Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Intellectual Disability: Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Plagiarism: Passing off as one's own the work of another without credit.Licensure: The legal authority or formal permission from authorities to carry on certain activities which by law or regulation require such permission. It may be applied to licensure of institutions as well as individuals.Drugs, Essential: Drugs considered essential to meet the health needs of a population as well as to control drug costs.Central AmericaTechnology Transfer: Spread and adoption of inventions and techniques from one geographic area to another, from one discipline to another, or from one sector of the economy to another. For example, improvements in medical equipment may be transferred from industrial countries to developing countries, advances arising from aerospace engineering may be applied to equipment for persons with disabilities, and innovations in science arising from government research are made available to private enterprise.Human Rights: The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Drugs, Generic: Drugs whose drug name is not protected by a trademark. They may be manufactured by several companies.Legislation, Drug: Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Disclosure: Revealing of information, by oral or written communication.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Mentally Disabled Persons: Persons diagnosed as having significantly lower than average intelligence and considerable problems in adapting to everyday life or lacking independence in regard to activities of daily living.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Intelligence: The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Academic Medical Centers: Medical complexes consisting of medical school, hospitals, clinics, libraries, administrative facilities, etc.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Intelligence Tests: Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.United StatesCapitalism: A political and economic system characterized by individual rights, by private or corporate ownership of capital goods, and by prices, production, and the distribution of goods that are determined mainly by competition in a free market. (From Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Electrophoresis: An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.Ownership: The legal relation between an entity (individual, group, corporation, or-profit, secular, government) and an object. The object may be corporeal, such as equipment, or completely a creature of law, such as a patent; it may be movable, such as an animal, or immovable, such as a building.Writing: The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Human Genome Project: A coordinated effort of researchers to map (CHROMOSOME MAPPING) and sequence (SEQUENCE ANALYSIS, DNA) the human GENOME.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Social Desirability: A personality trait rendering the individual acceptable in social or interpersonal relations. It is related to social acceptance, social approval, popularity, social status, leadership qualities, or any quality making him a socially desirable companion.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)United States Federal Trade Commission: An independent administrative agency concerned with maintaining competitive free enterprise by prohibiting unfair methods of competition and unfair deceptive acts or practices.Dissent and Disputes: Differences of opinion or disagreements that may arise, for example, between health professionals and patients or their families, or against a political regime.Lawyers: Persons whose profession is to give legal advice and assistance to clients and represent them in legal matters. (American Heritage Dictionary, 3d ed)Judicial Role: The kind of action or activity proper to the judiciary, particularly its responsibility for decision making.Living Wills: Written, witnessed declarations in which persons request that if they become disabled beyond reasonable expectation of recovery, they be allowed to die rather than be kept alive by extraordinary means. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Advance Directives: Declarations by patients, made in advance of a situation in which they may be incompetent to decide about their own care, stating their treatment preferences or authorizing a third party to make decisions for them. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Jurisprudence: The science or philosophy of law. Also, the application of the principles of law and justice to health and medicine.Inventions: A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.QuinazolinesAnticholesteremic Agents: Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.FluorobenzenesHydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.

Global trade and health: key linkages and future challenges. (1/96)

Globalization of trade, marketing and investment has important implications for public health, both negative and positive. This article considers the implications of the single package of World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements for public health research and policy, focusing on three themes: commodities, intellectual property rights, and health services. The main aims of the analysis are as follows: to identify how trade issues are associated with the transnationalization of health risks and possible benefits; to identify key areas of research; and to suggest policy-relevant advice and interventions on trade and health issues. The next wave of international trade law will need to take more account of global public health issues. However, to become more engaged in global trade debates, the public health community must gain an understanding of the health effects of global trade agreements. It must also ensure that its own facts are correct, so that public health is not blindly used for political ends, such as justifying unwarranted economic protectionism. "Healthy trade" policies, based on firm empirical evidence and designed to improve health status, are an important step towards reaching a more sustainable form of trade liberalization.  (+info)

The road not taken. (2/96)

The annual Janet Doe Lecture was established in 1966 to honor Janet Doe, emerita librarian of the New York Academy of Medicine. The lecture focuses on either the history or philosophy of health sciences librarianship. This lecture addresses three fundamental values of the field, highlighting basic beliefs of the profession that are at risk: privacy, intellectual property rights, and access to quality information. It calls upon readers to make the everyday choices required to keep the value system of health sciences librarianship in place. Robert Frost's poignant poem "The Road Not Taken" provides the metaphor for examining choices in an information economy.  (+info)

Impact of the World Trade Organization TRIPS agreement on the pharmaceutical industry in Thailand. (3/96)

The 1994 World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) established minimum universal standards in all areas of intellectual property. It is intended to implement these standards globally through a WTO enforcement mechanism. The present article proposes a strategy for alleviating the potentially negative impact of TRIPS in Thailand in relation to the following: purchasers; prescribers and dispensers; producers; products; price control; patent-to-third-party; parallel imports; power of the customer; patentable new drugs; personnel; and prevention policies. The following TRIPS provisions are pertinent to the pharmaceutical industry in Thailand: the limited term of product and process patents; the conditions of protection; and the broad scope for compulsory licensing and enforcement procedures in the national patent system.  (+info)

A public health agenda for traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine. (4/96)

Traditional medicine (a term used here to denote the indigenous health traditions of the world) and complementary and alternative medicine (T/CAM) have, in the past 10 years, claimed an increasing share of the public's awareness and the agenda of medical researchers. Studies have documented that about half the population of many industrialized countries now use T/CAM, and the proportion is as high as 80% in many developing countries. Most research has focused on clinical and experimental medicine (safety, efficacy, and mechanism of action) and regulatory issues, to the general neglect of public health dimensions. Public health research must consider social, cultural, political, and economic contexts to maximize the contribution of T/CAM to health care systems globally.  (+info)

Patents and innovation in cancer therapeutics: lessons from CellPro. (5/96)

This article discusses the interaction between intellectual property and cancer treatment. CellPro developed a stem cell separation technology based on research at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center. A patent with broad claims to bone marrow stem cell antibodies had been awarded to Johns Hopkins University and licensed to Baxter Healthcare under the 1980 Bayh-Dole Act to promote commercial use of inventions from federally funded research. CellPro got FDA approval more than two years before Baxter but lost patent infringement litigation. NIH elected not to compel Hopkins to license its patents to CellPro. CellPro went out of business, selling its technology to its competitor. Decisions at both firms and university licensing offices, and policies at the Patent and Trademark Office, NIH, and the courts influenced the outcome.  (+info)

Biomedical informatics: precious scientific resource and public policy dilemma. (6/96)

Biomedical informatics includes the application of computers, information networks and systems, and a growing body of scientific understanding to a range of problems. As skill in this field increases and as progress in virtually all modern biomedical science becomes more data intensive, informatics becomes a precious resource. Applications areas include access to knowledge, discovery in genomics, medical records, mathematical modeling, and bioengineering. At the same time, progress in informatics is deeply dependent on resolution of four major public policy issues: digital intellectual property rights, genetic testing protection, medical data privacy, and the role of biomedical data in the context of information warfare and homeland security.  (+info)

Drug registration application in China. (7/96)

PURPOSE: This article is used to give a brief overview for people who would like to submit a drug registration application in China, or for those who would like to get a broader international drug registration perspective. METHODS: This paper concretely describes the new items in the current drug registration application through introducing following contents: qualification of the applicant, registration classification or type, the procedures for drug registration application review, the intellectual property rights concerning the pharmaceutical (drug substance and product), the process for submitting a drug registration application and the materials required in application for registration. RESULTS: From the paper, we have a comprehensive knowledge of drug registration application in China. CONCLUSIONS: The current Provision for Drug Registration is more reasonable and suitable for China's entry into WTO and further guarantee that safe and effective drugs are available to Chinese people.  (+info)

Interoperability of open source medical record systems. (8/96)

This poster describes the open source medical system architecture and approaches for data sharing and interoperability.  (+info)

  • Depending on the work, intellectual property falls into one of four categories: copyrights, trademarks, patents and trade secrets. (intuit.com)
  • Patents give exclusive rights to the holder to exclude competitors from making, using or selling the property throughout the U.S. (intuit.com)
  • In order to broadly explore intellectual property in the context of the library complex, this research examines the patents produced by companies that provide goods and services to libraries, as well as patents associated with international libraries. (unl.edu)
  • Oxford Nanopore has an intellectual property portfolio of more than 650 issued patents and patent applications, in over 200 patent families. (londoncallingconf.co.uk)
  • A new report from the Commission on Intellectual Property Rights goes even further in their description of the dangers of current intellectual property laws . (techdirt.com)
  • Below, authors from Argentina, Egypt, and the United States debate this question: In developing countries, how great an impediment to the growth of low-carbon energy systems does the global intellectual property rights regime represent, and how could the burdens for poor countries be reduced? (thebulletin.org)
  • But enacting some of these measures might entail changes to global intellectual property rules, in particular rules associated with the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, which sets minimum standards to which all members of the World Trade Organization must conform. (thebulletin.org)
  • Ms. Cox returns to teach "Introduction to Intellectual Property Licensing" starting Monday, March 2, 2019. (marshallip.com)
  • As a patent attorney who has managed intellectual property portfolios in-house, Ms. Cox understands her clients' intellectual property and agreement needs, and remains passionately engaged until their strategic objectives are achieved. (marshallip.com)
  • She starts with two useful glossaries of intellectual property terms - moral rights , passing off , intellectual assets , and the differences between copyright and patent . (mantex.co.uk)
  • The intellectual property was described in an international PCT patent application, "Fusion Proteins and Methods of Use Thereof," [PCT/US2014/and is based on research described in the journal Science in February 2014. (rockefeller.edu)
  • On Friday, April 26, 2013, on the occasion of the World Intellectual Property Day, there will be a nationwide events series by the German Patent Information Centers, organized in cooperation with the German Patent and Trade Mark Office, DPMA for short, and other institutions. (rwth-aachen.de)
  • As part of this charade, the State Department's Bureau of Economic Affairs says it has been seeking the participation of the US Office of Intellectual Property Enforcement, the Motion Picture Association of America, the Recording Industry Association of America, the US Patent and Trademark Office, and "others. (arstechnica.com)
  • We assist our clients in discovering patentable inventions, preparing, filing and prosecuting patent applications, negotiating patent licensing agreements, conducting IP due diligence, (non)infringement and freedom-to-operate studies, and litigate intellectual property disputes in courts. (ambizlaw.com)
  • The Intellectual Property Trade Policy Division (TMI) of Global Affairs Canada is interested in consulting Canadians on their experiences regarding intellectual property (IP) protection and enforcement in respect of Canada's existing and future trading partners, including China, MERCOSUR, Mexico, and the United States. (rsc-src.ca)
  • Similar to ownership of other intellectual property, joint ownership occurs when there is more than one creator or rights have been assigned to more than one person or entity. (morganlewis.com)
  • Questions about the ownership of creative work are now usually approached in terms of property and thus of "theft" or "piracy. (neh.gov)
  • Thus the book focuses on three other frameworks (in addition to property) within which the ownership of ideas has been approached: in terms of self-government, in terms of creative communities, and in terms of "public virtue," that is to say, in terms of the creative self imagined not as a private owner but as a collective or public being. (neh.gov)
  • Intellectual property law deals with the rules for securing and enforcing legal rights to inventions, designs, and artistic works. (americanbar.org)
  • Between 10am and 3pm, staff from both institution will provide information on topics such as inventions and how to deal with them, the patenting process, intellectual property, and spin-off companies. (rwth-aachen.de)
  • The inventor, or a person who was entitled to the property in the invention by virtue of any law or an agreement entered into before the invention was made. (legal500.com)
  • A proposed European Union law strengthening law-enforcement capabilities against intellectual-property violations has been delayed again, amid ongoing criticism that its implementation would criminalise many innocuous activities and harm European competition. (zdnet.com)
  • We represent many established multinational as well as early-stage companies, especially in the biotech, pharmaceutical and medical device space, in protecting their intellectual property rights. (ambizlaw.com)
  • Pamela L. Cox concentrates on counseling related to intellectual property transactions, protection, and transfer for clients ranging from multinational corporations to non-profit institutions. (marshallip.com)
  • It probably comes as no surprise to most people that I think current intellectual property laws are poorly designed and more harmful to society than helpful. (techdirt.com)
  • We are a boutique Chinese-American-owned law firm specializing in the practices of sophisticated corporate transactions, intellectual property matters, real estate transactions and related business dispute resolutions. (ambizlaw.com)
  • This research suggests ways in which development of intellectual property by U.S. libraries might evolve in the future, with evidence obtained primarily through the searching of online databases. (unl.edu)
  • These legal rights are often euphemistically bundled together under the term 'intellectual property' which gives them an unwarranted moral sense. (techdirt.com)
  • Ligand Pharmaceuticals has agreed to sell the intellectual property rights associated with thrombocytopenia drug Promacta (eltrombopag) to Royalty Pharma for a cash consideration of $827m. (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
  • We study the extent to which a country's strength of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) protection mediates knowledge spillovers from Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). (repec.org)
  • The extent to which intellectual property rights represent a barrier to the diffusion of low-carbon technologies in developing countries has been among the most contentious issues in global climate talks in recent years. (thebulletin.org)
  • That summit produced a blueprint for sustainable development known as Agenda 21 , which dealt extensively with transfer of environmentally sound technologies, including the role of intellectual property rights. (thebulletin.org)
  • No. The State Department engages on various social media platforms and regularly works with partners to develop campaigns to highlight important policy priorities such as intellectual property rights and enforcement. (arstechnica.com)
  • On one side are those who believe that intellectual property rights are an impediment to the affordable and large-scale diffusion of low-carbon technologies in the developing world. (thebulletin.org)
  • On the other side are those who believe that intellectual property rights play an essential role in fostering innovation and indeed in the diffusion of low-carbon technologies. (thebulletin.org)