Insulinoma: A benign tumor of the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS. Insulinoma secretes excess INSULIN resulting in HYPOGLYCEMIA.Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Adenoma, Islet Cell: A benign tumor of the pancreatic ISLET CELLS. Usually it involves the INSULIN-producing PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, as in INSULINOMA, resulting in HYPERINSULINISM.Islets of Langerhans Transplantation: The transference of pancreatic islets within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Carcinoma, Islet Cell: A primary malignant neoplasm of the pancreatic ISLET CELLS. Usually it involves the non-INSULIN-producing cell types, the PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and the pancreatic delta cells (SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS) in GLUCAGONOMA and SOMATOSTATINOMA, respectively.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Insulin-Secreting Cells: A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.Carcinoma in Situ: A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Islet Amyloid Polypeptide: A pancreatic beta-cell hormone that is co-secreted with INSULIN. It displays an anorectic effect on nutrient metabolism by inhibiting gastric acid secretion, gastric emptying and postprandial GLUCAGON secretion. Islet amyloid polypeptide can fold into AMYLOID FIBRILS that have been found as a major constituent of pancreatic AMYLOID DEPOSITS.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Glucagon: A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Carcinoma, Papillary: A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Glucagonoma: An almost always malignant GLUCAGON-secreting tumor derived from the PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS. It is characterized by a distinctive migratory ERYTHEMA; WEIGHT LOSS; STOMATITIS; GLOSSITIS; DIABETES MELLITUS; hypoaminoacidemia; and normochromic normocytic ANEMIA.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Hypoglycemia: A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.Nesidioblastosis: An inherited autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by the disorganized formation of new islets in the PANCREAS and CONGENITAL HYPERINSULINISM. It is due to focal hyperplasia of pancreatic ISLET CELLS budding off from the ductal structures and forming new islets of Langerhans. Mutations in the islet cells involve the potassium channel gene KCNJ11 or the ATP-binding cassette transporter gene ABCC8, both on CHROMOSOME 11.Proinsulin: A pancreatic polypeptide of about 110 amino acids, depending on the species, that is the precursor of insulin. Proinsulin, produced by the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, is comprised sequentially of the N-terminal B-chain, the proteolytically removable connecting C-peptide, and the C-terminal A-chain. It also contains three disulfide bonds, two between A-chain and B-chain. After cleavage at two locations, insulin and C-peptide are the secreted products. Intact proinsulin with low bioactivity also is secreted in small amounts.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Somatostatin: A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.Pancreatectomy: Surgical removal of the pancreas. (Dorland, 28th ed)Glucagon-Secreting Cells: A type of pancreatic cell representing about 5-20% of the islet cells. Alpha cells secrete GLUCAGON.Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast: An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Carcinoma, Basal Cell: A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471)Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 8: A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain an extracellular RDGS-adhesion recognition motif and a single cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphate domain.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Streptozocin: An antibiotic that is produced by Stretomyces achromogenes. It is used as an antineoplastic agent and to induce diabetes in experimental animals.Carcinoma, Transitional Cell: A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.C-Peptide: The middle segment of proinsulin that is between the N-terminal B-chain and the C-terminal A-chain. It is a pancreatic peptide of about 31 residues, depending on the species. Upon proteolytic cleavage of proinsulin, equimolar INSULIN and C-peptide are released. C-peptide immunoassay has been used to assess pancreatic beta cell function in diabetic patients with circulating insulin antibodies or exogenous insulin. Half-life of C-peptide is 30 min, almost 8 times that of insulin.Carcinoma, Bronchogenic: Malignant neoplasm arising from the epithelium of the BRONCHI. It represents a large group of epithelial lung malignancies which can be divided into two clinical groups: SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER and NON-SMALL-CELL LUNG CARCINOMA.Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating: A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma.Mice, Inbred NOD: A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.Glucose Transporter Type 2: A glucose transport facilitator that is expressed primarily in PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; LIVER; and KIDNEYS. It may function as a GLUCOSE sensor to regulate INSULIN release and glucose HOMEOSTASIS.Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic: Carcinoma characterized by bands or cylinders of hyalinized or mucinous stroma separating or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells. When the cylinders occur within masses of epithelial cells, they give the tissue a perforated, sievelike, or cribriform appearance. Such tumors occur in the mammary glands, the mucous glands of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and the salivary glands. They are malignant but slow-growing, and tend to spread locally via the nerves. (Dorland, 27th ed)Pancreatic Ducts: Ducts that collect PANCREATIC JUICE from the PANCREAS and supply it to the DUODENUM.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Tolbutamide: A sulphonylurea hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROPAMIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290)Carcinoma, Small Cell: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)Pancreatic Polypeptide: A 36-amino acid pancreatic hormone that is secreted mainly by endocrine cells found at the periphery of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS and adjacent to cells containing SOMATOSTATIN and GLUCAGON. Pancreatic polypeptide (PP), when administered peripherally, can suppress gastric secretion, gastric emptying, pancreatic enzyme secretion, and appetite. A lack of pancreatic polypeptide (PP) has been associated with OBESITY in rats and mice.Carcinoma, Medullary: A carcinoma composed mainly of epithelial elements with little or no stroma. Medullary carcinomas of the breast constitute 5%-7% of all mammary carcinomas; medullary carcinomas of the thyroid comprise 3%-10% of all thyroid malignancies. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1141; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Carcinoma, Lobular: A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Pancreatic Hormones: Peptide hormones secreted into the blood by cells in the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS of the pancreas. The alpha cells secrete glucagon; the beta cells secrete insulin; the delta cells secrete somatostatin; and the PP cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine: A group of carcinomas which share a characteristic morphology, often being composed of clusters and trabecular sheets of round "blue cells", granular chromatin, and an attenuated rim of poorly demarcated cytoplasm. Neuroendocrine tumors include carcinoids, small ("oat") cell carcinomas, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, Merkel cell tumor, cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic islet cell tumors, and pheochromocytoma. Neurosecretory granules are found within the tumor cells. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Glutamate Decarboxylase: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC 4.1.1.15.Insulin Antibodies: Antibodies specific to INSULIN.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Diazoxide: A benzothiadiazine derivative that is a peripheral vasodilator used for hypertensive emergencies. It lacks diuretic effect, apparently because it lacks a sulfonamide group.Octreotide: A potent, long-acting synthetic SOMATOSTATIN octapeptide analog that inhibits secretion of GROWTH HORMONE and is used to treat hormone-secreting tumors; DIABETES MELLITUS; HYPOTENSION, ORTHOSTATIC; HYPERINSULINISM; hypergastrinemia; and small bowel fistula.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Glucokinase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and D-glucose to ADP and D-glucose 6-phosphate. They are found in invertebrates and microorganisms, and are highly specific for glucose. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.2.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Somatostatin-Secreting Cells: Endocrine cells found throughout the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and in islets of the PANCREAS. D cells secrete SOMATOSTATIN that acts in both an endocrine and paracrine manner. Somatostatin acts on a variety of tissues including the PITUITARY GLAND; gastrointestinal tract; pancreas; and KIDNEY by inhibiting the release of hormones, such as GROWTH HORMONE; GASTRIN; INSULIN; and RENIN.Glucagon-Like Peptide 1: A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Receptors, Glucagon: Cell surface receptors that bind glucagon with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Activation of glucagon receptors causes a variety of effects; the best understood is the initiation of a complex enzymatic cascade in the liver which ultimately increases the availability of glucose to body organs.Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid: A tumor of both low- and high-grade malignancy. The low-grade grow slowly, appear in any age group, and are readily cured by excision. The high-grade behave aggressively, widely infiltrate the salivary gland and produce lymph node and distant metastases. Mucoepidermoid carcinomas account for about 21% of the malignant tumors of the parotid gland and 10% of the sublingual gland. They are the most common malignant tumor of the parotid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Carcinoma, Adenosquamous: A mixed adenocarcinoma and squamous cell or epidermoid carcinoma.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Receptors, Somatostatin: Cell surface proteins that bind somatostatin and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Somatostatin is a hypothalamic hormone, a pancreatic hormone, and a central and peripheral neurotransmitter. Activated somatostatin receptors on pituitary cells inhibit the release of growth hormone; those on endocrine and gastrointestinal cells regulate the absorption and utilization of nutrients; and those on neurons mediate somatostatin's role as a neurotransmitter.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Chromogranins: A group of acidic proteins that are major components of SECRETORY GRANULES in the endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. They play important roles in the aggregation, packaging, sorting, and processing of secretory protein prior to secretion. They are cleaved to release biologically active peptides. There are various types of granins, usually classified by their sources.Carcinoma, Endometrioid: An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of cells resembling the glandular cells of the ENDOMETRIUM. It is a common histological type of ovarian CARCINOMA and ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMA. There is a high frequency of co-occurrence of this form of adenocarcinoma in both tissues.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Hyperinsulinism: A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.Carcinoma, Embryonal: A highly malignant, primitive form of carcinoma, probably of germinal cell or teratomatous derivation, usually arising in a gonad and rarely in other sites. It is rare in the female ovary, but in the male it accounts for 20% of all testicular tumors. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1595)GlyceraldehydeAlloxanAutoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Pancreatic Diseases: Pathological processes of the PANCREAS.Mice, Inbred C57BLEsophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Mouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Carcinoma, Merkel Cell: A carcinoma arising from MERKEL CELLS located in the basal layer of the epidermis and occurring most commonly as a primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. Merkel cells are tactile cells of neuroectodermal origin and histologically show neurosecretory granules. The skin of the head and neck are a common site of Merkel cell carcinoma, occurring generally in elderly patients. (Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1245)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Group VI Phospholipases A2: A calcium-independent phospholipase A2 group that may play a role in membrane phospholipid remodeling and homeostasis by controling the levels of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE in mammalian cell membranes.Carcinoma, Ductal: Malignant neoplasms involving the ductal systems of any of a number of organs, such as the MAMMARY GLANDS, the PANCREAS, the PROSTATE, or the LACRIMAL GLAND.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1: A form of multiple endocrine neoplasia that is characterized by the combined occurrence of tumors in the PARATHYROID GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, and the PANCREATIC ISLETS. The resulting clinical signs include HYPERPARATHYROIDISM; HYPERCALCEMIA; HYPERPROLACTINEMIA; CUSHING DISEASE; GASTRINOMA; and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. This disease is due to loss-of-function of the MEN1 gene, a tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) on CHROMOSOME 11 (Locus: 11q13).Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Adrenocortical Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.Proprotein Convertase 2: A serine endopeptidase that has specificity for cleavage at ARGININE. It cleaves a variety of prohormones including PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN, proluteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone, proenkephalins, prodynorphin, and PROINSULIN.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Carcinoma, Verrucous: A variant of well-differentiated epidermoid carcinoma that is most common in the oral cavity, but also occurs in the larynx, nasal cavity, esophagus, penis, anorectal region, vulva, vagina, uterine cervix, and skin, especially on the sole of the foot. Most intraoral cases occur in elderly male abusers of smokeless tobacco. The treatment is surgical resection. Radiotherapy is not indicated, as up to 30% treated with radiation become highly aggressive within six months. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell: A poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in which the nucleus is pressed to one side by a cytoplasmic droplet of mucus. It usually arises in the gastrointestinal system.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Calcium Gluconate: The calcium salt of gluconic acid. The compound has a variety of uses, including its use as a calcium replenisher in hypocalcemic states.Venoms: Poisonous animal secretions forming fluid mixtures of many different enzymes, toxins, and other substances. These substances are produced in specialized glands and secreted through specialized delivery systems (nematocysts, spines, fangs, etc.) for disabling prey or predator.Amyloid: A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of AMYLOID PLAQUES are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Neuroendocrine Tumors: Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via APUD CELLS), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Carcinoma, Large Cell: A tumor of undifferentiated (anaplastic) cells of large size. It is usually bronchogenic. (From Dorland, 27th ed)DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.Subrenal Capsule Assay: In vivo method of screening investigative anticancer drugs and biologic response modifiers for individual cancer patients. Fresh tumor tissue is implanted under the kidney capsule of immunocompetent mice or rats; gross and histological assessments follow several days after tumor treatment in situ.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Rats, Inbred BB: A strain of Rattus norvegicus which is a model for spontaneous insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, INSULIN-DEPENDENT).Apudoma: A general term collectively applied to tumors associated with the APUD CELLS series, irrespective of their specific identification.Chromogranin A: A type of chromogranin which was first isolated from CHROMAFFIN CELLS of the ADRENAL MEDULLA but is also found in other tissues and in many species including human, bovine, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 431 to 445 amino acid residues. It contains fragments that inhibit vasoconstriction or release of hormones and neurotransmitter, while other fragments exert antimicrobial actions.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Laryngeal Neoplasms: Cancers or tumors of the LARYNX or any of its parts: the GLOTTIS; EPIGLOTTIS; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; LARYNGEAL MUSCLES; and VOCAL CORDS.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Secretagogins: Secretagogins are EF HAND MOTIF-containing calcium-binding proteins that are involved in early neuronal migration and neurogenesis. They are also present in many adult organs and in brain and endocrine neoplasms.
... islet cell MeSH C19.344.421.249.500 --- insulinoma MeSH C19.344.421.500 --- carcinoma, islet cell MeSH C19.344.421.500.124 --- ... carcinoma, endometrioid MeSH C19.391.630.705.398 --- granulosa cell tumor MeSH C19.391.630.705.464 --- luteoma MeSH C19.391. ... granulosa cell tumor MeSH C19.344.410.464 --- luteoma MeSH C19.344.410.531 --- meigs syndrome MeSH C19.344.410.648 --- sertoli- ... sertoli-leydig cell tumor MeSH C19.344.894.800 --- thyroid nodule MeSH C19.391.482.293 --- eunuchism MeSH C19.391.482.600 --- ...
... islet cell MeSH C06.301.761.249.500 --- insulinoma MeSH C06.301.761.500 --- carcinoma, islet cell MeSH C06.301.761.500.124 --- ... islet cell MeSH C06.689.667.249.500 --- insulinoma MeSH C06.689.667.500 --- carcinoma, islet cell MeSH C06.689.667.500.124 --- ... liver cell MeSH C06.301.623.160 --- carcinoma, hepatocellular MeSH C06.301.623.460 --- liver neoplasms, experimental MeSH ... liver cell MeSH C06.552.697.160 --- carcinoma, hepatocellular MeSH C06.552.697.580 --- liver neoplasms, experimental MeSH ...
Islet cell adenoma or adenomatosis Islet cell carcinoma Adult nesidioblastosis Autoimmune insulin syndrome Noninsulinoma ... Acquired forms of hyperinsulinism Insulinomas (insulin-secreting tumors) ... Streptozotocin is a specific beta cell toxin and has been used to treat insulin-producing pancreatic carcinoma. Hyperinsulinism ... due to diffuse overactivity of beta cells, such as in many of the forms of congenital hyperinsulinism, and more rarely in ...
Streptozotocin is used in islet cell carcinomas which produce excessive insulin. Combination chemotherapy is used, either ... insulinoma is the only subtype of "islet cell adenoma". Beta cells secrete insulin in response to increases in blood glucose. ... Insulinoma is one of the most common types of tumors arising from the islets of Langerhans cells (pancreatic endocrine tumors ... The first report of a surgical cure of hypoglycemia by removing an islet cell tumour was in 1929. An insulinoma removed from a ...
Aggressive PanNET tumors have traditionally been termed "islet cell carcinoma". PanNETs are quite distinct from the usual form ... Grant C (2005). "Insulinoma". Best Practice & Research Clinical Gastroenterology. 19 (5): 783-798. doi:10.1016/j.bpg.2005.05. ... "islet cell tumors",[1][2] or "pancreatic endocrine tumors"[3][4] are neuroendocrine neoplasms that arise from cells of the ... "islet cell tumors". The high grade subtype, termed neuroendocrine cancer (NEC) in the WHO scheme, is synonymous with "islet ...
Aggressive PanNET tumors have traditionally been termed "islet cell carcinoma". PanNETs are quite distinct from the usual form ... Grant C (2005). "Insulinoma". Best Practice & Research Clinical Gastroenterology. 19 (5): 783-798. doi:10.1016/j.bpg.2005.05. ... "islet cell carcinoma". Some PanNETs do not cause any symptoms, in which case they may be discovered incidentally on a CT scan ... "islet cell tumors", or "pancreatic endocrine tumors" are neuroendocrine neoplasms that arise from cells of the endocrine ( ...
Octreotide is used for suppression of the hormonal syndromes which accompany several pancreatic islet cell tumors, including ... including renal cell carcinoma and melanoma. List of hormonal alkylating antineoplastic agents DeVita, Vincent T.; Hellman, ... the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome of gastrinoma and the chronic hypoglycemia of insulinoma. It is also effective in suppression of ... The target recepetor may be on the cell surface, as in the case of peptide and glycoprotein hormones, or it may be ...
M8150/3 Islet cell carcinoma (C25._) Islet cell adenocarcinoma (M8151/0) Insulinoma, NOS (C25._) Beta cell adenoma M8151/3 ... NOS Reserve cell carcinoma Round cell carcinoma Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma M8042/3 Oat cell carcinoma (C34._) M8043/3 ... fusiform cell M8044/3 Small cell carcinoma, intermediate cell M8045/3 Combined small cell carcinoma Mixed small cell carcinoma ... Pleomorphic carcinoma M8030/3 Giant cell and spindle cell carcinoma M8031/3 Giant cell carcinoma M8032/3 Spindle cell carcinoma ...
... islet cell MeSH C04.588.274.761.249.500 --- insulinoma MeSH C04.588.274.761.500 --- carcinoma, islet cell MeSH C04.588.274.761. ... islet cell MeSH C04.588.322.421.249.500 --- insulinoma MeSH C04.588.322.421.500 --- carcinoma, islet cell MeSH C04.588.322.421. ... carcinoma, large cell MeSH C04.557.470.200.280 --- carcinoma, lewis lung MeSH C04.557.470.200.300 --- carcinoma, non-small-cell ... islet cell MeSH C04.557.470.035.100.852 --- insulinoma MeSH C04.557.470.035.120 --- adenoma, liver cell MeSH C04.557.470.035. ...
Other exocrine cancers include adenosquamous carcinomas, signet ring cell carcinomas, hepatoid carcinomas, colloid carcinomas, ... PanNETs are sometimes called "islet cell cancers", even though it is now known that they do not actually arise from islet cells ... The most common functioning PanNETs are insulinomas and gastrinomas, named after the hormones they secrete. The non-functioning ... The next most common type, acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas, arises in the clusters of cells that produce these enzymes, ...
Papilloma/carcinoma. (8010-8139). *Small cell carcinoma. *Combined small cell carcinoma. *Verrucous carcinoma ... In 1953 Underdahl et al. reported a case series of 8 patients with a syndrome of pituitary, parathyroid, and pancreatic islet ... insulinoma (20%[4]), VIPoma, glucagonoma, PPoma - - - Pituitary adenoma 66%[4] - - - Angiofibroma 64%*[5] - - - ... that occurs in the predisposed endocrine cell as loss of the remaining wild-type allele and gives cells the survival advantage ...
... islet cell antibodies and/or insulinoma antigen-2), women with more than two previous pregnancies, and women who were obese (in ... "Relation of Height and Body Mass Index to Renal Cell Carcinoma in Two Million Norwegian Men and Women". American Journal of ... β-cell adaption refers to the change that pancreatic islet cells undergo during pregnancy in response to maternal hormones in ... These changes in the β-cells cause increased insulin secretion as a result of increased β-cell proliferation.[22] HGF/c-MET has ...
... primary embryonic kidney cell line), MCF7 cells (mammary adenocarcinoma cell line), and EJ cells (bladder carcinoma cell line ... Cultured RINm5F rat Insulinoma cells convert 12(S)-HpETE to hepoxilin A3 in a reaction that is comletely dependent on, and co- ... Cell Viability in Human Islets". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 95 (2): 887-93. doi:10.1210/jc.2009-1102. ... human myelogenous leukemia cell line), Jurkat cells, (T lymphocye cell line), Hut78 cells (T cell lymphoma cell line), HEK 293 ...
The Medical Subject Headings indexing system refers to "islet cell carcinoma", which is subdivided into gastrinoma, glucagonoma ... insulinoma)和胃泌素瘤(英語:gastrinoma),腫瘤依其分泌的激素種類命名。非功能性的PanNETs可能不分泌激素或分泌的量不足以造成明顯的症狀,因此此類腫瘤常在擴散到身體其他地方後才被診斷出來[34]。 ... adenosquamous carcinoma)、印戒細胞癌
Carcinoma. Neuroendocrine Tumors. Carcinoid Tumor. Adenoma, Islet Cell. Insulinoma. Carcinoma, Islet Cell. Gastrinoma. ... Gastrinoma Glucagonoma Insulinoma Islet Cell Carcinoma Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma ... excluding small cell carcinoma. *Patient must have measurable disease by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) ... Pancreatic Islet Cell Tumors Somatostatinoma Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome Neuroepithelioma ...
Insulinoma. Carcinoma, Islet Cell. Gastrinoma. Glucagonoma. Somatostatinoma. Vipoma. Neuroectodermal Tumors. Neoplasms, Germ ... Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma Somatostatinoma WDHA Syndrome Drug: sorafenib tosylate Phase 2 ... Islet Cell. Adenoma. Pancreatic Neoplasms. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms. Pancreatic Diseases. Endocrine System Diseases. Carcinoma ... Experimental: Group B (islet cell and other neuroendocrine tumors) Patients receive 400 mg oral sorafenib twice daily on days 1 ...
ATCC offers a vast collection of cell lines derived from pancreas, representing the normal and diseased tissue of multiple ... Pancreatic Islet Cell Tumor; Insulinoma (2) * Cystic Fibrosis (1) * Pancreatic Acinar Cell Tumor; Carcinoma (1) ... Cell Culture Media. Keep your cells healthy, happy and behaving as expected. ...
ATCC offers a vast collection of cell lines derived from pancreas, representing the normal and diseased tissue of multiple ... Pancreatic Carcinoma (2) * Pancreatic Tumor (2) * Pancreatic Islet Cell Tumor; Insulinoma (2) ... Cell Culture Media. Keep your cells healthy, happy and behaving as expected. ...
Islet Cell Tumors) Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] ... Kvols LK, Buck M, Moertel CG, et al.: Treatment of metastatic islet cell carcinoma with a somatostatin analogue (SMS 201-995). ... Insulinoma Insulinomas are far more likely to be benign than malignant. Only 10% are multiple, and only 10% are malignant. ... Islet Cell Tumors). Table 1. Endocrine Tumors of the Pancreas. Islet Cells. Secreted Active Agent. Tumor and Syndrome. ...
Gastrinoma, Glucagonoma, Insulinoma, Islet Cell Carcinoma, Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor, Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma, ... cell carcinoma. - Patient must have measurable disease by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. (RECIST) 1.1 criteria; ...
Drugs used in chemotherapy use different ways to stop tumor cells from dividing so they stop growing or die. Combining more ... insulinoma. *recurrent islet cell carcinoma. *WDHA syndrome. *somatostatinoma. *pancreatic polypeptide tumor. *glucagonoma ...
Streptozotocin is used in islet cell carcinomas which produce excessive insulin. Combination chemotherapy is used, either ... insulinoma is the only subtype of "islet cell adenoma". Beta cells secrete insulin in response to increases in blood glucose. ... Insulinoma is one of the most common types of tumors arising from the islets of Langerhans cells (pancreatic endocrine tumors ... The first report of a surgical cure of hypoglycemia by removing an islet cell tumour was in 1929. An insulinoma removed from a ...
Kvols LK, Buck M, Moertel CG, et al.: Treatment of metastatic islet cell carcinoma with a somatostatin analogue (SMS 201-995). ... Insulinoma Insulinomas are far more likely to be benign than malignant. Only 10% are multiple, and only 10% are malignant. ... Islet Cell Tumors). Table 1. Endocrine Tumors of the Pancreas. Islet Cells. Secreted Active Agent. Tumor and Syndrome. ... streptozocin-fluorouracil or chlorozotocin in the treatment of advanced islet-cell carcinoma. N Engl J Med 326 (8): 519-23, ...
Gastrinoma,Glucagonoma,Insulinoma,Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor,Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma,Somatostatinoma. Academic and ... Cells are seeded in 96-well plates at a density of 5 × 103 (B9 cells) or 2 × 104 (MM cell lines) cells per well. Cells are ... Cell-free assay). c-Kit [1]. (Cell-free assay). FGFR1 [1]. (Cell-free assay). VEGFR3/FLT4 [1]. (Cell-free assay). FGFR3 [1]. ( ... RT112 cells were exposed to PD173074 (PD) (500 nM) for 0-24 h, TKI-258 (TK) (500 nM) or SU5402 (SU) (5 nM) for 1 h. Cells were ...
Neuroendocrine (islet cell) tumours. * Insulinoma. See under Hypoglycaemia.. * Carcinoid tumour. * Gastrinoma. See Zollinger- ... Carcinoma Tumour markers CA 19.9 to monitor disease progression, response to therapy. ...
Pancreatic cancer describes the formation of malignant cancer cells in the pancreas, which makes juices to help digest food and ... The most common types of islet cell tumors are insulinomas and gastrinomas. These tumors may make hormones, such as insulin and ... Pancreatic carcinoma. Pancreatic carcinoma is very rare in children. The two types of pancreatic carcinoma are acinar cell ... Islet cell tumors. These tumors are not common in children and can be benign or malignant. Islet cell tumors may occur in ...
Insulinoma and islet cell hyperplasia: value of the calcium intraarterial stimulation test when findings of other preoperative ... The management of patients with advanced carcinoid tumors and islet cell carcinomas. Ann Intern Med. 1994 Feb 15. 120(4):302-9 ... Streptozocin alone compared with streptozocin plus fluorouracil in the treatment of advanced islet-cell carcinoma. N Engl J Med ... Doxorubicin, streptozocin, and 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy for patients with metastatic islet-cell carcinoma. Am J Clin Oncol. ...
Names include carcinoid tumour, islet cell carcinoma, insulinoma, glucagonoma, and so forth. These are not covered in this ... It is the cells of the ducts which can turn into cancer. These are more common pancreas cancers, usually of the type called ... They are called by various names, depending on the specific type of cancer cell or by the hormone produced by the cancer. ...
Nesidioblastosis coexisting with islet cell tumor and intraductal papillary mucinous hyperplasia. (Case Reports). by Archives ... islet cell hyperplasia, and adenomatosis in a case of metastasizing insulinoma: contribution to the genesis of the islet of ... Scattered endocrine cells have been reported to be present in exocrine pancreatic carcinomas, including ductal, mucinous cystic ... Focally, islet cells and ductules were intermixed (Figure 1). At the edge, the islet cell tumor infiltrated into acinar tissue ...
... or islet cells of the pancreas. Thymic, foregut, and bronchial carcinomas are also associated with MEN1 syndrome. Collagenomas ... Gastrinomas occur frequently among patients above the age of 40 years; however, insulinomas occur more commonly in individuals ... All islet cell tumors produce polypeptides, but only those producing hormones are labelled as functioning tumors. Each tumor ... Pancreatic islet cell tumors occur in 40% to 50% of MEN1-affected individuals. ...
... is used for palliation of malignant pancreatic islet-cell tumors or insulinomas. Other nitrosoureas, such as carmustine and ... has been reported as an intravesicular treatment for transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder or as an intracavitary ... Individual alkylating agents are generally cell-cycle nonspecific and can be subgrouped according to chemical structure into ... Polyfunctional alkylating agents typically cause strand cross-linking and inhibition of mitosis with consequent cell death. ...
... islet cell MeSH C19.344.421.249.500 --- insulinoma MeSH C19.344.421.500 --- carcinoma, islet cell MeSH C19.344.421.500.124 --- ... carcinoma, endometrioid MeSH C19.391.630.705.398 --- granulosa cell tumor MeSH C19.391.630.705.464 --- luteoma MeSH C19.391. ... granulosa cell tumor MeSH C19.344.410.464 --- luteoma MeSH C19.344.410.531 --- meigs syndrome MeSH C19.344.410.648 --- sertoli- ... sertoli-leydig cell tumor MeSH C19.344.894.800 --- thyroid nodule MeSH C19.391.482.293 --- eunuchism MeSH C19.391.482.600 --- ...
... insulinoma, gastrinoma, glucagonoma, vipoma, somatostatin-secreting tumor, and carcinoid or islet cell tumor; pituitary cancers ... squamous cell carcinoma (epidermoid carcinoma), adenocarcinoma, large-cell carcinoma and small-cell lung cancer; testicular ... carcinoma, adenosquamous carcinoma, sarcoma, melanoma, plasmacytoma, verrucous carcinoma, and oat cell (small cell) carcinoma; ... basal cell carcinoma, sarcoma, and Pagets disease; cervical cancers such as but not limited to, squamous cell carcinoma, and ...
... pancreatic islet cell carcinoma, goblet cell carcinoid, large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, and small cell carcinoma; 2 ... Functional NET which needs concomiant use of long-acting somatostatin analogues to control symptoms such as insulinoma, ... except basal cell carcinoma or cervical carcinoma in situ after radical resection; 12 Anti-tumor therapy received within 4 ... Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal. Neoplasms by Histologic Type. Neoplasms. Neoplasms, Nerve Tissue. Temozolomide. Thalidomide ...
Keywords: polypeptide pancreatic, chromogranin A, gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma, carcinoid, islet cell ... pancreatic islet cell tumors (gastrinoma, insulinoma, glucagonoma, VIPoma, somatostatinoma), paragangliomas, pheochromocytomas ... are characterized as well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (malignant carcinoids). Pancreatic islet cell tumors, ... They are distinguished into two broad categories: 1) Tumors identified as small cell lung carcinomas with biology and natural ...
Keywords: polypeptide pancreatic, chromogranin A, gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma, carcinoid, islet cell ... pancreatic islet cell tumors (gastrinoma, insulinoma, glucagonoma, VIPoma, somatostatinoma), paragangliomas, pheochromocytomas ... Alterations in the cell-cell adhesion system are closely associated with cell invasion and metastasis in many malignancies, ... are characterized as well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (malignant carcinoids). Pancreatic islet cell tumors, ...
... pancreatic islet cell carcinoma, goblet cell carcinoid, large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and small cell carcinoma; ... Functional NETs which need to be treated with long acting SSAs to control disease related syndromes, such as insulinoma, ... Adenoma, Islet Cell. Neuroectodermal Tumors. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal. Neoplasms by Histologic Type. Neoplasms. ... Other malignancies diagnosed within the previous 5 years, except basal cell carcinoma or cervical carcinoma in situ after ...
Hawks D, Peterson M E, Hawkins K L et al (1992) Insulin-secreting pancreatic (islet cell) carcinoma in a cat. J Vet Intern Med ... Elie M S & Zerbe C A (1995) Insulinoma in Dogs, Cats, and Ferrets. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 17 (1), 51-59 VetMedResource. ... Bennett P F, Hahn K A, Toal R L et al (2001) Ultrasonographic and Cytopathological Diagnosis of Exocrine Pancreatic Carcinoma ...
Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Islet Cell Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal Carcinoma, Cecal Neoplasms, Colonic Neoplasms, Colorectal ... Insulinoma, Intestinal Neoplasms, Jejunal Neoplasms, Liver Neoplasms, Experimental Liver Neoplasms, Pancreatic Neoplasms, ... Islet Cell Adenoma, Liver Cell Adenoma, Adenomatous Polyposis Coli, Appendiceal Neoplasms, Bile Duct Neoplasms, Biliary Tract ...
  • Detection of hepatocellular carcinoma can be difficult as many symptoms overlap with symptoms associated with liver disease. (justia.com)
  • In some instances, hepatocellular carcinoma may be detected by abdominal imaging and/or needle biopsy. (justia.com)
  • They are distinguished into two broad categories: 1) Tumors identified as small cell lung carcinomas with biology and natural history of a high-grade malignancy and characteristics of small cell undifferentiated or anaplastic appearance by light microscopy. (enets.org)
  • Case: A 79-year-old Caucasian non-diabetic male with history of renal cell carcinoma, s/p left nephrectomy in 2005 and coronary artery stent placement 2 months prior and on Clopidogrel, presented with acute onset sweating and palpitations. (acponline.org)
  • Sutent is currently approved for both advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and second-line gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), based on efficacy and safety data from large, randomized Phase 3 clinical trials. (medicalnewstoday.com)