A well-characterized neutral peptide believed to be secreted by the LIVER and to circulate in the BLOOD. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like and mitogenic activities. The growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on SOMATOTROPIN. It is believed to be a major fetal growth factor in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR I, which is a major growth factor in adults.
A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.
Insulin-like polypeptides made by the liver and some fibroblasts and released into the blood when stimulated by SOMATOTROPIN. They cause sulfate incorporation into collagen, RNA, and DNA synthesis, which are prerequisites to cell division and growth of the organism.
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is closely related in structure to the INSULIN RECEPTOR. Although commonly referred to as the IGF-I receptor, it binds both IGF-I and IGF-II with high affinity. It is comprised of a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The beta subunit contains an intrinsic tyrosine kinase domain.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
A receptor that is specific for IGF-II and mannose-6-phosphate. The receptor is a 250-kDa single chain polypeptide which is unrelated in structure to the type 1 IGF receptor (RECEPTOR, IGF TYPE 1) and does not have a tyrosine kinase domain.
A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Phosphoric acid esters of mannose.
Cell surface receptors that bind somatomedins and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Studies have disclosed two types of receptors for this family of peptide hormones. The type I receptor is homologous to the insulin receptor and has tyrosine kinase activity. The type II receptor is identical to the mannose-6-phosphate receptor which is important in trafficking of lysosomal enzymes.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A COUP transcription factor that negatively regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and competes with other hormone receptors for the common response element AGGTCA. It can also stimulate transcription of genes involved in the metabolism of GLUCOSE and CHOLESTEROL.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Hormonally active polypeptides that can induce the transformed phenotype when added to normal, non-transformed cells. They have been found in culture fluids from retrovirally transformed cells and in tumor-derived cells as well as in non-neoplastic sources. Their transforming activities are due to the simultaneous action of two otherwise unrelated factors, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA.
A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.
The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A family of soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors and modulate their biological actions at the cellular level. (Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1992;39(1):3-9)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Multifunctional growth factor which regulates both cell growth and cell motility. It exerts a strong mitogenic effect on hepatocytes and primary epithelial cells. Its receptor is PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET.
These growth factors are soluble mitogens secreted by a variety of organs. The factors are a mixture of two single chain polypeptides which have affinity to heparin. Their molecular weight are organ and species dependent. They have mitogenic and chemotactic effects and can stimulate endothelial cells to grow and synthesize DNA. The factors are related to both the basic and acidic FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS but have different amino acid sequences.
An EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR related protein that is found in a variety of tissues including EPITHELIUM, and maternal DECIDUA. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form which binds to the EGF RECEPTOR.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A structurally-related group of signaling proteins that are phosphorylated by the INSULIN RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE. The proteins share in common an N-terminal PHOSPHOLIPID-binding domain, a phosphotyrosine-binding domain that interacts with the phosphorylated INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal TYROSINE-rich domain. Upon tyrosine phosphorylation insulin receptor substrate proteins interact with specific SH2 DOMAIN-containing proteins that are involved in insulin receptor signaling.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A family of angiogenic proteins that are closely-related to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR A. They play an important role in the growth and differentiation of vascular as well as lymphatic endothelial cells.
A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
A malignant solid tumor arising from mesenchymal tissues which normally differentiate to form striated muscle. It can occur in a wide variety of sites. It is divided into four distinct types: pleomorphic, predominantly in male adults; alveolar (RHABDOMYOSARCOMA, ALVEOLAR), mainly in adolescents and young adults; embryonal (RHABDOMYOSARCOMA, EMBRYONAL), predominantly in infants and children; and botryoidal, also in young children. It is one of the most frequently occurring soft tissue sarcomas and the most common in children under 15. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p2186; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, pp1647-9)
A malignant kidney tumor, caused by the uncontrolled multiplication of renal stem (blastemal), stromal (STROMAL CELLS), and epithelial (EPITHELIAL CELLS) elements. However, not all three are present in every case. Several genes or chromosomal areas have been associated with Wilms tumor which is usually found in childhood as a firm lump in a child's side or ABDOMEN.
NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Insulin formulations that contain substances that retard absorption thus extending the time period of action.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Specific molecular sites or structures on cell membranes that react with FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS (both the basic and acidic forms), their analogs, or their antagonists to elicit or to inhibit the specific response of the cell to these factors. These receptors frequently possess tyrosine kinase activity.
A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.
A plasma protein that is the inactive precursor of thrombin. It is converted to thrombin by a prothrombin activator complex consisting of factor Xa, factor V, phospholipid, and calcium ions. Deficiency of prothrombin leads to hypoprothrombinemia.
Substances which lower blood glucose levels.
Antibodies specific to INSULIN.
A tumor composed of spindle cells with a rich vascular network, which apparently arises from pericytes, cells of smooth muscle origin that lie around small vessels. Benign and malignant hemangiopericytomas exist, and the rarity of these lesions has led to considerable confusion in distinguishing between benign and malignant variants. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1364)
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A syndrome of multiple defects characterized primarily by umbilical hernia (HERNIA, UMBILICAL); MACROGLOSSIA; and GIGANTISM; and secondarily by visceromegaly; HYPOGLYCEMIA; and ear abnormalities.

Insulin-like growth factors I and II are unable to form and maintain their native disulfides under in vivo redox conditions. (1/1873)

Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I does not quantitatively form its three native disulfide bonds in the presence of 10 mM reduced and 1 mM oxidized glutathione in vitro [Hober, S. et al. (1992) Biochemistry 31, 1749-1756]. In this paper, we show (i) that both IGF-I and IGF-II are unable to form and maintain their native disulfide bonds at redox conditions that are similar to the situation in the secretory vesicles in vivo and (ii) that the presence of protein disulfide isomerase does not overcome this problem. The results indicate that the previously described thermodynamic disulfide exchange folding problem of IGF-I in vitro is also present in vivo. Speculatively, we suggest that the thermodynamic disulfide exchange properties of IGF-I and II are biologically significant for inactivation of the unbound growth factors by disulfide exchange reactions to generate variants destined for rapid clearance.  (+info)

Inhibition of angiogenesis induces chromaffin differentiation and apoptosis in neuroblastoma. (2/1873)

Inhibition of angiogenesis has been shown to reduce tumor growth, metastasis, and tumor microvascular density in experimental models. To these effects we would now like to add induction of differentiation, based on biological analysis of xenografted human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y, WAG rnu/rnu) treated with the angiogenesis inhibitor TNP-470. Treatment with TNP-470 (10 mg/kg s.c., n = 15) reduced the tumor growth by 66% and stereological vascular parameters (Lv, Vv, Sv) by 36-45%. The tumor cell apoptotic fraction increased more than threefold, resulting in a decrease in viable tumor cells by 33%. In contrast, the mean vascular diameter (29 microm) and the mean tumor cell proliferative index (49%) were unaffected. TNP-470-treated tumors exhibited striking chromaffin differentiation of neuroblastoma cells, observed as increased expression of insulin-like growth factor II gene (+88%), tyrosine hydroxylase (+96%), chromogranin A, and cellular processes. Statistical analysis revealed an inverse correlation between differentiation and angiogenesis. It is suggested that by inhibiting angiogenesis, TNP-470 induces metabolic stress, resulting in chromaffin differentiation and apoptosis in neuroblastoma. Such agonal differentiation may be the link between angiostatic therapy and tumor cell apoptosis.  (+info)

Dual role for transcription factor AP-2 in the regulation of the major fetal promoter P3 of the gene for human insulin-like growth factor II. (3/1873)

The human insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) gene contains four promoters that are differentially active during cell growth and development. Promoter 3 (P3) is the most active promoter in fetal and non-hepatic adult tissues. In addition to its expression during development, P3 is also the major promoter in many tumour tissues and IGF-II-expressing cell lines. Here we show that AP-2 has a dual function in P3 regulation in vivo as well as in vitro. In cells expressing low levels of endogenous AP-2, AP-2 overexpression activates P3, whereas P3 promoter activity is inhibited in cells containing abundant AP-2. Four potential AP-2-binding sites were identified in footprinting studies with recombinant AP-2. One of these AP-2-binding sites is located within the previously identified element P3-4 that contains two adjacent binding sites for IGF-II promoter-binding proteins IPBP3 and IPBP4/5. By applying binding competition assays and mutational analysis it is shown that AP-2 interferes with IPBP3 binding and transactivation in vivo as well as in vitro. Furthermore, AP-2 can bind additional elements in the proximal P3 promoter that also contribute to AP-2-mediated transactivation as shown by transient transfection assays. From these results we conclude that AP-2 is an important regulator in vivo and in vitro of IGF-II P3 activity.  (+info)

In-vitro fertilization and culture of mouse embryos in vitro significantly retards the onset of insulin-like growth factor-II expression from the zygotic genome. (4/1873)

In this study, the effect of in-vitro fertilization (IVF) and culture of mouse embryos in vitro on the normal expression of insulin-like growth factor-II (IFG-II) ligand and receptor was examined. The expression of IGF-II increased in a linear fashion at least up to the 8-cell stage of development. IGF-II expression in embryos collected fresh from the reproductive tract was significantly (P < 0.001) greater than in embryos fertilized in the reproductive tract and cultured in vitro (in-situ fertilized: ISF), and its expression was further reduced (P < 0.001) in IVF embryos at all development stages tested. The expression of IGF-II was significantly (P < 0.001) lower when embryos were cultured individually in 100 microl drops compared with culture in groups of 10 in 10 microl drops of medium. The addition of platelet activating factor to culture medium partially overcame this density-dependent decline of expression. Culture of ISF and IVF zygotes also caused the onset of new IGF-II mRNA transcription from the zygotic genome to be significantly (P < 0.001) retarded, until at least the 8-cell stage of development. This effect was greater (P < 0.05) for IVF than for ISF embryos. Neither IVF nor culture had any obvious effect on IFG-II/mannose-6-phosphate receptor (IGF-IIr) mRNA expression.  (+info)

Serum IGF-binding protein-6 and prostate specific antigen in breast cancer. (5/1873)

OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of the IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) and prostate specific antigen (PSA), an IGFBP protease. in human breast tissue. We sought to investigate the differences in serum IGFs, IGFBP-1, -3 and -6, and PSA between patients with surgically proven breast cancer and patients with benign breast disease. DESIGN AND METHODS: Concentrations of IGFs, IGFBP-1, -3 and -6, and PSA were determined in the sera from 57 patients with breast cancer (CA), and 46 women with benign breast disease (BBD) using immunoassays for IGFs and IGFBPs and an ultrasensitive ELISA for PSA. RESULTS: The mean (+/- S.E.M.) serum IGFBP-6 level in the CA group, 127 (16) ng/ml, was statistically significantly lower than in the BBD group, 157 (10) ng/ml (P = 0.016). Patients with CA had an elevated geometric mean serum PSA level of 0.018 (range: 0.0015-0.107) ng/ml, compared with 0.007 (range: 0.0015-0.019) ng/ml in women with BBD (P = 0.025). Mean serum IGFBP-1 concentrations were significantly lower in the CA group, 16 (2) ng/ml, versus 37 (4) ng/ml in the BBD group (P = 0.001). Mean serum IGFBP-3 concentrations were also lower in the CA group versus the BBD group, at 1981 (65) ng/ml, versus 2603 (140) ng/ml (P = 0.002) respectively. In the CA group, statistically significant correlations between PSA and IGFBP-6 (r = 0.413; P = 0.001), and between PSA and IGFBP-1 (r = -0.329; P = 0.021) were seen. Differences in IGF-I and -II between the two groups were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Lower serum concentrations of IGFBP-6, -3 and -1, but higher PSA concentrations were seen in the breast cancer group, and collectively these would suggest that there is an increase in bioavailable IGF-I in breast cancer.  (+info)

HaCaT human keratinocytes express IGF-II, IGFBP-6, and an acid-activated protease with activity against IGFBP-6. (6/1873)

The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system plays an important role in skin. HaCaT human keratinocytes proliferate in response to IGFs and synthesize IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3). Recently, IGFBP-6 was also identified by NH2-terminal sequencing, but it has not been identified by Western ligand blotting. In the present study, IGFBP-6 was detected in HaCaT-conditioned medium by use of immunoblotting and Western ligand blotting with 125I-labeled IGF-II. Proteolytic activity against IGFBPs, an important mechanism for regulation of their activity, was then studied. An acid-activated, cathepsin D-like protease that cleaved both IGFBP-6 and IGFBP-3 was detected. Although proteolysis did not substantially reduce the size of immunoreactive IGFBP-6, it greatly reduced the ability of IGFBP-6 to bind 125I-IGF-II as determined by Western ligand blotting and solution assay. HaCaT keratinocytes do not express IGF-I mRNA, but IGF-II mRNA and protein expression was detected. These observations suggest the possibility of an autocrine IGF-II loop that is regulated by the relative expression of IGF-II, IGFBP-3, and IGFBP-6, and IGFBP proteases in these keratinocytes, although demonstration of this loop requires further study.  (+info)

Altered expression of the IGF-1 receptor in a tamoxifen-resistant human breast cancer cell line. (7/1873)

The relationship between oestrogen (E2) and insulin-like growth factor-one (IGF-1) was examined in both tamoxifen-sensitive (MCF 7/5-21) and tamoxifen-resistant (MCF 7/5-23) subclones of the MCF 7 cell line. Both subclones were grown in defined, serum-free (SF) medium over a period of 7 days with the addition of E2 or IGF-1 or a combination of both agents. Growth of both MCF 7/5-21 and 7/5-23 cells was stimulated (245% and 350%, respectively) by E2. However, only the growth of MCF 7/5-23 cells was stimulated (266%) by IGF-1. A combination of E2 and IGF-1 significantly enhanced MCF 7/5-21 and 7/5-23 cell growth (581% and 695%, respectively). E2-induced IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) levels (as measured by 125I-IGF-1 binding and Northern analyses) in only MCF 7/5-23 cells. This effect was partially inhibited by tamoxifen. In medium containing serum, the growth of only the MCF 7/5-23 cells was significantly inhibited by the IGF-1R monoclonal antibody, alphaIR-3. The detection of E2-induced expression of IGF-2 using RT-PCR was demonstrated in the MCF 7/5-23 cells. These experiments indicate that E2 may sensitize tamoxifen-resistant MCF 7/5-23 cells to the growth stimulatory actions of IGF-2 via up-regulation of the IGF-1R and describes a cell-survival mechanism that may manifest itself as tamoxifen resistance.  (+info)

Inhibition of growth, production of insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II), and expression of IGF-II mRNA of human cancer cell lines by antagonistic analogs of growth hormone-releasing hormone in vitro. (8/1873)

Antagonistic analogs of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) suppress growth of various tumors in vivo. This effect is exerted in part through inhibition of the GHRH-GH-insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I axis. Nevertheless, because autocrine/paracrine control of proliferation by IGF-II also is a major factor in many tumors, the interference with this growth-stimulating pathway would offer another approach to tumor control. We thus investigated whether GHRH antagonists MZ-4-71 and MZ-5-156 also act on the tumor cells directly by blocking the production of IGF-II. An increase in the IGF-II concentration in the media during culture was found in 13 of 26 human cancer cell lines tested. Reverse transcription-PCR studies on 8 of these cell lines showed that they also expressed IGF-II mRNA. Antagonists of GHRH significantly inhibited the rate of proliferation of mammary (MDA-MB-468 and ZR-75-1), prostatic (PC-3 and DU-145), and pancreatic (MiaPaCa-2, SW-1990, and Capan-2) cancer cell lines as shown by colorimetric and [3H]thymidine incorporation tests and reduced the expression of IGF-II mRNA in the cells and the concentration of IGF-II secreted into the culture medium. Growth and IGF-II production of lung (H-23 and H-69) and ovarian (OV-1063) cancer cells that express mRNA for IGF-II and excrete large quantities of IGF-II also was marginally suppressed by the antagonists. These findings suggest that antagonistic analogs of GHRH can inhibit growth of certain tumors not only by inhibiting the GHRH-GH-IGF-I axis, but also by reducing the IGF-II production and by interfering with the autocrine regulatory pathway.  (+info)

The objective of this proposal is to determine the prognostic role of expression of Insulin-Like Growth factor II in breast cancer. IGF-II is a potent mitogen for breast tumor epithelium, and is expressed in the stroma of invasive breast cancers. In this study, we analyzed expression of IGF-II mRNA and protein in two separate series of patients with invasive breast cancer, and compared the result with other clinical parameters, prognostic indicators and patient outcome. IGF-II mRNA and protein expression were easily detected in the majority of the 193 cases that were informative and had complete clinical follow up. While analysis of the cases from the two data sets individually showed that IGF-II expression was associated with clinical outcome depending on hormone receptor status. However, IGF-II expression by itself was not a prognostic indicator, and the relationship with hormone receptor status was lost when the separate data sets were analyzed together. We were unable to prove our initial hypothesis
PURPOSE: The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system plays important roles in cancer; blocking IGF signaling has been shown to have therapeutic effects on tumor growth. Many studies have focused on the effect of IGF-I, but few have addressed IGF-II. To assess the role of IGF-II in cancer, we analyzed IGF-II expression in ovarian cancer and examined its association with disease characteristics and prognosis. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Included in the study were 215 patients with primary epithelial ovarian cancer. Fresh tumor specimens were collected during surgery, and the patients were followed for a median of 31 months. Total RNA was extracted from the tumor and analyzed for IGF-II, IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), and estrogen receptor-alpha expressions using quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Survival analysis was done to examine the associations of IGF-II with disease progression. RESULTS: IGF-II expression was found to be higher in tumors with poor prognosis; this included tumors with ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Insulin-like growth factor-II in nonislet cell tumors associated with hypoglycemia. T2 - Increased levels of messenger ribonucleic acid. AU - Lowe, William L.. AU - Roberts, Charles T.. AU - Leroith, Derek. AU - Rojeski, Maria T.. AU - Merimee, Thomas J.. AU - Fui, Serge Teng. AU - Keen, Harry. AU - Arnold, Dagmar. AU - Mersey, James. AU - Gluzman, Sheldon. AU - Spratt, Daniel. AU - Eastman, Richard C.. AU - Roth, Jesse. PY - 1989/12. Y1 - 1989/12. N2 - The role of insulin-like growth factor-II (IGFII) in the hypoglycemia associated with nonislet cell tumors is controversial. In this study we have addressed this question by measuring the IGF-II mRNA levels in extracts of these tumors. Hybridization of a 32P-labeled IGF-II cDNA to a Northern blot of RNA from three nonislet cell tumors associated with hypoglycemia (a hemangiopericytoma, fibrosarcoma, and malignant mesenchymal tumor) demonstrated six hybridizing bands, 6.8, 5.6, 4.7, 3.6, 2.6, and 2.1 kilobases in length. These ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Measurement of insulin-like growth factor-II in physiological fluids and tissues. II. extraction and quantification in rat tissues. AU - Lee, Wei Hua. AU - Bowsher, Ronald R.. AU - Apathy, John M.. AU - Smith, Michele C.. AU - Henry, David P.. PY - 1991/2. Y1 - 1991/2. N2 - The tissue distribution and developmental patterns of insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) have not been investigated in rat tissues, primarily because of the lack of an efficient extraction method for IGF-II and a sensitive RIA. IGF- II was extracted from rat tissues by formic acid, and the extract was heated at an acidic pH and treated with acetone. The removal of binding proteins was demonstrated by fast protein liquid chromatography size exclusion column and the elimination of a dilutional bias in the RIA. Using rat IGF-II as standard, we optimized a RIA for the quantification of IGF-II in rat tissues. In adult rats, IGF-II was found in all 15 tissues examined, with the highest concentration in the ...
Insulin Like Growth Factor II (Somatomedin A or T3M 11 Derived Growth Factor or IGF2) - Pipeline Review, H2 2017 Size and Share Published in 2017-08-22 Available for US$ 3500 at Researchmoz.us
The insulin-like growth factor-II/mannose-6-phosphate (IGF-II/M6P) receptor is a multifunctional transmembrane glycoprotein, which interacts with a number of molecules, including IGF-II and M6P-containing lysosomal enzymes. The receptor is widely distributed throughout the brain and is known to be involved in lysosomal enzyme trafficking, cell growth, internalization and degradation of IGF-II. In the present study, using autoradiographic, Western blotting and immunocytochemical methods, we provide the first report that IGF-II/M6P receptors are discretely distributed at all major segmental levels of the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia of the adult rat. In the spinal cord, a high density of [125I]IGF-II binding sites was evident in the ventral horn (lamina IX) and in areas around the central canal (lamina X), whereas intermediate grey matter and dorsal horn were associated with moderate receptor levels. The dorsal root ganglia exhibited rather high density of [125I]IGF-II binding sites. ...
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is structurally homologous to proinsulin. IGF-1 is produced by several cell types and may have autocrine, paracrine and endocrine functions. IGF-1 is a potent mitogen that mediates the growth-promoting activities of growth hormone postnatally. It also plays a role during embryonic growth and differentiation. Recombinant mouse IGF-1 is a 7.6 kDa protein containing 70 amino acid residues. IGF-1 receptor is a disulfide-linked heterotetrameric transmembrane glycoprotein with an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain ...
Bevan, S. J., Parry-Billings, M, Opara, Elizabeth, Liu, C. T., Dunger, D. B. and Newsholme, E. A. (1992) The effect of insulin-like growth factor II on glucose uptake and metabolism in rat skeletal muscle in vitro. Biochemical Journal, 286(2), pp. 561-565. ISSN (print) 0264-6021 ...
Loss of Imprinting of Insulin-like Growth Factor-II in Wilms Tumor Commonly Involves Altered Methylation but not Mutations of CTCF or Its Binding ...
The interaction of soluble forms of the human cation-independent insulin-like growth factor-II/mannose 6-phosphate receptor (IGF-IIR) with IGFs and mannosylated ligands was analyzed in real time. IGF-IIR proteins containing domains 1-15, 10-13, 11-13, or 11-12 were combined with rat CD4 domains 3 and 4. Following transient expression in 293T cells, secreted protein was immobilized onto biosensor chips. beta-Glucuronidase and latent transforming growth factor-beta1 bound only to domains 1-15. IGF-II bound to all constructs except a control, which contained a point mutation in domain 11. The affinity of domains 1-15, 10-13, 11-13, and 11-12 to IGF-II were 14, 120, 100, and 450 nm, respectively. Our data suggest that domain 13 acts as an enhancer of IGF-II affinity by slowing the rate of dissociation, but additional enhancement by domains other than 10-13 also occurs. As the receptor functions to transport ligands from either the trans-Golgi network or extracellular space to the endosomes, the interaction
It is of interest to find that IGF-II up-regulates its own gene expression in differentiating C2C12 myoblasts. Although previous studies have indicated that nutrients influence IGF-II gene expression in C2C12 cells through the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway (Erbay et al., 2003), to our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that IGF-II stimulates its own gene expression in skeletal muscle cells. Furthermore, forced expression of a constitutive Akt strongly increases IGF-II expression in these cells, suggesting that IGF-II auto-regulates itself through activating the IGF-IR-PI3K-Akt signaling pathway in C2C12 cells. This and other findings led us to propose a new model, depicted in Fig. 10 D, on how IGFBP-5 acts to promote myogenic differentiation. According to this model, the induction of IGFBP-5 in early stages of myogenic differentiation plays a crucial role in promoting the myogenic action of autocrine IGF-II. IGFBP-5 acts by binding to IGF-II and promoting its interaction with IGF-IR. This ...
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Epigenetics is the study of cellular information other than the DNA sequence itself, which is heritable in cell progeny and involves modification of DNA or its associated proteins. Epigenetic changes include DNA methylation, a covalent modification of cytosine, and post-translational modifications of histone tails, such as acetylation, methylation, and phosphorylation (1). Epigenetic alterations have been increasingly recognized as an important mechanism in tumorigenesis since their discovery in human tumors in 1983 (2, 3). Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic modification of a specific parental chromosome in the gamete or zygote, leading to parental origin-specific differential expression of the two alleles of a gene in somatic cells of the offspring (3).. The insulin-like growth factor-II gene (IGF2), an imprinted gene with parental allele expressed and maternal allele silenced, is an important autocrine growth factor in tumors due to its mitogenic and antiapoptotic functions mediated by the ...
IDDM2-encoded predisposition to type 1 diabetes has recently been mapped to the minisatellite or variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) locus upstream of the insulin and insulin-like growth factor II genes on human chromosome 11p15.5. In a UK case-control study (n=228 sporadic diabetics; n=441 healthy controls), we show here that the genotype homozygous for VNTR class I alleles is predisposing to disease (RR=2.68), and VNTR class III alleles are dominantly protective (RR=0.37). In 722 diabetic families from the UK (n=356), USA (n=173), Denmark (n=55) and Sardinia (n=138), we have analysed the transmission of class I alleles to diabetic offspring from class I/III heterozygous parents. We confirm that in families from the USA, class I alleles are transmitted preferentially from fathers. However, in family data sets from the UK, Denmark and Sardinia, the reverse is true and maternal transmission is stronger. Furthermore, in the UK family data set, the difference between maternal and paternal ...
The insulin-like growth factors possess growth-promoting activity. Major fetal growth hormone in mammals. Plays a key role in regulating fetoplacental development. IGF-II is influenced by placental lactogen. Also involved in tissue differentiation. Positively regulates myogenic transcription factor MYOD1 function by facilitating the recruitment of transcriptional coactivators, thereby controlling muscle terminal differentiation. In adults, involved in glucose metabolism in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and liver.
J:58580 van Kleffens M, Groffen CA, Dits NF, Lindenbergh-Kortleve DJ, Schuller AG, Bradshaw SL, Pintar JE, Zwarthoff EC, Drop SL, van Neck JW, Generation of antisera to mouse insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBP)-1 to -6: comparison of IGFBP protein and messenger ribonucleic acid localization in the mouse embryo. Endocrinology. 1999 Dec;140(12):5944-52 ...
J:58580 van Kleffens M, Groffen CA, Dits NF, Lindenbergh-Kortleve DJ, Schuller AG, Bradshaw SL, Pintar JE, Zwarthoff EC, Drop SL, van Neck JW, Generation of antisera to mouse insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBP)-1 to -6: comparison of IGFBP protein and messenger ribonucleic acid localization in the mouse embryo. Endocrinology. 1999 Dec;140(12):5944-52 ...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This receptor binds insulin-like growth factor with a high affinity. It has tyrosine kinase activity. The insulin-like growth factor I receptor plays a critical role in transformation events. Cleavage of the precursor generates alpha and beta subunits. It is highly overexpressed in most malignant tissues where it functions as an anti-apoptotic agent by enhancing cell survival. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014 ...
Igf1 - Igf1 (Myc-DDK-tagged) - Mouse insulin-like growth factor 1 (Igf1), transcript variant 3 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Igf1 - Igf1 (untagged) - Mouse insulin-like growth factor 1 (Igf1), transcript variant 2, (10ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
The distribution of the cancer-associated protein p62 in human gastric carcinoma (BGC-823) cells was examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy and electron microscope immunocytochemistry. In control cells p62 was cytoplasmic in location and concentrated in the cytoplasmic matrix, but when cell growth was inhibited by treatment with 50 mu M all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) for 5 days, p62 expression decreased and the protein was translocated from cytoplasm to nucleus. Ultrastructural localization using gold particles showed that p62 was bond mainly to a linear structure in nucleus. The speculation that p62 binds Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II mRNA indicates its probable involvement in the posttranscriptional IGF-II mRNA processing and p62 could play a role in tumorgenesis by regulating the expression of IGF-II. Further studies will be needed to confirm this view. (C) 2004 International Federation for Cell Biology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved ...
Reagents and antibodies. Mouse Laminin-1, Lipofectin, LipofectAMINE, and LipofectAMINE 2000 were purchased from Invitrogen (Carlsbad, CA). Recombinant human IGF-I or IGF-II (rhIGF-II) was purchased from R&D System, Inc. (Minneapolis, MN) or Austral Biologics (San Ramon, CA), respectively. Human FN was purified as described ( 33). Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was purchased from Sigma (St. Louis, MO). Wortmannin was purchased from Calbiochem (La Jolla, CA).. The following monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were used: to human β1 integrin P4C10 (Chemicon, Temecula, CA), clone-18 (BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA), and TS2/16 [American Type Culture Collection (ATCC), Manassas, VA]; to chicken β1 integrin W1B10 (Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO); to human β4 integrin A9 (kindly provided by Dr. L. Shaw); to hemagglutinin 12CA5 (ATCC); to a vascular endothelial surface protein 1C10 (Life Technologies, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD); to c-myc; to β-tubulin (Sigma). The following rabbit polyclonal antibodies were ...
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Insulin-like Growth Factor II (IGF-II) analogues in which at least one of R37 and R38 is replaced with another amino add residue, the most preferred being IGF-II R37Q R38Q, can readily be produced in E. coli, unlike natural IGF-II, which is cleaved on secretion. The analogues retain activity on the type I and type II IGF receptors but have lower affinity for the insulin receptor; they are therefore more specific in their action.
We studied the expression of the N-myc proto-oncogene and the insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) gene in human fetuses of 16-19 gestational wk. Both genes have specific roles in the growth and differentiation of embryonic tissues, such as the kidney and neural tissue. Since continued expression of N-myc and IGF-II mRNAs is also a characteristic feature of Wilms tumor, a childhood neoplasm of probable fetal kidney origin, we were particularly interested in the possibility that their expression might be linked or coordinately regulated in the developing kidney. Expression of N-myc mRNA was observed in the brain and in the kidney by Northern hybridization analysis. In in situ hybridization of the kidney, N-myc autoradiographic grains were primarily located over epithelially differentiating mesenchyme while most of the mesenchymal stromal cells showed only a background signal with the N-myc probe. N-myc mRNA was detectable throughout the developing brain with a slight accentuation in the ...
Factor II deficiency is a blood-clotting disorder that results in excessive or prolonged bleeding after an injury or surgery. Factor II is one of 13 proteins involved in proper formation of blood clots. Blood clots are needed to heal wounds, form scabs, and stop bleeding. When factor I levels are low or absent, the blood does not clot correctly, leading to excessive bleeding. Factor II deficiency runs in families and affect both males and females equally. The main symptom of factor II deficiency is excessive and abnormal bleeding. This may occur after childbirth, surgery, trauma, and with menstruation (periods). Bleeding can also occur in the muscles, joints, the mouth, the gut, or, infrequently, the brain. Easy bruising and nosebleeds are also common. Factor II deficiency can be diagnosed by a physician using blood tests. Treatment for factor II deficiency is largely based on controlling bleeding and treating any underlying conditions that contribute to excessive bleeding. When necessary, ...
Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) plays a key role in mammalian growth and is involved in stimulating fetal cell division, differentiation, and metabolic regulation. IGF-II is considered a candidate gene for genetic markers of growth and carcass traits. Therefore, in this study, the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IGF-II gene region with growth and ... more ...
Elevated expression of insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) is frequently observed in a variety of human malignancies, including breast, colon, and liver cancer. As IGF-II can deliver a mitogenic signal through both IGF-IR and an alternately spliced form of the insulin receptor (IR-A), neutralizing the biological activity of this growth factor directly is a potential alternative option to IGF-IR-directed agents. Using a Fab-displaying phage library and a biotinylated precursor form of IGF-II (1-104 amino acids) as a target, we isolated Fabs specific for the E-domain COOH-terminal extension form of IGF-II and for mature IGF-II. One of these Fabs that bound to both forms of IGF-II was reformatted into a full-length IgG, expressed, purified, and subjected to further analysis. This antibody (DX-2647) displayed a very high affinity for IGF-II/IGF-IIE (K(D) value of 49 and 10 pmol/L, respectively) compared with IGF-I (approximately 10 nmol/L) and blocked binding of IGF-II to IGF-IR, IR-A, a panel of ...
42. De Bleser, P., P. Hannes, S. Van Buul-Offers, C. Hoogerbrugge, C. Van Schravendijk, T. Niki, V. Rogiers, J. Van den Brande, E. Wisse, and A. Geerts. 1995. Increased insulin-like growth factor-II/mannose 6-phosphate receptor on fibrotic rat fat-storing cells facilitates activation of latent transforming growth factor- . In Cells of the Hepatic sinusoid. E. Wisse, D.L. Knook, and K. Wake, editors. The Kupffer Cell Foundation, Leiden. 383-385 ...
Recombinant Human IGF1 produced in E. coli is approximately 7.4 kDa, a single non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 67 amino acids.
BioAssay record AID 1078972 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of human IGF1R catalytic domain expressed in baculovirus assessed as substrate phosphorylation using fluorescence-labelled peptides as substrate at 0.06 uM after 90 mins by microfluidic peptide phosphorylation assay.
Active Recombinant human IGF2 protein is a HEK 293 Protein fragment 25 to 91 aa range, | 95% purity, | 1.000 Eu/µg endotoxin level and validated in FuncS, SDS-PAGE. Measured in a serum-free cell prol…
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TY - JOUR. T1 - The insulin-like growth factor II receptor gene is mutated in genetically unstable cancers of the endometrium, stomach, and colorectum. AU - Ouyang, Hong. AU - Shiwaku, Hiromi O.. AU - Hagiwara, Hisashi. AU - Miura, Ko. AU - Abe, Tadayoshi. AU - Kato, Yo. AU - Ohtani, Haruo. AU - Shiiba, Kenichi. AU - Souza, Rhonda F.. AU - Meltzer, Stephen J.. AU - Horii, Akira. PY - 1997/5/15. Y1 - 1997/5/15. N2 - Disruption of the DNA mismatch repair system, characterized by microsatellite instability (MI), plays an important role in the course of human carcinogenesis. Repetitive sequences constitute targets for mutation in MI+ cells, and frequent mutations have indeed been reported in such regions within the transforming growth factor β receptor II (RII) gene in genetically unstable colorectal and gastric cancers. However, other genes that are targets for mutations in MI+ cells during the course of carcinogenesis have proven elusive. Because the insulin-like growth factor II receptor ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hypoglycaemia associated with the production of insulin-like growth factor II and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 6 by a haemangiopericytoma. AU - Hoekman, Klaas. AU - Van Doorn, Jaap. AU - Gloudemans, Ton. AU - Maassen, Johannes A.. AU - Schuller, Alwin G P. AU - Pinedo, Herbert M.. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - Non-islet-cell tumour-induced hypoglycaemia (NICTH) is, in most cases, attributable to tumour production of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II). Tumour-derived IGF-II has a higher than normal molecular weight (big IGF- II) and an impaired ability to form the normal ternary 150 kD complex with IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and the acid-labile subunit (ALS). Consequently, tumoral IGF-II circulates mainly in smaller binary complexes which have a higher bioavailability than the ternary complex. We had the opportunity to analyze IGFs and IGF-related factors in both pre- and post- operative blood, tumour tissue and tumour cyst fluid from a patient with a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of Ethanol on Insulin‐Like Growth Factor‐II Release from Fetal Organs. AU - Mauceri, Helena J.. AU - Lee, Wei‐Hua ‐H. AU - Conway, Sonya. PY - 1994/2. Y1 - 1994/2. N2 - This study examines the effect of ethanol (ETOH) exposure and nutrient restriction on the release of insulin‐like growth factor (IGF)‐II from 18‐ and 20‐day explanted fetal organs. Fetuses were exposed to ETOH (E) in utero by feeding dams a 36% (calories derived from ETOH: 6.6% v/v) ETOH liquid diet. Control fetuses were offsprings of dams either pair‐fed (P) a control liquid diet or ad libitum (A) fed a standard pelleted lab chow. Brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, and placenta of fetuses from the same litter were pooled and explanted, and IGF‐II concentration in explanted media was analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Maternal and fetal weights were determined during pregnancy and at sacrifice, respectively, to evaluate the influence of ETOH on growth. Both maternal and fetal weights ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Insulin‐like Growth Factor 1, but Not Growth Hormone, Has In Vitro Proliferative Effects on Neonatal Foreskin Fibroblasts without Affecting 5‐α‐Reductase or Androgen Receptor Activity. AU - DYKSTRA, KENNETH D.. AU - PAYNE, A. MATTHEW. AU - ABDELRAHIM, MAGED. AU - FRANCIS, GARY L.. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - ABSTRACT: Clinical observation of patients with congenital growth hormone (GH) deficiency and Laron‐type dwarfism suggests that factors such as GH or insulin‐like growth factor 1 (IGF‐1) might, in addition to androgens, be needed for normal phallic growth. We speculated GH or IGF‐1 might have direct actions on genital tissues and performed the present study to evaluate the in vitro effects of GH and IGF‐1 on cultured neonatal foreskin fibroblasts. Cells derived from foreskins of normal newborns were studied between cell passages 6 and 15. Serum‐free media with and without 100 ng/ml GH, IGF‐1, or both were added 24 hours prior to and at the time of ...
The insulin-like growth factor system (insulin-like growth factor 1, insulin-like growth factor 2, insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor and six insulinlike growth factor-binding proteins) and insulin are essential to muscle metabolism and most aspects of male and female reproduction. Insulin-like growth factor and insulin play important roles in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation and the maintenance of cell differentiation in mammals. In order to better understand the local factors that regulate equine physiology, such as muscle metabolism and reproduction (e.g., germ cell development and fertilisation), real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays for quantification of equine insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor and insulin receptor messenger ribonucleic acid were developed. The assays were sensitive: 192 copies/μL and 891 copies/μL for insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, messenger ribonucleic acid and insulin ...
The present study demonstrates that IR-A is a physiological receptor for IGF-II. Previously it was believed that most, if not all, biological effects of IGF-II in cells were mediated by IGF-I-R. IGF-II-R, which also binds mannose-6-phosphate residues, is devoid of tyrosine kinase activity and is not believed to have either metabolic or mitogenic signaling potential. Most studies have indicated that the IR, which is homologous to the IGF-I-R, binds IGF-II with a relatively low affinity (1 to 5% that of insulin) (45). However, there is evidence that in certain instances the IR can bind IGF-II with high affinity. Atypical IRs, which bind IGF-II with unusually high affinity, have been found in IM-9 lymphoblasts, immature erythrocytes (18), and fetal tissues (including human placenta and brain, and chicken embryo fibroblasts) (19). Furthermore, other studies suggest that during mouse fetal development, the growth promoting effect of IGF-II is mediated in part by signaling through the IR (28). By ...
The present study demonstrates that IR-A is a physiological receptor for IGF-II. Previously it was believed that most, if not all, biological effects of IGF-II in cells were mediated by IGF-I-R. IGF-II-R, which also binds mannose-6-phosphate residues, is devoid of tyrosine kinase activity and is not believed to have either metabolic or mitogenic signaling potential. Most studies have indicated that the IR, which is homologous to the IGF-I-R, binds IGF-II with a relatively low affinity (1 to 5% that of insulin) (45). However, there is evidence that in certain instances the IR can bind IGF-II with high affinity. Atypical IRs, which bind IGF-II with unusually high affinity, have been found in IM-9 lymphoblasts, immature erythrocytes (18), and fetal tissues (including human placenta and brain, and chicken embryo fibroblasts) (19). Furthermore, other studies suggest that during mouse fetal development, the growth promoting effect of IGF-II is mediated in part by signaling through the IR (28). By ...
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Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the Double-antibody Sandwich method for detection of Rat Insulin Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 6 (IGFBP6) in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates and other biological fluids with no significant corss-reactivity with analogues from other species ...
Conduct problems (CP) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often comorbid and have each been linked to unhealthy diet. Early‐life diet also associates with DNA methylation of the insulin‐like growth factor 2 gene (IGF2), involved in fetal and neural development. We investigated the degree to which prenatal high‐fat and ‐sugar diet might relate to ADHD symptoms via IGF2 DNA methylation for early‐onset persistent (EOP) versus low CP youth. Read the Commentary on this article at doi ...
LOC645468 (insulin like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 3 pseudogene), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
Circulating total testosterone and insulin like growth factor 1 as determinants of haemoglobin level in men with chronic heart failure Conference Paper ...
The insulin‐like growth factor (IGF)‐system includes insulin‐like growth factors I and II (IGF‐I and IGF‐II) along with the type I (IGF‐1R) and type II (IGF2R) cell‐surface receptors, the insulin receptor (IR) and circulating IGF‐binding proteins (IGFBPs) (Denley et al, 2005). The biological actions of the IGFs are mediated by IGF‐1R and IR, leading to cell growth, differentiation and survival. Their distribution and activity is controlled via high‐affinity association with IGFBPs, and the binding sites on IGFs for IGFBPs have been delineated in detail by structural studies (Headey et al, 2004; Carrick et al, 2005; Sitar et al, 2006). In mammals, the activity of IGF‐II (but not IGF‐I) is further moderated by IGF2R, which sequesters IGF‐II for internalization and degradation. IGF2R is classed as a growth inhibitor, with loss of function causing increased growth (Foulstone et al, 2005). In line with this, Igf2r is a putative tumour suppressor gene and mutations have been ...
Title: Recombinant Human Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1: A New Cardiovascular Disease Treatment Option?. VOLUME: 6 ISSUE: 4. Author(s):E. Conti, M. B. Musumeci, G. Egidy Assenza, G. Quarta, C. Autore and M. Volpe. Affiliation:Cardiology, II Faculty of Medicine, University of Rome La Sapienza, Rome, Ospedale Sant Andrea, Italy.. Keywords:IGF-1, insulin, rhIGF-1, myocardial infarction, diabetes, outcome, flow metabolism coupling, endothelium. Abstract: The Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) system is dynamic and complex, involving many binding proteins, binding-proteinrelated proteases, and receptors. It has emerged in time as a powerful defence to life processes of many cytotypes, tissues and systems. Mainly in body metabolism, diabetes and cardiovascular system, but also in brain and kidney, IGF-1 plays a key role in maintaining homeostasis, increasing progenitor cell potential, and improving physiologic performance both in rest and stress conditions. Its vasculoprotective and insulin ...
The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are proteins with high sequence similarity to insulin. IGFs are part of a complex system that cells use to communicate with their physiologic environment. This complex system (often referred to as the IGF axis) consists of two cell-surface receptors (IGF1R and IGF2R), two ligands (Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2)), a family of six high-affinity IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP-1 to IGFBP-6), as well as associated IGFBP degrading enzymes, referred to collectively as proteases. The IGF axis is also commonly referred to as the Growth Hormone/IGF-1 Axis. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1, or sometimes with Roman Numeral as IGF-I) is mainly secreted by the liver as a result of stimulation by growth hormone (GH). IGF-1 is important for both the regulation of normal physiology, as well as a number of pathological states, including cancer. The IGF axis has been shown to play roles in the promotion of cell proliferation ...
Pre- and postnatal growth failure can be caused by mutations in the IGF1 (insulin-like growth factor 1) or IGF1R (insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor) genes. Autosomal recessive mutations in IGF1 cause insulin-like growth factor I deficiency (MIM 608747), which is characterized by microcephaly, intellectual disability, and deafness in addition to the growth failure. Autosomal dominant mutations in IGF1R cause insulin-like growth factor I, resistance to (MIM 270450). It is associated with partial IGF1 resistance, pre- and postnatal growth failure, microcephaly, and in some cases modest intellectual disability. Autosomal recessive IGF1R mutations have been found in a few patients. This results in a more severe growth delay and additional developmental abnormalities.. Read less ...
Protein undernutrition is characterized by growth failure in young growing animals. Current evidence suggests that biosynthesis of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1) are key control points for nutritional regulation of growth. Here we examined the role of amino acid limitation in regulating the IGFBP-1 expression in the hepatic cell line. Our data show that leucine limitation strongly induces IGFBP-1 without affecting IGF-I and IGF-II expression in human HepG2 cells and in isolated rat hepatocytes. Depletion of arginine, cystine and all essential amino acids leads to induction of IGFBP-1 mRNA and protein expression in a dose-dependent manner. IGFBP-1 expression is significantly induced by leucine concentration in the range of that observed in the blood of rats fed a low-protein diet or in humans affected by kwashiorkor. Moreover, treatment of HepG2 cells with amino acids at a concentration reproducing the amino acid concentration found in portal blood of rats ...
Extracellular matrix (ECM)1 serves as the immediate microenvironment for interactions with the cell surface, besides providing the structural support for all tissues. The ECM is not static. Rather, it is dynamic in nature with a continuous turnover of its protein constituents and growth factor pools. A major determinant of ECM turnover and integrity is the extracellular proteolytic balance between secreted matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their biological inhibitors (TIMPs) (for reviews see Matrisian 1992; Denhardt et al. 1993; Mignatti and Rifkin 1993). The function of extracellular proteolysis extends beyond ECM degradation to the processing of cell surface receptors and ligands and release of protein-bound growth factors (for review see Werb 1997). Therefore, it is conceivable that extracellular proteolytic activity within the cellular microenvironment can directly impact cell proliferation. Despite transgenic studies showing that cellular proliferation is altered by ectopic expression of ...
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Hypoglycaemia is defined as a blood glucose concentration below 3.0 mmol/litre, which is clinically important because of its effect on brain function. Much the commonest cause is excessive (in relation to intake of food and drink) administration of insulin or sulphonylurea drugs to patients known to have diabetes, but there are many rarer causes including insulinoma, toxins (alcohol), organ failure (hepatic), endocrine diseases (adrenal insufficiency, pituitary insufficiency), non-islet cell tumour hypoglycaemia, autoimmune insulin syndrome, factitious or felonious administration of insulin/sulphonylureas, and infections (malaria)....
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Apr;85(4):1686-94.. Mauras N, OBrien KO, Welch S, Rini A, Helgeson K, Vieira NE, Yergey AL.. Division of Endocrinology, Nemours Childrens Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida 32207, USA. [email protected] We examined the effects of recombinant human (rh) insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) vs. rhGH in a variety of metabolic paths in a group of eight severely GH-deficient young adults using an array of contemporary tools. Protein, glucose, and calcium metabolism were studied using stable labeled tracer infusions of L-[1-13C]leucine, [6,6-2H2]glucose, and 42Ca and 44Ca; substrate oxidation rates were assessed using indirect calorimetry; muscle strength was determined by isokinetic and isometric dynamometry of the anterior quadriceps, as well as growth factors, hormones, glucose, and lipid concentrations in plasma before and after 8 weeks of rhIGF-I (60 microg/kg, sc, twice daily), followed by 4 weeks of washout, then 8 weeks ofrhGH (12.5 microg/kg-day, sc); the ...
Purpose: We demonstrated that IGFBP-3 stimulates hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) to differentiate into endothelial cells, form capillaries, and stabilize the vasculature (Chang, et al, PNAS 2007). Local IGFBP- 3 production is increased by hypoxia and facilitates the homing of HSC to areas of injury. In the circulation, IGFBP-3 is bound to HDL. In this study, we investigated the signaling pathways responsible for the robust migratory effects of IGFBP-3.. Methods: The effects of IGFBP-3 on NO generation in human vascular precursors (CD 34+, CD14−), human lung microvascular endothelial cells, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells were examined using DAF-FM fluorescence. Western analysis was use for detection of eNOS and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP), which redistributes to lamellipodia forming an active motor complex that supports motility and is phosphorylated in response to NO. Localization of VASP was performed by immunohistochemistry. SK-1 was assessed following IGFBP-3 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Degradation of insulin-like growth factors in small intestine of suckling rats. AU - Fellah, A. M.. AU - Philipps, Anthony F. AU - Gillespie, T. J.. AU - Galo, J. R.. AU - Dvořák, B.. PY - 2001/4/2. Y1 - 2001/4/2. N2 - Insulin-like growth factors (IFGs), IGF-I and IGF-II, present in mammalian milk, play an important role during gastrointestinal tract development. In this study we identified and localized the activities of the common intestinal proteolytic enzymes and investigated their degradation effect on IGFs. Results indicated that the enzymatic activities of chymotrypsin, trypsin, and elastase progressed from the lowest in the duodenum, to the highest in the midjejunum, and declined in the ileum. Chymotrypsin exhibited the greatest IGFs degradation activities in neonatal intestinal lumen followed by elastase. These data furnish a potential strategic design to supplement IGFs into milk formulas.. AB - Insulin-like growth factors (IFGs), IGF-I and IGF-II, present in ...
Luteolin is a 3,4,5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone found in various fruits and vegetables. We have shown previously that luteolin reduces HT-29 cell growth by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. The objective of this study was to examine whether luteolin downregulates the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) signaling pathway in HT-29 cells. In order to assess the effects of luteolin and/or IGF-I on the IGF-IR signaling pathway, cells were cultured with or without 60 μmol/L luteolin and/or 10 nmol/L IGF-I. Cell proliferation, DNA synthesis, and IGF-IR mRNA levels were evaluated by a cell viability assay, [3H]thymidine incorporation assays, and real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Western blot analyses, immunoprecipitation, and in vitro kinase assays were conducted to evaluate the secretion of IGF-II, the protein expression and activation of IGF-IR, and the association of the p85 subunit of phophatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) with IGF-IR, the phosphorylation of Akt and
These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain. These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above. ...
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In humans, the IGF2 gene is located on chromosome 11p15.5, a region which contains numerous imprinted genes. In mice this homologous region is found at distal chromosome 7. In both organisms, Igf2 is imprinted, with expression resulting favourably from the paternally inherited allele. However, in some human brain regions a loss of imprinting occurs resulting in both IGF2 and H19 being transcribed from both parental alleles.[6] The protein CTCF is involved in repressing expression of the gene, by binding to the H19 imprinting control region (ICR) along with Differentially-methylated Region-1 (DMR1) and Matrix Attachment Region −3 (MAR3). These three DNA sequences bind to CTCF in a way that limits downstream enhancer access to the Igf2 region. The mechanism in which CTCF binds to these regions is currently unknown, but could include either a direct DNA-CTCF interaction or it could possibly be mediated by other proteins. In mammals (mice, humans, pigs), only the allele for insulin-like growth ...
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If you are patient and get lucky with some orders, theres obviously some money to be made.. This means if pay per delivery is below their threshold, DoorDash will make up the difference. , we found Caviar drivers can make $20 per hour. Amazon Flex is one of the best food delivery services to work for because of the high hourly rate and plenty of work to keep busy. This is because Caviar allows customers to adjust their tip up to two hours after receiving their order. Holly S. is a DoorDash driver near Thornton, Colorado who recently signed up for DoorDash but is already earning $25/hr on average with the app. However, the onboarding process will take you longer than other companies on this list which means you wont be earning money as soon. Order requests come through on the app and when you accept one, youll be able to head to the store and start shopping for the customers items so they can be delivered. It is fairly transparent what I am being paid ($3.50 per delivery, $.50 per delivery ...
The insulin-like growth factor pathway, regulated by a complex interplay of growth factors, cognate receptors, and binding proteins, is critically important for many of the hallmarks of cancer such as oncogenesis, cell division, growth, and antineoplastic resistance. Naturally, a number of clinical trials have sought to directly abrogate insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 (IGF-1R) function and/or indirectly mitigate its downstream mediators such as mTOR, PI3K, MAPK, and others under the assumption that such therapeutic interventions would provide clinical benefit, demonstrable by impaired tumor growth as well as prolonged progression-free and overall survival for patients. Though a small subset of patients enrolled within phase I or II clinical trials revealed dramatic clinical response to IGF-1R targeted therapies (most using monoclonal antibodies to IGF-1R), in toto, the anticancer effect has been underwhelming and unsustained, as even those with marked clinical responses seem to rapidly acquire
Objective Insulin and the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system regulate growth and are involved in determining muscle mass, strength and body composition. We hypothesised that IGF-I and IGF-II are associated with improved, and insulin with worse, physical performance in old age. Methods Physical performance was measured using the get-up and go timed walk and flamingo balance test at 63-86 years. We examined prospective associations of insulin, IGF-I, IGF-II and IGFBP-3 with physical performance in the UK-based Caerphilly Prospective Study (CaPS; n = 739 men); and cross-sectional insulin, IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 in the Boyd Orr cohort (n = 182 men, 223 women). Results In confounder-adjusted models, there was some evidence in CaPS that a standard deviation (SD) increase in IGF-I was associated with 1.5% faster get-up and go test times (95% CI: −0.2%, 3.2%; p = 0.08), but little association with poor balance, 19 years later. Coefficients in Boyd Orr were in the same direction as ...
Adrenacarcinomas are rare, and hypoglycemic syndrome resulting from the secretion of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) by these tumors have been described infrequently. This study describes the case of a young woman with severe persistent hypoglycemia and a large adrenal tumor and discusses the physiopathological mechanisms involved in hypoglycemia. The case is described as a 21-year-old woman who presented with 8 months of general symptoms and, in the preceding 3 months, with episodes of mental confusion and visual blurring secondary to hypoglycemia. A functional assessment of the adrenal cortex revealed ACTH-independent hypercortisolism and hyperandrogenism. Hypoglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, low C-peptide and no ketones were also detected. An evaluation of the GH-IGF axis revealed GH blockade (0.03; reference: up to 4.4 ng/mL), greatly reduced IGF-I levels (9.0 ng/mL; reference: 180-780 ng/mL), slightly reduced IGF-II levels (197 ng/mL; reference: 267-616 ng/mL) and an elevated IGF-II/IGF-I ...
Adrenacarcinomas are rare, and hypoglycemic syndrome resulting from the secretion of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) by these tumors have been described infrequently. This study describes the case of a young woman with severe persistent hypoglycemia and a large adrenal tumor and discusses the physiopathological mechanisms involved in hypoglycemia. The case is described as a 21-year-old woman who presented with 8 months of general symptoms and, in the preceding 3 months, with episodes of mental confusion and visual blurring secondary to hypoglycemia. A functional assessment of the adrenal cortex revealed ACTH-independent hypercortisolism and hyperandrogenism. Hypoglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, low C-peptide and no ketones were also detected. An evaluation of the GH-IGF axis revealed GH blockade (0.03; reference: up to 4.4 ng/mL), greatly reduced IGF-I levels (9.0 ng/mL; reference: 180-780 ng/mL), slightly reduced IGF-II levels (197 ng/mL; reference: 267-616 ng/mL) and an elevated IGF-II/IGF-I ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential effects of insulin-like growth factor 1 on the hormonal product and proliferation of glycoprotein-secreting human pituitary adenomas. AU - Atkin, Stephen. AU - Landolt, A. M.. AU - Jeffreys, R. V.. AU - Hipkin, L.. AU - Radcliffe, J.. AU - Squire, C. R.. AU - White, M. C.. PY - 1993. Y1 - 1993. N2 - The effects of human recombinant insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) on the secretion, viability, and proliferation of dispersed human anterior pituitary adenomas secreting FSH, LH, and alpha-subunit (alpha-su) were examined in vitro over 4 h and 4 days. The acute effect of IGF-1 on secretion over 4 h was examined in four tumors secreting FSH, LH, and alpha-su. IGF-1 (100 nmol/L) reduced LH compared to control (100%) in one tumor (61%, P , 0.01), and three tumors remained unaffected. FSH and alpha-su secretion were insufficient to measure over 4 h. Nine tumors were studied over 4 days; relative to control, IGF-1 (100 nmol/L) increased FSH secretion in all seven tumors ...
Purchase Insulin Like Growth Factor Antibody [7973] directly from Immuquest. Validated for RIA, ELISA, IHC(Fr), IHC(P) in Mouse, Rat, Human
To understand the development of the human pancreas better, we studied the expression and regulation of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) and transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α) genes in the human fetal pancreas and islet-like cell clusters (ICC) from the second trimester human fetuses. Northern blot analysis revealed an abundant expression of IGF-II, insulin and TGF-α mRNAs in the intact pancreas and the cultured ICCs. Furthermore, transcripts for insulin receptor, type-1 and -2 IGF receptors, and GH receptor could be amplified by polymerase chain reaction analysis from the pancreas and the ICCs. With in-situ hybridization, IGF-II mRNA was found in abundance in both the exocrine and endocrine pancreas, exceeding the amount of insulin mRNA. In ICCs, insulin mRNA-containing cells were present as small clusters in the periphery and in the centre of the clusters corresponding to the immunolocation of insulin. The ICCs also contained many epidermal growth factor-, insulin- and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Insulin-like growth factors I and II and their binding proteins in rat milk. AU - Donovan, Sharon M.. AU - Hintz, Raymond L.. AU - Wilson, Darrell M.. AU - Rosenfeld, Ron G.. PY - 1991/1. Y1 - 1991/1. N2 - IGF-I and -II are peptide growth factors that may be important contributors to the growth-promoting properties associated with milk. IGF in extracellular fluids, including serum and milk, are carried by specific high-affinity binding proteins (IGFBP). In this study, the levels of IGF-I and -II in rat serum and milk were quantified by specific RIA, and the IGFBP were characterized using Western ligand blotting and autoradiography throughout lactation. The levels of IGF-I in both milk and maternal serum decreased during lactation. Serum IGF-I decreased from 743 ± 187 μg/L on d 1 to 391 ± 106 (mean ± SD) on d 21 of lactation, and milk IGF-I levels fell from 30 ± 10 to 13 ± 8 μg/L. Levels of IGF-II in serum and milk were much lower than IGF-I, and were unaffected by ...
BACKGROUND: Circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and its main binding protein, IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), have been associated with risk of several types of cancer. Heritable factors explain up to 60% of the variation in IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in studies of adult twins. METHODS: We systematically examined common genetic variation in 18 genes in the IGF signaling pathway for associations with circulating levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3. A total of 302 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were genotyped in |5,500 Caucasian men and 5,500 Caucasian women from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium. RESULTS: After adjusting for multiple testing, SNPs in the IGF1 and SSTR5 genes were significantly associated with circulating IGF-I (P | 2.1 × 10(-4)); SNPs in the IGFBP3 and IGFALS genes were significantly associated with circulating IGFBP-3. Multi-SNP models explained R(2) = 0.62% of the variation in circulating IGF-I and 3.9% of the variation in circulating IGFBP-3. We saw no
OsrIGF-1 is expressed as fusion protein with HSA, which increases its solubility and lifetime. OsrIGF-1 presents a molecular weight about 74.5kD, and has a much higher stability compared to IGF-1.
Insulin-like growth factor IGF-1 is a natural product of physiological processes in the body. It is a peptide hormone synthesized by the pituitary gland and growth hormone. During puberty, the insulin-like growth factor is most active in the human body. During this period, high levels of insulin-like growth factors help accelerate skeletal muscle growth.. IGF-1 Long R3 and IGF-1 are isoforms, with IGF 1 LR3 being an improved version of insulin-like growth factor. It has 83 amino acids and is significantly stronger than regular IGF-1. One of the differences between them is the longer activity and half-life of IGF 1 Long R3 - more than 20, which means that its effects are about three times longer lasting than those of ordinary insulin-like growth factor 1.. The peptide IGF-1 LR3 allows more nutrients and amino acids to accumulate in muscle cells. This introduces amino acids into the cells and therefore provides a stronger protein synthesis.. ...
Newborn mice homozygous for a targeted disruption of insulin-like growth factor gene (Igf-1) exhibit a growth deficiency similar in severity to that previously observed in viable Igf-2 null mutants (60% of normal birthweight). Depending on genetic background, some of the Igf-1(-/-) dwarfs die shortl …
Insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and IGF-II) are mitogenic and anabolic peptides structurally homologous to insulin. IGF-I and -II are single polypeptide chains of approximately 7.5 kDa comprised of 70 and 67 amino acid residues, respectively. IGF-I and -II share 70% homology in amino acid sequence, while IGF-I and proinsulin share 48% homology. Both IGFs are highly conserved between species, with 100% identity among human, bovine and porcine IGFs. Unlike insulin, IGF-I and -II are primarily involved in normal growth and development. Circulating IGF is mainly secreted from the liver and acts as an endocrine to distant cells.. Many other tissues also make IGFs, where they act with autocrine and paracrine functions to regulate a number of different cellular functions. IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) is homologous to the insulin receptor (IR) and is comprised of two 130-kDa ligand-binding a-subunits and two 95-kDa transmembrane b-subunits. IGF-IR binds IGF-I with highest affinity, IGF-II with somewhat ...
This proposal requests partial support for an international meeting on Insulin-like Growth Factors in Physiology and Disease as part of the Gordon Research Conf...
Abstract Background: Reliable laboratory analysis is fundamental to diagnostics, therapy, and follow-up of growth disturbance and secretory dysfunction of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). Currently available commercial assays have their limitations, as they show large variations in hormone concentrations measured. Methods: The recommendations of an expert workshop with practicing endocrinologists from the fields of pediatrics and internal medicine and with laboratory physicians, with reference to the outcome of the interdisciplinary consensus conference in Keswick (Virginia, USA) in 2009, were used. Results: Among the quality criteria stipulated by the workshop participants are the use of uniform reference standards, documentation of analytical conditions (such as calibrators, binding epitopes, cross-reactivity, and methods for removal from the binding protein), batch-to-batch consistency, and low inter-assay variability. The participants recommended developing ...
Benjamin Lester of Cosmos Online reports:Much of the amazing variation in size of different breeds of domestic dogs stems from tiny differences in a single gene, say researchers. When the team compared the dog DNA samples, they found that all the small breeds shared the same mutations in a small part of the DNA of one gene which regulates the production of insulin-like growth factor (IGF1) - a protein key to promoting growth. . . . "In the big dogs, the [level] of insulin like growth factor is large...
Background: Insulin‐like growth factor (IGF)‐2 activates IGF‐1 receptor (IGF‐1R) as well as insulin receptor (IR). Recently, it is becoming increasingly evident that IR activation by IGF‐2 enhances the growth of neoplasms such as Ewing sarcoma and breast cancer in addition to the IGF‐1R activation. Advanced prostate cancer frequently and organ‐specifically metastasizes to the bone, where the IGF‐2 is abundant. However, the role of IGF‐2 in bone metastasis from prostate cancer is still uncertain. The present study was aimed at exploring the role of IGF‐2 in the growth of prostate cancer cells in a human bone environment and the therapeutic potential of inhibiting IGF‐2 by a neutralizing antibody in the bone metastasis.. Materials and Methods: Using our human neutralizing antibody to IGF‐2 (m610) and human adult bone implanted mouse model, we investigated whether inhibiting IGF‐2 suppresses the growth of prostate cancer cells in the human bone environment. Human MDA PCa ...
The insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) receptor is closely related to the insulin receptor. However, the unique biological functions of IGF1 receptor make it a target for therapeutic intervention in human cancer. Using its isolated tyrosine kinase domain, we show that the IGF1 receptor is regulated …
Complete information for IGFBP1 gene (Protein Coding), Insulin Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Phase II results for breast cancer that over-expresses the protein human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2-positive ... Insulin-like growth factor-1 (somatomedin C). *IGF-1 LR3. *Insulin-like growth factor-2 (somatomedin A) ... It is mainly used to treat cases of NSCLC that harbour mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene.[5] ... Afatinib covalently binds to cysteine number 797 of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) via a Michael addition (IC50 = ...
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (somatomedin C). *IGF-1 LR3. *Insulin-like growth factor-2 (somatomedin A) ... Nilotinib is currently undergoing phase II studies for treatment of Parkinson's.[26] Scientists and medical professionals have ... Food should not be eaten two hours before or one hour afterwards because it unpredictably increases its bioavailability, ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ...
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (somatomedin C). *IGF-1 LR3. *Insulin-like growth factor-2 (somatomedin A) ... 1996). "Eph receptors and ligands comprise two major specificity subclasses and are reciprocally compartmentalized during ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... 2 (3): 155-64. doi:10.1038/35058515. PMID 11256076.. *. Kozlosky CJ, Maraskovsky E, McGrew JT, et al. (1995). "Ligands for the ...
Main article: Nerve growth factor receptor. There are two classes of receptors for neurotrophins: p75 and the "Trk" family of ... Insulin-like growth factor-1 (somatomedin C). *IGF-1 LR3. *Insulin-like growth factor-2 (somatomedin A) ... Nerve growth factor[edit]. Main article: Nerve growth factor. Nerve growth factor (NGF), the prototypical growth factor, is a ... Neurotrophin-3, or NT-3, is a neurotrophic factor, in the NGF-family of neurotrophins. It is a protein growth factor that has ...
Warshamana-Greene G, Litz J, Buchdunger E, García-Echeverría C, Hofmann F, Krystal G (2005). "The insulin-like growth factor-I ... FAQ: I started an EGFR inhibitor two weeks ago but haven't developed a rash. Does this mean it's not working?[permanent dead ... "Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor signalling and acquired resistance to gefitinib (ZD1839; Iressa) in human breast and ... Approximately 20% of drug resistance is caused by amplification of the hepatocyte growth factor receptor, which drives ERBB3 ...
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (somatomedin C). *IGF-1 LR3. *Insulin-like growth factor-2 (somatomedin A) ... The structure is that of a dimer formed between two protein molecules each spanning amino acids 703-1012 of the RET molecule, ... Arighi E, Borrello MG, Sariola H (2005). "RET tyrosine kinase signaling in development and cancer". Cytokine Growth Factor Rev ... The RET proto-oncogene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase for members of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF ...
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (somatomedin C). *IGF-1 LR3. *Insulin-like growth factor-2 (somatomedin A) ... only two and a half years after the new drug application was submitted.[33][41] On the same month it made the cover of TIME ... the Ras/MapK pathway, which leads to increased proliferation due to increased growth factor-independent cell growth. ... Imatinib is specific for the TK domain in abl (the Abelson proto-oncogene), c-kit and PDGF-R (platelet-derived growth factor ...
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (somatomedin C). *IGF-1 LR3. *Insulin-like growth factor-2 (somatomedin A) ... Fibroblast growth factor 20 is a protein which in humans is encoded by the FGF20 gene.[1] ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. FGF family members possess broad ... cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth and invasion. This gene was shown to be expressed in normal brain, ...
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (somatomedin C). *IGF-1 LR3. *Insulin-like growth factor-2 (somatomedin A) ... Götz R, Schartl M (1994). "The conservation of neurotrophic factors during vertebrate evolution". Comp Biochem Physiol ... 2008). "Association study of 10 genes encoding neurotrophic factors and their receptors in adult and child attention-deficit/ ... 2009). "Genes related to sex steroids, neural growth, and social-emotional behavior are associated with autistic traits, ...
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (somatomedin C). *IGF-1 LR3. *Insulin-like growth factor-2 (somatomedin A) ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... Additional growth factors: Adrenomedullin. *Colony-stimulating factors (see here instead). *Connective tissue growth factor ( ... Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF). *Interleukins/T-cell growth factors (see here instead) ...
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (somatomedin C). *IGF-1 LR3. *Insulin-like growth factor-2 (somatomedin A) ... There is a phase I/II study at the Mayo Clinic[32] of sorafenib and CCI-779 (temsirolimus) for recurrent glioblastoma. ... Sorafenib treatment induces autophagy,[5] which may suppress tumor growth. However, autophagy can also cause drug resistance.[6 ... In Australia this is one of two TGA-labelled indications for sorafenib, although it is not listed on the Pharmaceutical ...
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (somatomedin C). *IGF-1 LR3. *Insulin-like growth factor-2 (somatomedin A) ... mainly the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and the RET- ... Vandetanib is an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, epidermal growth factor receptor, and RET tyrosine ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ...
Firth SM, Baxter RC (December 2002). "Cellular actions of the insulin-like growth factor binding proteins". Endocrine Reviews. ... activated blood-coagulation factor II, blood-coagulation factor IIa, factor IIa, E thrombin, beta-thrombin, gamma-thrombin) is ... Factor Xa with factor V as a cofactor leads to cleavage of the Gla and two Kringle domains (forming together a fragment called ... Thrombin is produced by the enzymatic cleavage of two sites on prothrombin by activated Factor X (Xa). The activity of factor ...
Moreover, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-R) is involved in cell proliferation and growth. It has is possible that it is ... When these two chromosomes combine they create a cancer-causing gene known as BCR-ABL. In such patients, this gene acts as the ... Yu, Herbert; Rohan, Thomas (2000-09-20). "Role of the Insulin-Like Growth Factor Family in Cancer Development and Progression ... Fürstenberger, Gregor; Senn, Hans-Jörg (May 2002). "Insulin-like growth factors and cancer". The Lancet Oncology. 3 (5): 298- ...
... prognostic relevance of insulin-like growth factor-I". Gynecol. Endocrinol. 12 (2): 123-7. doi:10.3109/09513599809024960. PMID ... In this 1900 French cartoon, two small-breasted women criticize a large-breasted woman for not conforming to this fashion. ... 2]), related to trauma (typically surgery or radiotherapy) or it may be a more subjective aesthetic description. ...
Kleinberg DL, Wood TL, Furth PA, Lee AV (2009). "Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I in the transition from normal ... Ibrahim YH, Yee D (2004). "Insulin-like growth factor-I and cancer risk". Growth Horm. IGF Res. 14 (4): 261-9. doi:10.1016/j. ... "Prolonged Stimulation of Growth Hormone (GH) and Insulin-Like Growth Factor I Secretion by CJC-1295, a Long-Acting Analog of GH ... growth hormone (GH), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are utilized or manipulated to produce breast enlargement in ...
Haig, D.; Graham, C. (1991). "Genomic imprinting and the strange case of the insulin-like growth factor-II receptor". Cell. 64 ... This has been show in imprinted genes like insulin-like growth factor-II.[50] ... An influential paper by Stephen Emlen and Lewis Oring (1977)[69] argued that two main factors of animal behavior influence the ... Two parents can feed twice as many young, so it is more favorable for birds to have both parents delivering food. In mammals, ...
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (somatomedin C). *IGF-1 LR3. *Insulin-like growth factor-2 (somatomedin A) ... Osherov N, Gazit A, Gilon C, Levitzki A (1993). "Selective inhibition of the epidermal growth factor and HER2/neu receptors by ... which was the first description of compounds inhibiting the catalytic activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). ... "Kinetics of inhibition by tyrphostins of the tyrosine kinase activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor and analysis by a ...
Insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor - rewrote, added a lot. Minor. *Ileal vessels - very short, based on other pages ...
Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone Allen, NE; Key, TJ; Appleby, PN; et al. (2007). "Serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and ... The two companies used genetic engineering to clone the BST gene into E. coli. The bacteria are grown in bioreactors, then ... Giovannucci, E (2003). "Nutrition, insulin, insulin-like growth factors and cancer". Hormone & Metabolic Research. 35 (11/12): ... Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a hormone found in humans that is responsible for growth promotion, protein synthesis, ...
insulin receptor binding. • growth factor activity. • integrin binding. • 血浆蛋白结合. • insulin-like growth factor receptor binding ... positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • positive regulation of cell growth involved in cardiac ... insulin-like growth factor binding protein complex. • platelet alpha granule lumen. • insulin-like growth factor ternary ... 胰岛素样生长因子1(英语:Insulin-like growth factor 1,IGF-1)也被称为生长调节素C(somatomedin C),是一个由人类基因 IGF1
The IGF2 stands for insulin-like growth factor II; this gene is a key contributor in human growth and development. IGF2 gene is ... undernutrition during the early stages of pregnancy are associated with hypomethylation of the insulin-like growth factor II ( ... However, it has been shown that decreased adiponectin levels are associated with obesity, insulin resistance, type II diabetes ... These factors are thought to be contributing factors to obesity and cardiovascular disease, neural tube defects, cancer, ...
... also contains a number of growth factors, such as insulin-like growth factors I (IGF-1),[24] and II,[25] transforming ... O'Dell SD, Day IN (July 1998). "Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II)". Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 30 (7): 767-71. doi: ... epidermal growth factor,[30] granulocyte-macrophage-stimulating growth factor,[31] platelet-derived growth factor,[31] vascular ... and energy restriction on insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein-3, insulin, and growth hormone". Metabolism ...
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (somatomedin C). *IGF-1 LR3. *Insulin-like growth factor-2 (somatomedin A) ... 1996). "Eph receptors and ligands comprise two major specificity subclasses and are reciprocally compartmentalized during ... Additionally, EphA receptors were shown to exert opposite effects on motor neuron growth cones by reducing growth cone size. ... Reverse signaling in growth cone survival[edit]. "Reverse" signaling is one unique property of ephrin ligands that allows for ...
1991). "Two insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding proteins are responsible for the selective affinity for IGF-II of ... Bach LA, Rechler MM (1996). "Measurement of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II binding to purified IGF binding proteins 1-6: ... Zhou J, Bondy C (1992). "Insulin-like growth factor-II and its binding proteins in placental development". Endocrinology. 131 ( ... Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGFBP2 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release ...
There is upregulation of the targets of miR-675 in placentas lacking H19; these include the insulin-like growth factor 1 ... It has been proposed that miR-675 may modulate collagen type II levels via an unknown target molecule, and there is potential ... Dudek KA, Lafont JE, Martinez-Sanchez A, Murphy CL (August 2010). "Type II collagen expression is regulated by tissue-specific ... Indeed, there is co-regulation of these two RNAs. The COL2A1 gene associated with osteoarthritis through altered expression ...
... a novel insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-5 proteinase". J Biol Chem. 276 (24): 21849-53. doi:10.1074/jbc.M102191200. ... "Cellular actions of the insulin-like growth factor binding proteins". Endocr. Rev. 23 (6): 824-54. doi:10.1210/er.2001-0033. ... "Isolation and characterization of circulating 13-kDa C-terminal fragments of human insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 ... Pappalysin-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PAPPA2 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000116183 - Ensembl, ...
It binds to CD221, the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor. Phase 2 clinical trials in patients with colorectal cancer, ... October 2016). "A phase II study of clinical activity of SCH 717454 (robatumumab) in patients with relapsed osteosarcoma and ...
In mice, the insulin-like growth factor 2 gene undergoes imprinting. The protein encoded by this gene helps to regulate body ... Mice that possess two functional copies of this gene are larger than those with two mutant copies. The size of mice that are ... Traits controlled by two or more genes are said to be polygenic traits. Polygenic means "many genes" are necessary for the ... Two double-stranded RNA viruses, designated L and M, are responsible for this phenotype. The L virus codes for the capsid ...
1994). "Identification of two clusters of mouse insulin-like growth factor binding protein genes on chromosomes 1 and 11". ... Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGFBP5 gene. An IGFBP5 gene was ... Kiefer MC, Ioh RS, Bauer DM, Zapf J (1991). "Molecular cloning of a new human insulin-like growth factor binding protein". ... 1998). "Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-5 is cleaved by physiological concentrations of thrombin". Endocrinology. ...
When nightly insulin is insufficient, twice daily insulin may achieve better control.[23] The long acting insulins glargine and ... While some of these factors are under personal control, such as diet and obesity, other factors are not, such as increasing age ... and population growth". Diabetes Care. 35 (12): 2515-20. doi:10.2337/dc12-0669. PMC 3507562. PMID 23173134. Archived from the ... Injections of insulin may either be added to oral medication or used alone.[25] Most people do not initially need insulin.[13] ...
Peptide YY 3-36 is a hormone released by the small intestine and it is also used as a satiety signal to the brain.[24] Insulin ... People usually have two or three meals a day regularly. Snacks of smaller amounts may be consumed between meals. Doctors in the ... The size of an animal is also a factor in determining diet type (Allen's rule). Since small mammals have a high ratio of heat- ... typically to provide a heterotrophic organism with energy and to allow for growth. Animals and other heterotrophs must eat in ...
Other factors. There are also reasons why a placebo treatment group may outperform a "no-treatment" group in a test which are ... According to two writers, Wallace Sampson and K. Butler, marketing is part of the training required in alternative medicine, ... One of the few growth industries in contemporary Britain is alternative medicine. An apparently endless stream of books, ... Examples include immuno-augmentation therapy, shark cartilage, bioresonance therapy, oxygen and ozone therapies, and insulin ...
High levels of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are also associated with worsened acne.[42] Both ... iPledge requires the woman to have two negative pregnancy tests and to use two types of birth control for at least one month ... Another common factor is the excessive growth of the bacterium Cutibacterium acnes, which is present on the skin.[15] ... Shelley WB, Shelley ED (2001). Advanced Dermatologic Therapy II. W. B. Saunders. ISBN 978-0-7216-8258-7. .. ...
The HLA genes fall in two categories (Type I and Type II). In general, mismatches of the Type-I genes (i.e. HLA-A, HLA-B, or ... After several weeks of growth in the bone marrow, expansion of HSC and their progeny is sufficient to normalize the blood cell ... The peripheral stem cell yield is boosted with daily subcutaneous injections of Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, serving ... 2009). "C-peptide levels and insulin independence following autologous nonmyeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation ...
Insulin-like growth factor *IGF-1. *IGF-2. Adipose tissue. *Leptin. *Adiponectin ... 20 (2): 300-13. doi:10.1042/bj0200300. PMC 1251714 . PMID 16743659.. *^ a b King, Tekoa L.; Brucker, Mary C. (2010). ... doi:10.1186/1745-0179-2-23. PMC 1584230 . PMID 16968542.. *^ Sherwood, Lauralee (2010). "19 The Peripheral Endocrine Glands". ... InChI=1S/C15H11I4NO4/c16-8-4-7(5-9(17)13(8)21)24-14-10(18)1-6(2-11(14)19)3-12(20)15(22)23/h1-2,4-5,12,21H, 3,20H2, (H, 22,23)/ ...
某些生理或心理疾病以及治疗它们的药物會增加患者罹患肥胖症的風險。生理疾病包括上述的罕见遗传病,以及一些先天或後天疾病,比如甲状腺功能低下、库欣综合征、生长激素缺乏症(英语:Growth hormone deficiency)等[129],另外也包括了进食 ... Inflammation and insulin resistance. J. Clin. Invest. 2006-07, 116 (7): 1793-801 [2016-01-03]. PMC 1483173. PMID 16823477. doi: ... Munger KL, Chitnis T, Ascherio A. Body size and risk
Influence of species, physico-chemical properties of insulin and physiological factors". Danish Medical Bulletin. 38 (4): 337- ... Formation of the preinitiation complex begins when the multi-subunit transcription factor II D (TFIID) binds to the TATA box at ... TATA-containing genes are not involved in essential cellular functions such as cell growth, DNA replication, transcription, and ... Transcription factors, TATA binding protein (TBP), and RNA polymerase II are all recruited to begin transcription. ...
Kelly CJ, Stenton SR, Lashen H. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 in PCOS: a systematic review and meta-analysis. ... A hypoglycemic response in which the two-hour insulin level is higher and the blood sugar lower than fasting is consistent with ... Fasting insulin level or GTT with insulin levels (also called IGTT). Elevated insulin levels have been helpful to predict ... Elevated blood sugar and insulin values do not predict who responds to an insulin-lowering medication, low-glycemic diet, and ...
2007) Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 stimulates pulmonary fibrosis and inflammation via a Bax-dependent, bid-activated ... There are two types of alveolar epithelial cells - Type 1 pneumocytes represent 90% of the cell surface area, and are easily ... These include β2-agonists, dopamine, insulin, allopurinol, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ... 2007) Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 stimulates pulmonary fibrosis and inflammation via a Bax-dependent, bid-activated ...
BDNF binds at least two receptors on the surface of cells that are capable of responding to this growth factor, TrkB ( ... Insulin-like growth factor-1 (somatomedin C). *IGF-1 LR3. *Insulin-like growth factor-2 (somatomedin A) ... BDNF is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors, which are related to the canonical nerve growth factor. ... BDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, ANON2, BULN2, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, brain derived neurotrophic factor. ...
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (somatomedin C). *IGF-1 LR3. *Insulin-like growth factor-2 (somatomedin A) ... Phase II[edit]. After the success of the Phase I study, Eyetech completed a Phase II study focusing on multiple injections. In ... Pegaptanib is a pegylated anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) aptamer, a single strand of nucleic acid that binds ... pegaptanib was studied in two identical controlled, double-blind randomized clinical studies that lasted for approximately two ...
... is a dimeric glycoprotein that can be composed of two A subunits (PDGF-AA), two B subunits (PDGF ... animal and human cells and its re-expression triggered beta cell proliferation and corrected glucose regulation via insulin ... Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is one among numerous growth factors that regulate cell growth and division. In ... "Vascular endothelial growth factor B, a novel growth factor for endothelial cells". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93 (6): 2567- ...
Insulin. *Agonists: Chaetochromin (4548-G05). *Insulin-like growth factor 1. *Insulin-like growth factor 2 ... in which case angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) are the next line of treatment. ... Sérgio Henrique Ferreira, discovered a bradykinin-potentiating factor (BPF) in the bothropic venom, which increases powerfully ... and Tumor Growth of Gastric Cancer Through ERK Signaling Pathway". Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. 118 (12): 4444-4453. doi: ...
cellular response to insulin stimulus. • regulation of multicellular organism growth. • regulation of insulin receptor ... transcription factor complex. • bicellular tight junction. • nucleoplasm. • nucleolus. • perinuclear region of cytoplasm. • ... transcription initiation from RNA polymerase II promoter. • G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle. • negative regulation of ... 1995). "Growth suppression by p18, a p16INK4/MTS1- and p14INK4B/MTS2-related CDK6 inhibitor, correlates with wild-type pRb ...
Clark IA (June-August 2007). "How TNF was recognized as a key mechanism of disease". Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 18 (3-4): 335- ... The binding of TNF to its receptor and its displacement by LT confirmed the functional homology between the two factors. The ... It also induces insulin resistance by promoting serine-phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), which impairs ... TNF, DIF, TNF-alpha, TNFA, TNFSF2, Tumour necrosis factor, TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor, TNLG1F, Tumor necrosis factor alpha. ...
... featured her work on insulin-related growth factors. The segment ran as part of a six-part PBS series on women in science, ... "Regis College announces two honorary degree recipients and commencement speaker". Regis College. 15 Apr 2010. Retrieved 11 Mar ... α and epidermal growth factor during fetal and neonatal development published in 1992 and 1993. There, she continued to ... The laboratory also discovered direct evidence that the Gap-43 protein was important in the growth of the axons of nerve cells. ...
Microbial growth is determined by the time taken for the liquid to form a colloidal suspension. This technique is used for ... In order to make an educated estimate as to which microbe could be causing the disease, epidemiological factors need to be ... Some of these include synthetic insulin which was produced in 1979 using recombinant DNA and the first genetically engineered ... Tissue or fluid samples are tested for the presence of a specific pathogen, which is determined by growth in a selective or ...
Insulin. *Agonists: Chaetochromin (4548-G05). *Insulin-like growth factor 1. *Insulin-like growth factor 2 ... Puromycin is a reversible inhibitor of dipeptidyl-peptidase II (serine peptidase) and cytosol alanyl aminopeptidase ( ... Prolactin modulators: Prolactin inhibitors: D2 receptor agonists (e.g., bromocriptine, cabergoline); Prolactin releasers: D2 ... Puromycin acts quickly and can kill up to 99% of nonresistant cells within 2 days.[citation needed] ...
Lowering of the concentration of insulin and substances related to insulin, such as insulin-like growth factor 1 and growth ... Hoping to learn how to refeed the people who had starved during World War II, between 1944 and 1945, 36 healthy conscientious ... Vitousek K. M.; Manke F. P.; Gray J. A.; Vitousek M. N. (2004). "Caloric Restriction for Longevity: II--The Systematic Neglect ... "The SIR2/3/4 complex and SIR2 alone promote longevity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by two different mechanisms. '". Genes & ...
... and her growth velocity indicated a lack of estrogen-induced growth spurt at puberty.[9] The patient had normal pubic hair ... Body weight and body fat are increased.[14] There are signs of insulin resistance, as in PCOS in humans.[14] ... while the brother had Tanner stage II pubic hair development and Tanner stage I gonadal maturation.[6] The right testis of the ... 4) β-Scaffold factors. with minor groove contacts. 4.2. *Hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome ...
androgens, antiandrogens, estrogens, gonadotropin, corticosteroids, human growth hormone, insulin, antidiabetics (sulfonylureas ... The drug requires very expensive Phase I, II and III clinical trials, and most of them fail. Small companies have a critical ... Coagulation: anticoagulants, heparin, antiplatelet drugs, fibrinolytics, anti-hemophilic factors, haemostatic drugs. *HMG-CoA ... Significant growth in consumption was also evident in Canada, New Zealand, Australia, and Norway. Currently, 85% of the world's ...
A major fetal growth factor in contrast to Insulin-like growth factor 1, which is a major growth factor in adults."[5] ... A major fetal growth factor in contrast to Insulin-like growth factor 1, which is a major growth factor in adults. ... It is believed to be a major fetal growth factor in contrast to Insulin-like growth factor 1, which is a major growth factor in ... O'Dell SD, Day IN (Jul 1998). "Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II)". The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell ...
Insulin. *Agonists: Chaetochromin (4548-G05). *Insulin-like growth factor 1. *Insulin-like growth factor 2 ... C1CC[[email protected]]2[[email protected]@H](C1)CC(N2C(=O)C3CC4=CC=CC=C4CN3C(=O)[[email protected]](CO)NC(=O)[[email protected]](CC5=CC=CS5)NC(=O)CNC(=O)C6C[[email protected]](CN6C(=O)C7CCCN7C(=O)C ... Prolactin modulators: Prolactin inhibitors: D2 receptor agonists (e.g., bromocriptine, cabergoline); Prolactin releasers: D2 ... 2S)-2-[[(3aS,7aS)-1-[2-[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-. 2-[[2-[[(4R)-1-[1-[2-[[(2R)-2-amino-5-(diaminomethylideneamino). pentanoyl]amino]-5-( ...
Munger, KL; Chitnis, T; Ascherio, A. (2009). "Body size and risk of MS in two cohorts of US women". Neurology. Vol. 73 no. 19. ... Symposium: Obesity in developing countries: biological and ecological factors". J. Nutr. Vol. 131 no. 3. str. 866S-870S. PMID ... To so med drugim insulin, sulfonilsečnine, tiazolidindioni, atipični antipsihotiki, antidepresivi, glukokortikoidi, določeni ... "Increased body fat mass and decreased extracellular fluid volume in adults with growth hormone deficiency". Clin. Endocrinol. ( ...
... androgens and growth hormone)[8] and excess exposure to catabolic hormones (cortisol),[24] insulin resistance,[25] glucose ... Two key approaches are discussed below: Linda Fried / Johns Hopkins Frailty Criteria[edit]. A popular approach to the ... Epidemiologic research to date has led to the identification of a number of risk factors for frailty, including: (a) chronic ... 2007). "Insulin resistance and inflammation as precursors of frailty: the Cardiovascular Health Study". Arch Intern Med. 167 (7 ...
Leung PC, Cheng CK, Zhu XM (2004). "Multi-factorial role of GnRH-I and GnRH-II in the human ovary". Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 202 ... Nikolics K, Mason AJ, Szönyi E, et al. (1985). "A prolactin-inhibiting factor within the precursor for human gonadotropin- ... role in the control of tumor growth and progression in humans". Frontiers in neuroendocrinology 24 (4): 279-95. DOI:10.1016/j. ... Bonaldo MF, Lennon G, Soares MB (1997). "Normalization and subtraction: two approaches to facilitate gene discovery". Genome ...
A major fetal growth factor in contrast to Insulin-like growth factor 1, which is a major growth factor in adults."[5] ... A major fetal growth factor in contrast to Insulin-like growth factor 1, which is a major growth factor in adults. ... It is believed to be a major fetal growth factor in contrast to Insulin-like growth factor 1, which is a major growth factor in ... ODell SD, Day IN (Jul 1998). "Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II)". The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell ...
Insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IPR009168) *Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein family 1-6, chordata ( ... Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Proteins (IGFBP) are a group of vertebrate secreted proteins, which bind to IGF-I and IGF-II ... insulin-like growth factors (IGF1 and IGF2) [PMID: 2036417, PMID: 1319992], mammalian Leydig cell-specific insulin-like peptide ... Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 stimulates cell migration and binds to the alpha 5 beta 1 integrin by means of its ...
Proteins matched: Insulin-like growth factor II E-peptide, C-terminal (IPR013576) This domain is found in the following ... Insulin-like growth factor II preproprotein. Heterocephalus glaber (Naked mole rat). Loading... ... Insulin-like growth factor II. Amazona aestiva (Blue-fronted Amazon parrot). Loading... ... Insulin-like growth factor II isoform A. Alligator mississippiensis (American alligator). Loading... ...
... Yan-Min Luo,1 Qun Fang,1 Hui-Juan ... T. H. Vu and A. R. Hoffman, "Promoter-specific imprinting of the human insulin-like growth factor-II gene," Nature, vol. 371, ... S. J. Kim, S. E. Park, C. Lee et al., "Alterations in promoter usage and expression levels of insulin-like growth factor-II and ... J. D. Ravenel, K. W. Broman, E. J. Perlman et al., "Loss of imprinting of insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF2) gene in ...
The protein encoded by this gene is one of six similar proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I and IGF- ... insulin-like growth factor II binding IBA Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor. more info ... insulin-like growth factor II binding ISS Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity. more info ... insulin like growth factor binding protein 2provided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:5471 See related. Ensembl: ...
Prenatal unhealthy diet, insulin‐like growth factor 2 gene (IGF2) methylation, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ... life diet also associates with DNA methylation of the insulin‐like growth factor 2 gene (IGF2), involved in fetal and neural ...
... insulin-like growth factor ii in English->Armenian dictionary. Search nearly 14 million words and phrases in more than 470 ... insulin-like growth factor ii Petrograd garnitur down the ages national law founder boule youroppa إهمال/قصور کرختگی 不在投票者担当事務員 ... Results for: insulin-like growth factor ii. English. Armenian. insulin-like growth factor ii. ինսուլինանման աճի ii գործոններ. ... diabetes mellitus, non-insulin-dependent. դիաբետ շաքարային ինսուլինից անկախ. endothelium -derived relaxing factor. էնդոթելի ...
Major fetal growth hormone in mammals. Plays a key role in regulating fetoplacental development. IGF-II is influenced by ... Positively regulates myogenic transcription factor MYOD1 function by facilitating the recruitment of transcriptional ... The insulin-like growth factors possess growth-promoting activity. ... IPR016179 Insulin-like. IPR022350 Insulin-like_growth_factor. IPR036438 Insulin-like_sf. IPR022353 Insulin_CS. IPR022352 ...
An Autocrine Role for Insulin-Like Growth Factor-II in Human Tumour Cell Proliferation ...
Major fetal growth hormone in mammals. Plays a key role in regulating fetoplacental development. IGF-II is influenced by ... Positively regulates myogenic transcription factor MYOD1 function by facilitating the recruitment of transcriptional ... The insulin-like growth factors possess growth-promoting activity. ... Insulin-like growth factor IIAdd BLAST. 67. ChainiPRO_0000015718. 26 - 91. Insulin-like growth factor II Ala-25 DelAdd BLAST. ...
The insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) is a polypeptide hormone with structural homologies to insulin and insulin-like ... Structure of the receptor for insulin-like growth factor II: the puzzle amplified ... Structure of the receptor for insulin-like growth factor II: the puzzle amplified ... Structure of the receptor for insulin-like growth factor II: the puzzle amplified ...
Insulin Like Growth Factor (IGF) Binding Protein 6 and IGF II Dependent Tumours ...
Plasma Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2 Is Associated with Cognitive Outcomes. *Disease Mechanisms ... "The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling system is known to play a role in neuroregeneration, neuronal survival and ... "Manipulation of insulin-like growth factor signaling via IGFBP-2 may be a promising therapeutic target for dementia," the ... "While insulin growth factor signaling could potentially be a therapeutic target, there are many additional considerations both ...
Synergistic action of transforming growth factor-beta and insulin-like growth factor-I induces expression of type II collagen ... Neither IGF-I nor insulin nor transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) alone stimulated induction of aggrecan or type II ... Addition of 50 ng/ml insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) to a deficient serum lot significantly enhanced its ability to induce ... aggrecan and type II collagen mRNA. Given this observation, IGF-I and other growth factors were tested in defined serum-free ...
Crystal structure of human insulin degrading enzyme in complex with insulin-like growth factor II. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb3E4Z/pdb ... Insulin-like growth factor II. C, D. 67. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: IGF2, PP1446. ... II and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) over IGF-I and epidermal growth factor, respectively. Here, we used high- ... Molecular Basis for the Recognition and Cleavages of IGF-II, TGF-alpha, and Amylin by Human Insulin-Degrading Enzyme.. Guo, Q. ...
The insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) internal ribosome entry site IRES is found in the 5 UTR of IGF-II leader 2 mRNA. ... Ribosomal scanning on human insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) is hard to comprehend due to one open reading frame and the ... Page for Insulin-like growth factor II IRES at Rfam IRESite page for IGF2 leader2 v t e. ... Pedersen SK, Christiansen J, Hansen T, Larsen MR, Nielsen FC (April 2002). "Human insulin-like growth factor II leader 2 ...
receptors, insulin-like-growth-factor II specific proteins on or in cells to which insulin-like growth factor II and mannose-6- ... Retrieved from "https://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/index.php?title=Receptors_insulin-like-growth-factor_ii&oldid=65863" ...
I and a specific radioreceptor assay for IGF-II following acid-ethanol extraction of the sera to remove the somatomedin binding ... were measured using a specific radioimmunoassay for insulin-like growth factor (IGF)- ... Studies of insulin-like growth factor -I and -II by specific radioligand assays in umbilical cord blood Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). ... were measured using a specific radioimmunoassay for insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and a specific radioreceptor assay for ...
Abstract The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling pathway may be of importance for the proliferation of different tumours ... Serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-I,-II and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins-2 and-3 in children with acute ... Growth regulation Leukaemia Radioimmunoassay Insulin-like growth factors Insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins ... Lee PD, Rosenfeld RG, Hintz RL, Smith SD (1986) Characterization of insulin, insulin-like growth factors I and II, and growth ...
Insulin-like growth factor II signaling through the insulin-like growth factor II/mannose-6-phosphate receptor promotes ... Insulin receptor isoform A, a newly recognized, high-affinity insulin-like growth factor II receptor in fetal and cancer cells. ... Insulin-like growth factor II supply modifies growth of intestinal adenoma in Apc(Min/+) mice. Hassan, A.B., Howell, J.A. ... Insulin-like growth factor-II is an autocrine survival factor for differentiating myoblasts. Stewart, C.E., Rotwein, P. J. Biol ...
Insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 1 - O42254 (IF2B1_CHICK) ... However, besides these two, there are many other icons. For more information about the meaning and exact position of a sequence ... Two nuclear export signals (NES) have been identified in KH2 and KH4 domains, respectively. Only KH2 NES is XPO1-dependent. ... RNA-binding factor that recruits target transcripts to cytoplasmic protein-RNA complexes (mRNPs). This transcript caging into ...
II/M6P) receptor is released from cultured cells and tissues in a soluble form that retains its affinity for IGF-II. To test ... the possibility that soluble receptor can therefore modulate the activity of IGF-II, we determined the effect of purified solub ... Insulin-like growth factor-II/mannose 6-P (IGF- ... Insulin-like growth factor-II/mannose 6-P (IGF- II/M6P) ... Epidermal Growth Factor / pharmacology* * Insulin-Like Growth Factor II / metabolism * Insulin-Like Growth Factor II / ...
... or insulin-like growth factor (IGF) II or cotransfected with IGF-II plus Pax-3 or with IGF-II plus PAX3-FKHR genes showed an ... Insulin-like Growth Factor II and PAX3-FKHR Cooperate in the Oncogenesis of Rhabdomyosarcoma. Weiguang Wang, Pat Kumar, Weizhi ... Insulin-like Growth Factor II and PAX3-FKHR Cooperate in the Oncogenesis of Rhabdomyosarcoma ... Insulin-like Growth Factor II and PAX3-FKHR Cooperate in the Oncogenesis of Rhabdomyosarcoma ...
Vaccination targeting insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) in advanced ovarian cancer: Safety and ... Vaccination targeting insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) in advanced ovarian cancer- Safety and ... IGFBP-2 vaccinated patients have yet to reach median OS over a median follow-up period of 23.5 months. The OS rate at 2 years ... IGFBP-2 is an important regulator of ovarian cancer invasiveness and metastases. Eradication of cancer cells expressing IGFBP-2 ...
IGF2BP1, insulin like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 1. Orthology source: HomoloGene, HGNC ... Homozygous mutation of this locus results in increased neonatal lethality, growth retardation, and impaired intestinal ... 50 phenotypes from 2 alleles in 4 genetic backgrounds 1 phenotype from multigenic genotypes 28 phenotype references ... Igf2bp1 interacts with 526 markers (Mir1a-1, Mir1a-2, Mir1b, ...) View All ...
In this study, we analyzed expression of IGF-II mRNA and protein in two separate series of patients with invasive breast cancer ... While analysis of the cases from the two data sets individually showed that IGF-II expression was associated with clinical ... IGF-II mRNA and protein expression were easily detected in the majority of the 193 cases that were informative and had complete ... IGF-II is a potent mitogen for breast tumor epithelium, and is expressed in the stroma of invasive breast cancers. ...
Somatomedin A or T3M 11 Derived Growth Factor or IGF2)-Pipeline Review, H2 2017 with 50 pages available at USD 3500 for single ... Insulin Like Growth Factor II (Somatomedin A or T3M 11 Derived Growth Factor or IGF2)-Overview 6. Insulin Like Growth Factor II ... Insulin Like Growth Factor II (Somatomedin A or T3M 11 Derived Growth Factor or IGF2)-Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2) is a ... Insulin Like Growth Factor II (Somatomedin A or T3M 11 Derived Growth Factor or IGF2)-Dormant Products 36. Insulin Like Growth ...
Insulin-like growth factor II peptide fusion enables uptake and lysosomal delivery of α-N-acetylglucosaminidase to ... We expressed and characterized a modified rhNAGLU fused to the receptor-binding motif of IGF-II (insulin-like growth factor 2 ... which is also the receptor for IGF-II (at a different binding site). RhNAGLU-IGF-II was stably expressed in CHO (Chinese- ... rhNAGLU-IGF-II) to enhance its ability to enter cells using the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor, ...
  • An association between variants in the IGF2 gene and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome: interaction between genotype and epigenotype," Human Molecular Genetics , vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 247-255, 2004. (hindawi.com)
  • Loss of imprinting of insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF2) gene in distinguishing specific biologic subtypes of Wilms tumor," Journal of the National Cancer Institute , vol. 93, no. 22, pp. 1698-1703, 2001. (hindawi.com)
  • Early‐life diet also associates with DNA methylation of the insulin‐like growth factor 2 gene ( IGF2 ), involved in fetal and neural development. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Insulin Like Growth Factor II (Somatomedin A or T3M 11 Derived Growth Factor or IGF2)-Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2) is a protein hormone. (reportsweb.com)
  • Insulin Like Growth Factor II (Somatomedin A or T3M 11 Derived Growth Factor or IGF2) pipeline Target constitutes close to 9 molecules. (reportsweb.com)
  • The latest report Insulin Like Growth Factor II-Pipeline Review, H2 2017, outlays comprehensive information on the Insulin Like Growth Factor II (Somatomedin A or T3M 11 Derived Growth Factor or IGF2) targeted therapeutics, complete with analysis by indications, stage of development, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (reportsweb.com)
  • It also reviews key players involved in Insulin Like Growth Factor II (Somatomedin A or T3M 11 Derived Growth Factor or IGF2) targeted therapeutics development with respective active and dormant or discontinued projects. (reportsweb.com)
  • Notably, ketamine increased the proliferation of NPCs independent of the NMDA receptor, while transcriptome analysis revealed significant upregulation of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) and p11, a member of the S100 EF-hand protein family, which are both implicated in the pathophysiology of depression, 24 h after ketamine treatment. (mdpi.com)
  • Although insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) has been reported to be overexpressed in steatosis and steatohepatitis, a causal role of IGF2 in steatosis development remains elusive. (frontiersin.org)
  • Increasing doses of IGF-II lead to an increase in phosphorylation of PKB in immortalized MEFs homozygous null for Igf2 ( Igf2 −/− ) and HaCaT cell lines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Increasing doses of IGF-II lead to an increase in cell proliferation as measured by [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation in HaCaT cells ( C ) and Igf2 −/− MEFs ( D ). The experiment was done at least thrice with each dose done in triplicate. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Domain 11 constructs with two different mutations, E1544K (which enhances IGF-II binding) and I1572A (which inhibits IGF-II binding), either with or without an Fc tag, were compared in their ability to block the actions of IGF-II in Igf2 −/− MEFs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A, Igf2 −/− MEFs were stimulated for 24 h with 6.5 nmol/L IGF-II preincubated for 10 min at room temperature with the domain 11 constructs indicated at 650 or 1,300 nmol/L (100-fold and 200-fold molar ratio, respectively). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The AlphaLISA ® Human Insulin-like Growth Factor 2 (IGF2) Detection Kit is designed for detection and quantitation of human IGF2 in serum, buffered solution or cell culture medium in a homogeneous (no-wash steps, no separation steps) assay. (perkinelmer.com)
  • Insulin-like Growth Factor 2 (IGF2) is 67 amino acids in length after being fully processed. (perkinelmer.com)
  • IGF2BP2 gene encodes a protein that binds the 5' UTR of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) mRNA and regulates its translation. (cags.org.ae)
  • Here we show that fibroblast growth factor 22 (FGF22), a target-derived presynaptic organizer in the mouse hippocampus, induces the expression of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) for the stabilization of presynaptic terminals. (harvard.edu)
  • IGF2 protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 115 epithelial ovarian tumors and analyzed in relation to clinical/pathologic factors using the χ 2 or Fisher's exact tests. (aacrjournals.org)
  • IGF2: The insulin-like growth factors possess growth-promoting activity. (mybiosource.com)
  • LOI in WT involves activation of the normally silent maternal allele of the insulin-like growth factor-H (IGF2) gene, silencing of the normally active maternal allele of the H19 gene, and aberrant methylation of a differentially methylated region (DMR) upstream of the maternal copy of H19. (elsevier.com)
  • Recently, the transcription factor CTCF, which binds to the H19 DMR, has been implicated in the maintenance of H19 and IGF2 imprinting. (elsevier.com)
  • Similarly, insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) induces CHAT activity in an embryonic in vitro model and stimulates ACh release in rat hippocampal slices. (bu.edu)
  • IGF2 increased the expression of hippocampal insulin-like growth factor 1, a cholinergic differentiation factor, by 26% in the adult rat. (bu.edu)
  • Insulin Like Growth Factor 2 (IGF2) Antibody is a Mouse Monoclonal antibody against Insulin Like Growth Factor 2 (IGF2). (abbexa.com)
  • A read-through INS-Insulin Like Growth Factor 2 (IGF2) gene exists, whose 5' region overlaps the INS gene and the 3' region overlaps this gene. (abbexa.com)
  • Imprinting of insulin-like growth factor 2 ( IGF2) is thought to be controlled by DNA methylation of an imprinting control region (ICR) which lies on human chromosome 11 and mouse chromosome 7, upstream of the non-coding H19 gene. (timplab.org)
  • We found two interesting things about LOI of IGF2 using a mouse model: that LOI seems to alter the signal transduction pathways and that LOI seems to cause an "addiction" like behavior. (timplab.org)
  • Although IGF-II can stimulate a broad range of biological responses in isolated cells, these responses have usually been found to be mediated by the insulin and IGF-I receptors. (sciencemag.org)
  • Finally, induction of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 in the mammary glands of PRL-treated mice and induction of IRS-1 and IRS-2 after treatment with PRL plus progesterone indicates that these molecules are induced by PRL as potential signaling intermediates downstream from IGF-I/insulin receptors. (garvan.org.au)
  • The function of extracellular proteolysis extends beyond ECM degradation to the processing of cell surface receptors and ligands and release of protein-bound growth factors (for review see Werb 1997 ). (rupress.org)
  • These data indicate, therefore, that there are two receptors for IGF-II, both IGF-I-R and IR-A. Further, they suggest that interaction of IGF-II with IR-A may play a role both in fetal growth and cancer biology. (asm.org)
  • The mutant receptors retained the ability to recycle to the Golgi and bind cathepsin D. These results indicate that the cytoplasmic tail of the Man-6-P/IGF-II receptor contains two signals that contribute to Golgi sorting, presumably by interacting with the Golgi clathrin-coated pit adaptor proteins. (rupress.org)
  • IGF-1 also produced an activation of the MAPK-ERK1/2 y PI3K/Akt pathway, indicating that these transduction events may be mediated by IGF-1 receptors. (arvojournals.org)
  • Accumulating studies have shown that IGFBP-2 interacts with not only IGFs in the circulation, but also components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), cell surface proteoglycans and integrin receptors. (creative-biogene.com)
  • A number of studies have found that IGFBP-2 regulate access of IGFs to their receptors with involvement of specific IGFBP-2 protease, which can be activated by factors like hormones, cytokines, drugs and protease inhibitors also. (creative-biogene.com)
  • Receptors for insulin-like growth factors. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cell surface IGF-II/M6P receptors also function in the degradation of the non-glycosylated IGF-II polypeptide hormone, as well as in the capture and activation/degradation of extracellular M6P-bearing ligands. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Localization of transferrin receptors and insulin-like growth factor II receptors in vesicles from 3T3-L1 adipocytes that contain intracellular glucose transporters. (rupress.org)
  • There was a small but significant increase (1.2-fold) in the amount of receptor in a crude plasma membrane fraction and a 40% decrease in the number of transferrin receptors in microsomal membranes prepared from insulin-treated cells, when compared with corresponding fractions from control cells. (rupress.org)
  • The binding of 125I-pentamannose 6-phosphate BSA to 3T3-L1 adipocytes at 4 degrees C was used to monitor surface insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II)/mannose 6-phosphate receptors. (rupress.org)
  • Exposure of cells to insulin at 37 degrees C for 5 min resulted in a 2.5-4.5-fold increase in surface receptors. (rupress.org)
  • There was a corresponding 20% decrease in the amount of IGF-II receptors in the microsomal membranes prepared from insulin-treated cells, as assayed by immunoblotting. (rupress.org)
  • Moreover, the IGF-II receptors and GT were located in the same intracellular vesicles, since antibodies to the carboxyterminal peptide of either protein immunoadsorbed vesicles containing 70-95% of both proteins initially present in the microsomal fraction. (rupress.org)
  • however, GH receptors have been demonstrated on sweat glands, and GH may function as a trophic factor for sweat glands [ 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Scatchard analysis showed these cells have over 2 x 10 6 receptors/cell with an affinity constant of 1 x 10 9 M -1 . (elsevier.com)
  • The redistribution of IGF-II/Man-6-P receptors was not due to an inhibition of internalization which was in fact stimulated by PMA. (elsevier.com)
  • Thus, PKC-stimulated serine phosphorylation of IGF-II/Man-6-P receptor may promote the translocation of the receptor to the cell surface, whereas IGF-II-stimulated dephosphorylation of the receptor may lead to a decrease in the number of cell surface receptors. (elsevier.com)
  • Insulin-like growth factor 2 ( IGF-2 ) is one of three protein hormones that share structural similarity to insulin . (wikipedia.org)
  • The connecting region is cleaved, liberating the active protein, which contains the A and B chains, held together by 2 disulphide bonds [ PMID: 503234 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is one of six similar proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II). (nih.gov)
  • The encoded protein can be secreted into the bloodstream, where it binds IGF-I and IGF-II with high affinity, or it can remain intracellular, interacting with many different ligands. (nih.gov)
  • High expression levels of this protein promote the growth of several types of tumors and may be predictive of the chances of recovery of the patient. (nih.gov)
  • Since this latter receptor has been implicated in targeting of lysosomal enzymes, the question is now raised of whether the same protein can also mediate metabolic responses to IGF-II. (sciencemag.org)
  • Investigators reported an association between plasma insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP-2) levels and structural MRI brain measures, cognitive performance, as well as incident dementia and AD-dementia. (lww.com)
  • The researchers opted to focus on insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP-2) because it is the most prominent IGF-binding protein in the brain. (lww.com)
  • IGFBP-2 is the predominant binding protein during fetal life, where it is expressed in most tissues. (springer.com)
  • Adamo ML, Shao ZM, Lanau F, Chen JC, Clemmons DR, Roberts CTI, LeRoith D, Fontana JA (1992) Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and retinoic acid modulation of IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs): IGFBP-2,-3, and-4 gene expression and protein secretion in a breast cancer cell line. (springer.com)
  • RNA-binding factor that recruits target transcripts to cytoplasmic protein-RNA complexes (mRNPs). (rcsb.org)
  • These results suggest that soluble IGF-II/M6P receptor not only plays a role in modulating the action of IGF-II but may also have IGF-independent actions on cells, possibly by modulating M6P protein action. (nih.gov)
  • Serum antibodies recognizing IGFBP-2 were measured by ELISA and Western blot against recombinant protein. (washington.edu)
  • In this study, we analyzed expression of IGF-II mRNA and protein in two separate series of patients with invasive breast cancer, and compared the result with other clinical parameters, prognostic indicators and patient outcome. (dtic.mil)
  • IGF-II mRNA and protein expression were easily detected in the majority of the 193 cases that were informative and had complete clinical follow up. (dtic.mil)
  • Here we demonstrate that IGF-II substantially increases vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA and protein levels in a time-dependent manner in human hepatoma cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, 24 h post-administration of ketamine (15 mg/kg) in vivo confirmed phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus in C57BL/6 mice. (mdpi.com)
  • Recent studies suggest that insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP-2) may protect against type 2 diabetes, but population-based human studies are scarce. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam cohort ( n = 27,548), circulating insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP-2) concentration was assessed in a nested case-cohort (random subcohort, n = 2,500, all case subjects with incident type 2 diabetes, n = 820). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The most potent neutralizer, IgG1 m610, inhibited phosphorylation of the IGF-IR and the insulin receptor, as well as phosphorylation of the downstream kinases Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase with an IC 50 of the order of 1 nmol/L at IGF-II concentration of 10 nmol/L. It also inhibited growth of the prostate cancer cell line DU145 and migration of the breast cancer line cells MCF-7. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Proteins 11-Fc, 11 E1544K -Fc, and 11 I1572A -Fc were expressed in Drosophila D.Mel-2 cells and purified via protein A-Sepharose affinity chromatography. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Protein 11 E1544K -Fc was injected over an IGF-II-coated BIAcore SA sensor chip flow cell surface at 0.616 nmol/L at a range of flow rates (5, 20, 40, 60, and 75 μL min −1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • As a consequence of reduced IGFBP-3 proteolysis and elevated IGFBP-3 protein levels, dissociable IGF-II levels were significantly lower in TIMP-1-overexpressing animals. (rupress.org)
  • Rather, it is dynamic in nature with a continuous turnover of its protein constituents and growth factor pools. (rupress.org)
  • It is widely believed that IGF-I and IGF-II exert their effects through the type 1 IGF receptor (IGF-I-R), a transmembrane protein with high homology to the insulin receptor (IR) ( 55 ). (asm.org)
  • Circulating IGF-I correlated negatively and IGF-binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) positively with IGF-II levels, suggesting that IGF-I is displaced from IGFBPs by IGF-II and that IGFII is a major regulator of IGFBP-2. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • The relationship of insulin-like growth factor-II, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3, and estrogen receptor-alpha expression to disease progression in epithelial ovarian cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Total RNA was extracted from the tumor and analyzed for IGF-II, IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), and estrogen receptor-alpha expressions using quantitative reverse transcription PCR. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Fisch, Thomas Martin (2005): Effects of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) overexpression on adrenal and renal growth processes and functions: findings in transgenic mouse models. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Moreover, it has been reported that IGFBP-2 enters cell by nuclear transportation complexes (importin α and β) and interact with some intracellular specific binders such as cell cycle inhibitor p21 or Pim-1-associated protein-1 (PAP-1)-associated protein-1 (PAPA-1). (creative-biogene.com)
  • Insulin-like growth factor-II messenger RNA (mRNA)-binding protein-3 (IMP-3), also known as K homology domain-containing protein overexpressed in cancer (KOC) and L523S, is a member of the insulin-like growth factor-II mRNA-binding protein family and is expressed during embryogenesis and in some malignancies. (creative-biogene.com)
  • Effect of an insulin-like growth factor binding protein fusion protein on thymidine incorporation in neuroblastoma and rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We tested the association between these molecular alterations and downstream activated proteins (like phospho-protein kinase B (p-AKT), phospho-mammalian target of rapamycin (p-mTOR), p-ERK1/2, and p-p70S6K). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Tag types are determined by various factors including tag-protein stability, please inquire for tag information. (mybiosource.com)
  • Tumour-derived IGF-II has a higher than normal molecular weight (big 'IGF- II') and an impaired ability to form the normal ternary 150 kD complex with IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and the acid-labile subunit (ALS). (elsevier.com)
  • Primary Antibodies-Anti-Human Insulin Like Growth Factor Binding Protein-2 (IGFBP-2) antiserum-Alpha Diagnostic International Inc. (4adi.com)
  • Specifically, bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9/GDF2) increases acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis and choline acetyltransferase (CHAT) gene expression both in vivo and in vitro, and has therefore been characterized as a cholinergic differentiation and maintenance factor. (bu.edu)
  • Purpose: Interaction of 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) with heat shock protein 90 results in proteasomal degradation of many proteins, including Her-2-neu, with subsequent decreased expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2). (elsevier.com)
  • Bimolecular interaction of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein-2 with alphavbeta3 negatively modulates IGF-I-mediated migration and tumor growth. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Both the integrin and insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP) families independently play important roles in modulating tumor cell growth and progression. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Down-regulation of T1A12/mac25, a novel insulin-like growth factor binding protein related gene, is associated with disease progression in breast carcinomas," Oncogene, 16:2459-67 (1998). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-related protein 1 (IGFBP-rP1) has potential tumour-suppressive activity in human lung cancer," J. Pathol. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP2) is overexpressed in ovarian malignant tissues and in the serum and cystic fluid of ovarian cancer patients, suggesting an important role of IGFBP2 in the biology of ovarian cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A prospective study of serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), IGF-II, IGF-binding protein-3 and breast cancer risk. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We expressed and characterized a modified rhNAGLU fused to the receptor-binding motif of IGF-II (insulin-like growth factor 2) (rhNAGLU-IGF-II) to enhance its ability to enter cells using the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor, which is also the receptor for IGF-II (at a different binding site). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • IGF-II also binds to the mannose-6-phosphate receptor. (asm.org)
  • Real time kinetics of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) interaction with the IGF-II/mannose 6-phosphate receptor: the effects of domain 13 and pH. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The interaction of soluble forms of the human cation-independent insulin-like growth factor-II/mannose 6-phosphate receptor (IGF-IIR) with IGFs and mannosylated ligands was analyzed in real time. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Tumors derived from IGF-II/PAX3-FKHR- and IGF-II-transfected cells grew most rapidly. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Pax-3, PAX3-FKHR, or IGF-II transfection produced tumors at varying stages of differentiation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Tumors derived from IGF-II plus PAX3-FKHR-cotransfected cells were composed of undifferentiated cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Certain types of tumors can produce an excess of IGF-2. (requestatest.com)
  • Lowering its level may also not induce up-regulation of its production as for IGF-I. Finally, targeting a diffusable ligand as IGF-II may not require penetration of the antibody inside tumors but could shift the equilibrium to IGF-II complexed with antibody so the ligand concentration would decrease in the tumor environment without the need for the antibody to penetrate the tumor. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This study was undertaken to examine the role of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling pathway in the response of ovarian cancer cells to Taxol and to evaluate the significance of this pathway in human epithelial ovarian tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Previous researches have shown that IGFBP-2 is overexpressed in various tumors such as glioma, prostate cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, leukemia, colorectal cancer, ovarian cancer, gastric cancer and so on. (creative-biogene.com)
  • Insulin-like growth factor II acts as an autocrine growth and motility factor in human rhabdomyosarcoma tumors. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Since insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) is involved in normal muscle growth and maturation and elevated IGF-II mRNA levels have previously been reported in rhabdomyosarcomas, we have been studying the possible role of IGF-II in the unregulated growth and invasive potential of these embryonal tumors. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The primary objective of this phase I trial was to establish the safety profile and pharmacokinetics of cixutumumab administered every 2 weeks (q2w) or every 3 weeks (q3w) in Japanese patients with advanced solid tumors. (springermedizin.de)
  • Wu JD, Odman A, Higgins LM, Haugk K, Vessella R, Ludwig DL, Plymate SR (2005) In vivo effects of the human type I insulin-like growth factor receptor antibody A12 on androgen-dependent and androgen-independent xenograft human prostate tumors. (springermedizin.de)
  • Cell lines derived from BK5.COX-2 ductal lesions (JC101cells) formed pancreatic tumors in wild-type FVB mice that were significantly reduced in size by a 14-week CR regimen, relative to the control diet. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The ~65% reduction of serum IGF-1 in LID mice resulted in significantly decreased burden of JC101 tumors, despite modestly elevated levels of circulating insulin and leptin. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Because members of the IGF ligand and receptor families are widely expressed in various types of solid tumors, our findings suggest that these factors are likely to contribute to lymphatic metastasis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The role of insulin-like growth factor-II (IGFII) in the hypoglycemia associated with nonislet cell tumors is controversial. (elsevier.com)
  • In this study we have addressed this question by measuring the IGF-II mRNA levels in extracts of these tumors. (elsevier.com)
  • Hybridization of a 32 P-labeled IGF-II cDNA to a Northern blot of RNA from three nonislet cell tumors associated with hypoglycemia (a hemangiopericytoma, fibrosarcoma, and malignant mesenchymal tumor) demonstrated six hybridizing bands, 6.8, 5.6, 4.7, 3.6, 2.6, and 2.1 kilobases in length. (elsevier.com)
  • IGF-IImRNA levels in the tumors were similar to the level present in one line of human hepatoblastoma-derived Hep G2 cells, 5- to 6-fold higher than that in another line of Hep G2 cells, and 2- to 3-fold higher than that in term placenta. (elsevier.com)
  • These data suggest that nonislet cell tumors associated with hypoglycemia produce large amounts of IGF-II mRNA and that this IGF-II mRNA appears to be the product of an IGF-II gene, which is apparently normal in the region encoding mature IGF-II peptide. (elsevier.com)
  • Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Proteins (IGFBP) are a group of vertebrate secreted proteins, which bind to IGF-I and IGF-II with high affinity and modulate the biological actions of IGFs. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Furthermore, IGFBPs can function as growth modulators independent of IGFs. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are important mitogens in many normal and pathological systems. (rupress.org)
  • In most cells, IGFs are major growth factors whereas insulin predominantly regulates glucose uptake and cellular metabolism. (asm.org)
  • IGF-binding proteins prolong the half-life of the IGFs and have been shown to either inhibit or stimulate the growth promoting effects of the IGFs on cell culture. (creative-biogene.com)
  • Among the IGFBPs family, which major function is modulating the biological functions of IGFs, IGFBP-2 has been received attention from researchers in biological area by the reason that it is involved in many signaling pathways which is implicated with various disease. (creative-biogene.com)
  • Terminal differentiation of myogenic cells has long been known to be positively regulated by insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the present study, the effects and the mechanisms of action of AVP and IGFs on myogenic cells have been investigated under conditions allowing growth and differentiation of myogenic cells in a simple serum-free medium. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, they suggest that to express their full myogenic potential, IGFs require the presence of other factors normally present in serum and fully mimicked by AVP. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We had the opportunity to analyze IGFs and IGF-related factors in both pre- and post- operative blood, tumour tissue and tumour cyst fluid from a patient with a disseminated haemanglopericytoma and severe hypoglycaemia. (elsevier.com)
  • Together, our findings suggest that IGFs might act as direct lymphangiogenic factors, although any indirect roles in the induction of lymphangiogenesis cannot be excluded. (ox.ac.uk)
  • While in circulation, IGF-I and IGF-II generally attach to one of six known IGF-binding proteins. (lww.com)
  • specific proteins on or in cells to which insulin-like growth factor II and mannose -6- phosphate bind and thereby modify the function of the cells . (biology-online.org)
  • Somatomedin concentrations in human umbilical sera (n = 206) were measured using a specific radioimmunoassay for insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and a specific radioreceptor assay for IGF-II following acid-ethanol extraction of the sera to remove the somatomedin binding proteins. (nih.gov)
  • The bioavailability of both IGF-I and IGF-II is regulated by specific IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs). (springer.com)
  • Bar RS, Boes M, Clemmons DR, Busby WH, Sandra A, Dake BL, Booth BA (1990) Insulin differentially alters transcapillary movement of intravascular IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2 and endothelial cell IGF-binding proteins in the rat heart. (springer.com)
  • Binding of Fc-tagged and untagged domain 11 proteins to IGF-II. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A, non-Fc-tagged proteins were injected over an IGF-II-coated BIAcore SA sensor chip flow cell surface at a flow rate of 40 μL min −1 and a range of concentrations (32, 64, 128, 256, 512, and 2048 nmol/L). Association was for 2 min and dissociation was for 4 min. (aacrjournals.org)
  • RU486 also prevented the DexTD-induced increase in caspase-3 activity and reduction in IGF-I and -II proteins. (nel.edu)
  • Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins-2 to -6 are expressed by human vascular smooth muscle cells. (diva-portal.org)
  • We have investigated the expression and secretion of insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs-1 to -6) in human vascular smooth muscle cells (hVSMCs) cultured from human renal arteries. (diva-portal.org)
  • Mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II-binding proteins in human serum and urine. (biochemj.org)
  • The presence of receptor fragments in biological fluids indicates that shedding is one of the mechanisms contributing to the turnover of the M6P/IGF II receptor and that receptor fragments are part of the heterogenous group of serum proteins whic bind IGF II. (biochemj.org)
  • Differential gene expression and immunolocalization of insulin-like growth factors and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins between experimental nonunions and standard healing fractures. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In conjunction with other studies, these results indicate that in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, three membrane proteins (the GT, the transferrin receptor, and the IGF-II receptor) respond similarly to insulin, by redistributing to the surface from intracellular compartment(s) in which they are colocalized. (rupress.org)
  • The associations between serum concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), IGF-II and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP)-3 and risk of breast cancer were investigated in a nested case-control study involving 117 cases (70 premenopausal and 47 postmenopausal at blood collection) and 350 matched controls within a cohort of women from the island of Guernsey, UK. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is involved in the clearance of many bioactive peptide substrates, including insulin and amyloid-beta, peptides vital to the development of diabetes and Alzheimer's disease, respectively. (rcsb.org)
  • Insulin-like growth factor II peptide fusion enables uptake and lysosomal delivery of α-N-acetylglucosaminidase to mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB fibroblasts. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) is a peptide growth factor that is homologous to both insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and insulin and plays an important role in embryonic development and carcinogenesis. (asm.org)
  • IGFBPs-2, -4, -5 and -6 peptides could be detected in conditioned medium, but IGFBP-3 peptide was not detected. (diva-portal.org)
  • A growth-promoting peptide that is structurally related to insulin. (emdmillipore.com)
  • The physiological meaning of the induction of IGF-II mRNA expression by these cells in medulloblastoma remains unclear but any IGF-II peptide synthesized could exert unfavourable mitogenic and antiapoptotic effects on adjacent tumour cells. (mysciencework.com)
  • Furthermore, IDE exhibits a remarkable ability to preferentially degrade structurally similar peptides such as the selective degradation of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) over IGF-I and epidermal growth factor, respectively. (rcsb.org)
  • This study demonstrates that the proliferation of malignant lymphoblasts (at diagnosis vs treatment) occurs in the presence of decreased serum levels of IGF-I, IGF-II and IGFBP-3 and that diminished production of these peptides may contribute to impaired growth. (springer.com)
  • Insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II) are related peptides with homology to the hormone insulin. (asm.org)
  • Abstract -Angiotensin II (Ang II) is known to act as a growth factor and may be involved in cardiac remodeling. (ahajournals.org)
  • abstract = "Non-islet-cell tumour-induced hypoglycaemia (NICTH) is, in most cases, attributable to tumour production of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II). (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "Background: Insulin-like growth factors (IGF)-I and -II are present in milk of a number of mammalian species. (elsevier.com)
  • Positively regulates myogenic transcription factor MYOD1 function by facilitating the recruitment of transcriptional coactivators, thereby controlling muscle terminal differentiation. (uniprot.org)
  • The mouse myoblast C2C12 cell line transfected singly with cDNA for Pax-3, PAX3-FKHR, or insulin-like growth factor (IGF) II or cotransfected with IGF-II plus Pax-3 or with IGF-II plus PAX3-FKHR genes showed an altered morphology, a lack of differentiation, and higher proliferation rates in vitro . (aacrjournals.org)
  • The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis regulates proliferation and differentiation processes and modulates metabolic pathways. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) is an important regulator of embryonic growth and differentiation, but its function in postnatal life is unclear. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and -II (IGF-II) are potent neurotrophic and differentiation factors and play key roles in the regulation of growth and development of CNS. (nel.edu)
  • Coordinate expression of insulin-like growth factor II and its receptor during muscle differentiation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Insulin or IGF-I or IGF-II, at concentrations that cause extensive differentiation in serum-containing medium, induces a modest degree of differentiation in serum-free medium. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our results indicate that AVP induces a significant level of myogenic differentiation in the absence of other factors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These studies support the conclusion that terminal myogenic differentiation may depend on the presence of differentiation factors rather than the absence of growth factors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The present study demonstrates that IGF-1 regulates the proteolytic activity of MMP-2 produced by MIO-M1 cells increasing their migratory capacity in a way that seems to be associated with IGF-1R expressed in these cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • 1Vitamin A regulates fibroblast growth factor 23. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • The major role of IGF-2 is as a growth promoting hormone during gestation . (wikipedia.org)
  • [9] After ovulation has occurred, IGF-2 promotes progesterone secretion during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, together with luteinizing hormone (LH). (wikipedia.org)
  • Major fetal growth hormone in mammals. (uniprot.org)
  • The insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) is a polypeptide hormone with structural homologies to insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). In contrast to these other hormones, the in vivo function of IGF-II is not known. (sciencemag.org)
  • Ribosomal scanning on human insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) is hard to comprehend due to one open reading frame and the ability for the hormone to fold into a stable structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whereas serum levels of IGF-I (mean/range: −2.7/−0.1 to −6.7 SDS), IGF-II (−3.6 SDS/−1.3 to −8.7) and IGFBP-3 (−2.0/+2.2 to −7.1 SDS) were significantly decreased comparable to levels in growth hormone deficiency, IGFBP-2 levels (+4.0/−0.45 to +7.4 SDS) were found to be markedly elevated and inversely correlated to IGF-I ( r =−0.51, P =0.013). (springer.com)
  • While analysis of the cases from the two data sets individually showed that IGF-II expression was associated with clinical outcome depending on hormone receptor status. (dtic.mil)
  • However, IGF-II expression by itself was not a prognostic indicator, and the relationship with hormone receptor status was lost when the separate data sets were analyzed together. (dtic.mil)
  • A well-known example is acromegaly, in which elevated circulating levels of growth hormone (GH) lead to increased cardiac mass in large part through an increase in IGF-I. 13 Thus, IGF-I may be involved in pressure-dependent as well as pressure-independent forms of cardiac hypertrophy. (ahajournals.org)
  • IGF-1 is the main hormone responsible for the body's growth and metabolism. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patients will take estradiol orally for 2 days, to help avoid false results of growth hormone (GH) levels in blood samples. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • IGF-2 is a hormone produced by the liver. (requestatest.com)
  • Its primary function is to regulate the production of Growth Hormone (GH) during growth and development of a fetus during gestation. (requestatest.com)
  • IGF-2 is also linked to the production of other hormones including Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1), Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Progesterone. (requestatest.com)
  • The IGF-2 is typically ordered along with other hormone tests when ordered by a person's doctor. (requestatest.com)
  • Hormone and Metabolic Research , 31 (2-3), 142-147. (elsevier.com)
  • Accordingly, Igfbp-2 overexpression was demonstrated to ameliorate insulin resistance in obese mice ( 13 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Overexpression of N-myc2 in three WC-3 cell lines caused their morphological transformation and increased their growth rate and saturation density in medium containing 10% serum. (asm.org)
  • Therefore, coordinate overexpression of N-myc2 and IGF-II in woodchuck altered hepatic foci may allow cells which otherwise might die to survive and progress to hepatocellular carcinoma. (asm.org)
  • Large solitary fibrous tumor with overexpression of insulin-like growth factor-2. (semanticscholar.org)
  • No patients developed new IGFBP-2 specific antibody responses after immunization suggesting a lack of Th2 augmentation. (washington.edu)
  • MLS128 is an anti-carbohydrate monoclonal antibody (mAb) that binds three or two consecutive Tn-antigens. (go.jp)
  • An antibody that blocks insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding to the type II IGF receptor is neither an agonist nor an inhibitor of IGF-stimulated biologic responses in L6 myoblasts. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A major fetal growth factor in contrast to Insulin-like growth factor 1, which is a major growth factor in adults. (wikipedia.org)
  • Placental-specific IGF-II is a major modulator of placental and fetal growth," Nature , vol. 417, no. 6892, pp. 945-948, 2002. (hindawi.com)
  • These data support a role for IGF-I in influencing fetal growth and suggest the independent regulation of the secretion of IGF-I and II in the perinatal period. (nih.gov)
  • IGF-2 is influenced by placental lactogen and plays a role in fetal development. (reportsweb.com)
  • The insulin-like growth factors (IGF) play an important role in fetal and postnatal development. (uu.nl)
  • Expression of insulin-like growth factor-II mRNA in fetal kidney and Wilms' tumor. (cornell.edu)
  • IGF-II dose-dependent increase in phosphorylation of PKB and cell proliferation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • B, IGF-II-stimulated phosphorylation of PKB and MAPK was inhibited by preincubation with 11 E1544K -Fc only. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This decrease in bioavailable IGF-II ultimately resulted in diminished IGF-I receptor signaling in vivo as evidenced by diminished receptor kinase activity and decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of the IGF-I receptor downstream effectors, insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), extracellular signal regulatory kinase (Erk)-1, and Erk-2. (rupress.org)
  • These findings in CR mice correlated with reductions in Ki-67-positive cells, vascular luminal size, vascular endothelial growth factor expression, and phosphorylation and total expression of downstream mediators of the IGF-1 pathway. (aacrjournals.org)
  • IGF-1 and IGF-2 induced phosphorylation of intracellular signaling components, such as Akt, Src, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase in lymphatic endothelial cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We have studied the recycling and the phosphorylation state of the insulin growth factor (IGF) II/mannose 6-phosphate (Man-6-P) receptor in microvascular endothelial cells from rat adipose tissue. (elsevier.com)
  • The phosphorylation state of the IGF-II/Man-6-P receptor was determined by 32 P labeling of intact cells and immunoprecipitation with anti-receptor antibodies. (elsevier.com)
  • In contrast, IGF-II decreased receptor phosphorylation and plasma membrane binding in a parallel and dose-dependent manner. (elsevier.com)
  • Alterations in promoter usage and expression levels of insulin-like growth factor-II and H19 genes in cervical carcinoma exhibiting biallelic expression of IGF-II," Biochimica et Biophysica Acta , vol. 1586, no. 3, pp. 307-315, 2002. (hindawi.com)
  • Synergistic action of transforming growth factor-beta and insulin-like growth factor-I induces expression of type II collagen and aggrecan genes in. (nih.gov)
  • Reexpression of aggrecan and type II collagen genes in dedifferentiated adult human articular chondrocytes (AHAC) in suspension culture varied widely depending on the specific lot of bovine serum used to supplement the culture medium. (nih.gov)
  • Given this observation, IGF-I and other growth factors were tested in defined serum-free media for their effects on the expression of these genes. (nih.gov)
  • To have a closer look at de novo lipid synthesis we investigated expression of the lipogenic transcription factor SREBF1 and its target genes. (frontiersin.org)
  • N-myc2 and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) are coordinately overexpressed in the great majority of altered hepatic foci, which are the earliest precancerous lesions observed in the liver of woodchuck hepatitis virus carrier woodchucks, and these genes continue to be overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). (asm.org)
  • To address this point, we generated transgenic mice harboring fusion genes in which a human IGF-II complementary DNA is placed under the transcriptional control of the rat phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase promoter. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • The effect of dietary LO supplementation on fatty acid composition of breast muscle was examined by gas chromatography, and the expression of fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) genes was analysed by means of quantitative reverse transcription PCR. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Recently, the nucleotide sequences of the cDNAs encoding IGF-I and IGF-II and part of the human IGF genes were reported. (uu.nl)
  • Inhibition of IGF-II-induced signaling and cell proliferation by domain 11 ligand traps. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In general, the insulin-like growth factor pathway plays a major role in cancer cell proliferation, survival and resistance to anti-cancer therapies in many human malignancies. (perkinelmer.com)
  • the question of whether TIMP/MMP-mediated proteolysis affects growth factor bioavailability in vivo to regulate cell proliferation has not been investigated. (rupress.org)
  • Second, in IGF-I-R-deficient mouse fibroblasts transfected with the human IR, IGF-II stimulates cell proliferation through the IR ( 34 ). (asm.org)
  • A combination of FGF-2, IGF-I, and TGF-β 1 was more effective than that of FGF-2 and IGF-I in terms of cell proliferation. (asianaoms.org)
  • The promoter, active in the adult stage, is located only 1.4 kb downstream from the insulin gene. (uu.nl)
  • It has growth-regulating, insulin-like and mitogenic activities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, IGF-II bound to IR-A with an affinity equal to that of IGF-II binding to the IGF-I-R. Activation of IR-A by insulin led primarily to metabolic effects, whereas activation of IR-A by IGF-II led primarily to mitogenic effects. (asm.org)
  • The IGF-I and IGF-II signal through a common tyrosine kinase receptor, the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R), and have mitogenic and cell survival actions that may promote tumor development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Insulin exerts its effects by interaction with a cell-surface receptor, which may also result in the promotion of cell growth [ PMID: 6243748 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling pathway may be of importance for the proliferation of different tumours (e.g. breast cancer and Wilms tumour). (springer.com)
  • In order to investigate the IGF regulatory pathway in leukaemia serum levels of IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 were determined in 28 leukaemic children. (springer.com)
  • This receptor is involved in the transport of lysosomal enzymes, is believed to act as a degradation pathway for IGF-II, and has no signaling activity for cell growth ( 58 ). (asm.org)
  • These data show that CR prevents development of dysplasia and growth of pancreatic cancer through alterations in IGF-1, suggesting that modulation of this pathway with dietary and/or pharmacologic interventions is a promising pancreatic cancer prevention strategy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Interestingly, IGF-1-induced lymphangiogenesis could not be blocked by a soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3, suggesting that the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3-signaling pathway is not required for IGF-induced lymphangiogenesis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • There was a slight increase in the S phase of the cell cycle in cells cultured with FGF-2, IGF-I, and TGF-β 1 compared with those with only FGF-2 and IGF-I. There were also some alterations in the retinoblastoma pathway of the chondrocytes cultured with FGF-2, IGF-I, and TGF-β 1. (asianaoms.org)
  • Methods of treating a tumor in a subject include identifying a subject having, at risk for, or suspected of having a tumor, and administering to the subject an effective amount of an IGFBP7 agent if the tumor has increased Ras-BRAF-MEK-Erk signaling, is dependent for growth and/or survival upon the Ras-BRAF-MEK-Erk signaling pathway, and/or expresses an activated or oncogenic BRAF or RAS. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Preptin undergoes glucose-mediated co-secretion with insulin, and acts as physiological amplifier of glucose-mediated insulin secretion. (uniprot.org)
  • Synthesis and secretion of insulin-like growth factor II by a leiomyosarcoma with associated hypoglycemia. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Furthermore, sweat secretion has been found correlated to circulating IGF-I levels [ 1 , 4 , 7 ], and GH deficiency have been reported to have a profound effect on thermoregulation [ 2 , 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In our present study, we transfected antisense IGF-II into IGF-II secreting MCF-7 cells to test the hypothesis that blocking IGF-II may reduce the secretion of cathepsin D in breast cancer cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Addition of recombinant human IGF-II to the serum-free medium blocked both cell death and colony regression in all the N-myc2-expressing lines. (asm.org)
  • Recombinant Human IGF-II produced in E. coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 67 amino acids with a molecular mass of 7,505 daltons. (qedbio.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate whether corneal nerve is altered in diabetic mice and examine whether the topical application of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I (rhIGF-I) normalized these alterations. (arvojournals.org)
  • Researchers have identified a novel biomarker for incident dementia, supporting increasing evidence that suggests metabolic dysfunction and insulin resistance in the brain are integrally involved in adverse cognitive outcomes. (lww.com)
  • The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling system is known to play a role in neuroregeneration, neuronal survival and proliferation, and cerebral metabolic function," the study's authors reported in the September issue of Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology . (lww.com)
  • Observation studies in human populations linked the IGF axis to the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes ( 4 - 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • It has been suggested that GH hyper- and hyposecretory states result in changes in the growth and metabolic status of sweat glands, with alterations in sweat gland innervation [ 4 ] and a reduced number of sweat glands has been reported in adults with GHD [ 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • It is well established that adult GHD usually is accompanied by an increase in fat accumulation and these changes in body composition are associated with metabolic derangements including insulin resistance [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • This RNA element allows cap-independent translation of the mRNA and it is thought that this family may facilitate a continuous IGF-II production in rapidly dividing cells during development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Baker J, Liu JP, Robertson EJ, Efstratiadis A (1993) Role of insulin-like growth factors in embryonic and postnatal growth. (springer.com)
  • In addition, we show how the ability of substrates to properly anchor their N-terminus to the exosite of IDE and undergo a conformational switch upon binding to the catalytic chamber of IDE can also contribute to the selective degradation of structurally related growth factors. (rcsb.org)
  • Low-molecular-mass immunoreactive degradation products were found for IGFBPs-2 and -4. (diva-portal.org)
  • In recent years, the multifaceted role of the receptor has become apparent, as several lines of evidence have indicated that in addition to its role in lysosomal enzyme trafficking, clearance and/or activation of a variety of growth factors and endocytosis-mediated degradation of IGF-II, the IGF-II/M6P receptor may also mediate transmembrane signal transduction in response to IGF-II binding under certain conditions. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • The stability of IGF-I and -II in the intestinal lumen was investigated by measuring the proteolytic degradation of 125 I-labeled IGF-I and IGF-II by rat (suckling and adult) intestinal luminal flushings in vitro. (elsevier.com)
  • Methods: Degradation of 125 I-labeled IGF-I and IGF-II was assessed by measuring the generation of acid-soluble radioactivity and the reduction of the amounts of peak activity (gel filtration). (elsevier.com)
  • Degradation of 125 I-IGF-II was several times lower than that of 125 I-IGF-I in the intestinal luminal flushings from suckling and adult rats. (elsevier.com)
  • IGFBP-2 may inhibit adipogenesis and enhance long-term insulin sensitivity ( 9 ), partly through interaction with IGF-1 signaling. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We have been hypothesizing that targeting IGF-II in addition to blocking its interaction with the IGF receptor type I (IGF-IR) would also allow to block that portion of the signal transduction through the insulin receptor that is due to its interaction with IGF-II. (aacrjournals.org)
  • They bound with high (subnanomolar) affinity to IGF-II, did not cross-react with IGF-I and insulin, and potently inhibited signal transduction mediated by the IGF-IR interaction with IGF-II. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, since prior data have indicated that IGF-II binds to the IR with relatively low affinity (approximately 1% that of insulin) ( 45 ), the interaction of IGF-II with the IR remains to be clarified. (asm.org)
  • The current study examined the role of IGF-IR signaling in the growth of colon cancer cells and its possible interaction with MLS128-induced inhibition of cell growth in LS180, LS174T, and HT29 human colon cancer cells treated with MLS128 or anti-IGF-IR 1H7. (go.jp)
  • As the receptor functions to transport ligands from either the trans-Golgi network or extracellular space to the endosomes, the interaction of IGF-IIR extracellular domains with IGF-II was analyzed over a pH range of 5.0-7.4. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We present evidence for a specific cell surface localization and a bimolecular interaction between the alpha v beta 3 integrin and IGFBP-2. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Dodson, MV & Allen, RE 1987, ' Interaction of multiplication stimulating activity/rat insulin-like growth factor II with skeletal muscle satellite cells during aging ', Mechanisms of Ageing and Development , vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 121-128. (elsevier.com)
  • To test the possibility that soluble receptor can therefore modulate the activity of IGF-II, we determined the effect of purified soluble receptor on DNA synthesis in cultured rat hepatocytes stimulated with epidermal growth factor (EGF) (5 ng/ml) and IGF-II (200 ng/ml). (nih.gov)
  • In conclusion, autocrine upregulation of cardiac IGF-I and IGF-IR mRNA by Ang II occurs through hemodynamic and nonhemodynamic mechanisms, respectively, and may modulate cardiac structural changes that occur in hypertension. (ahajournals.org)
  • We conclude that endogenous IGF-II may modulate the routing of cathepsin D by interfering with receptor trafficking in MCF-7 cells, and that this modulation is reversible. (elsevier.com)
  • The level of IGF-II mRNA was reduced in mammary tissue from PRL receptor-/- mice during early pregnancy, and explants of mouse mammary gland and HC11 mammary epithelial cells both increased their expression of IGF-II after exposure to PRL in vitro. (garvan.org.au)
  • IGF-II is believed to mediate its cellular signaling via the transmembrane tyrosine kinase type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-I-R), which is also the receptor for IGF-I. Earlier studies with both cultured cells and transgenic mice, however, have suggested that in the embryo the insulin receptor (IR) may also be a receptor for IGF-II. (asm.org)
  • Consequences of Postnatally Elevated Insulin-Like Growth Factor-II in Transgenic Mice: Endocrine Changes and Effects on Body and Organ Growth. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Serum IGF-II levels in transgenic mice were 2-3 times higher than those in controls and increased after starvation. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Serum levels of IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-4 tended to be higher in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase- IGF-II transgenic mice than in controls, as evaluated by ligand blot analysis. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Starvation reduced serum IGF-I, but increased IGFBP-2 in transgenic mice more markedly than in controls. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Fasting insulin levels were significantly reduced in transgenic mice, whereas glucose levels were not influenced by elevated IGF-II. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • The body growth of 4- and 12- week-old mice was not significantly influenced by elevated IGF-II, but transgenic mice displayed increased kidney and testis weight at the age of 4 weeks, and increased adrenal weight at the age of 12 weeks. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • A group consisting of 12-week-old male mice (C57 BLKS db/db mice) with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and a wild-type group were assessed by beta-III tubulin (neural marker) immunostaining. (arvojournals.org)
  • Corneal subbasal plexus of nerve fibers with type II DM were preferentially thinner and had fewer branches compared to the normal mice. (arvojournals.org)
  • Our data suggest that corneal subbasal nerve is altered in db/db mice, and rhIGF-I treatment is capable of protecting against corneal damage in type 2 DM. (arvojournals.org)
  • Recent work has demonstrated differences in femoral bone mineral density between two common inbred strains of mice, C3H/HeJ (C3H) and C57BL/6J (B6), across a wide age range. (galileo-training.com)
  • To investigate one possible mechanism that could affect acquisition and maintenance of bone mass in mice, we studied circulatory and skeletal insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and femoral bone mineral density (F-BMD) by pQCT in C3H and B6 progenitor strains, as well as serum IGF-I obtained from matings between these two strains and mice bred from subsequent F1 intercrosses (F2). (galileo-training.com)
  • Administration of a 30% CR diet for 14 weeks decreased serum IGF-1 and hindered pancreatic ductal lesion formation and dysplastic severity, relative to a higher calorie control diet, in transgenic mice overexpressing cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 (BK5.COX-2). (aacrjournals.org)
  • To further understand the impact of circulating levels of IGF-1 on tumor growth in this model, we orthotopically injected JC101 cells into liver-specific IGF-1-deficient (LID) mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • C57BL/6J×Cast/EiJ F1 hybrid mice were weaned onto (1) a standard natural ingredient control diet, (2) a synthetic control diet or (3) a synthetic methyl-donor-deficient diet lacking folic acid, vitamin B 12 , methionine and choline. (oup.com)
  • Concentrations of both IGFBP-2 and Her-2 extracellular domain (Her-2 ECD) in sera of mice bearing BT474 human breast cancer xenografts decrease after 17-AAG treatment. (elsevier.com)
  • In-vivo transfection of pcDNA3.1-IGFBP7 inhibits melanoma growth in mice through apoptosis induction and VEGF downexpression," J. Exp. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Linseed oil supplementation affects fatty acid desaturase 2, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma, and insulin-like growth factor 1 gene expression in turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). (physiciansweekly.com)
  • These findings coincided with the demonstration that IGF-II stimulated alveolar development in mammary glands in whole organ culture. (garvan.org.au)
  • Our results demonstrate that elevated IGF-II in postnatal life has multiple endocrine consequences and subtle time-specific effects on organ growth. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Obese subjects as adults with GHD have multiple endocrine abnormalities including insulin resistance, severely suppressed spontaneous and stimulated GH release [ 13 - 15 ], and impaired circulating IGF-I levels [ 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • A clinically heterogeneous condition characterized by severe intrauterine growth retardation, poor postnatal growth, craniofacial features such as a triangular shaped face and a broad forehead, body asymmetry, and a variety of minor malformations. (mybiosource.com)
  • IGFBP-2 and aging: a 20-year longitudinal study on IGFBP-2, IGF-I, BMI, insulin sensitivity and mortality in an aging population. (nih.gov)
  • The obese subjects presented the characteristic decreased GH release, hyperinsulinaemia, increased FFA levels, and impaired insulin sensitivity, which all were normalised after diet-induced weight loss of 30 ± 5 kg. (hindawi.com)
  • Effects of insulin-like growth factor I and II on prostaglandin synthesis and plasminogen activator activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells," Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism , vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 372-378, 2005. (hindawi.com)
  • Here, we used high-accuracy mass spectrometry to identify the cleavage sites of human IGF-II, TGF-alpha, amylin, reduced amylin, and amyloid-beta by human IDE. (rcsb.org)
  • We also determined the structures of human IDE-IGF-II and IDE-TGF-alpha at 2.3 A and IDE-amylin at 2.9 A. We found that IDE cleaves its substrates at multiple sites in a biased stochastic manner. (rcsb.org)
  • The beneficial effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or Ang II receptor antagonists in animal models of cardiac hypertrophy as well as in human cardiac disease strongly support that Ang II is involved in this pathological hypertrophy. (ahajournals.org)
  • In this study, we show that IGF-II mRNA levels are increased within six h of exposing human hepatoma cell cultures to hypoxia, suggesting that hypoxia may be a strong stimulus for the induction of IGF-II expression in the process of hepatocarcinogenesis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here, we describe the identification and characterization of three novel anti-IGF-II fully human monoclonal antibodies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) II is overexpressed in many human cancers and is reactivated by, and crucial for viral oncogene (SV40 T antigen, [TAg])-induced tumorigenesis in several tumor models. (rupress.org)
  • Insulin Like Growth Factor- II Human E. coli by BioVendor, Cat. (lucerna-chem.ch)
  • Human serum and urine contain polypeptides which bind mannose 6-phosphate (M6P) and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF II) and crossreact with antibodies against the M6P/IGF II receptor. (biochemj.org)
  • Autonomous growth of a human neuroblastoma cell line is mediated by insulin-like growth factor II. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The type I insulin-like growth factor receptor is a motility receptor in human melanoma cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Immunohistochemistry was performed for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, using viral and ribozyme strategies we reduced the expression of M6P/IGF2R in human breast cancer cells and then examined the effect on growth and apoptosis of these cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To verify whether decreased levels of functional M6P/IGF2R can provide a growth advantage for cancer cells, we used viral and ribozyme strategies to reduce the expression of M6P/IGF2R in human breast cancer cells and then examined the effect on growth and apoptosis of these cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using these two cDNAs, we have established that the human IGF-II gene contains at least 7 exons. (uu.nl)
  • Hybridoma cell line producing IGF-1R 1-2 antibodies raised against the extreme C-terminus of the human insulin-like growth factor receptor beta subunit which are mouse monoclonal antibodies of the IgG2a isotype. (cam.ac.uk)
  • IGFBP-2 is an important regulator of ovarian cancer invasiveness and metastases. (washington.edu)
  • Eradication of cancer cells expressing IGFBP-2 through effective immunization could prevent disease relapse or metastatic spread. (washington.edu)
  • In a single-arm non-randomized study of advanced stage (III/IV) or recurrent ovarian cancer patients treated to complete remission after primary or salvage therapy, 25 patients received 3 monthly doses of an IGFBP-2 DNA vaccine by intradermal injection. (washington.edu)
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor II as a Prognostic Indicator in Breast Cancer. (dtic.mil)
  • The objective of this proposal is to determine the prognostic role of expression of Insulin-Like Growth factor II in breast cancer. (dtic.mil)
  • We were unable to prove our initial hypothesis that IGF-II expression would be associated with poor prognosis in invasive breast cancer. (dtic.mil)
  • As a result, measuring IGF-2 levels can be useful in the diagnosis or monitoring of treatment for some types of cancer including prostate, colon, breast and colorectal. (requestatest.com)
  • The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system plays an important role in a variety of physiologic processes and in diseases such as cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To assess the role of IGF-II in cancer, we analyzed IGF-II expression in ovarian cancer and examined its association with disease characteristics and prognosis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CONCLUSION: This study found evidence that IGF-II expression is associated with disease progression, suggesting that IGF-II and IGF signaling are potential targets for ovarian cancer treatment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • MLS128 bound 110-210 kDa glycoproteins (GPs) and inhibited the growth of LS180 and HT29 colon and MCF-7 breast cancer cells. (go.jp)
  • Both MLS128 and 1H7 treatment significantly inhibited the growth of colon cancer cells. (go.jp)
  • Western blotting analyses of colon and breast cancer cell lysates revealed that colon and breast cancer cells differed significantly in patterns of expression of growth-related molecules while colon cancer cells were similar but distinctive. (go.jp)
  • In conclusion, MLS128 inhibited the growth of colon cancer cells by binding to the 110 kDa GP receptor. (go.jp)
  • This has been usually reported in cancer studies and IGFBP-2 proteolysis might be a reason that makes tumor aggressiveness increase. (creative-biogene.com)
  • For example, studies about tumorigenesis have shown that nuclear IGFBP-2 directly or indirectly contributes to the development of a pro-metastatic milieu by enhancing the expression of the angiogenic growth factor VEGF-A, which consistent with the enhancement of an aggressive cancer phenotype. (creative-biogene.com)
  • In addition to the roles in cancer, IGFBP-2 also plays important roles in metabolism process and other diseases including obesity and diabetes which has been report by a number of researches recently. (creative-biogene.com)
  • Loss or mutation of the mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor-II receptor (M6P/IGF2R) has been found in breast cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These results suggest that M6P/IGF2R functions as a growth suppressor and its loss or mutation may contribute to development and progression of cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Conclusions: As previously reported, IGFBP-2 concentrations in plasma of cancer patients are significantly higher than those in healthy volunteers. (elsevier.com)
  • Collectively, these results indicate that alpha v beta 3 and IGFBP-2 act cooperatively in a negative regulatory manner to reduce tumor growth and the migratory potential of breast cancer cells. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Abnormally high levels of IGF-II may alter this homeostasis, conferring on breast cancer cells an advantageous mechanism that promotes rapid growth, and may faciliate metastasis. (elsevier.com)
  • The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling axis plays an important role in cancer biology. (cdc.gov)
  • specifically, loss of imprinting is implicated as a risk factor for colorectal cancer. (timplab.org)
  • Some lots of serum provided strong induction of aggrecan and type II collagen expression by AHAC while others did not stimulate significant production of these hyaline cartilage extracellular matrix molecules even following several weeks in culture. (nih.gov)
  • Addition of 50 ng/ml insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) to a deficient serum lot significantly enhanced its ability to induce aggrecan and type II collagen mRNA. (nih.gov)
  • It further indicates that serum levels of IGFBP-2 may be directly related to the proliferation of lymphoblasts. (springer.com)
  • The death of N-myc2-expressing WC-3 cells was accompanied by nucleosomal fragmentation of cellular DNA, and DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining revealed condensation and fragmentation of the nuclei, suggesting that N-myc2-expressing WC-3 cells undergo apoptosis in the absence of serum. (asm.org)
  • Maes M, Mihaylova I, Kubera M, Leunis J. An IgM-mediated immune response directed against nitro-bovine serum albumin (nitro-BSA) in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and major depression: evidence that nitrosative stress is another factor underpinning the comorbidity between major depression and CF Neuro Endocrinol Lett. (nel.edu)
  • Serum starvation for 48 h significantly decreased the mRNA levels of IGFBPs-2 to -5 and tended to decrease IGFBP-6 mRNA also. (diva-portal.org)
  • A diagnosis was made of non-islet cell tumor hypoglycemia on the basis of the presence of hypoglycemia requiring continuous glucose infusion, elevated serum insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2), and a large well-defined tumor in the right thoracic cavity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Vasopressin and insulin-like growth factors synergistically induce myogenesis in serum-free medium -- Minotti et al. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Calorie restriction (CR) prevents obesity, suppresses carcinogenesis in many models, and reduces serum levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In addition, the effect of serum and tumour cyst fluid on autophosphorylation of the insulin receptor was examined. (elsevier.com)
  • Patient serum contained low levels of IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and ALS, while the concentrations of IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-6 were markedly elevated. (elsevier.com)
  • The total level of circulating IGF-II was within the normal range, but Biogel P-60 gel filtration of patient serum revealed that 77% of the IGF- II was present in high molecular weight forms (normal: 10-15%), which decreased to 53% after partial removal of the tumour. (elsevier.com)
  • Neither IGF-I nor IGFBP-3 was associated with risk in postmenopausal women and serum IGF-II concentration was not associated with risk in pre- or postmenopausal women. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In vitro growth of these cells was evaluated in serum-containing medium and in serum-free medium in response to multiplication stimulating activity/rat insulin-like growth factor II (MSA). (elsevier.com)
  • Treatment with hydralazine abolished the induction of IGF-I mRNA, which indicates that Ang II induces cardiac IGF-I mRNA expression through a pressor-mediated mechanism. (ahajournals.org)
  • AVP rapidly (2-3 days) and dose-dependently induces the formation of multinucleated myotubes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Insulin-like growth factor-II/mannose 6-P (IGF- II/M6P) receptor is released from cultured cells and tissues in a soluble form that retains its affinity for IGF-II. (nih.gov)
  • In most cells and tissues, IR binds IGF-II with relatively low affinity. (asm.org)
  • In the present study we found that IR-A but not IR-B bound IGF-II with an affinity close to that of insulin. (asm.org)
  • Our data suggest that domain 13 acts as an enhancer of IGF-II affinity by slowing the rate of dissociation, but additional enhancement by domains other than 10-13 also occurs. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In the presence of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), an activator of PKC and analog of diacylglycerol, IGF-II receptor number increased in the plasma membrane by 60% without changes in the binding affinity. (elsevier.com)
  • IGF-II concentrations were similar to adult values and did not correlate with gestational age, birth size or IGF-I values. (nih.gov)
  • IGF-II concentrations were higher (P less than 0.005) in male than female fetuses. (nih.gov)
  • We aimed to investigate the prospective association of circulating IGFBP-2 concentrations and of differential methylation in the IGFBP-2 gene with type 2 diabetes risk. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Higher circulating IGFBP-2 concentrations (median 92 ng/mL) were cross-sectionally linked to lower BMI, waist circumference, fatty liver index (FLI), triglycerides, fetuin A, ALT, and γ-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT) and longitudinally associated with lower type 2 diabetes risk (hazard ratio [HR] per SD 0.65, 95% CI 0.53, 0.8). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Higher circulating IGFBP-2 concentrations were strongly associated with lower type 2 diabetes risk ( 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Exogenous IGFBPs-1, -3 and -4 in concentrations of 50 ng/ml inhibited DNA synthesis induced by 1 nM IGF-I, whereas IGFBPs-2, -5 and -6 had no significant inhibitory effects at this concentration. (diva-portal.org)
  • Plasma IGFBP-2 and Her-2 ECD concentrations were quantitated by ELISA. (elsevier.com)
  • Following 17-AAG treatment, there were no consistent dose-dependent or time-dependent changes in plasma IGFBP-2 and Her-2 ECD concentrations. (elsevier.com)
  • IGFBP-2 concentrations decreased by ≥40% in 8 patients, increased 2- to 5-fold in 8 patients, and remained essentially unchanged in 29 patients. (elsevier.com)
  • In contrast to a mouse model, 17-AAG treatment was not consistently associated with decreases in IGFBP-2 or Her-2 ECD concentrations in patient plasma. (elsevier.com)
  • blocking IGF signaling has been shown to have therapeutic effects on tumor growth. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Insulin is found in many animals, and is involved in the regulation of normal glucose homeostasis. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Moreover, IGFBP-2, which is mainly released by the liver ( 10 ), directly supports glucose homeostasis, e.g., by stimulating glucose uptake into adipocytes in an IGF-independent manner ( 11 , 12 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Intracellular vesicles containing insulin-responsive glucose transporters (GT) have been isolated by immunoadsorption from the microsomal fraction (Biber, J. W., and G. E. Lienhard. (rupress.org)
  • Insulin-like growth factor II blocks apoptosis of N-myc2-expressing woodchuck liver epithelial cells. (asm.org)
  • Using a double transgenic murine hepatic tumor model, we demonstrate that tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) blocks liver hyperplasia during tumor development, despite TAg-mediated reactivation of IGF-II. (rupress.org)
  • Together, these results provide evidence that TIMP-1 inhibits liver hyperplasia, an early event in TAg-mediated tumorigenesis, by reducing the activity of the tumor-inducing mitogen, IGF-II. (rupress.org)
  • The Stage 1+2 summary OR is 0.87 (95% CI 0.81-0.93) per copy of the minor allele of rs4320932 carried. (cdc.gov)
  • Sixteen severely obese women (BMI, 40.6 ± 1.1 kg/m 2 ) were investigated before and after a diet-induced weight loss. (hindawi.com)
  • We have shown that insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is an autocrine mediator of growth responses to Ang II in vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro, and we hypothesized that IGF-I also serves as an important modulator of cardiovascular growth in vivo. (ahajournals.org)
  • Insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 induce lymphangiogenesis in vivo. (ox.ac.uk)
  • During sexual maturity and in early pregnancy, the level of IGF-II mRNA in the mammary gland was increased concurrent with increased PRL receptor expression. (garvan.org.au)
  • Insight into the mechanism by which PRL induced IGF-II expression was provided by the fact that it was blocked by the Jak2 inhibitor AG490 and the MAPK inhibitor PD98059. (garvan.org.au)
  • Compared to the vehicle, the expression of mRNA of IGF-I and -II decreased at 24 h after DexTD treatment, while RU486 prevented this decrease on IGF-II but not IGF-I. (nel.edu)
  • The expression level of MT1-MMP and MMP-2 was analyzed by Western blot (WB) analysis. (arvojournals.org)
  • Interestingly, those signaling pathways not only regulate several cellular functions, but also the expression and action of IGFBP-2 in turn. (creative-biogene.com)
  • It has been shown that IGFBP-2 works its function by involving in several steps of metastatic process, degrading almost all of the ECM components and activation the expression of VEGF-A during tumorigenesis and tumor progression. (creative-biogene.com)
  • Furthermore, decreased expression of M6P/IGF2R enhanced IGF-II-induced proliferation and reduced cell susceptibility to TNF-induced apoptosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Differential patterns of insulin-like growth factor-I and -II mRNA expression in medulloblastoma. (mysciencework.com)
  • In these tumours the expression patterns of IGF-I and -II mRNA were studied. (mysciencework.com)
  • Nine of the 14 tumours showed variable but significant IGF-II expression. (mysciencework.com)
  • In the five tumours without IGF-II expression, microglia/brain macrophages with a more rounded amoeboid-like morphology predominated. (mysciencework.com)
  • Probably, during the transformation from the resting ramified towards the amoeboid morphology (or vice versa) IGF-II mRNA expression is only temporarily induced. (mysciencework.com)
  • However, in this relatively small number of cases we could not find any indications for a relationship between clinical characteristics of the various cases and the extent of IGF-II mRNA expression. (mysciencework.com)
  • We previously demonstrated that expression of IGF-II modulates the routing of cathepsin D in MCF-7 cells. (elsevier.com)
  • However, few studies have been done to determine the factors necessary for expression of IGFBP-4 and IGF-I mRNAs in the mouse uterus during the periimplantation period. (levelofhealth.com)
  • The insulin-like growth factor-II/mannose-6-phosphate (IGF-II/M6P) receptor is a multifunctional single transmembrane glycoprotein which, along with the cation-dependent M6P (CD-M6P) receptor, mediates the trafficking of M6P-containing lysosomal enzymes from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to lysosomes. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Participants agreed to a periodic examination every four years for assessment of vascular risk factors, cognitive performance decline, stroke, and dementia. (lww.com)
  • Glial Müller cells (MC) are known to be involved in these diseases by producing Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and secreting MMPs that participate in the extracellular proteolysis during neovascularization. (arvojournals.org)
  • Together with NMR structures of amylin and the IGF and epidermal growth factor families, our work also reveals the structural basis of how the high dipole moment of substrates complements the charge distribution of the IDE catalytic chamber for the substrate selectivity. (rcsb.org)
  • Heightened levels of IGFBP-2 are believed to decrease the bioavailability of IGF-I and IGF-II in the brain and hinder IGF signaling, which inhibits the neuroprotective effects of IGF-I and IGF-II. (lww.com)
  • Inhibits IGF-mediated growth and developmental rates. (creative-biogene.com)