DNA elements that include the component genes and insertion site for a site-specific recombination system that enables them to capture mobile gene cassettes.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TRIMETHOPRIM.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
A subgenus of Salmonella containing several medically important serotypes. The habitat for the majority of strains is warm-blooded animals.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Infections with bacteria of the genus ACINETOBACTER.
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.
A lactose-fermenting bacterium causing dysentery.
Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria, commonly found in the clinical laboratory, and frequently resistant to common antibiotics.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in water, sewage, soil, meat, hospital environments, and on the skin and in the intestinal tract of man and animals as a commensal.
DYSENTERY caused by gram-negative rod-shaped enteric bacteria (ENTEROBACTERIACEAE), most often by the genus SHIGELLA. Shigella dysentery, Shigellosis, is classified into subgroups according to syndrome severity and the infectious species. Group A: SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE (severest); Group B: SHIGELLA FLEXNERI; Group C: SHIGELLA BOYDII; and Group D: SHIGELLA SONNEI (mildest).
A genus of gram-negative, strictly aerobic chemoorganotrophic bacteria, in the family COMAMONADACEAE.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.
Copies of transposable elements interspersed throughout the genome, some of which are still active and often referred to as "jumping genes". There are two classes of interspersed repetitive elements. Class I elements (or RETROELEMENTS - such as retrotransposons, retroviruses, LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS) transpose via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Class II elements (or DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS - such as transposons, Tn elements, insertion sequence elements and mobile gene cassettes of bacterial integrons) transpose directly from one site in the DNA to another.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that ferments sugar without gas production. Its organisms are intestinal pathogens of man and other primates and cause bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).
A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.
Specific loci on both the bacterial DNA (attB) and the phage DNA (attP) which delineate the sites where recombination takes place between them, as the phage DNA becomes integrated (inserted) into the BACTERIAL DNA during LYSOGENY.
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
Infections with bacteria of the genus SERRATIA.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
A pyrimidine inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase, it is an antibacterial related to PYRIMETHAMINE. It is potentiated by SULFONAMIDES and the TRIMETHOPRIM, SULFAMETHOXAZOLE DRUG COMBINATION is the form most often used. It is sometimes used alone as an antimalarial. TRIMETHOPRIM RESISTANCE has been reported.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Distinct units in some bacterial, bacteriophage or plasmid GENOMES that are types of MOBILE GENETIC ELEMENTS. Encoded in them are a variety of fitness conferring genes, such as VIRULENCE FACTORS (in "pathogenicity islands or islets"), ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE genes, or genes required for SYMBIOSIS (in "symbiosis islands or islets"). They range in size from 10 - 500 kilobases, and their GC CONTENT and CODON usage differ from the rest of the genome. They typically contain an INTEGRASE gene, although in some cases this gene has been deleted resulting in "anchored genomic islands".
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Infections in animals with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.
The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.
Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.
Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.
Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.
The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.
Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.

Occurrence of antibiotic resistance gene cassettes aac(6')-Ib, dfrA5, dfrA12, and ereA2 in class I integrons in non-O1, non-O139 Vibrio cholerae strains in India. (1/493)

Molecular mechanisms of multidrug resistance in Vibrio cholerae belonging to non-O1, non-O139 serogroups isolated during 1997 to 1998 in Calcutta, India, were investigated. Out of the 94 strains examined, 22 strains were found to have class I integrons. The gene cassettes identified were dfrA1, dfrA15, dfrA5, and dfrA12 for trimethoprim; aac(6')-Ib for amikacin and tobramycin; aadA1 and aadA2 for streptomycin and spectinomycin; and ereA2 for erythromycin resistance. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of dfrA5, dfrA12, aac(6')-Ib, and ereA2 cassettes in class I integrons of V. cholerae. Forty-three of 94 strains also had plasmids, and out of these, 14 contained both class I integrons and plasmids. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis followed by Southern hybridization revealed that in the 14 plasmid-bearing strains, class I integrons resided either on chromosomes, on plasmids, or on both. Our results indicated that besides class I integrons and plasmids, a conjugative transposon element, SXT, possibly contributed to the multiple antibiotic resistance.  (+info)

Characterization of a self-transferable plasmid from Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium clinical isolates carrying two integron-borne gene cassettes together with virulence and drug resistance genes. (2/493)

An unusual self-transferable virulence-resistance plasmid (pUO-StVR2) was found in nine multidrug-resistant (ACSSuT phenotype) Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium clinical isolates that were assigned to four different phage types and a single and distinctive XbaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profile. pUO-StVR2 is an IncFII plasmid of about 140 kb in length carrying the spvA, spvB, and spvC (Salmonella plasmid virulence) and rck (resistance to complement killing) genes. It also carries the oxa1/aadA1a (ampicillin resistance and streptomycin-spectinomycin resistance) gene cassette configuration located within a class 1 integron with qacEDelta1/sul1 (ammonium antiseptics resistance and sulfadiazine resistance); the transposon genes merA, tnpA, and tnpR (mercury resistance, transposase, and resolvase of Tn21, respectively); and the catA1 (chloramphenicol resistance) and tet(B) (tetracycline resistance) genes. The insertion of resistance genes into a Salmonella virulence plasmid constitutes a new and interesting example of plasmid evolution and presents a serious public health problem.  (+info)

Low-virulence Citrobacter species encode resistance to multiple antimicrobials. (3/493)

Citrobacter spp. are gram-negative commensal bacteria that infrequently cause serious nosocomial infections in compromised hosts. They are often resistant to cephalosporins due to overexpression of their chromosomal beta-lactamase. During a recent study of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (MDRE) in solid-organ transplant patients, we found that almost half of patients colonized with MDRE carried one or more cefpodoxime-resistant Citrobacter freundii, Citrobacter braakii, or Citrobacter amalonaticus strains. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that 36 unique strains of Citrobacter were present among 32 patients. Genetic and phenotypic analysis of the resistance mechanisms of these bacteria showed that the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) SHV-5 or SHV-12 was encoded by 8 strains (26%) and expressed by 7 strains (19%). A number of strains were resistant to other drug classes, including aminoglycosides (28%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (31%), and fluoroquinolones (8%). PCR and DNA analysis of these multiresistant strains revealed the presence of class I integrons, including the first integrons reported for C. braakii and C. amalonaticus. The integrons encoded aminoglycoside resistance, trimethoprim resistance, or both. Despite the prevalence of MDR Citrobacter spp. in our solid-organ transplant patients, only a single infection with a colonizing strain was recorded over 18 months. Low-virulence Citrobacter spp., which can persist in the host for long periods, could influence pathogen evolution by accumulation of genes encoding resistance to multiple antimicrobial classes.  (+info)

Class 1 integron-associated tobramycin-gentamicin resistance in Campylobacter jejuni isolated from the broiler chicken house environment. (4/493)

Using PCR, we screened 105 isolates of poultry-associated Campylobacter jejuni for the presence of class 1 integrons. Of those isolates, 21% (22 of 105) possessed the integrase gene, but only 5 isolates produced an amplicon in a 5'-3' conserved sequence PCR directed toward amplification of the resistance cassettes. DNA sequencing demonstrated that all five isolates possessed the aminoglycoside resistance gene, aacA4.  (+info)

Molecular characterization of integrons in epidemiologically unrelated clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii from Italian hospitals reveals a limited diversity of gene cassette arrays. (5/493)

Integron carriage by 36 epidemiologically unrelated Acinetobacter baumannii isolates collected over an 11-year period from patients in six different Italian hospitals was investigated. Sixteen type 1 integron-positive isolates (44%) were found, 13 of which carried the same array of cassettes, i.e., aacC1, orfX, orfX', and aadA1a. As ribotype analysis of the isolates demonstrated a notable genetic diversity, horizontal transfer of the entire integron structure or ancient acquisition was hypothesized.  (+info)

Nosocomial infections caused by multidrug-resistant isolates of pseudomonas putida producing VIM-1 metallo-beta-lactamase. (6/493)

Successful carbapenem-based chemotherapy for the treatment of Pseudomonas infections has been seriously hindered by the recent appearance of IMP- and VIM-type metallo-beta-lactamases, which confer high-level resistance to carbapenems and most other beta-lactams. Recently, multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas putida isolates for which carbapenem MICs were >/=32 micro g/ml were recovered from cultures of urine from three inpatients in the general intensive care unit of the Ospedale di Circolo, Varese, Italy. Enzyme assays revealed production of a metallo-beta-lactamase activity, while molecular analysis detected in each isolate a bla(VIM-1) determinant carried by an apparently identical medium-sized plasmid. Conjugation experiments were unsuccessful in transferring the beta-lactamase determinant to Escherichia coli or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Macrorestriction analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis demonstrated that the isolates were of clonal origin. PCR mapping and sequencing of the variable region of the plasmid-borne class 1 integron carrying the bla(VIM-1) determinant (named In110) showed that the bla(VIM-1)-containing cassette was identical to that previously found in strains of different species from other Italian hospitals and that the cassette array of In110 was not identical but clearly related to that of In70 (a bla(VIM-1)-containing plasmid-borne integron from an Achromobacter xylosoxidans isolate), pointing to a common origin of this cassette and to a related evolutionary history of their cognate integrons.  (+info)

Tn5041-like transposons: molecular diversity, evolutionary relationships and distribution of distinct variants in environmental bacteria. (7/493)

A detailed study on the geographic distribution, molecular diversity and evolutionary relationships of 24 closely related variants of the Tn5041 transposon found among 182 mercury resistant environmental Gram-negative strains from the IMG-Hg Reference Collection is reported here. RFLP analysis, followed by the determination of partial DNA sequences, identified 14 distinct types of these transposons, which differed from each other by 1-7 single-event DNA polymorphisms. No polymorphisms were detected at the right arm of the transposons except an insertion of a new mobile DNA element carrying a mer operon (named the mer2 cassette) within the Tn5041 mer operon. According to the model presented here, the insertion occurred via homologous recombination with a circular form of the mer2 cassette. A total of 8 point mutations, 1 internal deletion, 2 end-involving deletions, 3 mosaic regions and 2 insertions were detected at the left arm of the transposons. The insertions were a transposon closely related to Tn21 but lacking the integron and a new group II intron (named INT5041C). Inspection of the geographic distribution of the Tn5041 variants suggested that at least three long-distance waves of dissemination of these variants had occurred, accompanied by homologous recombination between different Tn5041 lineages. Movements of circular DNAs by homologous recombination as a source of mosaic genes and new mer genes, and formation of unusual mosaics ending or beginning at the Tn5041 att site are discussed.  (+info)

In34, a complex In5 family class 1 integron containing orf513 and dfrA10. (8/493)

A complex class 1 integron, In34, found in a conjugative plasmid from a multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain isolated in 1997 at a hospital in Sydney, Australia, was shown to have a backbone related to that of In2, which belongs to the In5 family. In In34, the aadB gene cassette replaces the aadA1a cassette in In2, and two additional resistance genes, dfrA10 and aphA1, that are not part of a gene cassette are present. The aphA1 gene is in a Tn4352-like transposon that is located in the tniA gene. The dfrA10 gene lies adjacent to a 2,154-bp DNA segment, known as the common region, that contains an open reading frame predicting a product of 513 amino acids (Orf513). Orf513 is 66 and 55% identical to the products of two further open reading frames that, like the common region, are found adjacent to antibiotic resistance genes. A 27-bp conserved sequence was found at one end of each type of common region. The loss of dfrA10 due to homologous recombination between flanking direct repeats and incorporation of the excised circle by homologous recombination were demonstrated. Part of In34 is identical to the sequenced portion of In7, which is from a multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli strain that had been isolated 19 years earlier in the same hospital. In34 and In7 are in plasmids that contain the same six resistance genes conferring resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, tobramycin, trimethoprim, and sulfonamides, but the plasmid backbones appear to be unrelated, suggesting that translocation of a multiple-drug-resistance-determining region as well as horizontal transfer may have occurred.  (+info)

Some common types of Acinetobacter infections include:

1. Pneumonia: This is an infection of the lungs that can cause fever, cough, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
2. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): These are infections of the bladder, kidneys, or ureters that can cause symptoms such as burning during urination, frequent urination, and abdominal pain.
3. Bloodstream infections (sepsis): This is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when bacteria enter the bloodstream and cause widespread inflammation. Symptoms can include fever, chills, rapid heart rate, and shortness of breath.
4. Skin and soft tissue infections: These are infections of the skin and underlying tissues that can cause redness, swelling, warmth, and pain.
5. Bacteremia: This is a condition in which bacteria enter the bloodstream and cause an infection.
6. Endocarditis: This is an infection of the heart valves, which can cause symptoms such as fever, fatigue, and shortness of breath.

Acinetobacter infections are often caused by the bacteria entering the body through a wound or surgical incision. They can also be spread through contact with contaminated surfaces or equipment in healthcare settings.

Treatment of Acinetobacter infections typically involves the use of antibiotics, which may be administered intravenously or orally. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to remove infected tissue or repair damaged organs.

Prevention of Acinetobacter infections is important for reducing the risk of these infections occurring in healthcare settings. This can include proper hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and effective cleaning and disinfection of surfaces and equipment.

Overall, Acinetobacter infections are a significant concern in healthcare settings, and prompt recognition and treatment are critical for preventing serious complications and improving patient outcomes.

Prevention of Salmonella Infections includes proper food handling and storage practices, such as cooking foods to the correct temperature, storing foods at the right refrigerator temperature, and washing hands frequently. Vaccines are also available for people who are at high risk of developing severe Salmonella infections.

Complications of a Salmonella Infection can include dehydration, bacteremia (the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream), and meningitis (inflammation of the lining around the brain and spinal cord). In rare cases, a Salmonella infection can lead to long-term health problems such as irritable bowel syndrome or reactive arthritis.

Overall, prompt treatment and proper prevention measures are important for reducing the risk of complications from a Salmonella infection.

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Here are some common types of E. coli infections:

1. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): E. coli is a leading cause of UTIs, which occur when bacteria enter the urinary tract and cause inflammation. Symptoms include frequent urination, burning during urination, and cloudy or strong-smelling urine.
2. Diarrheal infections: E. coli can cause diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever if consumed through contaminated food or water. In severe cases, this type of infection can lead to dehydration and even death, particularly in young children and the elderly.
3. Septicemia (bloodstream infections): If E. coli bacteria enter the bloodstream, they can cause septicemia, a life-threatening condition that requires immediate medical attention. Symptoms include fever, chills, rapid heart rate, and low blood pressure.
4. Meningitis: In rare cases, E. coli infections can spread to the meninges, the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, causing meningitis. This is a serious condition that requires prompt treatment with antibiotics and supportive care.
5. Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS): E. coli infections can sometimes cause HUS, a condition where the bacteria destroy red blood cells, leading to anemia, kidney failure, and other complications. HUS is most common in young children and can be fatal if not treated promptly.

Preventing E. coli infections primarily involves practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly, especially after using the bathroom or before handling food. It's also essential to cook meat thoroughly, especially ground beef, to avoid cross-contamination with other foods. Avoiding unpasteurized dairy products and drinking contaminated water can also help prevent E. coli infections.

If you suspect an E. coli infection, seek medical attention immediately. Your healthcare provider may perform a urine test or a stool culture to confirm the diagnosis and determine the appropriate treatment. In mild cases, symptoms may resolve on their own within a few days, but antibiotics may be necessary for more severe infections. It's essential to stay hydrated and follow your healthcare provider's recommendations to ensure a full recovery.

The diagnosis of bacillary dysentery is based on a combination of clinical findings and laboratory tests, such as fecal cultures or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, which can shorten the duration of diarrhea and reduce the risk of complications. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage dehydration and other complications.
Prevention measures include maintaining good hygiene practices, such as washing hands after using the bathroom or before handling food, and avoiding contaminated water or food. Vaccines are also available for some types of Shigella infections.

Gram-negative bacterial infections can be difficult to treat because these bacteria are resistant to many antibiotics. In addition, some gram-negative bacteria produce enzymes called beta-lactamases, which break down the penicillin ring of many antibiotics, making them ineffective against the infection.

Some common types of gram-negative bacterial infections include:

* Pneumonia
* Urinary tract infections (UTIs)
* Bloodstream infections (sepsis)
* Meningitis
* Skin and soft tissue infections
* Respiratory infections, such as bronchitis and sinusitis

Examples of gram-negative bacteria that can cause infection include:

* Escherichia coli (E. coli)
* Klebsiella pneumoniae
* Pseudomonas aeruginosa
* Acinetobacter baumannii
* Proteus mirabilis

Gram-negative bacterial infections can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including blood cultures, urine cultures, and tissue samples. Treatment typically involves the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, such as carbapenems or cephalosporins, which are effective against many types of gram-negative bacteria. In some cases, the infection may require hospitalization and intensive care to manage complications such as sepsis or organ failure.

Prevention of gram-negative bacterial infections includes good hand hygiene, proper use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and appropriate use of antibiotics. In healthcare settings, infection control measures such as sterilization and disinfection of equipment, and isolation precautions for patients with known gram-negative bacterial infections can help prevent the spread of these infections.

Overall, gram-negative bacterial infections are a significant public health concern, and proper diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent complications and reduce the risk of transmission.

Some common types of Serratia infections include:

1. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): Serratia bacteria can infect the urinary tract and cause symptoms such as burning during urination, frequent urination, and abdominal pain.
2. Skin infections: Serratia bacteria can cause skin infections, including cellulitis and abscesses, which can lead to redness, swelling, and pain in the affected area.
3. Respiratory tract infections: Serratia bacteria can infect the lungs and cause pneumonia, which can lead to symptoms such as coughing, fever, and difficulty breathing.
4. Bloodstream infections (sepsis): Serratia bacteria can enter the bloodstream and cause sepsis, a serious condition that can lead to organ failure and death if left untreated.
5. Endocarditis: Serratia bacteria can infect the heart valves and cause endocarditis, which can lead to symptoms such as fever, fatigue, and difficulty swallowing.

Serratia infections are typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as blood cultures and urinalysis. Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics to eliminate the bacteria, and in severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the infection.

Preventive measures to reduce the risk of Serratia infections include practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly, avoiding close contact with individuals who are sick, and maintaining proper cleanliness and sterilization practices in healthcare settings. Vaccines are not available for Serratia infections, but research is ongoing to develop new antimicrobial therapies and vaccines to combat antibiotic-resistant bacteria like Serratia.

The term "Salmonella Infections, Animal" is used to distinguish these infections from Salmonella infections that are caused by contaminated food or water, which are referred to as "Salmonella Infections, Human."

Klebsiella Infections can occur in anyone, but certain groups of people are at higher risk, such as premature infants, people with weakened immune systems, and those with chronic medical conditions like diabetes, liver or kidney disease.

Symptoms of Klebsiella Infections include fever, chills, cough, difficulty breathing, painful urination, redness and swelling in the affected area, and in severe cases, sepsis and death.

Diagnosis of Klebsiella Infections is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as blood cultures and urine cultures.

Treatment of Klebsiella Infections usually involves antibiotics, which can help clear the infection and prevent it from spreading. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide appropriate care and monitoring.

Prevention of Klebsiella Infections includes good hand hygiene, proper cleaning and disinfection of equipment and surfaces, and avoiding close contact with individuals who have the infection. Vaccines are also available for certain types of Klebsiella Infections, such as pneumonia.

Complications of Klebsiella Infections can include pneumonia, urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections, and sepsis, which can lead to organ failure and death if left untreated.

Recovery from Klebsiella Infections usually occurs within a few days to a week after antibiotic treatment is started, but in severe cases, recovery may take longer and may require hospitalization and close monitoring.

In conclusion, Klebsiella Infections are a type of bacterial infection that can affect various parts of the body, and can be mild or severe. Prompt diagnosis and treatment with antibiotics are essential to prevent complications and ensure a successful recovery. Proper hygiene practices and vaccines are also important for preventing the spread of these infections.

In medicine, cross-infection refers to the transmission of an infectious agent from one individual or source to another, often through direct contact or indirect exposure. This type of transmission can occur in various settings, such as hospitals, clinics, and long-term care facilities, where patients with compromised immune systems are more susceptible to infection.

Cross-infection can occur through a variety of means, including:

1. Person-to-person contact: Direct contact with an infected individual, such as touching, hugging, or shaking hands.
2. Contaminated surfaces and objects: Touching contaminated surfaces or objects that have been touched by an infected individual, such as doorknobs, furniture, or medical equipment.
3. Airborne transmission: Inhaling droplets or aerosolized particles that contain the infectious agent, such as during coughing or sneezing.
4. Contaminated food and water: Consuming food or drinks that have been handled by an infected individual or contaminated with the infectious agent.
5. Insect vectors: Mosquitoes, ticks, or other insects can transmit infections through their bites.

Cross-infection is a significant concern in healthcare settings, as it can lead to outbreaks of nosocomial infections (infections acquired in hospitals) and can spread rapidly among patients, healthcare workers, and visitors. To prevent cross-infection, healthcare providers use strict infection control measures, such as wearing personal protective equipment (PPE), thoroughly cleaning and disinfecting surfaces, and implementing isolation precautions for infected individuals.

In summary, cross-infection refers to the transmission of an infectious agent from one individual or source to another, often through direct contact or indirect exposure in healthcare settings. Preventing cross-infection is essential to maintaining a safe and healthy environment for patients, healthcare workers, and visitors.

The term super-integron was first applied in 1998 (but without definition) to the integron with a long cassette array on the ... Integrons may be found as part of mobile genetic elements such as plasmids and transposons. Integrons can also be found in ... The term has since been used for integrons of various cassette array lengths or for integrons on bacterial chromosomes (versus ... In more modern usage, an integron located on a bacterial chromosome is termed a sedentary chromosomal integron, and one ...
Integrons: These are gene cassettes that usually carry antibiotic resistance genes to bacterial plasmids and transposons. ... Kovalevskaya NP (2002). "Mobile Gene Cassettes and Integrons". Molecular Biology. 36 (2): 196-201. doi:10.1023/A:1015361704475 ...
"Integron, LLC". www.integron.net. "Steve Negron - Ballotpedia". ballotpedia.org. "member". www.gencourt.state.nh.us. "State Rep ... Negron worked for defense contractors Lockheed Martin and General Dynamics before founding his own contracting firm Integron ...
Class 1 integrons are seen in a diverse group of bacterial genomes and likely are all descendant from one common ancestor. The ... The integron consists of a promoter, an attachment site, and an integrase gene that encodes a site-specific recombinase There ... Integrons are genetic structures in bacteria which express and are capable of acquiring and exchanging gene cassettes. ... Hall, R. M.; Brookes, D. E.; Stokes, H. W. (1991-08-01). "Site-specific insertion of genes into integrons: role of the 59-base ...
"KKORE Acquires Integron". BusinessWire. 2019-12-10. Retrieved 2022-04-14. PR Newswire (February 17, 2022). "KORE Doubles Down ... In December 2019, KORE announced its acquisition of Integron, an IoT solutions and managed services provider. In February 2022 ...
... stable genetic backbones called integrons that are responsible for moving the cassettes. The integron is also responsible for ... Hall, R; Collis, C; Partridge, S; Recchia, G; Stokes, H (1999). "Mobile gene cassettes and integrons in evolution". Ann. N. Y. ... gene cassettes and integrons. Gene cassettes are mobile genetic units each carrying only one gene which can be readily ... where she worked on integrons and antibiotic resistance genes which contributed to an understanding of how bacteria become ...
Examples of such systems include integrons and transposons. Most of the resistance plasmids are conjugative, meaning that they ...
Chen XL; Tang DJ; Jiang RP; He YQ; Jiang BL; Lu GT; Tang JL (2011). "sRNA-Xcc1, an integron-encoded transposon- and plasmid- ... sRNA-Xcc1 is encoded by a gene cassette in the integron of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris and homologs of sRNA-Xcc1 are ... campestris, sRNA-Xcc1 is encoded by an integron gene cassette and is under the positive control of the virulence regulators ... Gillings MR; Holley MP; Stokes HW; Holmes AJ (2005). "Integrons in Xanthomonas: a source of species genome diversity". Proc ...
... as well as the activation of integron integrases, potentially increasing the likelihood of acquisition and dissemination of ... "The SOS response controls integron recombination". Science. 324 (5930): 1034. doi:10.1126/science.1172914. PMID 19460999. S2CID ...
... and that antibiotics can induce the dissemination of resistance genes by inducing lateral gene transfer mediated by integrons ... "The SOS response controls integron recombination". Science. 324 (5930): 1034-1035. doi:10.1126/science.1172914. ISSN 2057-5858 ...
Both are integron-associated, sometimes within plasmids. Both hydrolyse all β-lactams except monobactams, and evade all β- ... December 2015). "Comparison of Verona Integron-Borne Metallo-β-Lactamase (VIM) Variants Reveals Differences in Stability and ...
This includes insertion sequences, bacteriophages, integrons, plasmids, genomic islands, and transposons. Within LAB, they are ...
Rojas, L; Vinuesa, T; Tubau, F; Truchero, C; Benz, R; Viñas, M (2006). "Integron presence in a multiresistant Morganella ...
As of release 1.2, Integrall contains ~4800 integron sequences. Transposable elements and Integrons in bacteria are a major ... Integrall is a database that seeks to document and annotate integrons and all other transposable elements that confer ... Thus, Integrall seeks to be a comprehensive and unified database that facilitates the understanding and usage of integron ... a database and search engine for integrons, integrases and gene cassettes". Bioinformatics. 25 (8): 1096-1098. doi:10.1093/ ...
... inhibitor Integron Beck BJ, Freudenreich O, Worth JL (2010). "Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection ...
This system is called the integron system, and produces natural gene shuffling. This method was used to construct and optimize ... coli by delivering individual recombination cassettes or trpA-E genes along with regulatory elements with the integron system.[ ...
Some TEs also contain integrons, genetic elements that can capture and express genes from other sources. These contain ...
Hu, Q; Hu, Z; Li, J; Tian, B; Xu, H; Li, J (2011). "Detection of OXA-type carbapenemases and integrons among carbapenem- ...
"Acquisition and transfer of antibiotic resistance genes in association with conjugative plasmid or class 1 integrons of ... be successfully transferred between the clinical and the environmental isolates via the plasmid group GR6 or class 1 integrons ...
... roles of integrons, efflux pumps, phosphoglucomutase (SpgM), and melanin and biofilm formation". International Journal of ...
Both of these enzymes, as well as the enzyme VIM (Verona Integron-Mediated Metallo-β-lactamase) have also been reported in ... They can mobilize bla genes through integrons or horizontal transfer of genomic islands into other Gram-negative species and ...
"Comparison of Verona Integron-Borne Metallo-β-Lactamase (VIM) Variants Reveals Differences in Stability and Inhibition Profiles ...
"Presence of a group II intron in a multiresistant Serratia marcescens strain that harbors three integrons and a novel gene ...
In addition, the transposon contains an integron, a DNA segment containing several cassettes of genes encoding for antibiotic- ...
"Oral spirochetes implicated in dental diseases are widespread in normal human subjects and carry extremely diverse integron ...
... as attC sites occur in integrons between a run of consecutive genes that have been taken up by the integron. attC sites are ... For this reason, it was proposed that DUF1874 motif examples likely function as "attC" sites as part of an integron, ... Although the arrangement of DUF1874 motif examples and genes is typical of integrons, no integrase gene was detected in the ... This absence could occur because the sequences are truncated in metagenomic contigs, because some integrons lack integrases or ...
"Molecular characteristics of class 1 and class 2 integrons and their relationships to antibiotic resistance in clinical ...
isolated from faeces of Equus kiang (Tibetan wild ass) and carrying a class 1 integron gene cassette in its genome". Journal of ...
Class I integron-borne bla VIM-1 carbapenemase in a strain of Enterobacter cloacae responsible for a case of fatal pneumonia. ... 11, 260-264 (2005). Giakkoupi P, Tzouvelekis LS, Tsakris A, Loukova V, Sofianou D, Tzelepi E. IBC-1, a novel integron- ... 63, 314-318 (2009). Galani I, Souli M, Chryssouli Z, Orlandou K, Giamarellou H. Characterization of a new integron containing ...
Site-specific recombination model which is based on the shared features between Helitrons and Integrons; Transposable element ...
One integron contained two cassettes, aac(6′)-IIc and ereA2. This was also the first finding of such an integron with a new ... Class 2 or 3 integrons were not detected. Cassette assortment in class 1 integrons was determined by using the primers 5′CS and ... This cassette was since described in class 1 integrons of clinical gram-negative isolates and recently in a class 2 integron in ... Ploy MC, Chainier D, Tran Thi NH, Poilane I, Cruaud P, Denis F, Integron-associated antibiotic resistance in Salmonella ...
Verona integron-mediated metallo-β-lactamase-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (N = 9) isolated from seven ... Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC), New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM), Verona integron-mediated metallo-β-lactamase ... Notes from the Field: Domestically Acquired Verona Integron-Mediated Metallo-β-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae - Indiana ... Beginning in January 2016, Verona integron-mediated metallo-β-lactamase (VIM) producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae ...
Integrons were detected in 59 of 120 (49%) urinary isolates of Enterobacteriaceae by PCR using degenerate primers targeted to ... Integrons and gene cassettes in the enterobacteriaceae P A White 1 , C J McIver, W D Rawlinson ... Integrons and gene cassettes in the enterobacteriaceae P A White et al. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2001 Sep. ... Integrons]. Köseoğlu O. Köseoğlu O. Mikrobiyol Bul. 2004 Jul;38(3):305-12. Mikrobiyol Bul. 2004. PMID: 15490852 Review. Turkish ...
The association of integrons with ESBLs is worrisome and has an impact on the development of multidrug resistance. ... Of note, Class 1 integrons tended to be associated with the presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). A variety of ... In the present study, Class 1 and 2 integrons present in 355 pathogenic Escherichia coli (285 diarrheagenic, of these 129 were ... Class 1 and 2 integrons were detected in diarrheagenic and bacteremic E. coli, demonstrating the heterogeneity of variable ...
Clonal expansion and horizontal gene transfer may contribute to the spread of antimicrobial drug-resistance integrons in these ... partly as a result of genes carried on integrons. ... Four integrons, dfrA12/orfF/aadA2, dfrA1/aadA1, dfrA7, and arr2 ... Integron-mediated multidrug resistance in a global collection of nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica isolates Mary G Krauland 1 , ... Integron-mediated multidrug resistance in a global collection of nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica isolates Mary G Krauland et ...
Integron_BelevingAwards2023_blokkenschema_liggend. Home/Integron 30 jaar Festival - BelevingAwards 2023/Integron_ ...
In 82 multidrug resistant bacterial isolates, the prevalence of both the conserved elements of the integrons, qacEΔ1 and sul1 ... Additionally, it was possible to determine that these integrons are contained in plasmids and coul be easily transferred. ... The main objective of this study was the genetic characterization of clinically relevant class 1 integrons carried by multidrug ... Genetic characterization of clinically relevant class 1 integrons carried by multidrug resistant bacteria (MDRB) isolated from ...
From those studies, the pooled prevalence of integrons was 33% (95% CI, 23.8-43.7%) ranging from 23.8 to 52.4%. There was a ... Accordingly, this review aims to investigate the prevalence of class 1 integron in E. coli isolated from animal sources in Iran ... Our finding revealed the relatively high prevalence of class 1 integrons among E. coli isolates. Moreover, there was a ... among studies and subgroup analysis also showed that there was no difference about prevalence of class 1 integrons among ...
Genetic relatedness among isolates of Shigella sonnei carrying class 2 integrons in Tehran, Iran, 2002-2003. BMC Infect. Dis. 7 ...
Integrons]. Köseoğlu O. Köseoğlu O. Mikrobiyol Bul. 2004 Jul;38(3):305-12. Mikrobiyol Bul. 2004. PMID: 15490852 Review. Turkish ... Mobile genetic elements such as transposons and integrons have been strongly associated with the rapid spread of genes ...
Quantification of the mobile genetic element class 1 integron-integrase gene (intI1) has been proposed as a surrogate to ... MeSH Terms: Drug Resistance, Microbial*; Environmental Monitoring*; Humans; Integrases/genetics*; Integrons; RNA, Ribosomal, ...
This qnrVC1 was in a typical class 1 integron. Its attC showed 89% identity with V. parahaemolyticus superintegron repeats. ...
A novel, integron-regulated, class c β-lactamase Maria-Elisabeth Böhm, Mohammad Razavi, Carl-Fredrik Flach, D. G. Joakim ... Discovery of a novel integron-borne aminoglycoside resistance gene present in clinical pathogens by screening environmental ...
7. [Integron diversity in bla. Savinova TA; Bocharova YA; Lazareva AV; Chebotar IV; Mayanskiy NA. Klin Lab Diagn; 2019; 64(8): ... Genotypes, carbapenemase carriage, integron diversity and oprD alterations among carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa ...
Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) confer resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins, a major class of clinical antimicrobial drugs. We used genomic analysis to investigate whether domestic food animals, retail meat, and pets were reservoirs of ESBL-producing Salmonella for human infection in Canada. Of 30,303 Salmonella isolates tested during 2012-2016, we detected 95 ESBL producers. ESBL serotypes and alleles were mostly different between humans (n = 54) and animals/meat (n = 41). Two exceptions were bla, and bla, IncI1 plasmids, which were found in both sources. A subclade of S. enterica serovar Heidelberg isolates carrying the same IncI1-bla, plasmid differed by only 1-7 single nucleotide variants. The most common ESBL producer in humans was Salmonella Infantis carrying bla,, which has since emerged in poultry in other countries. There were few instances of similar isolates and plasmids, suggesting that domestic animals and retail meat might have been minor reservoirs of ...
2016). Architecture of class 1, 2, and 3 integrons from gram negative bacteria recovered among fruits and vegetables. Front. ...
Importance of integrons in the diffusion of resistance Vet. Res. 32, 243-259 (2001). ...
While still uncommon, reports of unusual forms of CRE (e.g., New Delhi Metallo-Plactamase and Verona Integron-mediated Metallo- ...
It is also related to the individuals bacterial gene pool, since resistance carried on plasmids and integrons can be ...
Integron and omics based acceleratation of industrial strain development BBSRC award to University of Edinburgh and Susan Jane ... Integron and omics based acceleratation of industrial strain development BBSRC award to University of Glasgow and Susan Jane ... Sandpit: Synthetic integrons for continuous directed evolution of complex genetic ensembles EPSRC award to University of ...
"While still uncommon, reports of unusual forms of CRE (e.g., New Delhi Metallo-β-lactamase and Verona Integron-mediated Metallo ...
Integrons Preferred Term Term UI T463331. Date09/26/2001. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (2003). ... Integrons Preferred Concept UI. M0399675. Scope Note. DNA elements that include the component genes and insertion site for a ... Integrons. Tree Number(s). G02.111.570.080.708.330.200.500. Unique ID. D032023. RDF Unique Identifier. http://id.nlm.nih.gov/ ...
Novel 3-N-aminoglycoside acetyltransferase gene, aac(3)-Ic, from a Pseudomonas aeruginosa integron ...
This finding can be explained by the fact the MBL genes are harboured in mobile genetic elements and integrons [42]. The same ... Characterization of class 1 integrons from Pseudomonas aeruginosa that contain the blaVIM-2 carbapenem-hydrolyzing beta- ... it can acquire resistance via mutations and harbouring integrons with multiple resistance genes such as those coding for ...
The fate of antibiotic resistance genes and class 1 integrons following the application of swine and dairy manure to soils. ...
This chromosome contains an integron island of size 125.3 kbp, which includes genes VCA0271 to VCA0491 [19]. For the analysis, ... belonging to the integron island) from chromosome two of V. cholerae. For each gene, the indicators codon usage contrast (CU), ... for the propagation of extended clusters was inferred from the analysis of the integron island on chromosome two of V. cholerae ... The exact value of this parameter did not critically influence the identification and localization of the integron island ( ...
Recombination of integron cassettes: in vivo and in vitro dynamics ... Blanc - SVSE 3 - Microbiologie, immunologie, ...
During June 2017-November 2019, a total 36 patients with carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa harboring Verona-integron- ...
Integrons are major genetic element, notorious for their major implication in the spread of antibiotic resistance genes. More ... IntegronFinder v1.5.2 is able to detect with high accuracy integron in DNA sequences. Its detection methods use HMM profiles ... for the detection of the essential protein, the site-specific integron integrase and use Covariance Models for the detection of ... generally, integrons are gene-capturing platform, whose broader evolutionary role remains poorly understood. ...
  • Integrons are assembly platforms - DNA elements that acquire open reading frames embedded in exogenous gene cassettes and convert them to functional genes by ensuring their correct expression. (nih.gov)
  • Strains were screened for the integrons by polymerase chain reaction by using three sets of primers specific for the intI1, intI2, and intI3 genes coding for the integrase as described previously ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Salmonella enterica bacteria have become increasingly resistant to antimicrobial agents, partly as a result of genes carried on integrons. (nih.gov)
  • 7. Prevalence of dfr genes associated with integrons and dissemination of dfrA17 among urinary isolates of Escherichia coli in Korea. (nih.gov)
  • 8. Multidrug resistance, prevalence and phylogenetic analysis of genes encoding class II and III integrons in clinically isolated Escherichia coli. (nih.gov)
  • According to the importance of integrons in acquisition and dissemination of antibiotics resistance genes among these pathogens, so, the performance of antibiotic surveillance programs is recommended for control the spreading of antibiotics resistance genes. (longdom.org)
  • In addition, long-read sequencing of one representative XDR ST235 isolate identified an integron carrying multiple resistance genes (including bla VIM-2), with differences in gene composition and synteny from the P. aeruginosa class 1 integrons described previously. (who.int)
  • The cassette aac (6′) -IIc was previously described in a single class 1 integron in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (AF162771). (cdc.gov)
  • We evaluated the contribution of integrons to the antimicrobial drug resistance of eight isolates of S. enterica serovar Keurmassar sent to the Senegalese National Salmonella and Shigella Reference Laboratory at the Pasteur Institute in Dakar from March to May 2000. (cdc.gov)
  • This cassette was since described in class 1 integrons of clinical gram-negative isolates and recently in a class 2 integron in Escherichia coli ( 9 ). (cdc.gov)
  • We investigated this resistance and integron carriage among 90 isolates with the ACSSuT phenotype (resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline) in a global collection of S. enterica isolates. (nih.gov)
  • Four integrons, dfrA12/orfF/aadA2, dfrA1/aadA1, dfrA7, and arr2/blaOXA30/cmlA5/aadA2, were found in genetically unrelated isolates from 8 countries on 4 continents, which supports a role for horizontal gene transfer in the global dissemination of S. enterica multidrug resistance. (nih.gov)
  • Serovar Typhimurium isolates containing identical integrons with the gene cassettes blaPSE1 and aadA2 were found in 4 countries on 3 continents, which supports the role of clonal expansion. (nih.gov)
  • Additionally, we investigated the evolution and expansion of IS26 integrons in carbapenem -resistant K. pneumoniae isolates using long-read sequencing. (bvsalud.org)
  • 9. Prevalence of Class 1 Integrons and Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases among Multi-Drug Resistant Escherichia coli Isolates from North of Iran. (nih.gov)
  • Our results showed relevance among class 1 and 2 integrons and MDR P. aeruginosa isolates. (longdom.org)
  • Integrons are efficient gene-capture systems by site-specific recombination and are involved in antimicrobial-drug resistance in gram-negative bacteria ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Clonal expansion and horizontal gene transfer may contribute to the spread of antimicrobial drug-resistance integrons in these organisms. (nih.gov)
  • 1. The Escherichia coli phylogenetic group B2 with integrons prevails in childhood recurrent urinary tract infections. (nih.gov)
  • 3. Distribution of integron-associated trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance determinants among Escherichia coli from humans and food-producing animals. (nih.gov)
  • 5. Integrons and antibiotic resistance in phylogenetic group B2 Escherichia coli. (nih.gov)
  • 11. The presence of antibiotic resistance and integrons in Escherichia coli isolated from compost. (nih.gov)
  • 14. Integron-mediated ESBL resistance in rare serotypes of Escherichia coli causing infections in an elderly population of Israel. (nih.gov)
  • The integron/gene cassette system: an active player in bacterial adaptation. (nih.gov)
  • All these integrons, except that of serovar Infantis, contained a streptomycin-spectinomycin resistance determinant, aadA2 or mostly aadA1 , alone or in combination with other gene cassettes. (cdc.gov)
  • Quantification of the mobile genetic element class 1 integron-integrase gene (intI1) has been proposed as a surrogate to measuring multiple ARGs. (nih.gov)
  • PCR was carried out to detect the tox-A, class 1 and 2 integrons gene using the specific primers. (longdom.org)
  • To determine whether the resistance determinants carried by the integrons were transferable, we performed a conjugation experiment from S. enterica serovar Keurmassar to an E. coli strain resistant to nalidixic acid. (cdc.gov)
  • The role of integrons in the transfer of antibiotic resistance is one of the important issues, therefore, this study is aimed to investigate antibiotic resistance pattern and prevalence of class 1 and 2 integrons in P.aeruginosa isolated of nosocomial infection. (longdom.org)
  • RÉSUMÉ La présente étude visait à caractériser des isolats de P. aeruginosa dans deux unités de soins intensifs en Arabie saoudite et en Égypte. (who.int)
  • We first used a selective medium containing nalidixic acid 50 μg/mL plus 25 μg/mL of streptomycin, one of the two integrons carrying the aadA2 cassette. (cdc.gov)
  • Beginning in January 2016, Verona integron-mediated metallo-β-lactamase (VIM) producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) were identified in Indiana. (cdc.gov)
  • VIM, Verona integron‒encoded metallo-β-lactamase. (medscape.org)
  • New Delhi Metallo-β-lactamase and Verona Integron-mediated Metallo-β-lactamase) in the United States are increasing," the advisory states. (medscape.com)
  • Class 2 or 3 integrons were not detected. (cdc.gov)
  • Cassette assortment in class 1 integrons was determined by using the primers 5′CS and 3′CS complementary to the 5′ and 3′ segments as described previously ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • With these primers, we obtained two amplification products of 1 kb and 1.7 kb for each strain, which suggested that all strains contained at least two class 1 integrons. (cdc.gov)
  • The ereA2 cassette was first described in Providencia stuartii ( 8 ) in a class 1 integron. (cdc.gov)
  • Our range of products include cd16 - multi-variable chemical indicator for eto (fda) type 4, cd20 - multi-variable chemical indicator for steam type 4, integron chemical indicator, it12 - chemical integrator for eto (fda) - class 5, it26-c - chemical integrator for steam (fda) type 5 and it27-7ys-emulator indicator for steam-type 6 chemical indicator. (starlinksresources.co.in)
  • Integrons have been found in different nontyphoidal serovars of S. enterica and recently in serovar Typhimurium ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In bacterial genomes, they play a major role in the comings and goings of mobile genetic elements (MGEs), such as temperate phage genomes, integrated conjugative elements (ICEs) or integron cassettes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • More recently, our understanding of their importance in bacterial genome evolution has broadened with the discovery of larger integron structures, termed superintegrons. (nih.gov)
  • In July 2010, CDC was notified of a patient with a carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain that produced a Verona integron-encoded metallo-beta-lactamase (VIM) carbapenemase [ 1 ] not reported previously among Enterobacteriaceae in the United States. (medscape.com)
  • Integrons are efficient gene-capture systems by site-specific recombination and are involved in antimicrobial-drug resistance in gram-negative bacteria ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • From the Latin integrare (to make whole), integrons are systems for capturing and spreading antibiotic resistance genes among gram-negative bacteria. (cdc.gov)
  • Integrons are ancient structures that have been present in bacteria for millions of years, indicating that bacteria had the means of acquiring and disseminating antibiotic resistance long before humans developed antibiotics. (cdc.gov)
  • Three classes of integrons are well characterized and are involved in antimicrobial resistance. (cdc.gov)
  • All these integrons, except that of serovar Infantis, contained a streptomycin-spectinomycin resistance determinant, aadA2 or mostly aadA1 , alone or in combination with other gene cassettes. (cdc.gov)
  • To determine whether the resistance determinants carried by the integrons were transferable, we performed a conjugation experiment from S. enterica serovar Keurmassar to an E. coli strain resistant to nalidixic acid. (cdc.gov)
  • Integrons were first described by Stokes and Hall in 1989, although they clearly contributed to the first outbreaks of multidrug resistance in the 1950s. (cdc.gov)
  • The gene cassette arrays of class 2 integrons were determined by PCR - RFLP and Sanger sequencing or next-generation sequencing when needed. (bvsalud.org)
  • We showed a high frequency of class 2 integrons , as well as a diversity of gene cassette arrays, among Proteae. (bvsalud.org)
  • Mazel D . Integrons: agents of bacterial evolution. (cdc.gov)
  • A novel family of potentially mobile DNA elements encoding site-specific gene-integration functions: integrons. (cdc.gov)