Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Receptor, Insulin: A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins: A structurally-related group of signaling proteins that are phosphorylated by the INSULIN RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE. The proteins share in common an N-terminal PHOSPHOLIPID-binding domain, a phosphotyrosine-binding domain that interacts with the phosphorylated INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal TYROSINE-rich domain. Upon tyrosine phosphorylation insulin receptor substrate proteins interact with specific SH2 DOMAIN-containing proteins that are involved in insulin receptor signaling.Insulin, Long-Acting: Insulin formulations that contain substances that retard absorption thus extending the time period of action.Insulin Antibodies: Antibodies specific to INSULIN.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Insulin Antagonists: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or action of insulin.Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Insulin Lispro: Insulin that has been modified so that the B-chain contains a LYSINE at position 28 instead of a PROLINE and a PROLINE at position 29 instead of a LYSINE. It is used to manage BLOOD GLUCOSE levels in patients with TYPE 2 DIABETES.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Insulin Infusion Systems: Portable or implantable devices for infusion of insulin. Includes open-loop systems which may be patient-operated or controlled by a pre-set program and are designed for constant delivery of small quantities of insulin, increased during food ingestion, and closed-loop systems which deliver quantities of insulin automatically based on an electronic glucose sensor.Glucose Clamp Technique: Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Insulin Aspart: Insulin that has been modified to contain an ASPARTIC ACID instead of a PROLINE at position 38 of the B-chain.Insulin, Isophane: An intermediate-acting INSULIN preparation with onset time of 2 hours and duration of 24 hours. It is produced by crystallizing ZINC-insulin-PROTAMINES at neutral pH 7. Thus it is called neutral protamine Hagedorn for inventor Hans Christian Hagedorn.Hyperinsulinism: A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.Insulin, Regular, Pork: Regular insulin preparations that contain the SUS SCROFA insulin peptide sequence.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Insulin-Secreting Cells: A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.Insulins: Peptide hormones that cause an increase in the absorption of GLUCOSE by cells within organs such as LIVER, MUSCLE and ADIPOSE TISSUE. During normal metabolism insulins are produced by the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS in response to increased GLUCOSE. Natural and chemically-modified forms of insulin are also used in the treatment of GLUCOSE METABOLISM DISORDERS such as DIABETES MELLITUS.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Glucagon: A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)Amino Sugars: SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.C-Peptide: The middle segment of proinsulin that is between the N-terminal B-chain and the C-terminal A-chain. It is a pancreatic peptide of about 31 residues, depending on the species. Upon proteolytic cleavage of proinsulin, equimolar INSULIN and C-peptide are released. C-peptide immunoassay has been used to assess pancreatic beta cell function in diabetic patients with circulating insulin antibodies or exogenous insulin. Half-life of C-peptide is 30 min, almost 8 times that of insulin.Insulin, Regular, Human: Regular insulin preparations that contain the HUMAN insulin peptide sequence.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Proinsulin: A pancreatic polypeptide of about 110 amino acids, depending on the species, that is the precursor of insulin. Proinsulin, produced by the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, is comprised sequentially of the N-terminal B-chain, the proteolytically removable connecting C-peptide, and the C-terminal A-chain. It also contains three disulfide bonds, two between A-chain and B-chain. After cleavage at two locations, insulin and C-peptide are the secreted products. Intact proinsulin with low bioactivity also is secreted in small amounts.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Hyperglycemia: Abnormally high BLOOD GLUCOSE level.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Sugar Alcohols: Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)Deoxy SugarsSignal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Hypoglycemia: A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Glucose Transporter Type 4: A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Insulin, Short-Acting: Insulin derivatives and preparations that are designed to induce a rapid HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECT.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Deoxyglucose: 2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Dietary Sucrose: Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.Glucose Intolerance: A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.TriglyceridesLeptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Insulin-Like Growth Factor I: A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.PhosphoproteinsCells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.HexosesPhosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.GlycogenInsulinoma: A benign tumor of the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS. Insulinoma secretes excess INSULIN resulting in HYPOGLYCEMIA.Monosaccharides: Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated: Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)MethylglucosidesBiphasic Insulins: An insulin preparation that is designed to provide immediate and long term glycemic control in a single dosage. Biphasic insulin typically contains a mixture of REGULAR INSULIN or SHORT-ACTING INSULIN combined with a LONG-ACTING INSULIN.Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Galactose: An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Phosphoenolpyruvate Sugar Phosphotransferase System: The bacterial sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) that catalyzes the transfer of the phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate to its sugar substrates (the PTS sugars) concomitant with the translocation of these sugars across the bacterial membrane. The phosphorylation of a given sugar requires four proteins, two general proteins, Enzyme I and HPr and a pair of sugar-specific proteins designated as the Enzyme II complex. The PTS has also been implicated in the induction of synthesis of some catabolic enzyme systems required for the utilization of sugars that are not substrates of the PTS as well as the regulation of the activity of ADENYLYL CYCLASES. EC 2.7.1.-.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Glucagon-Like Peptide 1: A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Uridine Diphosphate SugarsMice, Obese: Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.Metformin: A biguanide hypoglycemic agent used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus not responding to dietary modification. Metformin improves glycemic control by improving insulin sensitivity and decreasing intestinal absorption of glucose. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p289)Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Thiazolidinediones: THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Mice, Inbred C57BL3T3-L1 Cells: A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Tolbutamide: A sulphonylurea hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROPAMIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290)Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Receptor, IGF Type 1: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is closely related in structure to the INSULIN RECEPTOR. Although commonly referred to as the IGF-I receptor, it binds both IGF-I and IGF-II with high affinity. It is comprised of a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The beta subunit contains an intrinsic tyrosine kinase domain.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Rats, Zucker: Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Mannose: A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Infusions, Subcutaneous: The administration of liquid medication or nutrients under the skin, usually over minutes or hours.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Sweetening Agents: Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Diet, High-Fat: Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.Glucokinase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and D-glucose to ADP and D-glucose 6-phosphate. They are found in invertebrates and microorganisms, and are highly specific for glucose. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.2.Streptozocin: An antibiotic that is produced by Stretomyces achromogenes. It is used as an antineoplastic agent and to induce diabetes in experimental animals.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Sugar AcidsXyloseGlucosamineModels, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Glycogen Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of D-glucose from UDPglucose into 1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl chains. EC 2.4.1.11.Gluconeogenesis: Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.PhlorhizinGlucose Transporter Type 2: A glucose transport facilitator that is expressed primarily in PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; LIVER; and KIDNEYS. It may function as a GLUCOSE sensor to regulate INSULIN release and glucose HOMEOSTASIS.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Somatostatin: A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Sugar PhosphatesFatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.3-O-Methylglucose: A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)Acetylglucosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.MethylglycosidesInjections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Saccharum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE widely cultivated in the tropics for the sweet cane that is processed into sugar.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Insulysin: An enzyme the catalyzes the degradation of insulin, glucagon and other polypeptides. It is inhibited by bacitracin, chelating agents EDTA and 1,10-phenanthroline, and by thiol-blocking reagents such as N-ethylmaleimide, but not phosphoramidon. (Eur J Biochem 1994;223:1-5) EC 3.4.24.56.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Sulfonylurea CompoundsMutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide: A gastrointestinal peptide hormone of about 43-amino acids. It is found to be a potent stimulator of INSULIN secretion and a relatively poor inhibitor of GASTRIC ACID secretion.Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus, primarily of TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS with severe INSULIN deficiency and extreme HYPERGLYCEMIA. It is characterized by KETOSIS; DEHYDRATION; and depressed consciousness leading to COMA.HexosaminesLactose: A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Prediabetic State: The time period before the development of symptomatic diabetes. For example, certain risk factors can be observed in subjects who subsequently develop INSULIN RESISTANCE as in type 2 diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 2).Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.PolysaccharidesRecombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 1: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that includes two distinctive targeting motifs; an N-terminal motif specific for the INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal motif specific for the SH3 domain containing proteins. This subtype includes a hydrophobic domain which localizes it to the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Diazoxide: A benzothiadiazine derivative that is a peripheral vasodilator used for hypertensive emergencies. It lacks diuretic effect, apparently because it lacks a sulfonamide group.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Androstadienes: Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.Nucleoside Diphosphate SugarsProtein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Stimulation, Chemical: The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases: A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Hexokinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.1.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Resistin: A 12-kDa cysteine-rich polypeptide hormone secreted by FAT CELLS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is the founding member of the resistin-like molecule (RELM) hormone family. Resistin suppresses the ability of INSULIN to stimulate cellular GLUCOSE uptake.Intra-Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.Glucose Transporter Type 1: A ubiquitously expressed glucose transporter that is important for constitutive, basal GLUCOSE transport. It is predominately expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and ERYTHROCYTES at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and is responsible for GLUCOSE entry into the BRAIN.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Arabinose
Insulin and glucagon influence blood sugar levels. Glucagon is released when blood glucose level is low, and stimulates the ... Insulin increases the rate of glucose uptake and metabolism by most body cells. Somatostatin is released by Delta cells and act ... The alpha and beta cells are the endocrine cells in the pancreatic islets that release insulin and glucagon and smaller amounts ... Hyposecretion of insulin results in diabetes mellitus; cardinal signs are polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia. Endocrinology: ...
Many may need extra insulin during pregnancy to reach their blood sugar target. Insulin is not harmful for the baby. Breast ... Managing blood sugar close to normal before and during pregnancy helps to protect the health of mother and the baby. Insulin ... Extra insulin may be needed for type 1 diabetics during pregnancy. Doctors may advise to check blood sugar more often to ... High blood sugar levels are harmful to the mother and her fetus. Experts advise diabetics to maintain blood sugar level close ...
Some hormones are completely active when released into the bloodstream (as is the case for insulin and growth hormones), while ... For instance, serum calcium concentration affects parathyroid hormone synthesis; blood sugar (serum glucose concentration) ... Examples of protein hormones include insulin and growth hormone. More complex protein hormones bear carbohydrate side-chains ... affects insulin synthesis; and because the outputs of the stomach and exocrine pancreas (the amounts of gastric juice and ...
Low blood sugar[edit]. Studies show that alcohol hangover is associated with a decrease in blood glucose concentration (less ... The metabolism of glucose and insulin are also influenced.[9] However, recent studies showed no significant correlation between ... Also known as insulin shock, hypoglycemia can lead to coma or even death.[26] ...
His initial blood sugar was 385. For over 35 years he used daily insulin injections. Elizabeth, his inspirational wife, ... Disability On September 10, 1972; Honeycutt was diagnosed with Diabetes mellitus type 1 insulin-dependent diabetes at age 15. ... assisted him in transferring to insulin pump and continuous blood glucose monitoring where he consistently maintained glycated ... long-term side effects were occasional hypoglycemia and fluctuating blood sugar levels. Occasionally, he encouraged others in ...
Type 2 DM may be treated with medications with or without insulin. Insulin and some oral medications can cause low blood sugar ... if cells respond poorly to the effects of insulin (insulin insensitivity or insulin resistance), or if the insulin itself is ... Type 1 diabetes can only be treated with insulin, typically with a combination of regular and NPH insulin, or synthetic insulin ... At this stage, high blood sugar can be reversed by a variety of measures and medications that improve insulin sensitivity or ...
Samuel, Varman T (February 2011). "Fructose induced lipogenesis: from sugar to fat to insulin resistance". Trends in ...
Insulin and glucagon influence blood sugar levels. Glucagon is released when blood glucose level is low, and stimulates the ... The alpha and beta cells are the endocrine cells in the pancreatic islets that release insulin and glucagon and smaller amounts ... It may act directly, or indirectly via insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). GH mobilizes fats, stimulates protein synthesis, and ... Hyposecretion of insulin results in diabetes mellitus; cardinal signs are polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia. ...
Blood sugars rise, dehydration ensues, and resistance to the normal effects of insulin increases further by way of a vicious ... but there is evidence both of impaired insulin secretion and insulin action. Once the condition has been treated, insulin ... Diabetic ketoacidosis arises because of a lack of insulin in the body. The lack of insulin and corresponding elevation of ... The primary treatment of DKA is with intravenous fluids and insulin. Depending on the severity, insulin may be given ...
When glucose levels are elevated, the pancreas responds by releasing insulin. Blood sugar will then rapidly drop. This can ... They needed more insulin to get rid of the same amount of glucose. If the body does not release more insulin to compensate, the ... Insulin signals muscle and fat cells to absorb glucose from food. As a result, blood glucose levels return to normal. Insulin- ... The secretion of insulin and the body's response to insulin decrease by 30%. Sleep deprivation also alters the productions of ...
The endocrine part secretes insulin when the blood sugar becomes high; insulin moves glucose from the blood into the muscles ... The endocrine part releases glucagon when the blood sugar is low; glucagon allows stored sugar to be broken down into glucose ... Amylase starts to work on the starch in carbohydrates, breaking it down into the simple sugars of maltose and dextrose that can ... the initial breakdown of the energy-giving carbohydrates by salivary amylase creates the taste of sweetness since simple sugars ...
He wears an insulin pump to regulate his blood sugar levels. Brennan, Sean (July 4, 2010). "Toronto Blue Jays pitcher Brandon ... saying that it was easier to balance his blood sugar in a relief position. Morrow began the season as the closer and earned ...
When glucose levels are elevated, the pancreas responds by releasing insulin. Blood sugar will then rapidly drop. This can ... They needed more insulin to get rid of the same amount of glucose. If the body does not release more insulin to compensate, the ... The secretion of insulin and the body's response to insulin decrease by 30%. Sleep deprivation also alters the productions of ... The secretion of insulin and the body's response to insulin decrease by 30%. Sleep deprivation also alters the productions of ...
In 2014 more mature beta cells were produced which released insulin in response to blood sugar when transplanted into mice.[95] ... rapid acting insulin, short-acting insulin, intermediate-acting insulin, and long-acting insulin. The rapid acting insulin is ... Insulin[edit]. Main article: Insulin therapy. Injections of insulin - either via subcutaneous injection or insulin pump - are ... There is no known way to prevent type 1 diabetes.[4] Treatment with insulin is required for survival.[1] Insulin therapy is ...
In those with high blood sugar levels, insulin to bring it down to 7.8-10 mmol/L (140-180 mg/dL) is recommended with lower ... Some might benefit from tight control of blood sugar levels with insulin. The use of corticosteroids is controversial. ... Early signs are a rapid heart rate, decreased urination, and high blood sugar. Signs of established sepsis include confusion, ...
The insulin, however, could induce a coma by lowering the blood sugar. If the blood sugar level dropped too low, it could ... Additionally, insulin was given to patients to help restore lost weight due to inactivity. ...
Insulin antagonists Something that opposes or fights the action of insulin. Insulin lowers the level of glucose (sugar) in the ... Ultralente insulin A type of insulin that is long acting. Medical ultrasound Unit of insulin The basic measure of insulin. U- ... Biosynthetic human insulin A man-made insulin that is chemically identical to like human insulin. See also: Human insulin. ... Lente insulin A type of insulin that is intermediate-acting, between NPH insulin and ultra-lente insulin. Limited joint ...
It is involved in the control of blood sugar level by enhancing insulin secretion. In humans it is synthesised by the gene ... It also increased insulin sensitivity by about 50%, improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, and protect pancreatic beta ... Activated GLP1R stimulates the adenylyl cyclase pathway which results in increased insulin synthesis and release of insulin. ... Relating glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity back to Huntington's disease, increased insulin release and beta cell ...
More insulin is needed to overcome this resistance; about 1.5-2.5 times more insulin is produced than in a normal pregnancy. ... Most women are able to manage their blood sugar with a diet and exercise. Blood sugar testing among those who are affected is ... Pregnancy causes increased insulin resistance and so a higher insulin demand. The β-cells must compensate for this by either ... Since insulin promotes the entry of glucose into most cells, insulin resistance prevents glucose from entering the cells ...
He regulates his blood sugar levels using an insulin pump attached to his hip. During games, he excuses himself every 15 ...
The calcium can then bind to and activate calmodulin which in turn leads to exocytosis of insulin vesicles leading to insulin ... Side effect may include low blood sugar, vomiting, abdominal pain, rash, and liver problems. Use by those with significant ... Water solubility = 0.027 mg/L Hypoglycemic sulfonylurea, restoring first peak of insulin secretion, increasing insulin ... It works mostly by increasing the release of insulin. Gliclazide was patented in 1966 and approved for medical use in 1972. It ...
... has negligible effects on blood sugar and insulin. None of the harmful effects of normal sugars apply to xylitol. The ... It is suspected that it triggered a massive insulin release, causing an irreversible drop in blood sugar. Food portal Dentistry ... Like most sugar alcohols, xylitol has a laxative effect because sugar alcohols are not fully broken down during digestion; ... Xylitol is a lower-calorie alternative to table sugar. Absorbed more slowly than sugar, it does not contribute to high blood ...
Blood is drawn at intervals for measurement of glucose (blood sugar), and sometimes insulin levels. The intervals and number of ... Insulin levels are sometimes measured to detect insulin resistance or deficiency. The GTT (Glucose Tolerance Test) is of ... If renal glycosuria (sugar excreted in the urine despite normal levels in the blood) is suspected, urine samples may also be ... Antuna-Puente B, Disse E, Rabasa-Lhoret R, Laville M, Capeau J, Bastard JP (2011). "How can we measure insulin sensitivity/ ...
Elevated blood sugar and insulin increase the incidence of skin tags through an unknown mechanism. Because tags are benign, ... Tamega Ade A; Aranha AM; Guiotoku MM; Miot LD; Miot HA (1 January 2010). "Association between skin tags and insulin resistance ...
1928: The Sugar Fed Child. UAB Press. 1934: Nomenclature of Disorders of Insulin Secretion, Annals of Internal Medicine 7(9): ... An overdose produced symtopms of what has come to be called insulin shock. Dr Seale Harris of the University of Alabama began ... The patient with low blood glucose must be prepared to give up refined sugar, candy, coffee and soft drinks - these items had ... William Dufty (1975) Sugar Blues, pages 81 to 90 AMA Awards, from American Medical Association Stephen Gyland (1953) "Possibly ...
Sugar and refined foods were used at this time as a means of detaching Aboriginals from the land and assimilating them into ... Often diagnosed in childhood, type 1 Diabetes is caused by the inability of the pancreas to produce enough insulin. Type 2 ... Over time this has seen the introduction of sugar and refined foods into the diet of Aboriginal Australians, initially to sever ... Diabetes is defined as being a chronic medical condition that causes increased blood sugar levels. Type 1 diabetes is often ...
"The glycemic index (GI) factor is a ranking of foods based on their overall effect on blood sugar levels. The diet based around ... 1994). "Effects of varying carbohydrate content of diet in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus". JAMA. 271 ( ... The emphasis was on avoiding sugar, sweet foods, starch, beer, milk and butter. Banting's pamphlet was popular for years to ... The choice of diet for a specific person may be influenced by measuring the individual's insulin secretion: ...
After a while Bailey claimed to be unwell and asked for some sugar and water. Several minutes later, while the boyfriend was ... Bailey was a diabetic and required regular doses of insulin. Following a domestic break-up, he went to discuss matters with his ... of the attack and had been acting in a state of automatism caused by hypoglycaemia as he had not eaten since his last insulin ... that Bailey was aware of his condition and could have taken steps to avoid its effects simply by taking food after his insulin ...
This eMedTV resource discusses insulin aspart protamine/insulin aspart uses in more detail and explains how the medication ... Insulin aspart protamine/insulin aspart is used for treating diabetes. ... Insulin helps the cells of your body remove glucose (sugar) from your bloodstream. This sugar fuels your bodys cells, giving ... How Does Insulin Aspart Protamine/Insulin Aspart Work?. Insulin aspart protamine/insulin aspart is a form of insulin, which is ...
Diabetics use it because fructose doesnt stimulate insulin production, so blood sugar levels remain stable.. The process of ... Not just any sugar, but high fructose corn syrup.. The nation eats more sweetener made from corn than from sugar cane or beets ... Crister writes that despite the food industrys arguments that sugar is sugar, whether fructose or sucrose, no group ``has yet ... Both insulin and leptin act as signals to the brain to turn down the appetite and control body weight. And in another metabolic ...
The generic name of Insulin Lispro Protamine And Insulin Lispro Injectable Suspension Mix75/25 Kwikpen is insulin lispro. ... Insulin Lispro Protamine And Insulin Lispro Injectable Suspension Mix75/25 Kwikpen with NDC 0002-8233 is a a human prescription ... Insulin lispro starts working faster and lasts for a shorter time than regular insulin. It works by helping blood sugar ( ... insulin lispro protamine, an intermediate-acting human insulin analog, and 25% insulin lispro, a rapid-acting human insulin ...
An experimental insulin drug prevented low blood sugar among diabetic patients more often than a popular drug on the market, a ... Newswise - An experimental insulin drug prevented low blood sugar among diabetic patients more often than a popular drug on the ... Two of these trials focused on type 1 diabetes, in which the body produces insufficient insulin to control blood-sugar levels. ... While treatment with the hormone insulin can help control blood sugar, it sometimes leads to abnormally low levels, or ...
Blood sugar returns to normal as quickly in diabetic mice treated with Ins-PBA-F smart insulin as in healthy mice. ... and compared to healthy mice that were not injected with insulin (black). At 3 hours, the mice were given a dose of sugar. ... At time 0 mice with a diabetes-like condition were given a long-acting insulin that is currently prescribed to diabetics (blue ... Blood sugar returns to normal as quickly in diabetic mice treated with Ins-PBA-F "smart" insulin as in healthy mice. ...
... ultra-long-acting insulin given just three times a week proved as effective as daily insulin for controlling blood sugar in ... "This proof of concept phase II study showed that patients achieve good (blood sugar) control when degludec is given just ... who took daily injections of the experimental insulin experienced the fewest episodes of potentially dangerous low blood sugar ... Research into diabetes management through longer-acting insulin is showing more promise with the announcement Wednesday that an ...
Researchers studied the venom in one kind of sea-dwelling snail and discovered that the creature uses insulin to induce ... "Specialized insulin is used for chemical warfare by fish-hunting cone snails" appears in the current issue of The Proceedings ... The team did not find evidence of the same fish insulin in species of cone snail that feed on other sea-dwellers like mollusks ... A distinctive weapon, the fish insulin has so far been found in only two species of cone snail. Other cone snails that also eat ...
Intensive insulin therapy can help prevent long-term diabetes complications. Consider the benefits-and understand the ... Weight gain. When you use insulin to lower your blood sugar, the sugar in your bloodstream enters cells in your body instead of ... Intensive Insulin Therapy: Tight Blood Sugar Control. Intensive insulin therapy can help prevent long-term diabetes ... Intensive insulin therapy is an aggressive treatment approach designed to control your blood sugar levels. Intensive insulin ...
How insulin TORC2 blood sugar levels: glowing mice light the way. Salk Institute ... After a meal, the hormone insulin normally turns down gluconeogenesis ensuring that blood sugar levels dont rise too high. " ... "But in people with insulin resistance, blood sugar levels are elevated because gluconeogenesis continues when it shouldnt, ... The experiments revealed that the rise in insulin during feeding turned off the CREB/TORC2 switch. Insulin first activated a ...
... typically among those likely to have access to insulin. Measurement of insulin level along with C-peptide is very crucial in ... Surreptitious use of insulin may be seen, typically among those likely to have access to insulin. Measurement of insulin level ... When should exogenous insulin be considered as the etiology of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?. Updated: Sep 12, 2019 ... A 24-week, randomized, treat-to-target trial comparing initiation of insulin glargine once-daily with insulin detemir twice- ...
"A person who is an insulin dependant diabetic must have insulin. Without it, they die... insulin is life-sustaining. It is, for ... Insulin is only a diabetic treatment. A cure has yet to be discovered. However, I strongly believe that insulin is by far one ... people who only have a partial deficit of insulin, still the most powerful way to reduce the blood sugar in those people. So it ... As a type one diabetic for nearly eight years now, my life depends on insulin every day. I have had my own small encounters ...
... ... To test this, we gave a glucose drink to an insulin-sensitive control group and an insulin-resistant group of individuals and ... "Insulin resistance is a significant contributor to obesity and diabetes," said Gene-Jack Wang, MD, lead author of the study and ... We suggest that insulin resistance and its association with less dopamine release in a central brain reward region might ...
Diabetes mellitus Insulin blood sugar level Mens T-Shirt ✓ Unlimited options to combine colours, sizes & styles ✓ Discover T- ... Tags: gift idea, type 2, thirst, type 1, insulin, funny sayings, trend, level, Diabetes mellitus, high blood sugar, hunger, ... FunnyDiabetesDiabetes FunnyGift IdeaThirstInsulinFunny SayingsTrendType 2Type 1 ... diabetic, attitude to life, quote, shirt, bestseller, statement, motto, blood sugar, slogan, injection, funny, funny quotes ...
For a diabetic is vital to know his or her sugar level in blood (sugar blood). ... Jiri Bukvald designed the insulin pump as an original and suitable product with clear function, simple and perfect shaping. ... Insulin Pump to Get Your Sugar Level Information. Jiri Bukvald has designed the insulin pump as an original and suitable ... Tagged as actual time, darts, insulin pump, sugar level, suitable product. Posts related to this article:. Multi Pen : 3-in-one ...
When insulin has too many blood sugar passengers, and cells dont need any sugar, then insulin stimulates the production of ... This causes extra insulin to be made, which excessively lowers blood sugar by turning sugar to fat, while simultaneously ... As you are eating, some of the insulin transports blood sugar to your white adipose tissue or stored fat. The blood sugar is ... However, since you havent used the stored sugar in your liver, then insulin cant put more sugar back in your liver as it ...
I would love to mix it with milk but I am avoiding any significant insulin increase before bed. Any suggestions on how to ... I know sugar is a big no before bed due to the production of an insulin spike. Currently cutting, I am hungry by the time I get ... Ok, I know sugar is a big no before bed due to the production of an insulin spike. Currently cutting, I am hungry by the time I ... You can consume sugar before bed, by no means you can only stop yourself buddy. =] I CHOOSE to avoid that insulin increase. Oh ...
... does insulin pumps work by them self according to your blood sugar? 2- or at least does it beep if your blood sugar goes down ... this problem is why im getting insulin pump, my blood sugar goes down to less than 40 mg/dl when im asleep and i dont wake ... i know i can ask him all i want about the insulin pump, but im curious i guess. ... Im getting an insulin pump and i have an appointment with my doctor tomorrow, ...
Insulin. If you have too much sugar floating around in your blood vessels, it is likely that you also have too much insulin ... Insulin works by stimulating your cells to sponge up this excess sugar out of your bloodstream. Once inside your cells, sugar ... Normal blood sugar and high blood insulin can be the result of your cells losing some sensitivity to insulin, which ... People that have blood sugar issues that have NOT hit insulin resistance yet will have elevated levels of insulin but can have ...
Insulin helps keeps your blood sugar level from getting too high (hyperglycemia) or too low (hypoglycemia). ... Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas that allows your body to use sugar (glucose) from carbohydrates in the food that you ... insulin helps store the sugar in your liver and releases it when your blood sugar level is low or if you need more sugar, such ... Insulin then attaches to and signals cells to absorb sugar from the bloodstream. Insulin is often described as a "key," which ...
Implant Containing Living Pancreatic Cells Controls Blood Sugar Without Insulin Injections. January 8th, 2018 Editors Genetics ... Patients with Type I diabetes have a poorly functioning pancreas that doesnt produce enough, or any, insulin to metabolize ... that are able to generate insulin much like a healthy pancreas. ... insulin to metabolize blood glucose. Constant and ...
The use of yoga for insulin regulation helps keep the levels of blood sugar, under control. However, in order to practice yoga ... When the sugar cannot be broken down, it accumulates in the blood and leads to symptoms such as weight loss, fatigue, excessive ... Please note that Type 1 diabetes which takes place due to absolute lack of insulin in the body is extremely difficult to treat ... metabolic condition that occurs when the body is unable to produce the hormone insulin which is necessary for converting sugar ...
Insulin Degludec Lowers Risk Of Recurrent Low Blood Sugar Or Has Similar Risk To Insulin Glargine. by editor ... "Compared with insulin glargine, insulin degludec may offer considerable benefits by reducing the major side effect of insulin ... compared the insulins combined with a bolus, or fast-acting mealtime, insulin, called aspart (insulin-only therapy). ... For the insulin-only trial, there was reportedly a 27 percent lower rate of recurrent hypoglycemia for patients taking insulin ...
This effect of lowering blood sugar without changing insulin levels demonstrates improved insulin action. Fenugreek has also ... Effect of Fenugreek on Blood Sugar and Insulin in Diabetic Humans (Fenugreek). The safety and scientific validity of this study ... Effect of Fenugreek on Blood Sugar and Insulin in Diabetic Humans. Official Title Pilot Study of the Effect of Fenugreek on ... The purpose of this study is to determine if bread containing fenugreek reduces blood sugar and insulin compared to identical ...
FLuctuATion Reduction With inSULin and Glp-1 Added togetheR (FLAT-SUGAR). Official Title ICMJE FLAT-SUGAR: FLuctuATion ... FLuctuATion Reduction With inSULin and Glp-1 Added togetheR (FLAT-SUGAR) (FLAT-SUGAR). This study has been completed. ... Improving blood sugar with insulin therapy usually causes weight gain, more high sugar levels after meals, and more low blood ... Design of FLAT-SUGAR: Randomized Trial of Prandial Insulin Versus Prandial GLP-1 Receptor Agonist Together With Basal Insulin ...
Lack of Sleep Affects Blood Sugar Insulin and Appetite Faster Than Previously Thought. Sleep polls around the world continue to ... blood sugar and insulin parameters can reach pre-diabetic levels in as little as 4 nights.. Van Cauter also showed the bodies ... Now its evident that less than a week of poor sleep quality can result in weight gain and elevated blood sugar.. "Mounting ...
  • One such method is a closed-loop insulin delivery system that combines continuous blood sugar monitoring with insulin pump delivery. (self.com)
  • Or you may choose to use an insulin pump, which releases insulin into your body through a plastic tube placed under the skin on your abdomen. (self.com)
  • Jiri Bukvald has designed the insulin pump as an original and suitable product with clear function, simple and perfect shaping. (tuvie.com)
  • The pump can contain the insulin reservoir of the volume of 1.8 ml or 3 ml. (tuvie.com)
  • I'm getting an insulin pump and i have an appointment with my doctor tomorrow, i know i can ask him all i want about the insulin pump, but i'm curious i guess. (yahoo.com)
  • this problem is why i'm getting insulin pump, my blood sugar goes down to less than 40 mg/dl when i'm asleep and i don't. (yahoo.com)
  • No, my friend, an insulin pump does NOT work like that. (yahoo.com)
  • Having said that, there IS a CGMS (Continuous Glucose Monitoring System) that can work alongside an insulin pump, and this CAN make your pump alarm if your blood sugar (glucose) level falls too low. (yahoo.com)
  • It can also suspend your pump from delivering insulin. (yahoo.com)
  • I forgot to say that you need to be able to calculate the amount of carbohydrates that you imbibe (either eat or drink), and then direct the pump to infuse sufficient insulin to cover that amount. (yahoo.com)
  • Insulin can be given by a syringe, injection pen, or an insulin pump that delivers a continuous flow of insulin. (endocrineweb.com)
  • Patients using the pump also spent on average almost 3 hours less every day in hyperglycaemia (when blood sugar becomes too high). (redorbit.com)
  • She has been on an insulin pump for about 9 years. (dlife.com)
  • Or if you are using a pump, you will want to learn more about changing your pump reservoir and injection site by yourself, how to fine-tune your process for programming your pump, and giving yourself bolus insulin. (cornerstones4care.com)
  • A single this kind of process is identified as a sensor-augmented insulin pump. (lepetitbistrot.net)
  • This system combines ongoing blood sugar checking, insulin pump shipping and delivery and a personal computer algorithm that controls some of the insulin shipping and delivery. (lepetitbistrot.net)
  • Or you may well select to use an insulin pump, which releases insulin into your human body by means of a plastic tube put below the skin on your stomach. (lepetitbistrot.net)
  • My diabetes team just keep saying raise the insulin and add carbs. (diabetes.co.uk)
  • It sounds like you are doing well in reducing your carbs, however patterns in your control are important so look for where you see a repeated pattern of events over a few days before making changes with insulin doses and then wait 3-4 days before any more adjustments. (diabetes.co.uk)
  • Once you know how many carbs you will be consuming, you can determine how many units of insulin you need to inject based on the carb to insulin ratio decided by your doctor. (instructables.com)
  • My ratio is one unit for every ten carbs, so if I were to eat this yogurt, which has nine carbs, I would round up to 10 carbs and take one unit of insulin, plus however many correctional units were previously determined. (instructables.com)
  • During the day, encourage her to consume mainly protein, healthy fat, vegetables, nuts and low-sugar fruit like berries and apples, while avoiding sugar and refined carbs like white bread, pretzels and chips. (dlife.com)
  • When my blood sugar was lasted tested 20minutes after eating protein and carbs by blood sugar level was 112. (medhelp.org)
  • I didn't need another med) I gave up all sugar in Oct. and watch carbs and fats also. (medhelp.org)
  • Whether the carbs are starches, sugars, or fiber, they give your body energy to use right away or to store for later. (webmd.com)
  • Your body breaks down carbs from foods into sugar (also called "glucose") for energy. (webmd.com)
  • Simple carbs are found in table sugar, the sugars added to processed foods, and the natural ones in fruits and milk. (webmd.com)
  • Cut the sugar, eat more veg for the carbs, eat fruit sparingly (high sugar) and look at ways of reducing stress (another post to come), and get plenty of sleep. (peteluxford.com)
  • Your body breaks carbs down into sugars (mostly glucose), and then insulin moves the sugars into cells. (wolvesfitness.co.uk)
  • When you eat too many carbs or have problems with insulin function, this process fails and blood glucose levels rise. (wolvesfitness.co.uk)
  • For those who have the metabolic syndrome, a sugar drink resulted in a lower-than-normal release of the chemical dopamine in a major pleasure center of the brain. (newswise.com)
  • This metallic element, required in a very small amount, is a key part of metabolic processes in the body that regulate blood sugar. (allstarhealth.com)
  • To be able to compensate for a few from the developmental flaws and problems of whole-body disruptions of insulin signaling (2 29 31 60 66 73 deletions of IR IRS isoforms glucose transporter isoform 4 (GLUT4) and additional key glucose-metabolic genes have been GSK690693 studied (for a review see research 46). (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • The research team says their findings support a 50-year-old theory that fetal response to its mother's sugar intake is similar to the mother's metabolic response to it. (babymed.com)
  • The researchers liken the insulin-resistant effect on the fetal brain to metabolic imprinting that could affect health during childhood and adulthood. (babymed.com)
  • With rising sugar levels, insulin rise is triggered that enables the healthy liver to respond in its metabolic capacities to process and remove excess glucose into glycogen and triglycerides and sending some of this to the adipose tissue. (medhelp.org)
  • In my mind, Metabolic Healing's breakthrough "Blood Sugar & Insulin Resistance Mastery Course" is the go-to training program for clinicians wanting a comprehensive roadmap to working with the ever increasing number of clients struggling with blood sugar dysregulation. (metabolichealing.com)
  • Insulin resistance, a risk factor for diabetes and other metabolic or cardiovascular disorders, is a condition in which the insulin produced by the pancreas is not able to be used by the body to lower blood glucose levels. (bloodsugarzone.com)
  • An acute inhibition of sugar absorption by insulin was interpreted as being an indirect consequence of metabolic flow and entirely attributed to SGLT1 ( 14 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • BioScience Nutrition's Blood Sugar Support correct these deficiencies and help restore normal metabolic activity. (skinnybean.co)
  • The actions of insulin on overall human metabolic process include control of cellular intake of certain substances, conspicuously glucose in muscle and adipose tissue, growth of DNA replication and protein synthesis by controlling amino acid ingestion and modification of the activity of various enzymes. (wolvesfitness.co.uk)
  • In theory, insulin resistance should even be strengthened under harsh metabolic conditions such as pregnancy, during which the expanding fetal brain demands more glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results showed agreement in receptor availability between insulin-resistant and healthy controls after ingestion of sucralose. (newswise.com)
  • Insulin binds itself to its specific receptor on the membrane of a cell, conducting its message, especially to muscle tissue. (fountainmagazine.com)
  • Signaling of insulin through its cell surface area receptor (insulin receptor [IR]) and downstream substrates (IRS isoforms) continues to be highlighted in latest genetically constructed mouse versions (5). (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Insulin binds to a complementary receptor. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • There was also a smaller increase from baseline in mean daily insulin dose (significance not tested) in patients who received ONGLYZA 5 mg (with or without metformin). (fiercebiotech.com)
  • 7 % and change from baseline in mean daily insulin dose. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Sixteen weeks after the study, degludec patients had even fewer incidents of low blood sugar. (newswise.com)
  • It is therefore possible that treatment with degludec can improve patient outcomes by limiting the side effects associated with insulin use. (newswise.com)
  • This 'proof of concept' phase II study showed that patients achieve good (blood sugar) control when degludec is given just three times a week," he tells WebMD. (newsmax.com)
  • Insulin degludec is not yet approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration but is commercially available in some other countries. (redorbit.com)
  • Denmark-headquartered Novo Nordisk, the manufacturer of insulin degludec, funded the meta-analysis and provided statistical analysis. (redorbit.com)
  • I have had my own small encounters with extremely high blood sugars, and find the pain and discomfort hard to bear for just an hour or two. (trumanlibrary.org)
  • CARDIO1 - This panel will test for multiple items that relate to cardiovascular health: Lipid Profile, Glucose, Hemoglobin A1c, Fasting Insulin, Vitamin D 25-Hydroxy, C-Reactive Protein (Cardiac or High Sensitivity), Homocysteine, and Fibrinogen. (mcssl.com)
  • Hemoglobin A1C is an indicator of your blood sugar control for the earlier handful of months. (lepetitbistrot.net)
  • Andrew A. Bremer, Peggy Auinger, and Robert S. Byrd, "Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake Trends in US Adolescents and Their Association with Insulin Resistance-Related Parameters," Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism , vol. 2010, Article ID 196476, 8 pages, 2010. (hindawi.com)
  • V. S. Malik, M. B. Schulze, and F. B. Hu, "Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain: a systematic review," American Journal of Clinical Nutrition , vol. 84, no. 2, pp. 274-288, 2006. (hindawi.com)
  • The results support the suggestion of Szanto & Yudkin (1969) that an habitual high intake of sugar raises the insulin level in some individuals but not all, and that these individuals are susceptible to the effect of sucrose in producing occlusive arterial disease. (bmj.com)
  • Regular SSB intake, but not diet soda intake, is associated with a greater increase in insulin resistance and a higher risk of developing prediabetes in a group of middle-aged adults. (sweeteners.org)
  • This observational study tested the relationship between long-term diet soda consumption and insulin resistance as well as prediabetes, and concluded that there is no association linking the long-term intake of diet sodas sweetened with low calorie sweeteners and insulin resistance or prediabetes, as assessed by HOMA-IR and incidence of prediabetes, respectively. (sweeteners.org)
  • Aims/hypothesis: Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are a major dietary contributor to fructose intake. (lu.se)
  • Results: In our combined meta-analyses of discovery and replication cohorts, after adjustment for age, sex, energy intake, BMI and other dietary covariates, each additional serving of SSB intake was associated with higher fasting glucose (β ± SE 0.014 ± 0.004 [mmol/l], p = 1.5 × 10 −3 ) and higher fasting insulin (0.030 ± 0.005 [log e pmol/l], p = 2.0 × 10 −10 ). (lu.se)
  • Conclusions/interpretation: In this large meta-analysis, we observed that SSB intake was associated with higher fasting glucose and insulin. (lu.se)
  • A group of German researchers have recently documented the connection between a mother's sugar intake and the brain activity of the baby she carries. (babymed.com)
  • The fetal response was slower in mothers with insulin resistance than in the mothers with no problems metabolizing sugar, indicating a fetal brain insulin response directly affected to the mother's sugar intake. (babymed.com)
  • I exercised, watched my sugar intake and still my A1C was 7.2. (hubpages.com)
  • Acute insulin treatment before sugar intake prevented the insertion of GLUT2 into the BBM. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A high sugar intake is a physiological regulator of this process, increasing monosaccharide uptake threefold in vivo ( 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • If you are keen to reduce the intake of sugar in your diet, the infographics below may be of use. (jack208.com)
  • Various such "smart" insulins under development typically incorporate a protein-based barrier, such as a gel or coating, that inhibits insulin when blood sugar is low. (utah.edu)
  • Much like PTP1B phosphatase and a tensin homolog erased from chromosome 10 (or (35) inhibits insulin signaling and antagonizes PI3K-mediated signaling by dephosphorylating phosphatidylinositol-3 4 5 (PIP3) the product of PI3K (39). (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Insulin also, not surprisingly, also inhibits the release of energy from FAT tissue. (peteluxford.com)