Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)
Persons diagnosed as having significantly lower than average intelligence and considerable problems in adapting to everyday life or lacking independence in regard to activities of daily living.
Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.
Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)
Persons with physical or mental disabilities that affect or limit their activities of daily living and that may require special accommodations.
A class of genetic disorders resulting in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY that is associated either with mutations of GENES located on the X CHROMOSOME or aberrations in the structure of the X chromosome (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS).
Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)
The appearance of the face that is often characteristic of a disease or pathological condition, as the elfin facies of WILLIAMS SYNDROME or the mongoloid facies of DOWN SYNDROME. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.
Long-term care facilities which provide supervision and assistance in activities of daily living with medical and nursing services when required.
Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.
Genes that are located on the X CHROMOSOME.
A copy number variation that results in reduced GENE DOSAGE due to any loss-of-function mutation. The loss of heterozygosity is associated with abnormal phenotypes or diseased states because the remaining gene is insufficient.
A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)
Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.
A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)
A condition characterized genotypically by mutation of the distal end of the long arm of the X chromosome (at gene loci FRAXA or FRAXE) and phenotypically by cognitive impairment, hyperactivity, SEIZURES, language delay, and enlargement of the ears, head, and testes. INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY occurs in nearly all males and roughly 50% of females with the full mutation of FRAXA. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p226)
Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.
An adaptor protein complex involved in transport of molecules between the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK and the endosomal-lysosomal system.
Insurance designed to compensate persons who lose wages because of illness or injury; insurance providing periodic payments that partially replace lost wages, salary, or other income when the insured is unable to work because of illness, injury, or disease. Individual and group disability insurance are two types of such coverage. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p207)
The teaching or training of those individuals with subnormal intellectual functioning.
'Abnormalities, Multiple' is a broad term referring to the presence of two or more structural or functional anomalies in an individual, which may be genetic or environmental in origin, and can affect various systems and organs of the body.
A RNA-binding protein that is found predominately in the CYTOPLASM. It helps regulate GENETIC TRANSLATION in NEURONS and is absent or under-expressed in FRAGILE X SYNDROME.
Children with mental or physical disabilities that interfere with usual activities of daily living and that may require accommodation or intervention.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
That part of the genome that corresponds to the complete complement of EXONS of an organism or cell.
Disorders of verbal and nonverbal communication caused by receptive or expressive LANGUAGE DISORDERS, cognitive dysfunction (e.g., MENTAL RETARDATION), psychiatric conditions, and HEARING DISORDERS.
A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)
The caring for individuals in institutions and their adaptation to routines characteristic of the institutional environment, and/or their loss of adaptation to life outside the institution.
Equipment that provides mentally or physically disabled persons with a means of communication. The aids include display boards, typewriters, cathode ray tubes, computers, and speech synthesizers. The output of such aids includes written words, artificial speech, language signs, Morse code, and pictures.
The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.
The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.
A method for comparing two sets of chromosomal DNA by analyzing differences in the copy number and location of specific sequences. It is used to look for large sequence changes such as deletions, duplications, amplifications, or translocations.
Low-copy (2-50) repetitive DNA elements that are highly homologous and range in size from 1000 to 400,000 base pairs.
A characteristic symptom complex.
A congenital abnormality in which the CEREBRUM is underdeveloped, the fontanels close prematurely, and, as a result, the head is small. (Desk Reference for Neuroscience, 2nd ed.)
The sexual functions, activities, attitudes, and orientations of an individual. Sexuality, male or female, becomes evident at PUBERTY under the influence of gonadal steroids (TESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL), and social effects.
Education of the individual who markedly deviates intellectually, physically, socially, or emotionally from those considered to be normal, thus requiring special instruction.
Damages to the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN or the FETUS before BIRTH. Damages can be caused by any factors including biological, chemical, or physical.
A treatment program based on manipulation of the patient's environment by the medical staff. The patient does not participate in planning the treatment regimen.
A state in western Australia. Its capital is Perth. It was first visited by the Dutch in 1616 but the English took possession in 1791 and permanent colonization began in 1829. It was a penal settlement 1850-1888, became part of the colonial government in 1886, and was granted self government in 1890. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1329)
An aberration in which an extra chromosome or a chromosomal segment is made.
Genetic diseases that are linked to gene mutations on the X CHROMOSOME in humans (X CHROMOSOME, HUMAN) or the X CHROMOSOME in other species. Included here are animal models of human X-linked diseases.
The fundamental dispositions and traits of humans. (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
Stretches of genomic DNA that exist in different multiples between individuals. Many copy number variations have been associated with susceptibility or resistance to disease.
Errors in metabolic processes resulting from inborn genetic mutations that are inherited or acquired in utero.
A family of neurotransmitter transporter proteins that facilitate NEUROTRANSMITTER reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. They may play a role in regulating the intensity and duration of neurotransmission.
The magnitude of INBREEDING in humans.
A diminution of the skeletal muscle tone marked by a diminished resistance to passive stretching.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
Deaths that occur before LIFE EXPECTANCY is reached within a given population.
Brain disorders resulting from inborn metabolic errors, primarily from enzymatic defects which lead to substrate accumulation, product reduction, or increase in toxic metabolites through alternate pathways. The majority of these conditions are familial, however spontaneous mutation may also occur in utero.
Persons who provide care to those who need supervision or assistance in illness or disability. They may provide the care in the home, in a hospital, or in an institution. Although caregivers include trained medical, nursing, and other health personnel, the concept also refers to parents, spouses, or other family members, friends, members of the clergy, teachers, social workers, fellow patients.
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
Housing for groups of patients, children, or others who need or desire emotional or physical support. They are usually established as planned, single housekeeping units in residential dwellings that provide care and supervision for small groups of residents, who, although unrelated, live together as a family.
Marked impairments in the development of motor coordination such that the impairment interferes with activities of daily living. (From DSM-V)
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Complex neurobehavioral disorder characterized by distinctive facial features (FACIES), developmental delay and INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Behavioral phenotypes include sleep disturbance, maladaptive, self-injurious and attention-seeking behaviors. The sleep disturbance is linked to an abnormal circadian secretion pattern of MELATONIN. The syndrome is associated with de novo deletion or mutation and HAPLOINSUFFICIENCY of the retinoic acid-induced 1 protein on chromosome 17p11.2.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Syria" is a country located in Western Asia and is not a medical term or concept. It is the birthplace of the ancient Assyrian civilization and is known for its rich history, diverse culture, and complex geopolitical context. If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.
A syndrome characterized by growth retardation, severe MENTAL RETARDATION, short stature, a low-pitched growling cry, brachycephaly, low-set ears, webbed neck, carp mouth, depressed nasal bridge, bushy eyebrows meeting at the midline, hirsutism, and malformations of the hands. The condition may occur sporadically or be associated with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance or duplication of the long arm of chromosome 3. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p231)
A disorder caused by hemizygous microdeletion of about 28 genes on chromosome 7q11.23, including the ELASTIN gene. Clinical manifestations include SUPRAVALVULAR AORTIC STENOSIS; MENTAL RETARDATION; elfin facies; impaired visuospatial constructive abilities; and transient HYPERCALCEMIA in infancy. The condition affects both sexes, with onset at birth or in early infancy.
Fixed sums paid regularly to individuals.
Behavior in which persons hurt or harm themselves without the motive of suicide or of sexual deviation.
A thioxanthene with therapeutic actions similar to the phenothiazine antipsychotics. It is an antagonist at D1 and D2 dopamine receptors.
Conditions characterized by language abilities (comprehension and expression of speech and writing) that are below the expected level for a given age, generally in the absence of an intellectual impairment. These conditions may be associated with DEAFNESS; BRAIN DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; or environmental factors.
Congenital structural deformities, malformations, or other abnormalities of the cranium and facial bones.
Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.
Tests designed to measure intellectual functioning in children and adults.
Abnormally small jaw.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Israel" is a country in the Middle East and does not have a medical definition. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like me to define, I'd be happy to help!
Conditions characterized by persistent brain damage or dysfunction as sequelae of cranial trauma. This disorder may result from DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; BRAIN EDEMA; and other conditions. Clinical features may include DEMENTIA; focal neurologic deficits; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; AKINETIC MUTISM; or COMA.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.
Alterations or deviations from normal shape or size which result in a disfigurement of the foot occurring at or before birth.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
A large group of diseases which are characterized by a low prevalence in the population. They frequently are associated with problems in diagnosis and treatment.
Alterations or deviations from normal shape or size which result in a disfigurement of the hand occurring at or before birth.
Managerial personnel responsible for implementing policy and directing the activities of health care facilities such as nursing homes.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.
The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
An inherited neurological developmental disorder that is associated with X-LINKED INHERITANCE and may be lethal in utero to hemizygous males. The affected female is normal until the age of 6-25 months when progressive loss of voluntary control of hand movements and communication skills; ATAXIA; SEIZURES; autistic behavior; intermittent HYPERVENTILATION; and HYPERAMMONEMIA appear. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p199)
Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).
Large, robust forms of brown algae (PHAEOPHYCEAE) in the order Laminariales. They are a major component of the lower intertidal and sublittoral zones on rocky coasts in temperate and polar waters. Kelp, a kind of SEAWEED, usually refers to species in the genera LAMINARIA or MACROCYSTIS, but the term may also be used for species in FUCUS or Nereocystis.
An autosomal dominant disorder caused by deletion of the proximal long arm of the paternal chromosome 15 (15q11-q13) or by inheritance of both of the pair of chromosomes 15 from the mother (UNIPARENTAL DISOMY) which are imprinted (GENETIC IMPRINTING) and hence silenced. Clinical manifestations include MENTAL RETARDATION; MUSCULAR HYPOTONIA; HYPERPHAGIA; OBESITY; short stature; HYPOGONADISM; STRABISMUS; and HYPERSOMNOLENCE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p229)
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
The locations in specific DNA sequences where CHROMOSOME BREAKS have occurred.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.
An epileptic syndrome characterized by the triad of infantile spasms, hypsarrhythmia, and arrest of psychomotor development at seizure onset. The majority present between 3-12 months of age, with spasms consisting of combinations of brief flexor or extensor movements of the head, trunk, and limbs. The condition is divided into two forms: cryptogenic (idiopathic) and symptomatic (secondary to a known disease process such as intrauterine infections; nervous system abnormalities; BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC, INBORN; prematurity; perinatal asphyxia; TUBEROUS SCLEROSIS; etc.). (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp744-8)
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
A state in northeastern Australia. Its capital is Brisbane. Its coast was first visited by Captain Cook in 1770 and its first settlement (penal) was located on Moreton Bay in 1824. The name Cooksland was first proposed but honor to Queen Victoria prevailed. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p996 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p441)
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.
A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)
Spiny processes on DENDRITES, each of which receives excitatory input from one nerve ending (NERVE ENDINGS). They are commonly found on PURKINJE CELLS and PYRAMIDAL CELLS.
Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The analysis of a sequence such as a region of a chromosome, a haplotype, a gene, or an allele for its involvement in controlling the phenotype of a specific trait, metabolic pathway, or disease.
Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.
The training or molding of an individual through various relationships, educational agencies, and social controls, which enables him to become a member of a particular society.
The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Success in bringing an effort to the desired end; the degree or level of success attained in some specified area (esp. scholastic) or in general.
Organized services to provide mental health care.
The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Government sponsored social insurance programs.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)
The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.
Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
A preconceived judgment made without factual basis.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
The World Health Organization's classification categories of health and health-related domains. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) consists of two lists: a list of body functions and structure, and a list of domains of activity and participation. The ICF also includes a list of environmental factors.
Difficulty in walking from place to place.
The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.
The state wherein the person is well adjusted.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
Training of the mentally or physically disabled in work skills so they may be returned to regular employment utilizing these skills.
The interactions between parent and child.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.
Any violation of established legal or moral codes in respect to sexual behavior.
Living facilities for humans.
Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.
An autoimmune disorder mainly affecting young adults and characterized by destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. Pathologic findings include multiple sharply demarcated areas of demyelination throughout the white matter of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia, and bladder dysfunction. The usual pattern is one of recurrent attacks followed by partial recovery (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, RELAPSING-REMITTING), but acute fulminating and chronic progressive forms (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, CHRONIC PROGRESSIVE) also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p903)
Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.
Cognitive disorders including delirium, dementia, and other cognitive disorders. These may be the result of substance use, trauma, or other causes.
Female parents, human or animal.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
Increased levels of PROLACTIN in the BLOOD, which may be associated with AMENORRHEA and GALACTORRHEA. Relatively common etiologies include PROLACTINOMA, medication effect, KIDNEY FAILURE, granulomatous diseases of the PITUITARY GLAND, and disorders which interfere with the hypothalamic inhibition of prolactin release. Ectopic (non-pituitary) production of prolactin may also occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp77-8)
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.
Acute or chronic pain in the lumbar or sacral regions, which may be associated with musculo-ligamentous SPRAINS AND STRAINS; INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; and other conditions.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Great Britain is not a medical term, but a geographical name for the largest island in the British Isles, which comprises England, Scotland, and Wales, forming the major part of the United Kingdom.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.

A performance-based lottery to improve residential care and training by institutional staff. (1/2787)

Two experiments were conducted on four units of a residential facility for the multiply-handicapped retarded in an attempt to improve daily care and training services. Experiment I compared the effects of two procedures in maintaining the work performance of attendants, using an A-B design on two units. One procedure consisted of implementing specific staff-resident assignments, the other consisted of allowing attendants who had met performance criteria to be eligible for a weekly lottery in which they could win the opportunity to rearrange their days off for the following week. Results showed that the lottery was a more effective procedure as measured by the per cent of time attendants engaged in predefined target behaviors, and by their frequency of task completion in several areas of resident care. Experiment II replicated and extended these results to the area of work quality on two additional units, using a multiple-baseline design. The performance lottery was found to be an effective econimical procedure that could be implemented by supervisory staff on a large scale.  (+info)

The effects of social punishment on noncompliance: a comparison with timeout and positive practice. (2/2787)

The effects of social punishment, positive practice, and timeout on the noncompliant behavior of four mentally retarded children were assessed in a multitreatment withdrawal design. When programmed, the experimental procedure occurred contigent on non-compliance to experimenter-issued commands. Commands were given at 55-sec intervals throughout each experimental session. The results showed (1) lower levels of noncompliance with social punishment than with the positive-practice or timeout conditions, and (2) that relatively few applications of social punishment were required to obtain this effect. The advantages of social punishment over other punishment procedures, considerations to be made before using it, and the various aspects of the procedure that contribute to its effectiveness were discussed.  (+info)

A new X linked neurodegenerative syndrome with mental retardation, blindness, convulsions, spasticity, mild hypomyelination, and early death maps to the pericentromeric region. (3/2787)

We report on a family with an X linked neurodegenerative disorder consisting of mental retardation, blindness, convulsions, spasticity, and early death. Neuropathological examination showed mild hypomyelination. By linkage analysis, the underlying genetic defect could be assigned to the pericentromeric region of the X chromosome with a maximum lod score of 3.30 at theta=0.0 for the DXS1204 locus with DXS337 and PGK1P1 as flanking markers.  (+info)

Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and autoimmune thyroiditis in a boy with a ring chromosome 18: additional evidence of autoimmunity or IDDM gene(s) on chromosome 18. (4/2787)

A 4 year 3 month old boy with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), autoimmune thyroiditis, slight mental retardation, facial dysmorphism, and a de novo ring chromosome 18 (deletion 18q22.3-18qter) is described. This unique association of defects could represent a chance association. Alternatively, the clinical features could be the result of the chromosomal aberration. If so, one could speculate that a gene or genes on chromosome 18 might act as a suppressor or activator of the autoimmune process by itself or in concert with other IDDM loci.  (+info)

Dilemmas in counselling females with the fragile X syndrome. (5/2787)

The dilemmas in counselling a mildly retarded female with the fragile X syndrome and her retarded partner are presented. The fragile X syndrome is an X linked mental retardation disorder that affects males and, often less severely, females. Affected females have an increased risk of having affected offspring. The counselling of this couple was complicated by their impaired comprehension which subsequently impaired their thinking on the different options. The woman became pregnant and underwent CVS, which showed an affected male fetus. The pregnancy was terminated. Whether nondirective counselling for this couple was the appropriate method is discussed and the importance of a system oriented approach, through involving relatives, is stressed.  (+info)

The Dyggve-Melchior-Clausen syndrome. (6/2787)

Two new cases of Dyggve-Melchior-Clausen syndrome are described; they belong to the fourth family from Lebanon in which this disease has been recognized. There is no genealogical linkage between these four families. A particular feature in these cases is a striking rhizomelic shortness of the arms especially in one case. Clinical and radiological findings, progression of the skeletal changes are studied, along with the review of the cases in the literature. Cytological and biochemical data indicate that the DMC syndrome is not a mucopolysaccharidosis.  (+info)

Quantitative morphological studies of developing human cerebellar cortex in various disease states. (7/2787)

A quantitative morphological assessment was carried out of the cellularity and staining properties of the cells of the layers of the human cerebellar cortex, both in the normal child and in 41 children suffering from a series of disorders including mental retardation. A computerized image analyser and highly standardized procedures were used. All of the cases of mental retardation and some cases with congenital cardiac anomalies showed abnormal cell concentrations and staining properties. 3 cases of 'cot death' also showed abnormal results. These findings are presented as a new measurable aspect of brain disease, and as a indication for further study.  (+info)

Severe mental retardation in a boy with partial trisomy 10q and partial monosomy 2q. (8/2787)

A severely mentally subnormal child with many physical stigmata was shown to have the karyotype 46,XY,-2,+der(2),t(2;10)(q31;q24)pat. Full evaluation of this patient's karyotype depended on the family studies. It was shown that a balanced translocation t(2,10) was present in 4 normal males in 3 generations.  (+info)

Intellectual disability (ID) is a term used when there are significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. This disability originates before the age of 18.

Intellectual functioning, also known as intelligence, refers to general mental capacity, such as learning, reasoning, problem-solving, and other cognitive skills. Adaptive behavior includes skills needed for day-to-day life, such as communication, self-care, social skills, safety judgement, and basic academic skills.

Intellectual disability is characterized by below-average intelligence or mental ability and a lack of skills necessary for day-to-day living. It can be mild, moderate, severe, or profound, depending on the degree of limitation in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior.

It's important to note that people with intellectual disabilities have unique strengths and limitations, just like everyone else. With appropriate support and education, they can lead fulfilling lives and contribute to their communities in many ways.

A "mentally disabled person" is a term that generally refers to an individual who has significant limitations in cognitive functioning, such as intellectual disability, developmental disabilities, or mental illness, which impact their daily living, including their ability to learn, communicate, make decisions, and interact with others. This term is often used interchangeably with "intellectually disabled," "developmentally disabled," or "individuals with cognitive impairments." However, it's important to note that the terminology can vary depending on the context and geographical location.

Mental disability can manifest in various ways, such as difficulties with problem-solving, memory, attention, language, and social skills. These limitations may be present from birth or acquired later in life due to injury, illness, or other factors. Mentally disabled persons require varying levels of support and accommodations to ensure their full participation in society, access to education, healthcare, and community resources.

It's crucial to approach this topic with sensitivity and respect for the individual's dignity and autonomy. The World Health Organization (WHO) advocates using person-centered language that focuses on the strengths and abilities of individuals rather than their limitations or deficits. Therefore, it is generally recommended to use more specific and descriptive terms when referring to an individual's condition, such as "a person with intellectual disability" or "a person experiencing mental illness," instead of broad and potentially stigmatizing labels like "mentally disabled."

Disability Evaluation is the process of determining the nature and extent of a person's functional limitations or impairments, and assessing their ability to perform various tasks and activities in order to determine eligibility for disability benefits or accommodations. This process typically involves a medical examination and assessment by a licensed healthcare professional, such as a physician or psychologist, who evaluates the individual's symptoms, medical history, laboratory test results, and functional abilities. The evaluation may also involve input from other professionals, such as vocational experts, occupational therapists, or speech-language pathologists, who can provide additional information about the person's ability to perform specific tasks and activities in a work or daily living context. Based on this information, a determination is made about whether the individual meets the criteria for disability as defined by the relevant governing authority, such as the Social Security Administration or the Americans with Disabilities Act.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Intellectual Property" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Instead, it is a legal and business concept. Intellectual property refers to creations of the mind, such as inventions, literary and artistic works, symbols, names, images, and designs used in commerce. It is protected by law through various types of intellectual property rights, such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, and trade secrets.

However, in a broader context, protecting intellectual property can have implications for medical research and development, innovation, and collaboration. For instance, patent protection encourages biomedical companies to invest in the development of new drugs and therapies by providing them with exclusive rights to manufacture and sell their inventions for a certain period. Similarly, trademark protection helps ensure that medical products and services are reliably and distinctly identified, while copyright protection can apply to written works like medical research articles or educational materials.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), "disabled persons" are those who have long-term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairments which may hinder their participation in society on an equal basis with others. The term "disability" is not meant to be understood as a 'personal tragedy' but rather as a complex interaction between the features of a person's body and mind, the activities they wish to perform and the physical and social barriers they encounter in their environment.

It's important to note that the term 'disabled persons' has been largely replaced by 'people with disabilities' or 'persons with disabilities' in many contexts, as it is considered more respectful and empowering to put the person first, rather than focusing on their disability. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) uses the term "persons with disabilities" throughout its text.

'Mental retardation, X-linked' is not a term that is used in modern medicine. The term "mental retardation" has been replaced by the term "intellectual disability" to avoid stigmatization and to more accurately describe the condition. Furthermore, the use of terms like "X-linked" to describe a genetic disorder has been replaced by more precise genetic terminology.

The specific condition that you may be referring to is known as "Fragile X syndrome," which is a genetic disorder caused by mutations in the FMR1 gene on the X chromosome. Fragile X syndrome is the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability, affecting about 1 in 4,000 boys and 1 in 8,000 girls.

Individuals with Fragile X syndrome may have a range of symptoms, including intellectual disability that can vary from mild to severe, developmental delays, behavioral and learning challenges, physical features such as a long face, large ears, and flexible joints, and speech and language difficulties. They may also be at increased risk for certain medical conditions, such as seizures and autism spectrum disorder.

It's important to note that the use of outdated terminology can contribute to stigma and discrimination against individuals with intellectual disabilities. It is always best to use person-first language, such as "a person with Fragile X syndrome," to emphasize the individuality and dignity of people with intellectual disabilities.

Developmental disabilities are a group of conditions that arise in childhood and are characterized by significant impairments in cognitive functioning, physical development, or both. These disabilities can affect various areas of an individual's life, including their ability to learn, communicate, socialize, and take care of themselves.

Examples of developmental disabilities include intellectual disabilities, cerebral palsy, autism spectrum disorder, Down syndrome, and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. These conditions are typically diagnosed in childhood and can persist throughout an individual's life.

The causes of developmental disabilities are varied and can include genetic factors, environmental influences, and complications during pregnancy or childbirth. In some cases, the exact cause may be unknown.

It is important to note that individuals with developmental disabilities have unique strengths and abilities, as well as challenges. With appropriate support and services, they can lead fulfilling lives and participate actively in their communities.

"Facies" is a medical term that refers to the typical appearance of a person or part of the body, particularly the face, which may provide clues about their underlying medical condition or genetic background. A specific facies is often associated with certain syndromes or disorders. For example, a "downsyndrome facies" refers to the distinctive facial features commonly found in individuals with Down syndrome, such as a flattened nasal bridge, almond-shaped eyes, and an upward slant to the eyelids.

It's important to note that while facies can provide valuable diagnostic information, it should be used in conjunction with other clinical findings and genetic testing to make a definitive diagnosis. Additionally, facies should be described objectively and without judgment, as they are simply physical characteristics associated with certain medical conditions.

I must clarify that I cannot provide a "medical definition" of intelligence, as intelligence is not a concept that is typically defined within the field of medicine. Intelligence is a term used to describe the ability to learn, understand, and make judgments or decisions based on reason, experience, and information. It is often measured through various cognitive abilities such as problem-solving, critical thinking, creativity, and knowledge acquisition.

The concept of intelligence is studied in many fields, including psychology, neuroscience, and education. In medicine, healthcare professionals may assess a person's cognitive abilities to better understand their health status or develop treatment plans. However, there is no specific "medical definition" for intelligence. Instead, it is a multifaceted concept that can be influenced by various genetic, environmental, and experiential factors.

Residential facilities, in the context of healthcare and social services, refer to facilities where individuals can reside and receive ongoing care, treatment, and support. These facilities can vary in the level and type of care they provide, depending on the needs of the residents. Here are some examples:

1. Skilled Nursing Facilities (SNFs): Also known as nursing homes, these facilities provide 24-hour skilled nursing care for individuals who require a higher level of medical attention and assistance with activities of daily living (ADLs).

2. Assisted Living Facilities (ALFs): These facilities offer housing, personal care services, and support for individuals who need help with ADLs but do not require constant medical supervision.

3. Continuing Care Retirement Communities (CCRCs): These are residential campuses that offer various levels of care, including independent living, assisted living, and skilled nursing care. Residents can transition between these levels as their needs change over time.

4. Group Homes: These are residential facilities for individuals with developmental disabilities, mental health disorders, or substance abuse issues. They provide a structured living environment with support services to help residents develop daily living skills and integrate into the community.

5. Hospice Care Facilities: These residential facilities specialize in providing end-of-life care and support for individuals with terminal illnesses. The focus is on comfort, pain management, and emotional and spiritual support for both the patient and their family members.

It's important to note that definitions and regulations regarding residential facilities may vary depending on the country, state, or region.

Intelligence tests are standardized procedures used to assess various aspects of an individual's cognitive abilities, such as their problem-solving skills, logical reasoning, verbal comprehension, and spatial relations. These tests provide a quantitative measurement of intelligence, often reported as an Intelligence Quotient (IQ) score. It is important to note that intelligence is a multifaceted concept, and intelligence tests measure only certain aspects of it. They should not be considered the sole determinant of an individual's overall intellectual capabilities or potential.

X-linked genes are those genes that are located on the X chromosome. In humans, females have two copies of the X chromosome (XX), while males have one X and one Y chromosome (XY). This means that males have only one copy of each X-linked gene, whereas females have two copies.

X-linked genes are important in medical genetics because they can cause different patterns of inheritance and disease expression between males and females. For example, if a mutation occurs in an X-linked gene, it is more likely to affect males than females because males only have one copy of the gene. This means that even a single mutated copy of the gene can cause the disease in males, while females may be carriers of the mutation and not show any symptoms due to their second normal copy of the gene.

X-linked recessive disorders are more common in males than females because they only have one X chromosome. Examples of X-linked recessive disorders include Duchenne muscular dystrophy, hemophilia, and color blindness. In contrast, X-linked dominant disorders can affect both males and females, but females may have milder symptoms due to their second normal copy of the gene. Examples of X-linked dominant disorders include Rett syndrome and incontinentia pigmenti.

Haploinsufficiency is a genetic concept referring to the situation where an individual with only one functional copy of a gene, out of the two copies (one inherited from each parent) that most genes have, exhibits a phenotype or clinical features associated with the gene. This means that having just one working copy of the gene is not enough to ensure normal function, and a reduction in the dosage of the gene's product leads to a negative effect on the organism.

Haploinsufficiency can occur due to various genetic mechanisms such as point mutations, deletions, or other types of alterations that affect the expression or function of the gene. This concept is important in genetics and genomics research, particularly in the study of genetic disorders and diseases, including cancer, where haploinsufficiency of tumor suppressor genes can contribute to tumor development and progression.

Autistic Disorder, also known as Autism or Classic Autism, is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects communication and behavior. It is characterized by:

1. Persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts, including:
* Deficits in social-emotional reciprocity;
* Deficits in nonverbal communicative behaviors used for social interaction;
* Deficits in developing, maintaining, and understanding relationships.
2. Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities, as manifested by at least two of the following:
* Stereotyped or repetitive motor movements, use of objects, or speech;
* Insistence on sameness, inflexible adherence to routines, or ritualized patterns of verbal or nonverbal behavior;
* Highly restricted, fixated interests that are abnormal in intensity or focus;
* Hyper- or hyporeactivity to sensory input or unusual interest in sensory aspects of the environment.
3. Symptoms must be present in the early developmental period (but may not become fully manifest until social demands exceed limited capacities) and limit or impair everyday functioning.
4. Symptoms do not occur exclusively during the course of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder or other psychotic disorders.

Autistic Disorder is part of the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), which also include Asperger's Syndrome and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). The current diagnostic term for this category of conditions, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), is Autism Spectrum Disorder.

A learning disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects an individual's ability to acquire, process, and use information in one or more academic areas despite normal intelligence and adequate instruction. It can manifest as difficulties with reading (dyslexia), writing (dysgraphia), mathematics (dyscalculia), or other academic skills. Learning disorders are not the result of low intelligence, lack of motivation, or environmental factors alone, but rather reflect a significant discrepancy between an individual's cognitive abilities and their academic achievement. They can significantly impact a person's ability to perform in school, at work, and in daily life, making it important to diagnose and manage these disorders effectively.

Down syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21. It is characterized by intellectual and developmental disabilities, distinctive facial features, and sometimes physical growth delays and health problems. The condition affects approximately one in every 700 babies born in the United States.

Individuals with Down syndrome have varying degrees of cognitive impairment, ranging from mild to moderate or severe. They may also have delayed development, including late walking and talking, and may require additional support and education services throughout their lives.

People with Down syndrome are at increased risk for certain health conditions, such as congenital heart defects, respiratory infections, hearing loss, vision problems, gastrointestinal issues, and thyroid disorders. However, many individuals with Down syndrome live healthy and fulfilling lives with appropriate medical care and support.

The condition is named after John Langdon Down, an English physician who first described the syndrome in 1866.

Fragile X syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by a mutation in the FMR1 gene, which provides instructions for making a protein called fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). This protein is essential for normal brain development.

In people with Fragile X syndrome, the FMR1 gene is missing a critical piece of DNA, leading to little or no production of FMRP. As a result, the brain's nerve cells cannot develop and function normally, which can cause a range of developmental problems, including learning disabilities, cognitive impairment, and behavioral and emotional difficulties.

Fragile X syndrome is the most common form of inherited intellectual disability, affecting about 1 in 4,000 males and 1 in 8,000 females. The symptoms and severity can vary widely, but most people with Fragile X syndrome have some degree of intellectual disability, ranging from mild to severe. They may also have physical features associated with the condition, such as a long face, large ears, flexible joints, and flat feet.

There is no cure for Fragile X syndrome, but early intervention and treatment can help improve outcomes. Treatment typically involves a combination of educational support, behavioral therapy, speech and language therapy, physical therapy, and medication to manage symptoms such as anxiety, hyperactivity, and aggression.

Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) are a group of conditions that affect the development and functioning of the brain, leading to delays in many areas of development. The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) has replaced the term "pervasive developmental disorders" with "autism spectrum disorder" and "other neurodevelopmental disorders."

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and interaction across multiple contexts, as well as restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. The symptoms of ASD can range from mild to severe, and the condition affects approximately 1 in 54 children in the United States.

Other neurodevelopmental disorders that were previously classified as PDDs include:

1. Intellectual disability (ID): a condition characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. This disorder used to be referred to as "mental retardation."
2. Communication disorders: these are disorders that affect an individual's ability to communicate, including language disorders, speech sound disorders, and stuttering.
3. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
4. Specific learning disorder: a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects an individual's ability to learn and use specific academic skills, such as reading, writing, or mathematics.
5. Motor disorders: these are disorders that affect an individual's movement and coordination, including developmental coordination disorder, stereotypic movement disorder, and tic disorders.

The medical definition of 'Child Development Disorders, Pervasive' has been replaced with more specific diagnoses in the DSM-5 to better reflect the diverse nature of these conditions and improve diagnostic accuracy and treatment planning.

Adaptor Protein Complex 4 (AP-4) is a group of proteins that form a complex and play a crucial role in the intracellular trafficking of membrane proteins within eukaryotic cells. The AP-4 complex is composed of four subunits, namely, α-Adaptin, β2-Adaptin, Mu-Adaptin, and Sigmal-Adaptin4 (σ4A or σ4B).

The primary function of the AP-4 complex is to facilitate the sorting of proteins in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and endosomes. It recognizes specific sorting signals present on the cytoplasmic tails of membrane proteins, recruits accessory proteins, and mediates the formation of transport vesicles that carry these proteins to their target destinations.

Mutations in genes encoding AP-4 complex subunits have been associated with several neurological disorders, including hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), mental retardation, and cerebral palsy. These genetic defects disrupt the normal functioning of the AP-4 complex, leading to aberrant protein trafficking and impaired neuronal development and function.

Disability insurance is a type of health insurance that provides coverage and financial benefits to individuals who become unable to work due to illness or injury. This insurance replaces a portion of the insured's income, typically between 50% to 70%, during the period of disability, helping to maintain their standard of living and cover ongoing expenses such as housing, food, and medical care.

There are two main types of disability insurance: short-term and long-term. Short-term disability insurance usually provides benefits for a limited period, typically up to 6 months or a year, while long-term disability insurance offers coverage for an extended duration, often until the insured reaches retirement age or is no longer disabled.

Disability insurance policies can be obtained through employers as part of their employee benefits package or purchased individually by individuals. The specific terms and conditions of disability insurance, including the definition of disability, waiting period, benefit amount, and duration, may vary depending on the policy and insurer.

The education of intellectually disabled individuals refers to the specialized instruction and support provided to those with intellectual disabilities, also known as intellectual developmental disorders. This type of disability is characterized by significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. This disability originates before the age of 18.

The goal of educating intellectually disabled individuals is to help them achieve their full potential by addressing their unique needs and providing them with the necessary skills to lead fulfilling and independent lives to the greatest extent possible. The education process typically involves individualized instruction, specialized curricula, behavioral interventions, and supportive services that are tailored to each learner's abilities, interests, and needs.

In many countries, laws and regulations mandate that intellectually disabled individuals receive a free and appropriate public education in the least restrictive environment. This means that they should be educated with their non-disabled peers to the greatest extent possible, while still receiving the necessary accommodations and supports to ensure their success.

The education of intellectually disabled individuals may take place in a variety of settings, including general education classrooms, special education classrooms, resource rooms, and specialized schools. The specific educational program and placement will depend on the individual's needs, abilities, and goals. In all cases, the focus is on helping the individual develop the skills they need to function independently, communicate effectively, make informed decisions, and participate fully in their communities.

'Abnormalities, Multiple' is a broad term that refers to the presence of two or more structural or functional anomalies in an individual. These abnormalities can be present at birth (congenital) or can develop later in life (acquired). They can affect various organs and systems of the body and can vary greatly in severity and impact on a person's health and well-being.

Multiple abnormalities can occur due to genetic factors, environmental influences, or a combination of both. Chromosomal abnormalities, gene mutations, exposure to teratogens (substances that cause birth defects), and maternal infections during pregnancy are some of the common causes of multiple congenital abnormalities.

Examples of multiple congenital abnormalities include Down syndrome, Turner syndrome, and VATER/VACTERL association. Acquired multiple abnormalities can result from conditions such as trauma, infection, degenerative diseases, or cancer.

The medical evaluation and management of individuals with multiple abnormalities depend on the specific abnormalities present and their impact on the individual's health and functioning. A multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals is often involved in the care of these individuals to address their complex needs.

Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) is a protein encoded by the FMR1 gene in humans. It is an RNA-binding protein that plays a critical role in regulating the translation and stability of mRNAs, particularly those involved in synaptic plasticity and neuronal development.

Mutations in the FMR1 gene, leading to the absence or reduction of FMRP, have been associated with Fragile X syndrome (FXS), which is the most common inherited form of intellectual disability and the leading genetic cause of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In FXS, the lack of FMRP leads to an overproduction of proteins at synapses, resulting in altered neuronal connectivity and dysfunctional synaptic plasticity.

FMRP is widely expressed in various tissues, but it has a particularly high expression level in the brain, where it regulates the translation of mRNAs involved in learning, memory, and other cognitive functions. FMRP also interacts with several other proteins involved in neuronal development and function, such as ion channels, receptors, and signaling molecules.

Overall, Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein is a crucial regulator of synaptic plasticity and neuronal development, and its dysfunction has been linked to various neurodevelopmental disorders, including Fragile X syndrome, autism spectrum disorder, and intellectual disability.

A disabled child is a child who has a physical, cognitive, or developmental condition that limits their ability to perform everyday tasks and activities. This limitation can be temporary or permanent and may range from mild to severe. According to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), a person with a disability is someone who has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities, has a record of such an impairment, or is regarded as having such an impairment.

Disabled children may face challenges in various areas of their lives, including mobility, communication, self-care, learning, and socialization. Some common examples of disabilities that affect children include cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability, hearing or vision loss, and spina bifida.

It is important to note that disabled children have the same rights and entitlements as other children, and they should be given equal opportunities to participate in all aspects of society. This includes access to education, healthcare, social services, and community activities. With appropriate support and accommodations, many disabled children can lead fulfilling lives and reach their full potential.

A mental disorder is a syndrome characterized by clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior. It's associated with distress and/or impaired functioning in social, occupational, or other important areas of life, often leading to a decrease in quality of life. These disorders are typically persistent and can be severe and disabling. They may be related to factors such as genetics, early childhood experiences, or trauma. Examples include depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and personality disorders. It's important to note that a diagnosis should be made by a qualified mental health professional.

The exome is the part of the genome that contains all the protein-coding regions. It represents less than 2% of the human genome but accounts for about 85% of disease-causing mutations. Exome sequencing, therefore, is a cost-effective and efficient method to identify genetic variants associated with various diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and inherited genetic conditions.

Communication disorders refer to a group of disorders that affect a person's ability to receive, send, process, and understand concepts or verbal, nonverbal, and written communication. These disorders can be language-based, speech-based, or hearing-based.

Language-based communication disorders include:

1. Aphasia - a disorder that affects a person's ability to understand or produce spoken or written language due to damage to the brain's language centers.
2. Language development disorder - a condition where a child has difficulty developing age-appropriate language skills.
3. Dysarthria - a motor speech disorder that makes it difficult for a person to control the muscles used for speaking, resulting in slurred or slow speech.
4. Stuttering - a speech disorder characterized by repetition of sounds, syllables, or words, prolongation of sounds, and interruptions in speech known as blocks.
5. Voice disorders - problems with the pitch, volume, or quality of the voice that make it difficult to communicate effectively.

Hearing-based communication disorders include:

1. Hearing loss - a partial or complete inability to hear sound in one or both ears.
2. Auditory processing disorder - a hearing problem where the brain has difficulty interpreting the sounds heard, even though the person's hearing is normal.

Communication disorders can significantly impact a person's ability to interact with others and perform daily activities. Early identification and intervention are crucial for improving communication skills and overall quality of life.

Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent, unprovoked seizures. These seizures are caused by abnormal electrical activity in the brain, which can result in a wide range of symptoms, including convulsions, loss of consciousness, and altered sensations or behaviors. Epilepsy can have many different causes, including genetic factors, brain injury, infection, or stroke. In some cases, the cause may be unknown.

There are many different types of seizures that can occur in people with epilepsy, and the specific type of seizure will depend on the location and extent of the abnormal electrical activity in the brain. Some people may experience only one type of seizure, while others may have several different types. Seizures can vary in frequency, from a few per year to dozens or even hundreds per day.

Epilepsy is typically diagnosed based on the patient's history of recurrent seizures and the results of an electroencephalogram (EEG), which measures the electrical activity in the brain. Imaging tests such as MRI or CT scans may also be used to help identify any structural abnormalities in the brain that may be contributing to the seizures.

While there is no cure for epilepsy, it can often be effectively managed with medication. In some cases, surgery may be recommended to remove the area of the brain responsible for the seizures. With proper treatment and management, many people with epilepsy are able to lead normal, productive lives.

'Institutionalization' in a medical context refers to the process or state of becoming accustomed to or dependent on a institution, such as a hospital or long-term care facility, for one's care and living arrangements. This can occur over time as an individual becomes more reliant on the services and structure provided by the institution. It can also refer to the social and psychological effects that may result from living in an institutional setting for a long period of time, which can include decreased initiative, dependency, and difficulty functioning in a less structured environment. Institutionalization can have negative impacts on an individual's quality of life and overall well-being, and efforts are often made to help individuals maintain their independence and community connections whenever possible.

Communication aids for disabled are devices or tools that help individuals with disabilities to communicate effectively. These aids can be low-tech, such as communication boards with pictures and words, or high-tech, such as computer-based systems with synthesized speech output. The goal of these aids is to enhance the individual's ability to express their needs, wants, thoughts, and feelings, thereby improving their quality of life and promoting greater independence.

Some examples of communication aids for disabled include:

1. Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) devices - These are electronic devices that produce speech or text output based on user selection. They can be operated through touch screens, eye-tracking technology, or switches.
2. Speech-generating devices - Similar to AAC devices, these tools generate spoken language for individuals who have difficulty speaking.
3. Adaptive keyboards and mice - These are specialized input devices that allow users with motor impairments to type and navigate computer interfaces more easily.
4. Communication software - Computer programs designed to facilitate communication for individuals with disabilities, such as text-to-speech software or visual scene displays.
5. Picture communication symbols - Graphic representations of objects, actions, or concepts that can be used to create communication boards or books.
6. Eye-tracking technology - Devices that track eye movements to enable users to control a computer or communicate through selection of on-screen options.

These aids are often customized to meet the unique needs and abilities of each individual, allowing them to participate more fully in social interactions, education, and employment opportunities.

A chromosome is a thread-like structure that contains genetic material, made up of DNA and proteins, in the nucleus of a cell. In humans, there are 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46 chromosomes, in each cell of the body, with the exception of the sperm and egg cells which contain only 23 chromosomes.

The X chromosome is one of the two sex-determining chromosomes in humans. Females typically have two X chromosomes (XX), while males have one X and one Y chromosome (XY). The X chromosome contains hundreds of genes that are responsible for various functions in the body, including some related to sexual development and reproduction.

Humans inherit one X chromosome from their mother and either an X or a Y chromosome from their father. In females, one of the two X chromosomes is randomly inactivated during embryonic development, resulting in each cell having only one active X chromosome. This process, known as X-inactivation, helps to ensure that females have roughly equal levels of gene expression from the X chromosome, despite having two copies.

Abnormalities in the number or structure of the X chromosome can lead to various genetic disorders, such as Turner syndrome (X0), Klinefelter syndrome (XXY), and fragile X syndrome (an X-linked disorder caused by a mutation in the FMR1 gene).

Activities of Daily Living (ADL) are routine self-care activities that individuals usually do every day without assistance. These activities are widely used as a measure to determine the functional status and independence of a person, particularly in the elderly or those with disabilities or chronic illnesses. The basic ADLs include:

1. Personal hygiene: Bathing, washing hands and face, brushing teeth, grooming, and using the toilet.
2. Dressing: Selecting appropriate clothes and dressing oneself.
3. Eating: Preparing and consuming food, either independently or with assistive devices.
4. Mobility: Moving in and out of bed, chairs, or wheelchairs, walking independently or using mobility aids.
5. Transferring: Moving from one place to another, such as getting in and out of a car, bath, or bed.

There are also more complex Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs) that assess an individual's ability to manage their own life and live independently. These include managing finances, shopping for groceries, using the telephone, taking medications as prescribed, preparing meals, and housekeeping tasks.

Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is a molecular cytogenetic technique used to detect and measure changes in the DNA content of an individual's genome. It is a type of microarray-based analysis that compares the DNA of two samples, typically a test sample and a reference sample, to identify copy number variations (CNVs), including gains or losses of genetic material.

In CGH, the DNA from both samples is labeled with different fluorescent dyes, typically one sample with a green fluorophore and the other with a red fluorophore. The labeled DNAs are then co-hybridized to a microarray, which contains thousands of DNA probes representing specific genomic regions. The intensity of each spot on the array reflects the amount of DNA from each sample that has hybridized to the probe.

By comparing the ratio of green to red fluorescence intensities for each probe, CGH can detect gains or losses of genetic material in the test sample relative to the reference sample. A ratio of 1 indicates no difference in copy number between the two samples, while a ratio greater than 1 suggests a gain of genetic material, and a ratio less than 1 suggests a loss.

CGH is a powerful tool for detecting genomic imbalances associated with various genetic disorders, including cancer, developmental delay, intellectual disability, and congenital abnormalities. It can also be used to study the genomics of organisms in evolutionary biology and ecological studies.

Segmental duplications, genomic (also known as copy number variants or CNVs) refer to stretches of DNA that are present in two or more copies in the same individual's genome. These segments are usually larger than 1 kilobase (kb) in size and share >90% sequence identity with each other. They can arise due to errors during DNA replication, repair, or recombination, leading to the duplication of genetic material.

Segmental duplications can have various effects on genomic function and stability. They can lead to changes in gene dosage, disrupt gene structure and regulation, and create new hybrid genes with novel functions. Additionally, they are often associated with genomic disorders, susceptibility to diseases, and evolutionary innovation. Segmental duplications are a significant source of genetic variation and play an essential role in shaping genomes.

A syndrome, in medical terms, is a set of symptoms that collectively indicate or characterize a disease, disorder, or underlying pathological process. It's essentially a collection of signs and/or symptoms that frequently occur together and can suggest a particular cause or condition, even though the exact physiological mechanisms might not be fully understood.

For example, Down syndrome is characterized by specific physical features, cognitive delays, and other developmental issues resulting from an extra copy of chromosome 21. Similarly, metabolic syndromes like diabetes mellitus type 2 involve a group of risk factors such as obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels that collectively increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes.

It's important to note that a syndrome is not a specific diagnosis; rather, it's a pattern of symptoms that can help guide further diagnostic evaluation and management.

Microcephaly is a medical condition where an individual has a smaller than average head size. The circumference of the head is significantly below the normal range for age and sex. This condition is typically caused by abnormal brain development, which can be due to genetic factors or environmental influences such as infections or exposure to harmful substances during pregnancy.

Microcephaly can be present at birth (congenital) or develop in the first few years of life. People with microcephaly often have intellectual disabilities, delayed development, and other neurological problems. However, the severity of these issues can vary widely, ranging from mild to severe. It is important to note that not all individuals with microcephaly will experience significant impairments or challenges.

Sexuality is a multidimensional aspect of human life, which includes biological, psychological, social, and cultural dimensions. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), sexuality is "a central aspect of being human throughout life encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy and reproduction." It involves a person's capacity for sexual feelings, their emotional and romantic attraction to other people, and their self-concept as a sexual being. Sexuality can also refer to a person's sense of identity based on their sex and gender, as well as their engagement in sexual activity or behavior.

It is important to note that sexuality is a normal and natural part of human development and experience, and it is influenced by a variety of factors, including biological, psychological, social, cultural, and environmental factors. Everyone has the right to explore and express their sexuality in a responsible and consensual manner, free from coercion, discrimination, and violence.

Special education is a type of education that is designed to meet the unique needs of students with disabilities. According to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) in the United States, special education is defined as:

"Specially designed instruction, at no cost to the parents, to meet the unique needs of a child with a disability, including—

(A) Instruction conducted in the classroom, in the home, in hospitals and institutions, and in other settings; and

(B) Instruction in physical education."

Special education may include a variety of services, such as:

* Specially designed instruction to meet the unique needs of the child
* Related services, such as speech therapy, occupational therapy, or physical therapy
* Assistive technology devices and services
* Counseling and behavioral supports
* Transportation services

Special education is provided in a variety of settings, including regular classrooms, resource rooms, self-contained classrooms, and specialized schools. The goal of special education is to provide students with disabilities with the skills and knowledge they need to be successful in school and in life.

Prenatal injuries, also known as antenatal injuries, refer to damages or harm that occur to a fetus during pregnancy. These injuries can result from various factors such as maternal infections, exposure to toxic substances, genetic disorders, or physical trauma. Some common examples of prenatal injuries include cerebral palsy, intellectual disabilities, blindness, deafness, and limb deformities. It is essential to monitor and manage the health of both the mother and fetus during pregnancy to reduce the risk of prenatal injuries.

Milieu therapy is a type of treatment used in psychiatric and mental health settings that focuses on the environment or "milieu" (French for environment) to promote healing and recovery. The primary goal of milieu therapy is to create a structured, predictable, and supportive social environment that can help individuals learn adaptive behaviors, improve their coping skills, enhance their social interactions, and develop a sense of responsibility and autonomy.

In milieu therapy, the physical and social environments are carefully designed to promote positive changes in behavior, emotion regulation, and interpersonal relationships. The treatment team works collaboratively with patients to establish clear expectations, boundaries, and consequences for behavior, and provides consistent feedback and reinforcement for positive behaviors.

Milieu therapy can take many forms, depending on the setting and the needs of the individuals being treated. Some common elements of milieu therapy include:

* A structured daily routine that includes therapeutic activities, such as group therapy, individual counseling, recreational activities, and educational programs.
* A clearly defined set of rules and expectations for behavior, with consistent consequences for non-compliance and positive reinforcement for adherence.
* Opportunities for social interaction and peer support, including group meetings, community meals, and recreational activities.
* A focus on building skills and competencies in areas such as communication, problem-solving, self-care, and conflict resolution.
* Collaborative decision-making and goal-setting between patients and staff, with regular feedback and progress monitoring.

Milieu therapy is often used in combination with other treatment modalities, such as medication, individual therapy, and family therapy, to provide a comprehensive approach to mental health care. It can be effective for individuals with a wide range of psychiatric disorders, including mood disorders, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, and substance use disorders.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Western Australia" is not a medical term. It is the largest state or territory in Australia by area, covering the entire western third of the country. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

Chromosome duplication is a genetic alteration where a segment of a chromosome or the entire chromosome is present in an extra copy. This results in an additional portion of genetic material, leading to an abnormal number of genes. In humans, chromosomes typically occur in pairs (23 pairs for a total of 46 chromosomes), and any deviation from this normal number can cause genetic disorders or developmental abnormalities.

Duplication can occur in various ways:

1. Duplication of a chromosome segment: A specific region of a chromosome is repeated, leading to an extra copy of the genes present in that area. This type of duplication may not always cause noticeable effects, depending on the size and location of the duplicated segment. However, if the duplicated region contains important genes or growth regulatory elements, it can lead to genetic disorders or developmental abnormalities.
2. Duplication of a whole chromosome: An entire chromosome is present in an extra copy, leading to 3 copies instead of the typical 2 copies (one from each parent). This condition is called trisomy and can result in various genetic disorders, depending on which chromosome is duplicated. For example, Trisomy 21 or Down syndrome occurs when there are three copies of chromosome 21.
3. Mosaicism: When an individual has some cells with a normal number of chromosomes and others with the extra copy, it is called mosaicism. The severity of symptoms depends on the proportion of cells carrying the duplication and the specific genes involved in the duplicated region.

Chromosome duplications can occur spontaneously during cell division or may be inherited from a parent. They are often detected through prenatal testing, such as amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling (CVS), or through genetic testing for individuals with developmental delays, intellectual disabilities, or birth defects.

X-linked genetic diseases refer to a group of disorders caused by mutations in genes located on the X chromosome. These conditions primarily affect males since they have only one X chromosome and therefore don't have a second normal copy of the gene to compensate for the mutated one. Females, who have two X chromosomes, are typically less affected because they usually have one normal copy of the gene on their other X chromosome.

Examples of X-linked genetic diseases include Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy, hemophilia A and B, color blindness, and fragile X syndrome. Symptoms and severity can vary widely depending on the specific condition and the nature of the genetic mutation involved. Treatment options depend on the particular disease but may include physical therapy, medication, or in some cases, gene therapy.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "human characteristics" is not a medical term or concept. It refers to the typical traits, attributes, and features that define humans as a species, both physically and behaviorally. Physical human characteristics include bipedal locomotion, large brains, and fine motor skills, while behavioral characteristics can include complex language use, self-awareness, and sociality.

However, if you have any specific medical or health-related questions, I would be happy to help answer them to the best of my ability!

DNA Copy Number Variations (CNVs) refer to deletions or duplications of sections of the DNA molecule that are larger than 1 kilobase (kb). These variations result in gains or losses of genetic material, leading to changes in the number of copies of a particular gene or genes. CNVs can affect the expression level of genes and have been associated with various genetic disorders, complex diseases, and phenotypic differences among individuals. They are typically detected through techniques such as array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays, or next-generation sequencing (NGS).

Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) refer to a group of genetic disorders caused by defects in enzymes or transporters that play a role in the body's metabolic processes. These disorders result in the accumulation or deficiency of specific chemicals within the body, which can lead to various clinical manifestations, such as developmental delay, intellectual disability, seizures, organ damage, and in some cases, death.

Examples of IEM include phenylketonuria (PKU), maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), galactosemia, and glycogen storage diseases, among many others. These disorders are typically inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, meaning that an affected individual has two copies of the mutated gene, one from each parent.

Early diagnosis and management of IEM are crucial to prevent or minimize complications and improve outcomes. Treatment options may include dietary modifications, supplementation with missing enzymes or cofactors, medication, and in some cases, stem cell transplantation or gene therapy.

Plasma membrane neurotransmitter transport proteins are a type of transmembrane protein found in the plasma membrane of neurons and other cells. They are responsible for the active transport of neurotransmitters, which are chemical messengers that transmit signals between neurons, from the extracellular space into the cell. This process helps to terminate the signal transmission and regulate the concentration of neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft, which is the narrow gap between the presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons.

There are two main types of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transport proteins: sodium-dependent transporters and sodium-independent transporters. Sodium-dependent transporters use the energy generated by the movement of sodium ions across the membrane to move neurotransmitters against their concentration gradient, while sodium-independent transporters do not require sodium ions and use other sources of energy.

These transport proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the homeostasis of neurotransmitter levels in the brain and are targets for many drugs used to treat neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as antidepressants, antipsychotics, and stimulants.

Consanguinity is a medical and genetic term that refers to the degree of genetic relationship between two individuals who share common ancestors. Consanguineous relationships exist when people are related by blood, through a common ancestor or siblings who have children together. The closer the relationship between the two individuals, the higher the degree of consanguinity.

The degree of consanguinity is typically expressed as a percentage or fraction, with higher values indicating a closer genetic relationship. For example, first-degree relatives, such as parents and children or full siblings, share approximately 50% of their genes and have a consanguinity coefficient of 0.25 (or 25%).

Consanguinity can increase the risk of certain genetic disorders and birth defects in offspring due to the increased likelihood of sharing harmful recessive genes. The risks depend on the degree of consanguinity, with closer relationships carrying higher risks. It is important for individuals who are planning to have children and have a history of consanguinity to consider genetic counseling and testing to assess their risk of passing on genetic disorders.

Muscle hypotonia, also known as decreased muscle tone, refers to a condition where the muscles appear to be flaccid or lacking in tension and stiffness. This results in reduced resistance to passive movements, making the limbs feel "floppy" or "like a rag doll." It can affect any muscle group in the body and can be caused by various medical conditions, including neurological disorders, genetic diseases, and injuries to the nervous system. Hypotonia should not be confused with muscle weakness, which refers to the inability to generate normal muscle strength.

A patent, in the context of medicine and healthcare, generally refers to a government-granted exclusive right for an inventor to manufacture, use, or sell their invention for a certain period of time, typically 20 years from the filing date. In the medical field, patents may cover a wide range of inventions, including new drugs, medical devices, diagnostic methods, and even genetic sequences.

The purpose of patents is to provide incentives for innovation by allowing inventors to profit from their inventions. However, patents can also have significant implications for access to medical technologies and healthcare costs. For example, a patent on a life-saving drug may give the patent holder the exclusive right to manufacture and sell the drug, potentially limiting access and driving up prices.

It's worth noting that the patent system is complex and varies from country to country. In some cases, there may be ways to challenge or circumvent patents in order to increase access to medical technologies, such as through compulsory licensing or generic substitution.

Premature mortality is an unfortunate event where an individual's life ends before they reach the statistically expected lifespan for their birth cohort and geographical location. This can be due to various factors such as genetic predisposition, lifestyle choices, environmental conditions or inadequate healthcare access. It often refers to deaths from diseases or injuries that could have been prevented or postponed with appropriate interventions.

This concept is crucial in public health as it helps identify populations at risk and prioritize resources towards preventive measures and treatments. The World Health Organization (WHO) uses this metric extensively while comparing health outcomes between different countries and regions, aiming to reduce premature mortality rates worldwide.

Metabolic brain diseases are a group of disorders caused by genetic defects that affect the body's metabolism and result in abnormal accumulation of harmful substances in the brain. These conditions are present at birth (inborn) or develop during infancy or early childhood. Examples of metabolic brain diseases that are present at birth include:

1. Phenylketonuria (PKU): A disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase, which leads to an accumulation of phenylalanine in the brain and can cause intellectual disability, seizures, and behavioral problems if left untreated.
2. Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD): A disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase, which leads to an accumulation of branched-chain amino acids in the body and can cause intellectual disability, seizures, and metabolic crisis if left untreated.
3. Urea cycle disorders: A group of disorders caused by defects in enzymes that help remove ammonia from the body. Accumulation of ammonia in the blood can lead to brain damage, coma, or death if not treated promptly.
4. Organic acidemias: A group of disorders caused by defects in enzymes that help break down certain amino acids and other organic compounds. These conditions can cause metabolic acidosis, seizures, and developmental delays if left untreated.

Early diagnosis and treatment of these conditions are crucial to prevent irreversible brain damage and other complications. Treatment typically involves dietary restrictions, supplements, and medications to manage the underlying metabolic imbalance. In some cases, enzyme replacement therapy or liver transplantation may be necessary.

A caregiver is an individual who provides assistance and support to another person who is unable to meet their own needs for activities of daily living due to illness, disability, frailty, or other reasons. Caregiving can take many forms, including providing physical care, emotional support, managing medications, assisting with mobility, and helping with household tasks and errands. Caregivers may be family members, friends, or professional providers, and the level of care they provide can range from a few hours a week to round-the-clock assistance. In medical contexts, caregivers are often referred to as informal or family caregivers when they are unpaid relatives or friends, and professional or paid caregivers when they are hired to provide care.

Cognitive disorders are a category of mental health disorders that primarily affect cognitive abilities including learning, memory, perception, and problem-solving. These disorders can be caused by various factors such as brain injury, degenerative diseases, infection, substance abuse, or developmental disabilities. Examples of cognitive disorders include dementia, amnesia, delirium, and intellectual disability. It's important to note that the specific definition and diagnostic criteria for cognitive disorders may vary depending on the medical source or classification system being used.

I must clarify that the term "pedigree" is not typically used in medical definitions. Instead, it is often employed in genetics and breeding, where it refers to the recorded ancestry of an individual or a family, tracing the inheritance of specific traits or diseases. In human genetics, a pedigree can help illustrate the pattern of genetic inheritance in families over multiple generations. However, it is not a medical term with a specific clinical definition.

A group home is a type of residential setting where a small number of individuals with similar disabilities, such as intellectual or developmental disabilities, mental health disorders, or substance abuse issues, live together in a family-like setting. These homes are designed to provide a more normalized living environment compared to institutional settings, and aim to promote independence, community integration, and skill development for the residents. Staff members are typically present to provide support, supervision, and assistance with daily living activities as needed.

Motor skills disorders are conditions that affect a person's ability to perform coordinated movements. These movements can be simple, such as buttoning a shirt, or complex, such as playing a musical instrument. Motor skills disorders can make it difficult for a person to perform everyday activities and can impact their quality of life.

There are two main types of motor skills: fine motor skills and gross motor skills. Fine motor skills involve the small movements of the hands, fingers, and wrists, such as writing or using utensils. Gross motor skills involve larger movements of the arms, legs, and torso, such as crawling, walking, or running.

Motor skills disorders can affect either fine or gross motor skills, or both. Some common types of motor skills disorders include:

* Developmental coordination disorder (DCD): a condition that affects a child's ability to perform coordinated movements and is often diagnosed in early childhood. Children with DCD may have difficulty with tasks such as tying their shoes, buttoning their clothes, or using scissors.
* Cerebral palsy: a group of disorders that affect movement and muscle tone, caused by damage to the brain before, during, or after birth. Cerebral palsy can cause stiff or floppy muscles, uncontrolled movements, and difficulty with balance and coordination.
* Dyspraxia: a condition that affects a person's ability to plan and perform coordinated movements. People with dyspraxia may have difficulty with tasks such as writing, buttoning their clothes, or playing sports.
* Ataxia: a group of disorders that affect coordination and balance, caused by damage to the cerebellum (the part of the brain that controls movement). Ataxia can cause unsteady gait, poor coordination, and difficulty with fine motor tasks.

Motor skills disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, injury, illness, or developmental delays. Treatment for motor skills disorders may include physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, and medication. In some cases, surgery may also be necessary to treat the underlying cause of the disorder.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

Smith-Magenis Syndrome (SMS) is a genetic disorder caused by a deletion or mutation in chromosome 17p11.2. It is characterized by a distinct pattern of facial features, developmental delay, intellectual disability, behavioral problems such as aggression, self-injury, and sleep disturbances. Individuals with SMS may also have hearing and vision issues, speech and language delays, orthopedic problems, and heart defects. It is important to note that the severity of symptoms can vary widely among individuals with SMS.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Syria" is not a medical term. It is a country located in the Middle East. If you are looking for information about a medical condition, could you please provide more details? I'd be happy to help with that.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

Recessive genes refer to the alleles (versions of a gene) that will only be expressed when an individual has two copies of that particular allele, one inherited from each parent. If an individual inherits one recessive allele and one dominant allele for a particular gene, the dominant allele will be expressed and the recessive allele will have no effect on the individual's phenotype (observable traits).

Recessive genes can still play a role in determining an individual's genetic makeup and can be passed down through generations even if they are not expressed. If two carriers of a recessive gene have children, there is a 25% chance that their offspring will inherit two copies of the recessive allele and exhibit the associated recessive trait.

Examples of genetic disorders caused by recessive genes include cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, and albinism.

De Lange Syndrome, also known as De Lange-Muncke syndrome or Cornelia de Lange syndrome, is a genetic disorder that affects multiple parts of the body. It is characterized by distinctive physical features such as a small head (microbrachycephaly), thin eyebrows that meet at midline (synophrys), long eyelashes, low-set ears, and a small jaw (micrognathia). Other common features include growth retardation, intellectual disability, behavioral problems, and limb abnormalities.

The syndrome is caused by mutations in the NIPBL, SMC1A, SMC3, or RAD21 genes, which are involved in regulating gene expression during embryonic development. De Lange Syndrome is usually inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, meaning that a child can inherit the disorder even if only one parent carries the mutated gene. However, some cases may occur spontaneously due to new mutations in the genes.

There is no cure for De Lange Syndrome, but early intervention and supportive care can help improve outcomes. Treatment typically involves addressing individual symptoms and may include therapies such as physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, and special education. Surgery may also be necessary to correct certain physical abnormalities.

Williams Syndrome is a rare genetic disorder caused by the deletion of a small portion of chromosome 7. This results in various developmental and medical problems, which can include:

1. Distinctive facial features such as a broad forehead, wide-set eyes, short nose, and full lips.
2. Cardiovascular disease, particularly narrowed or missing blood vessels near the heart.
3. Developmental delays and learning disabilities, although most people with Williams Syndrome have an IQ in the mild to moderate range of intellectual disability.
4. A unique pattern of strengths and weaknesses in cognitive skills, such as strong language skills but significant difficulty with visual-spatial tasks.
5. Overly friendly or sociable personality, often displaying a lack of fear or wariness around strangers.
6. Increased risk of anxiety and depression.
7. Sensitive hearing and poor depth perception.
8. Short stature in adulthood.

Williams Syndrome affects about 1 in every 10,000 people worldwide, regardless of race or ethnic background. It is not an inherited disorder, but rather a spontaneous genetic mutation.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "pensions" are not a medical term. A pension is a retirement plan that provides a regular payment to retirees, typically based on their salary history and length of employment. It is a type of employee benefit provided by many employers, including government agencies and private companies.

If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I'd be happy to try to help!

Self-injurious behavior (SIB) refers to the intentional, direct injuring of one's own body without suicidal intentions. It is often repetitive and can take various forms such as cutting, burning, scratching, hitting, or bruising the skin. In some cases, individuals may also ingest harmful substances or objects.

SIB is not a mental disorder itself, but it is often associated with various psychiatric conditions, including borderline personality disorder, depression, anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, and eating disorders. It is also common in individuals with developmental disabilities, such as autism spectrum disorder.

The function of SIB can vary widely among individuals, but it often serves as a coping mechanism to deal with emotional distress, negative feelings, or traumatic experiences. It's essential to approach individuals who engage in SIB with compassion and understanding, focusing on treating the underlying causes rather than solely addressing the behavior itself. Professional mental health treatment and therapy can help individuals develop healthier coping strategies and improve their quality of life.

Clopenthixol is a type of antipsychotic medication that is primarily used to manage and treat symptoms associated with various mental health disorders, such as schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. It belongs to a class of drugs known as "typical" or "first-generation" antipsychotics, which work by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain.

Clopenthixol has potent activity at both dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2 receptors, which contributes to its efficacy in treating positive symptoms of schizophrenia, such as hallucinations and delusions, as well as negative symptoms, like apathy and social withdrawal. It is also used off-label for the treatment of agitation and aggression in individuals with dementia or intellectual disabilities.

The medication is available in two forms: immediate-release tablets (Clopenthixol decanoate) and a long-acting injectable form (Clopenthixol decanoate). The long-acting injection is typically administered every 2-4 weeks, while the oral tablet is taken daily.

Like all medications, clopenthixol can have side effects, which may include extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), such as Parkinsonism, akathisia, and dystonia; weight gain; metabolic changes; sexual dysfunction; and cardiovascular issues. It is essential to monitor patients taking clopenthixol for these potential adverse effects and adjust the treatment plan accordingly.

It's important to note that clopenthixol should only be prescribed and administered under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional, and patients should follow their instructions carefully to ensure safe and effective use.

Language development disorders, also known as language impairments or communication disorders, refer to a group of conditions that affect an individual's ability to understand and/or use spoken or written language in a typical manner. These disorders can manifest as difficulties with grammar, vocabulary, sentence structure, word finding, following directions, and/or conversational skills.

Language development disorders can be receptive (difficulty understanding language), expressive (difficulty using language to communicate), or mixed (a combination of both). They can occur in isolation or as part of a broader neurodevelopmental disorder, such as autism spectrum disorder or intellectual disability.

The causes of language development disorders are varied and may include genetic factors, environmental influences, neurological conditions, hearing loss, or other medical conditions. It is important to note that language development disorders are not the result of low intelligence or lack of motivation; rather, they reflect a specific impairment in the brain's language processing systems.

Early identification and intervention for language development disorders can significantly improve outcomes and help individuals develop effective communication skills. Treatment typically involves speech-language therapy, which may be provided individually or in a group setting, and may involve strategies such as modeling correct language use, practicing targeted language skills, and using visual aids to support comprehension.

Craniofacial abnormalities refer to a group of birth defects that affect the development of the skull and face. These abnormalities can range from mild to severe and may involve differences in the shape and structure of the head, face, and jaws, as well as issues with the formation of facial features such as the eyes, nose, and mouth.

Craniofacial abnormalities can be caused by genetic factors, environmental influences, or a combination of both. Some common examples of craniofacial abnormalities include cleft lip and palate, craniosynostosis (premature fusion of the skull bones), and hemifacial microsomia (underdevelopment of one side of the face).

Treatment for craniofacial abnormalities may involve a team of healthcare professionals, including plastic surgeons, neurosurgeons, orthodontists, speech therapists, and other specialists. Treatment options may include surgery, bracing, therapy, and other interventions to help improve function and appearance.

Childhood behavior disorders are a group of disruptive behaviors that are more frequent or severe than is typical for the child's age and development. These behaviors can cause significant impairment in the child's life, including their relationships with family, friends, and at school. Common examples of childhood behavior disorders include:

1. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A chronic condition characterized by difficulty paying attention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity.
2. Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD): A pattern of negative, hostile, and defiant behavior towards authority figures.
3. Conduct Disorder: A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior that violates the rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules.
4. Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED): A disorder characterized by recurrent impulsive aggressive behavior disproportionate to the situation.
5. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): A neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by difficulties in social interaction, communication, and repetitive behaviors.
6. Tourette Syndrome: A neurological disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements and vocalizations called tics.

It's important to note that children with behavior disorders often have other conditions such as learning disabilities, mood disorders, or anxiety disorders. Early identification and treatment of these disorders can significantly improve the child's outcome.

The Wechsler Scales are a series of intelligence and neuropsychological tests used to assess various aspects of cognitive functioning in individuals across the lifespan. The scales include:

1. Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI): Designed for children aged 2 years 6 months to 7 years 3 months, it measures verbal (e.g., vocabulary, comprehension) and performance (e.g., visual-motor integration, spatial reasoning) abilities.
2. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC): Developed for children aged 6 to 16 years, it evaluates verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory, and processing speed.
3. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS): Created for adults aged 16 to 90 years, it assesses similar domains as the WISC but with more complex tasks.
4. Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS): Designed to measure various aspects of memory functioning in individuals aged 16 to 89 years, including visual and auditory immediate and delayed recall, working memory, and attention.
5. Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI): A brief version of the WAIS used for quicker intelligence screening in individuals aged 6 to 89 years.

These scales are widely used in clinical, educational, and research settings to identify strengths and weaknesses in cognitive abilities, diagnose learning disabilities and other neurodevelopmental disorders, monitor treatment progress, and provide recommendations for interventions and accommodations.

Micrognathism is a medical term that refers to a condition where the lower jaw (mandible) is abnormally small or underdeveloped. This can result in various dental and skeletal problems, including an improper bite (malocclusion), difficulty speaking, chewing, or swallowing, and sleep apnea. Micrognathism may be congenital or acquired later in life due to trauma, disease, or surgical removal of part of the jaw. Treatment options depend on the severity of the condition and can include orthodontic treatment, surgery, or a combination of both.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Israel" is not a medical term. It is a country located in the Middle East. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I would be happy to help!

A chronic brain injury, also known as a traumatic brain injury (TBI), is an injury to the brain that results in long-term or permanent impairment. It is caused by a significant blow to the head or body, or by a penetrating head injury that disrupts the normal functioning of the brain.

Chronic brain injuries can result in a wide range of physical, cognitive, and emotional symptoms, including:

* Persistent headaches or migraines
* Difficulty with memory, concentration, and decision-making
* Changes in mood, such as depression, anxiety, or irritability
* Difficulty with communication, including speaking and understanding language
* Sensory problems, such as vision or hearing loss
* Seizures
* Balance and coordination problems
* Weakness or paralysis on one side of the body

These symptoms can vary in severity and may not be immediately apparent following the initial injury. In some cases, they may not become apparent until days, weeks, or even months after the injury.

Chronic brain injuries are often classified as mild, moderate, or severe based on the level of consciousness loss and the presence of other neurological deficits. Mild TBIs, also known as concussions, may not cause long-term impairment, while moderate to severe TBIs can result in significant disability and require ongoing rehabilitation and support.

Treatment for chronic brain injuries typically involves a multidisciplinary approach that includes medical management of symptoms, physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech and language therapy, and counseling or psychotherapy. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to address structural damage to the brain.

Social behavior, in the context of medicine and psychology, refers to the ways in which individuals interact and engage with others within their social environment. It involves various actions, communications, and responses that are influenced by cultural norms, personal values, emotional states, and cognitive processes. These behaviors can include but are not limited to communication, cooperation, competition, empathy, altruism, aggression, and conformity.

Abnormalities in social behavior may indicate underlying mental health conditions such as autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, or personality disorders. Therefore, understanding and analyzing social behavior is an essential aspect of diagnosing and treating various psychological and psychiatric conditions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Human Rights" is a social, political, and legal concept, rather than a medical one. Human rights are basic rights and freedoms to which all individuals are entitled, regardless of nationality, sex, ethnicity, religion, language, or any other status. They include civil and political rights, such as the right to life, liberty, and freedom of expression; as well as social, cultural and economic rights, like the right to participate in culture, the right to food, and the right to work and receive an education.

However, in the context of healthcare, human rights are crucial. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights recognizes the right to medical care and the right to enjoy the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health. Healthcare providers have a responsibility to respect and protect their patients' human rights, ensuring that they receive care without discrimination, that their privacy is protected, and that they are involved in decisions regarding their healthcare.

Violations of human rights can significantly impact an individual's health and well-being, making the promotion and protection of human rights a critical public health issue.

Congenital foot deformities refer to abnormal structural changes in the foot that are present at birth. These deformities can vary from mild to severe and may affect the shape, position, or function of one or both feet. Common examples include clubfoot (talipes equinovarus), congenital vertical talus, and cavus foot. Congenital foot deformities can be caused by genetic factors, environmental influences during fetal development, or a combination of both. Treatment options may include stretching, casting, surgery, or a combination of these approaches, depending on the severity and type of the deformity.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

A chromosome deletion is a type of genetic abnormality that occurs when a portion of a chromosome is missing or deleted. Chromosomes are thread-like structures located in the nucleus of cells that contain our genetic material, which is organized into genes.

Chromosome deletions can occur spontaneously during the formation of reproductive cells (eggs or sperm) or can be inherited from a parent. They can affect any chromosome and can vary in size, from a small segment to a large portion of the chromosome.

The severity of the symptoms associated with a chromosome deletion depends on the size and location of the deleted segment. In some cases, the deletion may be so small that it does not cause any noticeable symptoms. However, larger deletions can lead to developmental delays, intellectual disabilities, physical abnormalities, and various medical conditions.

Chromosome deletions are typically detected through a genetic test called karyotyping, which involves analyzing the number and structure of an individual's chromosomes. Other more precise tests, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) or chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA), may also be used to confirm the diagnosis and identify the specific location and size of the deletion.

A rare disease, also known as an orphan disease, is a health condition that affects fewer than 200,000 people in the United States or fewer than 1 in 2,000 people in Europe. There are over 7,000 rare diseases identified, and many of them are severe, chronic, and often life-threatening. The causes of rare diseases can be genetic, infectious, environmental, or degenerative. Due to their rarity, research on rare diseases is often underfunded, and treatments may not be available or well-studied. Additionally, the diagnosis of rare diseases can be challenging due to a lack of awareness and understanding among healthcare professionals.

Congenital hand deformities refer to physical abnormalities or malformations of the hand, wrist, and/or digits (fingers) that are present at birth. These deformities can result from genetic factors, environmental influences during pregnancy, or a combination of both. They may affect the bones, muscles, tendons, joints, and other structures in the hand, leading to varying degrees of impairment in function and appearance.

There are numerous types of congenital hand deformities, some of which include:

1. Polydactyly: The presence of extra digits on the hand, which can be fully formed or rudimentary.
2. Syndactyly: Webbing or fusion of two or more fingers, which may involve soft tissue only or bone as well.
3. Clinodactyly: A curved finger due to a sideways deviation of the fingertip, often affecting the little finger.
4. Camptodactyly: Permanent flexion or bending of one or more fingers, typically involving the proximal interphalangeal joint.
5. Trigger Finger/Thumb: A condition where a finger or thumb becomes locked in a bent position due to thickening and narrowing of the tendon sheath.
6. Radial Club Hand (Radial Ray Deficiency): Underdevelopment or absence of the radius bone, resulting in a short, curved forearm and hand deformity.
7. Ulnar Club Hand (Ulnar Ray Deficiency): Underdevelopment or absence of the ulna bone, leading to a short, curved forearm and hand deformity.
8. Cleidocranial Dysplasia: A genetic disorder affecting bone growth, resulting in underdeveloped or absent collarbones, dental abnormalities, and occasionally hand deformities.
9. Apert Syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by the fusion of fingers and toes (syndactyly) and other skeletal abnormalities.
10. Holt-Oram Syndrome: A genetic disorder involving heart defects and upper limb deformities, such as radial ray deficiency or thumb anomalies.

Treatment for hand deformities varies depending on the specific condition and severity. Options may include physical therapy, bracing, splinting, medications, or surgical intervention.

A Health Facility Administrator, also known as a healthcare executive or medical and health services manager, is a professional who manages the operations and day-to-day activities of various types of healthcare facilities, such as hospitals, clinics, nursing homes, and mental health centers. Their responsibilities typically include:

1. Developing and implementing policies and procedures to ensure efficient and high-quality patient care.
2. Overseeing budgeting, financial planning, and managing resources to maximize operational efficiency.
3. Hiring, training, and supervising staff, including medical, nursing, and administrative personnel.
4. Ensuring compliance with relevant laws, regulations, and accreditation standards.
5. Coordinating and collaborating with healthcare professionals, such as physicians, nurses, and allied health professionals, to provide optimal patient care.
6. Developing and maintaining relationships with community partners, stakeholders, and regulatory bodies.
7. Planning, directing, and coordinating various services, programs, and departments within the facility.
8. Utilizing data analysis and performance improvement methodologies to monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of healthcare services and identify opportunities for enhancement.
9. Fostering a positive organizational culture that supports continuous learning, innovation, and collaboration.
10. Managing crisis situations and emergencies effectively to minimize their impact on patients, staff, and operations.

Health Facility Administrators typically hold a master's degree in healthcare administration, health services management, public health, business administration, or a related field. They may also possess professional certifications, such as the Fellow of the American College of Healthcare Executives (FACHE) or Certified Medical Practice Executive (CMPE), to demonstrate their expertise and commitment to the profession.

Comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional health conditions or diseases alongside a primary illness or condition. These co-occurring health issues can have an impact on the treatment plan, prognosis, and overall healthcare management of an individual. Comorbidities often interact with each other and the primary condition, leading to more complex clinical situations and increased healthcare needs. It is essential for healthcare professionals to consider and address comorbidities to provide comprehensive care and improve patient outcomes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "parents" is not a term that has a medical definition. In general usage, parents are the two people (typically) who bring up and care for a child, or who have given birth to or adopted a child. They are responsible for the child's housing, food, clothing, education, and medical care. Is there a specific medical or healthcare-related context you had in mind? I would be happy to help further if I can.

Child development is a multidisciplinary field that examines the biological, psychological, emotional, and social growth and changes that occur in human beings between birth and the onset of adulthood. It involves a complex interaction of genetics, environment, culture, and experiences that shape a child's growth and development over time.

Child development is typically divided into several domains, including:

1. Physical Development: This refers to the growth and changes in a child's body, including their motor skills, sensory abilities, and overall health.
2. Cognitive Development: This involves the development of a child's thinking, learning, problem-solving, memory, language, and other mental processes.
3. Emotional Development: This refers to the development of a child's emotional awareness, expression, understanding, and regulation.
4. Social Development: This involves the development of a child's ability to interact with others, form relationships, communicate effectively, and understand social norms and expectations.

Child development is an ongoing process that occurs at different rates and in different ways for each child. Understanding typical patterns of child development can help parents, educators, and healthcare providers support children's growth and identify any potential delays or concerns.

Longitudinal studies are a type of research design where data is collected from the same subjects repeatedly over a period of time, often years or even decades. These studies are used to establish patterns of changes and events over time, and can help researchers identify causal relationships between variables. They are particularly useful in fields such as epidemiology, psychology, and sociology, where the focus is on understanding developmental trends and the long-term effects of various factors on health and behavior.

In medical research, longitudinal studies can be used to track the progression of diseases over time, identify risk factors for certain conditions, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. For example, a longitudinal study might follow a group of individuals over several decades to assess their exposure to certain environmental factors and their subsequent development of chronic diseases such as cancer or heart disease. By comparing data collected at multiple time points, researchers can identify trends and correlations that may not be apparent in shorter-term studies.

Longitudinal studies have several advantages over other research designs, including their ability to establish temporal relationships between variables, track changes over time, and reduce the impact of confounding factors. However, they also have some limitations, such as the potential for attrition (loss of participants over time), which can introduce bias and affect the validity of the results. Additionally, longitudinal studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, requiring significant resources and a long-term commitment from both researchers and study participants.

Rett Syndrome is a rare, progressive neurodevelopmental disorder that almost exclusively affects females. It is caused by mutations in the MECP2 gene, which provides instructions for making a protein essential for normal brain function. The symptoms of Rett Syndrome typically appear after a period of apparently normal development and can include:

1. Loss of purposeful hand skills, replaced with repetitive, stereotyped movements such as hand wringing or washing
2. Slowed growth and reduced body weight
3. Impaired speech and language skills, although many individuals can understand complex commands
4. Breathing difficulties, including hyperventilation, apnea (breath holding), and air swallowing
5. Impaired muscle tone, which can range from too loose to too rigid
6. Scoliosis or other spinal deformities
7. Seizures
8. Sleep disturbances
9. Anxiety and gastrointestinal issues

The progression of Rett Syndrome varies among individuals, but most require assistance with daily living activities. Despite the challenges associated with this disorder, many individuals with Rett Syndrome live into middle age or beyond.

Social adjustment, in the context of mental health and psychology, refers to an individual's ability to adapt and function effectively within their social environment. It involves developing and maintaining positive relationships with others, fulfilling various social roles (such as being a family member, friend, or employee), and meeting the expectations and demands of one's social group.

Social adjustment can be affected by various factors, including an individual's personality traits, coping skills, mental and physical health status, and life experiences. Poor social adjustment can lead to feelings of isolation, loneliness, and dissatisfaction with life, as well as increased risk for mental health problems such as depression and anxiety.

Assessing social adjustment is an important aspect of mental health care, as it can provide valuable insights into an individual's overall functioning and quality of life. Treatments such as psychotherapy and social skills training may be used to help improve social adjustment in individuals who are struggling in this area.

A homozygote is an individual who has inherited the same allele (version of a gene) from both parents and therefore possesses two identical copies of that allele at a specific genetic locus. This can result in either having two dominant alleles (homozygous dominant) or two recessive alleles (homozygous recessive). In contrast, a heterozygote has inherited different alleles from each parent for a particular gene.

The term "homozygote" is used in genetics to describe the genetic makeup of an individual at a specific locus on their chromosomes. Homozygosity can play a significant role in determining an individual's phenotype (observable traits), as having two identical alleles can strengthen the expression of certain characteristics compared to having just one dominant and one recessive allele.

Sex chromosome disorders are genetic conditions that occur due to an atypical number or structure of the sex chromosomes, which are X and Y. Normally, females have two X chromosomes (XX), and males have one X and one Y chromosome (XY). However, in sex chromosome disorders, there is a variation in the number or composition of these chromosomes.

The most common sex chromosome disorders include:

1. Turner syndrome (Monosomy X): Occurs when a female has only one X chromosome (45,X). This condition affects about 1 in every 2,500 female births and can lead to short stature, infertility, heart defects, and learning disabilities.
2. Klinefelter syndrome (XXY): Occurs when a male has an extra X chromosome (47,XXY). This condition affects about 1 in every 500-1,000 male births and can lead to tall stature, infertility, breast development, and learning disabilities.
3. Jacobs syndrome (XYY): Occurs when a male has an extra Y chromosome (47,XYY). This condition affects about 1 in every 1,000 male births and can lead to tall stature, learning disabilities, and behavioral issues.
4. Triple X syndrome (XXX): Occurs when a female has an extra X chromosome (47,XXX). This condition affects about 1 in every 1,000 female births and can lead to mild developmental delays and learning disabilities.
5. Other rare sex chromosome disorders: These include conditions like 48,XXXX, 49,XXXXY, and mosaicism (a mixture of cells with different chromosome compositions).

Sex chromosome disorders can have varying degrees of impact on an individual's physical and cognitive development. While some individuals may experience significant challenges, others may have only mild or no symptoms at all. Early diagnosis and appropriate interventions can help improve outcomes for those affected by sex chromosome disorders.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Kelp" is not a medical term. It is a type of large brown seaweed that grows in underwater forests called kelp beds or kelp forests. Kelps are important in the aquatic ecosystem as they provide food and shelter for many marine organisms. They are also used in various industries such as food, agriculture, and pharmaceuticals. If you have any medical term or concept you would like me to define or explain, I'd be happy to help!

Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder that affects several parts of the body and is characterized by a range of symptoms including:

1. Developmental delays and intellectual disability.
2. Hypotonia (low muscle tone) at birth, which can lead to feeding difficulties in infancy.
3. Excessive appetite and obesity, typically beginning around age 2, due to a persistent hunger drive and decreased satiety.
4. Behavioral problems such as temper tantrums, stubbornness, and compulsive behaviors.
5. Hormonal imbalances leading to short stature, small hands and feet, incomplete sexual development, and decreased bone density.
6. Distinctive facial features including a thin upper lip, almond-shaped eyes, and a narrowed forehead.
7. Sleep disturbances such as sleep apnea or excessive daytime sleepiness.

PWS is caused by the absence of certain genetic material on chromosome 15, which results in abnormal gene function. It affects both males and females equally and has an estimated incidence of 1 in 10,000 to 30,000 live births. Early diagnosis and management can help improve outcomes for individuals with PWS.

Neuropsychological tests are a type of psychological assessment that measures cognitive functions, such as attention, memory, language, problem-solving, and perception. These tests are used to help diagnose and understand the cognitive impact of neurological conditions, including dementia, traumatic brain injury, stroke, Parkinson's disease, and other disorders that affect the brain.

The tests are typically administered by a trained neuropsychologist and can take several hours to complete. They may involve paper-and-pencil tasks, computerized tasks, or interactive activities. The results of the tests are compared to normative data to help identify any areas of cognitive weakness or strength.

Neuropsychological testing can provide valuable information for treatment planning, rehabilitation, and assessing response to treatment. It can also be used in research to better understand the neural basis of cognition and the impact of neurological conditions on cognitive function.

A chromosome breakpoint is a specific location on a chromosome where a chromosomal rearrangement, such as a translocation or inversion, has occurred. A breakpoint is the point at which the chromosome has broken and then rejoined, often with another chromosome, resulting in a changed genetic sequence. These changes can have various consequences, including altered gene expression, loss of genetic material, or gain of new genetic material, which can lead to genetic disorders or predisposition to certain diseases. The identification and characterization of breakpoints are important for understanding the molecular basis of genomic rearrangements and their associated phenotypes.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

Nervous system diseases, also known as neurological disorders, refer to a group of conditions that affect the nervous system, which includes the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and muscles. These diseases can affect various functions of the body, such as movement, sensation, cognition, and behavior. They can be caused by genetics, infections, injuries, degeneration, or tumors. Examples of nervous system diseases include Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, migraine, stroke, and neuroinfections like meningitis and encephalitis. The symptoms and severity of these disorders can vary widely, ranging from mild to severe and debilitating.

Infantile spasms, also known as West syndrome, is a rare but serious type of epilepsy that affects infants typically between 4-8 months of age. The spasms are characterized by sudden, brief, and frequent muscle jerks or contractions, often involving the neck, trunk, and arms. These spasms usually occur in clusters and may cause the infant to bend forward or stretch out. Infantile spasms can be a symptom of various underlying neurological conditions and are often associated with developmental delays and regression. Early recognition and treatment are crucial for improving outcomes.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

A seizure is an uncontrolled, abnormal firing of neurons (brain cells) that can cause various symptoms such as convulsions, loss of consciousness, altered awareness, or changes in behavior. Seizures can be caused by a variety of factors including epilepsy, brain injury, infection, toxic substances, or genetic disorders. They can also occur without any identifiable cause, known as idiopathic seizures. Seizures are a medical emergency and require immediate attention.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Australia" is not a medical term or concept. It is the world's largest island and smallest continent, located in the Southern Hemisphere, surrounded by the Pacific and Indian Oceans. It is composed of many diverse ecosystems, including deserts, rainforests, and coastal areas, and is home to a wide variety of unique plant and animal species.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer them for you!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Queensland" is not a medical term. It is the second largest state in Australia, located in the northeastern part of the country. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

Health status is a term used to describe the overall condition of an individual's health, including physical, mental, and social well-being. It is often assessed through various measures such as medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and self-reported health assessments. Health status can be used to identify health disparities, track changes in population health over time, and evaluate the effectiveness of healthcare interventions.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

Health services needs refer to the population's requirement for healthcare services based on their health status, disease prevalence, and clinical guidelines. These needs can be categorized into normative needs (based on expert opinions or clinical guidelines) and expressed needs (based on individuals' perceptions of their own healthcare needs).

On the other hand, health services demand refers to the quantity of healthcare services that consumers are willing and able to pay for, given their preferences, values, and financial resources. Demand is influenced by various factors such as price, income, education level, and cultural beliefs.

It's important to note that while needs represent a population's requirement for healthcare services, demand reflects the actual utilization of these services. Understanding both health services needs and demand is crucial in planning and delivering effective healthcare services that meet the population's requirements while ensuring efficient resource allocation.

A missense mutation is a type of point mutation in which a single nucleotide change results in the substitution of a different amino acid in the protein that is encoded by the affected gene. This occurs when the altered codon (a sequence of three nucleotides that corresponds to a specific amino acid) specifies a different amino acid than the original one. The function and/or stability of the resulting protein may be affected, depending on the type and location of the missense mutation. Missense mutations can have various effects, ranging from benign to severe, depending on the importance of the changed amino acid for the protein's structure or function.

Dendritic spines are small, specialized protrusions found on the dendrites of neurons, which are cells that transmit information in the nervous system. These structures receive and process signals from other neurons. Dendritic spines have a small head connected to the dendrite by a thin neck, and they vary in shape, size, and number depending on the type of neuron and its function. They are dynamic structures that can change their morphology and strength of connections with other neurons in response to various stimuli, such as learning and memory processes.

Psychiatric Status Rating Scales are standardized assessment tools used by mental health professionals to evaluate and rate the severity of a person's psychiatric symptoms and functioning. These scales provide a systematic and structured approach to measuring various aspects of an individual's mental health, such as mood, anxiety, psychosis, behavior, and cognitive abilities.

The purpose of using Psychiatric Status Rating Scales is to:

1. Assess the severity and improvement of psychiatric symptoms over time.
2. Aid in diagnostic decision-making and treatment planning.
3. Monitor treatment response and adjust interventions accordingly.
4. Facilitate communication among mental health professionals about a patient's status.
5. Provide an objective basis for research and epidemiological studies.

Examples of Psychiatric Status Rating Scales include:

1. Clinical Global Impression (CGI): A brief, subjective rating scale that measures overall illness severity, treatment response, and improvement.
2. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS): A comprehensive scale used to assess the symptoms of psychosis, including positive, negative, and general psychopathology domains.
3. Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) or Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS): Scales used to evaluate the severity of depressive symptoms.
4. Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS): A scale used to assess the severity of manic or hypomanic symptoms.
5. Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) or Symptom Checklist-90 Revised (SCL-90-R): Scales that measure a broad range of psychiatric symptoms and psychopathology.
6. Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF): A scale used to rate an individual's overall psychological, social, and occupational functioning on a hypothetical continuum of mental health-illness.

It is important to note that Psychiatric Status Rating Scales should be administered by trained mental health professionals to ensure accurate and reliable results.

Cognition refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring, processing, and utilizing information. These processes include perception, attention, memory, language, problem-solving, and decision-making. Cognitive functions allow us to interact with our environment, understand and respond to stimuli, learn new skills, and remember experiences.

In a medical context, cognitive function is often assessed as part of a neurological or psychiatric evaluation. Impairments in cognition can be caused by various factors, such as brain injury, neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's disease), infections, toxins, and mental health conditions. Assessing cognitive function helps healthcare professionals diagnose conditions, monitor disease progression, and develop treatment plans.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Genetic association studies are a type of epidemiological research that aims to identify statistical associations between genetic variations and particular traits or diseases. These studies typically compare the frequency of specific genetic markers, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), in individuals with a given trait or disease to those without it.

The goal of genetic association studies is to identify genetic factors that contribute to the risk of developing common complex diseases, such as diabetes, heart disease, or cancer. By identifying these genetic associations, researchers hope to gain insights into the underlying biological mechanisms of these diseases and develop new strategies for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.

It's important to note that while genetic association studies can identify statistical associations between genetic markers and traits or diseases, they cannot prove causality. Further research is needed to confirm and validate these findings and to understand the functional consequences of the identified genetic variants.

A needs assessment in a medical context is the process of identifying and evaluating the health needs of an individual, population, or community. It is used to determine the resources, services, and interventions required to address specific health issues and improve overall health outcomes. This process often involves collecting and analyzing data on various factors such as demographics, prevalence of diseases, access to healthcare, and social determinants of health. The goal of a needs assessment is to ensure that resources are allocated effectively and efficiently to meet the most pressing health needs and priorities.

Human chromosome pair 15 consists of two rod-shaped structures present in the nucleus of each cell in the human body. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled around histone proteins, forming a complex structure called a chromatin.

Chromosomes come in pairs, with one chromosome inherited from each parent. Chromosome pair 15 includes two homologous chromosomes, meaning they have the same size, shape, and gene content but may contain slight variations in their DNA sequences.

These chromosomes play a crucial role in inheritance and the development and function of the human body. Chromosome pair 15 contains around 100 million base pairs of DNA and approximately 700 protein-coding genes, which are involved in various biological processes such as growth, development, metabolism, and regulation of gene expression.

Abnormalities in chromosome pair 15 can lead to genetic disorders, including Prader-Willi syndrome and Angelman syndrome, which are caused by the loss or alteration of specific regions on chromosome 15.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Psychological adaptation refers to the process by which individuals adjust and cope with stressors, challenges, or changes in their environment or circumstances. It involves modifying thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and copabilities to reduce the negative impact of these stressors and promote well-being. Psychological adaptation can occur at different levels, including intrapersonal (within the individual), interpersonal (between individuals), and cultural (within a group or society).

Examples of psychological adaptation include:

* Cognitive restructuring: changing negative thoughts and beliefs to more positive or adaptive ones
* Emotion regulation: managing and reducing intense or distressing emotions
* Problem-solving: finding solutions to practical challenges or obstacles
* Seeking social support: reaching out to others for help, advice, or comfort
* Developing coping strategies: using effective ways to deal with stressors or difficulties
* Cultivating resilience: bouncing back from adversity and learning from negative experiences.

Psychological adaptation is an important aspect of mental health and well-being, as it helps individuals adapt to new situations, overcome challenges, and maintain a sense of control and optimism in the face of stressors or changes.

Genetic testing is a type of medical test that identifies changes in chromosomes, genes, or proteins. The results of a genetic test can confirm or rule out a suspected genetic condition or help determine a person's chance of developing or passing on a genetic disorder. Genetic tests are performed on a sample of blood, hair, skin, amniotic fluid (the fluid that surrounds a fetus during pregnancy), or other tissue. For example, a physician may recommend genetic testing to help diagnose a genetic condition, confirm the presence of a gene mutation known to increase the risk of developing certain cancers, or determine the chance for a couple to have a child with a genetic disorder.

There are several types of genetic tests, including:

* Diagnostic testing: This type of test is used to identify or confirm a suspected genetic condition in an individual. It may be performed before birth (prenatal testing) or at any time during a person's life.
* Predictive testing: This type of test is used to determine the likelihood that a person will develop a genetic disorder. It is typically offered to individuals who have a family history of a genetic condition but do not show any symptoms themselves.
* Carrier testing: This type of test is used to determine whether a person carries a gene mutation for a genetic disorder. It is often offered to couples who are planning to have children and have a family history of a genetic condition or belong to a population that has an increased risk of certain genetic disorders.
* Preimplantation genetic testing: This type of test is used in conjunction with in vitro fertilization (IVF) to identify genetic changes in embryos before they are implanted in the uterus. It can help couples who have a family history of a genetic disorder or who are at risk of having a child with a genetic condition to conceive a child who is free of the genetic change in question.
* Pharmacogenetic testing: This type of test is used to determine how an individual's genes may affect their response to certain medications. It can help healthcare providers choose the most effective medication and dosage for a patient, reducing the risk of adverse drug reactions.

It is important to note that genetic testing should be performed under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional who can interpret the results and provide appropriate counseling and support.

In the context of medicine and public health, "socialization" typically refers to the process by which individuals learn and internalize the norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors that are considered appropriate within their particular cultural, social, or community group. This process is critical for developing a sense of identity, fostering social connections, and promoting mental and emotional well-being.

Socialization can have important implications for health outcomes, as individuals who are able to effectively navigate social norms and relationships may be better equipped to access resources, seek support, and make healthy choices. On the other hand, inadequate socialization or social isolation can contribute to a range of negative health outcomes, including depression, anxiety, substance abuse, and poor physical health.

Healthcare providers may play an important role in promoting socialization and addressing social isolation among their patients, for example by connecting them with community resources, support groups, or other opportunities for social engagement.

In the medical context, communication refers to the process of exchanging information, ideas, or feelings between two or more individuals in order to facilitate understanding, cooperation, and decision-making. Effective communication is critical in healthcare settings to ensure that patients receive accurate diagnoses, treatment plans, and follow-up care. It involves not only verbal and written communication but also nonverbal cues such as body language and facial expressions.

Healthcare providers must communicate clearly and empathetically with their patients to build trust, address concerns, and ensure that they understand their medical condition and treatment options. Similarly, healthcare teams must communicate effectively with each other to coordinate care, avoid errors, and provide the best possible outcomes for their patients. Communication skills are essential for all healthcare professionals, including physicians, nurses, therapists, and social workers.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Interpersonal relations, in the context of medicine and healthcare, refer to the interactions and relationships between patients and healthcare professionals, as well as among healthcare professionals themselves. These relationships are crucial in the delivery of care and can significantly impact patient outcomes. Positive interpersonal relations can lead to improved communication, increased trust, greater patient satisfaction, and better adherence to treatment plans. On the other hand, negative or strained interpersonal relations can result in poor communication, mistrust, dissatisfaction, and non-adherence.

Healthcare professionals are trained to develop effective interpersonal skills, including active listening, empathy, respect, and cultural sensitivity, to build positive relationships with their patients. Effective interpersonal relations also involve clear and concise communication, setting appropriate boundaries, and managing conflicts in a constructive manner. In addition, positive interpersonal relations among healthcare professionals can promote collaboration, teamwork, and knowledge sharing, leading to improved patient care and safety.

Quality of Life (QOL) is a broad, multidimensional concept that usually includes an individual's physical health, psychological state, level of independence, social relationships, personal beliefs, and their relationship to salient features of their environment. It reflects the impact of disease and treatment on a patient's overall well-being and ability to function in daily life.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines QOL as "an individual's perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns." It is a subjective concept, meaning it can vary greatly from person to person.

In healthcare, QOL is often used as an outcome measure in clinical trials and other research studies to assess the impact of interventions or treatments on overall patient well-being.

"Motor activity" is a general term used in the field of medicine and neuroscience to refer to any kind of physical movement or action that is generated by the body's motor system. The motor system includes the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and muscles that work together to produce movements such as walking, talking, reaching for an object, or even subtle actions like moving your eyes.

Motor activity can be voluntary, meaning it is initiated intentionally by the individual, or involuntary, meaning it is triggered automatically by the nervous system without conscious control. Examples of voluntary motor activity include deliberately lifting your arm or kicking a ball, while examples of involuntary motor activity include heartbeat, digestion, and reflex actions like jerking your hand away from a hot stove.

Abnormalities in motor activity can be a sign of neurological or muscular disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, cerebral palsy, or multiple sclerosis. Assessment of motor activity is often used in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

In a medical context, "achievement" generally refers to the successful completion of a specific goal or task related to a person's health or medical treatment. This could include reaching certain milestones in rehabilitation or therapy, achieving certain laboratory test results, or meeting other health-related objectives. Achievements in healthcare are often celebrated as they represent progress and improvement in a patient's condition. However, it is important to note that the definition of achievement may vary depending on the individual's medical history, current health status, and treatment plan.

Mental health services refer to the various professional health services designed to treat and support individuals with mental health conditions. These services are typically provided by trained and licensed mental health professionals, such as psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, mental health counselors, and marriage and family therapists. The services may include:

1. Assessment and diagnosis of mental health disorders
2. Psychotherapy or "talk therapy" to help individuals understand and manage their symptoms
3. Medication management for mental health conditions
4. Case management and care coordination to connect individuals with community resources and support
5. Psychoeducation to help individuals and families better understand mental health conditions and how to manage them
6. Crisis intervention and stabilization services
7. Inpatient and residential treatment for severe or chronic mental illness
8. Prevention and early intervention services to identify and address mental health concerns before they become more serious
9. Rehabilitation and recovery services to help individuals with mental illness achieve their full potential and live fulfilling lives in the community.

"Cost of Illness" is a medical-economic concept that refers to the total societal cost associated with a specific disease or health condition. It includes both direct and indirect costs. Direct costs are those that can be directly attributed to the illness, such as medical expenses for diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation, and medications. Indirect costs include productivity losses due to morbidity (reduced efficiency while working) and mortality (lost earnings due to death). Other indirect costs may encompass expenses related to caregiving or special education needs. The Cost of Illness is often used in health policy decision-making, resource allocation, and evaluating the economic impact of diseases on society.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

"Social Security" is a term that refers to a social insurance program, providing financial security to eligible individuals primarily through retirement, disability, and survivor's benefits. In the United States, it is administered by the Social Security Administration (SSA). The program is funded through payroll taxes known as Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA) tax, paid by workers and their employers.

It's important to note that "Social Security" is not a medical term per se, but rather a term used in the context of social welfare programs and policies. However, it does have an impact on healthcare as many Americans rely on Social Security benefits to help cover their medical expenses, especially during retirement.

Chromosome disorders are a group of genetic conditions caused by abnormalities in the number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosomes are thread-like structures located in the nucleus of cells that contain most of the body's genetic material, which is composed of DNA and proteins. Normally, humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46 chromosomes.

Chromosome disorders can result from changes in the number of chromosomes (aneuploidy) or structural abnormalities in one or more chromosomes. Some common examples of chromosome disorders include:

1. Down syndrome: a condition caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21, resulting in intellectual disability, developmental delays, and distinctive physical features.
2. Turner syndrome: a condition that affects only females and is caused by the absence of all or part of one X chromosome, resulting in short stature, lack of sexual development, and other symptoms.
3. Klinefelter syndrome: a condition that affects only males and is caused by an extra copy of the X chromosome, resulting in tall stature, infertility, and other symptoms.
4. Cri-du-chat syndrome: a condition caused by a deletion of part of the short arm of chromosome 5, resulting in intellectual disability, developmental delays, and a distinctive cat-like cry.
5. Fragile X syndrome: a condition caused by a mutation in the FMR1 gene on the X chromosome, resulting in intellectual disability, behavioral problems, and physical symptoms.

Chromosome disorders can be diagnosed through various genetic tests, such as karyotyping, chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA), or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Treatment for these conditions depends on the specific disorder and its associated symptoms and may include medical interventions, therapies, and educational support.

Behavior therapy is a type of psychotherapy that focuses on modifying harmful or unhealthy behaviors, thoughts, and emotions by applying learning principles derived from behavioral psychology. The goal of behavior therapy is to reinforce positive behaviors and eliminate negative ones through various techniques such as systematic desensitization, aversion therapy, exposure therapy, and operant conditioning.

Systematic desensitization involves gradually exposing the individual to a feared situation or stimulus while teaching them relaxation techniques to reduce anxiety. Aversion therapy aims to associate an undesirable behavior with an unpleasant stimulus to discourage the behavior. Exposure therapy exposes the individual to a feared situation or object in a controlled and safe environment to help them overcome their fear. Operant conditioning uses reinforcement and punishment to encourage desirable behaviors and discourage undesirable ones.

Behavior therapy has been found to be effective in treating various mental health conditions, including anxiety disorders, phobias, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and substance use disorders. It is often used in combination with other forms of therapy and medication to provide a comprehensive treatment plan for individuals seeking help for mental health concerns.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

"Sex distribution" is a term used to describe the number of males and females in a study population or sample. It can be presented as a simple count, a percentage, or a ratio. This information is often used in research to identify any differences in health outcomes, disease prevalence, or response to treatment between males and females. Additionally, understanding sex distribution can help researchers ensure that their studies are representative of the general population and can inform the design of future studies.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Netherlands" is not a medical term. It is a country located in Western Europe, known for its artistic heritage, elaborate canal system, and legalized marijuana and prostitution. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

I am not a medical professional, but I can provide you with some general information about parenting from a psychological and sociological perspective. Parenting is the process of promoting and supporting the physical, emotional, social, and intellectual development of a child or children. It involves caring for their daily needs, providing a safe and nurturing environment, setting boundaries and expectations, modeling appropriate behavior, and fostering healthy relationships and communication skills. Parents also help their children develop coping strategies, resilience, and self-esteem by encouraging them to explore their interests, express their feelings, and learn from their mistakes. Effective parenting often requires patience, consistency, empathy, and adaptability, as the needs and developmental stages of children can vary widely.

Pain measurement, in a medical context, refers to the quantification or evaluation of the intensity and/or unpleasantness of a patient's subjective pain experience. This is typically accomplished through the use of standardized self-report measures such as numerical rating scales (NRS), visual analog scales (VAS), or categorical scales (mild, moderate, severe). In some cases, physiological measures like heart rate, blood pressure, and facial expressions may also be used to supplement self-reported pain ratings. The goal of pain measurement is to help healthcare providers better understand the nature and severity of a patient's pain in order to develop an effective treatment plan.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "prejudice" is not a term that has a medical definition in the same way that a term like "myocardial infarction" (heart attack) does. Prejudice is a psychological or sociological concept that refers to preconceived opinions or attitudes about a person or group that are not based on reason or actual experience. It often involves stereotypes and can lead to discrimination or unfair treatment. While prejudice itself is not a medical condition, it can certainly have impacts on mental and physical health, both for those who experience it and for those who hold such biases.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "pilot projects" is not a medical term per se. Instead, it is a general term used in various fields, including healthcare and medicine, to describe a small-scale initiative that is implemented on a temporary basis to evaluate its feasibility, effectiveness, or impact before deciding whether to expand or continue it.

In the context of healthcare, pilot projects might involve testing new treatment protocols, implementing innovative care models, or introducing technology solutions in a limited setting to assess their potential benefits and drawbacks. The results of these projects can help inform decisions about broader implementation and provide valuable insights for improving the quality and efficiency of healthcare services.

Socioeconomic factors are a range of interconnected conditions and influences that affect the opportunities and resources a person or group has to maintain and improve their health and well-being. These factors include:

1. Economic stability: This includes employment status, job security, income level, and poverty status. Lower income and lack of employment are associated with poorer health outcomes.
2. Education: Higher levels of education are generally associated with better health outcomes. Education can affect a person's ability to access and understand health information, as well as their ability to navigate the healthcare system.
3. Social and community context: This includes factors such as social support networks, discrimination, and community safety. Strong social supports and positive community connections are associated with better health outcomes, while discrimination and lack of safety can negatively impact health.
4. Healthcare access and quality: Access to affordable, high-quality healthcare is an important socioeconomic factor that can significantly impact a person's health. Factors such as insurance status, availability of providers, and cultural competency of healthcare systems can all affect healthcare access and quality.
5. Neighborhood and built environment: The physical conditions in which people live, work, and play can also impact their health. Factors such as housing quality, transportation options, availability of healthy foods, and exposure to environmental hazards can all influence health outcomes.

Socioeconomic factors are often interrelated and can have a cumulative effect on health outcomes. For example, someone who lives in a low-income neighborhood with limited access to healthy foods and safe parks may also face challenges related to employment, education, and healthcare access that further impact their health. Addressing socioeconomic factors is an important part of promoting health equity and reducing health disparities.

Human chromosome pair 16 consists of two rod-shaped structures present in the nucleus of each cell in the human body. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled around histone proteins, forming a complex structure called a chromatin.

Chromosomes come in pairs, with one chromosome inherited from each parent. Chromosome pair 16 contains two homologous chromosomes, which are similar in size, shape, and genetic content but may have slight variations due to differences in the DNA sequences inherited from each parent.

Chromosome pair 16 is one of the 22 autosomal pairs, meaning it contains non-sex chromosomes that are present in both males and females. Chromosome 16 is a medium-sized chromosome, and it contains around 2,800 genes that provide instructions for making proteins and regulating various cellular processes.

Abnormalities in chromosome pair 16 can lead to genetic disorders such as chronic myeloid leukemia, some forms of mental retardation, and other developmental abnormalities.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

A personality assessment is a systematic process used by healthcare professionals to evaluate and understand an individual's characteristic patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior. It typically involves the use of standardized measures, such as self-report questionnaires, interviews, and observational techniques, to gather information about an individual's personality traits, attitudes, values, and behaviors.

The goal of a personality assessment is to provide a comprehensive and integrated understanding of an individual's unique personality style, including their strengths, weaknesses, and potential vulnerabilities. This information can be useful in a variety of contexts, including clinical treatment planning, vocational counseling, and forensic evaluation.

It is important to note that personality assessments should always be conducted by qualified professionals with appropriate training and expertise in the use of these measures. Additionally, while personality assessments can provide valuable insights into an individual's personality style, they are not infallible and should always be considered alongside other sources of information when making important decisions about treatment or management.

Gene duplication, in the context of genetics and genomics, refers to an event where a segment of DNA that contains a gene is copied, resulting in two identical copies of that gene. This can occur through various mechanisms such as unequal crossing over during meiosis, retrotransposition, or whole genome duplication. The duplicate genes are then passed on to the next generation.

Gene duplications can have several consequences. Often, one copy may continue to function normally while the other is free to mutate without affecting the organism's survival, potentially leading to new functions (neofunctionalization) or subfunctionalization where each copy takes on some of the original gene's roles.

Gene duplication plays a significant role in evolution by providing raw material for the creation of novel genes and genetic diversity. However, it can also lead to various genetic disorders if multiple copies of a gene become dysfunctional or if there are too many copies, leading to an overdose effect.

The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is a medical classification system developed by the World Health Organization (WHO). It provides a framework for describing and organizing information on functioning and disability. The ICF includes two parts: Part 1 covers functioning and disability, and Part 2 covers contextual factors.

Part 1 of the ICF is further divided into two components: Body Functions and Structures, and Activities and Participation. Body Functions refers to the physiological functions of body systems, while Body Structures refers to the anatomical parts of the body such as organs and limbs. Activities are the execution of a task or action by an individual, while Participation is involvement in a life situation. The ICF includes a list of categories for each of these components that provide a standardized way to describe a person's functioning and disability.

Part 2 of the ICF covers contextual factors, which include environmental factors and personal factors. Environmental factors are external factors that interact with an individual and can either enable or impede their functioning. Personal factors are internal factors that also interact with an individual's functioning, such as age, gender, and coping styles.

The ICF provides a common language for describing and comparing disability across different cultures and settings, and it is used in clinical practice, research, and policy-making to improve the health and well-being of individuals with disabilities.

Mobility limitation refers to the partial or complete inability to move or perform functional mobility tasks independently and safely. This condition can affect any part of the body, such as limited joint range of motion, muscle weakness, or neurological impairments, making it difficult for a person to perform activities like walking, standing, transferring, balancing, and reaching. Mobility limitations can be temporary or permanent and vary in severity, significantly impacting a person's quality of life, independence, and overall health.

The "delivery of health care" refers to the process of providing medical services, treatments, and interventions to individuals in order to maintain, restore, or improve their health. This encompasses a wide range of activities, including:

1. Preventive care: Routine check-ups, screenings, immunizations, and counseling aimed at preventing illnesses or identifying them at an early stage.
2. Diagnostic services: Tests and procedures used to identify and understand medical conditions, such as laboratory tests, imaging studies, and biopsies.
3. Treatment interventions: Medical, surgical, or therapeutic treatments provided to manage acute or chronic health issues, including medications, surgeries, physical therapy, and psychotherapy.
4. Acute care services: Short-term medical interventions focused on addressing immediate health concerns, such as hospitalizations for infections, injuries, or complications from medical conditions.
5. Chronic care management: Long-term care and support provided to individuals with ongoing medical needs, such as those living with chronic diseases like diabetes, heart disease, or cancer.
6. Rehabilitation services: Programs designed to help patients recover from illnesses, injuries, or surgeries, focusing on restoring physical, cognitive, and emotional function.
7. End-of-life care: Palliative and hospice care provided to individuals facing terminal illnesses, with an emphasis on comfort, dignity, and quality of life.
8. Public health initiatives: Population-level interventions aimed at improving community health, such as disease prevention programs, health education campaigns, and environmental modifications.

The delivery of health care involves a complex network of healthcare professionals, institutions, and systems working together to ensure that patients receive the best possible care. This includes primary care physicians, specialists, nurses, allied health professionals, hospitals, clinics, long-term care facilities, and public health organizations. Effective communication, coordination, and collaboration among these stakeholders are essential for high-quality, patient-centered care.

Mental health is a state of well-being in which an individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community. It involves the emotional, psychological, and social aspects of an individual's health. Mental health is not just the absence of mental illness, it also includes positive characteristics such as resilience, happiness, and having a sense of purpose in life.

It is important to note that mental health can change over time, and it is possible for an individual to experience periods of good mental health as well as periods of poor mental health. Factors such as genetics, trauma, stress, and physical illness can all contribute to the development of mental health problems. Additionally, cultural and societal factors, such as discrimination and poverty, can also impact an individual's mental health.

Mental Health professionals like psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers and other mental health counselors use different tools and techniques to evaluate, diagnose and treat mental health conditions. These include therapy or counseling, medication, and self-help strategies.

Human chromosome pair 2 consists of two rod-shaped structures present in the nucleus of each cell of the human body. Each member of the pair contains thousands of genes and other genetic material, encoded in the form of DNA molecules. Chromosomes are the physical carriers of inheritance, and human cells typically contain 23 pairs of chromosomes for a total of 46 chromosomes.

Chromosome pair 2 is one of the autosomal pairs, meaning that it is not a sex chromosome (X or Y). Each member of chromosome pair 2 is approximately 247 million base pairs in length and contains an estimated 1,000-1,300 genes. These genes play crucial roles in various biological processes, including development, metabolism, and response to environmental stimuli.

Abnormalities in chromosome pair 2 can lead to genetic disorders, such as cat-eye syndrome (CES), which is characterized by iris abnormalities, anal atresia, hearing loss, and intellectual disability. This disorder arises from the presence of an extra copy of a small region on chromosome 2, resulting in partial trisomy of this region. Other genetic conditions associated with chromosome pair 2 include proximal 2q13.3 microdeletion syndrome and Potocki-Lupski syndrome (PTLS).

Vocational rehabilitation is a process that aims to help individuals with disabilities, injuries, or illnesses to obtain and maintain suitable employment. It is a coordinated program of services that may include assessment, counseling, training, job development, and placement. The goal is to assist the individual in acquiring the necessary skills and abilities to return to work or to begin a new career path. This process often involves collaboration between healthcare professionals, vocational counselors, and employers to ensure that the individual's needs are met and that they are able to perform their job duties safely and effectively.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Parent-Child Relations" is not a medical term per se. It falls more under the purview of psychology, social work, and sociology. However, I can provide you with a general definition:

Parent-Child Relations refers to the nature and quality of the emotional, behavioral, and social relationships between parents (or primary caregivers) and their children. This relationship significantly influences a child's development, including their cognitive, emotional, social, and behavioral growth. Positive parent-child relations typically involve warmth, support, communication, consistency, and appropriate expectations, which contribute to healthy child development outcomes. On the other hand, negative or dysfunctional parent-child relations can lead to various developmental and psychological issues for the child.

In the context of medicine and healthcare, learning is often discussed in relation to learning abilities or disabilities that may impact an individual's capacity to acquire, process, retain, and apply new information or skills. Learning can be defined as the process of acquiring knowledge, understanding, behaviors, and skills through experience, instruction, or observation.

Learning disorders, also known as learning disabilities, are a type of neurodevelopmental disorder that affects an individual's ability to learn and process information in one or more areas, such as reading, writing, mathematics, or reasoning. These disorders are not related to intelligence or motivation but rather result from differences in the way the brain processes information.

It is important to note that learning can also be influenced by various factors, including age, cognitive abilities, physical and mental health status, cultural background, and educational experiences. Therefore, a comprehensive assessment of an individual's learning abilities and needs should take into account these various factors to provide appropriate support and interventions.

Life expectancy is a statistical measure that indicates the average amount of time a person is expected to live, based on their current age and other demographic factors such as sex, health status, and geographical location. It is often calculated using data from population studies and represents the number of years of life remaining at a given age, assuming that current mortality rates continue to apply.

For example, if the life expectancy at birth in a particular population is 80 years, it means that on average, newborns in that population are expected to live to be 80 years old. However, it's important to note that life expectancy is a statistical measure and does not predict the exact lifespan of any individual person.

Sex offenses are criminal acts that involve sexual misconduct or non-consensual sexual contact with another person. These crimes can range from non-contact offenses such as exhibitionism and voyeurism, to forcible rape and sexual assault. Sex offenses also include the crime of sexual abuse, which involves engaging in sexual contact with a minor or vulnerable adult who is unable to give consent due to age, disability, or incapacitation.

The legal definition of sex offenses varies by jurisdiction, but generally includes any form of unwanted sexual touching, forced penetration, or exploitation of another person for sexual gratification without their consent. In addition, some sex offenses may involve the production, distribution, or possession of child pornography, as well as other forms of sexual exploitation.

Those convicted of sex offenses often face severe penalties, including lengthy prison sentences, fines, and mandatory registration as a sex offender. The stigma associated with being labeled a sex offender can also have long-lasting consequences on an individual's personal and professional life, making it difficult to find employment or housing.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "housing" is not a term that has a medical definition. In a general sense, housing refers to a place where someone lives, such as a house or apartment. If you have any questions related to healthcare, medicine, or health-related topics, I would be happy to try to help answer them.

Aggression is defined in medical terms as behavior that is intended to cause harm or damage to another individual or their property. It can take the form of verbal or physical actions and can be a symptom of various mental health disorders, such as intermittent explosive disorder, conduct disorder, antisocial personality disorder, and dementia. Aggression can also be a side effect of certain medications or a result of substance abuse. It is important to note that aggression can have serious consequences, including physical injury, emotional trauma, and legal repercussions. If you or someone you know is experiencing problems with aggression, it is recommended to seek help from a mental health professional.

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS), which includes the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerves. In MS, the immune system mistakenly attacks the protective covering of nerve fibers, called myelin, leading to damage and scarring (sclerosis). This results in disrupted communication between the brain and the rest of the body, causing a variety of neurological symptoms that can vary widely from person to person.

The term "multiple" refers to the numerous areas of scarring that occur throughout the CNS in this condition. The progression, severity, and specific symptoms of MS are unpredictable and may include vision problems, muscle weakness, numbness or tingling, difficulty with balance and coordination, cognitive impairment, and mood changes. There is currently no cure for MS, but various treatments can help manage symptoms, modify the course of the disease, and improve quality of life for those affected.

Community Mental Health Services (CMHS) refer to mental health care services that are provided in community settings, as opposed to traditional hospital-based or institutional care. These services are designed to be accessible, comprehensive, and coordinated, with the goal of promoting recovery, resilience, and improved quality of life for individuals with mental illnesses.

CMHS may include a range of services such as:

1. Outpatient care: Including individual and group therapy, medication management, and case management services provided in community clinics or healthcare centers.
2. Assertive Community Treatment (ACT): A team-based approach to providing comprehensive mental health services to individuals with severe and persistent mental illnesses who may have difficulty engaging in traditional outpatient care.
3. Crisis intervention: Including mobile crisis teams, emergency psychiatric evaluations, and short-term residential crisis stabilization units.
4. Supported housing and employment: Services that help individuals with mental illnesses to live independently in the community and to obtain and maintain competitive employment.
5. Prevention and early intervention: Programs that aim to identify and address mental health issues before they become more severe, such as suicide prevention programs, bullying prevention, and early psychosis detection and treatment.
6. Peer support: Services provided by individuals who have personal experience with mental illness and can offer support, guidance, and advocacy to others who are struggling with similar issues.
7. Family education and support: Programs that provide information, resources, and support to family members of individuals with mental illnesses.

The goal of CMHS is to provide accessible, comprehensive, and coordinated care that meets the unique needs of each individual and helps them to achieve their recovery goals in the community setting.

Delirium, Dementia, Amnestic, and Other Cognitive Disorders are conditions that affect cognitive abilities such as thinking, memory, perception, and judgment. Here are brief medical definitions of each:

1. Delirium: A serious disturbance in mental abilities that results in confused thinking and reduced awareness of the environment. It can cause hallucinations, delusions, and disorientation. Delirium often comes on suddenly and can be caused by various factors such as medication side effects, infection, or illness.
2. Dementia: A chronic and progressive decline in cognitive abilities that affects memory, language, problem-solving, and judgment. Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia, but other conditions such as vascular dementia, Lewy body dementia, and frontotemporal dementia can also cause it. Dementia can significantly interfere with daily life and activities.
3. Amnestic Disorders: A group of conditions that primarily affect memory. These disorders can be caused by brain injury, illness, or substance abuse. The most common amnestic disorder is Korsakoff's syndrome, which is caused by alcohol abuse and results in significant memory loss and confusion.
4. Other Cognitive Disorders: This category includes a range of conditions that affect cognitive abilities but do not fit into the categories of delirium, dementia, or amnestic disorders. Examples include mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which is a decline in cognitive abilities that does not interfere significantly with daily life, and various cognitive disorders caused by brain injury or disease.

It's important to note that these conditions can overlap and may co-occur with other mental health or neurological disorders. Proper diagnosis and treatment require a comprehensive evaluation by a qualified healthcare professional.

I believe there may be a misunderstanding in your question. "Mothers" is a term that refers to individuals who have given birth to and raised children. It is not a medical term with a specific definition. If you are referring to a different word or term, please clarify so I can provide a more accurate response.

I'm happy to help, but it seems there might be some confusion in your question. "Interviews" is a broad topic that isn't typically a medical term or subject. However, interviews can certainly be a part of medical settings and procedures, such as job interviews for healthcare positions, patient interviews during medical consultations, or research interviews in clinical studies.

In the context of medical education, an interview might refer to the process by which medical schools evaluate applicants for admission, known as the medical school interview. This is a critical component of the application process and typically involves one-on-one conversations between the applicant and an admissions committee member or a series of multiple mini-interviews (MMIs) with various evaluators.

If you could provide more context or clarify what you mean by "Interviews as Topic" in a medical setting, I'd be happy to help further!

Hyperprolactinemia is a medical condition characterized by abnormally high levels of prolactin, a hormone produced by the pituitary gland. In women, this can lead to menstrual irregularities, milk production outside of pregnancy (galactorrhea), and infertility. In men, it can cause decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, breast enlargement (gynecomastia), and infertility. The condition can be caused by various factors, including pituitary tumors, certain medications, and hypothyroidism. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause and may include medication to lower prolactin levels.

Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterized by disturbances in thought, perception, emotion, and behavior. It often includes hallucinations (usually hearing voices), delusions, paranoia, and disorganized speech and behavior. The onset of symptoms typically occurs in late adolescence or early adulthood. Schizophrenia is a complex, chronic condition that requires ongoing treatment and management. It significantly impairs social and occupational functioning, and it's often associated with reduced life expectancy due to comorbid medical conditions. The exact causes of schizophrenia are not fully understood, but research suggests that genetic, environmental, and neurodevelopmental factors play a role in its development.

A "social environment" is not a term that has a specific medical definition, but it is often used in the context of public health and social sciences to refer to the physical and social conditions, relationships, and organized institutions that influence the health and well-being of individuals and communities.

The social environment includes factors such as:

* Social support networks (family, friends, community)
* Cultural norms and values
* Socioeconomic status (income, education, occupation)
* Housing and neighborhood conditions
* Access to resources (food, healthcare, transportation)
* Exposure to discrimination, violence, and other stressors

These factors can have a significant impact on health outcomes, as they can influence behaviors related to health (such as diet, exercise, and substance use), as well as exposure to disease and access to healthcare. Understanding the social environment is essential for developing effective public health interventions and policies that promote health equity and reduce health disparities.

Low back pain is a common musculoskeletal disorder characterized by discomfort or pain in the lower part of the back, typically between the costal margin (bottom of the ribcage) and the gluteal folds (buttocks). It can be caused by several factors including strain or sprain of the muscles or ligaments, disc herniation, spinal stenosis, osteoarthritis, or other degenerative conditions affecting the spine. The pain can range from a dull ache to a sharp stabbing sensation and may be accompanied by stiffness, limited mobility, and radiating pain down the legs in some cases. Low back pain is often described as acute (lasting less than 6 weeks), subacute (lasting between 6-12 weeks), or chronic (lasting more than 12 weeks).

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Great Britain" is not a medical concept or condition. It is a geographical and political term referring to the largest island in the British Isles, on which the majority of England, Scotland, and Wales are located. It's also used to refer to the political union of these three countries, which is called the United Kingdom. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Logistic models, specifically logistic regression models, are a type of statistical analysis used in medical and epidemiological research to identify the relationship between the risk of a certain health outcome or disease (dependent variable) and one or more independent variables, such as demographic factors, exposure variables, or other clinical measurements.

In contrast to linear regression models, logistic regression models are used when the dependent variable is binary or dichotomous in nature, meaning it can only take on two values, such as "disease present" or "disease absent." The model uses a logistic function to estimate the probability of the outcome based on the independent variables.

Logistic regression models are useful for identifying risk factors and estimating the strength of associations between exposures and health outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders, and predicting the probability of an outcome given certain values of the independent variables. They can also be used to develop clinical prediction rules or scores that can aid in decision-making and patient care.

... is subdivided into syndromic intellectual disability, in which intellectual deficits associated with ... intellectual disability is more accurately considered a disability rather than a disease. Intellectual disability can be ... "Definition of Intellectual Disability". Archived from the original on 2017-01-23. "What Is Intellectual Disability?". www. ... Clinically, intellectual disability is a subtype of cognitive deficit or disabilities affecting intellectual abilities, which ...
"Qualified Developmental Disability Professional," or "QIDP," meaning "Qualified Intellectual Disability Professional". In ... A Qualified Intellectual Disability Professional, often referred to as a QIDP for short is a professional staff working with ... "IDHS: Qualified Intellectual Disabilities Professional Course Coordinator (QIDP)". Retrieved 2020-10-04. "The ... "Qualified Intellectual Disabilities Professional (QIDP) Requirements : CA Department of Developmental Services". ...
"Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 5 - NIH Genetic Testing Registry (GTR) - NCBI". Retrieved ... SYNGAP1-related intellectual disability is a monogenetic developmental and epileptic encephalopathy that affects the central ... Symptoms include intellectual disability, epilepsy, autism, sensory processing deficits, hypotonia and unstable gait. The first ... "SYNGAP1-related intellectual disability". MedlinePlus. US National Library of Medicine. 4 August 2020. Retrieved 9 August 2020 ...
... accounts for ~16% of all cases of intellectual disability in males. Several X-linked syndromes ... "X-linked intellectual disability: unique vulnerability of the male genome". Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews. 15 (4 ... "X-linked intellectual disability: unique vulnerability of the male genome". Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews. 15 (4 ... X-linked intellectual disability refers to medical disorders associated with X-linked recessive inheritance that result in ...
... , also known as Neuhauser syndrome, is a very rare genetic disorder which is ... "Orphanet: Megalocornea intellectual disability syndrome". Retrieved 2022-06-13. "OMIM Entry - % 249310 - ... variable intellectual disabilities, psychomotor delays, developmental delays, and facial dysmorphisms such as round face, ... Syndromes with intellectual disability, Syndromes affecting the cornea). ...
Also known Blepharophimosis-intellectual disability syndrome, Ohdo type, it is a very rare type of BIDS that is characterized ... Blepharophimosis intellectual disability syndromes are a group of rare genetic disorders which are characterized by ... "Orphanet: Blepharophimosis intellectual disability syndrome". Retrieved 2022-06-01. RESERVED, INSERM US14-- ALL ... "Orphanet: Blepharophimosis intellectual disability syndrome due to UBE3B deficiency". Retrieved 2022-06-01. ...
Ability to row will depend on the severity of the intellectual disability." Rowers with an intellectual disability can compete ... sportspeople with intellectual disabilities are integrated into competitions with other disability and non-disability ... having a medical diagnosis for an intellectual disability or having other diagnostic support materials. Intellectual disability ... Many people with intellectual disabilities also have hearing or vision related disabilities. People with Down syndrome often ...
... is a very rare genetic disorder which is characterized by shortening of the ... "Orphanet: Ulna hypoplasia intellectual disability syndrome". Retrieved 2022-06-13. "hpojaxorg". "OMIM Entry - ... "Ulna hypoplasia-intellectual disability syndrome - About the Disease - Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center". ... and severe psychomotor delays with intellectual disabilities. It has only been described in two siblings born to consanguineous ...
The Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability is a multidisciplinary journal in the field of intellectual and ... developmental disability and the official journal of the Australasian Society for Intellectual Disability. The editor in chief ... Official website Australasian Society for the Study of Intellectual Disability (Articles with short description, Short ...
Sexual violence harms people with intellectual disabilities like those without intellectual disability (ID). The harm is often ... of girls with intellectual disabilities and 30% of boys with intellectual disabilities will be sexually abused before their ... "The experience of sexuality in adults with intellectual disability". Journal of Intellectual Disability Research. 62 (1): 72-80 ... reported sexual abuse in adults with intellectual disability". Journal of Intellectual Disability Research. 63 (2): 138-148. ...
... is a rare multi-systemic genetic disorder of unknown prevalence ... "Cryptorchidism-arachnodactyly-intellectual disability syndrome (Concept Id: C4707233) - MedGen - NCBI". ... "Orphanet: Cryptorchidism arachnodactyly intellectual disability syndrome". Retrieved 2022-05-30. "Van Benthem- ... severe intellectual disabilities, severe muscle hypoplasia, absence of subcutaneous fat, generalized contractures, ...
... two-thirds of PCDH19 gene-related epilepsy patients have borderline intellectual functioning or intellectual disability, while ... Epilepsy-intellectual disability in females also known as PCDH19 gene-related epilepsy or epileptic encephalopathy, early ... Stevenson RE, Holden KR, Rogers RC, Schwartz CE (May 2012). "Seizures and X-linked intellectual disability". Eur J Med Genet. ... Some of the girls showed developmental regression with intellectual disabilities that ranged from mild to profound. The ...
... , also known as autosomal dominant intellectual disability type 40, is a rare ... "Autosomal dominant intellectual disability 40 - About the Disease - Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center". rarediseases ... Individuals with the disorder often show the following signs and symptoms: Intellectual disabilities Speech delays Epicanthic ... "Intellectual disability and microcephaly associated with a novel CHAMP1 mutation". Human Genome Variation. 8 (1): 34. doi: ...
Intellectual disability spasticity ectrodactyly syndrome". Retrieved 2022-07-12. "Intellectual disability- ... Intellectual disability-spasticity-ectrodactyly syndrome, also known as Jancar syndrome, is a rare autosomal recessive genetic ... "Intellectual disability, spasticity, ectrodactyly syndrome (Concept Id: C0796001) - MedGen - NCBI". ... Roberts, Sean (16 June 2022). "Intellectual disability-spasticity-ectrodactyly syndrome". NORD (National Organization for Rare ...
... is a very rare genetic disorder which is characterized by ... "Early-onset parkinsonism-intellectual disability syndrome - About the Disease". Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center. U ... "Early-onset parkinsonism-intellectual disability syndrome". NIH Genetic Testing Registry (GTR) - NCBI. National Center for ... December 2014). "Mutations in RAB39B cause X-linked intellectual disability and early-onset Parkinson disease with α-synuclein ...
... or (ACD intellectual disability syndrome) is a developmental ... "Alopecia-contractures-dwarfism-intellectual disability syndrome , Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) - an ... Syndromes with intellectual disability, All stub articles, Genetic disorder stubs). ... disorder which causes mainly baldness and dwarfism in combination with intellectual disability; skeletal anomalies, caries and ...
Hair defect-photosensitivity-intellectual disability, also known as Calderon-Gonzalez-Cantu syndrome is a rare syndrome ... "Hair defect-photosensitivity-intellectual disability syndrome - About the Disease - Genetic and Rare Diseases Information ... photosensitive eyebrows and eyelashes and intellectual disability which doesn't progress, and no metabolic aberration. Only ... "Hair defect-photosensitivity-intellectual disability syndrome (Concept Id: C1856241) - MedGen - NCBI". (Orphaned articles from ...
... is a very rare genetic disorder which is characterized by thumb ... "Thumb stiffness-brachydactyly-intellectual disability syndrome - About the Disease - Genetic and Rare Diseases Information ... "Thumb stiffness-brachydactyly-intellectual disability syndrome". Rare Disease InfoHub. 2022-05-13. "Thumbs, Stiff, with ... intellectual disabilities, mild facial dysmorphia and variable levels of obesity. It was discovered when Piussan et al. ...
"Ichthyosis-intellectual disability-dwarfism-renal impairment". 16 June 2022. "Ichthyosis-intellectual disability-dwarfism-renal ... Ichthyosis intellectual disability dwarfism renal impairment syndrome". "Ichthyosis-intellectual disability-dwarfism-renal ... Ichthyosis-intellectual disability-dwarfism-renal impairment is a very rare autosomal recessive ichthyotic genetic disorder ... intellectual disabilities, dwarfism/short stature and renal impairment. This condition has been described only in four members ...
... is a very rare genetic disorder which is ... "Metaphyseal dysostosis-intellectual disability-conductive deafness syndrome - About the Disease - Genetic and Rare Diseases ... "Orphanet: Metaphyseal dysostosis intellectual disability conductive deafness syndrome". Retrieved 2022-06-12. " ... mild intellectual disabilities, and conductive hearing loss-associated otitis media. It has been described in 3 siblings born ...
... is a rare, genetic, congenital developmental anomaly which is ... "Aortic arch anomaly-facial dysmorphism-intellectual disability syndrome (Concept Id: C1862682) - MedGen - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm. ... "Aortic arch anomaly - peculiar facies - intellectual disability - About the Disease - Genetic and Rare Diseases Information ... "Orphanet: Aortic arch anomaly peculiar facies intellectual disability syndrome". Retrieved 2022-07-16. " ...
"Severe Intellectual Disability-Progressive Spastic Diplegia Syndrome". DoveMed. Retrieved 2022-09-05. "Severe intellectual ... FBXW7 neurodevelopmental disorder CHAMP1-associated intellectual disability syndrome "NIH GARD Information: Severe intellectual ... "CTNNB1". Byrd F. "Intellectual Disability in Children". WebMD. Retrieved 2022-09-05. Patel DR, Cabral MD, Ho A, Merrick J ( ... Severe intellectual disability-progressive spastic diplegia syndrome is a rare novel genetic disorder characterized by severe ...
The Journal of Intellectual Disabilities is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal that covers research in the field of ... The Journal of Intellectual Disabilities is abstracted and indexed in: Social Sciences Citation Index Arts & Humanities ... Fintan Sheerin (Trinity Centre for Ageing and Intellectual Disability). It was established in 1997 and is currently published ... healthcare and nursing as related to intellectual disabilities. The journal's editor-in-chief is Dr. ...
People with cognitive disabilities typically will have trouble with one of these types of memory. Intellectual disability, also ... This is a broad concept encompassing various intellectual or cognitive deficits, including intellectual disability (formerly ... Both dementia and intellectual disability are defined by neurologists as having an IQ that is two standard deviations below ... Intellectual disability must have appeared in the developmental period, not only as an adult. By contrast, people with ...
This is based on the American Association for Intellectual and Developmental Disability definition of Intellectual Disability. ... American Association for Intellectual and Developmental Disability Virtus World Intellectual Impairment Sport (Articles lacking ... Athletes with an intellectual disability are characterised by an IQ of 75 or below, significant limitations in Adaptive ... In 1989, the 1st World Games for Athletes with an Intellectual Disability were held in Harnosand, Sweden and in 1992, ...
... and intellectual disabilities in secondary settings". Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities. 39: 54-66. Plotner ... "Postsecondary inclusion for individuals with an intellectual disability and its effects on employment". Journal of Intellectual ... with cognitive disabilities and no disabilities. They found that 43% of people with cognitive disabilities and some college ... Historically, individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) have faced barriers in accessing post-secondary education, ...
... is a rare genetic disorder which is ... Symptoms within people with the disorder vary, but they are generally the following: Intellectual disabilities Widespread ... March 2015). "Dominant mutations in KAT6A cause intellectual disability with recognizable syndromic features". American Journal ... March 2021). "Autosomal dominant intellectual disability craniofacial anomalies cardiac defects syndrome". Orphanet. Retrieved ...
Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and the Ageing Process. Cham, Switzerland: Springer Nature. p. 307. ISBN 978-3-030- ... and the disability provisions of the Help America Vote Act. Organizationally, the Administration on Developmental Disabilities ... The Administration on Disabilities (AoD) is the United States federal agency responsible for implementation and administration ... ADD's mission is to improve and increase services to and assure that individuals with developmental disabilities have ...
... claimed all members of the Spanish intellectual disability sport delegation at the Games actually had intellectual disabilities ... it soon became a catchall organization representing multiple disability types including people with intellectual disabilities. ... It focuses on intellectual disabilities, one of two in the country to do so nationally. It has a high performance focus. FEDDI ... The organization is one of two in the country that support sportspeople with intellectual disabilities. The other is the ...
"The American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD) Diagnostic Criteria for Intellectual Disability ... "American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities". Allen Press. Retrieved July 27, 2022. "Intellectual and ... Intellectual Disability: Definition, Classification, and Systems of Supports. American Association on Intellectual and ... is an American non-profit organization focusing on intellectual disability and related developmental disabilities. AAIDD has ...
... How RDNs Help Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities RDNs can be a great ... Intellectual Disabilities Maintaining good nutritional health can be challenging for some individuals with intellectual and ... How RDNs Help Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Read the Full Story ... resource when figuring out the best care for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. ...
Intellectual disability is subdivided into syndromic intellectual disability, in which intellectual deficits associated with ... intellectual disability is more accurately considered a disability rather than a disease. Intellectual disability can be ... "Definition of Intellectual Disability". Archived from the original on 2017-01-23. "What Is Intellectual Disability?". www. ... Clinically, intellectual disability is a subtype of cognitive deficit or disabilities affecting intellectual abilities, which ...
... (Cognitive Disability; Developmental Disability; Mental Retardation). by Kelly de la Rocha. ... Intellectual disability, also referred to as mental retardation, is a disability that begins in childhood. People with ... Some cases of intellectual disability can be prevented with proper medical care. Children diagnosed with an intellectual ... This Intellectual Disability page on EmpowHER Womens Health works best with javascript enabled in your browser.. Toggle ...
Levels of intellectual disability vary greatly in children. ... Intellectual disability is a term used when there are limits to ... What is intellectual disability?. Intellectual disability is a term used when there are limits to a persons ability to learn ... Levels of intellectual disability vary greatly in children. Children with intellectual disability might have a hard time ... What are some of the signs of intellectual disability?. Usually, the more severe the degree of intellectual disability, the ...
Supreme Court heard arguments in a Texas case about what standard of intellectual disability can be used to disqualify a person ... Intellectual Disability Definition Plays Role in Supreme Court Deliberations. By Christina A. Samuels. - December 01, 2016 6 ... In 2014, Moore had an Atkins hearing before a state trial judge to determine if he had an intellectual disability sufficient ... "Texas has adopted a unique approach to intellectual disability in capital cases in which it prohibits the use of current ...
Intellectual disability is a condition diagnosed before age 18 that includes below-average intellectual function and a lack of ... Intellectual disability is a condition diagnosed before age 18 that includes below-average intellectual function and a lack of ... Intellectual disability. Updated ... Intellectual disability affects about 1% of the population. There are many causes of intellectual disability. ...
Because of the stigma attached to intellectual disabilities, people with these disabilities often become adept at hiding it, ... People with intellectual disabilities are at a higher risk of wrongful convictions and death sentences. They may be more likely ... People with intellectual disabilities, particularly in less-severe forms, are often able to be autonomous members of society, ... A common standard is an I.Q. of 70 or below; but numbers alone do not always determine intellectual disability. ...
... reports and resources from the Faculty of Intellectual Disability psychiatry. ... An Intellectual Disability Outcomes Framework for improving the quality of services for people with intellectual disability May ... Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities Section in the EPA. *Literature for professionals on Intellectual Disabilities ... CR230 ADHD in adults with intellectual disability February 2021. *Step Together: Integrating care for people with epilepsy and ...
... of supports and services related to improving the lives of people with Autism and Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities ( ... Golisano Intellectual & Developmental Disability Initiative (GIDDI) A regional conveyor of supports and services related to ... The Golisano Intellectual and Developmental Disability Initiative (GIDDI) was established at FGCU though funding by the ... Southwest Florida will be a rich environment for those in the intellectual and developmental disability community to live and ...
Fifty-two adolescent and young adult women and men with intellectual disability and 48 without intellectual disability, between ... People with intellectual disabilities (ID) are as likely as the general population to find themselves in the situation of ... Children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) meet other children with PIMD in day care centres or ... The Prevalence of Child Sexual Abuse in Out-of-home Care: Increased Risk for Children with a Mild Intellectual Disability. * ...
Foundation for the Benefit of Persons with Intellectual Disabilities. Website made possible by Brightspot.. Special Olympics is ... The Revolution Is Inclusion A peaceful campaign to end discrimination of people with intellectual disabilities. ... Inclusive Health Improving the health and well-being of people with intellectual disabilities. ...
... "intellectual disability.". The first official AAIDD definition and classification manual on intellectual disability was ... AAIDD Promotes a Scholarly and Clinical Understanding of Intellectual Disability. AAIDD is the oldest and largest professional ... society concerned with intellectual disability. Since its inception in 1876, AAIDD has produced guidelines naming, defining, ... first professional definition that proposed an international terminology and classification system for intellectual disability. ...
"There has been a huge shift over the last two decades for people with intellectual disabilities not only to have a voice in ... "People with intellectual disabilities and autism often need more time and environments to practice the different skills and ... Once it has been brought to the attention of a social worker that a person with intellectual disabilities is about to give ... Giving a voice to people with intellectual disabilities. My work is very much focused on contributing to bettering the lives of ...
ID and other neurodevelopmental disabilities are seen often in a general pediatric practice. ... Intellectual disability (ID) is a descriptive term for subaverage intelligence and impaired adaptive functioning arising in the ... encoded search term (Intellectual Disability) and Intellectual Disability What to Read Next on Medscape ... Intellectual disability (intellectual developmental disorder) is a disorder with onset during the developmental period that ...
... the Cycle of Inaccessible Healthcare and Supports for Minoritized Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (IDD) ...
Australian adults with intellectual disability participate in sport and physical activity at lower rates than the general ... Participation in sport and physical activity in adults with intellectual disabilities J Intellect Disabil Res. 2020 Dec;64(12): ... Journal of Intellectual Disability Research published by MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of ... Background: People with intellectual disability face a number of barriers to participation in physical activity. This paper ...
But what we havent heard about are people with disabilities--specifically those with intellectual and developmental ... And when were gone, so too will be the opportunities for people with disabilities in Northern Illinois to live independently. ... On the forgotten frontlines, DSPs are the essential staff that help people with disabilities remain in their homes and ... The coronavirus is silently tearing through the disability community and causing deaths that could be avoided with more ...
People with Intellectual Disabilities and their Elderly Carers Nowadays, people with intellectual disabilities live much longer ... Bereavement In The Lives Of People With Intellectual Disabilities When someone with an intellectual disability loses a parent ... Transition For Children With Intellectual Disabilities This article aims to provide an overview of transition for people with ... Working reflexively in learning disabilities: what Emma taught us The theme of powerlessness is relevant to learning disability ...
Intellectual Disabilities - Raising Awareness, Combating Prejudice & Discrimination: Findings from a Global Review. Dr Katrina ... The Power of Self-advocacy to Improve the Lives of People with an Intellectual Disability. Richard Walker, Self-Advocate, ... Can Employing People with Intellectual Disabilities in Hospitals improve the Patient Experience of Vulnerable People in ... Combating Negative Attitudes & Discrimination against People with Intellectual Disabilities around the Globe. 16 July 2015, ...
... political invisibility and abuse of human rights of people with intellectual disability. ... For the first time we have a population of people with intellectual disabilities living into old age, and our own work in the ... People with intellectual disability have been silenced too often; this example illustrates that their needs, desires and rights ... The ageing of people with an intellectual disability is a success story that should be celebrated. As is often the case, ...
Paul Dodenhoff examines physical impairment and intellectual impairment disability hate crime ... Disability Loans Print Page. Reintroducing Hate Back Into Hate Crime: Hate Crime Committed Against Intellectual Disability ... Paul Dodenhoff examines physical impairment and intellectual impairment disability hate crime. As we all know, disability hate ... The hate Characteristics of intellectual disability. A study by Beadle-Brown et al (2014) recorded the types of experiences of ...
The Arc promotes and protects the human rights of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). ... The Arc promotes and protects the human rights of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities and actively supports ... Promoting and protecting the human rights of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities and actively supporting ... for those with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). But we cant do it alone! We need the help of people with IDD ...
Mothers intellectual disabilities cast doubt on her role in daughters slaying, attorney says. He says Sharon Carrillo may ... The woman accused of killing her 10-year-old daughter in Stockton Springs has significant intellectual disabilities that call ... He said people with cognitive impairments or intellectual disabilities are "susceptible to endorsing things in custodial ... said Monday that his clients family members have told him that Carrillo has been diagnosed with intellectual disabilities ...
Century Club of Rochester, and the Memorial Art Gallery in Rochester, NY. Keynote speakers:. Beatriz Luna, PhD ...
For those with an intellectual disability, jobs opportunities are limited. Only 32% are part of the workforce, and many of ... For those with an intellectual disability, jobs opportunities are limited. Only 32% are part of the workforce, and many of ... Originally published by Cosmos as Microenterprise presents a new path to success for people with an intellectual disability ... The researchers interviewed a small group of people with intellectual disabilities who have taken the plunge and started their ...
Find services and supports for adults and children with developmental disabilities ... Empowering Oregonians with intellectual and developmental disabilities. We strive to support the choices of individuals with ... Choosing developmental disabilities services for children and adults. * Services for children with intellectual or ... We are committed to work toward service options to assure that people with developmental disabilities have the opportunity to ...
What is the definition of intellectual disability? For an individual to be assessed as having an intellectual disability, the ... The definition of "adult living with an intellectual disability" excludes individuals who have an intellectual disability due ... adult living with an intellectual disability? According to the act an adult living with an intellectual disability is defined ... for Adults Living With An Intellectual Disability to make decisions for an adult living with an intellectual disability who is ...
Populations Served: Intellectual Disabilities. Listen Independent Living Centers27 Congress Street, Suite 107, Salem, MA ...
... as well as adults with intellectual or developmental disabilities. ... as well as adults with intellectual or developmental disabilities. ... The Adult Intellectual/Developmental Disabilities (AIDD) Behavioral Health Clinic at the Munroe-Meyer Institute provides ... The Adult Intellectual/Developmental Disabilities (AIDD) Behavioral Health Clinic at the Munroe-Meyer Institute provides ...
Gain insights into the intersection of mental illness and intellectual/developmental disabilities. ... and will focus on those individuals who deal with Mental Mental Illness and Intellectual/Developmental Disabilities. We will ...
  • Southwest Florida will be a rich environment for those in the intellectual and developmental disability community to live and thrive. (
  • The Golisano Intellectual and Developmental Disability Initiative (GIDDI) was established at FGCU though funding by the Golisano Foundation. (
  • What is an Intellectual or Developmental Disability (IDD) Agency? (
  • An intellectual or developmental disability (IDD) agency is a state organization that funds a wide range of services for people with intellectual or developmental disabilities, including day services and residential services. (
  • During this webinar, we will discuss representing clients with intellectual and/or developmental disability (I/DD). (
  • CAMBRIDGE, MA, USA, May 26, 2023/ / -- The National Core Indicators (NCI) program announces the release of the National Core Indicators Intellectual and Developmental Disability (NCI-IDD) - In-Person Survey (IPS) National Report for the year 2021-2022. (
  • Persons who qualify for ventilator services with Hattie Larlham should have an intellectual/developmental disability, be non-ambulatory, not have high behavior support needs, and be stabilized on their ventilator. (
  • In the United States, about 1 in 6 children have a developmental disability . (
  • The developmental disabilities data are provided by two sources the U.S. Department of Education and CDC's Autism and Developmental Disability Monitoring Network. (
  • They may learn some ADLs, but an intellectual disability is considered severe or profound when individuals are unable to independently care for themselves without ongoing significant assistance from a caregiver throughout adulthood. (
  • The degree of disability can vary greatly from person to person and be categorized as mild, moderate, severe, or profound. (
  • Usually, the more severe the degree of intellectual disability, the earlier the signs can be noticed. (
  • Signs of intellectual disability can range from mild to severe. (
  • In Australia, it is estimated that about 7.7 per cent of children aged up to 14 years have some form of disability, and 4.5 per cent with a severe disability, according to data from the 2018 Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers . (
  • No matter how severe their disability is, people with intellectual disabilities have the same status as people who do not have intellectual disabilities and who need support to live a full life. (
  • NASET Members may access this issue of the NASET's Educating Children with Severe Disabilities Series by Logging in (see Login area to the right). (
  • Severe Mental Retardation is defined by the presence of significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning as well as significant limitations in adaptive functioning (adaptive behavior) present prior to the age of 18 years. (
  • if the need for support is considered, only about 1% of the population has severe intellectual disability. (
  • Severe intellectual disability occurs in families from all socioeconomic groups and educational levels. (
  • Less severe intellectual disability (requiring intermittent or limited support) occurs most often in lower socioeconomic groups, paralleling with observations that IQ correlates best with success in school and socioeconomic status rather than specific organic factors. (
  • Developmental disabilities are a diverse group of severe chronic conditions that are due to mental and/or physical impairments. (
  • Intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) share clinical characteristics which can result in confusion while diagnosing. (
  • Title : Child Maltreatment in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability: Results from a Population-Based Sample Personal Author(s) : McDonnell, Christina G.;Boan, Andrea D.;Bradley, Catherine C.;Seay, Kristen D.;Charles, Jane M.;Carpenter, Laura A. (
  • Considering the obligation of the legislator to agree the provisions found to be unconstitutional with the Constitutional Court Decision no. 601/2020 and with the provisions of the Constitution of Romania, Law no. 140/2022 on some measures of protection for persons with intellectual and psychosocial disabilities and amending and supplementing some normative acts was adopted. (
  • Considerations Regarding Law No. 140/2022 On Some Protection Measures For Persons With Intellectual And Psychosocial Disabilities And Amending And Supplementing Some Normative Acts ," Curentul Juridic, The Juridical Current, Le Courant Juridique , Petru Maior University, Faculty of Economics Law and Administrative Sciences and Pro Iure Foundation, vol. 89, pages 82-89, June. (
  • In 2014, in Hall v. Florida , the court held that state may not set an IQ score of 70 or below as the rigid cutoff that would permit it to execute a person with an intellectual disability. (
  • What are common characteristics of a person with an intellectual disability? (
  • Whether you're in a professional environment or just having a personal conversation, consider these 10 basic rules for communicating with a person with an intellectual disability. (
  • Down syndrome and fragile X syndrome are examples of syndromic intellectual disabilities. (
  • Some of the most common known causes of intellectual disability - like Down syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome, fragile X syndrome, genetic conditions, birth defects, and infections - happen before birth. (
  • Participants were part of the Australian Child to Adult Development (ACAD) study, consisting of a community sample with intellectual disability (n = 305), groups of adults with autism (n = 94), Down syndrome (n = 64), fragile X syndrome (n = 52), Williams syndrome (n = 45), and Prader-Willi syndrome (n = 30). (
  • Those with Down syndrome participated in sport/physical activity at higher rates than the community sample with intellectual disability, while no difference in sport/physical activity participation was observed in the groups with autism or other syndromes. (
  • This entry was posted in autism spectrum , Down syndrome , healthcare , intellectual disabilities , intellectual disability . (
  • Several hundred causes of intellectual disability have been discovered, but many are still unknown. (
  • There are many causes of intellectual disability. (
  • Although advances in genetics, such as chromosomal microarray analysis and whole genome sequencing of the coding regions (exome), have increased the likelihood of identifying some causes of intellectual disability, a cause of intellectual disability in a specific person often cannot be identified. (
  • UNSW's Professor Iva Strnadová is working to improve the lives of people living with intellectual disabilities and ensure they have a greater say in policies and programs that affect them. (
  • Intellectual disability (ID), also known as general learning disability in the United Kingdom and formerly mental retardation, is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning. (
  • Raising a child with an intellectual disability (ID, formerly mental retardation) can be a rewarding, but daunting and exhausting task. (
  • Every community has a variety of programs and services that benefit people with intellectual disabilities (ID, formerly mental retardation). (
  • Overview of Learning Disorders Learning disorders are conditions that cause a discrepancy between potential and actual levels of academic performance as predicted by the person's intellectual abilities. (
  • He said people with cognitive impairments or intellectual disabilities are "susceptible to endorsing things in custodial interrogations. (
  • In 1975, the U.S Federal government enacted legislation, Education for All Handicapped Children Act (amended in 1990 to be called the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act), that granted free and equal access to education for all children regardless of any cognitive or physical disabilities. (
  • Intellectual disability (or ID) is a term used when a person has certain limitations in cognitive functioning and skills, including communication, social and self-care skills. (
  • Nevertheless, recent studies suggest that genetic factors play roles even in milder cognitive disabilities. (
  • One of the major obstacles is that educators do not give students with intellectual disabilities, a voice in matters relevant to their own education," she says. (
  • As a result of this legislation, many students with intellectual disabilities benefited from early intervention and integration into the regular classroom which enabled them to attain greater levels of achievement. (
  • Intellectual disability (ID) becomes apparent during childhood and involves deficits in mental abilities, social skills, and core activities of daily living (ADLs) when compared to same-aged peers. (
  • Intellectual disability, also referred to as mental retardation, is a disability that begins in childhood. (
  • People with intellectual disability have limitations in their mental functioning seen in below-average intelligence (IQ) tests and in their ability to communicate, socialize, and take care of their everyday needs. (
  • A child could be at higher risk for intellectual disability due to any of the causes listed above, or due to mental retardation in other family members. (
  • They are defined by the American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR) as "significantly sub-average general intellectual functioning existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period. (
  • MacLean said information about Sharon Carrillo's mental capacity was revealed after he spoke with multiple family members, including Sharon Carrillo's father, Joe Kennedy, who described Sharon's disability. (
  • Intellectual functioning - also called intelligence - refers to general mental capacity, such as learning, reasoning, problem solving, and so on. (
  • Please join us for our next Mental Health Monday program via Zoom which will take place on August 28t h, 2023, 10:00 to 11:30 AM, and will focus on those individuals who deal with Mental Mental Illness and Intellectual/Developmental Disabilities. (
  • The purpose of the board is to review mental health and intellectual disability needs, services and special problems in relation to the health and welfare needs, services and programs in the area. (
  • Intellectual Disability is a term used when a person has certain limitations in mental functioning and in skills such as communicating, taking care of him or herself, and social skills. (
  • The Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Subcommittee of the Community Mental Hygiene Advisory Board is made up of consumers, parents, advocates, professionals and agency providers who consider developmental disabilities issues and advise the Director of Community Mental Hygiene Services as necessary through the advisory board. (
  • Intellectual disability (ID), once called mental retardation, is characterized by below-average intelligence or mental ability and a lack of skills necessary for day-to-day living. (
  • Information about the FRA and the project on fundamental rights of persons with intellectual disabilities and persons with mental health problems. (
  • FRA is doing this project to make sure that people with intellectual disabilities and people with mental health problems can enjoy their rights just as everyone else. (
  • The relationship between participation in physical activity and age, degree of intellectual disability, physical mobility, living situation, socio-economic disadvantage, and behaviour and emotional problems were also conducted. (
  • Intellectual disability is considered a neurodevelopmental disorder. (
  • While lots of issues were raised about staffing levels, standards of care, the role of unannounced inspections, the appropriateness of out of home placements, the impact of budget cuts and the place of investigative journalism, a better starting point is to consider the people with an intellectual disability at the centre of it all. (
  • Seventy-five to ninety percent of the affected people have mild intellectual disability. (
  • additional citation(s) needed] Even when poor academic performance is recognized, it may take expert assessment to distinguish mild intellectual disability from specific learning disability or emotional/behavioral disorders. (
  • As individuals with intellectual disabilities reach adulthood, many learn to live independently and maintain gainful employment. (
  • Third, the disability must manifest itself prior to adulthood, which is usually considered age eighteen. (
  • The Dataset on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: Linking Data to Enhance Person Centered Outcomes Research pilot project will link the following state-level data sources for four to six states: the National Core Indicators In-Person Survey, Supports Intensity Scale, Medicaid claims, and other relevant state-level data sources. (
  • Only after the 2002 Atkins ruling did Moore receive a state habeas hearing that explored whether he had an intellectual disability. (
  • The next Meeting of the Intellectual & Developmental Disabilities Subcommittee will be held Wednesday June 7, 2023 from 10:30am -12pm via Zoom. (
  • Prior to completing her master's degree Courtney worked with adults with disabilities through AmeriCorps. (
  • A regional conveyor of supports and services related to improving the lives of people with autism and intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). (
  • To serve as a regional conveyor of supports and services related to improving the lives of people with Autism and Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (IDD) through networking, collaboration, and partnerships with existing service providers in our region. (
  • DSPs are struggling with the same challenges as the broader health care community: lack of PPE, repeated exposure to the coronavirus and extremely long hours in the homes of the people they support are required to ensure the delivery of high-quality disability services. (
  • While Congress and the Trump administration have rightly moved to quickly provide for frontline health care workers, they have repeatedly overlooked Medicaid-funded providers of disability services, including the DSPs employed by these providers, all at the expense of the health and well-being of our vulnerable neighbors with I/DD. (
  • Through my work in the field of intellectual disability, I have witnessed excellent services where care and supports are rooted in a strengths-based and relationship-centered care, where love, care, and activities by staff that often go above and beyond. (
  • This article aims to provide an overview of transition for people with intellectual disabilities as they move from children's to adult services and concludes with a brief account of how transition services may need to develop in the future. (
  • We strive to support the choices of individuals with disabilities and their families within communities by promoting and providing services that are person-centered and directed, flexible, community inclusive and supportive of the discovery and development of each individual's unique gifts, talents and abilities. (
  • Are you looking for services and supports for an adult or child with developmental disabilities? (
  • IDD agencies focus on services for people with intellectual or developmental disabilities. (
  • Often, IDD agencies also are called Division or Office of Developmental Disabilities, or Department or Office of Intellectual Disabilities, or Department of Developmental Services. (
  • This report shows how much progress systems have made in supporting people, but that there is still room to improve services, so that people with disabilities can really thrive. (
  • This comprehensive report is based on data collected by 27 states from 13,559 adults receiving long term services and supports (LTSS) from their state Developmental Disabilities (DD) service systems. (
  • The NCI-IDD program is a collaborative effort between state DD systems, Human Services Research Institute (HSRI), the National Association of State Directors of Developmental Disabilities Services (NASDDDS), and people with disabilities and their families. (
  • Introduction: The ableist rhetoric around sexuality in disability services and beyond can hinder subjective sexual expression and have a powerful impact on health, self-esteem, and everyday life through internalized ableism, structural marginalization, and interpersonal discrimination. (
  • If you suspect that your child may have an intellectual disability, contact your doctor. (
  • Symptoms appear before a child reaches age 18 and vary depending on the degree of the intellectual disability. (
  • If you think your child has any of these symptoms, do not assume it is due to intellectual disability. (
  • A child may have intellectual disability if he has an IQ score of 70 or below. (
  • Intellectual disability could cause a child to learn and develop more slowly than other children of the same age. (
  • It could take longer for a child with intellectual disability to learn to speak, walk, dress, or eat without help, and they could have trouble learning in school. (
  • Intellectual disability can be caused by a problem that starts any time before a child turns 18 years old - even before birth. (
  • What can I do if I think my child may have intellectual disability? (
  • Christopher MacLean, the Camden-based attorney appointed to represent Sharon Carrillo, 33, said Monday that his client's family members have told him that Carrillo has been diagnosed with intellectual disabilities since she was a child and had attended special schools. (
  • Introduces the FOCUS Family Resiliency Program, a brief evidence-based intervention that is among the most widely disseminated family-based programs for military populations, and will discuss general issues in adapting it with families who have a child with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). (
  • People with moderate intellectual disabilities need considerable support in school, at home, and in the community in order to fully participate. (
  • But what we haven't heard about are people with disabilities--specifically those with intellectual and developmental disabilities (I/DD)--and the direct support professionals (DSPs) on the frontlines. (
  • Even in community living, people with an intellectual disability will continue to have the same support and care needs, and the same need to trust in the people who provide that support and care. (
  • As we pursue the public goal of moving more individuals with an intellectual disability from congregated settings to community care, and ask more families to support care at home for their family member with an intellectual disability, we must also ensure that a similar loss of personhood is not repeated. (
  • Support the fight for disability rights. (
  • On the basis of such many-sided evaluations, professionals can determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability and can tailor a support plan for each individual. (
  • The relationship between need and levels of support is one of the most important aspects for delving into the current conception of intellectual disability. (
  • It is true that modern definitions emphasize the need for support from the social environment and the right that people with disabilities have to it, in order to improve their functionality, their quality of life and their participation. (
  • The goal of the NCDJ is to provide support and guidance for journalists as they cover people with disabilities. (
  • One video in the series is a Disability Equality Training video for employers, which also provides guidance and support to current and prospective employers of persons with intellectual disabilities. (
  • Policy Implications: We conclude by encouraging the development of initiatives that will empower and support people with intellectual disability to learn about their sexual rights and to find solutions that allow for development of sexual agency and subjectivity. (
  • Both doctors and family members believe that health professionals in general should have adequate training in intellectual disability to improve the relationship with those affected and their families, as well as to better transmit the information that patients should know. (
  • Because we believe life is sacred, Hattie Larlham enhances the quality of life for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities and their families through our commitment to comfort, joy and achievement. (
  • 1000 Families Study , a UK multiwave cohort investigating the well-being of families of children with intellectual disabilities: cohort profile. (
  • Intellectual disability is a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. (
  • FDA allows marketing for first of-its-kind post-natal test to help diagnose developmental delays and intellectual disabilities in children. (
  • To evaluate predictors risk pre, peri and post-natal care for Intellectual Disability (ID). (
  • To describe the rates of anti-social behaviour (ASB) among adolescents with/without mild/moderate intellectual disability (MMID). (
  • The Adult IDD Behavioral Health Clinic at the Munroe-Meyer Institute serves transition-aged adolescents (16-22) as well as adults with intellectual or developmental disabilities. (
  • Maintaining good nutritional health can be challenging for some individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. (
  • RDNs can be a great resource when figuring out the best care for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. (
  • As these students are now reaching the post-secondary education level, colleges and universities are creating programs to further advance the level of education available to individuals with disabilities. (
  • By amplifying the voices of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities, the NCI-IDD IPS serves as a catalyst for positive change in human service systems, and NCI data can inform evidence-based decision-making and drive the implementation of much-needed improvements to enhance the lives of individuals with IDD. (
  • Methods: A thematic analysis was carried out on data generated through ethnographic fieldwork at five sheltered accommodations and semi-structured interviews with ten individuals with intellectual disability. (
  • The Commission for the Rights of Persons with Disability (CRPD) is the national regulatory body for disability in Malta and Gozo. (
  • We spoke to Samantha Pace Gasan, the Commissioner for the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. (
  • Samantha told us about the Video Curriculum Vitae of Persons with Intellectual Disabilities project . (
  • It is a series of videos featuring persons with intellectual disabilities and their aspirations and experiences in relation to employment. (
  • Another video will explain how persons can create their own video CVs , which might be a better way for persons with intellectual disability to approach prospective employers. (
  • The project emphasises the importance of skills and values that persons with disability can bring to a team and workplace, which are not necessarily the traditional employment skills but also soft skills such as being a team player, creativity, dedication, punctuality, kindheartedness, discipline, and perseverance in reaching a goal. (
  • Welcome to the official website for Disrupting the Cycle of Inaccessible Healthcare and Supports for Minoritized Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (IDD) a health equity study funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. (
  • This video features Special Olympics Chairman Timothy Shriver and our athletes discussing why it's so important to include people with intellectual disabilities in all areas of life-especially healthcare access. (
  • We are hopeful these tools will soon gain ground in the epidemiology of CP and other developmental disabilities, and that effective new preventive strategies will eventually result. (
  • Intellectual disability affects about 2 to 3% of the general population. (
  • Intellectual disability affects about 1% of the population. (
  • This paper aimed to determine rates of sport and physical activity participation in an Australian sample of adults with intellectual disability, compared with rates of participation in the general Australian population. (
  • Rates of participation were reported for adults with intellectual disability and compared with rates in a general Australian population sample. (
  • Australian adults with intellectual disability participate in sport and physical activity at lower rates than the general population. (
  • Nowadays, people with intellectual disabilities live much longer than they did in the past, with the result that there is also an expanding population of elderly parents who are continuing to care for a son or daughter well into old age. (
  • People with disabilities make up at least 19 percent of the U.S. population or 54.4 million people. (
  • The Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation's Office of Behavioral Health, Disability, and Aging Policy (ASPE-BHDAP) aims to build data capacity for person-centered outcomes research for the population with intellectual and developmental disabilities (ID/DD) through the creation of a publicly accessible, de-identified, linked dataset of ID/DD relevant state-level data. (
  • Patja K, Mölsä P, Iivanainen M. Cause-specific mortality of people with intellectual disability in a population-based, 35-year follow-up study. (
  • Intellectual disability is subdivided into syndromic intellectual disability, in which intellectual deficits associated with other medical and behavioral signs and symptoms are present, and non-syndromic intellectual disability, in which intellectual deficits appear without other abnormalities. (
  • Levels of intellectual disability vary greatly in children. (
  • A growing body of knowledge highlights the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the health and well-being of many people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs) and their caregivers. (