A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
Cell-surface proteins that bind dopamine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D1-class receptor genes lack INTRONS, and the receptors stimulate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
A subtype of dopamine D2 receptors that are highly expressed in the LIMBIC SYSTEM of the brain.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
A subtype of dopamine D2 receptors that has high affinity for the antipsychotic CLOZAPINE.
Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.
A subtype of dopamine D1 receptors that has higher affinity for DOPAMINE and differentially couples to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
Any drugs that are used for their effects on dopamine receptors, on the life cycle of dopamine, or on the survival of dopaminergic neurons.
Compounds with BENZENE fused to AZEPINES.
A dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
A spiro butyrophenone analog similar to HALOPERIDOL and other related compounds. It has been recommended in the treatment of SCHIZOPHRENIA.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
Amides of salicylic acid.
A derivative of morphine that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It is a powerful emetic and has been used for that effect in acute poisoning. It has also been used in the diagnosis and treatment of parkinsonism, but its adverse effects limit its use.
A substituted benzamide that has antipsychotic properties. It is a dopamine D2 receptor (see RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE D2) antagonist.
A dopamine D2-receptor antagonist. It has been used therapeutically as an antidepressant, antipsychotic, and as a digestive aid. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A selective D1 dopamine receptor agonist used primarily as a research tool.
Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.
A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)
A series of structurally-related alkaloids that contain the ergoline backbone structure.
Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.
A benzocycloheptapyridoisoquinolinol that has been used as an antipsychotic, especially in schizophrenia.
A thioxanthene neuroleptic that, unlike CHLORPROMAZINE, is claimed to have CNS-activating properties. It is used in the treatment of psychoses although not in excited or manic patients. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p595)
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
A specific blocker of dopamine receptors. It speeds gastrointestinal peristalsis, causes prolactin release, and is used as antiemetic and tool in the study of dopaminergic mechanisms.
A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.
A phosphoprotein that was initially identified as a major target of DOPAMINE activated ADENYLYL CYCLASE in the CORPUS STRIATUM. It regulates the activities of PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE-1 and PROTEIN KINASE A, and it is a key mediator of the biochemical, electrophysiological, transcriptional, and behavioral effects of DOPAMINE.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A semisynthetic ergotamine alkaloid that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It suppresses prolactin secretion.
The naturally occurring form of DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE and the immediate precursor of DOPAMINE. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to DOPAMINE. It is used for the treatment of PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
A neurotransmitter analogue that depletes noradrenergic stores in nerve endings and induces a reduction of dopamine levels in the brain. Its mechanism of action is related to the production of cytolytic free-radicals.
A hypothalamic tripeptide, enzymatic degradation product of OXYTOCIN, that inhibits the release of MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES.
A condition characterized by inactivity, decreased responsiveness to stimuli, and a tendency to maintain an immobile posture. The limbs tend to remain in whatever position they are placed (waxy flexibility). Catalepsy may be associated with PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS (e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA, CATATONIC), nervous system drug toxicity, and other conditions.
Partially saturated 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene compounds.
Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.
The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.
The largest and most lateral of the BASAL GANGLIA lying between the lateral medullary lamina of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and the EXTERNAL CAPSULE. It is part of the neostriatum and forms part of the LENTIFORM NUCLEUS along with the GLOBUS PALLIDUS.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is DOPAMINE.
A long-acting dopamine agonist which has been used to treat PARKINSON DISEASE and HYPERPROLACTINEMIA but withdrawn from some markets due to potential for HEART VALVE DISEASES.
A region in the MESENCEPHALON which is dorsomedial to the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and ventral to the RED NUCLEUS. The mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems originate here, including an important projection to the NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS. Overactivity of the cells in this area has been suspected to contribute to the positive symptoms of SCHIZOPHRENIA.
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
Abnormal movements, including HYPERKINESIS; HYPOKINESIA; TREMOR; and DYSTONIA, associated with the use of certain medications or drugs. Muscles of the face, trunk, neck, and extremities are most commonly affected. Tardive dyskinesia refers to abnormal hyperkinetic movements of the muscles of the face, tongue, and neck associated with the use of neuroleptic agents (see ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1199)
An involuntary deep INHALATION with the MOUTH open, often accompanied by the act of stretching.
A tricylic dibenzodiazepine, classified as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It binds several types of central nervous system receptors, and displays a unique pharmacological profile. Clozapine is a serotonin antagonist, with strong binding to 5-HT 2A/2C receptor subtype. It also displays strong affinity to several dopaminergic receptors, but shows only weak antagonism at the dopamine D2 receptor, a receptor commonly thought to modulate neuroleptic activity. Agranulocytosis is a major adverse effect associated with administration of this agent.
A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.
A dopamine D1 receptor agonist that is used as an antihypertensive agent. It lowers blood pressure through arteriolar vasodilation.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.
An inhibitor of the enzyme TYROSINE 3-MONOOXYGENASE, and consequently of the synthesis of catecholamines. It is used to control the symptoms of excessive sympathetic stimulation in patients with PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed)
Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.
A beta-hydroxylated derivative of phenylalanine. The D-form of dihydroxyphenylalanine has less physiologic activity than the L-form and is commonly used experimentally to determine whether the pharmacological effects of LEVODOPA are stereospecific.
Agents used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. The most commonly used drugs act on the dopaminergic system in the striatum and basal ganglia or are centrally acting muscarinic antagonists.
Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An ergot derivative that acts as an agonist at dopamine D2 receptors (DOPAMINE AGONISTS). It may also act as an antagonist at dopamine D1 receptors, and as an agonist at some serotonin receptors (SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS).
Dopamines with a hydroxy group substituted in one or more positions.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
An isoquinoline derivative that prevents dopamine reuptake into synaptosomes. The maleate was formerly used in the treatment of depression. It was withdrawn worldwide in 1986 due to the risk of acute hemolytic anemia with intravascular hemolysis resulting from its use. In some cases, renal failure also developed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p266)
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.
Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.
Drug agonism involving selective binding but reduced effect. This can result in some degree of DRUG ANTAGONISM.
BENZOIC ACID amides.
A group of disorders which feature impaired motor control characterized by bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY; TREMOR; and postural instability. Parkinsonian diseases are generally divided into primary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE), secondary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY) and inherited forms. These conditions are associated with dysfunction of dopaminergic or closely related motor integration neuronal pathways in the BASAL GANGLIA.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A family of vesicular amine transporter proteins that catalyze the transport and storage of CATECHOLAMINES and indolamines into SECRETORY VESICLES.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A diphenylbutylpiperidine that is effective as an antipsychotic agent and as an alternative to HALOPERIDOL for the suppression of vocal and motor tics in patients with Tourette syndrome. Although the precise mechanism of action is unknown, blockade of postsynaptic dopamine receptors has been postulated. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p403)
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in LEUKOCYTES, the SPLEEN, the THYMUS and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
Excessive movement of muscles of the body as a whole, which may be associated with organic or psychological disorders.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
N-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanes best known for the ones found in PLANTS.
A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).
Conditions which feature clinical manifestations resembling primary Parkinson disease that are caused by a known or suspected condition. Examples include parkinsonism caused by vascular injury, drugs, trauma, toxin exposure, neoplasms, infections and degenerative or hereditary conditions. Clinical features may include bradykinesia, rigidity, parkinsonian gait, and masked facies. In general, tremor is less prominent in secondary parkinsonism than in the primary form. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch38, pp39-42)
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.
Compounds with a benzene ring fused to a thiazole ring.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Six-membered heterocycles containing an oxygen and a nitrogen.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
An animal's cleaning and caring for the body surface. This includes preening, the cleaning and oiling of feathers with the bill or of hair with the tongue.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
A dopaminergic neurotoxic compound which produces irreversible clinical, chemical, and pathological alterations that mimic those found in Parkinson disease.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
A phenothiazine used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES. Its properties and uses are generally similar to those of CHLORPROMAZINE.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.
Biogenic amines having only one amine moiety. Included in this group are all natural monoamines formed by the enzymatic decarboxylation of natural amino acids.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
Cell-surface proteins that bind SEROTONIN and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Several types of serotonin receptors have been recognized which differ in their pharmacology, molecular biology, and mode of action.
Portion of midbrain situated under the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI. The two ventrolateral cylindrical masses or peduncles are large nerve fiber bundles providing a tract of passage between the FOREBRAIN with the HINDBRAIN. Ventral MIDBRAIN also contains three colorful structures: the GRAY MATTER (PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY), the black substance (SUBSTANTIA NIGRA), and the RED NUCLEUS.
A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.
Enzyme that catalyzes the movement of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionone to a catechol or a catecholamine.
The strengthening of a conditioned response.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A central nervous system stimulant used most commonly in the treatment of ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER in children and for NARCOLEPSY. Its mechanisms appear to be similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The d-isomer of this drug is referred to as DEXMETHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A dopamine D2 antagonist that is used as an antiemetic.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
A complex group of fibers arising from the basal olfactory regions, the periamygdaloid region, and the septal nuclei, and passing to the lateral hypothalamus. Some fibers continue into the tegmentum.
A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.
Proteins, usually projecting from the cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, that specifically bind odorant molecules and trigger responses in the neurons. The large number of different odorant receptors appears to arise from several gene families or subfamilies rather than from DNA rearrangement.
Drugs that inhibit the actions of the sympathetic nervous system by any mechanism. The most common of these are the ADRENERGIC ANTAGONISTS and drugs that deplete norepinephrine or reduce the release of transmitters from adrenergic postganglionic terminals (see ADRENERGIC AGENTS). Drugs that act in the central nervous system to reduce sympathetic activity (e.g., centrally acting alpha-2 adrenergic agonists, see ADRENERGIC ALPHA-AGONISTS) are included here.
Drugs that act on adrenergic receptors or affect the life cycle of adrenergic transmitters. Included here are adrenergic agonists and antagonists and agents that affect the synthesis, storage, uptake, metabolism, or release of adrenergic transmitters.
A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Mu opioid receptors bind, in decreasing order of affinity, endorphins, dynorphins, met-enkephalin, and leu-enkephalin. They have also been shown to be molecular receptors for morphine.
An inhibitor of DOPA DECARBOXYLASE, preventing conversion of LEVODOPA to dopamine. It is used in PARKINSON DISEASE to reduce peripheral adverse effects of LEVODOPA. It has no antiparkinson actions by itself.
A serotonin receptor subtype found widely distributed in peripheral tissues where it mediates the contractile responses of variety of tissues that contain SMOOTH MUSCLE. Selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonists include KETANSERIN. The 5-HT2A subtype is also located in BASAL GANGLIA and CEREBRAL CORTEX of the BRAIN where it mediates the effects of HALLUCINOGENS such as LSD.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
A traditional grouping of drugs said to have a soothing or calming effect on mood, thought, or behavior. Included here are the ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS (minor tranquilizers), ANTIMANIC AGENTS, and the ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS (major tranquilizers). These drugs act by different mechanisms and are used for different therapeutic purposes.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A group of related plant alkaloids that contain the BERBERINE heterocyclic ring structure.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.
Compounds with a core of fused benzo-pyran rings.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
An enzyme group with broad specificity. The enzymes decarboxylate a range of aromatic amino acids including dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA DECARBOXYLASE); TRYPTOPHAN; and HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A family of hexahydropyridines.
The representation of the phylogenetically oldest part of the corpus striatum called the paleostriatum. It forms the smaller, more medial part of the lentiform nucleus.
An alpha-adrenergic sympathomimetic amine, biosynthesized from tyramine in the CNS and platelets and also in invertebrate nervous systems. It is used to treat hypotension and as a cardiotonic. The natural D(-) form is more potent than the L(+) form in producing cardiovascular adrenergic responses. It is also a neurotransmitter in some invertebrates.
The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.
Compounds containing phenyl-1-butanone.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
1999). "No interaction of GABA(A) alpha-1 subunit and dopamine receptor D4 exon 3 genes in symptomatology of major psychoses". ... At least 16 distinct subunits of GABA-A receptors have been identified. The GABRA1 receptor is the specific target of the z- ... 1999). "Dopamine receptor D2 and D4 genes, GABA(A) alpha-1 subunit genes and response to lithium prophylaxis in mood disorders ... Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GABRA1 gene. GABA is the major ...
"An unambiguous assay for the cloned human sigma1 receptor reveals high affinity interactions with dopamine D4 receptor ... In humans, the σ1 receptor is encoded by the SIGMAR1 gene. The σ1 receptor is a transmembrane protein expressed in many ... leading to the idea that σ1 receptors are auxiliary subunits. σ1 receptors apparently co-localize with IP3 receptors on the ... sigma-1+receptor at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) SIGMAR1 human gene location in the UCSC ...
For example, both 7R and 5R, ADHD-linked VNTR alleles of dopamine receptor D4 gene are directly associated with the incidence ... causes aggressive behavior and the hypothalamus has receptors that help determine aggression levels based on their interactions ... gene, located on the Y chromosome and the Sts (steroid sulfatase) gene. The Sts gene encodes the steroid sulfatase enzyme, ... One possible factor is an allele (variant) of the MAO-A gene which, in interaction with certain life events such as childhood ...
D4 is encoded by the Dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4). The D4 receptor gene displays polymorphisms that differ in a variable ... "Role of iso-receptors in receptor-receptor interactions with a focus on dopamine iso-receptor complexes". Rev Neurosci. 27 (1 ... D4-adrenoceptor α1B D4-adrenoceptor β1 Dopamine receptor D1 and Dopamine receptor D5 are Gs coupled receptors that stimulate ... D1 is encoded by the Dopamine receptor D1 gene (DRD1). D5 is encoded by the Dopamine receptor D5 gene (DRD5). The D2-like ...
Rondou P, Haegeman G, Vanhoenacker P, Van Craenenbroeck K (April 2008). "BTB Protein KLHL12 targets the dopamine D4 receptor ... "Entrez Gene: CUL3 cullin 3". Cheng J, Guo J, Wang Z, North BJ, Tao K, Dai X, Wei W (January 2018). "Functional analysis of ... Cullin 3-RING complexes can also dimerise via their BTB domains which lead to creation of two substrate receptors and two ... enhanced Keap1-Cul3 interaction". Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 230 (3): 383-9. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2008.03.003. PMC ...
... of receptor internalization and facilitation of beta 1-adrenergic receptor interaction with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors". ... "SH3 binding domains in the dopamine D4 receptor" (PDF). Biochemistry. 37 (45): 15726-36. doi:10.1021/bi981634+. PMID 9843378. ... is a beta-adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it. It is a G-protein coupled receptor associated with ... receptors Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor Beta-2 adrenergic receptor Beta-3 adrenergic receptor "Entrez ...
"SH3 binding domains in the dopamine D4 receptor" (PDF). Biochemistry. 37 (45): 15726-36. doi:10.1021/bi981634+. PMID 9843378. ... is encoded by the CHRM4 gene. M4 muscarinic receptors are coupled to Gi/o heterotrimeric proteins. They function as inhibitory ... "Novel interaction between the M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor and elongation factor 1A2". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (32): 29268- ... "Enhancement of D1 dopamine receptor-mediated locomotor stimulation in M(4) muscarinic acetylcholine receptor knockout mice". ...
"Dopamine D2 and D3 receptors are linked to the actin cytoskeleton via interaction with filamin A". Proceedings of the National ... Dopamine receptor D3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DRD3 gene. This gene encodes the D3 subtype of the dopamine ... "SH3 binding domains in the dopamine D4 receptor" (PDF). Biochemistry. 37 (45): 15726-36. doi:10.1021/bi981634+. PMID 9843378. ... "Entrez Gene: DRD3 dopamine receptor D3". Joyce JN, Millan MJ (February 2007). "Dopamine D3 receptor agonists for protection and ...
"Dopamine D2 and D3 receptors are linked to the actin cytoskeleton via interaction with filamin A". Proceedings of the National ... "Entrez Gene: DRD3 dopamine receptor D3".. *^ Joyce JN, Millan MJ (February 2007). "Dopamine D3 receptor agonists for protection ... "SH3 binding domains in the dopamine D4 receptor" (PDF). Biochemistry. 37 (45): 15726-36. doi:10.1021/bi981634+. PMID 9843378.. ... dopamine binding. • protein domain specific binding. • D1 dopamine receptor binding. • adrenergic receptor activity. ...
More specific, the 7-repeat allele of the dopamine D4 receptor gene, responsible for inhibited prefrontal cortex cognition and ... The mechanism of lithium include the inhibition of GSK-3, it is a glutamate antagonism at NMDA receptors that together make ... with ACC showed traits that may lead to the diagnosis of autism in the areas of social communications and social interactions ... However, the environment the child is in can change in impact of this gene, proving that correct treatment, intensive social ...
... and D4 dopamine receptors: identification of the clozapine metabolite N-desmethylclozapine as a D2/D3 partial agonist". J. ... ISBN 978-81-89960-30-8. Wallace TJ, Zai CC, Brandl EJ, Müller DJ (18 August 2011). "Role of 5-HT(2C) receptor gene variants in ... Horn JR, Hansten P (1 December 2008). "Drug Transporters: The Final Frontier for Drug Interactions". Pharmacy Times. Johnson DE ... It may involve antagonism of dopamine and serotonin receptors. Antagonism of dopamine receptors is associated with ...
Receptors,+Dopamine+D2 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Pappas S. "Study: Genes Influence ... "Binding Interactions of Dopamine and Apomorphine in D2High and D2Low States of Human Dopamine D2 Receptor Using Computational ... Piribedil - also D3 receptor agonist and α2-adrenergic antagonist Pramipexole - also D3, D4 receptor agonist Quinelorane - ... This gene encodes the D2 subtype of the dopamine receptor, which is coupled to Gi subtype of G protein-coupled receptor. This G ...
The 7 repeat variant of dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4-7R) causes increased inhibitory effects induced by dopamine and is ... Those involved with dopamine include DAT, DRD4, DRD5, TAAR1, MAOA, COMT, and DBH. Other genes associated with ADHD include SERT ... People with ADHD of all ages are more likely to have problems with social skills, such as social interaction and forming and ... Berry, M. (1 January 2007). "The Potential of Trace Amines and Their Receptors for Treating Neurological and Psychiatric ...
Dopamine Receptor Oligermization, in Neve KA (ed)'Dopamine Receptors' Springer (2009) "Dopamine Receptors: Clinical Correlates ... Seeman P, Guan HC, Van Tol HH (September 1993). "Dopamine D4 receptors elevated in schizophrenia". Nature. 365 (6445): 441-5. ... "A functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the dopamine D2 receptor gene is associated with schizophrenia". Human ... and dopamine-glutamate interactions". International Review of Neurobiology. 78: 69-108. doi:10.1016/S0074-7742(06)78003-5. ISBN ...
"GABAA and GABAB receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell differentially modulate dopamine and acetylcholine receptor-mediated ... and release of dopamine into the Nacc via interactions with VMAT2 and TAAR1 in the axon terminal of mesolimbic dopamine neurons ... D4) receptors, based on functional properties to stimulate adenylyl cyclase (AC) via Gs/olf and to inhibit AC via Gi/o, ... some proportion of medium spiny neurons are known to expresses both D1 and D2 receptors (Hersch et al., 1995). Gene expression ...
The dopamine receptors are a superfamily of heptahelical G protein-coupled receptors, and are grouped into two categories, D1- ... "Adenosine-cannabinoid receptor interactions. Implications for striatal function". Br. J. Pharmacol. 160 (3): 443-453. doi: ... like (D1, D5) and D2-like (D2, D3, D4) receptors, based on functional properties to stimulate adenylyl cyclase (AC) via Gs/olf ... some proportion of medium spiny neurons are known to expresses both D1 and D2 receptors (Hersch et al., 1995). Gene expression ...
... highly active non-ergot D2-like receptor agonist with a higher binding affinity to D3 receptors rather than D2 or D4 receptors ... Ergoline derived agonists are said to be dirtier drugs because of their interaction with other receptors than dopamine ... Howes OD, McCutcheon R, Owen MJ, Murray RM (January 2017). "The Role of Genes, Stress, and Dopamine in the Development of ... Non-ergoline dopamine receptor agonists have higher binding affinity to dopamine D3-receptors than dopamine D2-receptors. This ...
... also known as an anti-dopaminergic and a dopamine receptor antagonist (DRA), is a type of drug which blocks dopamine receptors ... The genes coding these receptors lack introns, so there are no splice variants. D1 receptors are found mainly on neurons in the ... Remoxipridebinds D2 receptors with relatively low affinity. Risperidone binds D2, D3 and D4 receptors. Risperidone not only ... Zisapel N (December 2001). "Melatonin-dopamine interactions: from basic neurochemistry to a clinical setting". Cellular and ...
July 2004). "The subcommissural organ expresses D2, D3, D4, and D5 dopamine receptors". Cell and Tissue Research. 317 (1): 65- ... Herz J (March 2001). "The LDL receptor gene family: (un)expected signal transducers in the brain". Neuron. 29 (3): 571-81. doi: ... guidance during ontogenesis of the central nervous system in the modulation of side-to-side and side-to-substratum interactions ... Some studies indicate the presence of both tyrosine-hydroxylase-immunoreactive nerve fibers and dopamine receptors in the SCO ...
"An unambiguous assay for the cloned human sigma1 receptor reveals high affinity interactions with dopamine D4 receptor ... and chromosomal localization of the human type 1 sigma receptor gene". J. Neurochem. 70 (2): 443-51. PMID 9453537. doi:10.1046/ ... Weissman AD, Su TP, Hedreen JC, London ED (1988). "Sigma receptors in post-mortem human brains". J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 247 ( ... Sigma-2 receptor. Literatura[uredi - уреди , uredi izvor]. *↑ Hayashi T, Su TP (2007). "Sigma-1 receptor chaperones at the ER- ...
Dopamine receptor InterPro: IPR000929 D1 (DRD1, DADR) D2 (DRD2, D2DR) D3 (DRD3, D3DR) D4 (DRD4, D4DR) D5 (DRD5, DBDR) Trace ... receptor-like 2 (F2RL2, PAR3) Coagulation factor II (thrombin) receptor-like 3 (F2RL3, PAR4) Epstein-Barr virus induced gene 2 ... and light receptors, all of which transduce extracellular signals through interaction with guanine nucleotide-binding (G) ... Motilin receptor (MLNR, GPR38) Anaphylatoxin receptors InterPro: IPR002234 C3a receptor (C3AR1, C3AR) C5a receptor (C5AR1, C5AR ...
The 7 repeat variant of dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4-7R) causes increased inhibitory effects induced by dopamine and is ... Typically, a number of genes are involved, many of which directly affect dopamine neurotransmission.[94][95] Those involved ... Most ADHD cases are of unknown causes.[87][88] It is believed to involve interactions between genetics, the environment, and ... Berry MD (January 2007). "The potential of trace amines and their receptors for treating neurological and psychiatric diseases ...
These effects are compounded by the usual assessment of genes without regard for gene-gene interactions. These limitations are ... as well as post mortem findings of altered Dopamine receptor D3 and dopamine transporter expression. Studies in rodents have ... While polymorphisms of the D4 and D3 receptor have been implicated in depression, associations have not been consistently ... Increased numbers of T-Cells presenting activation markers, levels of neopterin, IFN gamma, sTNFR, and IL-2 receptors have been ...
... β2 and β3 and the five dopamine receptors D1, D2, D3, D4 und D5. Their fine structure, without agonist or agonist-activated, is ... In 1986, the first gene coding for a catecholamine receptor, the β2-adrenoceptor from hamster lung, was cloned by a group of ... lies less in the effects of the extracts given alone than in their interaction with adrenaline: they reversed the normal ... specific dopamine receptors for dilation″, and at the same time evidence for dopamine receptors distinct from α- and β- ...
"Relationship between functional dopamine D2 and D3 receptors gene polymorphisms and neuroleptic malignant syndrome". American ... However, the failure of D2 dopamine receptor antagonism, or dopamine receptor dysfunction, do not fully explain the presenting ... D3 and D4) receptors induce massive glutamate release, generating catatonia, neurotoxicity and myotoxicity. Additionally, the ... The International Encyclopedia of Adverse Drug Reactions and Interactions. Elsevier. p. 607. ISBN 978-0-444-53716-4. Keck PE, ...
1994). "Genes encoding adrenergic receptors are not clustered on the long arm of human chromosome 5". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 67 ... adrenoceptor antagonist with minimal dopamine D(2) and 5-HT(1A) receptor affinity". Eur. J. Pharmacol. 433 (1): 123-7. doi: ... "Syntrophins regulate alpha1D-adrenergic receptors through a PDZ domain-mediated interaction". J. Biol. Chem. 281 (18): 12414-20 ... Gene[edit]. This gene encodes alpha-1D-adrenergic receptor. Similar to alpha-1B-adrenergic receptor gene, this gene comprises 2 ...
Genes under investigation as of 2012[update] include the 7-repeat polymorphism of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) on chromosome ... ACTH binds to receptors in the adrenal cortex, which stimulates the release of cortisol. Intracellular glucocorticoid receptor ... Parents of adults with BPD are often both over-involved and under-involved in family interactions. In romantic relationships, ... Twin studies may overestimate the effect of genes on variability in personality disorders due to the complicating factor of a ...
... s are a group of highly conserved G-protein coupled receptors from the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor family. ... "Interaction of G-protein-coupled receptors with synaptic scaffolding proteins". Biochem. Soc. Trans. 30 (4): 464-8. doi:10.1042 ... The precise functions of latrophilins remain unknown.[2] Genetic defects in latrophilin genes have been associated with ... See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor modulators • Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ...
Current Research on the DRD4 Gene. *Receptors, Dopamine D4 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings ( ... The dopamine receptor D4 is a G protein-coupled receptor encoded by the DRD4 gene on chromosome 11 at 11p15.5.[5] ... LaHoste GJ, Swanson JM, Wigal SB, Glabe C, Wigal T, King N, Kennedy JL (May 1996). "Dopamine D4 receptor gene polymorphism is ... Munafò MR, Yalcin B, Willis-Owen SA, Flint J (January 2008). "Association of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene and approach- ...
Gene" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available ... "Effect of dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) haplotypes on general psychopathology in patients with eating disorders, ... Trajectories of depressive symptoms, dopamine D2 and D4 receptors, family socioeconomic status and social support in ... Epistatic interactions implicating dopaminergic genes in bulimia nervosa (BN): relationships to eating- and personality-related ...
Building on gene-environment interaction (G × E) research, this study examines how the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene ... Receptors, Dopamine D4. LinkOut - more resources. Full Text Sources. *Silverchair Information Systems ... Religion priming differentially increases prosocial behavior among variants of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene.. Sasaki JY ... Religion priming differentially increases prosocial behavior among variants of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene ...
1999). "No interaction of GABA(A) alpha-1 subunit and dopamine receptor D4 exon 3 genes in symptomatology of major psychoses". ... At least 16 distinct subunits of GABA-A receptors have been identified. The GABRA1 receptor is the specific target of the z- ... 1999). "Dopamine receptor D2 and D4 genes, GABA(A) alpha-1 subunit genes and response to lithium prophylaxis in mood disorders ... Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GABRA1 gene. GABA is the major ...
Dopamine and sex. D4-knockout mice. D3 and antidepressants. Dopamine neurodynamics. Serotonin 5-HT2C receptors. Reward ... In the Israeli sample we also found an interaction between the D4DR gene and the serotonin 2C receptor gene (5-HT2C) with a ... The dopamine D4 receptor gene and personality. Selective 5-HT2C receptor inverse agonists: SB-243213. Refs. and further reading ... studies of 124 Israeli and 315 American normal volunteers we showed an association between the dopamine D4 receptor gene (D4DR ...
... interactions. We conclude by exploring the extent to which the growing evidence base in relation to neurobiological and genetic ... reviewing pertinent studies pointing to gene by environment (GxE) ... 2008 found a moderating role for the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) in a video-feedback intervention study designed to improve ... Secondly, although the genes influencing stress reactivity are likely to act in an additive manner, gene-gene interactions have ...
Polymorphisms in the Dopamine D4 Receptor Gene (DRD4) Contribute to Individual Differences in Human Sexual Behavior: Desire, ... Simultaneously studying three polymorphisms suggests that gene-gene interactions are partly responsible for these difficulties ... Chronic rTMS modulates cortical beta-adrenergic receptors, reduces frontal cortex 5-HT2 receptors, increases 5- ... The most replicated associations have been between the dopamine D4 receptor gene and "novelty seeking" and between the ...
Dysfunction of the dopamine D4 receptor subtype is linked to ADHD as well as other disorders characterized by decreased impulse ... "Further research is needed to explore how this deficient interaction between receptors might be remedied, which could then lead ... "Although previous studies have shown that dysfunctional dopamine D4 receptors are implicated in ADHD, this is the first study ... In the study, published in todays Molecular Psychiatry, researchers inserted three variants of the dopamine D4 receptor into ...
... in the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) gene. Logistic regression models of abstinence at 12- and 26-week follow-ups were ... that exploration of gene x gene and gene x craving interactions in future, larger studies may provide mechanistic insights into ... In humans, 5-HT1A receptors are implicated in anxiety and depressive disorders and their treatment. However, the physiological ... Dopamine D4 receptor gene variation moderates the efficacy of bupropion for smoking cessation PHARMACOGENOMICS JOURNAL ...
... a study of association with both the dopamine transporter gene and the dopamine D4 receptor gene. Am J Med Genet. 2001;105(5): ... they did not find association with other dopamine receptors (DRD2 gene TaqIA, DRD3 gene Ser9Gly, DRD4 gene 48 bp exon III VNTR ... The TaqI A1 allele of the dopamine D2 receptor gene and alcoholism in Brazil: association and interaction with stress and harm ... failed to find an association of polymorphisms of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene TaqI A and dopamine D3 (DRD3) receptor ...
G Protein-Coupled Receptor Associated Sorting Protein 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and ... beta-2 adrenergic receptor/ADRB2 and D4 dopamine receptor/DRD4. Interacts with PER1. Interacts with BECN2; the interaction is ... The receptors interacting with this sorting protein include D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2), delta opioid receptor (OPRD1), beta-2 ... Entrez Gene Summary for GPRASP1 Gene. * This gene encodes a member of the GPRASP (G protein-coupled receptor associated sorting ...
One of the most extensively studied candidate genes of cognitive functioning is the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4), which has ... One of the most extensively studied candidate genes of cognitive functioning is the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4), which has ... Genetics of dopamine receptors and drug addiction: a comprehensive review.. *Bernard Le Foll, Alexandra Gallo, Yann Le Strat, ... Interaction effects of the COMT and DRD4 genes with anxiety-related traits on selective attention.. *Margarita V Alfimova, ...
Additive interaction; Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder; Dopamine receptor D4 gene; Organophosphate pesticides; ... Receptors, Dopamine D4. LinkOut - more resources. Full Text Sources. *Elsevier Science. Medical. *Attention Deficit Disorder - ... Polymorphisms of the dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4) were identified.. RESULTS: Children with ADHD had significantly higher ... The interactions among organophosphate pesticide exposure, oxidative stress, and genetic polymorphisms of dopamine receptor D4 ...
The effect of dopamine D4 receptor density on novelty seeking, activity, social interaction, and alcohol binge drinking in ... Thanos, P.K., Hamilton, J., ORourke, J.R., Napoli, A., Febo, M., Volkow, N.D., Blum, K., & Gold, M. (2016). Dopamine D2 gene ... roles of dopamine receptors and transporters. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 9, 118.. PMID: 26029066; PMCID: PMC4428139 ... Caffeine increases striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability in the human brain. Translational Psychiatry, 5:e549.. PMID: ...
Association of dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a high-risk community ... Glial receptors and their intervention in astrocyto-astrocytic and astrocyto-neuronal interactions. Glia. 11:201-208PubMed ... Dopamine D4 receptor gene polymorphism is associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Mol. Psychiatr. 1:121-124 ... Association of the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene 7-repeat allele with children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder ...
... of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene, in the close vicinity of the -521C>T SNP. The presence of the 27 bp deletion leads to ... is a candidate gene of great interest in molecular studies of human personality and psychiatric disorders. This gene is unique ... A comparison of methods and results for the allelic variations of the DRD4 gene in various ethnic groups is also discussed, ... suggesting that the different alleles may affect the transcriptional regulation of the gene. ...
... the serotonin 3A receptor (HTR3A), the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4), and the dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) genes and CSF ... The present results suggest that the HTR3A and DBH genes may participate in the regulation of dopamine and serotonin turnover ... We investigated possible relationships between DNA polymorphisms in the serotonin 2C receptor (HTR2C), ... Tricklebank MD: The functional importance of 5-HT3 receptors in the interactions between serotonergic and dopaminergic systems ...
Seeman P (1992) Dopamine receptor sequences, therapeutic levels of neuroleptics occupy D2 receptors, clozapine occupies D4. ... 1991) Cloning of the gene for a human dopamine D4 receptor with high affinity for the antipsychotic clozapine. Nature 350: 610- ... Baldessarini RJ, Marsh ER, Kula NS (1992) Interactions of fluoxetine with metabolism of dopamine and serotonin in rat brain ... 1993) Dopamine D4 receptor subtypes and response to clozapine. Lancet 341: 116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
Interaction with dopamine D4 receptor and dopamine D3 receptor polymorphisms. Am J Med Genet 74: 65-72. ... Characterization of the functional activity of dopamine ligands at human recombinant dopamine D4 receptors. J Neurochem 63: 62- ... Epstein RP, Segman R, Benjamin J, Osher Y, Nemanov L, and Belmaker RH (1997) 5-HT2C serotonin receptor gene polymorphism ... but not with analogous 5-HT and dopamine receptors (human 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, 5-HT6, 5-HT7, and dopamine D2-long and D3 receptors ...
Gene-Environment Interaction Alcoholism Dopamine D4 Receptors Behavioral Sciences Longitudinal Studies 6 Citations (Scopus) ... The moderating role of the oxytocin receptor gene. Ebbert, A. M., Infurna, F. J., Luthar, S. S., Lemery-Chalfant, K. & Corbin, ... Alcohol-related genes show an enrichment of associations with a persistent externalizing factor. Ashenhurst, J. R., Harden, K. ... Interactions between DRD4 and developmentally specific environments in alcohol-dependence symptoms. Carlson, M. D., Paige ...
Dopaminergic Gene Variation, and Life Events: A Critical Examination - Volume 1 - Alexander Strobel, Anja Strobel, Sören Enge, ... Anacker, K., Enge, S., Reif, A., Lesch, K. P., & Strobel, A. (2013). Dopamine D4 receptor gene variation impacts self-reported ... Zhong, P., & Yan, Z. (2016). Distinct physiological effects of dopamine D4 receptors on prefrontal cortical pyramidal neurons ... with a tentative increment in the prediction of NFC by adding an interaction of positive life events and DRD4 variation to the ...
The moderating role of the oxytocin receptor gene. Ebbert, A. M., Infurna, F. J., Luthar, S. S., Lemery-Chalfant, K. & Corbin, ... Interactions between DRD4 and developmentally specific environments in alcohol-dependence symptoms. Carlson, M. D., Paige ... Alcohol-related genes show an enrichment of associations with a persistent externalizing factor. Ashenhurst, J. R., Harden, K. ... Trajectories of Positive and Negative Affect Across the Transition to College: The Role of Daily Interactions With Parents and ...
Thyroid hormone and adrenergic signaling interact to control pineal expression of the dopamine receptor D4 gene (Drd4). Mol ... Gene-environment interaction in hyperkinetic conduct disorder (HD + CD) as indicated by season of birth variations in dopamine ... 116] reported that being a 7R-carrier of dopamine D4 receptors (one of the genetic risk factors associated with ADHD) [117], ... Differential dopamine receptor D4 allele association with ADHD dependent of proband season of birth. Am J Med Genet B ...
Certain alleles of the gene for one dopamine receptor - type D4 (DRD4) - are associated with antisocial behaviors. People with ... So it looks for gene-environment (G x E) interactions, asking what happens when certain genes and certain environments combine ... The brain has a family of five receptors that pick up on dopamines release. ... "Religion priming differentially increases prosocial behavior among variants of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene" in Social ...
Interaction at dopamine D4 receptors may improve cognitive function, which is highly impaired in individuals with schizophrenia ... receptor antagonist and 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist properties: influence on immediate-early gene expression in rat prefrontal ... F15063, a potential antipsychotic with dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonist, 5-HT1A receptor agonist and dopamine D4 receptor ... The D2/D3 receptor antagonist, D4 receptor partial agonist, and high efficacy 5‐HT1A receptor agonist F15063 was shown to be… ...
The dopamine D4 receptor gene, birth weight, maternal depression, maternal attention, and the prediction of disorganized ... A DRD4 gene by maternal sensitivity interaction predicts risk for overweight or obesity in two independent cohorts of preschool ... The interplay of birth weight, dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4), and early maternal care in the prediction of disorganized ... Prenatal maternal depression and child serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and dopamine receptor D4 ( ...
Dopamine D4 receptor gene polymorphism (DRD4 VNTR) moderates real-world behavioural response to the food retail environment in ... A DRD4 gene by maternal sensitivity interaction predicts risk for overweight or obesity in two independent cohorts of preschool ... Association between the seven-repeat allele of the dopamine-4 receptor gene (DRD4) and spontaneous food intake in pre-school ... Fetal growth interacts with multilocus genetic score reflecting dopamine signaling capacity to predict spontaneous sugar intake ...
Inhibition of dopamine receptor D4 impedes autophagic flux, proliferation, and survival of glioblastoma stem cells. Cancer Cell ... Dopamine targets cycling B cells independent of receptors/transporter for oxidative attack: Implications for non-Hodgkins ... Changes in innate and acquired immune responses in mice with targeted deletion of the dopamine transporter gene. J Neuroimmunol ... Devoino L., Alperina E., Idova G. Dopaminergic stimulation of the immune reaction: interaction of serotoninergic and ...
Dopamine D4 receptor gene polymorphism (DRD4 VNTR) moderates real-world behavioural response to the food retail environment in ... A DRD4 gene by maternal sensitivity interaction predicts risk for overweight or obesity in two independent cohorts of preschool ... Association between the seven-repeat allele of the dopamine-4 receptor gene (DRD4) and spontaneous food intake in pre-school ... Fetal growth interacts with multilocus genetic score reflecting dopamine signaling capacity to predict spontaneous sugar intake ...
Associations between dopamine D4 receptor gene variation with both infidelity and sexual promiscuity. Plos One, 5 (11), e14162. ... Or, we can alter our interactions with them to be more humiliating, more denigrating, more truthful, and less respectful, and ... employs all of the color receptors, to use my own analogy. We "see" the full spectrum of human nature. ... but the only one we see in the evidence today is the 7r allele of the DRD4 dopamine receptor gene. DRD4 is a gene which is ...
... implications for ligand-receptor interactions in the age of peptides, heterodimers, receptor mosaics, truncated receptors, and ... Lower striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in obese compared with non-obese subjects Obesity is a result of a relative ... Effects of internal low-dose irradiation from 131I on gene expression in normal tissues in Balb/c mice The aim of this study ... Decreased defluorination using the novel beta-cell imaging agent [18F]FE-DTBZ-d4 in pigs examined by PET Fluorine-18 ...
Dopamine D1 Receptors *Dopamine D2-like, Non-Selective *Dopamine D3 Receptors *Dopamine D4 Receptors ... ortholog of (the gene encoding Beclin 1) reversed the life-span extension from the insulin-like tyrosine kinase receptor loss- ... Recent studies also reveal two roles for Beclin 1 through its interaction with another PD protein PARK2 in the translocation of ... to the gene on chromosome 17q21 and the presence of deletions encompassing both and and knockout mice shows that autophagy ...
Dopamine D1 Receptors *Dopamine D2-like, Non-Selective *Dopamine D3 Receptors *Dopamine D4 Receptors ... Clinical evidence supported the purported conversation between PGE2 and Wnt signaling Peimisine manufacture gene, a crucial ... 2021 Discovery of Small-Molecule Inhibitors of Receptor Powered by WordPress To the top ↑ Up ↑ ... Interactions between developmental signaling pathways govern the formation and function of. * Post author By molecularcircuit ...
Dopamine D2 Receptors *Dopamine D2-like, Non-Selective *Dopamine D3 Receptors *Dopamine D4 Receptors ... within the DSPP gene regulatory area and activates DSPP gene transcription and cell behaviors. Outcomes DSP aa 183-219 binds to ... and/or progesterone receptor (PR) positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive, and triple-negative ... The kinetics of infused MSCs in healthy mice may reflect interactions between systemically. ...
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  • A moderating role of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) exon III polymorphism was found: VIPP-SD proved to be effective in decreasing externalizing behavior in children with the DRD4 7-repeat allele, a polymorphism that is associated with motivational and reward mechanisms and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children. (nih.gov)
  • To investigate the association between dopamine D4 receptor gene DRD4 exon III 48bp variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism and temperament in school-aged children. (bvsalud.org)
  • To investigate the association between anxiety-depression and 5-HTTLPR gene polymorphism in school-aged twins. (bvsalud.org)
  • This study analyzes the correlates of two genetic polymorphisms, the TaqI A polymorphism in the dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) gene and the 48 base pair (bp) repeat polymorphism in the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Polymorphism groups and interactions between the genes involved as well as the gene and environment are other areas in which research is likely to be fruitful in elucidating the mechanisms by which ADHD behavior is precipitated in susceptible individuals. (news-medical.net)
  • We aimed to determine the effect of functional polymorphisms and haplotypes in the Dopamine Receptor D4 (DRD4) gene on general psychopathological symptoms in ED patients. (deepdyve.com)
  • The interactions among organophosphate pesticide exposure, oxidative stress, and genetic polymorphisms of dopamine receptor D4 increase the risk of. (cdc.gov)
  • Polymorphisms of the dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4) were identified. (cdc.gov)
  • The gene and its regulatory region contain several length variations and numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • We investigated possible relationships between DNA polymorphisms in the serotonin 2C receptor ( HTR2C ), the serotonin 3A receptor ( HTR3A ), the dopamine D 4 receptor ( DRD4 ), and the dopamine β-hydroxylase ( DBH ) genes and CSF concentrations of 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) in healthy volunteers (n = 90). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we hypothesized that the extent of such drug effects on impulse control is related to specific dopamine gene polymorphisms. (mit.edu)
  • Polymorphisms in dopamine system genes are associated with individual differences in attention in infancy. (ox.ac.uk)
  • This study investigated the effects of polymorphisms in four dopamine system genes on performance in a task developed to assess such functioning, the Freeze-Frame task, at 9 months of age. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Polymorphisms in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) genes are likely to impact directly on the functioning of the frontal cortex, whereas polymorphisms in the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) and dopamine transporter (DAT1) genes might influence frontal cortex functioning indirectly via strong frontostriatal connections. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We then examined genetic polymorphisms in four candidate genes (DRD4, DAT, COMT and MAOA) that have been shown to contribute to the risk of developing various psychiatric disorders where attention is disrupted. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Minor alleles of the human dopamine receptor polymorphisms, DRD2/TaqI A and DRD4/48 bp, are related to decreased functioning and/or numbers of their respective receptors and have been shown to be correlated with body mass, height and food craving. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we examine polymorphisms in the DRD2 and DRD4 genes with respect to body mass index (BMI) and height among men in two populations of Ariaal pastoralists, one recently settled (n = 87) and the other still nomadic (n = 65). (biomedcentral.com)
  • 13 ]] for the evolution of dopamine gene polymorphisms that have been primarily investigated in industrialized settings. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we examine the relationships between genetic polymorphisms of dopamine receptor genes and several phenotypes in Ariaal men. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We examine how two dopamine receptor genetic polymorphisms relate to measures of nutrition/body composition among these two groups. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Li Y, Wu B, Xiong H, Zhu C, Zhang L. Polymorphisms of STAT-6, STAT-4 and IFN-gamma genes and the risk of asthma in Chinese population. (epistasisblog.org)
  • Beretta L, Cappiello F, Moore JH, Scorza R. Interleukin-1 gene complex single nucleotide polymorphisms in systemic sclerosis: a further step ahead. (epistasisblog.org)
  • Berretta L, Cappiello JH, Moore JH, Greene CS, Barili M, Scorza R. Epistatic interactions of cytokine single nucleotide polymorphisms predict susceptibility to disease subsets in systemic sclerosis patients. (epistasisblog.org)
  • Chen M, Kamat AM, Huang M, Grossman HB, Dinney CP, Lerner S, Wu X, Gu J. High-order interactions among genetic polymorphisms in nucleotide excision repair pathway genes and smoking in modulating bladder cancer risk. (epistasisblog.org)
  • To search forpossible associations between dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) and dopamine transponer 1 (DATl) polymorphisms and ADHD in Chilean families. (conicyt.cl)
  • If the sleep disorder is considered to be due to dopaminergic medication, a reduction of long-term acting agents like modern dopamine agonists and controlled-release levodopa should be considered. (springer.com)
  • Dopamine agonists can impair inhibitory control and cause impulse control disorders for those with Parkinson disease (PD), although mechanistically this is not well understood. (mit.edu)
  • The implications of the present findings are that genotyping can be used to predict impulse control and whether it will improve or worsen with the administration of dopamine agonists. (mit.edu)
  • The effects of flibanserin on adenylyl cyclase are different from those of buspirone and 8-OH-DPAT, two other purported 5-HT1A receptor agonists. (scribd.com)
  • García-Herráiz, Angustias 2018-05-15 00:00:00 Among the many candidate genes analyzed in eating disorder (ED) patients, those involved in dopaminergic functions may be of special relevance, as dopamine is known to play a significant role in feeding behavior, the distortion of body image, hyperactivity and reward and reinforcement processes. (deepdyve.com)
  • With the present contribution, we aim at furthering our knowledge on the mechanisms underlying intellectual investment traits by following-up on a recent investigation of the role of dopaminergic gene variation in intellectual investment. (cambridge.org)
  • It is well known that dopaminergic genes affect the development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in various populations. (nih.gov)
  • The dopaminergic theory about the neurobiology of ADHD led to the first gene association study for ADHD by Cook and colleagues. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Dopaminergic transmission within limbic regions of the brain is highly dependent on the regulation of D2 receptor activity. (jneurosci.org)
  • NCS-1-D2 receptor interaction may serve to couple dopamine and calcium signaling pathways, thereby providing a critical component in the regulation of dopaminergic signaling in normal and diseased brain. (jneurosci.org)
  • A number of psychiatric disorders including Tourette's syndrome and schizophrenia are associated with imbalances in dopaminergic transmission, possibly caused by alterations in dopamine receptor signaling ( Sealfon and Olanow, 2000 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Therefore, it is possible that a dysregulation in dopaminergic signaling may be brought about through alterations in proteins that serve to regulate signaling through dopamine and other receptors. (jneurosci.org)
  • To better characterize cochlear dopaminergic signaling, we studied receptor localization using immunohistochemistry or reverse transcriptase PCR and assessed histopathology, cochlear responses and olivocochlear function in mice with targeted deletion of each of the five receptor subtypes. (jneurosci.org)
  • In D4 and D5 knock-outs, the increased noise vulnerability was seen only in ABRs, consistent with a role for dopaminergic signaling in minimizing neural damage. (jneurosci.org)
  • Therefore, it is likely that the mechanism underlying receptor desensitization, including the desensitization of subtypes of dopamine receptors, is modulated by the activity of proteins that can interact with both the receptor and its kinase. (jneurosci.org)
  • Displays 18 - 200-fold selectivity over other dopamine receptor subtypes. (tocris.com)
  • The studies on neuromodulation have concentrated on examining interactions among receptor subtypes in the striatum and othe nuclei of the basal ganglia as well as new genetic models of Parkinson's disease. (ucla.edu)
  • These studies emanate from our initial observations that the direction of dopamine modulation of electrophysiological responses induced by activation of excitatory amino acid receptors is dependent upon the subtypes of excitatory amino acid and dopamine receptors activated. (ucla.edu)
  • Clinically Combating Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) with Dopamine Agonist Therapy as a Paradigm Shift: Dopamine for Dinner? (buffalo.edu)
  • This double-blind, placebo-controlled study aimed to examine the effect of single doses of 0.5 and 1.0 mg of the dopamine agonist ropinirole on impulse control in healthy adults of typical age for PD onset. (mit.edu)
  • F15063, a potential antipsychotic with D2/D3 antagonist, 5-HT 1A agonist and D4 partial agonist properties. (semanticscholar.org)
  • F15063, a potential antipsychotic with dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptor antagonist and 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist properties: influence on immediate-early gene expression in rat prefrontal cortex and striatum. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Agonist and antagonist properties of antipsychotics at human dopamine D4.4 receptors: G-protein activation and K+ channel modulation in transfected cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Analysis of D2 receptors expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells indicates that NCS-1 attenuates agonist-induced receptor internalization via a mechanism that involves a reduction in D2 receptor phosphorylation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Although originally thought to mediate agonist-dependent (homologous) and agonist-independent (heterologous) forms of receptor desensitization, both GRKs and second messenger kinases are now believed to contribute to both forms of receptor desensitization in a more complex manner ( Ferguson, 2001 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • High affinity D 3 dopamine receptor agonist (K i = 2.3 nM). (tocris.com)
  • In vitro and in microiontophoresis, flibanserin behaves as a 5-HT1A agonist, a very weak partial agonist on dopamine D4 receptors, and a 5-HT2A antagonist. (scribd.com)
  • On agonist stimulation, GRKs are recruited to the plasma membrane and phosphorylate the activated β2 receptors ( 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • For each drug-receptor complex, SOIPPA searched for TB proteins with structurally similar binding sites. (biomedicalcomputationreview.org)
  • To identify proteins involved in mediating D2 receptor signaling, we used the C terminus of the D2 receptor as bait to screen a human brain cDNA library. (jneurosci.org)
  • Additionally we are shipping Dopamine d2 Receptor Kits (55) and Dopamine d2 Receptor Proteins (12) and many more products for this protein. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Such motifs in other proteins are known to mediate protein-protein interactions such as with Src homology (SH)3 domains. (pnas.org)
  • Thus, our studies demonstrate a role of the SH3p4/p8/p13 protein family in β1-AR signaling and suggest that interaction between proline-rich motifs and SH3-containing proteins may represent a previously underappreciated aspect of G-protein coupled receptor signaling. (pnas.org)
  • Furthermore, these regions are also critical for binding of βAR regulatory proteins, primarily the G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) and the β-arrestins ( 9 , 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • In the case of dopamine D4 receptors, these proline-rich motifs were demonstrated, in vitro , to serve as potential ligands for several SH3 domain-containing proteins, such as Nck and Grb2 ( 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • In an attempt to better understand the biology of β1-AR signaling and the molecular determinants underlying the differences between β1-AR and β2-AR regulation, we set out to search for novel binding proteins for the β1-AR by using its third intracellular loop as bait in several protein interaction systems. (pnas.org)
  • One of the most extensively studied candidate genes of cognitive functioning is the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4), which has been suggested to be related to attentional disorders. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Association between candidate genes and lung function growth in Chinese asthmatic children. (epistasisblog.org)
  • Evaluating gene x gene and gene x smoking interaction in rheumatoid arthritis using candidate genes in GAW15. (epistasisblog.org)
  • Exploring epistasis in candidate genes for rheumatoid arthritis. (epistasisblog.org)
  • The receptors interacting with this sorting protein include D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2), delta opioid receptor (OPRD1), beta-2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2), D4 dopamine receptor (DRD4) and cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R). (genecards.org)
  • Interacts with cytoplasmic tails of a variety of G-protein coupled receptors such as D2 dopamine receptor/DRD2 (By similarity), delta opioid receptor/OPRD1, beta-2 adrenergic receptor/ADRB2 and D4 dopamine receptor/DRD4. (genecards.org)
  • On www.antibodies-online.com are 112 Dopamine Receptor D2 (DRD2) Antibodies from 21 different suppliers available. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Comparing the relative importance for the prediction of gIQ in an overlapping subsample, the results demonstrate neurobiological correlates of the malleability of gIQ and point to equal importance of genetic variance, epigenetic modification of DRD2 receptor gene, as well as functional striatal activation, known to influence dopamine neurotransmission. (antibodies-online.com)
  • DRD2 and DRD4 are both considered D2-like receptors and have similar functions and distributions, but are distinct. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Religion priming differentially increases prosocial behavior among variants of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene. (nih.gov)
  • In the study, published in today's Molecular Psychiatry, researchers inserted three variants of the dopamine D4 receptor into cells and into mice so that they could investigate differences in biological activities. (redorbit.com)
  • DRD4 gene variants and sustained attention in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): effects of associated alleles at the VNTR and -521 SNP. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Study highlights the importance of considering haplotypes spanning adjacent genes and the cooperation and interaction of proximal variants or genes in genetic association studies. (antibodies-online.com)
  • [7] Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants that would encode different isoforms, although some variants may be subject to nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, differences in the genetic profile and in the exposure to environmental risks may result in different interactions and pathways to psychopathology. (scielo.br)
  • Various studies have demonstrated the importance of GAIP interacting protein, C-terminus (GIPC, also known as Synectin) as a central adaptor molecule in different signaling pathways and as an important mediator of receptor stability. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Caffeine increases striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability in the human brain. (buffalo.edu)
  • Short-term effects of adolescent methylphenidate exposure on brain striatal gene expression and sexual/endocrine parameters in male rats. (springer.com)
  • Coimmunoprecipitation experiments from striatal neurons reveal that NCS-1 is found in association with both the D2 receptor and G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2, a regulator of D2 receptor desensitization. (jneurosci.org)
  • A study using mice provides insight into how a specific receptor subtype in the brain could play a role in increasing a person's risk for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (redorbit.com)
  • Dysfunction of the dopamine D4 receptor subtype is linked to ADHD as well as other disorders characterized by decreased impulse control, including drug abuse. (redorbit.com)
  • This gene encodes the D 3 subtype of the dopamine receptor . (wikipedia.org)
  • The researchers found that the D4.7 variant, unlike its D4.2 and D4.4 counterparts, was not able to interact with the short version of the dopamine type 2 (D2S) receptor to reduce glutamate release in a brain region associated with impulsivity and symptoms of ADHD in humans. (redorbit.com)
  • Our results suggest that psychostimulants might reduce glutamate release by amplifying this D4/D2S interaction," said Dr. Sergi Ferre, primary author for the study. (redorbit.com)
  • Ketamine is an antagonist of the glutamate NMDA receptor and is thought to work by blocking NMDA receptors on inhibitory GABA -containing interneurons, ultimately promoting glutamate release. (blogspot.com)
  • A strong gene-environment interaction showed that participants carrying at least one copy of the 7-repeat allele consumed substantially more alcohol in the presence of a heavy-drinking individual than did participants without this allele. (blogspot.com)
  • In addition, the 7R minor allele of the DRD4 gene is at a higher frequency in nomadic compared to sedentary populations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Interaction effects of the COMT and DRD4 genes with anxiety-related traits on selective attention. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Molecular genetics studies suggest that ADHD is a multifactorial polygenic disorder with minor contribution from each individual susceptibility gene. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Using a 3 (drinking condition) × 2 (genotype) experimental design ( N = 113), we tested whether susceptibility to alcohol-related cues (i.e., seeing someone drink) was related to the variable number of tandem repeats in exon 3 of the D4 dopamine receptor gene. (blogspot.com)
  • A testing framework for identifying susceptibility genes in the presence of epistasis. (epistasisblog.org)
  • Julia A, Moore J, Miquel L, Alegre C, Barcelo P, Ritchie M, Marsal S. Identification of a two-loci epistatic interaction associated with susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis through reverse engineering and multifactor dimensionality reduction. (epistasisblog.org)
  • Briollais L, Wang Y, Rajendram I, Onay V, Shi E, Knight J, Ozcelik H. Methodological issues in detecting gene-gene interactions in breast cancer susceptibility: a population-based study in Ontario. (epistasisblog.org)
  • Gene association studies have also been performed to identify possible susceptibility-related sites, which may make individual patients more vulnerable to specific environmental factors. (news-medical.net)
  • Another potentially profitable approach could be a search of positive allosteric modulators, which could achieve greater receptor selectivity than the agents for 5-HT sites that are shared by many analogous 5-HT receptors and transporters. (aspetjournals.org)
  • There's a lot of evidence now that the so-called 'magic bullet'-one-drug to specifically bind to one receptor to treat one condition-is the exception rather than the rule," says Philip E. Bourne, PhD , a professor of pharmacology at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD). (biomedicalcomputationreview.org)
  • GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain where it acts at GABA-A receptors, which are ligand-gated chloride channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • These actions of PNU-69176E were observed with the human 5-HT 2C receptor expressed in several mammalian cell lines (human embryonic kidney 293, NIH3T3, and SH-EP) at variable receptor densities (6 to 45 pmol/mg of protein), but not with analogous 5-HT and dopamine receptors (human 5-HT 2A , 5-HT 2B , 5-HT 6 , 5-HT 7 , and dopamine D2-long and D3 receptors). (aspetjournals.org)
  • In the mammalian retina, dopamine binding to the dopamine D4 receptor affects a light-sensitive pool of cyclic AMP by negatively coupling to the type 1 adenylyl cyclase. (emory.edu)
  • Schematic of the synaptic interactions among hair cells, cochlear nerve afferents, and olivocochlear efferent fibers in the mammalian cochlea. (jneurosci.org)
  • Building on gene-environment interaction (G × E) research, this study examines how the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene interacts with a situational prime of religion to influence prosocial behavior. (nih.gov)
  • Dopamine D2 gene expression interacts with environmental enrichment to impact lifespan and behavior. (buffalo.edu)
  • Genetics of dopamine receptors and drug addiction: a comprehensive review. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Andrade R, Nicoli RA (1987) Novel anxyolitics discriminate between postsynaptic serotonin receptors mediating different physiological responses on single neurons of the rat hippocampus. (springer.com)
  • In striatum, NCS-1 and D2 receptors were found to colocalize within sites of synaptic transmission and in close proximity to intracellular calcium stores. (jneurosci.org)
  • Only bright, punctate labeling localized to sites of possible synaptic interaction are considered in this schematic. (jneurosci.org)
  • Modulation signals (from slow receptors) initiate the synaptic strengthening which occurs in memory. (robsstrategystudio.org)
  • This effect of NCS-1 was accompanied by an increase in D2 receptor-mediated cAMP inhibition after dopamine stimulation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Flibanserin-induced reduction in firing rate in the cortex seems to be mediated through stimulation of postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors, whereas the reduction of the number of active cells seems to be mediated through dopamine D4 receptor stimulation. (scribd.com)
  • Flibanserin seems to act via direct or indirect stimulation of 5-HT1A, DA, and opioid receptors in those animal models. (scribd.com)
  • Pharmacologically activating the dopamine D4 receptor 4 hrs before its normal stimulation at light onset in the morning advances the phase of the Adcy1 mRNA expression pattern. (emory.edu)
  • Regulation of ethanol intake under chronic mild stress: roles of dopamine receptors and transporters. (buffalo.edu)
  • The present investigation provides evidence that dopamine D4 receptor activation entrains the circadian rhythm of Adcy1 mRNA expression. (emory.edu)
  • Homo sapiens dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) mRNA, complete cds. (embl.de)
  • This idea is underscored by the fact that the majority of antipsychotic and neuroleptic drugs act as antagonists of D2-like receptors ( Seeman, 1992 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Thus, minor alleles can be viewed as analogous to their respective dopamine receptor antagonists (although this neglects developmental effects), and thus provide natural experiments to dissect aspects of human physiology. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Other developmental disabilities such as phenylketoneuria, Angelman syndrome and fragile-X mental retardation reveal the profound way in which single genes alter the normal trajectory of brain and cognitive development ( G. Scerif and A. Karmiloff-Smith, 2005 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The norepinephrine transporter gene and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. (springer.com)
  • Concentrations of the major serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), the major dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA), and the major norepinephrine metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) in lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been used extensively as indirect measures of monoamine turnover in the brain of humans. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Norepinephrine and dopamine, which are powerful stimulatory neurotransmitters, are reduced in the ADHD brain in several studies. (news-medical.net)
  • Indications for a role of synergistic D1-D3 receptor interactions in the striatum. (tocris.com)
  • This observation could explain many of the inconsistencies in the literature concerning the modulatory role of dopamine in the striatum and other nuclei. (ucla.edu)
  • 13] They investigated a 40 bp variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) located in the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) in ADHD families. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The processes of receptor desensitization and resensitization modulate signaling through GPCRs. (jneurosci.org)
  • The desensitization of activated GPCRs is mediated by the phosphorylation of serine and threonine residues within the intracellular domains of receptors ( Ferguson, 2001 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • More intriguingly, this sequence feature also can be found in other G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), including β3-AR, α2A-AR, and dopamine D4 receptors ( 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • I. In vitro receptor affinity and efficacy profile. (semanticscholar.org)
  • EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH F15063 was characterised in tests of binding affinity and in cellular models of signal transduction at monoamine receptors. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This rank of affinity values is still maintained when the affinity for 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors was evaluated in brain tissue. (scribd.com)
  • However, flibanserin displays higher affinity for 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors in cloned cells than in cerebral tissue (the affinity for D4 receptors was not tested in tissues). (scribd.com)
  • Flibanserin also shows some affinity for human D2L and D3 receptors and rat NEalpha1 and 5-HT7 receptors (12). (scribd.com)
  • In methodically similar but independent studies of 124 Israeli and 315 American normal volunteers we showed an association between the dopamine D4 receptor gene (D4DR) and the personality trait of novelty seeking. (biopsychiatry.com)
  • In the Israeli sample we also found an interaction between the D4DR gene and the serotonin 2C receptor gene (5-HT2C) with a marked effect on the trait of reward dependence. (biopsychiatry.com)
  • Methylphenidate improves prefrontal cortical cognitive function through alpha2 adrenoceptor and dopamine D1 receptor actions: Relevance to therapeutic effects in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. (springer.com)
  • Homo sapiens gene for seven transmembrane helix receptor, complete cds, isolate:CBRC7TM_328. (embl.de)
  • β-adrenergic receptors (βARs) belong to a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors that contain seven transmembrane domains connected by three extracellular loops, three intracellular loops, and a carboxyl terminal tail. (pnas.org)
  • however, the literature on cochlear expression and localization of dopamine receptors is contradictory. (jneurosci.org)
  • Dopamine receptor localization (red and orange bars-see key) is inferred from the D1 and D2 receptor immunohistochemistry in the present study: solid versus dotted bars indicate unambiguous versus ambiguous localization, respectively. (jneurosci.org)
  • A number of serotonin receptors mediate the effects of serotonin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The human dopamine D4 receptor gene, located proximal to the Harvey-RAS oncogene locus and distal to the tyrosine hydroxylase locus [ 18 ], consists of 4 exons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, employing a Bayesian approach, the assumption of a genetic effect on investment traits was overall not supported, while the assumption of a role of positive life events in the modulation of investment traits could be confirmed, with a tentative increment in the prediction of NFC by adding an interaction of positive life events and DRD4 variation to the main effect of positive life events. (cambridge.org)
  • Although previous studies have shown that dysfunctional dopamine D4 receptors are implicated in ADHD, this is the first study to show how this genetic difference might translate into functional deficits seen with this disorder," said NIDA Director Dr. Nora D. Volkow. (redorbit.com)
  • Dopamine is necessary for impulse control, whereas dysfunctional levels of frontostriatal dopamine are associated with worse control (Pattij & Vanderschuren, 2008 ). (mit.edu)
  • Further research is needed to explore how this deficient interaction between receptors might be remedied, which could then lead to new medications for the treatment of ADHD. (redorbit.com)
  • The estimated value of the AP (attributable proportion due to interaction) was 0.59 (95% CI: 0.13-1.05), indicating that 59% of ADHD cases in DMP-exposed children with the DRD4 GG genotype were due to the gene-environment interaction. (cdc.gov)
  • This study indicated a gene-environment interaction in the risk of ADHD in children. (cdc.gov)
  • ADHD is a complex condition caused by the interaction of genetic, social, and environmental factors. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • 10] Current findings from both candidate gene studies and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have failed to find a major gene for ADHD. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Based on these published reports, our review starts with an overview of candidate gene studies, considers ADHD endophenotypes, presents results from the first GWAS of ADHD in Chinese Han children, and concludes with a discussion of pharmacogenomics studies. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Overall ORs from all these studies, which showed significant results have ranged between 1.18 and 1.46, mostly with the dopamine receptor genes, showing a positive association with the development of ADHD. (news-medical.net)
  • The conclusion is that genetic contribution to ADHD etiology is not monogenic, but due to the interplay of many genes, which individually have small effects. (news-medical.net)
  • The effect of dopamine D4 receptor density on novelty seeking, activity, social interaction, and alcohol binge drinking in adult mice. (buffalo.edu)
  • A previous study demonstrated that expression of the gene encoding the type 1 adenylyl cyclase, Adcy1, is down regulated in mice lacking Drd4, the gene encoding the dopamine D4 receptor. (emory.edu)
  • However, these rhythmic activities were damped or undetectable in mice lacking the dopamine D4 receptor. (emory.edu)
  • Akimoto, Furuse: SCH23390, a dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, suppressed scratching behavior induced by compound 48/80 in mice. (antibodies-online.com)
  • However, it is important to emphasise that such mice are animal models of a single gene dysfunction, rather than models of anxiety, per se. (deepdyve.com)
  • Anderson GD, Rebec GV (1988) Clozapine and haloperidol in the amygdaloid complex: differential effects on dopamine transmission with long-term treatment. (springer.com)
  • Apomorphine-induced emesis in dogs: differential sensitivity to established and novel dopamine D2/5-HT(1A) antipsychotic compounds. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A dopamine genetic risk score quantified basal dopamine neurotransmission from the influence of five genes: catechol- O -methyltransferase, dopamine transporter, and those encoding receptors D1, D2, and D3. (mit.edu)
  • Several G-protein coupled receptors, such as the β1-adrenergic receptor (β1-AR), contain polyproline motifs within their intracellular domains. (pnas.org)
  • Moreover, differences in phenotyping and genotyping methodology may also obscure the weak effect of a gene variant on the investigated trait. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our previous research has demonstrated that olanzapine (a dopamine antagonist) attenuates craving for alcohol, that a variant in the gene that expresses D4 receptors influences craving for alcohol, and that olanzapine is particularly effective at reducing craving among individuals with this variant. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This gene encodes a member of the GPRASP (G protein-coupled receptor associated sorting protein) family. (genecards.org)
  • GPRASP1 (G Protein-Coupled Receptor Associated Sorting Protein 1) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • The protein may modulate lysosomal sorting and functional down-regulation of a variety of G-protein coupled receptors. (genecards.org)
  • The ability of NCS-1 to modulate D2 receptor signaling was abolished after a single amino acid mutation in NCS-1 that has been shown to impair the calcium-binding properties of NCS-1. (jneurosci.org)
  • Baldessarini RJ, Marsh ER, Kula NS (1992) Interactions of fluoxetine with metabolism of dopamine and serotonin in rat brain regions. (springer.com)
  • Homo sapiens DRD4 gene for dopamine receptor D4, partial cds, haplotype: Hsa108. (embl.de)
  • Homo sapiens clone EIII48bpVNTR14 dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene, partial cds. (embl.de)
  • Homo sapiens haplotype (3R)1-2-20 dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene, partial cds. (embl.de)
  • PCR was used for the typing of DRD4 exon III 48bp VNTR, and the effect of this gene and its interaction with the environment on temperament was analyzed. (bvsalud.org)
  • DRD4 exon III 48bp VNTR and its interaction with other factors may affect the activity level and reaction intensity of school-aged children. (bvsalud.org)
  • Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Alters Brain Activity in Regions that Underlie Reward and Taste Perception. (buffalo.edu)
  • Neurogenetics and gene therapy for reward deficiency syndrome: are we going to the Promised Land? (buffalo.edu)