) attachment protein receptor) protein syntaxin 6". The Journal of ... "Control of vesicle fusion by a tyrosine phosphatase". Nature Cell Biology. 6 (9): 831-9. doi:10.1038/ncb1164. PMID 15322554. ... Syntaxin-6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the STX6 gene. STX6 has been shown to interact with SNAP23, VAMP3 and ... "Identification of mouse Vps16 and biochemical characterization of mammalian class C Vps complex". Biochemical and Biophysical ...
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to a small class of prenylated protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). PTPs are cell ... 2006). "Identification of integrin alpha1 as an interacting protein of protein tyrosine phosphatase PRL-3". Biochem. Biophys. ... Receptors & signal transduction. 7 (4): 241-56. PMID 9633825. Zeng Q, Si X, Horstmann H, et al. (2000). "Prenylation-dependent ... Protein tyrosine phosphatase type IVA 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PTP4A3 gene. ...
... immunoreceptor tyrosine inhibition motif) recruitment and activation of protein tyrosine phosphatases. This means in contrast ... class II, and class III. Class I MHC molecules have β2 subunits so can only be recognised by CD8 co-receptors. Class II MHC ... Of the three MHC classes identified, attention commonly focuses on classes I and II. By interacting with CD4 molecules on ... Class III functions very differently from class I and class II, but its locus occurs between the other two classes, on ...
Kamakura S, Moriguchi T, Nishida E (1999). "Activation of the protein kinase ERK5/BMK1 by receptor tyrosine kinases. ... MAPK7 has been shown to interact with: C-Raf, Gap junction protein, alpha 1 MAP2K5, MEF2C, MEF2D, PTPRR, SGK, and YWHAB. GRCh38 ... Buschbeck M, Eickhoff J, Sommer MN, Ullrich A (Aug 2002). "Phosphotyrosine-specific phosphatase PTP-SL regulates the ERK5 ... lessons from knockout mice". J. Mol. Med. 82 (12): 800-8. doi:10.1007/s00109-004-0602-8. PMID 15517128. Roberts OL, Holmes K, ...
... alpha 1 Protein kinase, AMP-activated, alpha 1 Protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting ... class II, DP alpha 1 Major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ alpha 1 Myosin light chain A1, an actin-binding protein ... A receptor, alpha 1 Gap junction protein, alpha 1 GDNF family receptor alpha 1 Glutathione S-transferase A1 Glycine receptor, ... a human protein Outer membrane phospholipase A1, a bacterial protein receptors α-1-Adrenoceptor, an adrenergic receptor with ...
Protein kinases can also be inhibited by competition at the binding sites where the kinases interact with their substrate ... Other drugs interact with cellular targets that are not enzymes, such as ion channels or membrane receptors. ... Irreversible inhibitors are generally specific for one class of enzyme and do not inactivate all proteins; they do not function ... The algal toxin microcystin is also a peptide and is an inhibitor of protein phosphatases.[54] This toxin can contaminate water ...
"The protein-tyrosine phosphatase PTPMEG interacts with glutamate receptor delta 2 and epsilon subunits". The Journal of ... motor learning-lessons learned from studying GluD2". Neural Networks. 47: 36-41. doi:10.1016/j.neunet.2012.07.001. PMID ... "The protein-tyrosine phosphatase PTPMEG interacts with glutamate receptor delta 2 and epsilon subunits". The Journal of ... This protein together with GluD1 belongs to the delta receptor subtype of ionotropic glutamate receptors. They possess 14-24% ...
"Human immunodeficiency virus-1-tat induces matrix metalloproteinase-9 in monocytes through protein tyrosine phosphatase- ... NFKBIB has been shown to interact with: IKK2, RELA, and Retinoid X receptor alpha. ENSG00000282905 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Lee JW, Choi HS, Gyuris J, Brent R, Moore DD (1995). "Two classes of proteins dependent on either the presence or absence of ... "IkappaBbeta interacts with the retinoid X receptor and inhibits retinoid-dependent transactivation in lipopolysaccharide- ...
See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Adrenergics • Dopaminergics • Melatonergics • Serotonergics • Monoamine reuptake ... This long-term efficacy is equivalent to that seen with other antidepressant classes.[14] ... Moclobemide also interacts with pethidine/meperidine,[79] and dextropropoxyphene.[66] Ephedrine in combination with moclobemide ... It is moderately bound to plasma proteins, especially albumin.[8] However, the short disposition half life somewhat increases ...
Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 3); EC (Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 4). ... A construct with a deletion of only the 17th domain of VE-PTP was, in contrast to previous studies, still able to interact with ... Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 1); EC (Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 3). ... EC (PTPRO protein, human); EC (Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 3). ...
Receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPRs) are a subgroup of PTPs that share a transmembrane domain with resulting ... play an important role in regulating cell signaling events in coordination with tyrosine kinases to control cell proliferation ... In addition to interacting with breakpoint cluster region/ABL proto-oncogene 1, non-receptor tyrosine kinase (BCR/ABL) and v- ... class I cysteine-based PTPs, class II cysteine-based PTPs, class III cysteine-based PTPs, and Aspbased PTPs. The largest family ...
Belongs to the protein-tyrosine phosphatase family. Receptor class 1/6 subfamily.. Contains 2 fibronectin type-III domains. ... Protein tyrosine-protein phosphatase required for T-cell activation through the antigen receptor. Acts as a positive regulator ... The first PTPase domain interacts with SKAP1.. * Post-translational. modifications. Heavily N- and O-glycosylated. ... Protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, C antibody. *Protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, c polypeptide antibody ...
"The human cytomegalovirus UL11 protein interacts with the receptor tyrosine phosphatase CD45, resulting in functional paralysis ... D. Cosman, N. Fanger, L. Borges et al., "A novel immunoglobulin superfamily receptor for cellular and viral MHC class I ... J. Han, S. B. Rho, J. Y. Lee et al., "Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) US2 protein interacts with human CD1d (hCD1d) and down- ... Firstly, pp65 protein is abundantly present in the HCMV particle and therefore viral de novo gene expression is not necessarily ...
Receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase C, Leukocyte common antigen, L-CA, T200, CD45; find Sigma-Aldrich-MABF321 MSDS, ... CD 45 belongs to the protein-tyrosine phosphatase family, receptor class 1/6 subfamily.It also contains 2 fibronectin type-III ... Additionally, it interacts with SKAP1 and DPP4, whereas the interaction is enhanced in a interleukin-12-dependent manner in ... Synonym: Receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase C, Leukocyte common antigen, L-CA, T200, CD45 ...
Phosphorylated CagA interacts with the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2, thus stimulating its phosphatase activity. Activated ... In addition, it is reported that the VacA cleavage product binds to the tyrosine phosphatase receptor zeta (Ptprz) on ... Class. Human Diseases; Infectious diseases. Pathway map. map05120 Epithelial cell signaling in Helicobacter pylori infection ... epithelial cells and the induced signaling leads to the phosphorylation of the G protein-coupled receptor kinase-interactor 1 ( ...
Belongs to the protein-tyrosine phosphatase family. Receptor class 1/6 subfamily.. Contains 2 fibronectin type-III domains. ... Protein tyrosine-protein phosphatase required for T-cell activation through the antigen receptor. Acts as a positive regulator ... The first PTPase domain interacts with SKAP1.. * 翻訳後修飾 ... Receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase C antibody. *RT7 ... Protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, C antibody. *Protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, c polypeptide antibody ...
Belongs to the protein-tyrosine phosphatase family. Receptor class 1/6 subfamily.. Contains 2 fibronectin type-III domains. ... Protein tyrosine-protein phosphatase required for T-cell activation through the antigen receptor. Acts as a positive regulator ... The first PTPase domain interacts with SKAP1.. * 翻訳後修飾 ... Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type C antibody. *Protein ... Receptor type tyrosine protein phosphatase C antibody. *Receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase C antibody ...
Belongs to the protein-tyrosine phosphatase family. Receptor class 1/6 subfamily.. Contains 2 fibronectin type-III domains. ... Protein tyrosine-protein phosphatase required for T-cell activation through the antigen receptor. Acts as a positive regulator ... The first PTPase domain interacts with SKAP1.. * 翻译后修饰 ... receptor type C. *protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, ... Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type c polypeptide. *Protein tyrosine phosphatase, ...
Belongs to the protein-tyrosine phosphatase family. Receptor class 1/6 subfamily.. Contains 2 fibronectin type-III domains. ... Protein tyrosine-protein phosphatase required for T-cell activation through the antigen receptor. Acts as a positive regulator ... The first PTPase domain interacts with SKAP1.. * 翻译后修饰. Heavily N- and O-glycosylated. ... Protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, C antibody. *Protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, c polypeptide antibody ...
... molecule to which the receptor binds Signal transduction- the interaction of ligand and receptor... ... A protein activated by kinases will be deactivated by a phosphatase, and a protein deactivated by kinases will be activated by ... and tyrosine. We categorize protein kinases as either serine-threonine or tyrosine kinases based on the amino acids they modify ... Most cytoplasmic protein kinases fall into serine-threonine kinase class.. 2. Phosphatases- an enzyme that removes a phosphate ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... PILRA is thought to act as a cellular signaling inhibitory receptor by recruiting cytoplasmic phosphatases like PTPN6/SHP-1 and ... Interacts with PTPN6/SHP-1 and PTPN11/SHP-2 upon tyrosine phosphorylation. Interacts with herpes simplex virus 1 glycoprotein B ... 137917 Biological Macromolecular Structures Enabling Breakthroughs in Research and Education. Go. Advanced Search , Browse by ...
CD22 recruits the tyrosine phosphatase Src homology 2 domain-containing phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) to immunoreceptor tyrosine-based ... CD22 serves as an adhesion receptor for sialic acid-bearing ligands expressed on erythrocytes and all leukocyte classes. In ... CD22 interacts specifically with ligands carrying alpha2-6-linked sialic acids. As an inhibitory coreceptor of the B-cell ... Protein short names SIGLEC-2; CD22; LYB8; A530093D23; FLJ22814; MGC130020; SIGLEC2; LYB-8 ...
1998) Liprins, a family of LAR transmembrane protein-tyrosine phosphatase-interacting proteins. J Biol Chem 273:15611-15620. ... After bead preparations following the manufacturers instructions, a mouse monoclonal antibody against amino acids 408-439 of c ... Most recently, two studies indicate that receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase σ (RPTPσ) acts as a receptor for CSPGs and ... 2003) Receptor and nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatases in the nervous system. Cell Mol Life Sci 60:2465-2482. ...
PTEN, a putative protein tyrosine phosphatase gene mutated in human brain, breast, and prostate cancer. Science 1997;275:1943-7 ... AKT inhibition relieves feedback suppression of receptor tyrosine kinase expression and activity. Cancer Cell 2011;19:58-71. ... Three classes are known to exist although Class I PI3K are the most frequently mutated in cancer (2). The PI3K are ... 3). Some RTKs require the presence of adaptor molecules (e.g., IRS1) to interact with p85. The tumor suppressors PTEN and ...
... cytokine receptors, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, CAS, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK). In addition, Src interacts with a ... Src kinases are transducers of signals activated by many different classes of cell-surface receptors; more specifically, Src ... E. J. Lee, S. H. Who, N. K. Jeon, and J. Kim, "The epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor ZD1839 (Iressa) ... Therefore, we compared the effect of SKI-606 with Iressa, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) of EGF and ErbB2 receptors which is ...
... insulin receptor substrate protein) and DOK (downstream of kinases) family of adaptor proteins, interacts with two Src kinases ... A potentially important link between the tyrosine transporter hoe1 and two calcineurin phosphatases is shown. A mutation in the ... Global views of the protein-interaction map. Two global views of protein interaction network are illustrated: a protein class/ ... Confidence scores for protein-protein interactions (A) Drosophila protein-protein interactions have been binned according to ...
PTEN, a putative protein tyrosine phosphatase gene mutated in human brain, breast, and prostate cancer. Science 1997;275:1943-7 ... AKT inhibition relieves feedback suppression of receptor tyrosine kinase expression and activity. Cancer Cell 2011;19:58-71. ... Three classes are known to exist although Class I PI3K are the most frequently mutated in cancer (2). The PI3K are ... 3). Some RTKs require the presence of adaptor molecules (e.g., IRS1) to interact with p85. The tumor suppressors PTEN and ...
The different classes of G proteins are defined by their sequence identity as well as their downstream effector coupling ... protein phosphatase type 5 (pp5), and cadherin (57). The diversity of these interacting proteins suggests that the Ga12 family ... and the Src family tyrosine kinases, because dominant-negatives or specific inhibitors of these proteins inhibit JNK activation ... Last Updated on Sun, 07 Apr 2019 , Adrenergic Receptors The different classes of G proteins are defined by their sequence ...
HGF is known to stimulate phosphatidylinositol-37-kinase, protein tyrosine phosphatase 2, phospholipase C-r, pp60c-src, grb2/ ... HGF receptor associates with the anti-apoptotic protein BAG-1 and prevents cell death. EMBO J. 1996;15:6205-6212. ... Recently, the bag-1 protein has been reported to interact with Bcl-2 protein and to cooperate with Bcl-2 protein to suppress ... This work was partially supported by a grant-in-aid from the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports, and Culture of Japan. We ...
Human and mouse killer-cell inhibitory receptors recruit PTP1C and PTP1D protein tyrosine phosphatases. J. Immunol. 156: 4531- ... According to the receptor inhibition model, lysis occurs when inhibitory receptors fail to interact with MHC class I on target ... Recruitment of tyrosine phosphatase HCP by the killer cell inhibitor receptor. Immunity 4: 77-85. ... A role in B cell activation for CD22 and the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP. Science 269: 242-244. ...
... while receptor like protein tyrosine phosphatases class 5. Simple Proteins: Simple proteins are formed by the linking of amino ... 87-amino acid protein with pro-apoptotic Membrane proteins are common proteins that are part of, or interact with, biological ... receptor like protein tyrosine phosphatases class 2. Protein definition is - any of various naturally occurring extremely ... Suche nach medizinischen Informationen receptor like protein tyrosine phosphatases class 2. Eating plenty of protein can aid in ...
SIP1, a novel zinc finger/homeodomain repressor, interacts with Smad proteins and binds to 5′-CACCT sequences in candidate ... E-Cadherin-mediated adhesion inhibits ligand-dependent activation of diverse receptor tyrosine kinases. EMBO J 2004; 23: 1739- ... HDAC inhibitors are an emerging class of therapeutic agents that promote differentiation and apoptosis in hematologic and solid ... Kinase and phosphatase inhibitors. *Reversal of drug resistance. *Small molecules and other therapeutic agents ...
"The zyxin-related protein TRIP6 interacts with PDZ motifs in the adaptor protein RIL and the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP- ... Tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 13 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PTPN13 gene. The protein ... Lin D, Gish GD, Songyang Z, Pawson T (1999). "The carboxyl terminus of B class ephrins constitutes a PDZ domain binding motif ... "Entrez Gene: PTPN13 protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 13 (APO-1/CD95 (Fas)-associated phosphatase)". Gross, C; ...
Harrod TR, Justement LB (2003). "Evaluating function of transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase CD148 in lymphocyte biology ... SDCBP has been shown to interact with: EFNB1, GRIK1, GRIK2, Interleukin 5 receptor alpha subunit, Merlin, RAB5A, SOX4, TRAF6, ... Lin D, Gish GD, Songyang Z, Pawson T (1999). "The carboxyl terminus of B class ephrins constitutes a PDZ domain binding motif ... Syntenin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SDCBP gene. The protein encoded by this gene was initially identified ...
  • Know all of the steps of this process, as well as the three functional domains of the hormone receptor are Hormone-binding domain, DNA-binding domain, and Domain that interacts with coactivators to affect level of gene transcription. (
  • it consists of a novel 37-kDa XL domain followed by a 41-kDA as-domain encoded by exons 2 to 13 of the Gas gene (16,17). (
  • Gene transfer experiments and transgenic mice demonstrated that single receptors of either type conferred both the specificity for MHC class I molecules and the capacity to prevent target cell lysis ( 8 , 9 ). (
  • Syntenin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SDCBP gene. (
  • The protein encoded by this gene was initially identified as a molecule linking syndecan-mediated signaling to the cytoskeleton. (
  • Thyroid receptor-interacting protein 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TRIP6 gene. (
  • This gene is a member of the zyxin family and encodes a protein with three LIM zinc-binding domains. (
  • These antigens include normal proteins overexpressed by cancer cells and novel proteins that are generated by mutation and gene rearrangement ( 1 ). (
  • The modules at this stage go into greater depth and subjects can include animal form and function, plant physiology and adaptation, gene expression, infection and immunity, microbial physiology and skills for bioscientists 2. (
  • The discovery that Sm proteins are methylated ( 30 ) and the discovery that the product of the spinal muscular atrophy gene product SMN associates with methylated Sm proteins ( 31 ) led to the proposal that arginine methylation may be a signal that targets proteins. (
  • A gene for a fifth FGFR protein, FGFR5, has also been identified. (
  • Transcription of the FLT3 gene produces FLT3 mRNA, which is translated to FLT3 protein. (
  • We analyze gene perturbation expression profiles, reconstruct a directed gene interaction network and decipher the regulatory interactions among genes involved in protein transport signaling. (
  • In addition to HLA, many genes, such as human insulin gene (INS), cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4) and PTPN22, also contribute to the risk of T1DM. (
  • In addition to HLA, many genes, such as human insulin gene (INS), cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4) and PTPN22, also contribute to the risk of T1DM [ 2 ].T1DM is characterized by a specific adaptive immunity against β-cell antigens. (
  • Furthermore, other loci in HLA region including alleles of class I HLA-B, MHC class I chain related gene A (MICA) and class III genes have been associated in T1DM susceptibility [ 9 ]. (
  • The human insulin gene (INS) is located on chromosome 11p15.5, which consists of 3 exons and 2 introns [ 9 ]. (
  • The tandem repeats (VNTRs) in the INS gene are originated in three forms, class I, II and III alleles [ 12 ]. (
  • Molecular studies have identified three candidate susceptibility genes: the HPC2/ELAC2 gene located at 17p12 encoding a protein with a poorly defined function (Tavtigian et al. (
  • Alvarado C, Beitel LK, Sircar K, Aprikian A, Trifiro M, Gottlieb B (2005) Somatic mosaicism and cancer: a micro-genetic examination into the role of the androgen receptor gene in prostate cancer. (
  • This gene encodes a pseudophosphatase and member of the myotubularin-related protein family. (
  • SBF2 (SET Binding Factor 2) is a Protein Coding gene. (
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and phosphatidylinositol binding . (
  • Using the minimal CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) system, this study showed that coexpression of the catalytically inactive Cas9 (dCas9) and guide RNAs targeting the endogenous roX locus in the Drosophila cells results in a robust and specific knockdown of roX1 and roX2 RNAs, thus eliminating the need for recruiting chromatin modifying proteins for effective gene silencing. (
  • This study compared gene expression profiles of 2 models of docetaxel-resistant CRPC cell lines, and identified a set of genes involved in resistance to this chemotherapy. (
  • Depletion of MNK1/2 in melanoma cells with oncogenic C-KIT inhibited cell migration and mRNA translation of the transcriptional repressor SNAI1 and the cell cycle gene CCNE1. (
  • Finally, expression of the gene for the lipid phosphatase PTEN, which dephosphorylates PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, inhibits EGF signaling and translocation of Gab1 to the plasma membrane. (
  • More recently, targeted disruption of the IRS-2 gene was shown to result in a generation of diabetic mice, demonstrating a role for this docking protein in signaling by the insulin receptor ( 54 ). (
  • Immunohistochemical localization studies show that there is altered distribution of the gene-associated proteins in astrocytes from sclerotic foci compared with non-sclerotic foci. (
  • Cytoplasmic gene expression and replication, so viral core has to carry all necessary proteins. (
  • Nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells ( NF-kB ) is an activator of Androgen receptor gene transcription in Sertoli cells and may be an important determinant of androgen activity during spermatogenesis [ 14 ]. (
  • The proteins divide into at least 11 subfamilies, only one of which is present in eukaryotes, suggesting that lateral gene transfer gave rise to two-component signaling in these organisms. (
  • The first reported success in this respect is the Scc1 (Susceptibility to colon cancer 1) gene, identified as the Ptprj (Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor-type J) (Ruivenkamp et al. (
  • OK In molecular biology, STRING (Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins) is a biological database and web resource of known and predicted protein-protein interactions. (
  • The human CD1 family consists of five nonpolymorphic non-MHC-encoded genes (CD1a, -b, -c, -d, and -e) (the protein product of CD1e has not been identified yet) that have a unique tissue distribution. (
  • Activated PI3K stimulates downstream proteins such as 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1), protein kinase B (PKB/AKT) and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which initiate the transcription and translation of crucial regulatory genes through the activation of p70 S6 kinase (S6K) and the inhibition of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein (4E-BP1). (
  • These downstream effectors activate cyclic adenosine monophosphate-response element binding protein (CREB), ELK and signal transducer and activators of transcription (STATs), which lead to the transcription of genes involved in proliferation. (
  • few of the CYP11B2 genes of dominant enhancements were reviewed out by Ochoa and roles, precariously through fibres of proteins enclosed from type version( Ochoa 1980). (
  • Rouillard AD, Gundersen GW, Fernandez NF, Wang Z, Monteiro CD, McDermott MG, Ma'ayan A. The harmonizome: a collection of processed datasets gathered to serve and mine knowledge about genes and proteins . (
  • In addition, it has been estimated HLA region particularly HLA class II genes encoding DQB1 and DRB1 provides up to 40: 50% of the familial aggregation of T1DM [ 7 ]. (
  • The mechanisms by which the HLA class II genes confer susceptibility to β-cells destruction are might through the binding of peptides derived from proinsulin, insulinoma- associated antigen 2 (IA-2), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), and zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8) to antigen-presenting cells (APCs) [ 8 ]. (
  • This other compromise error regulates the need of the motif, includes the RUNX3-mediated genes into the s. tumorigenesis and is rat of the available beta-catenin at the C-terminus, which potentially is towards the N-terminus in a ITGBL1 protein( Engel & Prockop 1991). (
  • We aim to map and subsequently clone such genes, understand the way they interact with different molecular pathways during tumor development and progression, and determine what their relationship is to processes of regulation of cellular homeostasis at different developmental stages. (
  • The SH2 Executemains of SHP-1 interact with the catalytic Executemain to self-constrain the SHP-1 activity in an inactive state. (
  • The activated form of SHP-1 can then associate through its catalytic active site, C(X)5R motif, with diverse tarObtain molecules such as JAK2 that bear phosphorylated tyrosine sequence signature. (
  • Site-directed mutagenesis defined two highly conserved amino acids, cysteine-265 and aspartate-234, as being essential for the phosphatase activity of the AtPTP1 protein, suggesting a common catalytic mechanism for PTPases from all eukaryotic systems. (
  • In addition, there is a dramatic increase in proteins containing RNA polymerase C-terminal domain phosphatase-like catalytic domains in the higher plants. (
  • Its catalytic signature (C[X] 5 R) defined the large protein Tyr phosphatase (PTP) superfamily ( Table I ), which now, in addition to the Tyr specific enzymes, includes enzymes that specifically dephosphorylate Ser or Thr as well as Tyr (the dual specificity phosphatases [DSPs]), mRNA, and phosphoinositides. (
  • PI3K consists of a p110 catalytic protein and a p85α regulatory protein, required for the stabilization and localization of p110-PI3K activity. (
  • The apparent molecular mass of the protein is approximately 125 kDa in SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions. (
  • 2 Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 540 East Canfield Avenue, Detroit, MI 48201, USA. (
  • Thus, we studied (1) the effects of HGF on hypoxia-induced endothelial apoptosis and (2) the molecular mechanisms of the antiapoptotic actions of HGF in endothelial cells. (
  • 11 Especially, the molecular events linking tyrosine kinase receptors to the antiapoptotic machinery of the cell have not been elucidated. (
  • The receptor inhibition model became widely accepted following the molecular identification of an NK cell receptor that prevented the lysis of target cells expressing certain MHC class I alleles ( 3 ). (
  • Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a member of a class of proteins referred to as molecular chaperones. (
  • Defining the molecular basis of interaction between R3 receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatases and VE-cadherin. (
  • Here bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) in live cells was used to examine the molecular basis for the interaction of VE-PTP with VE-cadherin, two proteins involved in endothelial cell contact and maintenance of vascular integrity. (
  • KIAA1769 encodes a 2080-amino acid protein (molecular mass, 231 kDa) that was recently identified to interact with PPARalpha and termed PPARalpha-interacting cofactor 285 (here referred to as PPARgamma-DBD-interacting protein 1 (PDIP1)-alpha). (
  • The data provided, along with this medical association of disease risk, should guide researchers and clinicians toward a better understanding of both the molecular changes that enable learning and memory as well as the complex neurological diseases involving proteins that are part of the PSD. (
  • This review highlights the recent findings on beneficial effects of flavonoids in the management of diabetes with particular emphasis on the investigations that explore the role of these compounds in modulating glucose transporter proteins at cellular and molecular level. (
  • The present invention provides an apparatus and methods for the electrical detection of molecular interactions between a probe molecule and a protein or peptide target molecule, but without requiring the use of electrochemical or other reporters to obtain measurable signals. (
  • The methods can be used for electrical detection of molecular interactions between probe molecules bound to defined regions of an array and protein or peptide target molecules which are permitted to interact with the probe molecules. (
  • these phosphate groups can be added to the three amino acids that have an OH as part of their R group, namely serine, threonine, and tyrosine. (
  • Towards the right-center among the coils, a heme group (shown in grey) with a bound oxygen molecule (red) Proteins are long-chain molecules built from small units known as amino acids. (
  • Definition of Proteins: Proteins may be defined as high molar mass compounds consisting largely or entirely of chains of amino acids. (
  • egg Protein molecules contain a combination of 20 essential amino acids. (
  • Proteins are complex biomolecules that are made up of smaller units known as amino acids. (
  • All proteinogenic amino acids possess common structural features, including an α-carbon to which an amino group, a carboxylgroup, and a variable side Single-cell protein refers to the crude, a refined or edible protein extracted from pure microbial cultures, dead, or dried cell biomass. (
  • Proteins are the most versatile macromolecules in living systems and serve crucial functions in essentially all 6 Dec 2014 Every protein has particular properties which are dictated by the number and the particular succession of amino acids in a molecule. (
  • It is a complete, high-quality protein, containing all of the essential amino acids. (
  • Dephosphorylates several organic phosphate monoesters including 3'- and 5'-nucleotides, 2'-deoxy-5'-nucleotides, pNPP, phenyl phosphate, glycerol 2-phosphate, ribose 5-phosphate, O-phospho-L-amino acids and phytic acid, showing the highest activity with aryl phosphoesters (pNPP, phenyl phosphate and O-phospho-L-tyrosine), and to a lesser extent with 3'- and 5'-nucleotides. (
  • The F and H motif is primarily determined by a phenylalanine and a histidine residue (in position 2 and 6, respectively), which together with hydrophobic amino acids in position 5 and 9 are highly conserved from Drosophila to human ( Swan,2010 ). (
  • mTORC1 is a protein complex comprised of the three core subunits mTOR, Raptor and mLST8 [ 2 ] and is regulated by several inputs, such as growth factors, energy status, amino acids and mechanical stimuli. (
  • Human LilrB2 is a Beta-Amyloid Receptor and its Murine Homolog PirB Regulates Synaptic Plasticity in an Alzheimer's Model , Kim, T et al. (
  • Activated AKT(PKB) phosphorylates and stabilizes Mdm2 p53 binding protein homolog ( MDM2 ), which can ubiquitinilate Androgen receptor and target it to degradation via proteasome [ 12 ]. (
  • Meaning 'first' or 'of prime importance' in Greek, proteins participate in every cellular process occurring in the body. (
  • The list of activating or cytokine receptors expressed on NK cells is not all inclusive get cells bearing Ig results in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), proliferation and cytokine production by NK cells. (
  • These activity-dependent changes in the efficacy of synaptic transmission of excitatory synapses are believed to represent cellular processes underlying learning and memory ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • It includes rough endoplasmic reticulum (rough ER), ER exit sites (ERESs), the ER-to-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) and the Golgi complex cellular organelles, which have distinct functions in the transport of proteins to their final destination in the cell. (
  • cellular prion protein ( ARF conference story ), the receptor tyrosine kinase EphB2 ( ARF news story ), the receptor for advanced glycation end products, aka RAGE ( ARF news story ), metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 ( ARF news story ), and the immune cell receptor FcγRIIb ( ARF news story ). (
  • A number of genetic and biochemical experiments have provided evidence for the importance of docking proteins in cellular signaling. (
  • Several direct targets of Shp2 have been identified, including the platelet-derived growth factor receptors [PDGFR ( 13 )/Torso ( 14 )], the multiadaptor protein Gab1 ( 15 ), Csk-binding protein [Cbp/PAG ( 16 )], and paxillin ( 17 ). (
  • In the September 20 Science, Carla Shatz of Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, and collaborators elsewhere report Aβ oligomer binding by PirB, a mouse immunoglobulin-like receptor expressed on neurons, as well as by its human ortholog, the leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor LilrB2. (
  • Apart from the antigen peptides embedded on the MHC molecules, antigen-presenting cells must provide costimulatory signals through surface receptors (such as CD28) and cytokines [such as interleukin (IL)-for effective T cell stimulation ( 2 ). (
  • One part of the peptide mixture was incubated with antiphosphotyrosine antibodies for enrichment of tyrosine-phosphorylated peptides. (
  • In the case of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) particle assembly, arginine methylation by the PRMT5 methylosome ( 32 , 33 ) has been proposed to be the signal for the recognition and targeting to the SMN protein complexes ( 31 ). (
  • We have searched the protein data sets encoded by the well-finished nuclear genomes of the higher plants Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) and Oryza sativa , and the latest draft data sets from the tree Populus trichocarpa and the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Ostreococcus tauri , for homologs to several classes of novel protein phosphatases. (
  • Protein nuclear import is generally mediated by basic nuclear localization signals (NLSs) that serve as targets for the importin α (Imp α) NLS receptor. (
  • The majority of nuclear proteins are targeted to the nucleus by basic, generally lysine-rich nuclear localization signals (NLSs) that serve as binding sites for an NLS receptor termed importin α (Imp α) or karyopherin α (reviewed in references 29 and 44 ). (
  • Once the NLS protein is released, both Imp α and Imp β are separately recycled back to the cytoplasm, where they can then participate in additional rounds of nuclear import. (
  • The Rev protein, while equally critical for HIV-1 replication, acts posttranscriptionally to induce the sequence-specific nuclear export of late HIV-1 mRNA species. (
  • Recent studies suggest that G protein-coupled receptors linked to protein kinase C (PKC) down-regulate cell surface NET protein levels and diminish NE uptake capacity. (
  • It has been shown that the VNTRs can regulate insulin messenger RNA (mRNA) transcription in the pancreas and thymus [ 2 ]. (
  • This safety can regulate via today levels in PI3KCA( Pushing FZD location tRNA), PIK3R1( signaling due four-storey protein) and AKT1. (
  • A healthy lifestyle such as diet, exercise and weight control can provide the foundation for managing of T 2 DM, however anti-diabetic agents are required to regulate blood glucose levels in the serious conditions. (
  • Contains 2 fibronectin type-III domains. (
  • Two major virulence factors of H. pylori are the vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) and the cag type-IV secretion system (T4SS) and its translocated effector protein, cytotoxin-associated antigen A (CagA). (
  • Puzzling at that time, the relevant mouse receptors were C-type lectin-like Ly49 family members, whereas human receptors endowed with the corresponding function were Ig-like (killer Ig-like receptors, or KIRs) ( 4 - 7 ). (
  • Defining the key steps that lead to the specificity in insulin signaling presents a major challenge to biochemical research, but the outcome should offer new therapeutic approaches for treatment of patients suffering from insulin-resistant states, including type 2 diabetes. (
  • Dual roles of Sema6D in cardiac morphogenesis through region-specific association of its receptor, Plexin-A1, with off-track and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 2. (
  • They are now known to switch GPCR signaling from G protein-dependent to G protein-independent, which, in the case of βARs and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT 1 R), might be beneficial, e.g., anti-apoptotic, for the heart. (
  • Green indicates receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase ρ, red indicates neuroligin, blue indicates PSD-95. (
  • p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. (
  • This modification is catalyzed by type I and II protein-arginine methyltransferases (PRMT), respectively. (
  • Receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs) of the R3 subgroup play key roles in the immune, vascular and nervous systems. (
  • EP24.15 interacts with the angiotensin II type I receptor and bradykinin B2 receptor. (
  • Type 2 DM (T 2 DM) or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is one of the most common types of DM, accounted for 90-95% of the diabetic cases worldwide. (
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) encodes two essential regulatory proteins that are both active in the cell nucleus (reviewed in references 8 and 11 ). (
  • B and T cells, type 2 dendritic cells, and natural killer (NK) cells share a common ancestor, ie, common lymphoid progenitor (CLP). (
  • In both conditions, an aberrantly activated oncoprotein with tyrosine kinase activity, namely BCR-ABL1 in chronic myeloid leukemia, and mutant KIT, mostly KIT D816V, in systemic mastocytosis, is key to disease evolution. (
  • The antiapoptotic mechanisms of HGF in hypoxia-induced endothelial cell death largely depend on Bcl-2, but not Bcl-xL and Bax. (
  • On the other hand, proliferation and cell death are considered 2 mechanically related phenomena. (
  • 12 Importantly, we reported that HGF linking to c- met , a tyrosine kinase receptor, can act as a protective factor against endothelial cell death induced by serum-free treatment, tumor necrosis factor-α treatment, and high-glucose conditions. (
  • Target cells lacking MHC class I molecules were found to be susceptible to NK cell-mediated cytolysis, whereas cells expressing MHC class I were resistant ( 2 ), observations that led to the formulation of the missing self hypothesis. (
  • An alternative explanation was that MHC class I expression masks target cell Ags that are recognized by activating NK cell receptors (target interference). (
  • Sequence comparisons of the cytoplasmic tails of the newly cloned NK cell receptors with inhibitory function provided the first insight into this issue. (
  • Inhibitory receptors mediate this function only upon their clustering with an activating counterpart on the cell surface. (
  • DCA and 17AAG interacted in a greater than additive fashion to cause hepatocyte cell death within 2 to 6 h of coadministration. (
  • All of these proteins play key roles in growth and cell survival in tumor cells, arguing that loss of HSP90 function could have pleiotropic effects on cell biology. (
  • The specific subset of NK cell is reported to control the development at the fetal-maternal interface during the first trimester of the pregnancy, and it constitutes about 50-90% of total lymphoid cells in the uterus ( 2 , 3 ). (
  • These uterine NK cells secrete IL-8, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), stromal cell-derived factor-1, and interferon gamma-inducible protein-10 (IP-10) which help in tissue building, remodeling, and angiogenesis ( 4 ). (
  • Among these immunotherapies, neutralizing antibodies targeting the immune checkpoints T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) are being hailed as particularly successful. (
  • The approval of anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) antibodies for human use has already resulted in significant improvements in disease outcomes for various cancers, especially melanoma. (
  • These cells may learn to recognize the tumor-specific antigens presented on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules and thereby perform targeted tumor cell killing. (
  • Its receptor, Flt3, is expressed on myeloid, lymphoid and dendritic cell progenitors and is considered an important growth and differentiation factor for several hematopoietic lineages. (
  • Cell 1999;97:551-2. (
  • Identification of CD72 as a lymphocyte receptor for the class IV semaphorin CD100: a novel mechanism for regulating B cell signaling. (
  • HeLa cell extracts were used to purify the protein complexes recognized by each of the four antibodies, and the proteins were identified by microcapillary reverse-phase liquid chromatography coupled on line with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. (
  • 2. "Any living cell carries with it the experiences of a billion years of experimentation by its ancestors. (
  • Both pathways probably also interact with many other antiapoptotic and cell-cycle proteins, such as WAF1, KIP1 and BRCA1. (
  • We have identified the phenylhydrazonopyrazolone sulfonate PHPS1 as a potent and cell-permeable inhibitor, which is specific for Shp2 over the closely related tyrosine phosphatases Shp1 and PTP1B. (
  • iron will join shown as protein of step production for Ca2+ convertases or possibly conserved to those inhibited by this cell. (
  • 3. A host cell containing the vector of claim 2. (
  • It is estimated that more than 1000 of the 10,000 proteins active in a typical mammalian cell are phosphorylated. (
  • The ITIM has become the hallImpress of a growing family of receptors with inhibitory potential, which are expressed in various cell types such as monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, leukocytes, and mast cells. (
  • This suggested that blocking MNK1/2 activity may inhibit tumor progression, at least in part, by blocking translation initiation of mRNAs encoding cell migration proteins. (
  • MNK1/2 knockdown in HBL cells suppresses cell migration and the expression of cyclin E1 and SNAIL. (
  • Apoptosis was reduced in Toll-like receptor 4-deficient macrophages, indicating that cell death required signaling through this receptor. (
  • Key words: self-tolerance, T cell receptor, B cell receptor, autoimmunopathogenesis, apoptosis Introduction T lymphocytes are credited with determining the functional outcome of immune responses and form important components of the adaptive immune system. (
  • The specificity of T-cell-mediated immune responses is dependent upon the T-cell receptor (TCR) on CD4 helper or CD8 cytotoxic T cells. (
  • Various mechanisms are known to control and halt an ongoing immune response and defects in TCR signaling invariably impair T-cell development and/or cause deviation of T-cell function [1, 2]. (
  • Flow Cytometry: Studies of CD45 expression and the association with T-cell receptor signaling was performed using this antibody of previous lot. (
  • Expression of Uncoupling Protein 3 in Mitochondria Protects Against Stress-induced Myocardial Injury: a Proteomic Study Cell Stress & Chaperones. (
  • To determine the role of Gab1 in signaling via the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) we tested the ability of Gab1 to associate with and modulate signaling by this receptor. (