A benign tumor of the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS. Insulinoma secretes excess INSULIN resulting in HYPOGLYCEMIA.
A benign tumor of the pancreatic ISLET CELLS. Usually it involves the INSULIN-producing PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, as in INSULINOMA, resulting in HYPERINSULINISM.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
An inherited autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by the disorganized formation of new islets in the PANCREAS and CONGENITAL HYPERINSULINISM. It is due to focal hyperplasia of pancreatic ISLET CELLS budding off from the ductal structures and forming new islets of Langerhans. Mutations in the islet cells involve the potassium channel gene KCNJ11 or the ATP-binding cassette transporter gene ABCC8, both on CHROMOSOME 11.
A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.
A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.
A pancreatic polypeptide of about 110 amino acids, depending on the species, that is the precursor of insulin. Proinsulin, produced by the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, is comprised sequentially of the N-terminal B-chain, the proteolytically removable connecting C-peptide, and the C-terminal A-chain. It also contains three disulfide bonds, two between A-chain and B-chain. After cleavage at two locations, insulin and C-peptide are the secreted products. Intact proinsulin with low bioactivity also is secreted in small amounts.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Surgical removal of the pancreas. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A glucose transport facilitator that is expressed primarily in PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; LIVER; and KIDNEYS. It may function as a GLUCOSE sensor to regulate INSULIN release and glucose HOMEOSTASIS.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A calcium-independent phospholipase A2 group that may play a role in membrane phospholipid remodeling and homeostasis by controling the levels of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE in mammalian cell membranes.
An almost always malignant GLUCAGON-secreting tumor derived from the PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS. It is characterized by a distinctive migratory ERYTHEMA; WEIGHT LOSS; STOMATITIS; GLOSSITIS; DIABETES MELLITUS; hypoaminoacidemia; and normochromic normocytic ANEMIA.
The calcium salt of gluconic acid. The compound has a variety of uses, including its use as a calcium replenisher in hypocalcemic states.
A potent, long-acting synthetic SOMATOSTATIN octapeptide analog that inhibits secretion of GROWTH HORMONE and is used to treat hormone-secreting tumors; DIABETES MELLITUS; HYPOTENSION, ORTHOSTATIC; HYPERINSULINISM; hypergastrinemia; and small bowel fistula.
A sulphonylurea hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROPAMIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290)
Cell surface receptors that bind glucagon with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Activation of glucagon receptors causes a variety of effects; the best understood is the initiation of a complex enzymatic cascade in the liver which ultimately increases the availability of glucose to body organs.
A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain an extracellular RDGS-adhesion recognition motif and a single cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphate domain.
A serine endopeptidase that has specificity for cleavage at ARGININE. It cleaves a variety of prohormones including PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN, proluteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone, proenkephalins, prodynorphin, and PROINSULIN.
Secretagogins are EF HAND MOTIF-containing calcium-binding proteins that are involved in early neuronal migration and neurogenesis. They are also present in many adult organs and in brain and endocrine neoplasms.
A form of multiple endocrine neoplasia that is characterized by the combined occurrence of tumors in the PARATHYROID GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, and the PANCREATIC ISLETS. The resulting clinical signs include HYPERPARATHYROIDISM; HYPERCALCEMIA; HYPERPROLACTINEMIA; CUSHING DISEASE; GASTRINOMA; and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. This disease is due to loss-of-function of the MEN1 gene, a tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) on CHROMOSOME 11 (Locus: 11q13).

RINm5f cells express inactivating BK channels whereas HIT cells express noninactivating BK channels. (1/873)

Large-conductance Ca2+- and voltage-activated BK-type K+ channels are expressed abundantly in normal rat pancreatic islet cells and in the clonal rat insulinoma tumor (RINm5f) and hamster insulinoma tumor (HIT) beta cell lines. Previous work has suggested that the Ca2+ sensitivity of BK channels in RIN cells is substantially less than that in HIT cells, perhaps contributing to differences between the cell lines in responsiveness to glucose in mediating insulin secretion. In both RIN cells and normal pancreatic beta cells, BK channels are thought to play a limited role in responses of beta cells to secretagogues and in the electrical activity of beta cells. Here we examine in detail the properties of BK channels in RIN and HIT cells using inside-out patches and whole cell recordings. BK channels in RIN cells exhibit rapid inactivation that results in an anomalous steady-state Ca2+ dependence of activation. In contrast, BK channels in HIT cells exhibit the more usual noninactivating behavior. When BK inactivation is taken into account, the Ca2+ and voltage dependence of activation of BK channels in RIN and HIT cells is essentially indistinguishable. The properties of BK channel inactivation in RIN cells are similar to those of inactivating BK channels (termed BKi channels) previously identified in rat chromaffin cells. Inactivation involves multiple, trypsin-sensitive cytosolic domains and exhibits a dependence on Ca2+ and voltage that appears to arise from coupling to channel activation. In addition, the rates of inactivation onset and recovery are similar to that of BKi channels in chromaffin cells. The charybdotoxin (CTX) sensitivity of BKi currents is somewhat less than that of the noninactivating BK variant. Action potential voltage-clamp waveforms indicate that BK current is activated only weakly by Ca2+ influx in RIN cells but more strongly activated in HIT cells even when Ca2+ current magnitude is comparable. Concentrations of CTX sufficient to block BKi current in RIN cells have no effect on action potential activity initiated by glucose or DC injection. Despite its abundant expression in RIN cells, BKi current appears to play little role in action potential activity initiated by glucose or DC injection in RIN cells, but BK current may play an important role in action potential repolarization in HIT cells.  (+info)

Islet amyloid polypeptide/amylin messenger RNA and protein expression in human insulinomas in relation to amyloid formation. (2/873)

OBJECTIVE: Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), also named amylin, is the predominant protein component of amyloid deposits in human islet beta cell tumours of the pancreas (insulinomas). IAPP is co-produced with insulin by islet beta cells. We investigated IAPP expression in relation to insulin expression and to amyloid formation in eleven insulinomas. DESIGN AND METHODS: RNA and protein extracts were prepared from the same pieces of tumour tissue, and from specimens of two normal human pancreata. IAPP and insulin mRNA and peptide content were quantified using Northern blot analysis and radioimmunoassay (RIA) respectively. Molecular forms of IAPP immunoreactivity were analysed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The presence of islet hormones and of amyloid was assessed by (immuno)histochemical staining of paraffin sections. Plasma levels of IAPP and insulin prior to tumour resection were determined by RIA. RESULTS: IAPP and insulin mRNA and peptide content varied widely between the tumour specimens, and there was considerable intratumour heterogeneity of peptide content. HPLC analysis indicated correct proteolytic processing of the IAPP precursor protein. Amyloid deposits were detected only in the three tumours with the highest IAPP content. In contrast to insulin, plasma levels of IAPP were not elevated in the insulinoma patients. CONCLUSIONS: The spectrum of hormone production by insulinomas cannot be inferred from only a few tissue sections due to intratumour heterogeneity. Expression of the IAPP and insulin genes is not coupled in insulinomas, which produce properly processed mature IAPP. In addition to IAPP overproduction, additional factors such as intracellular accumulation of IAPP are involved in amyloidogenesis in insulinomas.  (+info)

Dual actions of the metabolic inhibitor, sodium azide on K(ATP) channel currents in the rat CRI-G1 insulinoma cell line. (3/873)

1. The effects of various inhibitors of the mitochondrial electron transport chain on the activity of ATP-sensitive K+ channels were examined in the Cambridge rat insulinoma G1 (CRI-G1) cell line using a combination of whole cell and single channel recording techniques. 2. Whole cell current clamp recordings, with 5 mM ATP in the pipette, demonstrate that the mitochondrial uncoupler sodium azide (3 mM) rapidly hyperpolarizes CRI-G1 cells with a concomitant increase in K+ conductance. This is due to activation of K(ATP) channels as the sulphonylurea tolbutamide (100 microM) completely reversed the actions of azide. Other inhibitors of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, rotenone (10 microM) or oligomycin (2 microM) did not hyperpolarize CRI-G1 cells or increase K+ conductance. 3. In cell-attached recordings, bath application of 3 mM sodium azide (in the absence of glucose) resulted in a rapid increase in K(ATP) channel activity, an action readily reversible by tolbutamide (100 microM). Application of sodium azide (3 mM), in the presence of Mg-ATP, to the intracellular surface of excised inside-out patches also increased K(ATP) channel activity, in a reversible manner. 4. In contrast, rotenone (10 microM) or oligomycin (2 microM) did not increase K(ATP) channel activity in either cell-attached, in the absence of glucose, or inside-out membrane patch recordings. 5. Addition of sodium azide (3 mM) to the intracellular surface of inside-out membrane patches in the presence of Mg-free ATP or the non-hydrolysable analogue 5'-adenylylimidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP) inhibited, rather than increased, K(ATP) channel activity. 6. In conclusion, sodium azide, but not rotenone or oligomycin, directly activates K(ATP) channels in CRI-G1 insulin secreting cells. This action of azide is similar to that reported previously for diazoxide.  (+info)

RIN ZF, a novel zinc finger gene, encodes proteins that bind to the CACC element of the gastrin promoter. (4/873)

Expression of gastrin, a gut hormone and growth factor, has tissue-specific transcriptional regulation and can be induced in some tumors. Previous studies have shown that a CACC cis-regulatory element is important for transcriptional activation in pancreatic insulinoma cells. To identify CACC-binding proteins, a lambda phage cDNA library derived from a rat insulinoma cell line, RIN 38A, was screened by a Southwestern method. A novel member of the Cys2-His2 zinc finger gene family was cloned and designated RIN ZF, having a cDNA sequence of 3.8 kilobases. One full-length and a shorter splice variant were sequenced and had predicted protein masses of 91.6 and 88.7 kDa. Expression of both splice forms were ubiquitous in fetal and adult rat tissues. Recombinant RIN ZF protein exhibited sequence-specific binding to the gastrin CACC element in a gel mobility shift assay. In transient transfections, both splice variants appeared to have only weak activating effects on gastrin-luciferase reporter gene transcription. Furthermore, RIN ZF coexpression with Sp1 appeared to block the strongly activating effects of Sp1 mediated through the CACC element. These findings suggest that a novel set of zinc finger proteins may help regulate gastrin gene expression by interfering with Sp1 transactivation.  (+info)

Essential role of caspase-3 in apoptosis of mouse beta-cells transfected with human Fas. (5/873)

Several recent studies have indicated that the Fas-Fas ligand system may be critical for pancreatic beta-cell destruction in type 1 diabetes. Although the fundamental roles of caspases in the mammalian apoptotic machinery have been elucidated, it is not known which caspase or caspases play a major role in Fas-mediated apoptosis of beta-cells. In this study, we transfected human Fas cDNA into a mouse beta-cell line (betaTC1) and established a beta-cell clone expressing human Fas. This clone, designated hFas/betaTC1, underwent apoptosis when exposed to anti-Fas, showing hallmarks of apoptosis (chromatin condensation, nucleolar disintegration, internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, and annexin V staining), indicating that the mouse beta-cell line has the intact machinery of Fas-mediated apoptosis. The cross-linking of Fas by anti-Fas resulted in the elevation of caspase-3-like, but not caspase-1-like, protease activity 2-12 h after the addition of the anti-Fas. A caspase-3 inhibitor, Z-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-fluoromethyl ketone, attenuated the Fas-mediated beta-cell apoptosis, while a caspase-1 inhibitor, acetyl-Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp-chloromethylketone, failed to suppress the apoptosis. Thus the Fas-induced death signal apparently bypassed caspase-1 in the cells. Furthermore, an antisense caspase-3 construct blocked caspase-3 activation and substantially suppressed Fas-triggered apoptosis of hFas/betaTC1 cells. These observations suggest the essential role of caspase-3 in Fas-mediated apoptosis of the beta-cell line.  (+info)

Site-specific phosphorylation of synapsin I by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in pancreatic betaTC3 cells: synapsin I is not associated with insulin secretory granules. (6/873)

Increasing evidence supports a physiological role of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase II) in the secretion of insulin from the pancreatic beta-cell, but the precise sites of action are not known. A role of this enzyme in neuroexocytosis is implicated by its phosphorylation of a vesicle-associated protein, synapsin I. Because of emerging similarities to the neuron with respect to exocytotic mechanisms, the expression and phosphorylation of synapsin I in the beta-cell have been studied. Synapsin I expression in clonal mouse beta-cells (betaTC3) and primary rat islet beta-cells was initially confirmed by immunoblot analysis. By immunoprecipitation, in situ phosphorylation of synapsin I was induced in permeabilized betaTC3 cells within a Ca2+ concentration range shown to activate endogenous CaM kinase II under identical conditions. Proteolytic digests of these immunoprecipitates revealed that calcium primarily induced the increased phosphorylation of sites identified as CaM kinase II-specific and distinct from protein kinase A-specific sites. Immunofluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy verified synapsin I expression in betaTC3 cells and pancreatic slices but demonstrated little if any colocalization of synapsin I with insulin-containing dense core granules. Thus, although this study establishes that synapsin I is a substrate for CaM kinase II in the pancreatic beta-cell, this event appears not to be important for the mobilization of insulin granules.  (+info)

Molecular cloning of a pancreatic islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein. (7/873)

A pancreatic islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase-related protein (IGRP) was cloned using a subtractive cDNA expression cloning procedure from mouse insulinoma tissue. Two alternatively spliced variants that differed by the presence or absence of a 118-bp exon (exon IV) were detected in normal balb/c mice, diabetic ob/ob mice, and insulinoma tissue. The longer, 1901-bp full-length cDNA encoded a 355-amino acid protein (molecular weight 40,684) structurally related (50% overall identity) to the liver glucose-6-phosphatase and exhibited similar predicted transmembrane topology, conservation of catalytically important residues, and the presence of an endoplasmic reticulum retention signal. The shorter transcript encoded two possible open reading frames (ORFs), neither of which possessed His174, a residue thought to be the phosphoryl acceptor (Pan CJ, Lei KJ, Annabi B, Hemrika W, Chou JY: Transmembrane topology of glucose-6-phosphatase. J Biol Chem 273:6144-6148, 1998). Northern blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the mRNA was highly expressed in pancreatic islets and expressed more in beta-cell lines than in an alpha-cell line. It was notably absent in tissues and cell lines of non-islet neuroendocrine origin, and no other major tissue source of the mRNA was found. During development, it was expressed in parallel with insulin mRNA. The mRNA was efficiently translated and glycosylated in an in vitro translation/membrane translocation system and readily transcribed into COS 1, HIT, and CHO cells using cytomegalovirus or Rous sarcoma virus promoters. Whereas the liver glucose-6-phosphatase showed activity in these transfection systems, the IGRP failed to show glucose phosphotransferase or phosphatase activity with p-nitrophenol phosphate, inorganic pyrophosphate, or a range of sugar phosphates hydrolyzed by the liver enzyme. While the metabolic function of the enzyme is not resolved, its remarkable tissue-specific expression warrants further investigation, as does its transcriptional regulation in conditions where glucose responsiveness of the pancreatic islet is altered.  (+info)

Beta-cell gene expression and functional characterisation of the human insulinoma cell line CM. (8/873)

Animal insulinoma cell lines are widely used to study physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms involved in glucose metabolism and to establish in vitro models for studies on beta-cells. In contrast, human insulinoma cell lines are rarely used because of difficulties in obtaining and culturing them for long periods. The aim of our study was to investigate, under different experimental conditions, the capacity of the human insulinoma cell line CM to retain beta-cell function, particularly the expression of constitutive beta-cell genes (insulin, the glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT2, glucokinase), intracellular and secreted insulin, beta-cell granules, and cAMP content. Results showed that CM cells from an early-passage express specific beta-cell genes in response to glucose stimulation, in particular the insulin and GLUT genes. Such capacity is lost at later passages when cells are cultured at standard glucose concentrations. However, if cultured at lower glucose concentration (0.8 mM) for a longer time, CM cells re-acquire the capacity to respond to glucose stimulation, as shown by the increased expression of beta-cell genes (insulin, GLUT2, glucokinase). Nonetheless, insulin secretion could not be restored under such experimental conditions despite the presence of intracellular insulin, although cAMP response to a potent activator of adenylate cyclase, forskolin, was present indicating a viable system. In conclusion, these data show that the human insulinoma cell line CM, at both early-passage and late-passage, posseses a functional glucose-signalling pathway and insulin mRNA expression similar to normal beta-cells, representing, therefore, a good model for studies concerning the signalling and expression of beta-cells. Furthermore, we have previously shown that it is also a good model for immunological studies. In this respect it is important to note that the CM cell line is one of the very few existing human beta-cell lines in long-term culture.  (+info)

Insulinoma is a rare type of neuroendocrine tumor that originates from the beta cells of the pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans). These tumors produce and secrete excessive amounts of insulin, leading to hypoglycemia (low blood sugar levels) even when the person hasn't eaten for a while. Insulinomas are typically slow-growing and benign (noncancerous), but about 10% of them can be malignant (cancerous) and may spread to other parts of the body. Common symptoms include sweating, confusion, dizziness, and weakness due to low blood sugar levels. The diagnosis is often confirmed through imaging tests like CT scans or MRI, and measuring insulin and C-peptide levels in the blood during a fasting test. Treatment usually involves surgical removal of the tumor.

An islet cell adenoma is a rare, typically benign tumor that develops in the islets of Langerhans, which are clusters of hormone-producing cells in the pancreas. The islets of Langerhans contain several types of cells, including beta cells that produce insulin, alpha cells that produce glucagon, and delta cells that produce somatostatin.

Islet cell adenomas can cause various endocrine disorders depending on the type of hormone-producing cells involved. For example, if the tumor consists mainly of beta cells, it may secrete excessive amounts of insulin, leading to hypoglycemia (low blood sugar). Conversely, if the tumor is composed primarily of alpha cells, it may produce too much glucagon, resulting in hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) and a condition known as glucagonoma.

Islet cell adenomas are usually slow-growing and small but can become quite large in some cases. They are typically diagnosed through imaging tests such as CT scans or MRI, and hormone levels may be measured to determine the type of cells involved. Treatment options include surgical removal of the tumor, medication to manage hormonal imbalances, and, in rare cases, radiofrequency ablation or embolization.

Pancreatic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the pancreas that can be benign or malignant. The pancreas is a gland located behind the stomach that produces hormones and digestive enzymes. Pancreatic neoplasms can interfere with the normal functioning of the pancreas, leading to various health complications.

Benign pancreatic neoplasms are non-cancerous growths that do not spread to other parts of the body. They are usually removed through surgery to prevent any potential complications, such as blocking the bile duct or causing pain.

Malignant pancreatic neoplasms, also known as pancreatic cancer, are cancerous growths that can invade and destroy surrounding tissues and organs. They can also spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body, such as the liver, lungs, or bones. Pancreatic cancer is often aggressive and difficult to treat, with a poor prognosis.

There are several types of pancreatic neoplasms, including adenocarcinomas, neuroendocrine tumors, solid pseudopapillary neoplasms, and cystic neoplasms. The specific type of neoplasm is determined through various diagnostic tests, such as imaging studies, biopsies, and blood tests. Treatment options depend on the type, stage, and location of the neoplasm, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences.

The Islets of Langerhans are clusters of specialized cells within the pancreas, an organ located behind the stomach. These islets are named after Paul Langerhans, who first identified them in 1869. They constitute around 1-2% of the total mass of the pancreas and are distributed throughout its substance.

The Islets of Langerhans contain several types of cells, including:

1. Alpha (α) cells: These produce and release glucagon, a hormone that helps to regulate blood sugar levels by promoting the conversion of glycogen to glucose in the liver when blood sugar levels are low.
2. Beta (β) cells: These produce and release insulin, a hormone that promotes the uptake and utilization of glucose by cells throughout the body, thereby lowering blood sugar levels.
3. Delta (δ) cells: These produce and release somatostatin, a hormone that inhibits the release of both insulin and glucagon and helps regulate their secretion in response to changing blood sugar levels.
4. PP cells (gamma or γ cells): These produce and release pancreatic polypeptide, which plays a role in regulating digestive enzyme secretion and gastrointestinal motility.

Dysfunction of the Islets of Langerhans can lead to various endocrine disorders, such as diabetes mellitus, where insulin-producing beta cells are damaged or destroyed, leading to impaired blood sugar regulation.

Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreatic islets, primarily in response to elevated levels of glucose in the circulating blood. It plays a crucial role in regulating blood glucose levels and facilitating the uptake and utilization of glucose by peripheral tissues, such as muscle and adipose tissue, for energy production and storage. Insulin also inhibits glucose production in the liver and promotes the storage of excess glucose as glycogen or triglycerides.

Deficiency in insulin secretion or action leads to impaired glucose regulation and can result in conditions such as diabetes mellitus, characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and associated complications. Exogenous insulin is used as a replacement therapy in individuals with diabetes to help manage their blood glucose levels and prevent long-term complications.

Nesidioblastosis is a very rare condition that affects the pancreas, a gland located behind the stomach that produces hormones and enzymes to help with digestion. In nesidioblastosis, there is an abnormal increase in the number of cells called beta cells in the pancreas that produce insulin, a hormone that regulates blood sugar levels. This can lead to persistent hyperinsulinemia (high levels of insulin in the blood) and hypoglycemia (low blood sugar levels), even when the person has not eaten for several hours.

The term "nesidioblastosis" comes from the Greek words "nesis," meaning island, and "blastos," meaning germ or bud. It refers to the abnormal formation of islets of Langerhans, which are clusters of hormone-producing cells in the pancreas. In nesidioblastosis, there is an overgrowth of beta cells within these islets, leading to excessive insulin production and secretion.

Nesidioblastosis can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired later in life. It is often diagnosed in infants and young children but can also occur in adults. The symptoms of nesidioblastosis include sweating, tremors, irritability, seizures, and loss of consciousness due to low blood sugar levels. Treatment typically involves medication to control insulin secretion, dietary modifications, and, in some cases, surgery to remove part or all of the pancreas.

Hypoglycemia is a medical condition characterized by an abnormally low level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. Generally, hypoglycemia is defined as a blood glucose level below 70 mg/dL (3.9 mmol/L), although symptoms may not occur until the blood sugar level falls below 55 mg/dL (3.0 mmol/L).

Hypoglycemia can occur in people with diabetes who are taking insulin or medications that increase insulin production, as well as those with certain medical conditions such as hormone deficiencies, severe liver illnesses, or disorders of the adrenal glands. Symptoms of hypoglycemia include sweating, shaking, confusion, rapid heartbeat, and in severe cases, loss of consciousness or seizures.

Hypoglycemia is typically treated by consuming fast-acting carbohydrates such as fruit juice, candy, or glucose tablets to rapidly raise blood sugar levels. If left untreated, hypoglycemia can lead to serious complications, including brain damage and even death.

Insulin-secreting cells, also known as beta cells, are a type of cell found in the pancreas. They are responsible for producing and releasing insulin, a hormone that regulates blood glucose levels by allowing cells in the body to take in glucose from the bloodstream. Insulin-secreting cells are clustered together in the pancreatic islets, along with other types of cells that produce other hormones such as glucagon and somatostatin. In people with diabetes, these cells may not function properly, leading to an impaired ability to regulate blood sugar levels.

Proinsulin is the precursor protein to insulin, produced in the beta cells of the pancreas. It has a molecular weight of around 9,000 daltons and is composed of three distinct regions: the A-chain, the B-chain, and the C-peptide. The A-chain and B-chain are linked together by disulfide bonds and will eventually become the insulin molecule after a series of enzymatic cleavages. The C-peptide is removed during this process and is released into the bloodstream in equimolar amounts to insulin. Proinsulin levels can be measured in the blood and are sometimes used as a marker for beta cell function in certain clinical settings, such as diagnosing or monitoring insulinoma (a tumor of the pancreas that produces insulin) or assessing the risk of diabetes-related complications.

Glucose is a simple monosaccharide (or single sugar) that serves as the primary source of energy for living organisms. It's a fundamental molecule in biology, often referred to as "dextrose" or "grape sugar." Glucose has the molecular formula C6H12O6 and is vital to the functioning of cells, especially those in the brain and nervous system.

In the body, glucose is derived from the digestion of carbohydrates in food, and it's transported around the body via the bloodstream to cells where it can be used for energy. Cells convert glucose into a usable form through a process called cellular respiration, which involves a series of metabolic reactions that generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP)—the main currency of energy in cells.

Glucose is also stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen, a polysaccharide (multiple sugar) that can be broken down back into glucose when needed for energy between meals or during physical activity. Maintaining appropriate blood glucose levels is crucial for overall health, and imbalances can lead to conditions such as diabetes mellitus.

A pancreatectomy is a surgical procedure in which all or part of the pancreas is removed. There are several types of pancreatectomies, including:

* **Total pancreatectomy:** Removal of the entire pancreas, as well as the spleen and nearby lymph nodes. This type of pancreatectomy is usually done for patients with cancer that has spread throughout the pancreas or for those who have had multiple surgeries to remove pancreatic tumors.
* **Distal pancreatectomy:** Removal of the body and tail of the pancreas, as well as nearby lymph nodes. This type of pancreatectomy is often done for patients with tumors in the body or tail of the pancreas.
* **Partial (or segmental) pancreatectomy:** Removal of a portion of the head or body of the pancreas, as well as nearby lymph nodes. This type of pancreatectomy is often done for patients with tumors in the head or body of the pancreas that can be removed without removing the entire organ.
* **Pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD):** A type of surgery used to treat tumors in the head of the pancreas, as well as other conditions such as chronic pancreatitis. In this procedure, the head of the pancreas, duodenum, gallbladder, and bile duct are removed, but the stomach and lower portion of the esophagus (pylorus) are left in place.

After a pancreatectomy, patients may experience problems with digestion and blood sugar regulation, as the pancreas plays an important role in these functions. Patients may need to take enzyme supplements to help with digestion and may require insulin therapy to manage their blood sugar levels.

Glucose Transporter Type 2 (GLUT2) is a protein responsible for the facilitated diffusion of glucose across the cell membrane. It is a member of the solute carrier family 2 (SLC2), also known as the facilitative glucose transporter family. GLUT2 is primarily expressed in the liver, kidney, and intestines, where it plays a crucial role in regulating glucose homeostasis.

In the pancreas, GLUT2 is found in the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans, where it facilitates the uptake of glucose from the bloodstream into the cells. Once inside the cell, glucose is metabolized, leading to an increase in ATP levels and the closure of ATP-sensitive potassium channels. This results in the depolarization of the cell membrane and the subsequent opening of voltage-gated calcium channels, allowing for the release of insulin from secretory vesicles into the bloodstream.

In the intestines, GLUT2 is expressed in the enterocytes of the small intestine, where it facilitates the absorption of glucose and other monosaccharides from the lumen into the bloodstream. In the kidneys, GLUT2 is found in the proximal tubules, where it plays a role in reabsorbing glucose from the filtrate back into the bloodstream.

Mutations in the gene that encodes GLUT2 (SLC2A2) can lead to several genetic disorders, including Fanconi-Bickel syndrome, which is characterized by impaired glucose and galactose absorption in the intestines, hepatic glycogen accumulation, and renal tubular dysfunction.

'Tumor cells, cultured' refers to the process of removing cancerous cells from a tumor and growing them in controlled laboratory conditions. This is typically done by isolating the tumor cells from a patient's tissue sample, then placing them in a nutrient-rich environment that promotes their growth and multiplication.

The resulting cultured tumor cells can be used for various research purposes, including the study of cancer biology, drug development, and toxicity testing. They provide a valuable tool for researchers to better understand the behavior and characteristics of cancer cells outside of the human body, which can lead to the development of more effective cancer treatments.

It is important to note that cultured tumor cells may not always behave exactly the same way as they do in the human body, so findings from cell culture studies must be validated through further research, such as animal models or clinical trials.

Group VI Phospholipases A2 (PLA2) are a subclass of the PLA2 family, which are enzymes that hydrolyze the sn-2 ester bond of glycerophospholipids to release free fatty acids and lysophospholipids. Specifically, Group VI PLA2s are calcium-dependent enzymes that have been identified in various tissues, including the brain and testis. They play important roles in several biological processes, such as cell signaling, inflammation, and lipid metabolism.

Group VI PLA2s are further divided into two subgroups: Group VI A and Group VI B. The Group VI A subgroup includes the iPLA2-VIA (also known as PLA2G6) enzyme, which has been implicated in several neurological disorders, such as neurodegenerative diseases and hereditary spastic paraplegia. On the other hand, the Group VI B subgroup includes the pancreatic-type PLA2 (also known as PLA2G1B) enzyme, which is primarily involved in digestion.

It's worth noting that while Group VI PLA2s have important physiological functions, they can also contribute to pathological conditions when their activity is dysregulated. For example, excessive activation of these enzymes has been linked to the development and progression of various inflammatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis, arthritis, and asthma.

A glucagonoma is a rare type of neuroendocrine tumor that originates from the alpha cells of the pancreas, where the hormone glucagon is produced. This tumor can lead to an overproduction of glucagon, resulting in a characteristic syndrome known as the "glucagonoma syndrome."

The symptoms of glucagonoma syndrome may include:

1. A distinctive rash called necrolytic migratory erythema, which is characterized by red, swollen, and painful skin lesions that can affect various parts of the body.
2. Weight loss
3. Diabetes or high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia)
4. Anemia
5. Deep vein thrombosis (blood clots in the deep veins)
6. Depression and confusion
7. A decreased appetite
8. Fatigue and weakness
9. Diarrhea or steatorrhea (fatty stools)
10. High levels of amino acids, fatty acids, and zinc in the blood.

Glucagonomas are typically slow-growing tumors, but they can metastasize (spread) to other organs such as the liver, lymph nodes, and bones. Treatment options for glucagonoma may include surgery to remove the tumor, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or radiation therapy. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor the tumor's progression and manage any associated symptoms.

Calcium gluconate is a medical compound that is used primarily as a medication to treat conditions related to low calcium levels in the body (hypocalcemia) or to prevent calcium deficiency. It is also used as an antidote for treating poisoning from certain chemicals, such as beta-blockers and fluoride.

Calcium gluconate is a form of calcium salt, which is combined with gluconic acid, a natural organic acid found in various fruits and honey. This compound has a high concentration of calcium, making it an effective supplement for increasing calcium levels in the body.

In medical settings, calcium gluconate can be administered orally as a tablet or liquid solution, or it can be given intravenously (directly into a vein) by a healthcare professional. The intravenous route is typically used in emergency situations to quickly raise calcium levels and treat symptoms of hypocalcemia, such as muscle cramps, spasms, or seizures.

It's important to note that while calcium gluconate can be beneficial for treating low calcium levels, it should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare provider, as improper use or overdose can lead to serious side effects, including kidney damage and heart problems.

Octreotide is a synthetic analogue of the natural hormone somatostatin, which is used in medical treatment. It is a octapeptide with similar effects to somatostatin, but with a longer duration of action. Octreotide is primarily used in the management of acromegaly, gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs), and diarrhea and flushing associated with carcinoid syndrome.

It works by inhibiting the release of several hormones, including growth hormone, insulin, glucagon, and gastrin. This results in a decrease in symptoms caused by excessive hormone secretion, such as reduced growth hormone levels in acromegaly, decreased tumor size in some GEP-NETs, and improved diarrhea and flushing in carcinoid syndrome.

Octreotide is available in several forms, including short-acting subcutaneous injections (Sandostatin®), long-acting depot intramuscular injections (Sandostatin LAR®), and a slow-release formulation for the treatment of diarrhea associated with AIDS (Mycapssa™).

The medical definition of Octreotide is:

A synthetic octapeptide analogue of somatostatin, used in the management of acromegaly, gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs), and diarrhea and flushing associated with carcinoid syndrome. Octreotide inhibits the release of several hormones, including growth hormone, insulin, glucagon, and gastrin, leading to symptomatic improvement in these conditions. It is available as short-acting subcutaneous injections, long-acting depot intramuscular injections, and a slow-release formulation for diarrhea associated with AIDS.

Tolbutamide is defined as a first-generation sulfonylurea oral hypoglycemic agent used in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It acts by stimulating the release of insulin from the pancreas, thereby reducing blood glucose levels. Tolbutamide is metabolized and excreted rapidly, with a half-life of about 6 hours, making it useful in patients with renal impairment.

Common side effects of tolbutamide include gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, as well as skin reactions such as rash and itching. Hypoglycemia is a potential adverse effect, particularly if the medication is dosed improperly or if the patient skips meals. Tolbutamide should be used with caution in patients with hepatic impairment, kidney disease, and the elderly due to an increased risk of hypoglycemia.

It's important to note that tolbutamide is not commonly used as a first-line treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus due to the availability of newer medications with more favorable side effect profiles and efficacy.

Glucagon receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor found on the surface of cells in the body, particularly in the liver, fat, and muscle tissues. These receptors bind to the hormone glucagon, which is produced and released by the alpha cells of the pancreas in response to low blood sugar levels (hypoglycemia).

When glucagon binds to its receptor, it triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that lead to the breakdown of glycogen (a stored form of glucose) in the liver and the release of glucose into the bloodstream. This helps to raise blood sugar levels back to normal.

Glucagon receptors also play a role in regulating fat metabolism, as activation of these receptors in adipose tissue can stimulate the breakdown of triglycerides (a type of fat) into free fatty acids and glycerol, which can then be used as energy sources.

Abnormalities in glucagon receptor function or expression have been implicated in various metabolic disorders, including diabetes and obesity.

Receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatases, class 8 (RPTPs μ/β) are a subfamily of the receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase superfamily. These transmembrane proteins contain two extracellular carbonic anhydrase-like domains, a single membrane-spanning region, and one intracellular protein tyrosine phosphatase domain. They are involved in the regulation of various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and migration, by dephosphorylating specific tyrosine residues on target proteins. RPTPs μ/β have been implicated in the development and function of the nervous system, and their dysregulation has been associated with several neurological disorders and cancers.

Proprotein convertase 2 (PCSK2) is a type of enzyme known as a proprotein convertase. It plays a role in the activation of other proteins by cleaving off specific peptide sequences and allowing them to become biologically active. PCSK2 is primarily involved in the processing of hormones and neurotransmitters, including insulin, prolactin, and members of the bombesin family.

Defects in the gene that encodes PCSK2 have been associated with certain medical conditions, such as congenital hyperinsulinism, a disorder characterized by low blood sugar levels due to excessive insulin secretion. However, more research is needed to fully understand the relationship between PCSK2 and these conditions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Secretagogins" is not a widely recognized or established term in medical or scientific literature. It appears that the term may be related to "secretagogues," which are substances that promote the secretion of a hormone or other substance. However, I could not find any specific information or research about "Secretagogins."

If you have more context or details about where you encountered this term, I'd be happy to help you try to find more information!

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 (MEN1) is a rare inherited disorder characterized by the development of tumors in various endocrine glands. These tumors can be benign or malignant and may lead to overproduction of hormones, causing a variety of symptoms. The three main endocrine glands affected in MEN1 are:

1. Parathyroid glands: Over 90% of individuals with MEN1 develop multiple parathyroid tumors (parathyroid hyperplasia), leading to primary hyperparathyroidism, which results in high levels of calcium in the blood.
2. Pancreas: Up to 80% of individuals with MEN1 develop pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs). These tumors can produce and release various hormones, such as gastrin, insulin, glucagon, and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), leading to specific clinical syndromes like Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, hypoglycemia, or watery diarrhea.
3. Pituitary gland: Approximately 30-40% of individuals with MEN1 develop pituitary tumors, most commonly prolactinomas, which can cause menstrual irregularities, galactorrhea (milk production), and visual field defects.

MEN1 is caused by mutations in the MEN1 gene, located on chromosome 11, and it is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. This means that a person has a 50% chance of inheriting the disease-causing mutation from an affected parent. The diagnosis of MEN1 typically requires meeting specific clinical criteria or having a positive genetic test for a pathogenic MEN1 gene variant. Regular monitoring and early intervention are crucial in managing this condition to prevent complications and improve outcomes.

Pancreatic insulinoma Pancreatic insulinoma Chromogranin A Insulin immuostain Causes of hypoglycemia Metastatic Insulinoma ... An insulinoma is a tumour of the pancreas that is derived from beta cells and secretes insulin. It is a rare form of a ... Insulinoma is one of the most common types of tumours arising from the islets of Langerhans cells (pancreatic endocrine tumours ... Most insulinomas are small, less than 2 cm.[citation needed] Hypoglycemia was first recognized in the 19th century. In the ...
A metastatic insulinoma is a rare form of a malignant insulinoma involving metastatic growth. An insulinoma is a small tumor ... Malignant insulinoma is an extremely rare form of an insulinoma, affecting only about 10% of the total insulinoma cases. ... Metastatic insulinomas are even less prevalent than insulinomas, and commonly begin as benign insulinomas which metastasize ... Insulinomas tend to have a slightly higher prevalence in females, at about 59% of the total diagnosed general insulinoma cases ...
Grant, C. (2005). "Insulinoma". Best Practice & Research Clinical Gastroenterology. 19 (5): 783-798. doi:10.1016/j.bpg.2005.05. ... Vig, S.; Lewis, M.; Foster, K. J.; Stacey-Clear, A. (2001). "Lessons to be learned: A case study approach insulinoma presenting ... Insulinomas are (pancreatic tumors) that cause an overproduction of insulin, causing hypoglycemia. Various neurological ... Morgan, J. R. (1989). "A case of Down's syndrome, insulinoma and anorexia". Journal of Mental Deficiency Research. 33 (2): 185- ...
Grant CS (October 2005). "Insulinoma". Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology. 19 (5): 783-98. doi:10.1016/j.bpg. ... 45 but is generally avoided in insulinomas to avoid profound hypoglycemia.: 69 PanNETs in Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 ... with peptic ulcers and diarrhea insulinoma: hypoglycemia occurs with concurrent elevations of insulin, proinsulin and C peptide ...
Insulinomas can produce large amounts of insulin, causing hypoglycemia. Pituitary adenomas can cause elevated levels of ... Grant CS (October 2005). "Insulinoma". Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology. 19 (5): 783-798. doi:10.1016/j.bpg. ...
2009) Pancreatic insulinoma: a surgical experience. (2009) Information theoretical methods to deconvolute genetic regulatory ...
Insulinoma-associated protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the INSM1 gene. Insulinoma-associated 1 (INSM1) gene ... "Entrez Gene: INSM1 insulinoma-associated 1". Mukhopadhyay S, Dermawan JK, Lanigan CP, Farver CF (August 2018). "Insulinoma- ... Goto Y, De Silva MG, Toscani A, Prabhakar BS, Notkins AL, Lan MS (July 1992). "A novel human insulinoma-associated cDNA, IA-1, ... and chromosomal localization of an insulinoma-associated intronless gene, IA-1". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 269 (19 ...
Insulinoma, NOS (C25._) Beta cell adenoma M8151/3 Insulinoma, malignant (C25._) Beta cell tumor, malignant (M8152/0) ...
Diseases of the endocrine pancreas occur very infrequently; these include insulinomas, gastrinomas etc. Surgery for these ...
... is contraindicated in people with pheochromocytoma or insulinoma. Dasiglucagon elevates blood glucose levels in ...
Ravnik-Oblak, M; Janez, A; Kocijanicic, A (2001). "Insulinoma induced hypoglycemia in a type 2 diabetic patient". Wiener ...
Insulinoma is a rare tumor derived from the neoplasia of beta cells. Insulinomas are usually benign, but may be medically ... "A Clinicopathological Study of Malignant Insulinoma in a Contemporary Series". Pancreas. 46 (1): 48-56. doi:10.1097/MPA. ...
Hypoglycemia-induced polyneuropathy is especially seen in conjunction with insulinoma. Myasthenia gravis Polyradiculoneuritis ...
"Expression of dominant negative form of PAX4 in human insulinoma". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 282 (1 ...
Insulin resistance Chronic Somogyi rebound Hyperinsulinemia Insulinoma Nesidioblastosis Weir, GC; Gaglia, J; Bonner-Weir, S ( ... "Diagnosis of insulinoma using the ratios of serum concentrations of insulin and C-peptide to glucose during a 5-hour oral ... insulin-glucose ratio for the biochemical diagnosis of insulinomas". Annals of Internal Medicine. 157 (11): 767-75. doi:10.7326 ...
But despite being on rare grounds that it was possible for an insulinoma to form at locations other than the pancreas and also ... Ernie Peiris diagnosed him of Insulinoma while Dr. P. A. P. Joseph continued to treat him. Following dextrose infusion, there ... During Russel's autopsy, the initially diagnosed insulinoma was not identified. ...
Two cases of PED have been associated with insulinomas, after removal of which the symptoms of PED were resolved. Since the age ... Patients with PED associated with insulinomas appeared to have symptoms resolved after consuming sugary drinks. Currently, ... "Paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia associated with hypoglycaemia induced by an insulinoma". J. Neurol. 249 (11): 1615-6. doi: ...
Cultured mouse insulinoma cells (MIN6 cell line): These cells can be cultured efficiently under conditions that promote the ... Mouse insulinoma cells (MIN6 cell line) and mouse pancreatic islet cells. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) during ...
A primary B-cell tumor, such as an insulinoma, is associated with hypoglycemia. This is a tumor located in the pancreas. An ... This is the case for insulinomas which often require surgical removal of the tumor for hypoglycemia to remit. In patients who ... In those with a suspected insulinoma, imaging is the most reliable diagnostic technique, including ultrasound, computed ... tumors such as insulinomas or non-B cell tumors, inborn errors of metabolism, several medications, and alcohol. Low blood sugar ...
"Peripheral neuropathy and microangiopathy in rats with insulinoma: association with chronic hyperinsulinemia". Diabetes/ ...
This gene has been found to be activated in various tumors, such as insulinomas, esophageal cancers, and colon cancers. As is ... 1987). "Evolutionary conservation of the insulinoma gene rig and its possible function". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84 (19 ...
It is not recommended in people who have a pheochromocytoma or insulinoma. Use in pregnancy has not been found to be harmful to ... Likewise, glucagon is contraindicated in patients with an insulinoma, as its hyperglycemic effect can induce the tumor to ...
Pathological causes of weight gain include Cushing's syndrome, hypothyroidism, insulinoma, and craniopharyngioma. Genetic ...
The same signs may be caused by hyperinsulinism not caused by insulinoma. The criteria date back to the 1930s, when a few ... He proposed that no pancreatic surgery to look for insulinoma be performed unless these criteria were met. For this reason, ... Whipple's criteria are no longer used to justify surgical exploration for an insulinoma, but to separate "true hypoglycaemia" ( ... due to hypoglycaemia were found to be cured by surgery to remove an insulinoma, but a large proportion of people with symptoms ...
For example, an insulin-secreting tumor is referred to as an "insulinoma". On the other end of the spectrum, non-functioning ...
... amide receptor on insulinoma-derived cell membranes". Digestion. 55 (1): 29-33. doi:10.1159/000201119. PMID 8112494. Graziano ... "Signal transduction of the GLP-1-receptor cloned from a human insulinoma". FEBS Letters. 348 (1): 7-13. doi:10.1016/0014-5793( ...
Insulinomas are neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas with an incidence of 0.4 %[citation needed] which usually are benign ... Jyotsna VP, Malik E, Birla S, Sharma A (2015-01-01). "Novel MEN 1 gene findings in rare sporadic insulinoma--a case control ... Menin is a 621 amino acid protein associated with insulinomas which acts as an adapter while also interacting with partner ... Pancreatic tumours involve the islet cells, giving rise to gastrinomas or insulinomas. In rare cases, adrenal cortex tumours ...
Insulinomas (largely benign) and gastrinomas are the most common types. For those with neuroendocrine cancers the number alive ...
... treatment increases insulin secretion in cultured insulinoma cells by increasing intracellular calcium mobilization. ...
He also is known for developing the diagnostic triad for insulinoma known as Whipple's triad. He supervised the surgical ...
Pancreatic insulinoma Pancreatic insulinoma Chromogranin A Insulin immuostain Causes of hypoglycemia Metastatic Insulinoma ... An insulinoma is a tumour of the pancreas that is derived from beta cells and secretes insulin. It is a rare form of a ... Insulinoma is one of the most common types of tumours arising from the islets of Langerhans cells (pancreatic endocrine tumours ... Most insulinomas are small, less than 2 cm.[citation needed] Hypoglycemia was first recognized in the 19th century. In the ...
An insulinoma is a tumor in the pancreas that produces too much insulin. ... Tumors of the pancreas that produce too much insulin are called insulinomas. Insulinomas keep making insulin, and can make your ... Insulinomas are very rare tumors. They usually occur as single, small tumors. But there can also be several small tumors. ... Surgery is the usual treatment for insulinoma. If there is a single tumor, it will be removed. If there are many tumors, part ...
In a large single-center series of 125 patients with neuroendocrine tumors, insulinomas constituted the majority of cases (55 ... Insulinomas are the most common cause of hypoglycemia resulting from endogenous hyperinsulinism. ... Insulinomas can be located with the following imaging modalities:. * Endoscopic ultrasonography: Detects 77% of insulinomas in ... An insulinoma is a neuroendocrine tumor, deriving mainly from pancreatic islet cells, that secretes insulin. Some insulinomas ...
Learn about the symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment of insulinomas at WebMD. ... An insulinoma is a rare tumor of the pancreas made of beta islet cells. They continuously make insulin, which causes ... What Is an Insulinoma?. An insulinoma is a rare tumor of the pancreas. Its made of cells called beta islet cells, the same ... Insulinoma Diagnosis. It can be tough for doctors to diagnose an insulinoma. Its symptoms are the same as those of other common ...
Chemotherapy is now available for ferrets diagnosed with insulinoma. The protocol typically involves four sessions, ...
Learn about the veterinary topic of Insulinoma and Gastrinoma in Animals. Find specific details on this topic and related ... Insulinoma and Gastrinoma in Animals By Robert J. Kemppainen , DVM, PhD, Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Pharmacology, ... See discussions of insulinoma Functional Islet Cell Tumors in Small Animals Islet cell tumors are the most common cause of ... Insulinoma (functional islet cell tumor) is the most common neuroendocrine tumor in domestic species. ...
Lane, R. J., & Coupland, G. A. E. (1982). Operative ultrasonic features of insulinomas. The American Journal of Surgery, 144(5 ... Lane, Rodney J. ; Coupland, Graham A E. / Operative ultrasonic features of insulinomas. In: The American Journal of Surgery. ... Lane, RJ & Coupland, GAE 1982, Operative ultrasonic features of insulinomas, The American Journal of Surgery, vol. 144, no. 5 ... Insulinomas are ultrasonically hypoechoeic and well-defined, with smooth borders, they deform but do not infiltrate surrounding ...
Insulinoma - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - Medical Professional ... Of all insulinomas, 80% are single and may be curatively resected if identified. Only 10% of insulinomas are malignant. ... of insulinomas), when it occurs in the 20s. Insulinomas associated with MEN 1 are more likely to be multiple. ... In patients with insulinoma, C peptide is ≥ 0.6 ng/mL (0.2 nmol/L) and proinsulin is ≥ 5 pmol/L. These levels are normal or low ...
Insulinoma Doctors in Delhi NCR You can easily connect with a top Insulinoma Doctors in Delhi NCR, who can provide advanced ... Do I need a reference to visit a insulinoma doctor in delhi ncr?. No, you can visit a insulinoma doctor in delhi ncr without ... What are the charges of a insulinoma doctor in delhi ncr?. The charges of a insulinoma doctor in delhi ncr are around 600 to ... How can I select the best insulinoma doctor in delhi ncr?. You can select the best insulinoma doctor in delhi ncr by check ...
Tumor: insulinoma. - By clicking on the cell line name, you will retrieve the detailed description of the cell line - By ...
Insulinoma in Ferrets: Symptoms and Treatment. I wish we could have caught Mooses Insulinoma sooner. I would have learned more ... Because Insulinoma is one of the most common illnesses our ferrets suffer from, its important we all stay informed on the ... You may be familiar with the word Insulinoma and yet unfamiliar with the subtle signs of illness and the many ways you can ... When Moose started the medication 1 month ago to treat his Insulinoma, I didnt understand what the medication did, … ...
An Unusual Presentation of Insulinoma: Confusion With Psychiatric Symptoms ...
... who suspects I may have an insulinoma, and recommended a 72-hour supervised fast to rule it … ... The insulinomas were diagnosed before I went home. I had surgery at the end of July and spent 11 days in the hospital. ... I am a 47 year old female patient who was diagnosed with 2 insulinomas in July 2015. I was diagnosed by the 72 hour fast. I did ... Ive never had an insulinoma, but I had to have a lot of testing done in Mayo Clinic due to being Diagnosed with HyperTrophic ...
... most insulinomas in dogs and cats are malignant. This is bad news but the good news is that regardless of this fact, surgery is ... Staging Insulinoma. Unfortunately, most insulinomas are malignant but that does not mean they are not treatable. There is more ... Insulinomas can be confined to the pancreas (Stage I), spread to local lymph nodes (Stage II), or spread distantly, usually to ... If you already know too much insulin is being produced, you can be pretty sure you are tracking down an insulinoma but if a ...
Hypoglycemia In Patients With Insulinoma. In patients with insulinoma, administration of glucagon products may produce an ... have a tumor called insulinoma in your pancreas.. Before using ZEGALOGUE, tell your healthcare provider about all of your ... low blood sugar. ZEGALOGUE can cause certain people with tumors in their pancreas called insulinomas to have low blood sugar. ... ZEGALOGUE is contraindicated in patients with insulinoma [see CONTRAINDICATIONS]. If a patient develops symptoms of ...
Insulinomas (INS) are the most common neuroendocrine pancreatic tumours in humans and dogs. The long-term prognosis for ... Notch pathway inhibition targets chemoresistant insulinoma cancer stem cells. *Y Capodanno1,*⇑, ...
London Smith (.com) and his producer Cameron discuss Insulinoma with special guest Seymour Amour (William Kean). Not so boring ... London Smith (.com) and his producer Cameron discuss Insulinoma with special guest Seymour Amour (William Kean). Not so boring! ...
Non-Insulinoma Hypoglycemia Syndrome: Case Report. PubMed, SCI, Scopus, ESCI, PMC indexed ... Pregnancy Complicated by Hyperinsulinemic, Non-Insulinoma Hypoglycemia Syndrome: Case Report. Author(s): Enio Luis Damaso, ...
Malignant insulinoma occurs in a few patients with insulinoma. Due to the small sample of patients, there are little data ... Malignant insulinoma occurs in a few patients with insulinoma. Due to the small sample of patients, there are little data ... Malignant insulinoma occurs in a few patients with insulinoma. Due to the small sample of patients, there are little data ... Malignant insulinoma occurs in a few patients with insulinoma. Due to the small sample of patients, there are little data ...
Concurrent insulinomas were more common in MEN-1 (17% vs 2%; p , 0.01). Conclusions: MEN-1 patients present with insulinoma at ... Concurrent insulinomas were more common in MEN-1 (17% vs 2%; p , 0.01). Conclusions: MEN-1 patients present with insulinoma at ... Concurrent insulinomas were more common in MEN-1 (17% vs 2%; p , 0.01). Conclusions: MEN-1 patients present with insulinoma at ... Concurrent insulinomas were more common in MEN-1 (17% vs 2%; p , 0.01). Conclusions: MEN-1 patients present with insulinoma at ...
... Da-ming Zhang, and Nai-shi Li ... Professor Liu Shih-hao and the first case study of insulinoma in China[J].Chinese Medical Sciences Journal, 2010, 25(4): 246- ...
Jednak rozpoznanie insulinoma jest bardzo trudne, pomimo dostępności wielu metod.. Summary. Introduction. Insulinoma belongs to ... The diagnosis of insulinoma is very difficult, despite available investigative methods.. Słowa kluczowe: insulinoma, 72- ... Treatment strategy of insulinoma is surgical removal of the tumor. A simple enucleation of the tumor is successful in over 90% ... They all were subjected to a 72-hour-fasting test, which is considered as the gold standard to recognize insulinoma.. Results. ...
Insulinoma: A tumor that forms in the cells that produce insulin, a hormone responsible for controlling the amount of glucose ...
Dive into the research topics of Anesthetic management of a case of insulinoma. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
BAPN decreases tissue stiffness in Rip1-Tag2 mouse insulinomas. (A) The insulinoma sections of Rip1-Tag2 mice treated with ... Increases in insulinoma ECM stiffness play an important role in insulinoma growth in Rip1-Tag2 and Rip1-Tag2;P-sel-/- mice. ... LOX expression in Rip1-Tag2 mouse insulinomas was strong, while LOX expression in Rip1-Tag2;P-sel-/- mouse insulinomas was very ... Hydroxyproline levels were lower in the insulinomas of Rip1-Tag2 mice treated with BAPN than in the insulinomas of control mice ...
This incurable form of cancer is rare in cats, but no less devastating. Learn how to spot it early to protect your feline friend.
Insulinoma / Gastrinoma. *Carcinoid syndrome and carcinoid crisis. Outline the differential diagnosis of:. *Thyroid *Suppressed ...
Insulinoma. Insulin helps control the amount of sugar, or glucose, in the bloodstream. When a tumor happens in this group of ... cells, it is an insulinoma.. *Glucagonoma. Glucagon also plays a role in the amount of glucose in the bloodstream, and in this ...
8] However, high insulin levels in a hypoglycemic state have been found in a hypersecretory state; an example is insulinoma, in ...
Dr. Lyden earned her medical degree from Michigan State University. She completed her general surgery residency at Gundersen Lutheran Medical Center and her endocrine surgery fellowship at the University of Michigan Medical Center. Dr. Lyden earned her Master of Health Professions Education from the University of Illinois at Chicago.. In addition to her clinical activities, Dr. Lyden is an active leader in researching minimally invasive surgical techniques in the management of parathyroid, thyroid and adrenal diseases and is widely published.. ...
  • citation needed] The diagnosis of insulinoma is suspected in a patient with symptomatic fasting hypoglycemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insulinomas keep making insulin, and can make your blood sugar level too low (hypoglycemia). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Insulinomas are the most common cause of hypoglycemia resulting from endogenous hyperinsulinism. (medscape.com)
  • Failure of endogenous insulin secretion to be suppressed by hypoglycemia is the hallmark of an insulinoma. (medscape.com)
  • Because insulinomas make too much insulin, they can cause symptoms of low blood sugar , also known as hypoglycemia . (webmd.com)
  • An insulinoma can also cause hypoglycemia when you haven't eaten in a while, but it can happen at any time. (webmd.com)
  • Surreptitious administration of exogenous insulin can cause episodic hypoglycemia mimicking insulinoma. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Symptoms of hypoglycemia due to insulinoma are insidious and may mimic various psychiatric and neurologic disorders. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Because many patients have no symptoms (and hence no hypoglycemia) at the time of evaluation, diagnosis of insulinoma requires admission to the hospital for a 48- or 72-hour fast. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Other not so obvious causes of hypoglycemia include liver disease, insulinoma, and hypoadrenocorticism (Addison's Disease) . (vin.com)
  • The diagnosis of insulinoma should be considered if clinical symptoms of hypoglycemia occurred. (czytelniamedyczna.pl)
  • Patients with malignant insulinoma always present with symptoms of severe hypoglycemia and have poor life expectancy. (nel.edu)
  • however, GVOKE may stimulate exaggerated insulin release from an insulinoma and cause hypoglycemia. (nih.gov)
  • Cases of hypoglycemia associated with insulin use, insulinoma, or Reye syndrome were excluded. (cdc.gov)
  • Insulinoma is a malignant tumor of the pancreas that secretes excessive amounts of insulin leading to hypoglycemia. (petplace.com)
  • Non Insulinoma pancreatogenous hypoglycemia. (pakmedinet.com)
  • Tumors of the pancreas that produce too much insulin are called insulinomas. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Insulinomas are very rare tumors. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Most insulinomas are non-cancerous (benign) tumors. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Subtotal pancreatectomy with enucleation: With insulinomas associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), subtotal pancreatectomy with enucleation of tumors from the pancreatic head and uncinate process often is necessary because of frequent multiple tumors in MEN1. (medscape.com)
  • Insulin-secreting tumors are called insulinomas. (vin.com)
  • VIP scans were positive in 9 of 10 patients with carcinoid tumors and in 4 of 4 patients with insulinomas. (nih.gov)
  • Some tumors with positive VIP scans were also visualized with somatostatin analogues (4 of 17 colorectal adenocarcinomas, 8 of 9 carcinoids, and 2 of 2 insulinomas). (nih.gov)
  • Chromogranin A is a reliable serum diagnostic biomarker for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors but not for insulinomas. (medscape.com)
  • Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA). (bvsalud.org)
  • An insulinoma is a tumor in the pancreas that produces too much insulin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • An insulinoma is a rare tumor of the pancreas . (webmd.com)
  • You might hear an insulinoma called a " neuroendocrine tumor " because it starts in special cells in your body called neuroendocrine cells. (webmd.com)
  • The main treatment for an insulinoma is surgery to remove the tumor. (webmd.com)
  • Insulinoma (functional islet cell tumor) is the most common neuroendocrine tumor in domestic species. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Only in one of the patients with diagnosed insulinoma a single tumor (2 cm), situated on a border of head and corpus of pancreas, was localized with the use of the computed tomography. (czytelniamedyczna.pl)
  • Treatment strategy of insulinoma is surgical removal of the tumor. (czytelniamedyczna.pl)
  • When a tumor happens in this group of cells, it is an insulinoma. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Insulinoma is a rare pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor that can spontaneously produce excess endogenous insulin, resulti. (nel.edu)
  • Scanning with radiolabeled VIP was compared with computed tomography and scanning with somatostatin analogues in 79 patients with colorectal cancer, pancreatic carcinoma, gastric cancer, carcinoid tumor, or insulinoma. (nih.gov)
  • Giant pancreatic tumor with clinical characteristics of insulinoma but without common pathologic features. (rochester.edu)
  • The most common disease of the endocrine pancreas is insulinoma, an insulin secreting βcell tumor. (ivis.org)
  • Most insulinomas are benign in that they grow exclusively at their origin within the pancreas, but a minority metastasize. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Most patients with benign insulinomas can be cured with surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Approximately 90-95% of insulinomas are benign, and long-term cure with total resolution of preoperative symptoms is expected after complete resection. (medscape.com)
  • Herein, we compared demographics, neoplasm characteristics, presentation, and survival in patients with sporadic vs MEN-1 insulinomas including benign and malignant disease. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Of the 260 patients with benign insulinoma, 7% had MEN-1 syndrome. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Resection of benign insulinoma was performed in 78% of the MEN-1 and 94% of the sporadic group (p = 0.03). (elsevierpure.com)
  • Conclusions: MEN-1 patients present with insulinoma at younger age and have larger benign pancreatic lesions at the time of resection compared with sporadic neoplasms. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Comparison of benign and malignant insulinoma. (medline.ru)
  • Insulinomas are one of the functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour (PNET) group ("functional" because it increases production of insulin). (wikipedia.org)
  • Insulinoma belongs to the most functional pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms, with specific problems in their diagnosis, localization and treatment. (czytelniamedyczna.pl)
  • The use of calcium stimulation improves the specificity of this test.During surgery to remove an insulinoma, an intraoperative ultrasound can sometimes localize the tumour, which helps guide the surgeon in the operation and has a higher sensitivity than noninvasive imaging tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • You might be able to have laparoscopic surgery to remove an insulinoma. (webmd.com)
  • CT scan image with oral and intravenous contrast in a patient with biochemical evidence of insulinoma. (medscape.com)
  • A 72-hour fast showed no evidence of insulinoma. (medscape.com)
  • An insulinoma is a tumour of the pancreas that is derived from beta cells and secretes insulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • In rare cases, the entire pancreas is removed if there are many insulinomas or they come back after surgery. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Surgeons can usually remove just the insulinoma from the surface of your pancreas . (webmd.com)
  • The specific ultrasonic features of two small but palpable insulinomas are compared with those of other small lesions in the pancreas. (edu.au)
  • The diagnosis of an insulinoma is usually made biochemically with low blood glucose, elevated insulin, proinsulin, and C-peptide levels, and confirmed by localizing the tumour with medical imaging or angiography. (wikipedia.org)
  • The diagnosis of insulinoma is very difficult, despite available investigative methods. (czytelniamedyczna.pl)
  • Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of the 48-hour fasting test and insulin surrogates followed by a glucagon stimulatory test (GST) for the diagnosis of insulinoma. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Results The sensitivity and specificity of the 48-hour fasting test were 100.0% and 80.0%, respectively, for the diagnosis of insulinoma. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Conclusions A more accurate and less invasive diagnosis of insulinoma was possible by combining the 48-hour fasting test with the GST, compared with the existing method. (elsevierpure.com)
  • In contrast, the secretion of insulin by insulinomas is not properly regulated by glucose, and the tumours continue to secrete insulin causing glucose levels to fall further than normal. (wikipedia.org)
  • An endoscopic ultrasound has a sensitivity of 40-93% (depending on the location of the tumour) for detecting insulinomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also in two of the patients with the use of the endoscopic ultrasonography an insulinoma was recognized. (czytelniamedyczna.pl)
  • Insulinoma misdiagnosed as epilepsy in 44 Chinese patients. (nel.edu)
  • 10.Williams BA, Lampart S, Metzger J, Fischli S. Case report of a pancreatic insulinoma misdiagnosed as epilepsy. (medline.ru)
  • These blood tests are needed to diagnose insulinoma: glucose insulin C-peptide If available, a proinsulin level might be useful, as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • To find out if you have an insulinoma, your doctor will test your blood sugar, insulin, C-peptide, and proinsulin during a 72-hour rest. (webmd.com)
  • In patients with insulinoma, C peptide is ≥ 0.6 ng/mL (0.2 nmol/L) and proinsulin is ≥ 5 pmol/L. These levels are normal or low in patients with surreptitious insulin administration. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Patients with insulinomas usually develop neuroglycopenic symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malignant insulinoma occurs in a few patients with insulinoma. (elsevierpure.com)
  • The authors identified 10 patients with metastatic insulinoma. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Study Design: A retrospective study identified insulinoma patients. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Within malignant patients, the median (interquartile range) age was 33 (25,44) years in MEN-1 vs 54 (41, 70) years in sporadic insulinoma (p = 0.04). (elsevierpure.com)
  • We included 74 patients (52 females and 22 males) admitted to the Department of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, University of Nicolaus Copernicus in Toruń between 2001 and 2010, because of clinical suspicion of insulinoma: weakness, sweating, blured vision, confusion and dizziness. (czytelniamedyczna.pl)
  • Methods Thirty-five patients with suspected insulinoma who underwent 48-hour fasting test and GST were retrospectively included in our study: 15 patients with surgically proven insulinomas and 20 patients in whom insulinoma was clinically ruled out. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Malignant insulinoma: Report of 6 patients and literature review. (nel.edu)
  • Rip1-Tag2 mice are a spontaneous insulinoma model resulting from the expression of the SV40 T antigen, which functions as an oncogene, in β-cells [ 4 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • Insulinomas can be treated surgically or medically but surgery has a chance of curing the dog and medical treatment doesn't. (vetinfo.com)
  • Real-time, high resolution, intraoperative ultrasonic pancreatography is suggested as an adjunct to assist in the localization of insulinomas at surgery. (edu.au)
  • Chemotherapy is now available for ferrets diagnosed with insulinoma. (avianandexotic.com)
  • Because Insulinoma is one of the most common illnesses our ferrets suffer from, it's important we all stay informed on the proper treatment and medication, like Prednisolone for ferrets. (themodernferret.com)
  • I would have learned more about how to prevent Insulinoma in ferrets before it became too late. (themodernferret.com)
  • People with certain genetic disorders, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type I , are at higher risk for insulinomas. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Background: The differences between sporadic and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1)-associated insulinoma are not well described. (elsevierpure.com)
  • 9.Bosak M, Sowa-Staszczak A, Słowik A. Insulinoma mimicking psychogenic nonepileptic seizures in a patient with refractory epilepsy. (medline.ru)
  • citation needed] The definitive management is the surgical removal of the insulinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • abstract = "The technique of operative pancreaticosonography is described as a method of localizing occult insulinomas. (edu.au)
  • An indium-111 pentetreotide scan is more sensitive than ultrasound, CT, or MRI for detection of somatostatin receptor positive tumours, but not a good diagnostic tool for insulinomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of our study was to describe diagnostic problems, clinicians cope to correctly determine insulinoma. (czytelniamedyczna.pl)
  • You can easily connect with a top Insulinoma Doctors in Delhi NCR, who can provide advanced treatment and caring support for your endocrinology concerns. (credihealth.com)
  • MEN) type 1 (about 10% of insulinomas), when it occurs in the 20s. (msdmanuals.com)
  • secondary to an insulinoma occurs during fasting. (msdmanuals.com)
  • citation needed] The insulinoma might be localized by noninvasive means, using ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancerous insulinomas are rare, and they need different treatment. (webmd.com)
  • Fizicheskieminiinvazivnyemetodylecheniiabol'nykh s insulinomamipodzheludochnoĭzhelezy [Physical minimally invasive treatment of pancreatic insulinoma]. (medline.ru)
  • It can be tough for doctors to diagnose an insulinoma. (webmd.com)