The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.
Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.
The ability to understand and manage emotions and to use emotional knowledge to enhance thought and deal effectively with tasks. Components of emotional intelligence include empathy, self-motivation, self-awareness, self-regulation, and social skill. Emotional intelligence is a measurement of one's ability to socialize or relate to others.
Tests designed to measure intellectual functioning in children and adults.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.
An individual intelligence test designed primarily for school children to predict school performance and the ability to adjust to everyday demands.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.
Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)
A learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal.
A set of cognitive functions that controls complex, goal-directed thought and behavior. Executive function involves multiple domains, such as CONCEPT FORMATION, goal management, cognitive flexibility, INHIBITION control, and WORKING MEMORY. Impaired executive function is seen in a range of disorders, e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; and ADHD.
A personality dimension characterized by the manipulation of others.
Head injuries which feature compromise of the skull and dura mater. These may result from gunshot wounds (WOUNDS, GUNSHOT), stab wounds (WOUNDS, STAB), and other forms of trauma.
Success in bringing an effort to the desired end; the degree or level of success attained in some specified area (esp. scholastic) or in general.
Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.
Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.
The ability to acquire general or special types of knowledge or skill.
Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)
Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.
Capacity that enables an individual to cope with and/or recover from the impact of a neural injury or a psychotic episode.
Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.
Skills and strategies, unrelated to the traits a test is intended to measure, that may increase test takers' scores -- may include the effects of coaching or experience in taking tests. (ERIC Thesaurus)
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
Impaired ability in numerical concepts. These inabilities arise as a result of primary neurological lesion, are syndromic (e.g., GERSTMANN SYNDROME ) or acquired due to brain damage.
Primarily non-verbal tests designed to predict an individual's future learning ability or performance.
A psychological test consisting of nine geometric designs on cards. The subject is asked to redraw them from memory after each one is presented individually.
A disorder beginning in childhood whose essential features are persistent impairment in reciprocal social communication and social interaction, and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. These symptoms may limit or impair everyday functioning. (From DSM-5)
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Field of medicine concerned with the determination of causes, incidence, and characteristic behavior of disease outbreaks affecting human populations. It includes the interrelationships of host, agent, and environment as related to the distribution and control of disease.
A group of autosomal recessive disorders marked by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme PHENYLALANINE HYDROXYLASE or less frequently by reduced activity of DIHYDROPTERIDINE REDUCTASE (i.e., atypical phenylketonuria). Classical phenylketonuria is caused by a severe deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase and presents in infancy with developmental delay; SEIZURES; skin HYPOPIGMENTATION; ECZEMA; and demyelination in the central nervous system. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p952).
The ability to generate new ideas or images.
Tests designed to assess language behavior and abilities. They include tests of vocabulary, comprehension, grammar and functional use of language, e.g., Development Sentence Scoring, Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Scale, Parsons Language Sample, Utah Test of Language Development, Michigan Language Inventory and Verbal Language Development Scale, Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, Northwestern Syntax Screening Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Ammons Full-Range Picture Vocabulary Test, and Assessment of Children's Language Comprehension.
Conceptual functions or thinking in all its forms.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.
A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
A child or adolescent who, when compared to others of the same age or experience, exhibits capability of high performance in intellectual, creative, or artistic areas, possesses an unusual capacity for leadership or excels in specific academic fields. (From PL 100-297, Sec. 4103, Definitions)
Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.
Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.
Performance of complex motor acts.
The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
Persons or animals having at least one parent in common. (American College Dictionary, 3d ed)
Collective behavior of an aggregate of individuals giving the appearance of unity of attitude, feeling, and motivation.
A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.
Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.
A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)
An infant during the first month after birth.
Global conflict involving countries of Europe, Africa, Asia, and North America that occurred between 1939 and 1945.
A state of internal activity of an organism that is a necessary condition before a given stimulus will elicit a class of responses; e.g., a certain level of hunger (drive) must be present before food will elicit an eating response.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A cognitive disorder characterized by an impaired ability to comprehend written and printed words or phrases despite intact vision. This condition may be developmental or acquired. Developmental dyslexia is marked by reading achievement that falls substantially below that expected given the individual's chronological age, measured intelligence, and age-appropriate education. The disturbance in reading significantly interferes with academic achievement or with activities of daily living that require reading skills. (From DSM-IV)
Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.
Approximate, quantitative reasoning that is concerned with the linguistic ambiguity which exists in natural or synthetic language. At its core are variables such as good, bad, and young as well as modifiers such as more, less, and very. These ordinary terms represent fuzzy sets in a particular problem. Fuzzy logic plays a key role in many medical expert systems.
Female parents, human or animal.
Involuntary discharge of URINE during sleep at night after expected age of completed development of urinary control.
The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.
A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)
The functions and activities of living organisms that support life in single- or multi-cellular organisms from their origin through the progression of life.
A disorder characterized by recurrent partial seizures marked by impairment of cognition. During the seizure the individual may experience a wide variety of psychic phenomenon including formed hallucinations, illusions, deja vu, intense emotional feelings, confusion, and spatial disorientation. Focal motor activity, sensory alterations and AUTOMATISM may also occur. Complex partial seizures often originate from foci in one or both temporal lobes. The etiology may be idiopathic (cryptogenic partial complex epilepsy) or occur as a secondary manifestation of a focal cortical lesion (symptomatic partial complex epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp317-8)
"Art therapy is a form of expressive therapy that uses the creative process of making art to improve a person's physical, mental, and emotional well-being."
The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
Marked impairments in the development of motor coordination such that the impairment interferes with activities of daily living. (From DSM-V)
'Reading' in a medical context often refers to the act or process of a person interpreting and comprehending written or printed symbols, such as letters or words, for the purpose of deriving information or meaning from them.
The absence of certain expected and acceptable cultural phenomena in the environment which results in the failure of the individual to communicate and respond in the most appropriate manner within the context of society. Language acquisition and language use are commonly used in assessing this concept.
A mental disorder associated with chronic ethanol abuse (ALCOHOLISM) and nutritional deficiencies characterized by short term memory loss, confabulations, and disturbances of attention. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1139)
Abnormalities of motor function that are associated with organic and non-organic cognitive disorders.
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Conditions characterized by language abilities (comprehension and expression of speech and writing) that are below the expected level for a given age, generally in the absence of an intellectual impairment. These conditions may be associated with DEAFNESS; BRAIN DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; or environmental factors.
Education of the individual who markedly deviates intellectually, physically, socially, or emotionally from those considered to be normal, thus requiring special instruction.
Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.
Abnormal number or structure of the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Some sex chromosome aberrations are associated with SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS and SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS OF SEX DEVELOPMENT.
Cognitive disorders including delirium, dementia, and other cognitive disorders. These may be the result of substance use, trauma, or other causes.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The body of truths or facts accumulated in the course of time, the cumulated sum of information, its volume and nature, in any civilization, period, or country.
A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)
Computer programs based on knowledge developed from consultation with experts on a problem, and the processing and/or formalizing of this knowledge using these programs in such a manner that the problems may be solved.
The science that investigates the principles governing correct or reliable inference and deals with the canons and criteria of validity in thought and demonstration. This system of reasoning is applicable to any branch of knowledge or study. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed & Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)
Occasions to commemorate an event or occasions designated for a specific purpose.
The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Change in learning in one situation due to prior learning in another situation. The transfer can be positive (with second learning improved by first) or negative (where the reverse holds).
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
Conditions characterized by deficiencies of comprehension or expression of written and spoken forms of language. These include acquired and developmental disorders.
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)
Study of the anatomy of the nervous system as a specialty or discipline.

Family factors affecting child development. (1/1670)

In a large, geographically defined population of children a number of family factors in addition to social class, determined by the father's occupation, were recorded by health visitors and school nurses with routine responsibility for these children. The quality of the children in normal schools was assessed in terms of nonverbal IQ and height at the ages of 5 and 10 years, and of behavior as reported by the teacher at the age of 10 years. By analysis of variance the sum of the independent effects of the other family factors greatly outweighed that of occupational social class, except in the case of the IQ at 10 years. The most important of the other family factors was the quality of the mother's care of her child during the first 3 years of life.  (+info)

Growth hormone treatment in young children with Down's syndrome: effects on growth and psychomotor development. (2/1670)

BACKGROUND: Learning disability and short stature are cardinal signs of Down's syndrome. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), regulated by growth hormone (GH) from about 6 months of age, may be involved in brain development. AIMS: To study long term effects of GH on linear growth and psychomotor development in young children with Down's syndrome. Study design-Fifteen children with Down's syndrome were treated with GH for three years from the age of 6 to 9 months (mean, 7.4). Linear growth, psychomotor development, skeletal maturation, serum concentrations of IGF-I and its binding proteins (BPs), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of IGF-II were studied. RESULTS: The mean height of the study group increased from -1.8 to -0.8 SDS (Swedish standard) during treatment, whereas that of a Down's syndrome control group fell from -1.7 to -2.2 SDS. Growth velocity declined after treatment stopped. Head growth did not accelerate during treatment. No significant difference in mental or gross motor development was found. The low concentrations of serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 became normal during GH treatment. CONCLUSIONS: GH treatment results in normal growth velocity in Down's syndrome but does not affect head circumference or mental or gross motor development. Growth velocity declines after treatment stops.  (+info)

The Montefiore community children's project: a controlled study of cognitive and emotional problems of homeless mothers and children. (3/1670)

OBJECTIVES: This study compares the prevalence of emotional, academic, and cognitive impairment in children and mothers living in the community with those living in shelters for the homeless. METHOD: In New York City, 82 homeless mothers and their 102 children, aged 6 to 11, recruited from family shelters were compared to 115 nonhomeless mothers with 176 children recruited from classmates of the homeless children. Assessments included standardized tests and interviews. RESULTS: Mothers in shelters for the homeless showed higher rates of depression and anxiety than did nonhomeless mothers. Boys in homeless shelters showed higher rates of serious emotional and behavioral problems. Both boys and girls in homeless shelters showed more academic problems than did nonhomeless children. CONCLUSION: Study findings suggest a need among homeless children for special attention to academic problems that are not attributable to intellectual deficits in either children or their mothers. Although high rates of emotional and behavioral problems characterized poor children living in both settings, boys in shelters for the homeless may be particularly in need of professional attention.  (+info)

Oculomotor evidence for neocortical systems but not cerebellar dysfunction in autism. (4/1670)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the functional integrity of cerebellar and frontal systems in autism using oculomotor paradigms. BACKGROUND: Cerebellar and neocortical systems models of autism have been proposed. Courchesne and colleagues have argued that cognitive deficits such as shifting attention disturbances result from dysfunction of vermal lobules VI and VII. Such a vermal deficit should be associated with dysmetric saccadic eye movements because of the major role these areas play in guiding the motor precision of saccades. In contrast, neocortical models of autism predict intact saccade metrics, but impairments on tasks requiring the higher cognitive control of saccades. METHODS: A total of 26 rigorously diagnosed nonmentally retarded autistic subjects and 26 matched healthy control subjects were assessed with a visually guided saccade task and two volitional saccade tasks, the oculomotor delayed-response task and the antisaccade task. RESULTS: Metrics and dynamics of the visually guided saccades were normal in autistic subjects, documenting the absence of disturbances in cerebellar vermal lobules VI and VII and in automatic shifts of visual attention. Deficits were demonstrated on both volitional saccade tasks, indicating dysfunction in the circuitry of prefrontal cortex and its connections with the parietal cortex, and associated cognitive impairments in spatial working memory and in the ability to voluntarily suppress context-inappropriate responses. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate intrinsic neocortical, not cerebellar, dysfunction in autism, and parallel deficits in higher order cognitive mechanisms and not in elementary attentional and sensorimotor systems in autism.  (+info)

Psychophysical isolation of a motion-processing deficit in schizophrenics and their relatives and its association with impaired smooth pursuit. (5/1670)

Schizophrenia patients and many of their relatives show impaired smooth pursuit eye tracking. The brain mechanisms underlying this impairment are not yet known, but because reduced open-loop acceleration and closed-loop gain accompany it, compromised perceptual processing of motion signals is implicated. A previous study showed that motion discrimination is impaired in schizophrenia patients. Motion discrimination can make use of position and contrast as well as velocity cues. Here, we report that the motion discrimination deficit, which occurs in both schizophrenic patients and in their first-degree relatives, involves a failure of velocity detection, which appears when judging intermediate target velocities. At slower and faster velocities, judgments of velocity discrimination seemed normal until we experimentally disentangled velocity cues from nonmotion cues. We further report that compromised velocity discrimination is associated with sluggish initiation of smooth pursuit. These findings point to specific central nervous system correlates of schizophrenic pathophysiology.  (+info)

Lifetime low-level exposure to environmental lead and children's emotional and behavioral development at ages 11-13 years. The Port Pirie Cohort Study. (6/1670)

The Port Pirie Cohort Study is the first study to monitor prospectively the association between lifetime blood lead exposure and the prevalence of emotional and behavioral problems experienced by children. Lead exposure data along with ratings on the Child Behavior Checklist were obtained for 322 11-13-year-old children from the lead smelting community of Port Pirie, Australia. Mean total behavior problem score (95% confidence interval (CI)) for boys whose lifetime average blood lead concentration was above 15 microg/dl was 28.7 (24.6-32.8) compared with 21.1 (17.5-24.8) in boys with lower exposure levels. The corresponding mean scores (95% CI) for girls were 29.7 (25.3-34.2) and 18.0 (14.7-21.3). After controlling for a number of confounding variables, including the quality of the child's HOME environment (assessed by Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment), maternal psychopathology, and the child's IQ, regression modeling predicted that for a hypothetical increase in lifetime blood lead exposure from 10 to 30 microg/dl, the externalizing behavior problem score would increase by 3.5 in boys (95% CI 1.6-5.4), and by 1.8 (95% CI -0.1 to 11.1) in girls. Internalizing behavior problem scores were predicted to rise by 2.1 (95% CI 0.0-4.2) in girls but by only 0.8 (95% CI -0.9 to 2.4) in boys.  (+info)

Does illness experience influence the recall of medical information? (7/1670)

Recall of a storyboard description of an unfamiliar illness was assessed in 66 healthy children and 40 children with chronic illness (cystic fibrosis or asthma). A significant interaction between verbal intelligence quotient and illness experience (p < 0.001) suggested that more able sick children may be resistant to learning new medical information.  (+info)

Is maternal age a risk factor for mental retardation among children? (8/1670)

The purpose of this study was to determine whether older or very young maternal age at delivery is associated with mental retardation in children. Ten-year-old children with mental retardation (an intelligence quotient of 70 or less) were identified in 1985-1987 from multiple sources in the metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia, area. These children were subdivided into two case groups according to whether they had concomitant developmental disabilities or birth defects affecting the central nervous system (codevelopmental retardation) or did not have such disabilities (isolated retardation). Control children were randomly chosen from the regular education files of the public school systems in the study area. Data on sociodemographic variables were gathered from birth certificates. Children of teenaged mothers were not at increased risk for either form of retardation and children of mothers aged > or =30 years were not at increased risk for isolated retardation, in comparison with children of mothers aged 20-29 years. A markedly elevated risk of codevelopmental retardation was seen among black children of mothers aged > or =30 years that was not attributable to Down syndrome. A modest increase in risk for codevelopmental retardation was observed among white children born to older mothers, but it was entirely due to Down syndrome.  (+info)

I must clarify that I cannot provide a "medical definition" of intelligence, as intelligence is not a concept that is typically defined within the field of medicine. Intelligence is a term used to describe the ability to learn, understand, and make judgments or decisions based on reason, experience, and information. It is often measured through various cognitive abilities such as problem-solving, critical thinking, creativity, and knowledge acquisition.

The concept of intelligence is studied in many fields, including psychology, neuroscience, and education. In medicine, healthcare professionals may assess a person's cognitive abilities to better understand their health status or develop treatment plans. However, there is no specific "medical definition" for intelligence. Instead, it is a multifaceted concept that can be influenced by various genetic, environmental, and experiential factors.

Intelligence tests are standardized procedures used to assess various aspects of an individual's cognitive abilities, such as their problem-solving skills, logical reasoning, verbal comprehension, and spatial relations. These tests provide a quantitative measurement of intelligence, often reported as an Intelligence Quotient (IQ) score. It is important to note that intelligence is a multifaceted concept, and intelligence tests measure only certain aspects of it. They should not be considered the sole determinant of an individual's overall intellectual capabilities or potential.

Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to recognize, understand, and manage our own emotions and the emotions of others. It involves the skills of perception, understanding, reasoning with emotions, and managing emotions to promote emotional and intellectual growth. EI includes four key components:

1. Perception and Expression of Emotion: The ability to accurately perceive, identify, and express emotions in oneself and others.
2. Understanding and Analyzing Emotion: The ability to understand the causes and consequences of emotions and how they may combine and change over time.
3. Emotional Reasoning: The ability to use emotions to facilitate thinking and problem solving, and to make decisions based on both emotional and rational information.
4. Emotional Management: The ability to manage emotions in oneself and others, including the regulation of one's own emotions and the ability to influence the emotions of others.

Emotional intelligence is not a fixed trait, but rather can be developed and improved through practice and learning. It has been shown to have significant implications for personal well-being, interpersonal relationships, and professional success.

The Wechsler Scales are a series of intelligence and neuropsychological tests used to assess various aspects of cognitive functioning in individuals across the lifespan. The scales include:

1. Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI): Designed for children aged 2 years 6 months to 7 years 3 months, it measures verbal (e.g., vocabulary, comprehension) and performance (e.g., visual-motor integration, spatial reasoning) abilities.
2. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC): Developed for children aged 6 to 16 years, it evaluates verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory, and processing speed.
3. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS): Created for adults aged 16 to 90 years, it assesses similar domains as the WISC but with more complex tasks.
4. Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS): Designed to measure various aspects of memory functioning in individuals aged 16 to 89 years, including visual and auditory immediate and delayed recall, working memory, and attention.
5. Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI): A brief version of the WAIS used for quicker intelligence screening in individuals aged 6 to 89 years.

These scales are widely used in clinical, educational, and research settings to identify strengths and weaknesses in cognitive abilities, diagnose learning disabilities and other neurodevelopmental disorders, monitor treatment progress, and provide recommendations for interventions and accommodations.

Cognition refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring, processing, and utilizing information. These processes include perception, attention, memory, language, problem-solving, and decision-making. Cognitive functions allow us to interact with our environment, understand and respond to stimuli, learn new skills, and remember experiences.

In a medical context, cognitive function is often assessed as part of a neurological or psychiatric evaluation. Impairments in cognition can be caused by various factors, such as brain injury, neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's disease), infections, toxins, and mental health conditions. Assessing cognitive function helps healthcare professionals diagnose conditions, monitor disease progression, and develop treatment plans.

Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the medical context refers to the simulation of human intelligence processes by machines, particularly computer systems. These processes include learning (the acquisition of information and rules for using the information), reasoning (using the rules to reach approximate or definite conclusions), and self-correction.

In healthcare, AI is increasingly being used to analyze large amounts of data, identify patterns, make decisions, and perform tasks that would normally require human intelligence. This can include tasks such as diagnosing diseases, recommending treatments, personalizing patient care, and improving clinical workflows.

Examples of AI in medicine include machine learning algorithms that analyze medical images to detect signs of disease, natural language processing tools that extract relevant information from electronic health records, and robot-assisted surgery systems that enable more precise and minimally invasive procedures.

The Stanford-Binet Test is a widely used, individually administered intelligence test that was revised from the original Binet-Simon Scale by Lewis Terman at Stanford University in 1916. It is designed to measure various cognitive abilities and intelligence across a broad age range, from early childhood to adulthood. The test assesses five factors of cognitive ability: fluid reasoning, knowledge, quantitative reasoning, visual-spatial processing, and working memory.

The Stanford-Binet Test consists of several subtests that measure different skills and abilities. It yields a composite score, called the Intelligence Quotient (IQ), which is a ratio of mental age to chronological age, multiplied by 100. The test also provides detailed information about an individual's strengths and weaknesses in various areas of cognitive functioning.

Over the years, the Stanford-Binet Test has undergone several revisions to improve its psychometric properties, update its content, and reflect current theories of intelligence. The most recent version, the Stanford-Binet Fifth Edition (SB5), was published in 2003 and includes updated norms, a broader age range (2-85+ years), and a more comprehensive assessment of cognitive abilities.

The Stanford-Binet Test is used for various purposes, including identifying individuals who may have intellectual disabilities or giftedness, educational planning, career counseling, and research. It is considered a reliable and valid measure of intelligence, but like all psychological tests, it should be administered and interpreted by trained professionals who are aware of its limitations and potential sources of bias.

Neuropsychological tests are a type of psychological assessment that measures cognitive functions, such as attention, memory, language, problem-solving, and perception. These tests are used to help diagnose and understand the cognitive impact of neurological conditions, including dementia, traumatic brain injury, stroke, Parkinson's disease, and other disorders that affect the brain.

The tests are typically administered by a trained neuropsychologist and can take several hours to complete. They may involve paper-and-pencil tasks, computerized tasks, or interactive activities. The results of the tests are compared to normative data to help identify any areas of cognitive weakness or strength.

Neuropsychological testing can provide valuable information for treatment planning, rehabilitation, and assessing response to treatment. It can also be used in research to better understand the neural basis of cognition and the impact of neurological conditions on cognitive function.

Cognitive disorders are a category of mental health disorders that primarily affect cognitive abilities including learning, memory, perception, and problem-solving. These disorders can be caused by various factors such as brain injury, degenerative diseases, infection, substance abuse, or developmental disabilities. Examples of cognitive disorders include dementia, amnesia, delirium, and intellectual disability. It's important to note that the specific definition and diagnostic criteria for cognitive disorders may vary depending on the medical source or classification system being used.

Child development is a multidisciplinary field that examines the biological, psychological, emotional, and social growth and changes that occur in human beings between birth and the onset of adulthood. It involves a complex interaction of genetics, environment, culture, and experiences that shape a child's growth and development over time.

Child development is typically divided into several domains, including:

1. Physical Development: This refers to the growth and changes in a child's body, including their motor skills, sensory abilities, and overall health.
2. Cognitive Development: This involves the development of a child's thinking, learning, problem-solving, memory, language, and other mental processes.
3. Emotional Development: This refers to the development of a child's emotional awareness, expression, understanding, and regulation.
4. Social Development: This involves the development of a child's ability to interact with others, form relationships, communicate effectively, and understand social norms and expectations.

Child development is an ongoing process that occurs at different rates and in different ways for each child. Understanding typical patterns of child development can help parents, educators, and healthcare providers support children's growth and identify any potential delays or concerns.

Intellectual disability (ID) is a term used when there are significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. This disability originates before the age of 18.

Intellectual functioning, also known as intelligence, refers to general mental capacity, such as learning, reasoning, problem-solving, and other cognitive skills. Adaptive behavior includes skills needed for day-to-day life, such as communication, self-care, social skills, safety judgement, and basic academic skills.

Intellectual disability is characterized by below-average intelligence or mental ability and a lack of skills necessary for day-to-day living. It can be mild, moderate, severe, or profound, depending on the degree of limitation in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior.

It's important to note that people with intellectual disabilities have unique strengths and limitations, just like everyone else. With appropriate support and education, they can lead fulfilling lives and contribute to their communities in many ways.

In the context of medicine, problem-solving refers to the cognitive process by which healthcare professionals identify, analyze, and address clinical issues or challenges in order to provide optimal care for their patients. This may involve gathering relevant information, generating potential solutions, evaluating their feasibility and risks, selecting the most appropriate course of action, and implementing and monitoring the chosen intervention. Effective problem-solving skills are essential for making informed decisions, improving patient outcomes, and reducing medical errors.

Executive function is a term used to describe a set of cognitive processes that are necessary for the control and regulation of thought and behavior. These functions include:

1. Working memory: The ability to hold and manipulate information in mind over short periods of time.
2. Cognitive flexibility: The ability to switch between tasks or mental sets, and to adapt to new rules and situations.
3. Inhibitory control: The ability to inhibit or delay automatic responses, and to resist impulses and distractions.
4. Planning and organization: The ability to plan and organize actions, and to manage time and resources effectively.
5. Problem-solving: The ability to analyze problems, generate solutions, and evaluate the outcomes of actions.
6. Decision-making: The ability to weigh risks and benefits, and to make informed choices based on available information.
7. Emotional regulation: The ability to manage and regulate emotions, and to respond appropriately to social cues and situations.

Executive functions are primarily controlled by the frontal lobes of the brain, and they play a critical role in goal-directed behavior, problem-solving, decision-making, and self-regulation. Deficits in executive function can have significant impacts on daily life, including difficulties with academic performance, work productivity, social relationships, and mental health.

Machiavellianism is not a term that has a formal medical definition in the field of psychiatry or psychology. However, it does have a commonly understood meaning based on the principles outlined in Niccolò Machiavelli's political treatise, "The Prince." In this context, Machiavellianism refers to a personality trait characterized by manipulation, deceit, and self-interest.

In psychological research, Machiavellianism is often studied as part of the "Dark Triad" of traits, along with narcissism and psychopathy. It is typically measured using self-report questionnaires such as the MACH-IV, which assesses agreement with statements like "Never tell anyone the real reason you did something unless it is useful to me."

While not a medical diagnosis, high levels of Machiavellianism have been linked to various negative outcomes, including unethical behavior, reduced empathy, and poorer interpersonal relationships. However, it's worth noting that Machiavellianism exists on a continuum, and not everyone who scores high on measures of this trait engages in harmful behaviors.

Penetrating head injuries are a type of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that occurs when an object pierces the skull and enters the brain tissue. This can result in damage to specific areas of the brain, depending on the location and trajectory of the penetrating object. Penetrating head injuries can be caused by various objects, such as bullets, knives, or sharp debris from accidents. They are often severe and require immediate medical attention, as they can lead to significant neurological deficits, disability, or even death.

In a medical context, "achievement" generally refers to the successful completion of a specific goal or task related to a person's health or medical treatment. This could include reaching certain milestones in rehabilitation or therapy, achieving certain laboratory test results, or meeting other health-related objectives. Achievements in healthcare are often celebrated as they represent progress and improvement in a patient's condition. However, it is important to note that the definition of achievement may vary depending on the individual's medical history, current health status, and treatment plan.

Psychological tests are standardized procedures or measures used to assess various aspects of an individual's cognitive functioning, personality traits, emotional status, and behavior. These tests are designed to be reliable and valid tools for evaluating specific psychological constructs such as intelligence, memory, attention, achievement, aptitude, interests, and values. They can be in the form of questionnaires, interviews, observational scales, or performance-based tasks. The results obtained from these tests help mental health professionals make informed decisions about diagnosis, treatment planning, and educational or vocational guidance for their clients. It is important to note that psychological tests should only be administered, scored, and interpreted by trained and qualified professionals to ensure accurate and meaningful results.

A learning disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects an individual's ability to acquire, process, and use information in one or more academic areas despite normal intelligence and adequate instruction. It can manifest as difficulties with reading (dyslexia), writing (dysgraphia), mathematics (dyscalculia), or other academic skills. Learning disorders are not the result of low intelligence, lack of motivation, or environmental factors alone, but rather reflect a significant discrepancy between an individual's cognitive abilities and their academic achievement. They can significantly impact a person's ability to perform in school, at work, and in daily life, making it important to diagnose and manage these disorders effectively.

In a medical context, "aptitude" is not typically defined because it is a general term that refers to the ability or potential to learn, acquire skills, or perform tasks. It is often used in relation to career counseling and education to describe an individual's natural talents, abilities, or potential for success in a particular area.

However, it is important to note that aptitude is not a fixed trait and can be influenced by various factors such as motivation, experience, training, and environment. Additionally, while certain aptitudes may be more common in certain professions or activities, they do not guarantee success or performance.

Therefore, while there may not be a specific medical definition of "aptitude," it is a term that can have relevance in medical contexts related to career development, education, and rehabilitation.

Developmental disabilities are a group of conditions that arise in childhood and are characterized by significant impairments in cognitive functioning, physical development, or both. These disabilities can affect various areas of an individual's life, including their ability to learn, communicate, socialize, and take care of themselves.

Examples of developmental disabilities include intellectual disabilities, cerebral palsy, autism spectrum disorder, Down syndrome, and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. These conditions are typically diagnosed in childhood and can persist throughout an individual's life.

The causes of developmental disabilities are varied and can include genetic factors, environmental influences, and complications during pregnancy or childbirth. In some cases, the exact cause may be unknown.

It is important to note that individuals with developmental disabilities have unique strengths and abilities, as well as challenges. With appropriate support and services, they can lead fulfilling lives and participate actively in their communities.

In the context of medical and clinical psychology, particularly in the field of applied behavior analysis (ABA), "verbal behavior" is a term used to describe the various functions or purposes of spoken language. It was first introduced by the psychologist B.F. Skinner in his 1957 book "Verbal Behavior."

Skinner proposed that verbal behavior could be classified into several categories based on its function, including:

1. Mand: A verbal operant in which a person requests or demands something from another person. For example, saying "I would like a glass of water" is a mand.
2. Tact: A verbal operant in which a person describes or labels something in their environment. For example, saying "That's a red apple" is a tact.
3. Echoic: A verbal operant in which a person repeats or imitates what they have heard. For example, saying "Hello" after someone says hello to you is an echoic.
4. Intraverbal: A verbal operant in which a person responds to another person's verbal behavior with their own verbal behavior, without simply repeating or imitating what they have heard. For example, answering a question like "What's the capital of France?" is an intraverbal.
5. Textual: A verbal operant in which a person reads or writes text. For example, reading a book or writing a letter are textual.

Understanding the function of verbal behavior can be helpful in assessing and treating communication disorders, such as those seen in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). By identifying the specific functions of a child's verbal behavior, therapists can develop targeted interventions to help them communicate more effectively.

Cognitive reserve refers to the ability of the brain to compensate for cognitive decline or damage by using alternative neural pathways or strategies. It is a theoretical construct used in neuropsychology and neurology to explain why some individuals with similar levels of brain damage or disease progression show greater preservation of cognitive function than others.

Cognitive reserve is thought to be influenced by factors such as education, intelligence, occupational complexity, and engagement in cognitively stimulating activities throughout the lifespan. These factors contribute to the development of a more extensive and efficient neural network that can help maintain cognitive function despite brain changes associated with aging or neurological disorders like Alzheimer's disease.

It is important to note that cognitive reserve does not prevent cognitive decline but rather delays its onset or reduces its severity. Additionally, while cognitive reserve may provide some protection against cognitive impairment, it does not guarantee immunity from it.

Short-term memory, also known as primary or active memory, is the system responsible for holding and processing limited amounts of information for brief periods of time, typically on the order of seconds to minutes. It has a capacity of around 7±2 items, as suggested by George Miller's "magic number" theory. Short-term memory allows us to retain and manipulate information temporarily while we are using it, such as remembering a phone number while dialing or following a set of instructions. Information in short-term memory can be maintained through rehearsal, which is the conscious repetition of the information. Over time, if the information is not transferred to long-term memory through consolidation processes, it will be forgotten.

"Test-taking skills" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in an educational or psychological context, test-taking skills refer to the abilities and strategies that a person uses to demonstrate their knowledge and understanding during assessments or exams. These skills can include time management, reading comprehension, note-taking, outlining, summarizing, and answering questions effectively.

Test-taking skills are not only important for academic success but also for professional licensing exams, certifications, and other standardized tests. Developing good test-taking skills can help reduce test anxiety, improve performance, and increase confidence.

While "test-taking skills" may not have a medical definition per se, it is worth noting that some psychological and educational interventions aim to improve these skills in students or test-takers, which can have positive impacts on their mental health and well-being.

Educational status refers to the level or stage of education that a person has reached. It can be used to describe an individual's educational background, achievements, and qualifications. Educational status can be categorized in various ways, including by level (e.g., elementary school, high school, college, graduate school), years of schooling completed, or type of degree earned (e.g., bachelor's, master's, doctoral).

In medical settings, educational status may be used as a demographic variable to describe the characteristics of a patient population or to identify potential disparities in health outcomes based on education level. Research has shown that higher levels of education are often associated with better health outcomes, including lower rates of chronic diseases and improved mental health. Therefore, understanding a patient's educational status can help healthcare providers tailor their care and education strategies to meet the unique needs and challenges of each individual.

Social behavior, in the context of medicine and psychology, refers to the ways in which individuals interact and engage with others within their social environment. It involves various actions, communications, and responses that are influenced by cultural norms, personal values, emotional states, and cognitive processes. These behaviors can include but are not limited to communication, cooperation, competition, empathy, altruism, aggression, and conformity.

Abnormalities in social behavior may indicate underlying mental health conditions such as autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, or personality disorders. Therefore, understanding and analyzing social behavior is an essential aspect of diagnosing and treating various psychological and psychiatric conditions.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

In the context of medical and clinical neuroscience, memory is defined as the brain's ability to encode, store, retain, and recall information or experiences. Memory is a complex cognitive process that involves several interconnected regions of the brain and can be categorized into different types based on various factors such as duration and the nature of the information being remembered.

The major types of memory include:

1. Sensory memory: The shortest form of memory, responsible for holding incoming sensory information for a brief period (less than a second to several seconds) before it is either transferred to short-term memory or discarded.
2. Short-term memory (also called working memory): A temporary storage system that allows the brain to hold and manipulate information for approximately 20-30 seconds, although this duration can be extended through rehearsal strategies. Short-term memory has a limited capacity, typically thought to be around 7±2 items.
3. Long-term memory: The memory system responsible for storing large amounts of information over extended periods, ranging from minutes to a lifetime. Long-term memory has a much larger capacity compared to short-term memory and is divided into two main categories: explicit (declarative) memory and implicit (non-declarative) memory.

Explicit (declarative) memory can be further divided into episodic memory, which involves the recollection of specific events or episodes, including their temporal and spatial contexts, and semantic memory, which refers to the storage and retrieval of general knowledge, facts, concepts, and vocabulary, independent of personal experience or context.

Implicit (non-declarative) memory encompasses various forms of learning that do not require conscious awareness or intention, such as procedural memory (skills and habits), priming (facilitated processing of related stimuli), classical conditioning (associative learning), and habituation (reduced responsiveness to repeated stimuli).

Memory is a crucial aspect of human cognition and plays a significant role in various aspects of daily life, including learning, problem-solving, decision-making, social interactions, and personal identity. Memory dysfunction can result from various neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as dementia, Alzheimer's disease, stroke, traumatic brain injury, and depression.

Dyscalculia is a learning disorder characterized by difficulty in understanding and processing numerical or arithmetic concepts. It is a specific math disability that affects a person's ability to learn number-related concepts and perform calculations, even when they have normal intelligence and adequate teaching. People with dyscalculia may struggle with basic mathematical skills such as counting, recognizing numbers, remembering mathematical facts, and understanding mathematical concepts. They may also have difficulty with estimation, time management, and spatial reasoning. The exact causes of dyscalculia are not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to genetic factors and differences in brain structure and function.

Aptitude tests are standardized assessments designed to measure a person's potential to perform certain tasks or learn new skills. These tests typically evaluate various cognitive abilities, such as logical reasoning, spatial awareness, numerical comprehension, and verbal aptitude. They are often used in educational and occupational settings to help identify individuals who may be well-suited for specific courses of study or careers.

In the context of medical education and training, aptitude tests can be utilized to predict a candidate's likelihood of success in various healthcare professions. For example, the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) is an aptitude test that measures a student's problem-solving abilities, critical thinking skills, and knowledge of scientific concepts relevant to medicine. This test helps medical schools determine whether applicants have the necessary foundational skills to succeed in their programs.

Other healthcare fields may also use aptitude tests during the selection process. For instance, nursing schools might administer tests to evaluate candidates' abilities in areas like math, communication, and critical thinking. Similarly, allied health programs may use specialized aptitude assessments to ensure that students possess the cognitive skills required for their chosen profession.

It is important to note that while aptitude tests can provide valuable insights into a person's potential, they should not be the sole determinant of suitability for a particular course of study or career. Other factors, such as motivation, interpersonal skills, and life experiences, also play crucial roles in an individual's success in any given field.

The Bender-Gestalt Test is a neuropsychological assessment tool used to evaluate an individual's visual-motor perception, perceptual-motor integration, and cognitive flexibility. It consists of a series of 9 geometric forms that the test taker is asked to reproduce as accurately as possible on paper, while following specific instructions given by the examiner. The test results are then compared to normative data based on age and other demographic factors to assess any potential neurological impairments or developmental delays. It is commonly used in clinical settings such as hospitals, schools, and mental health facilities to help diagnose various conditions including learning disabilities, brain injuries, and neurodevelopmental disorders.

Asperger Syndrome is a developmental disorder that is part of the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). It is characterized by significant difficulties in social interaction and nonverbal communication, as well as restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior and interests. However, people with Asperger Syndrome usually have normal or above-average intelligence and language development.

The following are some of the diagnostic criteria for Asperger Syndrome according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5):

1. Persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts, including:
* Deficits in social-emotional reciprocity;
* Deficits in nonverbal communicative behaviors used for social interaction;
* Deficits in developing, maintaining, and understanding relationships.
2. Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities, as manifested by at least two of the following:
* Stereotyped or repetitive motor movements, use of objects, or speech;
* Insistence on sameness, inflexible adherence to routines, or ritualized patterns of verbal or nonverbal behavior;
* Highly restricted, fixated interests that are abnormal in intensity or focus;
* Hyper- or hyporeactivity to sensory input or unusual interest in sensory aspects of the environment.
3. Symptoms must be present in early childhood but may not become fully manifest until social demands exceed limited capacities or may be masked by learned strategies in later life.
4. Symptoms cause clinically significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.
5. These disturbances are not better explained by intellectual disability (intellectual developmental disorder) or global developmental delay.

It's worth noting that the term "Asperger Syndrome" is no longer used in the DSM-5, and it has been subsumed under the broader category of autism spectrum disorder. However, many people still use the term to describe a particular presentation of ASD with normal language development and intelligence.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Epidemiology is the study of how often and why diseases occur in different groups of people and places. It is a key discipline in public health and informs policy decisions and evidence-based practices by identifying risk factors for disease and targets for preventive healthcare. Epidemiologists use various study designs, including observational studies, experiments, and surveys, to collect and analyze data on the distribution and determinants of diseases in populations. They seek to understand the causes of health outcomes and develop strategies to control or prevent adverse health events. The ultimate goal of epidemiology is to improve population health and eliminate health disparities.

Phenylketonurias (PKU) is a genetic disorder characterized by the body's inability to properly metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine, due to a deficiency of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase. This results in a buildup of phenylalanine in the blood and other tissues, which can cause serious neurological problems if left untreated.

The condition is typically detected through newborn screening and can be managed through a strict diet that limits the intake of phenylalanine. If left untreated, PKU can lead to intellectual disability, seizures, behavioral problems, and other serious health issues. In some cases, medication or a liver transplant may also be necessary to manage the condition.

Creativity is not a term that is typically defined in a medical context, as it is more commonly associated with the arts, humanities, and certain fields of psychology. However, creativity can be generally described as the ability to generate ideas, solutions, or expressions that are both original and valuable. It involves the use of imagination, innovation, and inventiveness, and often requires the ability to think outside of the box and make connections between seemingly unrelated concepts or ideas.

In a medical context, creativity may be discussed in relation to its potential impact on health outcomes, such as its role in promoting mental well-being, reducing stress, and enhancing cognitive function. Some research has suggested that engaging in creative activities can have positive effects on physical health as well, such as by boosting the immune system and reducing the risk of chronic diseases.

It's worth noting that while creativity is often associated with artistic or intellectual pursuits, it can manifest in many different forms and contexts, from problem-solving and innovation in the workplace to everyday decision-making and social interactions.

A language test is not a medical term per se, but it is commonly used in the field of speech-language pathology, which is a medical discipline. A language test, in this context, refers to an assessment tool used by speech-language pathologists to evaluate an individual's language abilities. These tests typically measure various aspects of language, including vocabulary, grammar, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics.

Language tests can be standardized or non-standardized and may be administered individually or in a group setting. The results of these tests help speech-language pathologists diagnose language disorders, develop treatment plans, and monitor progress over time. It is important to note that language testing should be conducted by a qualified professional who has experience in administering and interpreting language assessments.

Mental processes, also referred to as cognitive processes, are the ways in which our minds perceive, process, and understand information from the world around us. These processes include:

1. Attention: The ability to focus on specific stimuli while ignoring others.
2. Perception: The way in which we interpret and organize sensory information.
3. Memory: The storage and retrieval of information.
4. Learning: The process of acquiring new knowledge or skills.
5. Language: The ability to understand, produce and communicate using words and symbols.
6. Thinking: The process of processing information, reasoning, problem-solving, and decision making.
7. Intelligence: The capacity to understand, learn, and adapt to new situations.
8. Emotion: The ability to experience and respond to different feelings.
9. Consciousness: The state of being aware of and able to think and perceive one's surroundings, thoughts, and feelings.

These mental processes are interconnected and influence each other in complex ways. They allow us to interact with our environment, make decisions, and communicate with others. Disorders in these mental processes can lead to various neurological and psychiatric conditions.

In the context of medicine and healthcare, learning is often discussed in relation to learning abilities or disabilities that may impact an individual's capacity to acquire, process, retain, and apply new information or skills. Learning can be defined as the process of acquiring knowledge, understanding, behaviors, and skills through experience, instruction, or observation.

Learning disorders, also known as learning disabilities, are a type of neurodevelopmental disorder that affects an individual's ability to learn and process information in one or more areas, such as reading, writing, mathematics, or reasoning. These disorders are not related to intelligence or motivation but rather result from differences in the way the brain processes information.

It is important to note that learning can also be influenced by various factors, including age, cognitive abilities, physical and mental health status, cultural background, and educational experiences. Therefore, a comprehensive assessment of an individual's learning abilities and needs should take into account these various factors to provide appropriate support and interventions.

In a medical or psychological context, attention is the cognitive process of selectively concentrating on certain aspects of the environment while ignoring other things. It involves focusing mental resources on specific stimuli, sensory inputs, or internal thoughts while blocking out irrelevant distractions. Attention can be divided into different types, including:

1. Sustained attention: The ability to maintain focus on a task or stimulus over time.
2. Selective attention: The ability to concentrate on relevant stimuli while ignoring irrelevant ones.
3. Divided attention: The capacity to pay attention to multiple tasks or stimuli simultaneously.
4. Alternating attention: The skill of shifting focus between different tasks or stimuli as needed.

Deficits in attention are common symptoms of various neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as ADHD, dementia, depression, and anxiety disorders. Assessment of attention is an essential part of neuropsychological evaluations and can be measured using various tests and tasks.

Chronic brain damage is a condition characterized by long-term, persistent injury to the brain that results in cognitive, physical, and behavioral impairments. It can be caused by various factors such as trauma, hypoxia (lack of oxygen), infection, toxic exposure, or degenerative diseases. The effects of chronic brain damage may not be immediately apparent and can worsen over time, leading to significant disability and reduced quality of life.

The symptoms of chronic brain damage can vary widely depending on the severity and location of the injury. They may include:

* Cognitive impairments such as memory loss, difficulty concentrating, trouble with problem-solving and decision-making, and decreased learning ability
* Motor impairments such as weakness, tremors, poor coordination, and balance problems
* Sensory impairments such as hearing or vision loss, numbness, tingling, or altered sense of touch
* Speech and language difficulties such as aphasia (problems with understanding or producing speech) or dysarthria (slurred or slow speech)
* Behavioral changes such as irritability, mood swings, depression, anxiety, and personality changes

Chronic brain damage can be diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, neurological evaluation, and imaging studies such as MRI or CT scans. Treatment typically focuses on managing symptoms and maximizing function through rehabilitation therapies such as occupational therapy, speech therapy, and physical therapy. In some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to address specific symptoms or underlying causes of the brain damage.

Longitudinal studies are a type of research design where data is collected from the same subjects repeatedly over a period of time, often years or even decades. These studies are used to establish patterns of changes and events over time, and can help researchers identify causal relationships between variables. They are particularly useful in fields such as epidemiology, psychology, and sociology, where the focus is on understanding developmental trends and the long-term effects of various factors on health and behavior.

In medical research, longitudinal studies can be used to track the progression of diseases over time, identify risk factors for certain conditions, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. For example, a longitudinal study might follow a group of individuals over several decades to assess their exposure to certain environmental factors and their subsequent development of chronic diseases such as cancer or heart disease. By comparing data collected at multiple time points, researchers can identify trends and correlations that may not be apparent in shorter-term studies.

Longitudinal studies have several advantages over other research designs, including their ability to establish temporal relationships between variables, track changes over time, and reduce the impact of confounding factors. However, they also have some limitations, such as the potential for attrition (loss of participants over time), which can introduce bias and affect the validity of the results. Additionally, longitudinal studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, requiring significant resources and a long-term commitment from both researchers and study participants.

A "gifted child" is not a medical term, but rather a term used in education and psychology to describe a child who has exceptional abilities or talents in one or more areas, such as intelligence, creativity, artistic ability, or leadership. These children often demonstrate advanced cognitive skills, problem-solving abilities, and/or a deep passion for learning that sets them apart from their peers.

Giftedness can be identified through various assessments, including IQ tests, achievement tests, and teacher observations. While there is no universally accepted definition of giftedness, many educational and psychological organizations define it as having an IQ score in the top 2-3% of the population (130 or higher) or demonstrating exceptional talent or potential in a specific domain.

It's important to note that giftedness is not synonymous with academic achievement or success, and many gifted children face unique social, emotional, and educational challenges that require specialized support and resources.

In the context of medicine and healthcare, "individuality" refers to the unique characteristics, traits, and needs that distinguish one person from another. This concept recognizes that each patient is a distinct individual with their own genetic makeup, lifestyle factors, personal history, and social circumstances, all of which can influence their health status and response to medical interventions.

Individuality in healthcare emphasizes the importance of tailoring medical treatments and care plans to meet the specific needs and preferences of each patient, rather than relying on a one-size-fits-all approach. This personalized approach can lead to better outcomes, improved patient satisfaction, and reduced healthcare costs.

Factors that contribute to an individual's medical individuality include their genetic makeup, epigenetic factors, environmental exposures, lifestyle choices (such as diet, exercise, and substance use), and social determinants of health (such as income, education, and access to care). All of these factors can interact in complex ways to influence a person's health status and risk for disease.

Recognizing and respecting individuality is essential for providing high-quality, patient-centered care. Healthcare providers who take the time to understand their patients' unique needs and preferences are better able to build trust, promote adherence to treatment plans, and achieve positive outcomes.

Child behavior refers to the actions, reactions, and interactions exhibited by children in response to their environment, experiences, and developmental stage. It is a broad term that encompasses various aspects, including emotional, social, cognitive, and physical development.

Child behavior can be categorized into two main types:

1. Desirable or positive behaviors - These are behaviors that promote healthy development, social interactions, and learning. Examples include sharing toys, following rules, expressing emotions appropriately, and demonstrating empathy towards others.
2. Challenging or negative behaviors - These are behaviors that hinder healthy development, social interactions, and learning. Examples include aggression, defiance, tantrums, anxiety, and withdrawal.

Understanding child behavior is crucial for parents, caregivers, educators, and healthcare professionals to provide appropriate support, guidance, and interventions to promote positive developmental outcomes in children. Factors influencing child behavior include genetics, temperament, environment, parenting style, and life experiences.

Motor skills are defined as the abilities required to plan, control and execute physical movements. They involve a complex interplay between the brain, nerves, muscles, and the environment. Motor skills can be broadly categorized into two types: fine motor skills, which involve small, precise movements (such as writing or picking up small objects), and gross motor skills, which involve larger movements using the arms, legs, and torso (such as crawling, walking, or running).

Motor skills development is an essential aspect of child growth and development, and it continues to evolve throughout adulthood. Difficulties with motor skills can impact a person's ability to perform daily activities and can be associated with various neurological and musculoskeletal conditions.

Social perception, in the context of psychology and social sciences, refers to the ability to interpret and understand other people's behavior, emotions, and intentions. It is the process by which we make sense of the social world around us, by observing and interpreting cues such as facial expressions, body language, tone of voice, and situational context.

In medical terminology, social perception is not a specific diagnosis or condition, but rather a cognitive skill that can be affected in various mental and neurological disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, and dementia. For example, individuals with autism may have difficulty interpreting social cues and understanding other people's emotions and intentions, while those with schizophrenia may have distorted perceptions of social situations and interactions.

Healthcare professionals who work with patients with cognitive or neurological disorders may assess their social perception skills as part of a comprehensive evaluation, in order to develop appropriate interventions and support strategies.

Emotions are complex psychological states that involve three distinct components: a subjective experience, a physiological response, and a behavioral or expressive response. Emotions can be short-lived, such as a flash of anger, or more long-lasting, such as enduring sadness. They can also vary in intensity, from mild irritation to intense joy or fear.

Emotions are often distinguished from other psychological states, such as moods and temperament, which may be less specific and more enduring. Emotions are typically thought to have a clear cause or object, such as feeling happy when you receive good news or feeling anxious before a job interview.

There are many different emotions that people can experience, including happiness, sadness, anger, fear, surprise, disgust, and shame. These emotions are often thought to serve important adaptive functions, helping individuals respond to challenges and opportunities in their environment.

In medical contexts, emotions may be relevant to the diagnosis and treatment of various mental health conditions, such as depression, anxiety disorders, and bipolar disorder. Abnormalities in emotional processing and regulation have been implicated in many psychiatric illnesses, and therapies that target these processes may be effective in treating these conditions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "siblings" is not a medical term. It is a term used in genealogy and sociology to refer to the brothers and sisters that someone has. Sibling relationships can have medical implications, such as when inherited genetic disorders are present in a family, but the term "siblings" itself does not have a specific medical definition.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "mass behavior" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a social science concept that refers to the behavior of large groups of people, often in response to certain stimuli or situations. If you have any questions about a related concept or term within the field of medicine, I would be happy to help further!

Psychometrics is a branch of psychology that deals with the theory and technique of psychological measurement, such as the development and standardization of tests used to measure intelligence, aptitude, personality, attitudes, and other mental abilities or traits. It involves the construction and validation of measurement instruments, including the determination of their reliability and validity, and the application of statistical methods to analyze test data and interpret results. The ultimate goal of psychometrics is to provide accurate, objective, and meaningful measurements that can be used to understand individual differences and make informed decisions in educational, clinical, and organizational settings.

Autistic Disorder, also known as Autism or Classic Autism, is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects communication and behavior. It is characterized by:

1. Persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts, including:
* Deficits in social-emotional reciprocity;
* Deficits in nonverbal communicative behaviors used for social interaction;
* Deficits in developing, maintaining, and understanding relationships.
2. Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities, as manifested by at least two of the following:
* Stereotyped or repetitive motor movements, use of objects, or speech;
* Insistence on sameness, inflexible adherence to routines, or ritualized patterns of verbal or nonverbal behavior;
* Highly restricted, fixated interests that are abnormal in intensity or focus;
* Hyper- or hyporeactivity to sensory input or unusual interest in sensory aspects of the environment.
3. Symptoms must be present in the early developmental period (but may not become fully manifest until social demands exceed limited capacities) and limit or impair everyday functioning.
4. Symptoms do not occur exclusively during the course of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder or other psychotic disorders.

Autistic Disorder is part of the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), which also include Asperger's Syndrome and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). The current diagnostic term for this category of conditions, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), is Autism Spectrum Disorder.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

I must clarify that there is no medical definition for "World War II." World War II (1939-1945) was a major global conflict involving many of the world's nations, including all of the great powers, organized into two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. It was marked by significant events, such as the Holocaust, and had profound social, economic, and political consequences. The medical field did play a crucial role during this time, with advancements in battlefield medicine, military medicine, and the treatment of injuries and diseases on a large scale. However, there is no specific medical definition or concept associated with World War II itself.

In medical terms, "drive" is not a term that has a specific definition on its own. However, it can be used in the context of various medical concepts related to motivation, behavior, and physiological processes. Here are a few examples:

1. Motivational Drive: This refers to the internal push or desire that drives an individual to engage in certain behaviors or activities. It is often influenced by factors such as needs, goals, values, and emotions.
2. Sexual Drive: Also known as libido, sexual drive refers to a person's overall sexual desire or interest in sexual activity. It can be influenced by various factors, including hormonal changes, stress levels, relationship satisfaction, and mental health.
3. Aggression Drive: This refers to the tendency towards aggressive behavior, which can be motivated by various factors such as frustration, competition, or territoriality.
4. Homeostatic Drive: In physiology, homeostasis refers to the body's ability to maintain a stable internal environment despite changes in external conditions. Homeostatic drives are the physiological processes that help regulate and maintain this stability, such as hunger, thirst, or temperature regulation.

It is important to note that these are just a few examples of how the term "drive" can be used in a medical context. The specific meaning may vary depending on the context in which it is used.

"Prenatal exposure delayed effects" refer to the adverse health outcomes or symptoms that become apparent in an individual during their development or later in life, which are caused by exposure to certain environmental factors or substances while they were still in the womb. These effects may not be immediately observable at birth and can take weeks, months, years, or even decades to manifest. They can result from maternal exposure to various agents such as infectious diseases, medications, illicit drugs, tobacco smoke, alcohol, or environmental pollutants during pregnancy. The delayed effects can impact multiple organ systems and may include physical, cognitive, behavioral, and developmental abnormalities. It is important to note that the risk and severity of these effects can depend on several factors, including the timing, duration, and intensity of the exposure, as well as the individual's genetic susceptibility.

Psychological models are theoretical frameworks used in psychology to explain and predict mental processes and behaviors. They are simplified representations of complex phenomena, consisting of interrelated concepts, assumptions, and hypotheses that describe how various factors interact to produce specific outcomes. These models can be quantitative (e.g., mathematical equations) or qualitative (e.g., conceptual diagrams) in nature and may draw upon empirical data, theoretical insights, or both.

Psychological models serve several purposes:

1. They provide a systematic and organized way to understand and describe psychological phenomena.
2. They generate hypotheses and predictions that can be tested through empirical research.
3. They integrate findings from different studies and help synthesize knowledge across various domains of psychology.
4. They inform the development of interventions and treatments for mental health disorders.

Examples of psychological models include:

1. The Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality, which posits that individual differences in personality can be described along five broad dimensions: Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism.
2. The Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) model, which suggests that maladaptive thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are interconnected and can be changed through targeted interventions.
3. The Dual Process Theory of Attitudes, which proposes that attitudes are formed and influenced by two distinct processes: a rapid, intuitive process (heuristic) and a slower, deliberative process (systematic).
4. The Social Cognitive Theory, which emphasizes the role of observational learning, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations in shaping behavior.
5. The Attachment Theory, which describes the dynamics of long-term relationships between humans, particularly the parent-child relationship.

It is important to note that psychological models are provisional and subject to revision or replacement as new evidence emerges. They should be considered as useful tools for understanding and explaining psychological phenomena rather than definitive truths.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

I must clarify that there is no such thing as "Schizophrenic Psychology." The term schizophrenia is used to describe a specific and serious mental disorder that affects how a person thinks, feels, and behaves. It's important not to use the term casually or inaccurately, as it can perpetuate stigma and misunderstanding about the condition.

Schizophrenia is characterized by symptoms such as hallucinations (hearing or seeing things that aren't there), delusions (false beliefs that are not based on reality), disorganized speech, and grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior. These symptoms can impair a person's ability to function in daily life, maintain relationships, and experience emotions appropriately.

If you have any questions related to mental health conditions or psychology, I would be happy to provide accurate information and definitions.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Dyslexia is a neurodevelopmental disorder that impairs an individual's ability to read, write, and spell, despite having normal intelligence and adequate education. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and fluent word recognition, poor decoding and spelling abilities, and often accompanied by problems with reading comprehension and reduced reading experience. Dyslexia is not a result of low intelligence, lack of motivation, or poor instruction, but rather a specific learning disability that affects the way the brain processes written language. It is typically diagnosed in children, although it can go unnoticed until adulthood, and there are effective interventions and accommodations to help individuals with dyslexia overcome their challenges and achieve academic and professional success.

In the context of medicine and psychology, personality is a complex concept that refers to the unique patterns of thoughts, behaviors, and emotions that define an individual and differentiate them from others. It is the set of characteristics that influence how we perceive the world, how we relate to other people, and how we cope with stress and challenges.

Personality is thought to be relatively stable over time, although it can also evolve and change in response to life experiences and maturation. It is shaped by a combination of genetic factors, environmental influences, and developmental experiences.

There are many different theories and models of personality, including the Five Factor Model (FFM), which identifies five broad domains of personality: openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. Other approaches to understanding personality include psychoanalytic theory, humanistic psychology, and trait theory.

It's important to note that while the term "personality" is often used in everyday language to describe someone's behavior or demeanor, in medical and psychological contexts it refers to a more complex and multifaceted construct.

Psychomotor performance refers to the integration and coordination of mental processes (cognitive functions) with physical movements. It involves the ability to perform complex tasks that require both cognitive skills, such as thinking, remembering, and perceiving, and motor skills, such as gross and fine motor movements. Examples of psychomotor performances include driving a car, playing a musical instrument, or performing surgical procedures.

In a medical context, psychomotor performance is often used to assess an individual's ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), such as bathing, dressing, cooking, cleaning, and managing medications. Deficits in psychomotor performance can be a sign of neurological or psychiatric disorders, such as dementia, Parkinson's disease, or depression.

Assessment of psychomotor performance may involve tests that measure reaction time, coordination, speed, precision, and accuracy of movements, as well as cognitive functions such as attention, memory, and problem-solving skills. These assessments can help healthcare professionals develop appropriate treatment plans and monitor the progression of diseases or the effectiveness of interventions.

Childhood behavior disorders are a group of disruptive behaviors that are more frequent or severe than is typical for the child's age and development. These behaviors can cause significant impairment in the child's life, including their relationships with family, friends, and at school. Common examples of childhood behavior disorders include:

1. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A chronic condition characterized by difficulty paying attention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity.
2. Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD): A pattern of negative, hostile, and defiant behavior towards authority figures.
3. Conduct Disorder: A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior that violates the rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules.
4. Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED): A disorder characterized by recurrent impulsive aggressive behavior disproportionate to the situation.
5. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): A neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by difficulties in social interaction, communication, and repetitive behaviors.
6. Tourette Syndrome: A neurological disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements and vocalizations called tics.

It's important to note that children with behavior disorders often have other conditions such as learning disabilities, mood disorders, or anxiety disorders. Early identification and treatment of these disorders can significantly improve the child's outcome.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Fuzzy Logic" is actually a term from the field of mathematics and computer science, not medicine. It is a form of many-valued logic that deals with reasoning that is approximate rather than fixed and exact. In contrast to traditional logic, where binary sets have distinct boundaries (true or false, 0 or 1, etc.), fuzzy logic allows for continuous values between 0 and 1, making it particularly useful in areas where precise definitions are difficult, such as medical diagnosis or robotics.

I believe there may be a misunderstanding in your question. "Mothers" is a term that refers to individuals who have given birth to and raised children. It is not a medical term with a specific definition. If you are referring to a different word or term, please clarify so I can provide a more accurate response.

Nocturnal enuresis, also known as bedwetting, is a medical condition where an individual, usually a child, urinates involuntarily during sleep. It is considered to be a disorder when it occurs in children over the age of 5 years old, and is more common in boys than girls. Nocturnal enuresis can have various causes, including delayed development of bladder control, small bladder capacity, sleep disorders, urinary tract infections, structural or neurological abnormalities, and family history. Treatment options may include behavioral interventions, such as bladder training and fluid restriction, medications, or a combination of both.

Language development refers to the process by which children acquire the ability to understand and communicate through spoken, written, or signed language. This complex process involves various components including phonology (sound system), semantics (meaning of words and sentences), syntax (sentence structure), and pragmatics (social use of language). Language development begins in infancy with cooing and babbling and continues through early childhood and beyond, with most children developing basic conversational skills by the age of 4-5 years. However, language development can continue into adolescence and even adulthood as individuals learn new languages or acquire more advanced linguistic skills. Factors that can influence language development include genetics, environment, cognition, and social interactions.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

Verbal learning is a type of learning that involves the acquisition, processing, and retrieval of information presented in a verbal or written form. It is often assessed through tasks such as list learning, where an individual is asked to remember a list of words or sentences after a single presentation or multiple repetitions. Verbal learning is an important aspect of cognitive functioning and is commonly evaluated in neuropsychological assessments to help identify any memory or learning impairments.

In the context of medicine, "lead" most commonly refers to lead exposure or lead poisoning. Lead is a heavy metal that can be harmful to the human body, even at low levels. It can enter the body through contaminated air, water, food, or soil, and it can also be absorbed through the skin.

Lead poisoning occurs when lead builds up in the body over time, causing damage to the brain, nervous system, red blood cells, and kidneys. Symptoms of lead poisoning may include abdominal pain, constipation, fatigue, headache, irritability, memory problems, and in severe cases, seizures, coma, or even death.

Lead exposure is particularly dangerous for children, as their developing bodies are more sensitive to the harmful effects of lead. Even low levels of lead exposure can cause learning disabilities, behavioral problems, and developmental delays in children. Therefore, it's important to minimize lead exposure and seek medical attention if lead poisoning is suspected.

Physiological processes refer to the functional activities or functions of living organisms and their parts, including cells, tissues, and organs. These processes are necessary for the maintenance of life and include various functions such as:

1. Metabolism: the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in the body to maintain life, including anabolic (building up) and catabolic (breaking down) processes.
2. Circulation: the movement of blood and other fluids throughout the body, which helps transport nutrients, oxygen, and waste products.
3. Respiration: the process of gas exchange between the body and the environment, involving the inhalation of oxygen and the exhalation of carbon dioxide.
4. Digestion: the breakdown of food into smaller molecules that can be absorbed and utilized by the body for energy and growth.
5. Nerve impulse transmission: the electrical signals that transmit information between neurons and other cells in the body.
6. Endocrine regulation: the release and transport of hormones that regulate various physiological processes, such as growth, development, and metabolism.
7. Immune function: the body's defense system against foreign invaders, such as bacteria, viruses, and toxins.
8. Reproduction: the process of producing offspring through sexual or asexual means.
9. Maintenance of homeostasis: the ability of the body to maintain a stable internal environment despite changes in external conditions.

Physiological processes are regulated by complex systems of feedback and control, involving various hormones, nerves, and other signaling molecules. Understanding these processes is essential for understanding how the body functions and how to diagnose and treat various medical conditions.

Complex partial epilepsy, also known as temporal lobe epilepsy or focal impaired awareness epilepsy, is a type of epilepsy characterized by recurrent, unprovoked seizures that originate in the temporal lobe or other localized areas of the brain. These seizures typically involve alterations in consciousness or awareness, and may include automatisms (involuntary, repetitive movements), such as lip smacking, fidgeting, or picking at clothes. Complex partial seizures can last from a few seconds to several minutes and may be followed by a post-ictal period of confusion or fatigue.

Complex partial epilepsy is often associated with structural abnormalities in the brain, such as hippocampal sclerosis, tumors, or malformations. It can also be caused by infectious or inflammatory processes, vascular disorders, or genetic factors. The diagnosis of complex partial epilepsy typically involves a thorough neurological evaluation, including a detailed history of seizure symptoms, neuroimaging studies (such as MRI or CT scans), and electroencephalography (EEG) to record brain activity during and between seizures.

Treatment for complex partial epilepsy usually involves medication therapy with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). In some cases, surgery may be recommended if medications are not effective in controlling seizures or if there is a structural lesion that can be safely removed. Other treatment options may include dietary modifications, such as the ketogenic diet, or vagus nerve stimulation.

I am not aware of a specific medical definition for the term "art." In general, art refers to creative works that express or evoke emotions through meaning, symbolism, form, and/or color. This can include various forms such as visual arts (painting, sculpture, photography), performing arts (theater, music, dance), literary arts (poetry, novels), and more.

However, there is a field of study called medical humanities that explores the intersection between medicine and the humanities, including art. In this context, art can be used as a tool for healing, communication, reflection, and understanding in healthcare settings. For example, art therapy is a form of expressive therapy that uses creative activities like drawing, painting, or sculpting to help patients explore their emotions, improve their mental health, and enhance their well-being.

Therefore, while there may not be a specific medical definition for "art," it can have significant implications for healthcare and the human experience.

'Behavior' is a term used in the medical and scientific community to describe the actions or reactions of an individual in response to internal or external stimuli. It can be observed and measured, and it involves all the responses of a person, including motor responses, emotional responses, and cognitive responses. Behaviors can be voluntary or involuntary, adaptive or maladaptive, and normal or abnormal. They can also be influenced by genetic, physiological, environmental, and social factors. In a medical context, the study of behavior is often relevant to understanding and treating various mental health conditions, such as anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and personality disorders.

Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterized by disturbances in thought, perception, emotion, and behavior. It often includes hallucinations (usually hearing voices), delusions, paranoia, and disorganized speech and behavior. The onset of symptoms typically occurs in late adolescence or early adulthood. Schizophrenia is a complex, chronic condition that requires ongoing treatment and management. It significantly impairs social and occupational functioning, and it's often associated with reduced life expectancy due to comorbid medical conditions. The exact causes of schizophrenia are not fully understood, but research suggests that genetic, environmental, and neurodevelopmental factors play a role in its development.

Motor skills disorders are conditions that affect a person's ability to perform coordinated movements. These movements can be simple, such as buttoning a shirt, or complex, such as playing a musical instrument. Motor skills disorders can make it difficult for a person to perform everyday activities and can impact their quality of life.

There are two main types of motor skills: fine motor skills and gross motor skills. Fine motor skills involve the small movements of the hands, fingers, and wrists, such as writing or using utensils. Gross motor skills involve larger movements of the arms, legs, and torso, such as crawling, walking, or running.

Motor skills disorders can affect either fine or gross motor skills, or both. Some common types of motor skills disorders include:

* Developmental coordination disorder (DCD): a condition that affects a child's ability to perform coordinated movements and is often diagnosed in early childhood. Children with DCD may have difficulty with tasks such as tying their shoes, buttoning their clothes, or using scissors.
* Cerebral palsy: a group of disorders that affect movement and muscle tone, caused by damage to the brain before, during, or after birth. Cerebral palsy can cause stiff or floppy muscles, uncontrolled movements, and difficulty with balance and coordination.
* Dyspraxia: a condition that affects a person's ability to plan and perform coordinated movements. People with dyspraxia may have difficulty with tasks such as writing, buttoning their clothes, or playing sports.
* Ataxia: a group of disorders that affect coordination and balance, caused by damage to the cerebellum (the part of the brain that controls movement). Ataxia can cause unsteady gait, poor coordination, and difficulty with fine motor tasks.

Motor skills disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, injury, illness, or developmental delays. Treatment for motor skills disorders may include physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, and medication. In some cases, surgery may also be necessary to treat the underlying cause of the disorder.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "reading" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Reading is the activity or process of deciphering and understanding written words or text. It is a fundamental skill in language acquisition and communication, and is not typically used in a medical context unless there is a concern related to reading difficulties or disorders, such as dyslexia. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, I'd be happy to try to help answer those for you!

"Cultural deprivation" is a term that was previously used in sociology and social work to describe the idea that some individuals or groups may be at a disadvantage due to their lack of exposure to dominant cultural values, customs, and behaviors. This concept has been criticized for its deficit-based perspective and oversimplification of complex social issues.

In medical contexts, the term "cultural competence" is more commonly used to describe the ability of healthcare providers to understand, respect, and respond to the cultural differences of their patients. Cultural competence involves recognizing and addressing power imbalances, communication barriers, and other factors that may affect healthcare access and outcomes for individuals from diverse backgrounds.

It's important to note that cultural competence is not just about acquiring knowledge about different cultures, but also about developing skills and attitudes that promote respectful and effective communication and care. This includes self-awareness of one's own biases and assumptions, flexibility in adapting to different cultural contexts, and a commitment to ongoing learning and improvement.

Alcohol Amnestic Disorder is not listed as a separate disorder in the current edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which is used by mental health professionals to diagnose mental conditions. However, it was previously included in earlier editions as a subtype of Amnestic Disorder due to the effects of substance use or exposure to toxins.

Alcohol Amnestic Disorder is characterized by significant memory impairment that is directly caused by alcohol consumption. This disorder can result in anterograde amnesia, which is the inability to form new memories after drinking, and/or retrograde amnesia, which involves forgetting previously learned information or personal experiences.

The diagnosis of Alcohol Amnestic Disorder typically requires a comprehensive medical and neuropsychological evaluation to determine the extent and nature of memory impairment, as well as to rule out other potential causes for cognitive decline. Treatment usually involves a combination of abstinence from alcohol, pharmacotherapy, and psychosocial interventions to address substance use disorder and any co-occurring mental health conditions.

Psychomotor disorders are conditions that involve abnormalities in cognition, emotion, and behavior associated with impaired voluntary motor or movement functions. These disorders can be characterized by hypoactivity (decreased motor activity) or hyperactivity (increased motor activity). Examples of psychomotor disorders include Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Tourette syndrome, and catatonia. Psychomotor agitation, retardation, and stereotypies are also considered psychomotor disorders. These conditions can significantly impact a person's daily functioning and quality of life.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "social class" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is a sociological concept that refers to the grouping of individuals in a society based on their shared economic and social positions. This can include factors such as income, education, occupation, and wealth.

However, social class can have an impact on health outcomes and access to healthcare. For example, people in lower socioeconomic groups are more likely to experience chronic diseases, mental health disorders, and have limited access to quality healthcare services compared to those in higher socioeconomic groups. This relationship is often referred to as the "social determinants of health."

Aging is a complex, progressive and inevitable process of bodily changes over time, characterized by the accumulation of cellular damage and degenerative changes that eventually lead to increased vulnerability to disease and death. It involves various biological, genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors that contribute to the decline in physical and mental functions. The medical field studies aging through the discipline of gerontology, which aims to understand the underlying mechanisms of aging and develop interventions to promote healthy aging and extend the human healthspan.

Language development disorders, also known as language impairments or communication disorders, refer to a group of conditions that affect an individual's ability to understand and/or use spoken or written language in a typical manner. These disorders can manifest as difficulties with grammar, vocabulary, sentence structure, word finding, following directions, and/or conversational skills.

Language development disorders can be receptive (difficulty understanding language), expressive (difficulty using language to communicate), or mixed (a combination of both). They can occur in isolation or as part of a broader neurodevelopmental disorder, such as autism spectrum disorder or intellectual disability.

The causes of language development disorders are varied and may include genetic factors, environmental influences, neurological conditions, hearing loss, or other medical conditions. It is important to note that language development disorders are not the result of low intelligence or lack of motivation; rather, they reflect a specific impairment in the brain's language processing systems.

Early identification and intervention for language development disorders can significantly improve outcomes and help individuals develop effective communication skills. Treatment typically involves speech-language therapy, which may be provided individually or in a group setting, and may involve strategies such as modeling correct language use, practicing targeted language skills, and using visual aids to support comprehension.

Special education is a type of education that is designed to meet the unique needs of students with disabilities. According to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) in the United States, special education is defined as:

"Specially designed instruction, at no cost to the parents, to meet the unique needs of a child with a disability, including—

(A) Instruction conducted in the classroom, in the home, in hospitals and institutions, and in other settings; and

(B) Instruction in physical education."

Special education may include a variety of services, such as:

* Specially designed instruction to meet the unique needs of the child
* Related services, such as speech therapy, occupational therapy, or physical therapy
* Assistive technology devices and services
* Counseling and behavioral supports
* Transportation services

Special education is provided in a variety of settings, including regular classrooms, resource rooms, self-contained classrooms, and specialized schools. The goal of special education is to provide students with disabilities with the skills and knowledge they need to be successful in school and in life.

Social adjustment, in the context of mental health and psychology, refers to an individual's ability to adapt and function effectively within their social environment. It involves developing and maintaining positive relationships with others, fulfilling various social roles (such as being a family member, friend, or employee), and meeting the expectations and demands of one's social group.

Social adjustment can be affected by various factors, including an individual's personality traits, coping skills, mental and physical health status, and life experiences. Poor social adjustment can lead to feelings of isolation, loneliness, and dissatisfaction with life, as well as increased risk for mental health problems such as depression and anxiety.

Assessing social adjustment is an important aspect of mental health care, as it can provide valuable insights into an individual's overall functioning and quality of life. Treatments such as psychotherapy and social skills training may be used to help improve social adjustment in individuals who are struggling in this area.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

Memory disorders are a category of cognitive impairments that affect an individual's ability to acquire, store, retain, and retrieve memories. These disorders can be caused by various underlying medical conditions, including neurological disorders, psychiatric illnesses, substance abuse, or even normal aging processes. Some common memory disorders include:

1. Alzheimer's disease: A progressive neurodegenerative disorder that primarily affects older adults and is characterized by a decline in cognitive abilities, including memory, language, problem-solving, and decision-making skills.
2. Dementia: A broader term used to describe a group of symptoms associated with a decline in cognitive function severe enough to interfere with daily life. Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia, but other causes include vascular dementia, Lewy body dementia, and frontotemporal dementia.
3. Amnesia: A memory disorder characterized by difficulties in forming new memories or recalling previously learned information due to brain damage or disease. Amnesia can be temporary or permanent and may result from head trauma, stroke, infection, or substance abuse.
4. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI): A condition where an individual experiences mild but noticeable memory or cognitive difficulties that are greater than expected for their age and education level. While some individuals with MCI may progress to dementia, others may remain stable or even improve over time.
5. Korsakoff's syndrome: A memory disorder often caused by alcohol abuse and thiamine deficiency, characterized by severe short-term memory loss, confabulation (making up stories to fill in memory gaps), and disorientation.

It is essential to consult a healthcare professional if you or someone you know experiences persistent memory difficulties, as early diagnosis and intervention can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

Sex chromosome aberrations refer to structural and numerical abnormalities in the sex chromosomes, which are typically represented as X and Y chromosomes in humans. These aberrations can result in variations in the number of sex chromosomes, such as Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY), Turner syndrome (45,X), and Jacobs/XYY syndrome (47,XYY). They can also include structural changes, such as deletions, duplications, or translocations of sex chromosome material.

Sex chromosome aberrations may lead to a range of phenotypic effects, including differences in physical characteristics, cognitive development, fertility, and susceptibility to certain health conditions. The manifestation and severity of these impacts can vary widely depending on the specific type and extent of the aberration, as well as individual genetic factors and environmental influences.

It is important to note that while sex chromosome aberrations may pose challenges and require medical management, they do not inherently define or limit a person's potential, identity, or worth. Comprehensive care, support, and education can help individuals with sex chromosome aberrations lead fulfilling lives and reach their full potential.

Delirium, Dementia, Amnestic, and Other Cognitive Disorders are conditions that affect cognitive abilities such as thinking, memory, perception, and judgment. Here are brief medical definitions of each:

1. Delirium: A serious disturbance in mental abilities that results in confused thinking and reduced awareness of the environment. It can cause hallucinations, delusions, and disorientation. Delirium often comes on suddenly and can be caused by various factors such as medication side effects, infection, or illness.
2. Dementia: A chronic and progressive decline in cognitive abilities that affects memory, language, problem-solving, and judgment. Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia, but other conditions such as vascular dementia, Lewy body dementia, and frontotemporal dementia can also cause it. Dementia can significantly interfere with daily life and activities.
3. Amnestic Disorders: A group of conditions that primarily affect memory. These disorders can be caused by brain injury, illness, or substance abuse. The most common amnestic disorder is Korsakoff's syndrome, which is caused by alcohol abuse and results in significant memory loss and confusion.
4. Other Cognitive Disorders: This category includes a range of conditions that affect cognitive abilities but do not fit into the categories of delirium, dementia, or amnestic disorders. Examples include mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which is a decline in cognitive abilities that does not interfere significantly with daily life, and various cognitive disorders caused by brain injury or disease.

It's important to note that these conditions can overlap and may co-occur with other mental health or neurological disorders. Proper diagnosis and treatment require a comprehensive evaluation by a qualified healthcare professional.

Brain mapping is a broad term that refers to the techniques used to understand the structure and function of the brain. It involves creating maps of the various cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processes in the brain by correlating these processes with physical locations or activities within the nervous system. Brain mapping can be accomplished through a variety of methods, including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET) scans, electroencephalography (EEG), and others. These techniques allow researchers to observe which areas of the brain are active during different tasks or thoughts, helping to shed light on how the brain processes information and contributes to our experiences and behaviors. Brain mapping is an important area of research in neuroscience, with potential applications in the diagnosis and treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders.

Biological evolution is the change in the genetic composition of populations of organisms over time, from one generation to the next. It is a process that results in descendants differing genetically from their ancestors. Biological evolution can be driven by several mechanisms, including natural selection, genetic drift, gene flow, and mutation. These processes can lead to changes in the frequency of alleles (variants of a gene) within populations, resulting in the development of new species and the extinction of others over long periods of time. Biological evolution provides a unifying explanation for the diversity of life on Earth and is supported by extensive evidence from many different fields of science, including genetics, paleontology, comparative anatomy, and biogeography.

In the context of medicine, 'knowledge' refers to the understanding and comprehension of medical facts, principles, theories, and practices that are acquired through education, training, research, and experience. This encompasses a deep familiarity with anatomy, physiology, pathophysiology, pharmacology, clinical guidelines, and evidence-based practices. It also includes awareness of current research developments, emerging trends, and best practices in the field. Medical knowledge is constantly evolving and requires healthcare professionals to engage in lifelong learning to maintain their expertise and provide high-quality care to patients.

Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent, unprovoked seizures. These seizures are caused by abnormal electrical activity in the brain, which can result in a wide range of symptoms, including convulsions, loss of consciousness, and altered sensations or behaviors. Epilepsy can have many different causes, including genetic factors, brain injury, infection, or stroke. In some cases, the cause may be unknown.

There are many different types of seizures that can occur in people with epilepsy, and the specific type of seizure will depend on the location and extent of the abnormal electrical activity in the brain. Some people may experience only one type of seizure, while others may have several different types. Seizures can vary in frequency, from a few per year to dozens or even hundreds per day.

Epilepsy is typically diagnosed based on the patient's history of recurrent seizures and the results of an electroencephalogram (EEG), which measures the electrical activity in the brain. Imaging tests such as MRI or CT scans may also be used to help identify any structural abnormalities in the brain that may be contributing to the seizures.

While there is no cure for epilepsy, it can often be effectively managed with medication. In some cases, surgery may be recommended to remove the area of the brain responsible for the seizures. With proper treatment and management, many people with epilepsy are able to lead normal, productive lives.

An Expert System is a type of artificial intelligence (AI) program that emulates the decision-making ability of a human expert in a specific field or domain. It is designed to solve complex problems by using a set of rules, heuristics, and knowledge base derived from human expertise. The system can simulate the problem-solving process of a human expert, allowing it to provide advice, make recommendations, or diagnose problems in a similar manner. Expert systems are often used in fields such as medicine, engineering, finance, and law where specialized knowledge and experience are critical for making informed decisions.

The medical definition of 'Expert Systems' refers to AI programs that assist healthcare professionals in diagnosing and treating medical conditions, based on a large database of medical knowledge and clinical expertise. These systems can help doctors and other healthcare providers make more accurate diagnoses, recommend appropriate treatments, and provide patient education. They may also be used for research, training, and quality improvement purposes.

Expert systems in medicine typically use a combination of artificial intelligence techniques such as rule-based reasoning, machine learning, natural language processing, and pattern recognition to analyze medical data and provide expert advice. Examples of medical expert systems include MYCIN, which was developed to diagnose infectious diseases, and Internist-1, which assists in the diagnosis and management of internal medicine cases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "logic" is a term that is more commonly used in philosophy, mathematics, and computer science rather than in medicine. It refers to the principles of valid reasoning and argument. In the context of medicine, healthcare professionals may use logical thinking and reasoning in making diagnoses, evaluating treatment options, and making decisions about patient care. However, there isn't a specific medical definition for "logic" itself.

Anniversaries and special events generally do not have a specific medical definition. However, in the context of mental health and psychotherapy, these terms may refer to significant dates or occurrences that can impact an individual's emotional well-being.

Anniversaries might include the date of a loved one's death, a personal trauma, or the start of recovery from a mental health condition or addiction. These anniversaries can serve as reminders and may trigger strong emotions or symptoms related to the original event.

Special events could be any occasions that bring about changes in routine, increased stress, or heightened emotional experiences, such as holidays, weddings, graduations, or family reunions. For some individuals, these events might exacerbate existing mental health conditions or even trigger new symptoms.

Mental health professionals should be aware of the potential impact of anniversaries and special events on their clients' well-being and provide appropriate support and interventions during these times.

"Mental recall," also known as "memory recall," refers to the ability to retrieve or bring information from your memory storage into your conscious mind, so you can think about, use, or apply it. This process involves accessing and retrieving stored memories in response to certain cues or prompts. It is a fundamental cognitive function that allows individuals to remember and recognize people, places, events, facts, and experiences.

In the context of medical terminology, mental recall may be used to assess an individual's cognitive abilities, particularly in relation to memory function. Impairments in memory recall can be indicative of various neurological or psychological conditions, such as dementia, Alzheimer's disease, or amnesia.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

The prefrontal cortex is the anterior (frontal) part of the frontal lobe in the brain, involved in higher-order cognitive processes such as planning complex cognitive behavior, personality expression, decision making, and moderating social behavior. It also plays a significant role in working memory and executive functions. The prefrontal cortex is divided into several subregions, each associated with specific cognitive and emotional functions. Damage to the prefrontal cortex can result in various impairments, including difficulties with planning, decision making, and social behavior regulation.

Language disorders, also known as communication disorders, refer to a group of conditions that affect an individual's ability to understand or produce spoken, written, or other symbolic language. These disorders can be receptive (difficulty understanding language), expressive (difficulty producing language), or mixed (a combination of both).

Language disorders can manifest as difficulties with grammar, vocabulary, sentence structure, and coherence in communication. They can also affect social communication skills such as taking turns in conversation, understanding nonverbal cues, and interpreting tone of voice.

Language disorders can be developmental, meaning they are present from birth or early childhood, or acquired, meaning they develop later in life due to injury, illness, or trauma. Examples of acquired language disorders include aphasia, which can result from stroke or brain injury, and dysarthria, which can result from neurological conditions affecting speech muscles.

Language disorders can have significant impacts on an individual's academic, social, and vocational functioning, making it important to diagnose and treat them as early as possible. Treatment typically involves speech-language therapy to help individuals develop and improve their language skills.

The frontal lobe is the largest lobes of the human brain, located at the front part of each cerebral hemisphere and situated in front of the parietal and temporal lobes. It plays a crucial role in higher cognitive functions such as decision making, problem solving, planning, parts of social behavior, emotional expressions, physical reactions, and motor function. The frontal lobe is also responsible for what's known as "executive functions," which include the ability to focus attention, understand rules, switch focus, plan actions, and inhibit inappropriate behaviors. It is divided into five areas, each with its own specific functions: the primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, Broca's area, prefrontal cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex. Damage to the frontal lobe can result in a wide range of impairments, depending on the location and extent of the injury.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with hyperactivity is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects both children and adults. The condition is characterized by symptoms including:

1. Difficulty paying attention or staying focused on a single task
2. Impulsivity, or acting without thinking
3. Hyperactivity, or excessive fidgeting, restlessness, or talking

In order to be diagnosed with ADHD with hyperactivity, an individual must exhibit these symptoms to a degree that is developmentally inappropriate and interferes with their daily functioning. Additionally, the symptoms must have been present for at least six months and be present in multiple settings (e.g., at home, school, work).

It's important to note that ADHD can manifest differently in different people, and some individuals may experience predominantly inattentive or impulsive symptoms rather than hyperactive ones. However, when the hyperactive component is prominent, it is referred to as ADHD with hyperactivity.

Effective treatments for ADHD with hyperactivity include a combination of medication (such as stimulants) and behavioral therapy. With appropriate treatment, individuals with ADHD can learn to manage their symptoms and lead successful, fulfilling lives.

Neuroanatomy is the branch of anatomy that deals with the study of the structure, organization, and relationships of the nervous system, including the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. It involves understanding the complex arrangement of neurons, neural pathways, and support structures that make up the nervous system, as well as how these components work together to enable various functions such as sensation, movement, cognition, and emotion. Neuroanatomy is a fundamental area of study in neuroscience, medicine, and psychology, providing critical knowledge for understanding brain function and dysfunction, developing treatments for neurological disorders, and advancing our overall understanding of the human body.

Hereditary intelligence is the theory that intelligence is fixed upon birth and not able to grow. Environmental intelligence is ... Emotional intelligence is important to our mental health and has ties into social intelligence. Social intelligence is the ... Intelligence in computers or other machines is called artificial intelligence. The word intelligence derives from the Latin ... Look up intelligence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Wikiquote has quotations related to Intelligence. Intelligence on In ...
... may refer to: European Coordinating Committee for Artificial Intelligence Intelligence Community ... House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence Joint Intelligence ... Joint Intelligence Committee (UK) National Intelligence Co-ordinating Committee (South Africa) Parliamentary Joint Committee on ... Coordination Committee (Croatia) Intelligence and Security Committee of Parliament (UK) Joint Intelligence Committee (India), ...
Human intelligence (HUMINT) Derived from covert human intelligence sources (Covert Human Intelligence Source or CHIS, agents or ... Central Intelligence Agency, the United Kingdom's Secret Intelligence Service (MI6) and the Australian Secret Intelligence ... including signals intelligence (SIGINT) and electronic intelligence (ELINT). Financial intelligence (FININT) The gathering of ... Intelligence agents are individuals that work for or have been recruited by an Intelligence Officer, but who are not employed ...
... may refer to: Spatial intelligence (business method) Spatial intelligence (psychology) This disambiguation ... page lists articles associated with the title Spatial intelligence. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change ...
"Central Intelligence - Rotten Tomatoes". www.rottentomatoes.com. June 17, 2016. Retrieved May 24, 2023. "Central Intelligence ( ... "Central Intelligence (2016)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved October 14, 2016. "'Central Intelligence' Review Roundup: Critics ... "Central Intelligence reviews". Metacritic. Retrieved June 30, 2016. "Central Intelligence - Review". RollingStone.com. ... Central Intelligence was released on Digital HD on September 13, 2016, before being released on DVD, Blu-ray and 4K Ultra HD on ...
Intelligence Intelligence quotient Emotional intelligence Multiple intelligences Spirituality Trance Zohar, D., ReWiring the ... Business Intelligence Journal. 4 (1): 9-32. Amram, Yosi Joseph (24 November 2022). "The Intelligence of Spiritual Intelligence ... Levin, M., Spiritual Intelligence (2000; ISBN 0-340-73394-2) Gardner, Howard, A Case Against Spiritual Intelligence, The ... It has been argued that Spiritual Intelligence cannot be recognized as a form of intelligence. Howard Gardner chose not to ...
CS1 errors: generic name, Collective intelligence, Open-source intelligence, Social information processing, Intelligence by ... Collaborative intelligence traces its roots to the Pandemonium Architecture proposed by artificial intelligence pioneer Oliver ... Lévy defined "collective intelligence" to encompass both collective and collaborative intelligence: "a form of universally ... The key role of AI in collaborative intelligence was predicted in 2012 when Zann Gill wrote that collaborative intelligence (C- ...
Malone, Rick (2015). "Protective Intelligence: Applying the Intelligence Cycle Model to Threat Assessment". Journal of Threat ... Malone, Rick (2015). "Protective Intelligence: Applying the Intelligence Cycle Model to Threat Assessment". Journal of Threat ... Malone, Rick (2015). "Protective Intelligence: Applying the Intelligence Cycle Model to Threat Assessment". Journal of Threat ... "The Proactive Tool of Protective Intelligence". "Protective Intelligence Fundamentals and Challenges". 19 June 2018. ...
Director of National Intelligence, Vision 2015: A Globally Networked and Integrated Intelligence Enterprise, July 2008 Unlike ... In this respect, decision intelligence can be seen as a "multi-link" extension to artificial intelligence, which is most widely ... Decision intelligence is both a very new and also a very old discipline. Many of its elements-such as the language of assessing ... Decision intelligence seeks to bridge this gap, creating a critical mass of users of a common methodology and language for the ...
Intelligence: 4. 8 October 1884. Retrieved 16 August 2013. "Intelligence". Intelligence: 2. 8 October 1884. Retrieved 16 August ... The Intelligence was a weekly newspaper published in Bowral, New South Wales in 1884. The Intelligence was first published on 8 ... The Intelligence and the Bowral Free Press were intended to operate as separate newspapers and content in one would not be ... The Intelligence only produced four issues before it ceased publication on 29 October 1884. As a result, on 5 November 1884, ...
... differs from cultural intelligence in that it is based from the belief in interculturalism while CQ ... Intercultural intelligence, or ICI, is a term that is used for the capability to function effectively in culturally diverse ... Intercultural Intelligence is used in the business world to bridge the cultural divide and avoid misunderstandings that affect ... In a culturally diverse society, his or her intercultural intelligence is used to expand on one's understanding of the ...
... is a central part of the fDi Intelligence portfolio of investment products and services from the Financial ... fDi Intelligence is an English-language bi-monthly news and foreign direct investment (FDI) publication, providing an up-to- ... fDi Intelligence focuses primarily on FDI news and in-depth analysis of the corporate investment climate across many sectors. ... A series of bi-annual rankings are published by fDi Intelligence which looks at the infrastructure, incentives and capabilities ...
... is the overall intelligence and derived cognitive ability of aquatic mammals belonging in the infraorder ... However, many other factors also affect intelligence, and recent discoveries concerning bird intelligence have called into ... Humans, great apes, and elephants, species all well known for their high intelligence, are the only others known to have ... While a complex neocortex usually indicates high intelligence, there are exceptions. For example, the echidna has a highly ...
... (AI) is the intelligence of machines or software, as opposed to the intelligence of humans or animals. ... "Artificial intelligence is not, by definition, simulation of human intelligence". McCarthy defines intelligence as "the ... Machines with intelligence have the potential to use their intelligence to make ethical decisions. The field of machine ethics ... "Logic and Artificial Intelligence". In Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Artificial Intelligence. ...
... Limited, a private security- and intelligence-firm, is based in Cheltenham, England. Alex Bomberg, a ... International Intelligence Limited is a United Kingdom based security and intelligence company. Incorporated on 11 July 2002, ... In 2009, International Intelligence CEO, Alex Bomberg, participated in a BBC documentary on intelligence gathering, ... Since the early 2000s, International Intelligence has carried specialist intelligence gathering to aid its clients, often using ...
IA is sometimes contrasted with AI (artificial intelligence), that is, the project of building a human-like intelligence in the ... Intelligence amplification (IA) (also referred to as cognitive augmentation, machine augmented intelligence and enhanced ... In 2014 the technology of Artificial Swarm Intelligence was developed to amplify the intelligence of networked human groups ... Carter, Shan; Nielsen, Michael (2017). "Using artificial intelligence to augment human intelligence". Distill. 2 (12): e9. ...
... may refer to: Artificial intelligence, intelligence exhibited by machines Machine learning, giving ... without being explicitly programmed This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Machine Intelligence. If ...
"Intelligence Assets: What is an intelligence asset?". intelligence101.com/. v t e (Articles with short description, Short ... "INTelligence: Human Intelligence". www.cia.gov. Archived from the original on May 25, 2011. Ekpe, Bassey (2007). "The ... Intelligence services often pay good wages to people in important positions that are willing to betray secrets. Have been ... In intelligence, assets are persons within organizations or countries being spied upon who provide information for an outside ...
Look up intelligence community in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Intelligence community may refer to: Australian Intelligence ... Croatian security and intelligence system Israeli intelligence community Italian intelligence agencies New Zealand intelligence ... List of Pakistani intelligence agencies Russian Intelligence Community French intelligence agencies United Kingdom intelligence ... List of intelligence agencies of the United Kingdom United States Intelligence Community List of (worldwide) intelligence ...
... is a technology company that makes database software for law enforcement. Its primary products are SONAR (Sex ... Official website ODIN Intelligence, LLC's channel on YouTube[dead link] archive.org channel archive (Articles with short ... "ODIN Intelligence - Distributed Denial of Secrets". ddosecrets.com. Retrieved 22 January 2023. 19 GB including thousands of ... On or about January 14, 2023, in a separate incident, a hacker group claimed to have hacked ODIN Intelligence, Inc. computer ...
Several subcategories of intelligence, such as emotional intelligence and social intelligence, have been proposed, and there ... Motivational intelligence appeared as the strongest predictor, follows by knowledge intelligence, behavioral intelligence and ... Intelligence A (physiological), that could be seen as a semblance of fluid intelligence and Intelligence B (experiential), ... superseding knowledge intelligence, behavioral intelligence, and strategic intelligence. It holds a crucial role in promoting ...
... may refer to: Group mind (science fiction) Collective intelligence, superorganism Distributed ... innovation system This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Distributed intelligence. If an internal ...
Center for Intelligence and Security Studies - trains new analysts in intelligence analysis Intelligence analysis organizations ... "Fifteen Axioms for Intelligence Analysts: How To Succeed in the DI [Directorate of Intelligence]", Studies in Intelligence, ... "Improving Intelligence Analysis at CIA: Dick Heuer's Contribution to Intelligence Analysis", Psychology of Intelligence ... Strategic Intelligence: Theory and Application, Joint Military Intelligence Training Center National Intelligence Production ...
"Collecting Competitive Intelligence". www.exinfm.com. Levy, Joe (2011). "Primary Intelligence vs Secondary Intelligence". www. ... Business intelligence terms, Competition (economics), Competitive intelligence, Innovation economics, Open-source intelligence) ... Intelligence from both classifications can be found within the scope of open source intelligence (OSINT). Efficient and ... Commercial intelligence is a form of open-source intelligence practiced by diverse international and local businesses. Business ...
"AFMC Intelligence Squadron redesignated as 21st Intelligence Squadron". Skywrighter. USAF. Archived from the original on 9 ... Acquisition Intelligence (Acq Intel) is the field that combines military intelligence, acquisition processes, and logistics ... Early collaboration and engagement by program managers and intelligence analysts is crucial to the success of intelligence ... Advanced weaponry is providing an exponential increase in intelligence data collection capabilities and the Intelligence ...
... is the set of tools and applications focused on the creation and management of knowledge through the ... Retail Intelligence includes the following tools: External Traffic reader: sensor that allows external counting. In&Out traffic ... Retail Intelligence applications can relate in real-time and interactively, the internal variables (range, space, pricing, ... Retail Intelligence tools combine the technology hardware (readers of traffic, people counters, motion sensors) with management ...
... the Intelligence Commendation Medal, the Career Intelligence Medal and the National Intelligence Exceptional Achievement Medal ... The Intelligence Star is an award given by the Central Intelligence Agency to its officers for "voluntary acts of courage ... On 26 June 1968, Vice Admiral Rufus L. Taylor, the Deputy Director of Central Intelligence, presented the Intelligence Star for ... Many officers memorialized on this wall also received the Intelligence Star and the Distinguished Intelligence Medal and are ...
Accordingly the intelligence quotient (IQ) was developed. ... The narrow definition of IQ is a score on an intelligence test ... Scores from intelligence tests are estimates of intelligence. Unlike, for example, distance and mass, a concrete measure of ... In addition, fluid intelligence was hypothesized to decline with age, while crystallized intelligence was largely resistant to ... Emotional competence Emotional intelligence (EI), also known as emotional quotient (EQ) and emotional intelligence quotient ( ...
New Zealand Intelligence Corps Australian Army Intelligence Corps Canadian Intelligence Corps Israeli Intelligence Corps This ... Intelligence Corps can refer to: Intelligence Corps (United Kingdom) Military Intelligence Corps (United States Army) ...
... (CI) is shared or group intelligence (GI) that emerges from the collaboration, collective efforts, and ... Collective intelligence as represented by Web 2.0 has less user engagement than collaborative intelligence. An art project ... CIRI - the Collective Intelligence Research Institute - a R&D non-profit organization on collective intelligence An application ... The term group intelligence is sometimes used interchangeably with the term collective intelligence. Anita Woolley presents ...
Towards an application of AI based on human rights, the rule of law and ...
Hereditary intelligence is the theory that intelligence is fixed upon birth and not able to grow. Environmental intelligence is ... Emotional intelligence is important to our mental health and has ties into social intelligence. Social intelligence is the ... Intelligence in computers or other machines is called artificial intelligence. The word intelligence derives from the Latin ... Look up intelligence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Wikiquote has quotations related to Intelligence. Intelligence on In ...
Definition of Network Intelligence: Network Intelligence is the architectural approach used by Telecommunication operators to ... Intelligent Network and IMS are examples of solutions structured according to the Network Intelligence approach. ... Network Intelligence is the architectural approach used by Telecommunication operators to develop telecommunication services. ... Intelligent Network and IMS are examples of solutions structured according to the Network Intelligence approach. ...
We have increasingly sophisticated narrow artificial intelligences, but only the first beginnings of systems ... EFF Related Content: Artificial Intelligence & Machine Learning. Filter by Type - Any -. Deeplinks Blog. Document. Event. Legal ... We have increasingly sophisticated "narrow" artificial intelligences, but only the first beginnings of systems that think in ... artificial intelligence may be. But regardless of whether you think general purpose AI is imminent or still in the distant ...
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I ran a full day event a while back, based on exercises form The Emotional Intelligence Activity Book by Adele B Lynn (via ... Im currently putting together a new workshop to introduce people to EI - Emotional Intelligence - how it plays a part in our ... The Emotional Intelligence Activity Book: 50 Activities for Promoting EQ at Work. ... Emotional Intelligence In Action: Tools and Techniques for Individuals and Groups http://www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/0787978434 ...
The Global Intelligence Files. On Monday February 27th, 2012, WikiLeaks began publishing The Global Intelligence Files, over ... They reveal the inner workings of a company that fronts as an intelligence publisher, but provides confidential intelligence ... intelligence assets, a global network and a message that appeals to the. West, even if that message appears to be mostly for ... intelligence leaks involving the Turkish military often start in. FGC-owned newspapers, such as Zaman. Meanwhile, some alarmist ...
... which are often wrongly called artificial intelligence, is a big. ... Artificial intelligence, or rather things like machine learning ... Artificial intelligence, or rather things like machine learning and automation, which are often wrongly called artificial ... which are not exactly artificial intelligence, but the trend is clear: oil and gas is adopting more and more software solutions ... intelligence, is a big thing in oil and gas right now. The hype around AI spreads a lot further than the oil and gas industry, ...
... and intelligence use of war criminals and Nazi collaborators; and new information on the workings of U. S. intelligence during ... Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Name Files and Subject Files compiled by the CIA in response to the Disclosure Acts. These ... Persons associated with intelligence activities and operations are identified not only by their real names, but also by various ... Records of the Central Intelligence Agency (RG 263). Files released in response to the Nazi War Crimes Disclosure Act and the ...
Members of Togolese intelligence agency are accused of torture and perpetrating violence against prisoners who were accused of ... and carry out institutional reform of the national intelligence agency. ...
Organoid Intelligence: Computing on the Brain Small spheres of neurons show promise for drug testing and computation ... AerospaceArtificial IntelligenceBiomedicalClimate TechComputingConsumer ElectronicsEnergyHistory of TechnologyRobotics ... AerospaceArtificial IntelligenceBiomedicalClimate TechComputingConsumer ElectronicsEnergyHistory of TechnologyRobotics ...
Projects on Web mining + Artificial Intelligence I need help with my project artificial intelligence that touches a key on the ... How do I do R&D for artificial intelligence humanoid creation? How do I define unary functioon used in the artificial neural ... can you help me in my project in artificial intelligence ... my project is concern with breath-first search.. kindly help me to ...
University of Oxford, Center for the Governance of AI, Artificial Intelligence: American Attitudes and Trends, a survey of US ... 31% of Americans support developing high-level machine intelligence (i.e., machines are able to perform almost all tasks that ... NewVantage Partners 7th annual survey of senior corporate executives on the topics of Big Data and Artificial Intelligence (AI ... Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) and DXC survey of senior executives about their organizations ...
Check out our business intelligence resource library to learn more about Domos BI solution, data analytics best practices, and ...
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Emotional intelligence can make your career. Decades of research now point to emotional intelligence as the critical factor ... The link between emotional intelligence and earnings is so direct that every point increase in emotional intelligence adds $ ... TalentSmart tested emotional intelligence alongside 33 other important workplace skills, and found that emotional intelligence ... Emotional intelligence (EQ) is the "something" in each of us that is a bit intangible. It affects how we manage behavior, ...
... that US intelligence services may access the data. ... that US intelligence services may access the data. ... What is really the point? If the main concern here is possible data interception by US Intelligence does the French government ... CNIL says that this judgement "highlighted the risk that American intelligence services will access the personal data ...
An intelligence explosion is theoretical scenario in which an intelligent agent analyzes the processes that produce its ... Philosopher David Chalmers published a significant analysis of the Singularity, focusing on intelligence explosions, in Journal ... 13Intelligence explosion in organizations, or why Im not worried about the singularity. ... His analysis of how they could occur defends the likelihood of an intelligence explosion. He performed a very careful analysis ...
... intelligence agencies are still divided on the origins of the coronavirus. Still, they believe Chinas leaders did not know ... The report said that four intelligence community agencies and the National Intelligence Council assessed with low confidence ... One of the intelligence community agencies assessed with moderate confidence that the first human infection with COVID-19 most ... A fifth intelligence agency believes with moderate confidence that the first human infection was linked to a lab. ...
View the entire Artificial Intelligence and Civil Liberties & Civil Rights collection Since the launch of ChatGPT in November, ... Just as artificial intelligence is rapidly evolving, so is the legislative landscape. A plethora of bills have already been ... The Brennan Centers Artificial Intelligence Legislation Tracker will prove a useful tool to help industry leaders, policy ... The Brennan Centers Artificial Intelligence Legislation Tracker aims to increase public awareness of the myriad proposed ...
Accenture reviews the varying levels of artificial intelligence and considers the opportunities of artificial general ... Artificial Intelligence services Harness the power of data and AI to accelerate change for your business. ... Artificial Intelligence R&D Leverage leading-edge AI techniques to unlock business value. ... Artificial intelligence (AI) is behind many of the advances weve seen in areas like healthcare, customer experience and ...
... Russian and separatist forces continue to attempt small scale ...
Country Intelligence Report Analysis By top Key Vendors Operating like KPN, T-Mobile Netherlands, VodafoneZiggo, Tele2 ... "Netherlands: Country Intelligence Report", a new Country Intelligence Report by GlobalData, provides an executive-level ... The Country Intelligence Report provides in-depth analysis of the following - - Demographic and macroeconomic context in the ... Netherlands: Country Intelligence Report Analysis By top Key Vendors Operating like KPN, T-Mobile Netherlands, VodafoneZiggo, ...
... most reasonable people should be comfortable with a definition of business intelligence. My take on this is that BI… ... most reasonable people should be comfortable with a definition of business intelligence. My take on this is that BI is simply ... Business Intelligence Competency Centres. Last updated: May 11, 2009 5:28 pm. ... More thoughts on the benefits and disadvantages of business intelligence competency centres and also the politcs that they have ...
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RIT is kicking off a new seminar series focused on connecting the campuss growing artificial intelligence (AI) community. The ... 16-State Commission on Artificial Intelligence and Education Established. EU Parliament Passes Major AI Regulation Law. ... Rochester Institute of Tech Launches Series on Artificial Intelligence. *By Sri Ravipati ... is kicking off a new seminar series focused on connecting the campuss growing artificial intelligence (AI) community. ...
  • Intelligence in computers or other machines is called artificial intelligence. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have increasingly sophisticated "narrow" artificial intelligences, but only the first beginnings of systems that think in open ended and general ways like we do. (eff.org)
  • There is a wide range of views about how urgent or profound the policy questions raised by general, "human level", artificial intelligence may be. (eff.org)
  • Artificial intelligence, or rather things like machine learning and automation, which are often wrongly called artificial intelligence, is a big thing in oil and gas right now. (nasdaq.com)
  • Again, this AI market actually involves predictive algorithms, automation systems, and analytics, which are not exactly artificial intelligence, but the trend is clear: oil and gas is adopting more and more software solutions to improve their results and bottom lines. (nasdaq.com)
  • 36% say that artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) have played a significant role in their organization's digital strategy and 45% regard AI/ML as the most important technology to play a significant role in their organization's digital strategy three years from now (EIU). (forbes.com)
  • 86% explored machine-learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) solutions to cybersecurity (Radware). (forbes.com)
  • Only 7% apply machine learning and artificial intelligence in decision-making or production workflows (SMR). (forbes.com)
  • Since the launch of ChatGPT in November, the market for generative artificial intelligence has quickly expanded as Google , Meta , and other technology companies have capitalized on the popularity and promise of generative AI by deploying their own systems to the public. (brennancenter.org)
  • The Brennan Center's Artificial Intelligence Legislation Tracker aims to increase public awareness of the myriad proposed regulatory approaches to AI legislation by serving as a repository of such AI-related bills introduced this session. (brennancenter.org)
  • Just as artificial intelligence is rapidly evolving, so is the legislative landscape. (brennancenter.org)
  • Artificial General Intelligence: How Do We Get There? (accenture.com)
  • Artificial intelligence (AI) is behind many of the advances we've seen in areas like healthcare, customer experience and predictive maintenance. (accenture.com)
  • Although true artificial general intelligence (AGI) is still a distant prospect, businesses can benefit from improved machine reasoning. (accenture.com)
  • The ultimate goal of artificial general intelligence is to replicate the broad range of human cognitive abilities. (accenture.com)
  • The success of machine learning on narrow tasks has sidetracked us from the goal of artificial general intelligence. (accenture.com)
  • This 13-video course explores how artificial intelligence (AI) can be leveraged, how to plan an AI implementation from setup to architecture, and the issues surrounding incorporating it into an enterprise for machine learning. (skillsoft.com)
  • With artificial intelligence broadening its impact on all aspects of life, Elon University leaders have coordinated development of a statement of principles to guide higher education institutions as they prepare humanity for the revolution brought about by this rapidly evolving and groundbreaking technology. (elon.edu)
  • They led a discussion about the multitude of ways higher education institutions can develop artificial intelligence literacy and commit to serving society's best interests as these technologies continue to expand. (elon.edu)
  • At the session in the Kyoto International Convention Center, Rainie explained that the six principles bring time-tested truths to artificial intelligence and are essential for maintaining human rights, human autonomy and human dignity. (elon.edu)
  • Elon scholar-in-residence Lee Rainie discussed the important role higher education must play in educating humanity about artificial intelligence. (elon.edu)
  • Artificial intelligence (AI) models are typically a year out of date and have this "charming problem of hallucinating made-up data and saying it with all the certainty of an attending on rounds," Isaac Kohane, MD, PhD, Harvard Medical School, told a packed audience at plenary at IDWeek 2023 in Boston, Massachusetts. (medscape.com)
  • As discussed in a previous NIOSH Science Blog, artificial intelligence (AI) is in the process of transforming almost all aspects of society. (cdc.gov)
  • What does Artificial Intelligence (AI) have to do with workplace safety and health? (cdc.gov)
  • Artificial intelligence (AI) has the potential to improve healthcare at each point of delivery. (medscape.com)
  • In June 2021, The World Health Organizational Regional Office for African (WHO AFRO) and the International Telecommunications (ITU) organized a virtual technical workshop on artificial intelligence (AI) for health that targeted about 200 participants from 47 countries. (who.int)
  • Artificial intelligence (AI) has enormous potential for improving health outcomes, helping countries achieve universal health coverage, and saving more lives in a health emergency such as the COVID-19 pandemic. (who.int)
  • Students will learn applications of Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques for spatial modelling and analysis, including predictive modelling. (lu.se)
  • Processes (BPs), decisions and Artificial Intelligence (AI) that are building today's businesses. (lu.se)
  • The course focuses on the challenges that business digitalisation and artificial intelligence poses in today's organisations. (lu.se)
  • By studying business and artificial intelligence and through hands on workshops, the course focuses on how AI and business digitalisation alters internal and external parts of business within and across organisations. (lu.se)
  • Show basic knowledge of how artificial intelligence (AI) can simulate cognitive phenomena. (lu.se)
  • Show basic knowledge of symbolic artificial intelligence and how the behavior created by AI relates to cognitive phenomena. (lu.se)
  • Artificial Intelligence: Ethical & Societal Challenges is a four-week course that explores ethical and societal aspects of the increasing use of artificial intelligent technologies (AI). (lu.se)
  • Like most aspects of human behavior and cognition, intelligence is a complex trait that is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Better cognition (higher intelligence) entails better and more efficient handling of information. (lu.se)
  • There is a reason why it's we humans who are talking about intelligence, cognition and smartness, and not the chimpanzees or other organisms. (lu.se)
  • Cite this: AI Chatbot 'Hallucinates' Faulty Medical Intelligence - Medscape - Oct 18, 2023. (medscape.com)
  • 15 October 2023, Cairo, Egypt - The WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region has made great strides in strengthening public health intelligence capabilities in recent years, thanks to joint efforts by WHO and the Region's countries and territories. (who.int)
  • International examined initial signals and the use of various sources of Epidemic international epidemic intelligence. (cdc.gov)
  • Epidemic intelligence gence system developed by the European community, the is the systematic collection and collation of verifi ed and GPHIN is a multilingual system that provides relevant un- unverifi ed information from various sources, such as gov- verifi ed information on public health events by monitoring ernments, United Nations organizations, nongovernmental global media sources in 7 languages. (cdc.gov)
  • These, combined with mul- intelligence unit to monitor outbreaks worldwide along the ticountry outbreaks of cholera (8%), chikungunya virus dis- lines of the World Health Organization (WHO) Depart- ease (7%), dengue (7%), and poliomyelitis (6%), were the ment of Epidemic and Pandemic Alert and Response. (cdc.gov)
  • Through concerted efforts, the Epidemic Intelligence from Open Sources (EIOS) initiative is up and running in 12 countries and territories of the Region. (who.int)
  • The need for epidemic intelligence. (cdc.gov)
  • Besides those definitions, psychology and learning researchers also have suggested definitions of intelligence such as the following: Human intelligence is the intellectual power of humans, which is marked by complex cognitive feats and high levels of motivation and self-awareness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most definitions of intelligence include the ability to learn from experiences and adapt to changing environments. (medlineplus.gov)
  • I ran a full day event a while back, based on exercises form The Emotional Intelligence Activity Book by Adele B Lynn (via amazon)It went down really well, The book also gives outlines of sessions to run for different outcomes i.e. (trainingzone.co.uk)
  • The Emotional Intelligence Activity Book: 50 Activities for Promoting EQ at Work. (trainingzone.co.uk)
  • On July 13, 1989, CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) published Current Intelligence Bulletins (CIBs) on propylene oxide (1) and on ethylene oxide (2). (cdc.gov)
  • Sometimes also called "strong AI," AGI aims to create machines capable of general intelligence-the kind we typically associate with broad competence such as common-sense reasoning. (accenture.com)
  • Intelligence is most often studied in humans but has also been observed in both non-human animals and in plants despite controversy as to whether some of these forms of life exhibit intelligence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intelligence enables humans to remember descriptions of things and use those descriptions in future behaviors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intelligence enables humans to experience and think. (wikipedia.org)
  • Learners will explore the three legs of AI: how it applies intelligence-like behavior to machines. (skillsoft.com)
  • You will then examine how machine learning adds to this intelligence-like behavior, and the next generation with deep learning. (skillsoft.com)
  • This WHO-led initiative aims to strengthen public health intelligence by creating a unified all-hazards, One Health approach to the early detection, verification, assessment and communication of public health threats. (who.int)
  • Gathering developments from the fields of computer science, electrical engineering, neurobiology, electrophysiology, and pharmacology, the authors propose a new research initiative they call "organoid intelligence. (ieee.org)
  • Only 18% of U.S. adults say they have a great deal of confidence in the government's intelligence agencies, according to a new poll from The Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research. (ksat.com)
  • The genetic influences on intelligence is an ongoing area of research. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cambridge Brain Sciences discusses a recent research study that identified 22 genes that have been linked to intelligence . (medlineplus.gov)
  • This term, however, was strongly linked to the metaphysical and cosmological theories of teleological scholasticism, including theories of the immortality of the soul, and the concept of the active intellect (also known as the active intelligence). (wikipedia.org)
  • This approach to the study of nature was strongly rejected by the early modern philosophers such as Francis Bacon, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and David Hume, all of whom preferred "understanding" (in place of "intellectus" or "intelligence") in their English philosophical works. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intelligence is also strongly influenced by the environment. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Intelligence" has therefore become less common in English language philosophy, but it has later been taken up (with the scholastic theories which it now implies) in more contemporary psychology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers have conducted many studies to look for genes that influence intelligence. (medlineplus.gov)
  • What rules, if any, should constrain the use of machine learning methods when coupled to the large scale surveillance technologies operated by intelligence agencies? (eff.org)
  • Concepts of "intelligence" are attempts to clarify and organize this complex set of phenomena. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other areas that contribute to intelligence, such as memory and verbal ability, involve additional genetic factors. (medlineplus.gov)
  • During a child's development, factors that contribute to intelligence include their home environment and parenting, education and availability of learning resources, and healthcare and nutrition. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Many studies rely on a measure of intelligence called the intelligence quotient (IQ). (medlineplus.gov)
  • With this exhibition, we want to inspire children, young people and the general public, in a fun way, to be fascinated by the intelligence of the future. (lu.se)
  • They helped drive a major reorganization of the U.S. intelligence community, with the CIA losing its oversight role over other spy agencies, and reforms intended to allow analysts to better evaluate sources and challenge conclusions for possible bias. (ksat.com)
  • Intelligence is challenging to study, in part because it can be defined and measured in different ways. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the performance in the Test RIn, which measures fluid intelligence ( g factor), and the age variable. (bvsalud.org)
  • and former Axis personnel who were used by the U. S. as intelligence sources during the Cold War. (archives.gov)
  • Hence, a dedicated team of experts in the Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean works tirelessly 24/7 to gather public health intelligence from formal and informal sources. (who.int)
  • The op-ed described intelligence thus: A very general mental capability that, among other things, involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly and learn from experience. (wikipedia.org)
  • Avril Haines, the current U.S. director of national intelligence, noted in a statement that the intelligence community had adopted new standards for analysis and oversight. (ksat.com)
  • Current intelligence bulletin no. 51). (cdc.gov)
  • Current intelligence bulletin no. 52). (cdc.gov)
  • Current intelligence bulletin no. 35). (cdc.gov)
  • From Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns (1995), a report published by the Board of Scientific Affairs of the American Psychological Association, also in response to controversy over The Bell Curve: Individuals differ from one another in their ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning, to overcome obstacles by taking thought. (wikipedia.org)
  • Today, Crow sits on committees that oversee the U.S. military and intelligence agencies. (ksat.com)
  • The failures of the Iraq War deeply shaped American spy agencies and a generation of intelligence officers and lawmakers. (ksat.com)
  • Persons associated with intelligence activities and operations are identified not only by their real names, but also by various aliases, code names, and by their association with such bodies as the Gehlen Organization, CIA Operations in Eastern Europe and elsewhere are defined along with their operational code names and cryptonyms. (archives.gov)
  • WHO's unwavering dedication to strengthening public health intelligence in the Eastern Mediterranean Region has produced remarkable outcomes," remarked Dr Richard Brennan, Regional Emergency Director. (who.int)
  • On Monday February 27th, 2012, WikiLeaks began publishing The Global Intelligence Files , over five million e-mails from the Texas headquartered "global intelligence" company Stratfor. (wikileaks.org)
  • Despite the recent furore about definitions , most reasonable people should be comfortable with a definition of business intelligence. (smartdatacollective.com)
  • But what is the true status of birds' intelligence? (lu.se)
  • In contrast, the age group from 23 years old and up negatively correlated with the scores of the test, suggesting that the fluid intelligence is ending its development and the beginning of a mild diminishing. (bvsalud.org)
  • The Lexicon is an essential tool to be used while examining the extensive operational records turned over by the Central Intelligence Agency in the Second Release. (archives.gov)
  • Since it is difficult to separate the genetic and environmental influences of a trait like intelligence, these studies can be complicated. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Studies have shown that intelligence has a genetic component, but they have not conclusively identified any single genes that have major roles in differences in intelligence. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Name Files and Subject Files compiled by the CIA in response to the Disclosure Acts. (archives.gov)