A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.
A well-characterized neutral peptide believed to be secreted by the LIVER and to circulate in the BLOOD. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like and mitogenic activities. The growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on SOMATOTROPIN. It is believed to be a major fetal growth factor in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR I, which is a major growth factor in adults.
Insulin-like polypeptides made by the liver and some fibroblasts and released into the blood when stimulated by SOMATOTROPIN. They cause sulfate incorporation into collagen, RNA, and DNA synthesis, which are prerequisites to cell division and growth of the organism.
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is closely related in structure to the INSULIN RECEPTOR. Although commonly referred to as the IGF-I receptor, it binds both IGF-I and IGF-II with high affinity. It is comprised of a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The beta subunit contains an intrinsic tyrosine kinase domain.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A plasma serine proteinase that cleaves the alpha-chains of C3b and C4b in the presence of the cofactors COMPLEMENT FACTOR H and C4-binding protein, respectively. It is a 66-kDa glycoprotein that converts C3b to inactivated C3b (iC3b) followed by the release of two fragments, C3c (150-kDa) and C3dg (41-kDa). It was formerly called KAF, C3bINF, or enzyme 3b inactivator.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Cell surface receptors that bind somatomedins and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Studies have disclosed two types of receptors for this family of peptide hormones. The type I receptor is homologous to the insulin receptor and has tyrosine kinase activity. The type II receptor is identical to the mannose-6-phosphate receptor which is important in trafficking of lysosomal enzymes.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.
A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).
A family of soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors and modulate their biological actions at the cellular level. (Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1992;39(1):3-9)
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.
A structurally-related group of signaling proteins that are phosphorylated by the INSULIN RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE. The proteins share in common an N-terminal PHOSPHOLIPID-binding domain, a phosphotyrosine-binding domain that interacts with the phosphorylated INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal TYROSINE-rich domain. Upon tyrosine phosphorylation insulin receptor substrate proteins interact with specific SH2 DOMAIN-containing proteins that are involved in insulin receptor signaling.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.
Hormonally active polypeptides that can induce the transformed phenotype when added to normal, non-transformed cells. They have been found in culture fluids from retrovirally transformed cells and in tumor-derived cells as well as in non-neoplastic sources. Their transforming activities are due to the simultaneous action of two otherwise unrelated factors, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR related protein that is found in a variety of tissues including EPITHELIUM, and maternal DECIDUA. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form which binds to the EGF RECEPTOR.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Multifunctional growth factor which regulates both cell growth and cell motility. It exerts a strong mitogenic effect on hepatocytes and primary epithelial cells. Its receptor is PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET.
These growth factors are soluble mitogens secreted by a variety of organs. The factors are a mixture of two single chain polypeptides which have affinity to heparin. Their molecular weight are organ and species dependent. They have mitogenic and chemotactic effects and can stimulate endothelial cells to grow and synthesize DNA. The factors are related to both the basic and acidic FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS but have different amino acid sequences.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A family of angiogenic proteins that are closely-related to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR A. They play an important role in the growth and differentiation of vascular as well as lymphatic endothelial cells.
One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.
NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
One of the six homologous proteins that specifically bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions. The function of this protein is not completely defined. However, several studies demonstrate that it inhibits IGF binding to cell surface receptors and thereby inhibits IGF-mediated mitogenic and cell metabolic actions. (Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1993;204(1):4-29)
Insulin formulations that contain substances that retard absorption thus extending the time period of action.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
Transcription factors that were originally identified as site-specific DNA-binding proteins essential for DNA REPLICATION by ADENOVIRUSES. They play important roles in MAMMARY GLAND function and development.
A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Specific molecular sites or structures on cell membranes that react with FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS (both the basic and acidic forms), their analogs, or their antagonists to elicit or to inhibit the specific response of the cell to these factors. These receptors frequently possess tyrosine kinase activity.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A family of structurally-related angiogenic proteins of approximately 70 kDa in size. They have high specificity for members of the TIE RECEPTOR FAMILY.
Endogenously-synthesized compounds that influence biological processes not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.

Insulin-like growth factors I and II are unable to form and maintain their native disulfides under in vivo redox conditions. (1/7501)

Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I does not quantitatively form its three native disulfide bonds in the presence of 10 mM reduced and 1 mM oxidized glutathione in vitro [Hober, S. et al. (1992) Biochemistry 31, 1749-1756]. In this paper, we show (i) that both IGF-I and IGF-II are unable to form and maintain their native disulfide bonds at redox conditions that are similar to the situation in the secretory vesicles in vivo and (ii) that the presence of protein disulfide isomerase does not overcome this problem. The results indicate that the previously described thermodynamic disulfide exchange folding problem of IGF-I in vitro is also present in vivo. Speculatively, we suggest that the thermodynamic disulfide exchange properties of IGF-I and II are biologically significant for inactivation of the unbound growth factors by disulfide exchange reactions to generate variants destined for rapid clearance.  (+info)

Proliferation and differentiation of rat theca-interstitial cells: comparison of effects induced by platelet-derived growth factor and insulin-like growth factor-I. (2/7501)

This study was designed to evaluate mechanisms regulating proliferation of steroidogenically active and steroidogenically inactive theca-interstitial (T-I) cells, and, specifically, to evaluate the effects of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). T-I cells obtained from immature Sprague-Dawley rats were cultured in chemically defined media. Proliferation was assayed by thymidine incorporation and cell counting. Steroidogenically active cells were identified by the presence of 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity. Flow cytometry facilitated separation of dividing cells (in S and G2/M phases of the cell cycle) from nondividing cells (in G0 and G1 phases of the cell cycle). PDGF alone (0.1-1 nM) produced a dose-dependent increase in DNA synthesis by up to 136%. IGF-I alone (10 nM) increased DNA synthesis by 56%. In the presence of both IGF-I (10 nM) and PDGF (0.1-1 nM), DNA synthesis increased by 108-214%. PDGF (1 nM) increased the total number of T-I cells by 43%; this effect was due to an increase in the number of steroidogenically inactive cells (47%). In contrast, the stimulatory effect of IGF-I (10 nM) was predominantly due to an increase in the number of steroidogenically active cells (163%). Separation of dividing cells from nondividing cells was accomplished with the aid of flow cytometry. In the absence of growth factors, the proportion of steroidogenically active cells was 35% lower among proliferating than resting cells. PDGF (1 nM) decreased the proportion of steroidogenically active cells among both proliferating and resting cells (by 43% and 16%, respectively). In contrast, IGF-I (10 nM) increased the proportion of steroidogenically active cells among proliferating cells by 56%. These findings indicate that differentiated/steroidogenically active cells divide; furthermore, PDGF and IGF-I may selectively stimulate proliferation of individual subpopulations of T-I cells, thereby providing a mechanism for development of structural and steroidogenically active components of the T-I compartment.  (+info)

Activities of glucose metabolic enzymes in human preantral follicles: in vitro modulation by follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, epidermal growth factor, insulin-like growth factor I, and transforming growth factor beta1. (3/7501)

Modulation of glucose metabolic capacity of human preantral follicles in vitro by gonadotropins and intraovarian growth factors was evaluated by monitoring the activities of phosphofructokinase (PFK) and pyruvate kinase (PK), two regulatory enzymes of the glycolytic pathway, and malate dehydrogenase (MDH), a key mitochondrial enzyme of the Krebs cycle. Preantral follicles in classes 1 and 2 from premenopausal women were cultured separately in vitro in the absence or presence of FSH, LH, epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I), or transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1) for 24 h. Mitochondrial fraction was separated from the cytosolic fraction, and both fractions were used for enzyme assays. FSH and LH significantly stimulated PFK and PK activities in class 1 and 2 follicles; however, a 170-fold increase in MDH activity was noted for class 2 follicles that were exposed to FSH. Although both EGF and TGFbeta1 stimulated glycolytic and Krebs cycle enzymes for class 1 preantral follicles, TGFbeta1 consistently stimulated the activities of both glycolytic enzymes more than that of EGF. IGF-I induced PK and MDH activities in class 1 follicles but negatively influenced PFK activity for class 1 follicles. In general, only gonadotropins consistently stimulated both glycolytic and Krebs cycle enzyme activities several-fold in class 2 follicles. These results suggest that gonadotropins and ovarian growth factors differentially influence follicular energy-producing capacity from glucose. Moreover, gonadotropins may either directly influence glucose metabolism in class 2 preantral follicles or do so indirectly through factors other than the well-known intraovarian growth factors. Because growth factors modulate granulosa cell mitosis and functionality, their role on energy production may be related to specific cellular activities.  (+info)

Insulin-like growth factor-1 induces Mdm2 and down-regulates p53, attenuating the myocyte renin-angiotensin system and stretch-mediated apoptosis. (4/7501)

Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 inhibits apoptosis, but its mechanism is unknown. Myocyte stretching activates p53 and p53-dependent genes, leading to the formation of angiotensin II (Ang II) and apoptosis. Therefore, this in vitro system was used to determine whether IGF-1 interfered with p53 function and the local renin-angiotensin system (RAS), decreasing stretch-induced cell death. A single dose of 200 ng/ml IGF-1 at the time of stretching decreased myocyte apoptosis 43% and 61% at 6 and 20 hours. Ang II concentration was reduced 52% at 20 hours. Additionally, p53 DNA binding to angiotensinogen (Aogen), AT1 receptor, and Bax was markedly down-regulated by IGF-1 via the induction of Mdm2 and the formation of Mdm2-p53 complexes. Concurrently, the quantity of p53, Aogen, renin, AT1 receptor, and Bax was reduced in stretched myocytes exposed to IGF-1. Conversely, Bcl-2 and the Bcl-2-to-Bax protein ratio increased. The effects of IGF-1 on cell death, Ang II synthesis, and Bax protein were the consequence of Mdm2-induced down-regulation of p53 function. In conclusion, the anti-apoptotic impact of IGF-1 on stretched myocytes was mediated by its capacity to depress p53 transcriptional activity, which limited Ang II formation and attenuated the susceptibility of myocytes to trigger their endogenous cell death pathway.  (+info)

Rapamycin causes poorly reversible inhibition of mTOR and induces p53-independent apoptosis in human rhabdomyosarcoma cells. (5/7501)

The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been shown to link growth factor signaling and posttranscriptional control of translation of proteins that are frequently involved in cell cycle progression. However, the role of this pathway in cell survival has not been demonstrated. Here, we report that rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of mTOR kinase, induces G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in two rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines (Rh1 and Rh30) under conditions of autocrine cell growth. To examine the kinetics of rapamycin action, we next determined the rapamycin sensitivity of rhabdomyosarcoma cells exposed briefly (1 h) or continuously (6 days). Results demonstrate that Rh1 and Rh30 cells were equally sensitive to rapamycin-induced growth arrest and apoptosis under either condition. Apoptosis was detected between 24 and 144 h of exposure to rapamycin. Both cell lines have mutant p53; hence, rapamycin-induced apoptosis appears to be a p53-independent process. To determine whether induction of apoptosis by rapamycin was specifically due to inhibition of mTOR signaling, we engineered Rh1 and Rh30 clones to stably express a mutant form of mTOR that was resistant to rapamycin (Ser2035-->Ile; designated mTOR-rr). Rh1 and Rh30 mTOR-rr clones were highly resistant (>3000-fold) to both growth inhibition and apoptosis induced by rapamycin. These results are the first to indicate that rapamycin-induced apoptosis is mediated by inhibition of mTOR. Exogenous insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I protected both Rh1 and Rh30 from apoptosis, without reactivating ribosomal p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K) downstream of mTOR. However, in rapamycin-treated cultures, the response to IGF-I differed between the cell lines: Rh1 cells proliferated normally, whereas Rh30 cells remained arrested in G1 phase but viable. Rapamycin is known to inhibit synthesis of specific proteins but did not inhibit synthesis or alter the levels of mTOR. To examine the rate at which the mTOR pathway recovered, the ability of IGF-I to stimulate p70S6K activity was followed in cells treated for 1 h with rapamycin and then allowed to recover in medium containing > or =100-fold excess of FK506 (to prevent rapamycin from rebinding to its cytosolic receptor FKBP-12). Our results indicate that, in Rh1 cells, rapamycin dissociates relatively slowly from FKBP-12, with a t1/2 of approximately 17.5 h. in the presence of FK506, whereas there was no recovery of p70S6K activity in the absence of this competitor. This was of interest because rapamycin was relatively unstable under conditions of cell culture having a biological t1/2 of approximately 9.9 h. These results help to explain why cells are sensitive following short exposures to rapamycin and may be useful in guiding the use of rapamycin analogues that are entering clinical trials as novel antitumor agents.  (+info)

The somatostatin analog octreotide inhibits growth of interleukin-6 (IL-6)-dependent and IL-6-independent human multiple myeloma cell lines. (6/7501)

Somatostatin and its analogs can inhibit growth in several cell types, in part by interfering with insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) signaling. Our previous studies point to the importance of paracrine and autocrine IGF-I in the support of growth and survival of human multiple myeloma (MM) cell lines. In this report, we have investigated the potential role of a somatostatin analog, octreotide, in regulating growth and/or survival in MM. The results show that all MM cell lines express functional somatostatin receptors (sst). The MM cell lines express the subtypes sst2, sst3, and predominantly sst5 as determined by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis. Octreotide inhibited the growth of both the interleukin-6 (IL-6)-dependent and the IL-6-independent MM cell lines. The effect is mainly cytostatic, resulting in 25% to 45% growth inhibition, and in three of eight of the MM cell lines a weak induction of apoptosis was recorded. Our results also show that octreotide may act as an inducer of apoptosis in primary B-B4(+) plasma cells isolated from bone marrow of MM patients. In conclusion, the results show a novel pathway for growth inhibition of MM cells: the activation of somatostatin receptor signaling.  (+info)

Long-term effects of growth hormone (GH) on body fluid distribution in GH deficient adults: a four months double blind placebo controlled trial. (7/7501)

OBJECTIVE: Short-term growth hormone (GH) treatment normalises body fluid distribution in adult GH deficient patients, but the impact of long-term treatment on body fluid homeostasis has hitherto not been thoroughly examined in placebo controlled trials. To investigate if the water retaining effect of GH persists for a longer time we examined the impact of 4 months GH treatment on extracellular volume (ECV) and plasma volume (PV) in GH deficient adults. DESIGN: Twenty-four (18 male, 6 female) adult GH deficient patients aged 25-64 years were included and received either GH (n=11) or placebo (n=13) in a double blind parallel design. METHODS: Before and at the end of each 4 month period ECV and PV were assessed directly using 82Br- and 125I-albumin respectively, and blood samples were obtained. RESULTS: During GH treatment ECV increased significantly (before: 20.48+/-0.99 l, 4 months: 23.77+/-1.38 l (P<0.01)), but remained unchanged during placebo administration (before: 16.92+/-1.01 l, 4 months: 17.60+/-1.24 l (P=0.37)). The difference between the groups was significant (P<0.05). GH treatment also increased PV (before: 3.39+/-0.27 l. 4 months: 3.71+/-0.261 (P=0.01)), although an insignificant increase in the placebo treated patients (before: 2.81+/-0.18 l, 4 months: 2.89+/-0.20 l (P=0.37)) resulted in an insignificant treatment effect (P=0.07). Serum insulin-like growth factor-I increased significantly during GH treatment and was not affected by placebo treatment. Plasma renin (mIU/l) increased during GH administration (before: 14.73+/-2.16, 4 months: 26.00+/-6.22 (P=0.03)) and remained unchanged following placebo (before: 20.77+/-5.13, 4 months: 20.69+/-6.67 (P=0.99)) leaving no significant treatment effect (P=0.08). CONCLUSION: The long-term impact of GH treatment on body fluid distribution in adult GH deficient patients involves expansion of ECV and probably also PV. These data substantiate the role of GH as a regulator of fluid homeostasis in adult GH deficiency.  (+info)

Neurosurgery restores late GH rise after glucose-induced suppression in cured acromegalics. (8/7501)

OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: A decrease of GH levels below 2 microg/l after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is still currently accepted as the gold standard for assessing cure in surgically treated acromegaly. Whether glucose-induced suppression of GH is accompanied by a restoration of normal GH late rebound has not yet been evaluated in this disease. In order to assess the restoration of normal GH regulation after removal of a pituitary adenoma, we have evaluated GH changes after an OGTT in a series of selected acromegalic patients (transsphenoidal surgery and lack of pituitary failure). METHODS: Twenty-nine patients (13 male, 16 female, age range 27-70 years) entered the study. Their neuroradiological imaging before neurosurgery showed microadenoma in 7, intrasellar macroadenoma in 8 and macroadenoma with extrasellar extension in 14. Plasma GH levels were assayed up to 300 min after glucose administration (75 g p.o.) and IGF-I on basal samples. RESULTS: Basal GH levels were below 5 microg/l in 20 patients and below 2 microg/l in 5 of these. Normal age-adjusted IGF-I levels were observed in 12 patients. GH values were suppressed below 2 microg/l during an OGTT in 13 patients, and below 1 microg/l in 7 of these. In 9 patients out of these 13, a marked rise in GH levels occurred after nadir. Baseline and nadir GH values of these 9 patients were not different from the corresponding values of the other 4 patients without OGTT-induced late GH peaks. CONCLUSIONS: GH rebound after GH nadir occurs in acromegalic patients considered as cured on the basis of OGTT-induced GH suppression and/or IGF-I normalization. The restoration of this physiological response could be regarded as a marker of recovered/preserved integrity of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Even though the reason for this GH rebound has not yet been elucidated (GHRH discharge?/end of somatostatin inhibition?), the lack of late GH peak in the patients regarded as cured by the usual criteria could be due to injury to the pituitary stalk caused by the adenoma or by surgical manipulation.  (+info)

Title: Recombinant Human Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1: A New Cardiovascular Disease Treatment Option?. VOLUME: 6 ISSUE: 4. Author(s):E. Conti, M. B. Musumeci, G. Egidy Assenza, G. Quarta, C. Autore and M. Volpe. Affiliation:Cardiology, II Faculty of Medicine, University of Rome La Sapienza, Rome, Ospedale Sant Andrea, Italy.. Keywords:IGF-1, insulin, rhIGF-1, myocardial infarction, diabetes, outcome, flow metabolism coupling, endothelium. Abstract: The Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) system is dynamic and complex, involving many binding proteins, binding-proteinrelated proteases, and receptors. It has emerged in time as a powerful defence to life processes of many cytotypes, tissues and systems. Mainly in body metabolism, diabetes and cardiovascular system, but also in brain and kidney, IGF-1 plays a key role in maintaining homeostasis, increasing progenitor cell potential, and improving physiologic performance both in rest and stress conditions. Its vasculoprotective and insulin ...
The insulin-like growth factor system (insulin-like growth factor 1, insulin-like growth factor 2, insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor and six insulinlike growth factor-binding proteins) and insulin are essential to muscle metabolism and most aspects of male and female reproduction. Insulin-like growth factor and insulin play important roles in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation and the maintenance of cell differentiation in mammals. In order to better understand the local factors that regulate equine physiology, such as muscle metabolism and reproduction (e.g., germ cell development and fertilisation), real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays for quantification of equine insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor and insulin receptor messenger ribonucleic acid were developed. The assays were sensitive: 192 copies/μL and 891 copies/μL for insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, messenger ribonucleic acid and insulin ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Insulin‐like Growth Factor 1, but Not Growth Hormone, Has In Vitro Proliferative Effects on Neonatal Foreskin Fibroblasts without Affecting 5‐α‐Reductase or Androgen Receptor Activity. AU - DYKSTRA, KENNETH D.. AU - PAYNE, A. MATTHEW. AU - ABDELRAHIM, MAGED. AU - FRANCIS, GARY L.. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - ABSTRACT: Clinical observation of patients with congenital growth hormone (GH) deficiency and Laron‐type dwarfism suggests that factors such as GH or insulin‐like growth factor 1 (IGF‐1) might, in addition to androgens, be needed for normal phallic growth. We speculated GH or IGF‐1 might have direct actions on genital tissues and performed the present study to evaluate the in vitro effects of GH and IGF‐1 on cultured neonatal foreskin fibroblasts. Cells derived from foreskins of normal newborns were studied between cell passages 6 and 15. Serum‐free media with and without 100 ng/ml GH, IGF‐1, or both were added 24 hours prior to and at the time of ...
Increasing of body weight has been one of the important economic factors in the poultry industry. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I is a polypeptide that serves to regulate muscle development and body growth. Moreover, IGF-I is related to feed efficiency. However, there are few studies regarding the regulatory roles of chicken IGF-I/-II compared with that of mammals. Especially, the Korean Native Ogol Chicken (KNOC) has a lean body growth and its body weight is generally lighter than the broiler chicken. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate associations among serum IGF-I/-II concentration, feed efficiency, and body growth in KNOC. The body weight and feed intake of KNOC were recorded from 20 to 36 weeks at 2 weeks intervals, and blood was taken every 2 weeks. Serum IGF-I/-II were measured by RIA. Chickens were divided into two groups, high and low serum IGF-I concentration. Generally, feed efficiency and growth performance (body weight and weight gain) in the high serum IGF-I ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of aromatase complex selective inhibition on insulin-like growth factor 1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 circulating levels in breast cancer. AU - Ferrari, Leonardo. AU - Bajetta, Emilio. AU - Seregni, Ettore. AU - Martinetti, Antonia. AU - Zilembo, Nicoletta. AU - Noberasco, Cristina. AU - Buzzoni, Roberto. AU - Botti, Carlo. AU - Massaron, Simonetta. AU - Bichisao, Ettore. AU - Celio, Luigi. AU - Bombardieri, Emilio. PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. N2 - The aim of our study is to evaluate insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-3 circulating levels in postmenopausal women treated with type I aromatase inhibitor formestane for breast cancer. Sixty- three patients at their first relapse entered the trial and were randomly given formestane at 250 mg or 500 mg i.m. fortnightly. Effects of the endocrine treatment on IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 were measured before and during therapy at scheduled times. IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 seems to slightly increase in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of Ethanol on Insulin‐Like Growth Factor‐II Release from Fetal Organs. AU - Mauceri, Helena J.. AU - Lee, Wei‐Hua ‐H. AU - Conway, Sonya. PY - 1994/2. Y1 - 1994/2. N2 - This study examines the effect of ethanol (ETOH) exposure and nutrient restriction on the release of insulin‐like growth factor (IGF)‐II from 18‐ and 20‐day explanted fetal organs. Fetuses were exposed to ETOH (E) in utero by feeding dams a 36% (calories derived from ETOH: 6.6% v/v) ETOH liquid diet. Control fetuses were offsprings of dams either pair‐fed (P) a control liquid diet or ad libitum (A) fed a standard pelleted lab chow. Brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, and placenta of fetuses from the same litter were pooled and explanted, and IGF‐II concentration in explanted media was analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Maternal and fetal weights were determined during pregnancy and at sacrifice, respectively, to evaluate the influence of ETOH on growth. Both maternal and fetal weights ...
Reduced brain input of serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), a potent neurotrophic peptide, may be associated with neurodegenerative processes. Thus, analysis of the mechanisms involved in passage of blood-borne IGF-I into the brain may shed light onto pathological mechanisms in neurodegeneration and provide new drug targets. A site of entrance of serum IGF-I into the brain is the choroid plexus. The transport mechanism for IGF-I in this specialized epithelium involves the IGF-I receptor and the membrane multicargo transporter megalin/LRP2. We have now analyzed this process in greater detail and found that the IGF-I receptor interacts with the transmembrane region of megalin, whereas the perimembrane domain of megalin is required for IGF-I internalization. Furthermore, a GSK3 site within the Src homology 3 domain of the C-terminal region of megalin is a key regulator of IGF-I transport. Thus, inhibition of GSK3 markedly increased internalization of IGF-I, whereas mutation of this GSK3 site ...
Pregnancy protects against breast cancer development in humans and rats. Parous rats have persistently reduced circulating levels of growth hormone, which may affect the activity of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I axis. We investigated the effects of IGF-I on parity-associated protection against mammary cancer. Three groups of rats were evaluated in the present study: IGF-I-treated parous rats; parous rats that did not receive IGF-I treatment; and age-matched virgin animals, which also did not receive IGF-I treatment. Approximately 60 days after N-methyl-N-nitrosourea injection, IGF-I treatment was discontinued and all of the animal groups were implanted with a silastic capsule containing 17β-estradiol and progesterone. The 17β-estradiol plus progesterone treatment continued for 135 days, after which the animals were killed. IGF-I treatment of parous rats increased mammary tumor incidence to 83%, as compared with 16% in parous rats treated with 17β-estradiol plus progesterone
Click to launch & play an online audio visual presentation by Prof. Derek LeRoith on The growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis in health and disease, part of a collection of online lectures.
Zhou, X.; Hintz, R. L.; LIN, Ting Kwong; How, W. H. K.; Aw, T C; and Lee, K O. Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I (Igf-I) and Dehydroepiandrosterone-Sulphate (Dhea-S) in a Community Dwelling Elderly Population. (1997). Endocrinology and Metabolism. 4, (5), 345-351. Research Collection School Of Economics ...
Pre- and postnatal growth failure can be caused by mutations in the IGF1 (insulin-like growth factor 1) or IGF1R (insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor) genes. Autosomal recessive mutations in IGF1 cause insulin-like growth factor I deficiency (MIM 608747), which is characterized by microcephaly, intellectual disability, and deafness in addition to the growth failure. Autosomal dominant mutations in IGF1R cause insulin-like growth factor I, resistance to (MIM 270450). It is associated with partial IGF1 resistance, pre- and postnatal growth failure, microcephaly, and in some cases modest intellectual disability. Autosomal recessive IGF1R mutations have been found in a few patients. This results in a more severe growth delay and additional developmental abnormalities.. Read less ...
Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is a mitogen for prostate epithelial cells. To investigate associations between plasma IGF levels and prostate cancer risk, a nested case-control study within the Physicians Health Study was conducted on prospectively collected plasma from 152 cases and 152 controls. A strong positive association was observed between IGF-I levels and prostate cancer risk. Men in the highest quartile of IGF-I levels had a relative risk of 4.3 (95 percent confidence interval 1.8 to 10.6) compared with men in the lowest quartile. This association was independent of baseline prostate-specific antigen levels. Identification of plasma IGF-I as a predictor of prostate cancer risk may have implications for risk reduction and treatment ...
Background Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), which is mostly carried in blood by IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), was associated to the glomerular filtration rate and chronic kidney disease in a...
Problem statement: The IGFs play an important role in regulating somatic growth according to nutritional conditions. Polymorphisms of IGF gene are reported to be significantly associated with many traits. Approach: In these study 142 samples of DNA from Zel sheep were used for detecting the polymorphisms of promoter region of the Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) gene. Therefore DNA extracted from blood using Salting-out procedure. Results: Primers were supplied for amplifying the specific segment. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) accomplished after finding the best condition to do the reaction. The specific segment amplified well. SSCP and RFLP markers were used for detecting the polymorphisms of the segment. For SSCP analysis PCR-product was denatured and dilution was loaded onto a 12% polyacrylamide gel. RFLP analysis was performed by incubating of PCR product by HaeII restriction enzyme at 37°C for 4 h. Gels were visualized using a 3.5% agarose gel that contained ethidium bromide. The
The associations between serum concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), IGF-II and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP)-3 and risk of breast cancer were investigated in a nested case-control study involving 117 cases (70 premenopausal and 47 postmenopausal at blood collection) and 350 matched controls within a cohort of women from the island of Guernsey, UK. Women using exogenous hormones at the time of blood collection were excluded. Premenopausal women in the top vs bottom third of serum IGF-I concentration had a nonsignificantly increased risk for breast cancer after adjustment for IGFBP-3 (odds ratio (OR) 1.71; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.74-3.95; test for linear trend, P=0.21). Serum IGFBP-3 was associated with a reduction in risk in premenopausal women after adjustment for IGF-I (top third vs the bottom third: OR 0.49; 95% CI: 0.21-1.12, P for trend=0.07). Neither IGF-I nor IGFBP-3 was associated with risk in postmenopausal women and serum IGF-II concentration was not associated with
Diet contributes to over one-third of cancer deaths in the Western world, yet the factors in the diet that influence cancer are not elucidated. A reduction in caloric intake dramatically slows cancer progression in rodents, and this may be a major contribution to dietary effects on cancer. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is lowered during dietary restriction (DR) in both humans and rats. Because IGF-I modulates cell proliferation, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis, the mechanisms behind the protective effects of DR may depend on the reduction of this multifaceted growth factor. To test this hypothesis, IGF-I was restored during DR to ascertain if lowering of IGF-I was central to slowing bladder cancer progression during DR. Heterozygous p53-deficient mice received a bladder carcinogen, p-cresidine, to induce preneoplasia. After confirmation of bladder urothelial preneoplasia, the mice were divided into three groups: (a) ad libitum; (b) 20% DR; and (c) 20% DR pius IGF-I (IGF-I/DR). Serum IGF-I ...
Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus is associated with increased glucose, insulin, total and VLDL-triglyceride, and often total and LDL-cholesterol levels which promote vascular disease. Recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I which mimics many effects of insulin, decreased insul …
In vitro studies have shown that insulin-like growth factor (IGF) is a mitogen for breast cancer cells. However, the associations of plasma IGF-I with tumor histopathology in high-risk groups need fur
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Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the Double-antibody Sandwich method for detection of Rat Insulin Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 6 (IGFBP6) in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates and other biological fluids with no significant corss-reactivity with analogues from other species ...
BACKGROUND: Some studies suggest that elevated serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I concentrations are associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer and, in particular, with an increased risk of advanced-stage prostate cancer. METHODS: We analyzed the association between prediagnostic serum concentrations of IGF-I and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and prostate cancer risk in a case-control study nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. This study includes 630 incident prostate cancer cases and 630 matched control subjects. Odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated for prostate cancer risk associated with increasing IGF-I and IGFBP-3 concentrations using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: The risk of total prostate cancer in the highest versus the lowest third of serum peptide concentration was 1.35 (95% CI, 0.99-1.82; Ptrend = 0.08) for IGF-I, 1.39 (95% CI, 1.02-1.89; Ptrend = 0.12) for the IGF-I residuals after
Background: Some studies suggest that elevated serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I concentrations are associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer and, in particular, with an increased risk of advanced-stage prostate cancer. Methods: We analyzed the association between prediagnostic serum concentrations of IGF-I and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and prostate cancer risk in a case-control study nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. This study includes 630 incident prostate cancer cases and 630 matched control subjects. Odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated for prostate cancer risk associated with increasing IGF-I and IGFBP-3 concentrations using conditional logistic regression. Results: The risk of total prostate cancer in the highest versus the lowest third of serum peptide concentration was 1.35 (95% CI, 0.99-1.82; P trend = 0.08) for IGF-I, 1.39 (95% CI, 1.02-1.89; P trend = 0.12) for the IGF-I residuals after
Our finding that a relatively high concentration of IGF-I is associated with an increased risk for prostate cancer is consistent with results from a pooled reanalysis of individual participant data from 12 prospective studies (which includes phase I of this study; ref. 2). This association is evident for both localized and advanced disease and exists over the short and long term. While it is likely that some men with subclinical disease at recruitment were included in our study [because of the long lag time between disease onset and clinical symptoms (6)], the positive association observed among men diagnosed with advanced stage disease (for whom nearly 65% were diagnosed more than 4 years after recruitment) and among men diagnosed more than 7 years after blood collection, supports the hypothesis that IGF-I is associated with prostate cancer many years before diagnosis.. IGF-I concentration was also associated with an increased risk of localized prostate cancer. This finding contrasts with those ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of distinct Stat5b binding sites that mediate growth hormone-stimulated IGF-I gene transcription. AU - Chia, Dennis J.. AU - Ono, Mitsuru. AU - Woelfle, Joachim. AU - Schlesinger-Massart, Mylynda. AU - Jiang, Honglin. AU - Rotwein, Peter. PY - 2006/2/10. Y1 - 2006/2/10. N2 - A key agent in the anabolic actions of growth hormone (GH) is insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), a 70-amino acid secreted protein with direct effects on somatic growth and tissue maintenance and repair. GH rapidly and potently stimulates IGF-I gene transcription by mechanisms independent of new protein synthesis, and recent studies have linked the transcription factor Stat5b to a regulatory network connecting the activated GH receptor on the cell membrane to the IGF-I gene in the nucleus. Here we analyze two distinct conserved GH response elements in the rat IGF-I locus that contain paired Stat5b sites. Each response element binds Stat5b in vivo in a GH-dependent way, as assessed by ...
IGF-BPs controls the distribution, function and activity of IGFs in various cell tissues and body fluids. Currently there are seven named IGF-BPs that form high affinity complexes with both IGF- I and IGF-II. IGF-BP-6 plays a role in lipoprotein assembly and dietary cholesterol absorption. in addition to its acyltransferase activity, it may act as a ligase. may provide cholesteryl esters for lipoprotein secretion from hepatocytes and intestinal mucosa.Human recombinant IGF-BP-6 produced in E. coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing the amino acids 148-240 and having a molecular mass of 20 kDa including a 4 kDa His tag. It is purified by using proprietary chromatographic techniques ...
Growth failure and GH/IgF-1 deficiency has been described in patients diagnosed with Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) [Boder et al.,1958]. This condition is a fatal inherited disease caused by a mutation of the ATM gene on chromosome 11 leading to chromosomal instability, immunodeficiency, cancer susceptibility and and endocrinological abnormalities. In this regard, several groups demonstrated a cross-linking of ATM with growth factor pathways. Participation of the ATM protein in insulin signaling through phosphorylation of eIF-4E-binding protein 1 has been postulated [Yang et al.,2000]. Peretz et al.[2001] described that expression of the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor is (IGF-I R) ATM dependent in a pathway regulating radiation response. In addition, Shahrabani-Gargir et al.[2004] found that the ATM gene controls IGF-I R gene expression in a DNA damage response pathway. Suzuki et al.[2004] described that IGF-I phosphorylates AMPK-alpha, a key regulator of cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Human growth disorders. T2 - Molecular genetics of the growth hormone- insulin-like growth factor I axis. AU - Rotwein, P.. PY - 1999/1/1. Y1 - 1999/1/1. N2 - The critical role of the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor I axis in controlling somatic growth in humans and other vertebrate species has been known for many years. Through molecular cloning and other related techniques many of the components of this axis have been characterized, with the most recent additions being key transcription factors required for pituitary development and for pituitary-specific gene expression. Several of these genes have been shown to be mutated in familial and sporadic human growth deficiency syndromes, thereby validating the central roles of the encoded proteins in the endocrine pathways regulating somatic growth. The purpose of this review is to highlight these recent advances from the perspective of the molecular genetics of human growth disorders.. AB - The critical role of the growth ...
The NHS was established in 1976, when 121,700 female registered nurses (age, 30-55 years) returned a completed mailed questionnaire. Since that time, biennial mailed questionnaires have been sent to update exposure histories and ascertain changes in medical and health status. Information collected includes height, weight, reproductive history, history of benign breast disease, alcohol intake, levels of physical activity, first-degree family history of breast cancer, menopausal status, and postmenopausal hormone use as well as any diagnosis of cancer or another illness. In 1989-1990, blood samples were collected from 32,826 participants in the NHS. Blood collection and sample storage methods have been detailed in a previous publication (8) .. In the study reported here, we compared the percentage of the total breast area appearing dense on mammography with the plasma concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 among selected NHS participants who had served as controls in the previous study of plasma ...
Conduct problems (CP) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often comorbid and have each been linked to unhealthy diet. Early‐life diet also associates with DNA methylation of the insulin‐like growth factor 2 gene (IGF2), involved in fetal and neural development. We investigated the degree to which prenatal high‐fat and ‐sugar diet might relate to ADHD symptoms via IGF2 DNA methylation for early‐onset persistent (EOP) versus low CP youth. Read the Commentary on this article at doi ...
LOC645468 (insulin like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 3 pseudogene), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
Circulating total testosterone and insulin like growth factor 1 as determinants of haemoglobin level in men with chronic heart failure Conference Paper ...
OsrIGF-1 is expressed as fusion protein with HSA, which increases its solubility and lifetime. OsrIGF-1 presents a molecular weight about 74.5kD, and has a much higher stability compared to IGF-1.
The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are proteins with high sequence similarity to insulin. IGFs are part of a complex system that cells use to communicate with their physiologic environment. This complex system (often referred to as the IGF axis) consists of two cell-surface receptors (IGF1R and IGF2R), two ligands (Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2)), a family of six high-affinity IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP-1 to IGFBP-6), as well as associated IGFBP degrading enzymes, referred to collectively as proteases. The IGF axis is also commonly referred to as the Growth Hormone/IGF-1 Axis. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1, or sometimes with Roman Numeral as IGF-I) is mainly secreted by the liver as a result of stimulation by growth hormone (GH). IGF-1 is important for both the regulation of normal physiology, as well as a number of pathological states, including cancer. The IGF axis has been shown to play roles in the promotion of cell proliferation ...
The diagnosis of GH deficiency (GHD) in the elderly is based at present on the peak GH concentration during a stimulation test. We have now evaluated the performance of urinary GH (uGH), urinary insulin-like growth factor I (uIGF-I), and urinary IGF-binding protein-3 (uIGFBP-3) in the diagnosis of GHD in this group. Twenty GHD elderly patients with a history of pituitary disease and a peak GH response to arginine stimulation of less than 3 ng/mL (15 men and 5 women; age, 61.1-83.4 yr) and 19 controls (12 men and 7 women; age, 60.8-87.5 yr) were studied. GH secretion was assessed by 24-h profile and expressed as the area under the curve (AUCGH). Serum (s) IGF-I and sIGFBP-3 were measured in a single morning, fasted sample. Urinary GH, uIGF-I, and uIGFBP-3 were measured in a 24-h urine sample collected over the same interval as the GH profile, and results were expressed as total amount excreted in 24 h (tuGH24, nanograms; tuIGF-I24, nanograms; tuIGFBP-3(24), micrograms). Data are presented as the ...
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Apr;85(4):1686-94.. Mauras N, OBrien KO, Welch S, Rini A, Helgeson K, Vieira NE, Yergey AL.. Division of Endocrinology, Nemours Childrens Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida 32207, USA. [email protected] We examined the effects of recombinant human (rh) insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) vs. rhGH in a variety of metabolic paths in a group of eight severely GH-deficient young adults using an array of contemporary tools. Protein, glucose, and calcium metabolism were studied using stable labeled tracer infusions of L-[1-13C]leucine, [6,6-2H2]glucose, and 42Ca and 44Ca; substrate oxidation rates were assessed using indirect calorimetry; muscle strength was determined by isokinetic and isometric dynamometry of the anterior quadriceps, as well as growth factors, hormones, glucose, and lipid concentrations in plasma before and after 8 weeks of rhIGF-I (60 microg/kg, sc, twice daily), followed by 4 weeks of washout, then 8 weeks ofrhGH (12.5 microg/kg-day, sc); the ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Transport and binding of insulin-like growth factor I through articular cartilage. AU - Garcia, A. Minerva. AU - Szasz, Nora. AU - Trippel, Stephen. AU - Morales, Teresa I.. AU - Grodzinsky, Alan J.. AU - Frank, Eliot H.. PY - 2003/7/1. Y1 - 2003/7/1. N2 - This study focused on the role of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding proteins (IGFBPs) in cartilage on the transport and binding of IGF-I within the tissue. We have developed experimental and theoretical modeling techniques to quantify and contrast the roles of diffusion, binding, fluid convection, and electrical migration on the transport of IGF-I within cartilage tissue. Bovine articular cartilage disks were equilibrated in buffer containing 125I-IGF-I and graded levels of unlabeled IGF-I. Equilibrium binding, as measured by the uptake ratio of 125I-IGF-I in the tissue (free plus bound) to the concentration of labeled species in the buffer, was found to be consistent with a first-order reversible binding model involving ...
Domains of the insulin-like growth factor I receptor required for the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases.: The type 1 insulin-like growth fact
Aim and background. The Wilms tumor 1 gene (WT1) is overexpressed in many cancers, including breast cancer, and its high expression is an adverse prognostic factor. However, the factors that regulate WT1 expression are poorly understood. Methods and study design. Expression of genes at the RNA and protein level was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and reverse-phase protein array assays in breast cancer cell lines and tumor samples. Results. In the study, we showed that the treatment of MCF-7 breast cancer cells with insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) increases WT1 protein expression by 77%. IGF-I uses Akt to up-regulate WT1 expression. Conversely, inhibition of IGF-I by IGF-binding protein 3 and of IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) by anti-IGF-IR antibody (b-IR3) uses Akt to decrease WT1 protein levels in MCF-7 cells. We thus newly identified a mechanism by which IGF-I up-regulates WT1, especially the (+exon 5/-KTS) isoform, at the posttranscriptional level ...
Both GH-deficiency and type 1 diabetes are associated with low IGF-I levels. The aim with our studies was to develop a dose titration model to obtain physiological IGF-I levels in growth hormone deficiency and to evaluate the relationship between glycaemic control and IGF-I in diabetes. First we established reference values for insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin like growth factor bindingprotein-1 (IGFBP-1) from 101 women and 101 men randomly selected from the population registry. No gender differences in IGF-I levels were fmmd. IGF-1 decreases with advancing age in both sexes, whereas IGFBP-1 increases with age.. Titrating the GH dose according to population based reference values of IGF-I might be a way to obtain a fairly physiological substitution dose of GH. We hypothesised that a safe and probably effective maintenance dose of GH should increase IGF-I to the mean or slightly below the mean according to age adjusted reference levels. Eighteen adult hypopituitary patients with ...
Results:. Serum osteocalcin and type I procollagen C-peptide increased during rhIGF-1 therapy (P , 0.05). Twenty-four hour urinary calcium, hydroxyproline, and pyridinoline cross-links were also higher after treatment than they were before treatment (P , 0.05). During 6 months of treatment, the bone mineral density of the L2 to L4 vertebrae increased 3%; this value exceeded the coefficient of variation of this measurement. Bone density at the femoral neck and radial shaft changed by less than the coefficient of variation of these measurements. No significant changes in serum glucose values or other adverse effects of treatment were noted. ...
Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) enhances myofibrillar development in cardiomyocytes of rats in culture and in vivo. In addition, IGF-I has vasodilatory effects and improves cardiac function in healthy volunteers. This study was conducted to evaluate the acute hemodynamic effects of IGF-I in patients with chronic heart failure Eight patients with chronic heart failure were randomized to receive recombinant human IGF-I (60 micrograms/kg) or placebo, i.v., over 4 h in a cross-over, double blind study on 2 consecutive days. Electrocardiogram as well as systemic hemodynamics were continuously monitored over 7 h by flow-guided thermodilution and radial artery catheters. IGF-I was well tolerated by all patients, and no pathological changes on electrocardiogram were recorded. Compared with placebo, IGF-I increased the cardiac index by 27 +/- 3.7% (+/- SE; P | 0.0005) and the stroke volume index by 21 +/- 5.6% (P | 0.05), and decreased systemic vascular resistance by 28 +/- 4.4% (P | 0.0002), right atrial
Experimental evidence shows cross-talk in mammary cells between estrogen, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and their respective receptors and possible synergistic effects of estrogen receptor (ER) activation and increased IGF-I signaling with regard to breast tumor development, and epidemiological evidence suggests that circulating IGF-I levels may be related more to the risk of ER-positive than ER-negative breast cancer. Using a case-control study nested within the prospective European EPIC cohort (938 breast cancer cases and 1,394 matched control subjects), we analyzed the relationships of prediagnostic serum IGF-I levels with the risk of estrogen and progesterone receptor-positive and -negative breast tumors. IGF-I levels were positively associated with the risk of ER+ breast tumors overall (pre- and postmenopausal women combined, odds ratio (OR) Q4-Q1 = 1.41 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.98] for the highest vs. lowest quartile; OR = 1.17 [95% CI 1.04-1.33] per 1-standard deviation (SD)
Experimental evidence shows cross-talk in mammary cells between estrogen, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and their respective receptors and possible synergistic effects of estrogen receptor (ER) activation and increased IGF-I signaling with regard to breast tumor development, and epidemiological evidence suggests that circulating IGF-I levels may be related more to the risk of ER-positive than ER-negative breast cancer. Using a case-control study nested within the prospective European EPIC cohort (938 breast cancer cases and 1,394 matched control subjects), we analyzed the relationships of prediagnostic serum IGF-I levels with the risk of estrogen and progesterone receptor-positive and -negative breast tumors. IGF-I levels were positively associated with the risk of ER+ breast tumors overall (pre- and postmenopausal women combined, odds ratio (OR) Q4-Q1 = 1.41 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.98] for the highest vs. lowest quartile; OR = 1.17 [95% CI 1.04-1.33] per 1-standard deviation (SD)
Treatment with recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) stimulates linear growth in children with severe IGF-I deficiency (IGFD). To evaluate the efficacy and safety of treatment with IGF-I in patients with severe IGFD treated until adult or near-adult height. Twenty-one children with severe IGFD were treated until adult or near-adult ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Insulin-like growth factor I expression in thyroid tumors. AU - Maiorano, Eugenio. AU - Ciampolillo, Anna. AU - Viale, Giuseppe. AU - Maisonneuve, Patrick. AU - Ambrosi, Antonio. AU - Triggiani, Vincenzo. AU - Marra, Ersilia. AU - Perlino, Elda. PY - 2000/6. Y1 - 2000/6. N2 - Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) likely is involved in thyrocyte proliferation via autocrine mechanisms, but limited data are available on its in vivo expression in thyroid neoplasms. This prompted us to explore IGF-1 expression at the protein and mRNA levels and IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1rec) immunore-activity in normal and neoplastic thyroids (50 adenomas and 53 carcinomas). We documented increased IGF-1 and IGF-1rec immunoreactivity in adenomas (31 of 50 and 40 of 50 cases, respectively) and carcinomas (38 of 53 and 42 of 53 cases) compared with normal thyroid, which only showed minimal immunoreactivity for the ligand and its receptor. A corresponding up- regulation of IGF-1 mRNA was documented in ...
in Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (1998), 83(2), 374-8. Cabergoline is a new, long acting, dopamine agonist that is more effective and better tolerated than bromocriptine in patients with hyperprolactinemia. Because dopamine agonists still have a place in the ... [more ▼]. Cabergoline is a new, long acting, dopamine agonist that is more effective and better tolerated than bromocriptine in patients with hyperprolactinemia. Because dopamine agonists still have a place in the medical management of acromegaly, cabergoline might be a useful treatment. We, therefore, evaluated the effect of long term administration of cabergoline in a large group of unselected acromegalic patients. Sixty-four patients were included in a multicenter, prospective, open labeled study. A subgroup of 16 patients had GH-/PRL-cosecreting pituitary adenomas. Cabergoline was started at a dose of 1.0 mg/week and was gradually increased until normalization of plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) ...
Adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats is associated with growth failure, hypermetabolism and accelerated protein breakdown. The aim of this work was to study the effects of adjuvant-induced arthritis on GH and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). Arthritis was induced by an intradermal injection of complete Freunds adjuvant and rats were killed 18 and 22 days later. IGF-I and GH levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Pituitary GH mRNA was analyzed by northern blot and IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) by western blot. Arthritic rats showed a decrease in both serum and hepatic concentrations of IGF-I. On the contrary, arthritis increased the circulating IGFBPs. The serum concentration of IGF-I in the arthritic rats was negatively correlated with the body weight loss observed in these animals. Arthritis decreased the serum concentration of GH and this decrease seems to be due to an inhibition of GH synthesis, since pituitary GH mRNA content was decreased in arthritic rats (p,0.01). These data ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Molecular and cellular aspects of the insulin-like growth factor I receptor. by Derek Leroith et al.
Title: Promotion of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Production by Sensory Neuron Stimulation; Molecular Mechanism(s) and Therapeutic Implications. VOLUME: 15 ISSUE: 29. Author(s):Kenji Okajima and Naoaki Harada. Affiliation:Department of Translational Medical Science Research, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kawasumi 1, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467- 8601, Japan.. Keywords:Insulin-like growth factor-I, sensory neurons, calcitonin gene-related peptide, nitric oxide, prostaglandins, tumor necrosis factor, apoptosis. Abstract: Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) plays various important roles in cellular proliferation, differentiation, survival and functions of the cell, thereby contributing to the maintenance of tissue integrity. Although it is well known that growth hormone (GH) increases serum IGF-I levels by stimulating the hepatic production, little is known about the mechanism by which local production of IGF-I in individual tissues is regulated. Stimulation of ...
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (somatomedin C). *IGF-1 LR3. *Insulin-like growth factor-2 (somatomedin A) ... It is mainly used to treat cases of NSCLC that harbour mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene.[5] ... Afatinib covalently binds to cysteine number 797 of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) via a Michael addition (IC50 = ... Phase II results for breast cancer that over-expresses the protein human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2-positive ...
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (somatomedin C). *IGF-1 LR3. *Insulin-like growth factor-2 (somatomedin A) ... Pegaptanib is a pegylated anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) aptamer, a single strand of nucleic acid that binds ... This then reduces the growth of the blood vessels located within the eye and works to control the leakage and swelling.[2] ... Additional growth factors: Adrenomedullin. *Colony-stimulating factors (see here instead). *Connective tissue growth factor ( ...
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (somatomedin C). *IGF-1 LR3. *Insulin-like growth factor-2 (somatomedin A) ... Additional growth factors: Adrenomedullin. *Colony-stimulating factors (see here instead). *Connective tissue growth factor ( ... Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF). *Interleukins/T-cell growth factors (see here instead) ...
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (somatomedin C). *IGF-1 LR3. *Insulin-like growth factor-2 (somatomedin A) ... Additional growth factors: Adrenomedullin. *Colony-stimulating factors (see here instead). *Connective tissue growth factor ( ... Growth factors. *Epidermal growth factor. *Fibroblast growth factor. *Nerve growth factor. *Platelet-derived growth factor ... Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF). *Interleukins/T-cell growth factors (see here instead) ...
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (somatomedin C). *IGF-1 LR3. *Insulin-like growth factor-2 (somatomedin A) ... Nerve growth factor[edit]. Main article: Nerve growth factor. Nerve growth factor (NGF), the prototypical growth factor, is a ... Neurotrophin-3, or NT-3, is a neurotrophic factor, in the NGF-family of neurotrophins. It is a protein growth factor that has ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor[edit]. Main article: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor ( ...
Warshamana-Greene G, Litz J, Buchdunger E, García-Echeverría C, Hofmann F, Krystal G (2005). "The insulin-like growth factor-I ... "Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor signalling and acquired resistance to gefitinib (ZD1839; Iressa) in human breast and ... Approximately 20% of drug resistance is caused by amplification of the hepatocyte growth factor receptor, which drives ERBB3 ... Erlotinib is an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor (EGFR inhibitor). The drug follows Iressa (gefitinib), which was the ...
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (somatomedin C). *IGF-1 LR3. *Insulin-like growth factor-2 (somatomedin A) ... Arighi E, Borrello MG, Sariola H (2005). "RET tyrosine kinase signaling in development and cancer". Cytokine Growth Factor Rev ... The RET proto-oncogene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase for members of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF ... glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor receptor signaling pathway. • positive regulation of MAPK cascade. • positive regulation ...
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (somatomedin C). *IGF-1 LR3. *Insulin-like growth factor-2 (somatomedin A) ... the Ras/MapK pathway, which leads to increased proliferation due to increased growth factor-independent cell growth. ... Imatinib is specific for the TK domain in abl (the Abelson proto-oncogene), c-kit and PDGF-R (platelet-derived growth factor ... In laboratory settings, imatinib is being used as an experimental agent to suppress platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) by ...
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (somatomedin C). *IGF-1 LR3. *Insulin-like growth factor-2 (somatomedin A) ... Fibroblast growth factor 20 is a protein which in humans is encoded by the FGF20 gene.[1] ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. FGF family members possess broad ... cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth and invasion. This gene was shown to be expressed in normal brain, ...
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (somatomedin C). *IGF-1 LR3. *Insulin-like growth factor-2 (somatomedin A) ... Götz R, Schartl M (1994). "The conservation of neurotrophic factors during vertebrate evolution". Comp Biochem Physiol ... 2008). "Association study of 10 genes encoding neurotrophic factors and their receptors in adult and child attention-deficit/ ... 2009). "Genes related to sex steroids, neural growth, and social-emotional behavior are associated with autistic traits, ...
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (somatomedin C). *IGF-1 LR3. *Insulin-like growth factor-2 (somatomedin A) ... Sorafenib treatment induces autophagy,[5] which may suppress tumor growth. However, autophagy can also cause drug resistance.[6 ... Additional growth factors: Adrenomedullin. *Colony-stimulating factors (see here instead). *Connective tissue growth factor ( ... Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF). *Interleukins/T-cell growth factors (see here instead) ...
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (somatomedin C). *IGF-1 LR3. *Insulin-like growth factor-2 (somatomedin A) ... epidermal growth factor) and other members of the EGF family of growth factors, resulting in activation of its tyrosine kinase ... "Tumor growth modulation by a monoclonal antibody to the epidermal growth factor receptor: immunologically mediated and effector ... It binds to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with high affinity.[1] The mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb425) from ...
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (somatomedin C). *IGF-1 LR3. *Insulin-like growth factor-2 (somatomedin A) ... Osherov N, Gazit A, Gilon C, Levitzki A (1993). "Selective inhibition of the epidermal growth factor and HER2/neu receptors by ... which was the first description of compounds inhibiting the catalytic activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). ... "Kinetics of inhibition by tyrphostins of the tyrosine kinase activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor and analysis by a ...
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (somatomedin C). *IGF-1 LR3. *Insulin-like growth factor-2 (somatomedin A) ... Vandetanib is an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, epidermal growth factor receptor, and RET tyrosine ... mainly the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and the RET- ... Additional growth factors: Adrenomedullin. *Colony-stimulating factors (see here instead). *Connective tissue growth factor ( ...
Insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor - rewrote, added a lot. Minor. *Ileal vessels - very short, based on other pages ...
Firth SM, Baxter RC (December 2002). "Cellular actions of the insulin-like growth factor binding proteins". Endocrine Reviews. ... activated blood-coagulation factor II, blood-coagulation factor IIa, factor IIa, E thrombin, beta-thrombin, gamma-thrombin) is ... Factor Xa with factor V as a cofactor leads to cleavage of the Gla and two Kringle domains (forming together a fragment called ... Thrombin is produced by the enzymatic cleavage of two sites on prothrombin by activated Factor X (Xa). The activity of factor ...
Pollak, Michael N.; Schernhammer, Eva S.; Hankinson, Susan E. (2004). "Insulin-like growth factors and neoplasia". Nature ... in vogue among some members of the general public because of the impact of protein intake on insulin/insulin-like growth factor ... "Nutritional Regulation of the Insulin-Like Growth Factors". Endocrine Reviews. 15 (1): 80-101. doi:10.1210/edrv-15-1-80. PMID ... IGF-1, which contributes to muscle growth, also contributes to bone growth, and IGF-1 is modulated by protein intake. However, ...
Moreover, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-R) is involved in cell proliferation and growth. It has is possible that it is ... Yu, Herbert; Rohan, Thomas (2000-09-20). "Role of the Insulin-Like Growth Factor Family in Cancer Development and Progression ... Fürstenberger, Gregor; Senn, Hans-Jörg (May 2002). "Insulin-like growth factors and cancer". The Lancet Oncology. 3 (5): 298- ... "Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling in tumorigenesis and the development of cancer drug resistance". Genes & Diseases. 2 ...
Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone Allen, NE; Key, TJ; Appleby, PN; et al. (2007). "Serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and ... Giovannucci, E (2003). "Nutrition, insulin, insulin-like growth factors and cancer". Hormone & Metabolic Research. 35 (11/12): ... Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a hormone found in humans that is responsible for growth promotion, protein synthesis, ... The effects are mediated by the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system, which is upregulated in response to BST or rBST ...
insulin receptor binding. • growth factor activity. • integrin binding. • 血浆蛋白结合. • insulin-like growth factor receptor binding ... insulin-like growth factor binding protein complex. • platelet alpha granule lumen. • insulin-like growth factor ternary ... 胰岛素样生长因子1(英语:Insulin-like growth factor 1,IGF-1)也被称为生长调节素C(somatomedin C),是一个由人类基因 IGF1 编码的蛋白质[3][4]。在1970年代,IGF-1也曾
"Plasma insulin-like growth factor 1, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3, and risk of colorectal cancer: a prospective ... "Factors regulating insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 binding, processing, and potentiation of insulin-like growth ... "Synthesis of insulin-like growth factor binding proteins and of the acid-labile subunit of the insulin-like growth factor ... "Castration-induced up-regulation of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 potentiates insulin-like growth factor-I ...
"Transferrin binds insulin-like growth factors and affects binding properties of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3". ... Transferrin has been shown to interact with insulin-like growth factor 2[18] and IGFBP3.[19] Transcriptional regulation of ... Weinzimer SA, Gibson TB, Collett-Solberg PF, Khare A, Liu B, Cohen P (Apr 2001). "Transferrin is an insulin-like growth factor- ...
... prognostic relevance of insulin-like growth factor-I". Gynecol. Endocrinol. 12 (2): 123-7. doi:10.3109/09513599809024960. PMID ...
... in estradiol levels of around 400 pg/mL in men with prostate cancer did not affect growth hormone or insulin-like growth factor ... the addition of oral ethinylestradiol significantly increased growth hormone levels and decreased insulin-like growth factor 1 ... prognostic relevance of insulin-like growth factor-I". Gynecol. Endocrinol. 12 (2): 123-7. doi:10.3109/09513599809024960. PMID ... Effects of estrogens on coagulation factors Factors. Oral estrogensa. Parenteral estrogensb ...
"Induction of Hair Growth by Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 in 1,763 MHz Radiofrequency-Irradiated Hair Follicle Cells". PLoS ONE ... "Dietary isoflavone increases insulin-like growth factor-I production, thereby promoting hair growth in mice". The Journal of ... Okajima, K.; Harada, N. (2008). "Promotion of insulin-like growth factor-I production by sensory neuron stimulation; molecular ... "Safety and efficacy analysis of liposomal insulin-like growth factor-1 in a fluid gel formulation for hair-loss treatment in a ...
Rotem-Yehudar R, Galperin E, Horowitz M (Aug 2001). "Association of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor with EHD1 and SNAP29 ...
Kleinberg DL, Wood TL, Furth PA, Lee AV (2009). "Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I in the transition from normal ... Ibrahim YH, Yee D (2004). "Insulin-like growth factor-I and cancer risk". Growth Horm. IGF Res. 14 (4): 261-9. doi:10.1016/j. ... "Prolonged Stimulation of Growth Hormone (GH) and Insulin-Like Growth Factor I Secretion by CJC-1295, a Long-Acting Analog of GH ... growth hormone (GH), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are utilized or manipulated to produce breast enlargement in ...
Those proteins include neurotrophic factors and insulin-like growth factor 1. Both those proteins are still under clinical ... genetic factors and environmental factors are thought to be of roughly equal importance.[38] The genetic factors are better ... Environmental factors[edit]. Where no family history of the disease is present - around 90% of cases - no cause is known. ... A 2015 review found that moderate to severe traumatic brain injury is a risk factor for ALS, but whether mild traumatic brain ...
Haig, D.; Graham, C. (1991). "Genomic imprinting and the strange case of the insulin-like growth factor-II receptor". Cell. 64 ... This has been show in imprinted genes like insulin-like growth factor-II.[50] ... An influential paper by Stephen Emlen and Lewis Oring (1977)[69] argued that two main factors of animal behavior influence the ... Not only does excessive begging attract predators, but it also retards chick growth if begging goes unrewarded.[51] Thus, the ...
Piecewicz SM, Pandey A, Roy B, Xiang SH, Zetter BR, Sengupta S (2012). "Insulin-like growth factors promote vasculogenesis in ... It is well established that insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling is important for cell responses such as mitogenesis, ... vascular endothelial growth factors VEGF-C and VEGF-D function as ligands for the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 ... In addition, basic fibroblast growth factor FGF-2 is also involved in promoting angioblasts from the mesoderm. After ...
... is due to insufficient insulin production from beta cells in the setting of insulin resistance.[13] Insulin ... While some of these factors are under personal control, such as diet and obesity, other factors are not, such as increasing age ... and population growth". Diabetes Care. 35 (12): 2515-20. doi:10.2337/dc12-0669. PMC 3507562. PMID 23173134. Archived from the ... When nightly insulin is insufficient, twice daily insulin may achieve better control.[23] The long acting insulins glargine and ...
Peptide YY 3-36 is a hormone released by the small intestine and it is also used as a satiety signal to the brain.[24] Insulin ... The size of an animal is also a factor in determining diet type (Allen's rule). Since small mammals have a high ratio of heat- ... typically to provide a heterotrophic organism with energy and to allow for growth. Animals and other heterotrophs must eat in ... The brain detects insulin in the blood, which indicates that nutrients are being absorbed by cells and a person is getting full ...
Other factors. There are also reasons why a placebo treatment group may outperform a "no-treatment" group in a test which are ... One of the few growth industries in contemporary Britain is alternative medicine. An apparently endless stream of books, ... Examples include immuno-augmentation therapy, shark cartilage, bioresonance therapy, oxygen and ozone therapies, and insulin ... Social factors. Authors have speculated on the socio-cultural and psychological reasons for the appeal of alternative medicines ...
High levels of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are also associated with worsened acne.[42] Both ... Another common factor is the excessive growth of the bacterium Cutibacterium acnes, which is present on the skin.[15] ... These gene candidates include certain variations in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-1 alpha, and CYP1A1 genes, ... Risk factors for the development of acne, other than genetics, have not been conclusively identified. Possible secondary ...
After several weeks of growth in the bone marrow, expansion of HSC and their progeny is sufficient to normalize the blood cell ... The peripheral stem cell yield is boosted with daily subcutaneous injections of Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, serving ... 2009). "C-peptide levels and insulin independence following autologous nonmyeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation ... insulin dependent) diabetes in children and adults. Results have been promising; however, as of 2009[update] it was premature ...
Insulin-like growth factor *IGF-1. *IGF-2. Adipose tissue. *Leptin. *Adiponectin ...
某些生理或心理疾病以及治疗它们的药物會增加患者罹患肥胖症的風險。生理疾病包括上述的罕见遗传病,以及一些先天或後天疾病,比如甲状腺功能低下、库欣综合征、生长激素缺乏症(英语:Growth hormone deficiency)等[129],另外也包括了进食 ... Inflammation and insulin resistance. J. Clin. Invest. 2006-07, 116 (7): 1793-801 [2016-01-03]. PMC 1483173. PMID 16823477. doi: ... Lund Elizabeth M. Prevalence and Risk Factors for
Influence of species, physico-chemical properties of insulin and physiological factors". Danish Medical Bulletin. 38 (4): 337- ... TATA-containing genes are not involved in essential cellular functions such as cell growth, DNA replication, transcription, and ... Other factors must stimulate the BTC to increase transcription levels.[2] One such example of a BTC stimulating region of DNA ... Gastric cancer is correlated with TATA box polymorphism.[39] The TATA box has a binding site for the transcription factor of ...
Kelly CJ, Stenton SR, Lashen H. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 in PCOS: a systematic review and meta-analysis. ... Fasting insulin level or GTT with insulin levels (also called IGTT). Elevated insulin levels have been helpful to predict ... Elevated blood sugar and insulin values do not predict who responds to an insulin-lowering medication, low-glycemic diet, and ... allows a direct and moderately accurate measure of insulin sensitivity (glucose-level x insulin-level/22.5).[來源請求] ...
2007) Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 stimulates pulmonary fibrosis and inflammation via a Bax-dependent, bid-activated ... These include β2-agonists, dopamine, insulin, allopurinol, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ... 2007) Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 stimulates pulmonary fibrosis and inflammation via a Bax-dependent, bid-activated ... 2008) Identification of transforming growth factor beta1-driven genetic programs of acute lung fibrosis. Am J Respir Cell Mol ...
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (somatomedin C). *IGF-1 LR3. *Insulin-like growth factor-2 (somatomedin A) ... BDNF is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors, which are related to the canonical nerve growth factor. ... BDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, ANON2, BULN2, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, brain derived neurotrophic factor. ... growth factor activity. • GO:0001948 protein binding. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • perinuclear region of cytoplasm. • ...
... animal and human cells and its re-expression triggered beta cell proliferation and corrected glucose regulation via insulin ... Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is one among numerous growth factors that regulate cell growth and division. In ... "Vascular endothelial growth factor B, a novel growth factor for endothelial cells". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93 (6): 2567- ... Other growth factors in this family include vascular endothelial growth factors B and C (VEGF-B, VEGF-C)[16][17] which are ...
Insulin. *Agonists: Chaetochromin (4548-G05). *Insulin-like growth factor 1. *Insulin-like growth factor 2 ... Sérgio Henrique Ferreira, discovered a bradykinin-potentiating factor (BPF) in the bothropic venom, which increases powerfully ... and Tumor Growth of Gastric Cancer Through ERK Signaling Pathway". Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. 118 (12): 4444-4453. doi: ... of African descent have up to 5x increased risk of ACE inhibitor induced angioedema due to hereditary predisposing risk factors ...
cellular response to insulin stimulus. • regulation of multicellular organism growth. • regulation of insulin receptor ... transcription factor complex. • bicellular tight junction. • nucleoplasm. • nucleolus. • perinuclear region of cytoplasm. • ... 1995). "Growth suppression by p18, a p16INK4/MTS1- and p14INK4B/MTS2-related CDK6 inhibitor, correlates with wild-type pRb ... Guan KL, Jenkins CW, Li Y, Nichols MA, Wu X, O'Keefe CL, Matera AG, Xiong Y (1994). "Growth suppression by p18, a p16INK4/MTS1 ...
Clark IA (June-August 2007). "How TNF was recognized as a key mechanism of disease". Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 18 (3-4): 335- ... It also induces insulin resistance by promoting serine-phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), which impairs ... TNF, DIF, TNF-alpha, TNFA, TNFSF2, Tumour necrosis factor, TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor, TNLG1F, Tumor necrosis factor alpha. ... Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNFα, cachexin, or cachectin) is a cell signaling protein (cytokine) ...
... brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), or insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1).[22] They may also directly provide ... brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), or insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1).. ... "Oligodendrogenesis in the subventricular zone and the role of epidermal growth factor". Brain Research Reviews. 67 (1-2): 147- ... "Epidermal growth factor induces the progeny of subventricular zone type B cells to migrate and differentiate into ...
... featured her work on insulin-related growth factors. The segment ran as part of a six-part PBS series on women in science, ... α and epidermal growth factor during fetal and neonatal development published in 1992 and 1993. There, she continued to ... The laboratory also discovered direct evidence that the Gap-43 protein was important in the growth of the axons of nerve cells. ... School with a lighter teaching workload and more research opportunities including her research on transforming growth factor- ...
Microbial growth is determined by the time taken for the liquid to form a colloidal suspension. This technique is used for ... In order to make an educated estimate as to which microbe could be causing the disease, epidemiological factors need to be ... Some of these include synthetic insulin which was produced in 1979 using recombinant DNA and the first genetically engineered ... Tissue or fluid samples are tested for the presence of a specific pathogen, which is determined by growth in a selective or ...
Insulin. *Agonists: Chaetochromin (4548-G05). *Insulin-like growth factor 1. *Insulin-like growth factor 2 ...
Lowering of the concentration of insulin and substances related to insulin, such as insulin-like growth factor 1 and growth ... and it is still undecided whether insulin is the main concern.[28] Calorie restriction has been shown to increase DHEA in ... and lower fasting blood glucose levels were factors associated with fewer disorders of aging and with improved survival rates.[ ... as body weight is influenced by many factors other than energy intake, Moreover, "the quality of the diets consumed by the low- ...
... and her growth velocity indicated a lack of estrogen-induced growth spurt at puberty.[9] The patient had normal pubic hair ... Body weight and body fat are increased.[14] There are signs of insulin resistance, as in PCOS in humans.[14] ... 4) β-Scaffold factors. with minor groove contacts. 4.2. *Hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome ... GPER knockout mice have also been generated, and exhibit obesity, cardiovascular dysfunction, insulin resistance, glucose ...
androgens, antiandrogens, estrogens, gonadotropin, corticosteroids, human growth hormone, insulin, antidiabetics (sulfonylureas ... Coagulation: anticoagulants, heparin, antiplatelet drugs, fibrinolytics, anti-hemophilic factors, haemostatic drugs. *HMG-CoA ... Significant growth in consumption was also evident in Canada, New Zealand, Australia, and Norway. Currently, 85% of the world's ... and insulin for diabetes. Other drugs included antitoxins, a few biological vaccines, and a few synthetic drugs. In the 1930s, ...
A major fetal growth factor in contrast to Insulin-like growth factor 1, which is a major growth factor in adults."[5] ... A major fetal growth factor in contrast to Insulin-like growth factor 1, which is a major growth factor in adults. ... It is believed to be a major fetal growth factor in contrast to Insulin-like growth factor 1, which is a major growth factor in ... "Transferrin binds insulin-like growth factors and affects binding properties of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3". ...
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (somatomedin C). *IGF-1 LR3. *Insulin-like growth factor-2 (somatomedin A) ... BDNF is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors, which are related to the canonical nerve growth factor. ... BDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, ANON2, BULN2, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, brain derived neurotrophic factor. ... growth factor activity. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • perinuclear region of cytoplasm. • mitochondrion. • nuclear speck. • ...
Symposium: Obesity in developing countries: biological and ecological factors". J. Nutr. Vol. 131 no. 3. str. 866S-870S. PMID ... To so med drugim insulin, sulfonilsečnine, tiazolidindioni, atipični antipsihotiki, antidepresivi, glukokortikoidi, določeni ... "Increased body fat mass and decreased extracellular fluid volume in adults with growth hormone deficiency". Clin. Endocrinol. ( ... Dentali F; Squizzato A; Ageno W (julij 2009). "The metabolic syndrome as a risk factor for venous and arterial thrombosis". ...
... androgens and growth hormone)[8] and excess exposure to catabolic hormones (cortisol),[24] insulin resistance,[25] glucose ... Epidemiologic research to date has led to the identification of a number of risk factors for frailty, including: (a) chronic ... 2007). "Insulin resistance and inflammation as precursors of frailty: the Cardiovascular Health Study". Arch Intern Med. 167 (7 ... Estimates of frailty's prevalence in older populations may vary according to a number of factors, including the setting in ...
A major fetal growth factor in contrast to Insulin-like growth factor 1, which is a major growth factor in adults."[5] ... A major fetal growth factor in contrast to Insulin-like growth factor 1, which is a major growth factor in adults. ... It is believed to be a major fetal growth factor in contrast to Insulin-like growth factor 1, which is a major growth factor in ... "Transferrin binds insulin-like growth factors and affects binding properties of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3". ...
... insulin-like growth factor: There are two IGFs: IGF-1 and IGF-2. These two factors, despite the similarity of their names, are ... The major action of IGFs is on cell growth. Indeed, most of the actions of pituitary… ... Other articles where Insulin-like growth factor 1 is discussed: ... In growth hormone. …release insulin-like growth factors, ... primarily insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1; formerly called somatomedin). The term insulin-like growth factor is derived ...
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Angiopoietin-related growth factor antagonizes obesity and insulin resistance.. Oike Y1, Akao M, Yasunaga K, Yamauchi T, ... Angiopoietin-related growth factor (AGF), a member of the angiopoietin-like protein (Angptl) family, is secreted predominantly ... This study establishes AGF as a new hepatocyte-derived circulating factor that counteracts obesity and related insulin ... In parallel, mice with targeted activation of AGF show leanness and increased insulin sensitivity resulting from increased ...
IGF-1 is a hormone that helps manage growth hormone (GH) in the body. Too much or too little GH can affect normal growth and ... medlineplus.gov/lab-tests/igf-1-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-test/ IGF-1 (Insulin-like Growth Factor 1) Test. ... insulin-like growth factor 1) in your blood. IGF-1 is a hormone that manages the effects of growth hormone (GH) in your body. ... www.magicfoundation.org/Growth-Disorders/Insulin-Like-Growth-Factor-Deficiency. *University of Rochester Medical Center [ ...
Insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IPR009168) *Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein family 1-6, chordata ( ... insulin-like growth factors (IGF1 and IGF2) [PMID: 2036417, PMID: 1319992], mammalian Leydig cell-specific insulin-like peptide ... Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Proteins (IGFBP) are a group of vertebrate secreted proteins, which bind to IGF-I and IGF-II ... Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 stimulates cell migration and binds to the alpha 5 beta 1 integrin by means of its ...
Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein (IGFBP)-6: A m... ... Christina Raykha MSc Candidate, Insulin-like Growth Factor ... Christina Raykha MSc Candidate, Lawson Health Research Institute, London, Ontario, Canada presents "Insulin-like Growth Factor ...
Insulin-like growth factors and neoplasia.. Pollak MN1, Schernhammer ES, Hankinson SE. ...
Elevated levels of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGF-bp) were recently found in the serum of patients with ... DErcole AJ (1985) Affinity-labeled plasma somatomedin-C insulin-like growth factor I binding proteins. Evidence of growth ... Elevated levels of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGF-bp) were recently found in the serum of patients with ... Baxter RC (1986) The somatomedins: insulin-like growth factors. Adv Clin Chem 25:49-115Google Scholar ...
2011) Insulin-like growth factor 1-mediated hyperthermia involves anterior hypothalamic insulin receptors. J Biol Chem 286: ... We recently demonstrated that POA-WSN neurons express the insulin and the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) receptors ( ... Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor regulates hypothermia during calorie restriction Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you ... Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor regulates hypothermia during calorie restriction. Rigo Cintron-Colon, Manuel Sanchez- ...
Short stature can be promptly recognized only with accurate measurements of growth and critical analysis of growth data. ... Longitudinal growth assessment is essential in child care. ... Guidelines for Growth Hormone and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I ... Insulin-like growth factor-I. Class Summary. Indicated for long-term treatment of severe, primary insulin-like growth factor-I ... Variable Degree of Growth Hormone (GH) and Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF) Sensitivity in Children with Idiopathic Short ...
Background: Growth factors play an important role in regulating neurogenesis and synapse formation and may be involved in ... To date, Insulin-like growth factor I (IGFI) is the only growth factor that has shown antidepressant properties in human ... Insulin-like growth factor I produces an antidepressant-like effect and elicits N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor independent long- ... Insulin-like growth factor I produces an antidepressant-like effect and elicits N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor independent long- ...
Functional cross talk between insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) system and estrogen signaling has been largely reported, ... Purified hybrid insulin/insulin-like growth factor-I receptors bind insulin-like growth factor-I, but not insulin, with high ... Stewart AJ, Johnson MD, May FE, Westley BR . Role of insulin-like growth factors and the type I insulin-like growth factor ... Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) receptor overexpression in breast cancers leads to insulin/IGF-I hybrid ...
Prenatal unhealthy diet, insulin‐like growth factor 2 gene (IGF2) methylation, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ... life diet also associates with DNA methylation of the insulin‐like growth factor 2 gene (IGF2), involved in fetal and neural ...
Human insulin-like growth factors I and II (hIGF-I, hIGF-II) are potent stimulators of cell and growth processes. They display ... Human insulin-like growth factors I and II (hIGF-I, hIGF-II) are potent stimulators of cell and growth processes. They display ... Structural Origins of the Functional Divergence of Human Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I and Insulin. Brzozowski, A.M., Dodson, E. ... INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR I. A [auth B]. 70. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: IGF1, IBP1. ...
Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is a systemic hormone with potent mitogenic and anti-apoptotic properties, which could ... Serum insulin-like growth factor-I and breast cancer Int J Cancer. 2000 Dec 1;88(5):828-32. doi: 10.1002/1097-0215(20001201)88: ... Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is a systemic hormone with potent mitogenic and anti-apoptotic properties, which could ... Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3 / blood * Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / analysis* ...
... receptor is closely related to the insulin receptor. However, the unique biological functions of IGF1 receptor make it a target ... The insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) receptor is closely related to the insulin receptor. However, the unique biological ... Structure and autoregulation of the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor kinase Nat Struct Biol. 2001 Dec;8(12):1058-63. doi: ... Although the nucleotide binding cleft is conserved between IGF1RK and the insulin receptor kinase, sequence differences in the ...
... of cervical cells by retinoids and aimed to elucidate the mechanisms by which retinoids regulate insulin growth factor binding ... Survey Finds Alarming Gaps in Americans Knowledge of Major Cancer Risk Factors. WASHINGTON, DC - Fewer than half of Americans ...
IGF-binding proteins prolong the half-life of the IGFs and have been shown to either inhibit or stimulate the growth promoting ... Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3Sequence analysis. Automatic assertion according to sequence analysisi ... Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3ARBA annotation. Automatic assertion according to rulesi ... tr,B3KVF9,B3KVF9_HUMAN Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 PE=2 SV=1 ...
... the global Insulin Like Growth Factor market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the ... 1 Insulin Like Growth Factor Market Overview. 1.1 Product Overview and Scope of Insulin Like Growth Factor. 1.2 Insulin Like ... 2.5.1 Insulin Like Growth Factor Market Concentration Rate. 2.5.2 Insulin Like Growth Factor Market Share of Top 3 and Top 5 ... 1.4 Global Insulin Like Growth Factor Market by Region (2012-2022). 1.4.1 Global Insulin Like Growth Factor Market Size (Value ...
Rechler, M.M., and Nissley, S.P., Insulin-like growth factors, in Peptide Growth Factors and their Receptors I, Sporn, M., and ... Insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and IGF-II) are mitogenic and anabolic peptides structurally homologous to insulin. IGF-I ... Grothey, A., et al., The role of insulin-like growth factor I and its receptor in cell growth, transformation, apoptosis, and ... Morrione, A., et al., Insulin-like growth factor-II stimulates cell prolifertion through the insulin receptor. Proc. Natl. Acad ...
Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) has been synthesized by recombinant DNA technology (1). With the availability of large ... Hizuka N, Takano K, Shizume K, Asakawa K, Miyakawa M, Tanaka I and Horikawa R. Insulin-like growth factor I stimulates growth ... In: Raizada M.K., LeRoith D. (eds) Molecular Biology and Physiology of Insulin and Insulin-Like Growth Factors. Advances in ... Molecular Biology and Physiology of Insulin and Insulin-Like Growth Factors pp 105-112 , Cite as ...
The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are members of the larger family of insulin-related peptides, which include insulin, IGF ... insulin-like growth factor;. GH,. growth hormone;. KO,. knockout;. WT,. wild type. ... Normal growth and development in the absence of hepatic insulin-like growth factor I. Shoshana Yakar, Jun-Li Liu, Bethel ... Normal growth and development in the absence of hepatic insulin-like growth factor I ...
Insulin-like growth factor 1 and 2 (IGF1 and IGF2) act in response to growth hormone (GH). Other IGF family components include ... protein synthesis and cell growth), and show that systemic IGF1 administration can reduce fibrosis and ameliorate general liver ... and apoptosis are affected by growth factors produced in liver. ... Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF) System in Liver Diseases ... and apoptosis are affected by growth factors produced in liver. Insulin-like growth factor 1 and 2 (IGF1 and IGF2) act in ...
... and systemic insulin resistance. These derangements were associated with a reduced capacity of insulin and other growth factors ... The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway is central to the action of insulin and many growth factors. ... PI3-kinase mutation linked to insulin and growth factor resistance in vivo. ... PI3-kinase mutation linked to insulin and growth factor resistance in vivo. ...
Intrauterine growth retardation and postnatal growth failure associated with deletion of the insulin-like growth factor I gene ... Normal growth spurt and final height despite low levels of all forms of circulating insulin-like growth factor-I in a patient ... Insulin. insulin-like growth factors. the methods for measuring the IGFs will have varied. but IGF-2 and the IGFBPs had no ... underwood l. The growth response to insulin-like growth factor-I treatment during the first year of therapy in prepubertal ...
Insulin, IGF-1 and Sex Hormones. Our diet-styles control the amount of hormones produced by the body and are a key mechanism ... IGF-1 is one of the bodys most important growth promoters during infancy and childhood, but later in life, elevated IGF-1 ...
... growth stimulation of mouse fibroblasts by tumor-derived adhesion factor with insulin-like growth factors and insulin," Cell ... Sato et al., "Strong suppression of tumor growth by insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-related protein 1/tumor-derived ... Yuichiro, S. et al., "Strong suppression of tumor growth by insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-related protein 1/tumor- ... Conjugates of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-4 and poly (ethylene glycol). 2006-05-11. Lang et al.. ...
A. L. Fowden, "The insulin-like growth factors and feto-placental growth," Placenta, vol. 24, no. 8-9, pp. 803-812, 2003. View ... Imprinting and Promoter Usage of Insulin-Like Growth Factor II in Twin Discordant Placenta. Yan-Min Luo,1 Qun Fang,1 Hui-Juan ... T. H. Vu and A. R. Hoffman, "Promoter-specific imprinting of the human insulin-like growth factor-II gene," Nature, vol. 371, ... S. J. Kim, S. E. Park, C. Lee et al., "Alterations in promoter usage and expression levels of insulin-like growth factor-II and ...
  • The name "insulin-like growth factor" reflects the fact that these hormones are structurally related to insulin and can even bind to the insulin receptor, although at a lower affinity than insulin. (news-medical.net)
  • IGF-2 also binds with a lower affinity to the IGf-1 receptor and insulin receptor. (news-medical.net)
  • Insulin exerts its effects by interaction with a cell-surface receptor, which may also result in the promotion of cell growth [ PMID: 6243748 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Here, we found that this response is regulated by the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor. (pnas.org)
  • The finding also identifies body temperature reduction as a common determinant of the effects of both calorie restriction and reduced insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor signaling. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we found in the mouse that the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) controls this response in the central nervous system. (pnas.org)
  • Indicated for long-term treatment of severe, primary insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) due to mutations of the growth hormone receptor (GH-R) or GH-R downstream signaling pathways. (medscape.com)
  • In hIGF-I, these residues (24-29) and the following C-domain form an extensive loop protruding 20 A from the core, which results in a substantially different conformation for the receptor binding epitope in hIGF-I compared to insulin. (rcsb.org)
  • The insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) receptor is closely related to the insulin receptor. (nih.gov)
  • Although the nucleotide binding cleft is conserved between IGF1RK and the insulin receptor kinase, sequence differences in the nearby interlobe linker could potentially be exploited for anticancer drug design. (nih.gov)
  • IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) is homologous to the insulin receptor (IR) and is comprised of two 130-kDa ligand-binding a-subunits and two 95-kDa transmembrane b-subunits. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The role of insulin-like growth factor I and its receptor in cell growth, transformation, apoptosis, and chemoresistance in solid tumors. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Insulin-like growth factor-II stimulates cell prolifertion through the insulin receptor. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In contrast to the related insulin receptor, which affects both metabolic and mitogenic responses of the tissue, the IGF-I receptor primarily is responsible for mediating the mitogenic responses of the cell ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Receptor tyrosine kinase which mediates actions of insulin-like growth factor 1 ( IGF1 ). (rcsb.org)
  • Ligand binding activates the receptor kinase, leading to receptor autophosphorylation, and tyrosines phosphorylation of multiple substrates, that function as signaling adapter proteins including, the insulin-receptor substrates ( IRS1 /2), Shc and 14-3-3 proteins. (rcsb.org)
  • c-Met, epidermal growth factor receptor, and insulin-like gr. (lww.com)
  • The Met tyrosine kinase receptor and its ligand hepatocyte growth factor are expressed in hepatocytes. (lww.com)
  • UM cell lines were evaluated for c-Met, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and insulin-like growth factor-1R (IGF-1R) expression by immunoblotting, and gene amplification by comparative genomic hybridization and fluorescence in-situ hybridization. (lww.com)
  • In addition to IGF-I, IGF-II and insulin (in high concentrations) can transduce signals through interaction with the type 1 IGF receptor. (jneurosci.org)
  • Unlike most other receptor tyrosine kinases, IGF-1R and insulin receptors exist as dimers prior to ligand binding. (frontiersin.org)
  • Major extension of life span in growth hormone receptor knock out (GHR-KO) mice that are GH resistant, and subsequently, IGF-I-deficient indicates that similar mechanisms may operate in mammals. (worldhealth.net)
  • The IGFs are known to bind the IGF-1 receptor, the insulin receptor, the IGF-2 receptor, the insulin-related receptor and possibly other receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The IGF-1 receptor is the "physiological" receptor-IGF-1 binds to it at significantly higher affinity than it binds the insulin receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like the insulin receptor, the IGF-1 receptor is a receptor tyrosine kinase-meaning the receptor signals by causing the addition of a phosphate molecule on particular tyrosines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since at high concentrations it is capable of activating the insulin receptor, it can also complement for the effects of insulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway, by binding of the growth factors IGF-I and IGF-II to the receptors IGF-IR and insulin receptor (IR), triggers complex signaling cascades that regulate cell growth, survival, proliferation, and differentiation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The combination of BIIB4 and BIIB5 also improved the antitumor efficacy of the epidermal growth factor receptor TKI erlotinib and the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The first three domains of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) Receptor is a transmembrane receptor that is activated by IGF-1 and by the related growth factor IGF-2 . (thefullwiki.org)
  • This receptor mediates the effects of IGF-1, which is a polypeptide protein hormone similar in molecular structure to insulin. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Mice lacking the IGF-1 receptor die late in development, and show a dramatic reduction in body mass, testifying to the strong growth-promoting effect of this receptor. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The receptor is a member of a family which consists of the Insulin Receptor and the IGF-2R (and their respective ligands IGF-1 and IGF-2), along with several IGF-binding proteins. (thefullwiki.org)
  • There is a 60% homology between IGF-1R and the insulin receptor. (thefullwiki.org)
  • This addition of phosphate induces what are called "cell signaling" cascades - and the usual result of activation of the IGF-1 receptor is survival and proliferation in mitosis-competent cells, and growth (hypertrophy) in tissues such as skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Inhibited in undernourished states, low protein, growth hormone deficiency and growth hormone receptor insensitivity (Cheng et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Previous studies have investigated the association of low IGF-I levels attributable to growth hormone receptor deficiency with intelligence but produced mixed results. (aappublications.org)
  • Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor ( IGF-IR ) is a promising vaccine candidate since it is overexpressed in most breast cancer subtypes, is part of a dominant cancer growth pathway, and has been validated as a therapeutic target. (washington.edu)
  • Autocrine stimulation of the type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR) by IGF-II is one mechanism that allows cancer cells to maintain unregulated growth and to resist programmed cell death (PCD). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The same genetic mutationan error in the growth hormone receptor (GHR) genethat causes unusually small stature in Laron syndrome also confers seeming immunity from two of the most common diseases that plague mankind. (scribd.com)
  • Previous genetic studies in mice have shown that functional loss of activin receptor-like kinase 7 (ALK7), a type I transforming growth factor-β receptor, increases lipolysis to resist fat accumulation in adipocytes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Naturally, a number of clinical trials have sought to directly abrogate insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 (IGF-1R) function and/or indirectly mitigate its downstream mediators such as mTOR, PI3K, MAPK, and others under the assumption that such therapeutic interventions would provide clinical benefit, demonstrable by impaired tumor growth as well as prolonged progression-free and overall survival for patients. (mdpi.com)
  • I. Determine if mutations in the gene encoding the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor lead to relative insulin-like growth factor-I insensitivity and produce intrauterine growth retardation in children. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patients whose IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels are average or above are tested for the presence of mutation in the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) is a tyrosine kinase receptor mediating cell growth and survival. (rug.nl)
  • These data show that BMS-754807 is an efficacious, orally active growth factor 1 receptor/insulin receptor family-targeted kinase inhibitor that may act in combination with a wide array of established anticancer agents. (aacrjournals.org)
  • IGF-1R is closely related to the insulin receptor (IR). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Insulin‑like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R), a member of the insulin receptor family, has been extensively assessed for biological activity, and its putative contribution to tumor cell development and progression. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) signaling is a complicated and regulated network essential for cells to proliferate and survive. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The IGF-IGF1R axis consists of three receptor tyrosine kinases: IGF1R, insulin-like growth factor-2 receptor (IGF2R) and insulin receptor (INSR). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • IGF1R is an insulin receptor family member, and a disulfide-linked heterotetrameric transmembrane glycoprotein (αββα) that contains an extracellular ligand-binding domain and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain ( 8 , 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The intracellular signal transduction depends on the tyrosine kinase activity the ligand in the transmembrane β subunit triggers, permitting specific insulin receptor substrates (IRS-1 to −4) and Src-homology collagen (Shc) to phosphorylate, activating downstream mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) signaling pathways ( 6 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • These two factors, despite the similarity of their names, are distinguishable in terms of specific actions on tissues because they bind to and activate different receptors. (britannica.com)
  • Both are released when stimulated by growth hormone and their production may be decreased by growth hormone insensitivity or a lack of GH receptors. (news-medical.net)
  • We further explored the relationship between c-Met and other growth factor receptors prevalent in the liver and their roles in UM metastatic potential. (lww.com)
  • insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and its receptors are found to increase in associated brain lesions, implying a role of IGF-1 in the pathological response to these brain insults. (frontiersin.org)
  • however, GH receptors have been demonstrated on sweat glands, and GH may function as a trophic factor for sweat glands [ 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • This complex system (often referred to as the IGF "axis") consists of two cell-surface receptors (IGF1R and IGF2R), two ligands (Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2)), a family of seven high-affinity IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP1 to IGFBP7), as well as associated IGFBP degrading enzymes, referred to collectively as proteases. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Receptors for IGF-1 are found in vascular smooth muscle, while typical receptors for insulin are not found in vascular smooth muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors]] used by these growth factors to elicit their effects. (wikidoc.org)
  • This Conference will cover the physiological and molecular aspects of IGF ligands, receptors, binding proteins and signaling pathways in somatic cell growth, stem cells, differentiation, cancer progression, neurogenesis and neurodegeneration, stress and ageing. (grc.org)
  • The insulin-like growth factor pathway, regulated by a complex interplay of growth factors, cognate receptors, and binding proteins, is critically important for many of the hallmarks of cancer such as oncogenesis, cell division, growth, and antineoplastic resistance. (mdpi.com)
  • Since then, they and their cognate receptors have been demonstrated to affect a diverse range of cancers by facilitating malignant transformation, altering cell differentiation, and promoting cancer growth, metastasis, and chemotherapy resistance. (mdpi.com)
  • The ligands for these receptors are insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2) and serum insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) ( 1 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Proteins (IGFBP) are a group of vertebrate secreted proteins, which bind to IGF-I and IGF-II with high affinity and modulate the biological actions of IGFs. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Early‐life diet also associates with DNA methylation of the insulin‐like growth factor 2 gene ( IGF2 ), involved in fetal and neural development. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Insulin-like growth factor 1 and 2 (IGF1 and IGF2) act in response to growth hormone (GH). (mdpi.com)
  • Loss of imprinting of insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF2) gene in distinguishing specific biologic subtypes of Wilms tumor," Journal of the National Cancer Institute , vol. 93, no. 22, pp. 1698-1703, 2001. (hindawi.com)
  • Binds IGF1 with high affinity and IGF2 and insulin ( INS ) with a lower affinity. (rcsb.org)
  • There are three main ligands that activate the IGF signaling cascade: IGF1, IGF2, and insulin. (frontiersin.org)
  • IGF1R binds IGF1 and IGF2 with high affinity, and insulin with significantly reduced affinity. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • The major action of IGFs is on cell growth. (britannica.com)
  • Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are peptide hormones that are primarily involved in stimulating the growth of many types of cells. (news-medical.net)
  • IGFs are far less effective at decreasing blood glucose levels than insulin. (news-medical.net)
  • Most of the actions of pituitary growth hormone are moderated by IGFs, mainly IGF1. (news-medical.net)
  • Furthermore, IGFBPs can function as growth modulators independent of IGFs. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) belongs to a group of cellular and secreted factors (IGFs) that exert important roles in multiple biological systems. (nature.com)
  • IGF-binding proteins prolong the half-life of the IGFs and have been shown to either inhibit or stimulate the growth promoting effects of the IGFs on cell culture. (uniprot.org)
  • The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are members of the larger family of insulin-related peptides, which include insulin, IGF-I, and IGF-II, and are one of the most well-characterized families of growth factors ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are proteins with high sequence similarity to insulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is somewhat difficult to relate this finding to the mammals, however, because in the smaller organism there are many genes (at least 37 in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans) that are "insulin-like" or "IGF-1-like", whereas in the mammals insulin-like proteins comprise only seven members (insulin, IGFs, relaxins, EPIL, and relaxin-like factor)[citation needed]. (wikipedia.org)
  • IGFs are polypeptides that are similar in their molecular structure to insulin. (sciencephoto.com)
  • that are "insulin-like" or "IGF-1-like", whereas in the mammals insulin-like proteins comprise only 7 members (insulin, IGFs, relaxins, EPIL, and relaxin-like factor) and have apparently distinct roles with some but relatively less crosstalk. (wikidoc.org)
  • The 2013 Gordon Conference on Insulin like Growth Factors (IGFs) in Physiology and Disease will present cutting-edge research on the role of IGFs and their signaling pathways in development, maintenance of life and in major diseases. (grc.org)
  • IGFs have essential functions in promoting normal growth as well as cell survival and tissue repair. (grc.org)
  • Low molecular weight insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs), particularly IGFBP-4, are believed to inhibit the actions of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). (bioone.org)
  • IGFBP-4 regulates adult skeletal growth in a sex-specific manner. (harvard.edu)
  • The GDF3-ALK7 axis between ATMs and adipocytes represents a previously unrecognized mechanism by which insulin regulates both fat metabolism and mass. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The Hippo signaling pathway regulates growth of the heart and other tissues. (sciencemag.org)
  • In parallel, mice with targeted activation of AGF show leanness and increased insulin sensitivity resulting from increased energy expenditure. (nih.gov)
  • 0.01) body weight loss and increases insulin sensitivity in mice fed a high-fat diet. (nih.gov)
  • The obese subjects presented the characteristic decreased GH release, hyperinsulinaemia, increased FFA levels, and impaired insulin sensitivity, which all were normalised after diet-induced weight loss of 30 ± 5 kg. (hindawi.com)
  • Suspected mechanisms of IGF-I action in aging also include reduced insulin signaling, enhanced sensitivity to insulin, and reduced thermogenesis with diminished oxidative damage of macromolecules being the likely final common pathway of these effects. (worldhealth.net)
  • Many of these agents reverse transformation in tumor cell lines and increase sensitivity to chemotherapy and irradiation in vitro , inhibiting tumor cell growth and metastasis ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Dwarf mice with the same GHR mutation have low cancer rates, increased insulin sensitivity that protects against diabetes, and extended life span. (scribd.com)
  • Moreover, whole-body insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance were improved. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Angiopoietin-related growth factor (AGF), a member of the angiopoietin-like protein (Angptl) family, is secreted predominantly from the liver into the systemic circulation. (nih.gov)
  • 80%) of the AGF-deficient mice die at about embryonic day 13, whereas the surviving AGF-deficient mice develop marked obesity, lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle and liver, and insulin resistance accompanied by reduced energy expenditure relative to controls. (nih.gov)
  • IGF-I also known as somatomedin C, is secreted from the liver into circulation in a process regulated by pituitary growth hormone (GH) and so it mediates the growthpromoting activity of GH. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Hepatocyte differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis are affected by growth factors produced in liver. (mdpi.com)
  • The data based on animal models and/or in vitro studies suggest the role of IGF system components in cellular aspects of hepatocarcinogenesis (cell cycle progression, uncontrolled proliferation, cell survival, migration, inhibition of apoptosis, protein synthesis and cell growth), and show that systemic IGF1 administration can reduce fibrosis and ameliorate general liver function. (mdpi.com)
  • UM can be categorized by levels of c-Met and EGFR expression which are associated with migratory/invasiveness responses to soluble factors present at high levels in the liver. (lww.com)
  • Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1, or sometimes with a Roman numeral as IGF-I) is mainly secreted by the liver as a result of stimulation by growth hormone (GH). (wikipedia.org)
  • IGFBP-1 production from the liver is significantly elevated during insulinopenia while serum levels of bioactive IGF-1 is increased by insulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • In view of these alternations, this study was conducted to investigate the role of serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and ghrelin in CLD with or without cirrhosis and evaluate their relationships with liver functions and clinical complications. (osti.gov)
  • misc{etde_20957130, title = {Role of Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor I and Ghrelin in Chronic Liver Diseases} author = {EI-Nashar, N A} abstractNote = {Chronic liver disease (CLD) is characterized by numerous metabolic alterations resulting in the clinical picture of malnutrition or even cachexia and contributing to complications such as hepatic encephalopathy and ascetics. (osti.gov)
  • IGF-1 is mainly secreted by the liver as a result of stimulation by growth hormone. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and IGF-II) are mitogenic and anabolic peptides structurally homologous to insulin. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Insulin-like growth factor-I E peptides: implications for aging skeletal muscle. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This demonstrates that the three main factors affecting aging and longevity (calorie restriction, reduction of the insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling, and lowered temperature) are components of the same pathway that modulates energy homeostasis. (pnas.org)
  • Functional cross talk between insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) system and estrogen signaling has been largely reported, although the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. (nature.com)
  • The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway is central to the action of insulin and many growth factors. (jci.org)
  • Methods of treating a tumor in a subject include identifying a subject having, at risk for, or suspected of having a tumor, and administering to the subject an effective amount of an IGFBP7 agent if the tumor has increased Ras-BRAF-MEK-Erk signaling, is dependent for growth and/or survival upon the Ras-BRAF-MEK-Erk signaling pathway, and/or expresses an activated or oncogenic BRAF or RAS. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling system is known to play a role in neuroregeneration, neuronal survival and proliferation, and cerebral metabolic function," the study's authors reported in the September issue of Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology . (lww.com)
  • We therefore considered Met/hepatocyte growth factor signaling as a candidate migration/growth factor for UM cells. (lww.com)
  • Data from over 20 years ago demonstrated potential use for insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling modulators, specifically with IGF-1R antagonists, in a variety of pediatric and adolescent cancers, particularly in sarcomas. (frontiersin.org)
  • Insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling plays a major role in the control of aging and life span in invertebrates. (worldhealth.net)
  • The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling system has an important physiological role in regulating cellular proliferation and apoptosis. (dovepress.com)
  • In this review, we highlight the clinical significance of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and the growth hormone (GH) signaling pathway in HCC. (dovepress.com)
  • One potential regulator of cochlear development is the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling family. (jneurosci.org)
  • Currently, there is limited knowledge on how all these factors influence the expression of upstream insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling molecules. (umd.edu)
  • TGE (zeige TGM3 ELISA Kits ) duplicated IGFBP-1 may provide additional flexibility in fine-tuning insulin (zeige INS ELISA Kits )-like growth factor signaling activities under hypoxia and other catabolic conditions. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Our results further indicate that two hormonal pathways, the insulin/insulin-like growth factor and the ecdysone-signaling pathways, modulate the timing and rates of all three developmental processes. (genetics.org)
  • In D. melanogaster , and many other animals, nutrition modifies body and organ size through the action of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) pathway. (genetics.org)
  • Yap activated the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling pathway in cardiomyocytes, resulting in inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β, which led to increased abundance of β-catenin, a positive regulator of cardiac growth. (sciencemag.org)
  • Our results point to Yap as a critical downstream effector of the Hippo pathway in the control of cardiomyocyte proliferation and a nexus for coupling the IGF, Wnt, and Hippo signaling pathways with the developmental program for heart growth. (sciencemag.org)
  • It has growth-regulating, insulin-like and mitogenic activities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is a systemic hormone with potent mitogenic and anti-apoptotic properties, which could influence the proliferative behavior of normal breast cells. (nih.gov)
  • Insulin-like growth factors have mitogenic and antiapoptotic effects on normal and transformed prostate epithelial cells ( 2-4 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level. (harvard.edu)
  • Heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding the p85α regulatory subunit of PI3K ( PIK3R1 ) have been identified in patients with SHORT syndrome - a disorder characterized by short stature, partial lipodystrophy, and insulin resistance. (jci.org)
  • Down-regulation of T1A12/mac25, a novel insulin-like growth factor binding protein related gene, is associated with disease progression in breast carcinomas," Oncogene, 16:2459-67 (1998). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Nematodes, fruit-flies, and other organisms have an increased life span when the gene equivalent to the mammalian insulin is knocked out. (wikipedia.org)
  • Various hormones and growth factors were shown to regulate IGF1R gene transcription. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Specifically, growth factors and oncogenic agents associated with positive stimulation of cell division were shown to upregulate IGF1R gene expression whereas negative modulators of cell growth (e.g., tumor suppressors) usually cause a reduction in IGF1R gene expression. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Growth factors that stimulate IGF1R gene transcription include, among others, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • described severe hearing loss along with growth failure in a 15-year-old boy with a homozygous mutation in the IGF1 gene. (jneurosci.org)
  • Ekstrand, Ehrenborg, Stern, Stellan, Zech, Luthman: The gene for insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 is localized to human chromosomal region 7p14-p12. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • The high throughput gene expression analysis by RNA-Seq showed that the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) pathway was the candidate to close the implantation window under E2. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • GHR-deficient individuals are insensitive to growth hormone and also have abnormally low levels of insulinlike growth factor 1 (IGF1), a hormone that promotes cell proliferation and inhibits programmed cell death. (scribd.com)
  • To analyze the possibility of a regulatory role of IGF-I on hemopoiesis and determine its mechanism of action, we have studied the effect of this growth factor on the survival and proliferation of two IL-3-dependent hemopoietic cell lines and in IL-3-responsive primary cultures of bone marrow-derived mast cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Cell proliferation was also stimulated by IGF-I in the absence of other hemopoietic growth factors although it was a weak mitogen when compared with IL-3. (jimmunol.org)
  • HAND2 inhibits multiple members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family and eventually suppresses LE cell proliferation with downregulation of E2-regulated genes, such as mucin 1 (Muc 1) (6). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In spite of their structural similarities, activation of IGF-1R leads to cell proliferation, motility, and metastasis, whereas the actions of insulin on IR are directed primarily at regulation of glucose homeostasis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, it is clear that insulin increases the proliferation of neoplastic cell lines as well ( 7 - 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Angiopoietin-related growth factor antagonizes obesity and insulin resistance. (nih.gov)
  • They are also protected from high-fat diet-induced obesity, insulin resistance and nonadipose tissue steatosis. (nih.gov)
  • This study establishes AGF as a new hepatocyte-derived circulating factor that counteracts obesity and related insulin resistance. (nih.gov)
  • Similar to the patients, mutant mice exhibited a reduction in body weight and length, partial lipodystrophy, and systemic insulin resistance. (jci.org)
  • and insulin resistance in vitro in cells derived from these mice. (jci.org)
  • Researchers have identified a novel biomarker for incident dementia, supporting increasing evidence that suggests metabolic dysfunction and insulin resistance in the brain are integrally involved in adverse cognitive outcomes. (lww.com)
  • It is well established that adult GHD usually is accompanied by an increase in fat accumulation and these changes in body composition are associated with metabolic derangements including insulin resistance [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Obese subjects as adults with GHD have multiple endocrine abnormalities including insulin resistance, severely suppressed spontaneous and stimulated GH release [ 13 - 15 ], and impaired circulating IGF-I levels [ 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Scientists call this effect 'hepatic growth hormone resistance' (Bielohuby. (ageforce.com)
  • Local hypoxia develops and may result in altered adipokine expression, proinflammatory macrophage recruitment, and insulin resistance. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We investigated whether an increase in adipose tissue angiogenesis could protect against obesity-induced hypoxia and, consequently, insulin resistance. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Transgenic mice presented increased macrophage infiltration, with a higher number of M2 anti-inflammatory and fewer M1 proinflammatory macrophages than wild-type littermates, thus maintaining an anti-inflammatory milieu that could avoid insulin resistance. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • These studies suggest that overexpression of VEGF in adipose tissue is a potential therapeutic strategy for the prevention of obesity and insulin resistance. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Elevated levels of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGF-bp) were recently found in the serum of patients with ovarian tumors. (springer.com)
  • Recombinant human insulinlike growth factor-1 (rhIGF-1) indicated for long-term treatment of GF in children with severe primary IGFD (primary IGFD defined as basal serum IGF-I level and height SD scores ≤ -3, normal or elevated serum GH level). (medscape.com)
  • Serum depletion‑induced cellular apoptosis was attenuated by insulin‑like growth factor‑I (IGF‑I), and this effect was abrogated by IGFBP‑4. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • To assess the relationship between serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and diabetic retinopathy. (molvis.org)
  • Retinopathy of Prematurity and Serum Level of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1', Acta clinica Croatica , 51. (srce.hr)
  • Banjac L, Bokan V. Retinopathy of Prematurity and Serum Level of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1. (srce.hr)
  • The aim of our study was to measure and compare serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels at postmenstrual age of 33 weeks between preterm infants with and without retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). (srce.hr)
  • SH-SY5Y cells, which express abundant cell surface IGF-IR and produce IGF-II, exhibit serum independent growth and resist PCD due to hypoxia and hyperosmolar conditions. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Serum Levels of Activins, Follistatins, and Growth Factors in Neoplasms of the Breast: A Case-Control Study. (harvard.edu)
  • Associations of Current, Childhood, and Adolescent Milk Intake with Serum Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF)-1 and IGF Binding Protein 3 Concentrations in Adulthood. (harvard.edu)
  • Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 has growth-promoting effects on pancreatic cancer cells, and elevated fasting serum insulin has been linked to pancreatic cancer risk. (harvard.edu)
  • Collett-Solberg PF, Misra M,. The role of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I in treating children with short stature. (medscape.com)
  • Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) has been synthesized by recombinant DNA technology (1). (springer.com)
  • Short-term metabolic effects of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor I in healthy adults. (springer.com)
  • Effects of recombinant IGF-I on insulin secretion and renal function in normal human subjects. (springer.com)
  • Takano K, Hizuka N, Asakawa K, Sukegawa I, Shizume K and Demura H. Effects of sc administration of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) on normal human subjects. (springer.com)
  • Four novel recombinant protein constructs were designed to improve the delivery of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). (mit.edu)
  • Insulin is found in many animals, and is involved in the regulation of normal glucose homeostasis. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Dr. Eckert examined the regulation of cervical cells by retinoids and aimed to elucidate the mechanisms by which retinoids regulate insulin growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs). (aicr.org)
  • Growth Regulation submitted. (springer.com)
  • We suggest that the role of IGF in the regulation of growth and adult body size is important in mediating the effects of longevity genes on aging and life span. (worldhealth.net)
  • The aim of this thesis was to investigate the role of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the regulation of metabolism and body fat mass. (avhandlingar.se)
  • Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is a hormone that mediates the effects of growth hormone and plays a critical role in somatic growth regulation and organ development. (aappublications.org)
  • Insulin-like growth factor I plays a pivotal role in the regulation of somatic cell growth as a mediator of growth hormone action. (jimmunol.org)
  • Although our model proves that hepatic IGF-I is indeed the major contributor to circulating IGF-I levels in mice it challenges the concept that circulating IGF-I is crucial for normal postnatal growth. (pnas.org)
  • IGF-I-null mice are growth retarded, and most die after birth. (pnas.org)
  • IGF-II-null mice, on the other hand, were born small [60% of the size of their wild-type (WT) littermates] yet grew normally postnatally, suggesting that IGF-II is primarily responsible for intra-uterine growth. (pnas.org)
  • These mice are also more severely growth retarded, being only 45% of normal birth weight because of the loss of both IGF-I and IGF-II action. (pnas.org)
  • In addition, mutant mice displayed defective insulin secretion and GLP-1 action on islets in vivo and in vitro. (jci.org)
  • In-vivo transfection of pcDNA3.1-IGFBP7 inhibits melanoma growth in mice through apoptosis induction and VEGF downexpression," J. Exp. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Furthermore, depletion of ATMs or transplantation of GDF3-deficient bone marrow negates the in vivo effects of insulin on both lipolysis and fat accumulation in ALK7-intact mice. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Transgenic mice overexpressing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT) were generated. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We show that Yap is necessary and sufficient for embryonic cardiac growth in mice. (sciencemag.org)
  • The importance of IGF1R in prenatal and postnatal growth has been demonstrated using knockout mice ( 8 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The activated IGF1 R is involved in cell growth and survival control. (rcsb.org)
  • concluded that IGF-I does not have a major role in myelination during development and that axonal factors other than IGF-I determine oligodendrocyte survival and myelination. (jneurosci.org)
  • It acts as a neurotrophic factor, inducing the survival of neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • While numerous studies have established important roles of the IGF system in regulating cellular growth and survival of several tumor forms, very limited reports exist regarding its role in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). (avhandlingar.se)
  • In adult humans it is found at 600 times the concentration of insulin. (wikidoc.org)
  • MGF-1 or mechano-growth factor I, which is also known as IGF-I Ec in humans, is only markedly up-regulated in exercised and damaged muscle. (ageforce.com)
  • Insulin-like growth factor I messenger RNA (mRNA) was quantified using a solution hybridization assay. (ahajournals.org)
  • After 4 days of renal hypertension, there was a significant increase in left ventricular insulin-like growth factor I mRNA (2.0 x 10(-18) +/- 0.48 x 10(-18) versus 0.4 x 10(-18) +/- 0.07 x 10(-18) mol.microgram DNA-1), which was no longer detectable 7 days after clipping. (ahajournals.org)
  • The expression of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) mRNA in beard dermal papilla cells was stimulated by androgen and antagonized by cyproterone acetate. (hairfacts.com)
  • The term insulin-like growth factor is derived from the ability of high concentrations of these factors to mimic the action of insulin, although their primary action is to stimulate growth. (britannica.com)
  • Trajectories of body fatness from age 5 to 60 y and plasma biomarker concentrations of the insulin-insulin-like growth factor system. (harvard.edu)
  • Higher AF glucose, lactic acid, uric acid and insulin and lower IGF BP1 concentrations were present by 15.1 ± 0.1wks in mothers subsequently diagnosed with GDM. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We have previously reported that IGF-I has growth promoting, anabolic, and insulin-like effects in hypophysectomized and normal rats, and IGF-I inhibits catabolism in fasted rats in vivo (2-5). (springer.com)
  • Insulin-like growth factor-I inhibits apoptosis in IL-3-dependent hemopoietic cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • IGF binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) is a downstream target of insulin and inhibits IGF-I activity. (harvard.edu)
  • Christina Raykha MSc Candidate, Lawson Health Research Institute, London, Ontario, Canada presents "Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein (IGFBP)-6: A mediator of myofibroblast differentiation in Dupuytren's Disease? (youtube.com)
  • Estrogens regulate the growth and differentiation of many normal and neoplastic tissues including breast, endometrial and ovarian tumors. (nature.com)
  • Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is the main mediator of effects of growth hormone (GH) and an important regulator of cell cycle/differentiation and inhibitor of apoptosis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The IGF1R is involved in growth, development, and differentiation processes. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Several growth factors and hormones are involved in this overall process, and IGF-1R is believed to have roles in the differentiation of the cells and a key role in inhibiting apoptosis until weaning is complete. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Although growth/differentiation factor 3 (GDF3) has been suggested to function as a ligand of ALK7 under nutrient-excess conditions, it is unknown how GDF3 production is regulated. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Insulin at high concentration had a weak protective action and IGF-II was inactive in suppressing apoptosis in these IL-3-dependent hemopoietic cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • This investigation has uncovered first ever Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP) binding partners to apoptosis inhibitor of macrophages (AIM) by co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) and Bio-Layer Interferometry (BLI). (moleculardevices.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible role of one such molecule, namely, insulin-like growth factor I, in myocardial hypertrophy developed in response to renal artery stenosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • The report assesses the active Insulin Like Growth Factor (IGF) Inhibitor pipeline products by developmental stage, product type, molecule type, and administration route. (reportbuyer.com)
  • It has been suggested that GH hyper- and hyposecretory states result in changes in the growth and metabolic status of sweat glands, with alterations in sweat gland innervation [ 4 ] and a reduced number of sweat glands has been reported in adults with GHD [ 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • We explored the possibility that perturbations in amniotic fluid (AF) glucose, insulin and insulin-like-growth-factor binding protein 1(IGF BP 1) and/or metabolic acids exist prior to routine screening for GDM. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, logistic regression showed that second trimester AF glucose, but not insulin, IGF BP 1 or metabolic acids, was associated with an increased OR (1. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Measurements of IGF-1 and growth hormone secretion are used in the diagnosis of growth disorders. (news-medical.net)
  • They participate in the growth and function of almost every organ in the body, and are also partially capable of reducing blood glucose levels. (news-medical.net)
  • IGF-I is essential for normal growth of children's bones, cartilage, and organs by stimulating uptake of glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids into tissues. (medscape.com)
  • These data demonstrate the ability of this heterozygous mutation to alter PI3K activity in vivo and the central role of PI3K in insulin/growth factor action, adipocyte function, and glucose metabolism. (jci.org)
  • D'Ercole AJ (1985) Affinity-labeled plasma somatomedin-C insulin-like growth factor I binding proteins. (springer.com)
  • IGF-IR binds IGF-I with highest affinity, IGF-II with somewhat lower affinity, and insulin with rather weak affinity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Growth hormone triggers tissues to make and secrete IGF-1, which then stimulates cells to increase in size (hypertrophy) and number (hyperplasia). (news-medical.net)
  • Together, IGF-1 and GH promote normal growth of bones and tissues. (medlineplus.gov)
  • There appears to be strong evidence for both endocrine and autocrine/paracrine roles for IGF-I in stimulating growth and development of most tissues. (pnas.org)
  • 7 , 8 ) noted that IGF-I was detectable in multiple fetal mouse tissues, and that growth hormone (GH) treatment of hypophysectomized rats increased the peptide levels in many other nonhepatic tissues. (pnas.org)
  • IGF-1 plays an important role in growth and continues to have anabolic effects in adults - meaning that it can induce hypertrophy of skeletal muscle and other target tissues. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Tissues produce IGF-1 protein in response to growth hormone during periods of pre/post-natal development, exercise and injury. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Since 1957, IGF-1 and IGF-2 (historically referred to as somatomedins A and C, respectively) were identified as second messengers of growth hormone (GH) capable of promoting insulin-like anabolic effects upon normal somatic tissues such as skeletal muscle and bone [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • IGF1R is often expressed in normal tissues, serving multiple physiological functions in growth, development and feeding ( 11 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Hizuka N, Takano K, Asakawa K, Sukegawa I, Horikawa R, Kikuchi H and Shizume K. Biological action of insulin-like growth factor-I in vivo. (springer.com)
  • Insulin-like growth factor I increases glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow in man. (springer.com)
  • Left ventricular insulin-like growth factor I increases in early renal hypertension. (ahajournals.org)
  • This enhanced reduction in ligand-driven growth was shown to be at least partly due to an accelerated downregulation of IGF-IR following dual targeting by both antibodies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Consensus statement on the diagnosis and treatment of children with idiopathic short stature: a summary of the Growth Hormone Research Society, the Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society, and the European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology Workshop. (medscape.com)
  • The goal of the present study was to assess the importance of endocrine vs. autocrine/paracrine roles of IGF-I in growth and development. (pnas.org)
  • The Insulin-Like Growth Factor System in the Human Pathology, Hot Topics in Endocrine and Endocrine-Related Diseases Monica Fedele, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/55213. (intechopen.com)
  • IGF-1 is a hormone that manages the effects of growth hormone (GH) in your body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • IGF-I is abundant in bone matrix and mediates some of the effects of growth hormone (GH). (avhandlingar.se)
  • Effects of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I in experimental heart failure. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Baxter RC (1986) The somatomedins: insulin-like growth factors. (springer.com)
  • BMS-754807 is active in vivo in multiple (epithelial, mesenchymal, and hematopoietic) xenograft tumor models with tumor growth inhibition ranging from 53% to 115% and at a minimum effective dose of as low as 6.25 mg/kg dosed orally daily. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here, we show that a physiologically low level of insulin converts CD11c − adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) into GDF3-producing CD11c + macrophages ex vivo and directs ALK7-dependent accumulation of fat in vivo. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • These findings confirmed the importance of IGF-I in prenatal and postnatal growth and development. (pnas.org)
  • Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is a mitogen for prostate epithelial cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Androgen induction of follicular epithelial cell growth is mediated via insulin-like growth factor-I from dermal papilla cells. (hairfacts.com)
  • In skeletal muscle there is good evidence to suggest that locally produced insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I), rather than circulating IGF-I, is important in regard to muscle mass maintenance, repair and hypertrophy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Hizuka N, Takano K, Shizume K, Asakawa K, Miyakawa M, Tanaka I and Horikawa R. Insulin-like growth factor I stimulates growth in normal growing rats. (springer.com)
  • The measurement of IGF-1 in conjunction with growth hormone assessment can also be used in the investigation of short stature to establish the cause of retarded growth. (news-medical.net)
  • Dose-dependent effect of growth hormone on final height in children with short stature without growth hormone deficiency. (medscape.com)
  • Effect of growth hormone treatment on adult height in peripubertal children with idiopathic short stature: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. (medscape.com)
  • To date, Insulin-like growth factor I (IGFI) is the only growth factor that has shown antidepressant properties in human clinical trials. (mendeley.com)
  • Synergistic growth stimulation of mouse fibroblasts by tumor-derived adhesion factor with insulin-like growth factors and insulin," Cell Growth Differ. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • specific proteins on or in cells to which insulin-like growth factor II and mannose -6- phosphate bind and thereby modify the function of the cells . (biology-online.org)
  • The insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (29-31kDa)is similarities to mammalian. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), which is also known as somatomedin C, is a downstream metabolite of growth hormone. (ageforce.com)
  • Hexarelin exhibits protective activity against cardiac ischaemia in hearts from growth hormone-defic. (biomedsearch.com)
  • IGF-1 is essential to growth during childhood and has anabolic effects in adulthood. (news-medical.net)
  • In addition to acting in a similar way to insulin, IGF-1 can also regulate cell growth and development, especially in nerve cells, as well as cellular DNA synthesis. (sciencephoto.com)
  • A decreased IGf-2 level is seen in growth disorders and has also been proposed to play a role in the development of some cancers including breast cancer, colon cancer and lung cancer. (news-medical.net)
  • Karey, K.P., and Sirbasku, D.A., Differential responsiveness of human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and T47D to growth factors and 17b-estradiol. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-related protein 1 (IGFBP-rP1) has potential tumour-suppressive activity in human lung cancer," J. Pathol. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Described are cancer preventive vaccines and methods that elicit circulating antibodies specific to insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in the body. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • As the incidence of IGF-IR type I immunity was not associated with a breast cancer diagnosis, we questioned whether other factors were contributing to the presence of IGF-IR - specific T-cells in both populations. (washington.edu)
  • Citation Query FOXA1 Promotes Tumor Progression in Prostate Cancer via the Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3 Pathway. (psu.edu)
  • If we can establish that IGF1 is a risk factor for cancer, then you could imagine that doctors could prescribe IGF1lowering drugs as we are now doing for cholesterol with statins,' says Valter Longo of the University of Southern California's Programs in Biomedical and Biological Sciences, who collaborated with Guevara-Aguirre on a study of the Ecuadorian community published February 16 in Science Translational Medicine. (scribd.com)
  • Circulating Levels of Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 and Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3 Associate With Risk of Colorectal Cancer Based on Serologic and Mendelian Randomization Analyses. (harvard.edu)
  • When compared with participants in the three highest quartiles of plasma IGFBP-1, those in the lowest quartile experienced a relative risk (1111) for pancreatic cancer of 2.07 [95% confidence intervals (95% CI), 1.26-3.39], after adjusting for other risk factors, including circulating IGF-I, IGF binding protein-3, and C-peptide. (harvard.edu)
  • The somatomedin hypothesis proposed that insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) was a hepatically derived circulating mediator of growth hormone and is a crucial factor for postnatal growth and development. (pnas.org)
  • Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) may be considered as a mediator of vascular disease. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Investigators reported an association between plasma insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP-2) levels and structural MRI brain measures, cognitive performance, as well as incident dementia and AD-dementia. (lww.com)
  • The researchers opted to focus on insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP-2) because it is the most prominent IGF-binding protein in the brain. (lww.com)
  • Using yeast two‑hybrid screening, the present study uncovered that AIM binds to insulin‑like growth factor binding protein‑4 (IGFBP‑4). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 are GH dependent, whereas IGFBP-1 is insulin regulated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bereket A, Cesur Y, Özkan B, Adal E, Turan S, Onan SH, Döneray H, Akçay T, Haklar G. Circulating insulin-like growth factor binding protein-4 (IGFBP-4) is not regulated by parathyroid hormone and vitamin D in vivo: evidence from children with rickets. (harvard.edu)
  • Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) are measured. (clinicaltrials.gov)