An intermediate-acting INSULIN preparation with onset time of 2 hours and duration of 24 hours. It is produced by crystallizing ZINC-insulin-PROTAMINES at neutral pH 7. Thus it is called neutral protamine Hagedorn for inventor Hans Christian Hagedorn.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
A structurally-related group of signaling proteins that are phosphorylated by the INSULIN RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE. The proteins share in common an N-terminal PHOSPHOLIPID-binding domain, a phosphotyrosine-binding domain that interacts with the phosphorylated INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal TYROSINE-rich domain. Upon tyrosine phosphorylation insulin receptor substrate proteins interact with specific SH2 DOMAIN-containing proteins that are involved in insulin receptor signaling.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Insulin formulations that contain substances that retard absorption thus extending the time period of action.
Antibodies specific to INSULIN.
Substances which lower blood glucose levels.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or action of insulin.
Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.
Insulin that has been modified so that the B-chain contains a LYSINE at position 28 instead of a PROLINE and a PROLINE at position 29 instead of a LYSINE. It is used to manage BLOOD GLUCOSE levels in patients with TYPE 2 DIABETES.
A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
Portable or implantable devices for infusion of insulin. Includes open-loop systems which may be patient-operated or controlled by a pre-set program and are designed for constant delivery of small quantities of insulin, increased during food ingestion, and closed-loop systems which deliver quantities of insulin automatically based on an electronic glucose sensor.
Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.
Insulin that has been modified to contain an ASPARTIC ACID instead of a PROLINE at position 38 of the B-chain.
Regular insulin preparations that contain the SUS SCROFA insulin peptide sequence.
A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.
Peptide hormones that cause an increase in the absorption of GLUCOSE by cells within organs such as LIVER, MUSCLE and ADIPOSE TISSUE. During normal metabolism insulins are produced by the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS in response to increased GLUCOSE. Natural and chemically-modified forms of insulin are also used in the treatment of GLUCOSE METABOLISM DISORDERS such as DIABETES MELLITUS.
A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Regular insulin preparations that contain the HUMAN insulin peptide sequence.
The middle segment of proinsulin that is between the N-terminal B-chain and the C-terminal A-chain. It is a pancreatic peptide of about 31 residues, depending on the species. Upon proteolytic cleavage of proinsulin, equimolar INSULIN and C-peptide are released. C-peptide immunoassay has been used to assess pancreatic beta cell function in diabetic patients with circulating insulin antibodies or exogenous insulin. Half-life of C-peptide is 30 min, almost 8 times that of insulin.
A pancreatic polypeptide of about 110 amino acids, depending on the species, that is the precursor of insulin. Proinsulin, produced by the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, is comprised sequentially of the N-terminal B-chain, the proteolytically removable connecting C-peptide, and the C-terminal A-chain. It also contains three disulfide bonds, two between A-chain and B-chain. After cleavage at two locations, insulin and C-peptide are the secreted products. Intact proinsulin with low bioactivity also is secreted in small amounts.
Abstaining from all food.
Glucose in blood.
Abnormally high BLOOD GLUCOSE level.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.
Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
Insulin derivatives and preparations that are designed to induce a rapid HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECT.
A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.
A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.
A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
A benign tumor of the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS. Insulinoma secretes excess INSULIN resulting in HYPOGLYCEMIA.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An insulin preparation that is designed to provide immediate and long term glycemic control in a single dosage. Biphasic insulin typically contains a mixture of REGULAR INSULIN or SHORT-ACTING INSULIN combined with a LONG-ACTING INSULIN.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
A biguanide hypoglycemic agent used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus not responding to dietary modification. Metformin improves glycemic control by improving insulin sensitivity and decreasing intestinal absorption of glucose. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p289)
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).
A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is closely related in structure to the INSULIN RECEPTOR. Although commonly referred to as the IGF-I receptor, it binds both IGF-I and IGF-II with high affinity. It is comprised of a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The beta subunit contains an intrinsic tyrosine kinase domain.
Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.
A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)
A sulphonylurea hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROPAMIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290)
The administration of liquid medication or nutrients under the skin, usually over minutes or hours.
The consumption of edible substances.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
An antibiotic that is produced by Stretomyces achromogenes. It is used as an antineoplastic agent and to induce diabetes in experimental animals.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of D-glucose from UDPglucose into 1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl chains. EC 2.4.1.11.
A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.
The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.
Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.
A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and D-glucose to ADP and D-glucose 6-phosphate. They are found in invertebrates and microorganisms, and are highly specific for glucose. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.2.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.
Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.
A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
An enzyme the catalyzes the degradation of insulin, glucagon and other polypeptides. It is inhibited by bacitracin, chelating agents EDTA and 1,10-phenanthroline, and by thiol-blocking reagents such as N-ethylmaleimide, but not phosphoramidon. (Eur J Biochem 1994;223:1-5) EC 3.4.24.56.
A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A gastrointestinal peptide hormone of about 43-amino acids. It is found to be a potent stimulator of INSULIN secretion and a relatively poor inhibitor of GASTRIC ACID secretion.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus, primarily of TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS with severe INSULIN deficiency and extreme HYPERGLYCEMIA. It is characterized by KETOSIS; DEHYDRATION; and depressed consciousness leading to COMA.
The time period before the development of symptomatic diabetes. For example, certain risk factors can be observed in subjects who subsequently develop INSULIN RESISTANCE as in type 2 diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 2).
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that includes two distinctive targeting motifs; an N-terminal motif specific for the INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal motif specific for the SH3 domain containing proteins. This subtype includes a hydrophobic domain which localizes it to the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
A glucose transport facilitator that is expressed primarily in PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; LIVER; and KIDNEYS. It may function as a GLUCOSE sensor to regulate INSULIN release and glucose HOMEOSTASIS.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.

Lispro Mix25 insulin as premeal therapy in type 2 diabetic patients. (1/103)

OBJECTIVE: Insulin Mix25 is a new premixed insulin analog containing 25% insulin lispro and 75% neutral protamine lispro (NPL) suspension (NPL insulin). The aim of the study was to compare serum glucose and insulin responses after breakfast in type 2 diabetic patients who received Mix25, premixed regular/NPH (30%/70%), or NPH insulin before the meal. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied 22 type 2 diabetic patients of age 62 +/- 1 years, BMI 30 +/- 1 kg/m2, duration of diabetes 15 +/- 2 years, duration of insulin therapy 6 +/- 1 years, insulin dose 65 +/- 6 U/day, and HbA1c 7.9 +/- 0.2%. Ten healthy individuals (age 56 +/- 1 years, BMI 28 +/- 1 kg/m2) served as control subjects. Each patient (except healthy subjects, who were studied once each) was studied three times in a double-blind, randomized fashion. After an overnight fast, the patients received 36 +/- 4 U of test insulin. Ten minutes after insulin injection, the patients ingested a breakfast meal (512 kcal, 60% carbohydrate, 20% fat, and 20% protein), identical in all studies. Blood samples were taken before and at 10- to 30-min intervals for 240 min after the breakfast meal. RESULTS: The peak rise in serum glucose was lower after Mix25 (76 +/- 7 mg/dl) than after 30/70 (94 +/- 5 mg/dl, P < 0.05) or NPH (113 +/- 4 mg/dl, P < 0.005) insulin. The incremental area under the serum glucose curve was 36% smaller after Mix25 than after 30/70 (P < 0.01) and 56% smaller than after NPH (P < 0.005) insulin. The peak rise in serum insulin concentration was higher after Mix25 (103 +/- 18 mU/l) than after 30/70 (87 +/- 13 mU/l, P < 0.05) or NPH (62 +/- 12 mU/l, P < 0.01) insulin. The incremental area under the serum insulin curve was higher after Mix25 than after 30/70 during the first 2-3 h (P < 0.02), but the difference disappeared by the end of the 4-h follow-up period. After Mix25 injection, there was an inverse correlation between the glucose response to a meal and insulin dose (r = -0.56, P < 0.01) or the incremental area under the serum insulin curve (r = -0.39, P < 0.05). No such correlations were observed with the other insulins. CONCLUSIONS: Because of its faster initial absorption rate, the new premixed insulin analog Mix25 reduces blood glucose response to a breakfast meal in type 2 diabetic patients compared with premixed 30/70 (regular/NPH) or NPH insulin.  (+info)

Long-term intensive treatment of type 1 diabetes with the short-acting insulin analog lispro in variable combination with NPH insulin at mealtime. (2/103)

OBJECTIVE: To establish whether the short-acting insulin analog lispro can be successfully implemented in long-term intensive insulin therapy in type 1 diabetes, and if so, what its effects are on glycemic control and frequency and awareness of hypoglycemia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We randomized 56 type 1 diabetic patients to treatment with either lispro (n = 28) or human regular insulin (Hum-R; n = 28) as mealtime insulin for 1 year (open design, parallel groups). Lispro was injected at mealtime and Hum-R was given 10-40 min before meals (bedtime NPH was continued on both occasions). With lispro, NPH was added at breakfast (approximately 70/30), lunch (approximately 60/40), and supper (approximately 80/20) (mixing percentage of lispro/NPH) to optimize premeal and bedtime blood glucose. RESULTS: Total daily insulin units were no different in the two treatment groups, but with lispro approximately 30% less short-acting insulin at meals and approximately 30% more NPH was needed versus Hum-R (P < 0.05). The bedtime NPH dosage was no different. With lispro + NPH, the mean daily blood glucose was lower than with Hum-R (8.0 +/- 0.1 vs. 8.8 +/- 0.1 mmol/l; P < 0.05), HbA1c was lower (6.34 +/- 0.10 vs. 6.71 +/- 0.11%, mean value over 1 year; P < 0.002), and hypoglycemia (blood glucose < or = 3.8 mmol/l) was less frequent (7.4 +/- 0.5 vs. 11.5 +/- 0.7 episodes/patient-month) and tended to occur more within 90 min after meals than in the postabsorptive state (P < 0.05 vs. Hum-R). After 1 year, plasma adrenaline and symptom responses to experimental, stepped hypoglycemia improved with lispro and were closer to the responses of 12 nondiabetic control subjects versus Hum-R both in terms of thresholds and magnitude (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that mealtime injection of lispro + NPH improves the 24-h blood glucose and the percentage HbA1c as compared with Hum-R. The improvement can be maintained long term. Intensive therapy with lispro + NPH results in less frequent hypoglycemia and better awareness and counterregulation of hypoglycemia.  (+info)

Lispro or regular insulin for multiple injection therapy in adolescence. Differences in free insulin and glucose levels overnight. (3/103)

OBJECTIVE: Regular insulin given with the evening meal could contribute to the risk of nocturnal hypoglycemia in adolescents with type 1 diabetes using a multiple injection regimen. To test this hypothesis, we compared glucodynamics and free insulin levels on two separate study nights. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 14 adolescents were recruited. On both nights, identical doses of regular insulin or insulin lispro were administered 30 min or 10 min, respectively, before the evening meal, using a double-blind randomized crossover study design. Doses of NPH insulin and carbohydrate content of the evening meal and snack were kept identical. Blood samples were taken every 15 min for blood glucose and every 60 min for free insulin and ketones. RESULTS: After insulin lispro administration, glucose levels were significantly lower between the evening meal and the bedtime snack (analysis of variance [ANOVA] P = 0.02), and four hypoglycemic episodes were recorded. This corresponded to a higher (458 +/- 48 vs. 305 +/- 33 pmol/l, P = 0.02), earlier (64 +/- 4.6 vs. 103 +/- 12 min, P = 0.01), and shorter-lasting (245 +/- 21 vs. 365 +/- 39 min, P = 0.01) insulin peak in contrast to regular insulin. After the bedtime snack, glucose levels increased dramatically during the lispro night and stayed higher, up to 0300 in the morning (ANOVA P = 0.01), corresponding to lower mean insulin levels (146 +/- 20 vs. 184 +/- 27 pmol/l, P = 0.04). No differences were seen in glucose and insulin levels between 0300 and 0800. Four episodes of nocturnal hypoglycemia were documented after the bedtime snack during the regular insulin night, in contrast to one episode after insulin lispro. No differences in ketone levels were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The replacement of regular insulin with insulin lispro may reduce the risk of late hypoglycemia, but redistribution of the evening carbohydrate may be needed to ensure good metabolic control and prevent early postprandial hypoglycemia.  (+info)

Use of insulin pump therapy at nighttime only for children 7-10 years of age with type 1 diabetes. (4/103)

OBJECTIVE: Because of age-related developmental and cognitive issues, children <10 years of age may not be able to wear an insulin pump safely when they are not under direct parental supervision. The purpose of this study was to determine if insulin pump therapy at nighttime only, when children are at home, could improve fasting and nighttime blood glucose levels without adverse effects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The study cohort consisted of 10 children aged 7-10 years. A randomized crossover design was used to compare nighttime-only pump usage from dinner and throughout the night, combined with a prebreakfast injection of intermediate-acting NPH and rapid-acting lispro insulin, with 3 insulin injections per day. Comparisons were made among mean blood glucose values and percentage of blood glucose levels within the target range (70-150 mg/dl) before meals, at bedtime, and at 3:00 A.M.; serum fructosamine levels; and scores on measures of adherence and fear of hypoglycemia. RESULTS: Compared with baseline levels, the use of the pump resulted in a significant decrease in the mean average (P < 0.001), breakfast (P < 0.0001), and 3:00 A.M. (P < 0.003) blood glucose levels. There was a decrease in the percentage of blood glucose values less than the target range (P < 0.01) and in fructosamine (P < 0.01) values and an increase in the percentage of blood glucose levels within the target range (P < 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Nighttime-only insulin pump therapy may be a viable alternative that young children can use to improve glycemia when they are not capable of independently managing an insulin pump.  (+info)

Use of insulin aspart, a fast-acting insulin analog, as the mealtime insulin in the management of patients with type 1 diabetes. (5/103)

OBJECTIVE: To compare long-term glycemic control and safety of using insulin aspart (IAsp) with that of regular human insulin (HI). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a multicenter randomized open-label 6-month study (882 subjects) with a 6-month extension period (714 subjects) that enrolled subjects with type 1 diabetes. Subjects administered IAsp immediately before meals or regular HI 30 min before meals; basal NPH insulin was taken as a single bedtime dose in the majority of subjects. Glycemic control was assessed with HbA1c values and 8-point blood glucose profiles at 3-month intervals. RESULTS: Mean postprandial blood glucose levels (mg/dl +/- SEM) were significantly lower for subjects in the IAsp group compared with subjects in the HI group after breakfast (156 +/- 3.4 vs. 185 +/- 4.7), lunch (137 +/- 3.1 vs. 162 +/- 4.1), and dinner (153 +/- 3.1 vs. 168 +/- 4.1), when assessed after 6 months of treatment. Mean HbA1c values (% +/- SEM) were slightly, but significantly, lower for the IAsp group (7.78% +/- 0.03) than for the regular HI group (7.93% +/- 0.05, P = 0.005) at 6 months. Similar postprandial blood glucose and HbA1c values were observed at 12 months. Adverse events and overall hypoglycemic episodes were similar for both treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: Postprandial glycemic control was significantly better with IAsp compared with HI after 6 and 12 months of treatment. The improvement was not obtained at an increased risk of hypoglycemia. HbA1c was slightly, but significantly, lower for IAsp compared with HI at 6 and 12 months.  (+info)

Less hypoglycemia with insulin glargine in intensive insulin therapy for type 1 diabetes. U.S. Study Group of Insulin Glargine in Type 1 Diabetes. (6/103)

OBJECTIVE: Insulin glargine (21A-Gly-30Ba-L-Arg-30Bb-L-Arg-human insulin) is a biosynthetic insulin analog with a prolonged duration of action compared with NPH human insulin. This study compared insulin glargine with NPH human insulin in subjects with type 1 diabetes who had been previously treated with multiple daily injections of NPH insulin and regular insulin. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study was a multicenter randomized parallel-group study in which subjects were randomized to receive premeal regular insulin and either insulin glargine (at bedtime) or NPH insulin (at bedtime for patients on once-daily therapy and at bedtime and in the morning for patients on twice-daily therapy) for up to 28 weeks. Dose titration of both basal insulins was based on capillary fasting whole blood glucose (FBG) levels; the goal was a premeal blood glucose concentration of 4.4-6.7 mmol/l. RESULTS: A total of 534 well-controlled type 1 diabetic subjects (mean GHb 7.7%, mean fasting plasma glucose [FPG] 11.8 mmo/l) were treated. A small decrease in GHb levels was noted with both insulin glargine (-0.16%) and NPH insulin (-0.21%; P > 0.05). Significant reductions in median FPG levels from baseline (-1.67 vs. -0.33 mmol/l with NPH insulin, P = 0.0145) and a trend for a reduction in capillary FBG levels were achieved with insulin glargine. After the 1-month titration phase, significantly fewer subjects receiving insulin glargine experienced symptomatic hypoglycemia (39.9 vs. 49.2%, P = 0.0219) or nocturnal hypoglycemia (18.2 vs. 27.1%, P = 0.0116) with a blood glucose level <2.0 mmol/l compared with subjects receiving NPH insulin. CONCLUSIONS: Lower FPG levels with fewer episodes of hypoglycemia were achieved with insulin glargine compared with once- or twice-daily NPH insulin as part of a basal-bolus regimen in patients with type 1 diabetes.  (+info)

Time-action profile of the long-acting insulin analog insulin glargine (HOE901) in comparison with those of NPH insulin and placebo. (7/103)

OBJECTIVE: To study the pharmacodynamic properties of the subcutaneously injected long-acting insulin analog HOE901 (30 microg/ml zinc) in comparison with those of NPH insulin and placebo. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In this single-center double-blind euglycemic glucose clamp study, 15 healthy male volunteers (aged 27 +/- 4 years, BMI 22.2 +/- 1.8 kg/m2) received single subcutaneous injections of 0.4 U/kg body wt of HOE901, NPH insulin, or placebo on 3 study days in a randomized order. The necessary glucose infusion rates (GIRs) to keep blood glucose concentrations constant at 5.0 mmol/l were determined over a 30-h period after administration. RESULTS: The injection of HOE901 did not induce the pronounced peak in metabolic activity observed with NPH insulin (GIRmax 5.3 +/- 1.1 vs. 7.7 +/- 1.3 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) (P < 0.05); after an initial rise, metabolic activity was rather constant over the study period. This lack of peak was confirmed by a lower glucose consumption in the first 4 h after injection (area under the curve from 0 to 4 h [AUC(0-4 h)] 1.02 +/- 0.34 vs. 1.48 +/- 0.34 g/kg) (P < 0.001) with HOE901, as compared with NPH insulin. In this single-dose study, the metabolic effect measured over a period of 30 h was lower with HOE901 than with NPH insulin (AUC(0-30 h) 7.93 +/- 1.82 vs. 9.24 +/- 1.29 g/kg) (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that the soluble long-acting insulin analog HOE901 induces a smoother metabolic effect than NPH insulin, from which a better substitution of basal insulin requirements may follow.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetics of 125I-labeled insulin glargine (HOE 901) in healthy men: comparison with NPH insulin and the influence of different subcutaneous injection sites. (8/103)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the subcutaneous absorption rates and the appearance in plasma of 3 formulations of the long-acting human insulin analog insulin glargine (HOE 901) differing only in zinc content (15, 30, and 80 microg/ml). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted 2 studies. Study 1 compared the subcutaneous abdominal injection of 0.15 U/kg of 125I-labeled insulin glargine[15], insulin glargine[80], NPH insulin, and placebo. In study 2, 0.2 U/kg of insulin glargine[30] was injected into the arm, leg, and abdominal regions. Both studies had a randomized crossover design; each enrolled 12 healthy men, aged 18-50 years. RESULTS: In study 1, the time in hours for 25% of the administered radioactivity to disappear after bolus subcutaneous injection (T75%) for NPH insulin indicated a significantly faster absorption rate compared with the 2 insulin glargine formulations (3.2 vs. 8.8 and 11.0 h, respectively P < 0.0001). Mean residual radioactivity with NPH insulin was also significantly lower at 24 h (21.9 vs. 43.8 and 52.2%, P < 0.0001). The calculated plasma exogenous insulin concentrations after NPH insulin were substantially higher than those with insulin glargine, reaching a peak within the first 6 h after administration before declining. Insulin glargine, however, did not exhibit a distinct peak. Weighted average plasma glucose concentration between 0 and 6 h was significantly lower after NPH compared with insulin glargine (P < 0.001). In study 2, there were no significant differences in the absorption characteristics of insulin glargine between the 3 injection sites (T75% = 11.9, 15.3, and 13.2 h for arm, leg, and abdomen, respectively) or in residual radioactivity at 24 h. CONCLUSIONS: Subcutaneous absorption of insulin glargine is delayed compared with NPH insulin. There is little or no difference in the absorption rate of insulin glargine between the main subcutaneous injection sites.  (+info)

This trial is conducted in Japan. The aim of trial is to investigate the safety of insulin detemir and insulin NPH in children with type 1 diabetes.
Primary Objective:. 6 To assess the efficacy of insulin glargine given once daily (QD) on glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels over a period of 24 weeks in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) aged at least 6 years to less than 18 years.. Secondary Objectives:. ...
Find information on Nph Insulin (Isophane Insulin Suspension) - HumuLIN N, NovoLIN N in Daviss Drug Guide including dosage, side effects, interactions, nursing implications, mechanism of action, half life, administration, and more. Davis Drug Guide PDF.
If you have liver disease, let your doctor know before you use NPH insulin/regular insulin. This eMedTV article offers more precautions and warnings with NPH insulin/regular insulin and includes information on who should not use this medication.
In 12 of 12 controlled clinical trials of >6000 patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, Levemir resulted in less weight gain •The average weight gain of patients taking Levemir was almost 3 times less than that of patients taking neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin in a 24-week clinical trial of patients with type 2 diabetes taking oral agents •A low frequency of minor hypoglycemia was also seen in 4 of 4 studies in adults, as well as a relatively low incidence of major hypoglycemia in 3 of these studies •In one study, patients taking Levemir were almost half as likely to experience a minor hypoglycemic event, compared with patients taking NPH insulin High-Risk Groups: Get a Flu Shot Patients with diabetes should add a flu shot to their to-do list. Researchers have found that the percentage of patients with diabetes who get an annual flu vaccination remains low. A new study looked at the effectiveness of first and repeat flu vaccinations in 9238 adults with diabetes during the ...
The Hagedorn temperature is the temperature in theoretical physics where hadronic matter (i.e. ordinary matter) is no longer stable, and must either evaporate or convert into quark matter; as such, it can be thought of as the boiling point of hadronic matter. The Hagedorn temperature exists because the amount of energy available is high enough that matter particle (quark-antiquark) pairs can be spontaneously pulled from vacuum. Thus, naively considered, a system at Hagedorn temperature can accommodate as much energy as one can put in, because the formed quarks provide new degrees of freedom, and thus the Hagedorn temperature would be an impassable absolute hot. However, if this phase is viewed as quarks instead, it becomes apparent that the matter has transformed into quark matter, which can be further heated. It is about the same as the mass-energy of the lightest hadrons, the pion, at 130-140 MeV per particle or about 2 × 1012 K. This energy range can be routinely probed in particle ...
article{7558afcf-6e4b-4673-877e-5973c991f8f0, abstract = {Assessment of the long-term safety and efficacy of liquid inhaled insulin via AERx((R)) insulin Diabetes Management System (iDMS) in a basal/bolus treatment regimen of adults with Type 1 diabetes. Patients were randomized 2 : 1 to prandial inhaled (n = 205) or subcutaneous (s.c.) (n = 99) insulin, plus one/two daily injections of neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin for 12 months. The primary endpoints were pulmonary function tests (PFT) and baseline changes in chest X-rays at 12 months. Safety and efficacy assessments were measured at regular intervals. PFTs after 12 months were comparable between the groups, except for reduced per cent of predicted carbon monoxide lung diffusing capacity with inhaled insulin (difference: -2.03%, P = 0.04) occurring after the first 3 months and then stabilizing. There were no apparent treatment differences in chest X-rays. Overall risk of hypoglycaemia [risk ratio (RR) 1.02, P = 0.83] and adverse ...
Insuman comb pre-filled SoloStar pens, cartridges (for use with clikSTAR or Autopen 24 pens) and vials all contain human biphasic isophane insulin. They are used to treat diabetes.
Humulin I vials, pre-filled pens (KwikPens) and cartridges (for use with Humapen or Autopen Classic pens) all contain human isophane insulin. They are used to treat diabetes.
CASEONE: While on rotation in an ambulatory care clinic, a pharmacy student is asked to assess NW, a 67-year-old woman, during her annual physical examination. According to NWs chart, she has a history of hypertension, type 2 diabetes (requiring insulin for the last 5 years), and obesity. Despite repeated attempts to convince her to quit, NW has continued to smoke 1 pack of cigarettes per day for the last 40 years and has had a few drinks with dinner for the last 25 years. NWs chart also states that her current medications include furosemide, 40 mg by mouth daily; ramipril, 5 mg by mouth daily; Neutral Protamine Hagedorn insulin; and regular insulin. The vital signs done by the nurse are documented as height, 5 feet 3 inches; weight, 215 lb; body temperature, 98.6? F; blood pressure, 170/90 mm Hg; heart rate, 90 beats/min; and respiratory rate, 16 breaths/min. The pharmacy student checks the clinic computers for that days results. The results for NW show that her basic metabolic panel and ...
Keep out of the reach of children.. Unopened Vials:. Humulin 70/30 vials: Store in a refrigerator between 2 and 8 degrees C (36 and 46 degrees F) or at room temperature below 30 degrees C (86 degrees F). Do not freeze or use if the insulin has been frozen. Protect from light and excessive heat. If stored at room temperature, the vial must be discarded after 31 days. Throw away any unopened and unused medicine that has been stored in the refrigerator after the expiration date.. Novolin 70/30 vials: Store in a refrigerator between 2 and 8 degrees C (36 and 46 degrees F) or at room temperature below 25 degrees C (77 degrees F). Do not freeze or use if the insulin has been frozen. Protect from light and excessive heat. If stored at room temperature, the vial must be discarded after 42 days. Throw away any unopened and unused medicine that has been stored in the refrigerator after the expiration date.. Unopened Pens:. Humulin 70/30 KwikPens: Store in a refrigerator between 2 and 8 degrees C (36 and ...
Visit your health care professional or doctor for regular checks on your progress.. A test called the HbA1C (A1C) will be monitored. This is a simple blood test. It measures your blood sugar control over the last 2 to 3 months. You will receive this test every 3 to 6 months.. Learn how to check your blood sugar. Learn the symptoms of low and high blood sugar and how to manage them.. Always carry a quick-source of sugar with you in case you have symptoms of low blood sugar. Examples include hard sugar candy or glucose tablets. Make sure others know that you can choke if you eat or drink when you develop serious symptoms of low blood sugar, such as seizures or unconsciousness. They must get medical help at once.. Tell your doctor or health care professional if you have high blood sugar. You might need to change the dose of your medicine. If you are sick or exercising more than usual, you might need to change the dose of your medicine.. Do not skip meals. Ask your doctor or health care professional ...
Visit your health care professional or doctor for regular checks on your progress.. A test called the HbA1C (A1C) will be monitored. This is a simple blood test. It measures your blood sugar control over the last 2 to 3 months. You will receive this test every 3 to 6 months.. Learn how to check your blood sugar. Learn the symptoms of low and high blood sugar and how to manage them.. Always carry a quick-source of sugar with you in case you have symptoms of low blood sugar. Examples include hard sugar candy or glucose tablets. Make sure others know that you can choke if you eat or drink when you develop serious symptoms of low blood sugar, such as seizures or unconsciousness. They must get medical help at once.. Tell your doctor or health care professional if you have high blood sugar. You might need to change the dose of your medicine. If you are sick or exercising more than usual, you might need to change the dose of your medicine.. Do not skip meals. Ask your doctor or health care professional ...
Medscape - Diabetes mellitus dosing for Humulin70/30, Novolin 70/30 (insulin isophane human/insulin regular human, frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, contraindications, pregnancy & lactation schedules, and cost information.
We have definitely had to adjust her dosage since the change. What is so shocking is they state that a dogs reaction to the change is delayed. Disclaimer -- The content on this site is provided for informational and educational purposes only. Do not use in pregnancy. Find Us On Group 2 34A8E98BEDD6-EF4C2E. I think I kept Abby at a lower dose with Humulin, because she would experience such a wild swing of BG. The time http://www.freundeskreis-esslingen.de/spielen.html is Two available brands of NPH insulin, manufactured by Https://www.camh.ca/en/hospital/health_information/a_z_mental_health_and_addiction_information/drug-use-addiction/Pages/addiction.aspx Lilly Humulin N and Novo Nordisk Novolin N. You are deer hunter russian to visit a website outside of eMedicineHealth. Also found out the humulin has half wie macht man viel geld price as the novolin, so Ill take it! Stargame rummy number of dogs have now been reported where they were stable and doing casino 888 free games on Humulin N. Please ...
...is full of sweet birdsong and rainbows. I feel the need to comment on Turface, which is still, unfortunately, a common bonsai soil component. I used Turface and Oil-Dri for years before starting to use pumice and akadama. Some have had good results with Turface and deciduous trees---I had fairly good results with deciduous while using…
This medicine is for injection under the skin. Use exactly as directed. It is important to follow the directions given to you by your doctor or health care professional. Your doctor or health care professional will tell you how long to wait after you inject your dose before eating a meal. Most of the time, you should wait about 30 minutes. You will be taught how to use this medicine and how to adjust doses for activities and illness. Do not use more insulin than prescribed. Do not use more or less often than prescribed ...
A Salutary Tale—Glargine insulin and cancer risk Peter Boyle International Prevention Research Institute, 95 cours Lafayette, 69006 Lyon, France C
As Im sure was the case with many others, I used to use the insulin NPH when I was first diagnosed. I was extremely careful and diligent back then, perhaps ...
Looking for online definition of isophane insulin suspension in the Medical Dictionary? isophane insulin suspension explanation free. What is isophane insulin suspension? Meaning of isophane insulin suspension medical term. What does isophane insulin suspension mean?
Query 11-04: How does real world use of insulin glargine compare to NPH insulin in terms of effectiveness and safety (and ideally cost-effectiveness) for the management of type 1 diabetes mellitus? What is the comparative effectiveness and safety of sitagliptan and NPH insulin for the management of type 2 diabetes (T2D) not controlled by metformin plus sulfonylurea?. This project was originated with a query by British Columbia Ministry of Health in 2013 and funded for 3 years.. Final analysis using Marketscan for both parts of this query were finalized. With T1DM, we found that initiators of NPH insulin were more likely to switch to another insulin therapy after discontinuation (HR: 1.51; 95% CI 1.27-1.79) when compared to initiators of insulin glargine. The risk of hypoglycemia, DKA, and microvascular complications was not significant different among NPH and glargine initiators. With T2DM analysis, we found that initiators of NPH insulin discontinued earlier and have three times higher risk of ...
Analog insulin detemir for patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes: a review Gregory E PetersonDepartment of Internal Medicine, Des Moines University, USAObjective: To review insulin detemir for clinical use to better manage patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.Methods: A MEDLINE search, in English, from June 30, 2006 to December 1, 2008, using the terms “insulin analogs,” “insulin detemir” and “long-acting insulin analog.”Results: Insulin detemir improves glycemic control, based on HbA1C reduction and fasting glucose levels, without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia and weight gain. Insulin detemir has lower glycemic variability, with less intra-subject variability in blood glucose levels in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia. When added to oral anti-diabetes agents (OADs) in type 2 diabetes, insulin detemir demonstrates superiority to other basal insulin options.Conclusion: Insulin detemir appears to
OBJECTIVE: Insulin glargine (21A-Gly-30Ba-L-Arg-30Bb-L-Arg-human insulin) is a biosynthetic insulin analog with a prolonged duration of action compared with NPH human insulin. This study compared insulin glargine with NPH human insulin in subjects with type 1 diabetes who had been previously treated with multiple daily injections of NPH insulin and regular insulin. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study was a multicenter randomized parallel-group study in which subjects were randomized to receive premeal regular insulin and either insulin glargine (at bedtime) or NPH insulin (at bedtime for patients on once-daily therapy and at bedtime and in the morning for patients on twice-daily therapy) for up to 28 weeks. Dose titration of both basal insulins was based on capillary fasting whole blood glucose (FBG) levels; the goal was a premeal blood glucose concentration of 4.4-6.7 mmol/l. RESULTS: A total of 534 well-controlled type 1 diabetic subjects (mean GHb 7.7%, mean fasting plasma glucose [FPG] ...
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this prospective trial was to compare the effect of different long-acting insulin preparations injected at bedtime on glucose concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes omitting breakfast and lunch the next day. METHODS: Twenty patients (ten women) with type 2 diabetes who were on an intensified insulin therapy participated. Mean (+/-SD) age was 63 +/- 10 years, diabetes duration 18 +/- 9 years, BMI 32.5 +/- 5 kg/m(2), and HbA(1c) 7.3 +/- 0.7%. Patients received neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin, insulin detemir or insulin glargine for at least 2 months; doses were adjusted to achieve morning blood glucose levels of ,7 mmol/l. At the end of the respective treatment period, the long-acting insulin was injected at bedtime (at 22:45 hours) as usual but patients refrained from breakfast and lunch the next day; glucose was measured by a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS). RESULTS : Comparable glucose target ranges were reached at midnight (5.8 to 6.1 ...
The 21st century version of the original Insulin Doll. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Nhs Sugar diabetes center provo ut fruits healthy Causes kimberly Kirkwood: Pancreatic Cancer Warning Signs Diagnosis and New Treatments. nph insulin - also known as or related to isophane insulin neutral protamine hagedorn insulin isophane insulin (substance) isophane insulin (product).. Blood Sugar Levels Normal Range after Eating and Fasting! The normal range of blood sugar levels means that you the level of sugar /glucose in your bloodstream In other words that second piece of cake at the company birthday party might stress out you your body and your ain Now what? In most cases before you are diagnosed with full blown diabetes (type 2) you lie in a gray area commonly known as borderline diabetes or pre-diabetes. You should never carry a pen with a pen needle attached because - air in insulin cartidges can cause diabetes case study coffee portland Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Nhs Sugar Causes oregon. ...
Have Any Query? Ask Our Expert for Insulin Glargine Market Report @http://www.marketreportsworld.com/enquiry/pre-order-enquiry/10288827. Detailed TOC of Insulin Glargine Market Research Report:. Chapter 1 Market Overview:. 1.1 Product Overview and Scope of Insulin Glargine. 1.2 Market Analysis by Type. 1.3 Market Analysis by Applications. 1.4 Market Analysis by Regions. 1.4.1 North America (USA, Canada and Mexico). 1.4.2 Europe (Germany, France, UK, Russia and Italy). 1.4.3 Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India and Southeast Asia). 1.4.4 South America, Middle East and Africa. 1.5 Market Dynamics. 1.6 Market Opportunities. 1.7 Market Risk. 1.8 Market Driving Force. Chapter 2 Manufacturers Profiles:. 2.1 Company Name. 2.1.1 Business Overview. 2.1.2 Company Name Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share. Chapter 3 Global Insulin Glargine Market Competition, by Manufacturer:. 3.1 Global Insulin Glargine Sales and Market Share by Manufacturer. 3.2 Global Insulin Glargine Revenue and ...
Lipoatrophy as a cutaneous complication of insulin therapy became extremely rare since the introduction of recombinant human insulin. Recently, some cases of lipoatrophy were reported in association with the use of rapid-acting insulin analogs, like lispro insulin, in combination with pump therapy (1,2). If long-acting insulin analogs are exempt from this, the complications are not known.. We report the case of a 39-year-old type 1 diabetic Caucasian woman (weight 50 kg, BMI 21.4 kg/m2) with diabetes duration of 8 years. She began intensified insulin therapy with two premixed insulin injections before breakfast and dinner and regular insulin before lunch (20 IU/day, 72% neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin). In January 2004, she agreed to participate in a 6-month randomized study comparing different multiple daily insulin therapies, all using bedtime insulin glargine as basal insulin. No specific instructions about the preferred injection area for both insulins were given, but it is a common ...
NPH (Neutral Protamine Hagedorn) is a longer-acting human insulin that is used to cover blood sugar between meals, and to satisfy your overnight insulin requirement. A fish protein, protamine, has been added to the Regular human insulin to delay its absorption. This long acting insulin is a cloudy suspension that needs to be remixed thoroughly before each injection. Because NPH is a suspension of different sized crystals, it has a very unpredictable absorption rate and action. This results in more frequent low and high blood sugars. The use of NPH has declined with the availability of other long-acting insulin options, specifically, the long-acting insulin analogs, insulin glargine and insulin detemir.. ...
Insulin glargine is used in the treatment of type 1 diabetes,type 2 diabetes.get complete information about insulin glargine including usage, side effects, drug interaction, expert advice along with medicines associated with insulin glargine at 1mg.com
This trial investigated insulin glargine [Lantus; Aventis Pharma Deutschland GmbH], vs insulin suspension isophane (NPH insulin), in combination with oral
Todate, most studies have compared insulin detemir and glargine to NPH and not to each other. Depending of their design, these studies have shown both insulins lower the fasting glucose, A1c, the incidence of hypoglycemia and are associated with less weight gain than NPH. In the only direct comparison study of these two basal insulins, insulin detemir demonstrated significantly less day to day variation than glargine as measured by glucose infusion rated during an euglycemic clamp study. Given the same incidence of hypoglycemia, this last study would suggest that insulin detemir treatment could achieve target glucose control more than glargine. We have used continuous glucose monitoring (CGMS) extensively in our practice. CGMS is arguably the most sensitive method for detecting differences in glycemic control in the outpatient setting and there by allowing fine adjustments in insulin treatment. When comparing insulin glargine to preprogrammable basal insulin as delivered by continuous ...
OBJECTIVE-To assess the role of adiposity on the pharmacodynamics of basal insulins NPH, detemir, and glargine in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), as estimated by glucose infusion rate (GIR) and endogenous glucose production (EGP) rate in the euglycemic clamp. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-We examined the variables that best predicted GIR and EGP in 32-h clamp studies after treatment with subcutaneous injection of 0.4 units/kg NPH, detemir, and glargine in 18 T2DM subjects (crossover). RESULTS-A multiple regression analysis revealed that BMI best predicted GIR variation during the clamp. BMI was inversely correlated with GIR in all three insulin treatments, but was statistically significant in detemir treatment only. BMI correlated positively with residual suppression of EGP in detemir, but not with glargine and NPH treatments. CONCLUSIONS-Adiposity blunts the pharmacodynamics of all basal insulins in T2DM. However, as adiposity increases, the effect of detemir is lower versus NPH and glargine ...
Insulin glargine structural formula illustration. Insulin glargine is a recombinant human insulin analogue produced by recombinant DNA technology utilizing a non-pathogenic laboratory strain of Escherichia coli. Insulin glargine differs from human insulin in that the amino acid asparagine at position A21 is replaced by glycine and two arginines are added to the C-terminus of the B-chain. Pink=A-chain, light brown=B-chain, yellow=sulfur, red=differences from human insulin - Stock Image C022/4904
Background: Two alternative basal analogue insulin treatments are available in the UK: insulin glargine and insulin detemir. The purpose of this study was to compare the outcome of treatment with these two alternative products since their launch using routinely available, unselected data from general practice. Glargine was launched in the UK in 2002, whereas detemir was launched in 2004. Methods: The study used proprietary data from The Health Improvement Network - THIN (around 300 GP practices) using standard statistical methods. A detailed description of each patient was available for up to 15 years that included their diagnoses, test results and treatments. The two alternative treatments were compared for 9 months following switching to one of these treatments by quarterly periods. The primary outcome measure was change in HbA1c, whilst secondary measures were change in weight, reported hypoglycaemia and treatment discontinuation. Subjects were split by type of diabetes. Results: Data were ...
Too much insulin glargine can cause hypoglycemia (low blood sugar). Low blood sugar also can occur if you use insulin glargine with another antidiabetic medicine, delay or miss a meal or snack, exercise more than usual, or drink alcohol. Symptoms of low blood sugar must be treated before they lead to unconsciousness (passing out). Different people may feel different symptoms of low blood sugar. It is important that you learn which symptoms of low blood sugar you usually have so that you can treat it quickly. Symptoms of low blood sugar include anxiety, behavior change similar to being drunk, blurred vision, cold sweats, confusion, difficulty in thinking, dizziness or lightheadedness, drowsiness, excessive hunger, fast heartbeat, headache, irritability or abnormal behavior, nervousness, nightmares, restless sleep, shakiness, slurred speech, and tingling in the hands, feet, lips, or tongue. If symptoms of low blood sugar occur, eat glucose tablets or gel, corn syrup, honey, or sugar cubes, or ...
Report Insulin Glargine Industry-United States Market Status and Trend Report 2013-2023 offers a comprehensive analysis on Insulin Glargine Industry industry, standing on the readers perspective, de...
FRAGOZO, Argemiro; PUERTA, María Fernanda and MISAS, Juan Diego. Comparative analysis of insulin glargine vs. insulin detemir: A cost-minimization study applicable to Colombia. Biomédica [online]. 2015, vol.35, n.2, pp.204-211. ISSN 0120-4157. http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v35i2.2338.. Introduction: More than 90% of subjects diagnosed with diabetes mellitus present with type 2, which is recognized for peripheral insulin resistance. Objective: To determine the costs of achieving glycemic target with the use of basal insulin analogs, insulin glargine (IG) once a day vs. insulin detemir (ID) once or twice a day, with a cost minimization model built from a third-party payer perspective in Colombia. Materials and methods: A systematic review of comparative clinical trials between IG and ID in patients with insulin-resistant type 2 diabetes was performed to determine data of use, effectiveness and frequency of and adverse events. The goal of glycemic control (effectiveness measure) was defined ...
Weight gain, allergic reactions, and low blood sugar are possible side effects of insulin detemir. This eMedTV article lists other potential side effects of insulin detemir, including side effects that are serious and require prompt medical care.
Insulin Detemir is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Insulin Detemir is available on the Drugs.com website.
A new basal insulin now in Phase III trials worldwide promises to offer a smoother action than NPH with a more predictable activity curve.. Insulin detemir, developed by Novo Nordisk, is an intermediate-acting basal insulin analog administered as a clear solution. Novo Nordisk spokeswoman Susan Jackson says, Compared to NPH insulin, detemir is absorbed with less variability and provides a flatter action profile.. In comparison trials that pitted detemir and NPH against each other, researchers found that absorption of NPH varied 20 to 30 percent on a daily basis. Also, because NPH is a suspension insulin, the concentration may change because of inadequate mixing. NPH in a vial must be rolled between the hands until the components are mixed. If NPH is used in a pen, the pen needs to be inverted at least 20 times to ensure an even distribution of the suspension.. Detemir, on the other hand, does not need to be mixed. In addition, it bonds to proteins at the injection site and in the bloodstream, ...
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Insulin Isophane Human containing medications, Insulin Isophane Human indications and usages ATC and ICD codes, combinations with other active ingredients and trade names information from Drugs-about.com
Visit your health care professional or doctor for regular checks on your progress.. A test called the HbA1C (A1C) will be monitored. This is a simple blood test. It measures your blood sugar control over the last 2 to 3 months. You will receive this test every 3 to 6 months.. Learn how to check your blood sugar. Learn the symptoms of low and high blood sugar and how to manage them.. Always carry a quick-source of sugar with you in case you have symptoms of low blood sugar. Examples include hard sugar candy or glucose tablets. Make sure others know that you can choke if you eat or drink when you develop serious symptoms of low blood sugar, such as seizures or unconsciousness. They must get medical help at once.. Tell your doctor or health care professional if you have high blood sugar. You might need to change the dose of your medicine. If you are sick or exercising more than usual, you might need to change the dose of your medicine.. Do not skip meals. Ask your doctor or health care professional ...
et_pb_section fb_built=1″ admin_label=section _builder_version=3.0.47″][et_pb_row admin_label=row _builder_version=3.21.3″ background_size=initial background_position=top_left background_repeat=repeat][et_pb_column type=4_4″ _builder_version=3.0.47″][et_pb_text admin_label=Text _builder_version=3.21.3″ background_size=initial background_position=top_left background_repeat=repeat]. This affinity-purified polyclonal guinea pig antiserum was specifically prepared to provide investigators with an insulin antiserum that demonstrates preferential binding to insulin glargine (Lantus®), a widely-used basal insulin therapeutic. The antiserum is suitable for use in ELISAs/RIAs, as an immunoaffinity capture reagent in LC-MS/MS assays and for preparation of serum QCs for use in assays to detect and characterize ADA to glargine. The immunogen consisted of pharma-grade insulin glargine. Following immunization and boosting, the guinea pig antiserum was purified by a ...
Novo Nordisk announced top data from the DEVOTE trial confirming the cardiovascular safety of Tresiba (insulin degludec) vs. insulin glargine U100 when added to standard of care.
What is this medicine? INSULIN GLARGINE (IN su lin GLAR geen) is a human-made form of insulin. This drug lowers the amount of sugar in your blood.
Get ongoing tips, support, and more information from people with type 2 diabetes who are taking Lantus® (insulin glargine injection) 100 Units/mL.
Medscape - Diabetes dosing for Lantus, Toujeo (insulin glargine), frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, contraindications, pregnancy & lactation schedules, and cost information.
QY Research has come up with a newly published report on global Insulin Glargine market in its database that provides an in-depth analysis of the key
Recent publications of data extracted from population registries have suggested a possible relationship between treatment with insulin glargine and increased incidence of cancer/breast cancer. The aim
Mylan And BioCon Announce Regulatory Submission For Insulin Glargine Accepted For Review By EMA - read this article along with other careers information, tips and advice on BioSpace
Detailed Insulin Detemir dosage information for adults and children. Includes dosages for Diabetes Type 2 and Diabetes Type 1; plus renal, liver and dialysis adjustments.
Lantus is a long-acting insulin used to treat adults with type 2 diabetes and adults and pediatric patients (children 6 years and older) with type 1 diabetes for the control of high blood sugar. Provided in form of box of 5 pen injectors. 5 pens/3 ml
UK-based AstraZeneca has reported results from its longest, randomised, head-to-head DURATION-3 trial of exenatide once-weekly, a long-acting...
Patients were seen at clinic visits every 7.0% in patients with type 2 diabetes has having diabetes, who are likely to be rep- different clinical presentations were me- lin regimen consisted of a once-daily dose 23 centers.12 All were initially treated by of long-acting or isophane insulin. If the lin therapy. Since type 2 diabetes is char- acterized by steady deterioration of glu- more difficult to attain near-normal gly- insulin doses at 6 and 9 years from diag- cemic control target levels. We report the scribed, by a dietitian, a low-fat, high- 34 U, respectively. At 9 years, the median these target levels with each of the agents months on this diet, patients were strati- fied into 1 of the following therapies ac- Patients ...
Optisulin is a solution for injection containing insulin glargine. Insulin glargine is a modified insulin, very similar to human insulin.Optisulin is used t
"Short Acting Insulin - Regular, Neutral Insulin". Retrieved 2017-12-13. "Intermediate Acting Insulin - Isophane, NPH Insulins ... Intermediate Insulin: (e.g. NPH insulin)- Usually taken in combination with a short acting insulin. Intermediate acting insulin ... Insulin Therapy Long Acting Insulin: (Insulin glargine)-is a hormone that works by lowering levels of blood glucose. It starts ... oral intake of insulin started and treatment continued with subcutaneous short acting insulin then intermediate acting insulin ...
The most commonly used intermediate-acting insulins are NPH, also referred to as isophane, or Caninsulin, also known as ... The condition is also referred to as insulin-dependent diabetes, meaning exogenous insulin injections must replace the insulin ... Insulin is also an active preventor of the breakdown or catabolism of glycogen and fat. The absence of sufficient insulin ... Insulin resistance diabetes or secondary diabetes, which describes the resistance to insulin caused by other medical conditions ...
isoniazid (INN) isonixin (INN) Isopaque isophane insulin (INN) isoprazone (INN) isoprednidene (INN) isoprenaline (INN) ...
... insulin MeSH D06.472.610.575.408 - insulin, isophane MeSH D06.472.610.575.532 - insulin, long-acting MeSH D06.472.610.575.788 ... insulin MeSH D06.472.699.350.408 - insulin, isophane MeSH D06.472.699.350.532 - insulin, long-acting MeSH D06.472.699.350.788 ...
... insulin MeSH D12.644.548.393.408 - insulin, isophane MeSH D12.644.548.393.532 - insulin, long-acting MeSH D12.644.548.393.788 ... insulin-like growth factor i MeSH D12.644.276.976.420 - insulin-like growth factor ii MeSH D12.644.276.984 - transforming ...
... long-acting insulin analogues versus NPH insulin (human isophane insulin) for adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus". The ... However, some insulin analogues, such as insulin detemir, bind to albumin rather than fat like earlier insulin varieties, and ... Basal insulin support is required throughout the day representing about 50% of daily insulin requirement, the insulin amount ... Bovine insulin and porcine insulin may be considered as the first clinically used insulin analogs (naturally occurring, ...
... that adding protamine to insulin prolongs the duration of action of insulin 1946 Nordisk formulates Isophane porcine insulin ... insulin and a rapid/regular insulin to provide both a basal insulin and prandial insulin. There are several challenges involved ... Medical preparations of insulin are never just 'insulin in water'. Clinical insulins are specially prepared mixtures of insulin ... Prandial insulin, also called mealtime or bolus insulin, is designed as a bolus dose of insulin prior to a meal to regulate the ...
Neutral Protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin, also known as isophane insulin, is an intermediate-acting insulin given to help ... There are human and pig insulin based versions. Protamine insulin was first created in 1936 and NPH insulin in 1946. It is on ... insulin. NPH insulin has the advantage that it can be mixed with an insulin that has a faster onset to complement its longer ... NPH insulin is made by mixing regular insulin and protamine in exact proportions with zinc and phenol such that a neutral-pH is ...
... human insulin isophane suspension, 30% human insulin injection [rDNA origin]) is a mixture insulin. It is an intermediate- ... Regular insulin, also known as neutral insulin and soluble insulin is a type of short-acting insulin. It is used to treat type ... human insulin isophane suspension, 50% human insulin injection [rDNA origin]) is a mixture insulin. It is an intermediate- ... Versions are also available mixed with longer-acting versions of insulin, such as NPH insulin. Regular insulin is used for the ...
Isophane insulin, neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) (Humulin N, Novolin N) Insulin zinc (Lente) Examples of long-acting insulins ... Extended insulin zinc insulin (Ultralente) Insulin glargine (Lantus) Insulin detemir (Levemir) Insulin degludec (Tresiba) ... Examples of rapid-acting insulins (peak at ~1 hour) are: Insulin lispro (Humalog) Insulin aspart (Novolog) Insulin glulisine ( ... Insulin is usually given subcutaneously, either by injections or by an insulin pump. In acute care settings, insulin may also ...
... all contain human isophane insulin. They are used to treat diabetes. ... Humulin I contains a type of insulin called isophane insulin. This is known as an intermediate-acting insulin. When injected ... The insulin works in the same way as natural insulin, by binding to insulin receptors on cells in the body. Insulin causes ... Isophane insulin is normally used in combination with a short-acting insulin, which is given before meals to control the spikes ...
... and vials all contain human biphasic isophane insulin. They are used to treat diabetes. ... this combination of insulin is called biphasic isophane insulin. Insuman comb 15 contains 15% soluble insulin and 85% isophane ... Insuman comb 50 contains 50% soluble and 50% isophane insulin.. Soluble insulin is known as short acting insulin. It works ... Insuman comb contains a mix of two types of insulin, soluble insulin and isophane insulin. Insuman comb preparations contain ...
... is an intermediate-acting insulin that starts to work within 2 to 4 hours after injection, peaks in 4 to 12 ... Insulin isophane is used to improve blood sugar control in adults... ... Insulin is a hormone that works by lowering levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood. ... What is insulin isophane?. Insulin is a hormone that works by lowering levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood. Insulin isophane ...
A Moderate Drug Interaction exists between Cycrin and insulin isophane. View detailed information regarding this drug ... Drug Interactions between Cycrin and insulin isophane. This report displays the potential drug interactions for the following 2 ... MedroxyPROGESTERone may interfere with blood glucose control and reduce the effectiveness of insulin isophane (NPH) and other ... insulin isophane (NPH) food. Applies to: insulin isophane. Alcohol may affect blood glucose levels in patients with diabetes. ...
... insulin regular during pregnancy. FDA Pregnancy Category B - No proven risk in humans ... Advice and warnings for the use of Insulin isophane / ... Insulin isophane / insulin regular Rating. 5 User Reviews 8.1/ ... Insulin isophane / insulin regular Pregnancy and Breastfeeding Warnings. Insulin isophane / insulin regular is also known as: ... Insulin isophane / insulin regular Breastfeeding Warnings. Exogenous insulins, including the newer biosynthetic insulins (i.e. ...
Insulin isophane is a intermediate-acting insulin. Insulin regular is an short-acting insulin. This combination insulin starts ... Insulin is a hormone that works by lowering levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood. ... Insulin isophane is a intermediate-acting insulin. Insulin regular is an short-acting insulin. This combination insulin starts ... What other drugs will affect insulin isophane and insulin regular?. This insulin may not work as well when you use other ...
Insulin isophane is a intermediate-acting insulin. Insulin regular is an short-acting insulin. This combination insulin starts ... Insulin is a hormone that works by lowering levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood. ... Insulin isophane is a intermediate-acting insulin. Insulin regular is an short-acting insulin. This combination insulin starts ... Insulin isophane and insulin regular must not be given with an insulin pump, or mixed with other insulins. Do not inject ...
Find patient medical information for Insulin Isophane Pork Pure Subcutaneous on WebMD including its uses, side effects and ... Insulin isophane works by helping blood sugar (glucose) get into cells so your body can use it for energy. Insulin isophane is ... Insulin Isophane Pork Pure Suspension. GENERIC NAME(S): Insulin Isophane Pork Pure ... Before using insulin isophane, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or to pork; or to other insulins; or ...
Insulin must be injected. Learn the proper way to inject insulin. Check the dose carefully. Clean the injection site with ... Do not miss any doses of insulin. Discuss specific instructions with your doctor now, in case you miss a dose of insulin in the ... Do not inject cold insulin. The insulin container you are currently using can be kept at room temperature. The length of time ... Ask your pharmacist or nurse for details of injecting insulin as it varies depending on your insulin treatment plan. Monitor ...
Insulin Isophane Human indications and usages ATC and ICD codes, combinations with other active ingredients and trade names ... Insulin Isophane Human. Insulin Soluble Huminsulin 50 / 50 - Eli Lilly Insulin Isophane Human. Insulin Soluble Human Huminsulin ... Insulin Isophane Human. Insulin Human Lupinsulin 30 / 70 - Multicare Pharmaceuticals Philippines Insulin Isophane Human. ... Insulin Human rDNA origin Gensulin N - SciGen; Cosma Medical Insulin Isophane Human. Insulin Injection Human Actraphane 10 - ...
A10AB01 - Insulin (Human)*A10AC01 - Insulin (Human)*A10AD01 - Insulin (Human)*A10AE01 - Insulin (Human)*A10AF01 - Insulin ( ...
... What is this medicine?. ISOPHANE INSULIN (NPH) (EYE soe fane IN su lin) is a human-made form ... Switching insulin brand or type can cause dangerously high or low blood sugar. Always keep an extra supply of insulin, syringes ... Store unopened insulin vials or pens in a refrigerator between 2 and 8 degrees C (36 and 46 degrees F). Do not freeze or use if ... Insulin is for injection under the skin. Use exactly as directed. It is important to follow the directions given to you by your ...
Long acting insulin analogues versus NPH insulin (human isophane insulin) for type 2 diabetes mellitus. NPH (Neutral Protamine ... Long-acting insulin analogues versus NPH insulin (human isophane insulin) for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database of ... Six studies comparing insulin glargine to NPH (Neutral Protamine Hagedorn) insulin and two studies comparing insulin detemir to ... To assess the effects of long-term treatment with long-acting insulin analogues (insulin glargine and insulin detemir) compared ...
What is isophane insulin suspension? Meaning of isophane insulin suspension medical term. What does isophane insulin suspension ... Looking for online definition of isophane insulin suspension in the Medical Dictionary? isophane insulin suspension explanation ... isophane insulin suspension. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia. isophane insulin suspension. [ī′səfān] ... Isophane insulin suspension , definition of isophane insulin suspension by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary. ...
REGULAR INSULIN: ISOPHANE INSULIN (REG yuh ler IN su lin; ISO fane IN su lin) is a human-made form of insulin. This medicine ... Generic Name: insulin isophane and insulin regular. This medicine lowers the amount of sugar in your blood ... Do not use more insulin than prescribed. Do not use more or less often than prescribed.. Always check the appearance of your ... It is a combination insulin that starts working about 30 minutes after it is injected and works for as long as 12 to 24 hours. ...
Insulin detemir/insulin glargine/insulin suspension isophane. Urticariform skin lesions at injection site due to IgE-medicated ... A case report of IgE-mediated insulin allergy successfully managed with a fixed combination of degludec and liraglutide. ...
... insulin detemir and insulin degludec) with NPH (neutral protamine Hagedorn) insulin (human isophane insulin) in adults with ... Ultra-)long-acting insulin analogues compared with NPH insulin (human isophane insulin) for adults with type 2 diabetes ... Of these, 16 trials compared insulin glargine to NPH insulin and eight trials compared insulin detemir to NPH insulin. In these ... long-acting insulin analogues versus NPH insulin (human isophane insulin) for adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane ...
... insulin isophane human/insulin regular human, frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, contraindications, ... insulin isophane human/insulin regular human (Humulin70/30%2C Novolin 70/30)) and insulin isophane human/insulin regular human ... insulin isophane human/insulin regular human (OTC). Brand and Other Names:Humulin 70/30, Novolin 70/30 ... Insulin NPH and insulin regular is a combination insulin product with intermediate duration that has more rapid onset than that ...
What are the generic drug sources for insulin susp isophane beef/pork and what is the scope of insulin susp isophane beef/pork ... insulin susp isophane beef/pork. INJECTABLE;INJECTION. 017936-001. Approved Prior to Jan 1, 1982. DISCN. No. No. ➠ Subscribe. ... insulin susp isophane beef/pork. INJECTABLE;INJECTION. 017936-002. Approved Prior to Jan 1, 1982. DISCN. No. No. ➠ Subscribe. ... Insulin susp isophane beef/pork is the generic ingredient in one branded drug marketed by Lilly and is included in one NDA. ...
... insulin susp isophane semisynthetic purified human and what is the scope of insulin recombinant purified human; insulin susp ... insulin recombinant purified human; insulin susp isophane semisynthetic purified human. INJECTABLE;INJECTION. 019585-001. Mar ... insulin recombinant purified human; insulin susp isophane semisynthetic purified human. INJECTABLE;INJECTION. 019441-001. Jul ... Insulin recombinant purified human; insulin susp isophane semisynthetic purified human is the generic ingredient in two branded ...
What is isophane insulin suspension and insulin injection? Meaning of isophane insulin suspension and insulin injection medical ... What does isophane insulin suspension and insulin injection mean? ... Looking for online definition of isophane insulin suspension ... and insulin injection in the Medical Dictionary? isophane insulin suspension and insulin injection explanation free. ... insulin, regular. (redirected from isophane insulin suspension and insulin injection) insulin, regular (insulin injection). ...
Insulin Humulin 30/70 Penfill Cartridge 3mL 5 x 5 - Insulin Isophane Human + Insulin Neutral Human. Quantity: Price: ... Insulin Humulin 30/70 Penfill Cartridge 3mL 5 x 5 - Insulin Isophane Human + Insulin Neutral Human. ... Insulin Humulin 30/70 Penfill Cartridge 3mL 5 x 5 - Insulin Isophane Human + Insulin Neutral Human ...
Find out information about isophane insulin suspension. hormone hormone, secretory substance carried from one gland or organ of ... the body via the bloodstream to more or less specific tissues, where it exerts some... Explanation of isophane insulin ... insulin. (redirected from isophane insulin suspension). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical. insulin,. hormonehormone ... Various insulin preparations have more prolonged action than insulin, for example, a suspension of amorphous zinc insulin, a ...
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... What is this medicine?. REGULAR INSULIN: ISOPHANE INSULIN (REG yuh ler IN su ... Switching insulin brand or type can cause dangerously high or low blood sugar. Always keep an extra supply of insulin, syringes ... Make sure that you have the right kind of syringe for the type of insulin you use. Try not to change the brand and type of ... Insulin pens and cartridges should never be shared. Even if the needle is changed, sharing may result in passing of viruses ...
Isophane Insulin (NPH) injection. What is this medicine?. ISOPHANE INSULIN (NPH) (EYE soe fane IN su lin) is a human-made form ... Switching insulin brand or type can cause dangerously high or low blood sugar. Always keep an extra supply of insulin, syringes ... Store opened insulin vials in the refrigerator or at room temperature below 30 degrees C (86 degrees F). Keeping your insulin ... Throw away the insulin pen 14 days after opening.. What should I tell my health care provider before I take this medicine?. ...
... What is this medicine?. REGULAR INSULIN: ISOPHANE INSULIN (REG yuh ler IN su ... Switching insulin brand or type can cause dangerously high or low blood sugar. Always keep an extra supply of insulin, syringes ... Store unopened insulin vials or pens in a refrigerator between 2 and 8 degrees C (36 and 46 degrees F). Do not freeze or use if ... Make sure that you have the right kind of syringe for the type of insulin you use. Try not to change the brand and type of ...
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"Short Acting Insulin - Regular, Neutral Insulin". Retrieved 2017-12-13. "Intermediate Acting Insulin - Isophane, NPH Insulins ... Intermediate Insulin: (e.g. NPH insulin)- Usually taken in combination with a short acting insulin. Intermediate acting insulin ... Insulin Therapy Long Acting Insulin: (Insulin glargine)-is a hormone that works by lowering levels of blood glucose. It starts ... oral intake of insulin started and treatment continued with subcutaneous short acting insulin then intermediate acting insulin ...
  • Insulin isophane is an intermediate-acting insulin that starts to work within 2 to 4 hours after injection, peaks in 4 to 12 hours, and keeps working for 12 to 18 hours. (rexhealth.com)
  • If you use an injection pen, use only the injection pen that comes with insulin isophane. (rexhealth.com)
  • This combination insulin starts to work within 10 to 20 minutes after injection, peaks in 2 hours, and keeps working for up to 24 hours. (rexhealth.com)
  • Insulin may cause minor and usually temporary side effects such as rash, irritation or redness at the injection site. (patientassistance.com)
  • Insulin is for injection under the skin. (brighamandwomens.org)
  • Store opened insulin vials in the refrigerator or at room temperature below 30 degrees C (86 degrees F). Keeping your insulin at room temperature decreases the amount of pain during injection. (kramesonline.com)
  • After any insulin injection, the injection site should not be massaged. (medicines.org.uk)
  • This occurs whether we make our own insulin in the pancreas gland or take it by injection. (mayoclinic.org)
  • HUMULIN 70/30 is a suspension of crystals produced from combining human insulin and protamine sulfate under appropriate conditions for crystal formation and mixing with human insulin injection. (rxlist.com)
  • Each milliliter of HUMULIN 70/30 contains 100 units of insulin human, 0.24 mg of protamine sulfate, 16 mg of glycerin, 3.78 mg of dibasic sodium phosphate, 1.6 mg of metacresol, 0.65 mg of phenol , zinc oxide content adjusted to provide 0.025 mg zinc ion, and Water for Injection. (rxlist.com)
  • 6. The dosage form according to claim 1, wherein said insulin comprises a dose of unmodified insulin that achieves a comparable reduction in blood glucose concentration in mammals compared to a subcutaneous insulin injection in those mammals. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 7. The dosage form according to claim 1, wherein said insulin provides a lower concentration of insulin in the peripheral blood circulation under acute, sub-acute or chronic conditions as compared to the peripheral blood insulin concentration obtained via the subcutaneous injection. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • After finding out the total daily requirement of insulin for a predetermined diet, the whole dose can be given as a single injection consisting of either one of the long-acting insulins or a combination of soluble and NPH or soluble and protamine zinc insulins in the proportion of 1- 3. (hubpages.com)
  • What is a typical regime of insulin injection? (brainscape.com)
  • Human insulin lowers your blood sugar level after injection. (nps.org.au)
  • It is recommended to get proper instructions about the insulin injection timings and diet-related information from the doctor before traveling to a different time zone. (practo.com)
  • Insuman Basal 40 IU Injection is not recommended for use in insulin infusion pumps. (practo.com)
  • Patients must be instructed to always check the insulin label before each injection to avoid accidental mix-ups between Actrapid and other insulin products. (medicines.ie)
  • We review the evidence base that justifies this increase, including effectiveness compared with modern intensified insulin injection regimens and concern about possible complications. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Nocturnal glycemic control is improved with insulin pumps, and automatic basal rate changes help to minimize a prebreakfast blood glucose increase (the "dawn phenomenon") often seen with injection therapy. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • we suggest the principal indications for health service or health insurance-funded CSII should include frequent, unpredictable hypoglycemia or a marked dawn phenomenon, which persist after attempts to improve control with intensive insulin injection regimens. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Throughout this review, we use the terms "optimized insulin injection regimen" or "intensive insulin injection therapy" to mean modern intensive management of type 1 diabetes, with multiple daily insulin doses given in a basal-bolus mode (with or without an insulin pen), with adjustment according to diet, exercise, and frequent blood glucose self-monitored values and full diabetes educational input. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The ultra-short acting insulins lispro and aspart are also available in a biphasic form. (mydr.com.au)
  • Use regular insulin (Humulin-R) or insulin lispro (Humalog) before each meal. (aafp.org)
  • Carry a syringe loaded with regular or insulin lispro. (aafp.org)
  • The aim of this observational study is to investigate the incidence of serious adverse drug reactions when using NovoMix® 30 (biphasic insulin aspart 30) or Levemir® (insulin detemir) for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus under normal clinical practice conditions in Macedonia. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patients from speciality practice settings who have been deemed appropriate to receive biphasic insulin aspart 30 or insulin detemir as new treatment and as part of routine out-patient care by the prescribing physician. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • insulin aspart (NovoRapid). (mydr.com.au)
  • NovoMix 30 (insulin aspart). (mydr.com.au)
  • There is also a mixed insulin that contains a new type of ultra-long-acting basal insulin ( insulin degludec ) plus short-acting insulin aspart. (mydr.com.au)
  • The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of a basal-bolus insulin regimen comprising either insulin detemir or neural protamine hagedorn (NPH) insulin in combination with mealtime insulin aspart in patients with type 2 diabetes. (nih.gov)
  • Patients, randomized 2:1 to insulin detemir or NPH insulin, received basal insulin either once or twice daily according to their pretrial insulin treatment and insulin aspart at mealtimes. (nih.gov)
  • Patients with type 2 diabetes, treated for 26 weeks with insulin detemir plus insulin aspart at mealtimes, experienced comparable glycaemic control but significantly lower within-subject variability and less weight gain compared to patients treated with NPH insulin and insulin aspart. (nih.gov)
  • People with diabetes have a deficiency or absence of a hormone manufactured by the pancreas called insulin. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • People with type 1 diabetes need to have injections of insulin to control the amount of glucose in their bloodstream. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Insulin injections act as a replacement for natural insulin and allow people with diabetes to achieve normal blood glucose levels. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Your doctor or diabetes specialist will teach you how to administer your insulin injections correctly. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Insulin isophane is used to improve blood sugar control in adults and children with diabetes mellitus. (rexhealth.com)
  • Taking certain oral diabetes medicines while you are using insulin may increase your risk of serious heart problems. (rexhealth.com)
  • Insulin isophane is used with a proper diet and exercise program to control high blood sugar in people with diabetes . (webmd.com)
  • Insulin is used to treat diabetes mellitus. (patientassistance.com)
  • NPH (Neutral Protamine Hagedorn) insulin is the current standard for basal insulin in the blood glucose lowering therapy in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (cochrane.org)
  • Our analysis suggests, if at all only a minor clinical benefit of treatment with long-acting insulin analogues for patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 treated with "basal" insulin regarding symptomatic nocturnal hypoglycaemic events. (cochrane.org)
  • To assess the effects of long-term treatment with long-acting insulin analogues (insulin glargine and insulin detemir) compared to NPH insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (cochrane.org)
  • In these studies, 3419 people with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomised to insulin glargine and 1321 people to insulin detemir. (cochrane.org)
  • Thus, most studies were unable to answer the important question whether treatment with different insulin preparations has different effects on diabetes-related complications. (cochrane.org)
  • In newly diagnosed diabetes, total of 0.5 to 1 unit/kg/day subcutaneously as part of multidose regimen of short- and long-acting insulin. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • With F. G. Banting and J. R. R. Macleod he discovered (1921) the use of insulin in the treatment of diabetes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • For many years, scientists have tried, and failed to create oral insulin to help patients with type 2 diabetes. (helprx.info)
  • For the treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus who require insulin for the maintenance of glucose homeostasis. (medicines.org.uk)
  • Humulin I contains the active substance human insulin, which is used to treat diabetes. (medicines.org.uk)
  • You get diabetes if your pancreas does not make enough insulin to control the level of glucose in your blood (blood sugar). (medicines.org.uk)
  • Some patients with long-standing type 2 diabetes mellitus and heart disease or previous stroke who were treated with pioglitazone and insulin experienced the development of heart failure. (medicines.org.uk)
  • Diabetes mellitus (sugar diabetes) is a condition in which the body does not make enough insulin to meet its needs or does not properly use the insulin it makes. (mayoclinic.org)
  • HUMULIN 70/30 is a fixed ratio premix recombinant human insulin formulation indicated to improve glycemic control in adult patients with diabetes mellitus . (rxlist.com)
  • Morning versus bedtime administration of NPH insulin was compared in 12 subjects with Type 2 diabetes and overt fasting hyperglycaemia. (elsevier.com)
  • Therefore, bedtime may be the preferable timing of insulin therapy for patients with Type 2 diabetes and overt fasting hyperglycaemia. (elsevier.com)
  • Due to its progressive nature, many people with type 2 diabetes will eventually require insulin treatment. (bpac.org.nz)
  • However, New Zealand guidelines now recommend that insulin initiation for people with type 2 diabetes be managed in primary care where possible, with additional support as required. (bpac.org.nz)
  • Type 2 diabetes is a progressive disease characterised by insulin resistance and a decreasing ability of pancreatic β-cells to produce insulin. (bpac.org.nz)
  • It is possible for people with insulin resistance to delay or, in some cases, even avoid the need for insulin treatment through exercise and significant weight loss, however, patients with type 2 diabetes should be made aware at an early stage of treatment, of the probability that they may require insulin in the future. (bpac.org.nz)
  • In the United Kingdom, a large ten year population-based study of treatment practices for people with type 2 diabetes reported a median delay of 7.7 years between introduction of the first oral medicine and the initiation of insulin. (bpac.org.nz)
  • In order to allay concerns, it is important that patients understand that having type 2 diabetes means they have a progressive shortage of insulin to manage glucose levels over time and that medicine needs will change - beginning insulin does not mean that they have failed. (bpac.org.nz)
  • People with type 1 diabetes are unable to produce enough insulin to regulate the glucose (sugar) levels within their blood, so they need to take insulin to manage their diabetes. (mydr.com.au)
  • Some people with type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes (diabetes that develops during pregnancy) may also need insulin to control their blood sugar levels. (mydr.com.au)
  • Your doctor and diabetes educator can recommend the most suitable type of insulin and delivery device for you. (mydr.com.au)
  • There are different types of insulin available to manage diabetes. (mydr.com.au)
  • This type of mixed insulin can be used in adults with diabetes. (mydr.com.au)
  • For people with type 1 diabetes , insulin can be given in one of the following ways. (mydr.com.au)
  • Pharmaceutical dosage forms, comprising insulin, a delivery agent that facilitates insulin transport in a therapeutically effective amount to the bloodstream and a biguanide, such as metformin, are disclosed for oral administration to a patient for the treatment of diabetes. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • and for long-term protection from developing (or delaying the onset of) overt or insulin dependent diabetes in a mammal with impaired glucose tolerance or early stage diabetes. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Safety of insulin detemir and insulin NPH [neutral protamine Hagedorn] [insulin suspension isophane] in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. (springer.com)
  • For example, explain to patients that their body is not responding to insulin as well as someone without diabetes, and that in turn the pancreas increases insulin levels in order to decrease blood glucose levels. (bpac.org.nz)
  • Insulin is the most common type of medication used in type 1 diabetes treatment. (healthline.com)
  • If you have type 1 diabetes, your body can't make its own insulin. (healthline.com)
  • Insulin is also used in type 2 diabetes treatment. (healthline.com)
  • If you have type 2 diabetes, your body makes insulin but no longer uses it well. (healthline.com)
  • Some people with type 2 diabetes may also need to take insulin. (healthline.com)
  • AIDA is a freeware diabetic software simulator program of glucose-insulin action + insulin dose & diet adjustment in diabetes mellitus. (2aida.net)
  • For the Diabetes / Insulin Tutorial, please click here . (2aida.net)
  • For people with diabetes, either the pancreas does not make enough insulin to meet the body's requirements, or the body cannot properly use the insulin that is made. (medbroadcast.com)
  • Your dose of insulin should be injected subcutaneously (under the skin) exactly as instructed by your doctor or diabetes educator. (medbroadcast.com)
  • Neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM) is a disease that affects an infant and their body's ability to produce or use insulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • A double blind crossover trial in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. (bmj.com)
  • Insulin is used to treat a number of diseases including diabetes and its acute complications such as diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic states. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diabetes mellitus is a condition where your pancreas does not produce enough insulin to control your blood sugar (glucose) level. (nps.org.au)
  • Patients with type 1 diabetes always require insulin to control their blood sugar levels. (nps.org.au)
  • Some patients with type 2 diabetes may also require insulin after initial treatment with diet, exercise and tablets. (nps.org.au)
  • Medisyneverbruiksevalueringstudies verskaf dus waardevolle insig in verband met die behandeling van diabetes, insluitende indikasies vir moontlike oor- en onderverbruik, wat aan besluitnemers kritiese inligting verskaf om onnodige kostes te voorkom. (who.int)
  • Objective To examine the safety, effectiveness, and cost effectiveness of long acting insulin for type 1 diabetes. (bmj.com)
  • Study selection Randomized controlled trials or non-randomized studies of long acting (glargine, detemir) and intermediate acting (neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH), lente) insulin for adults with type 1 diabetes were included. (bmj.com)
  • Although insulin analogues are commonly prescribed for the management of diabetes mellitus, there is uncertainty regarding their optimal use. (cmaj.ca)
  • We conducted meta-analyses to compare the outcomes of insulin analogues with conventional insulins in the treatment of type 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes. (cmaj.ca)
  • There were insufficient data to determine whether insulin analogues are better than conventional insulins in reducing long-term diabetes-related complications or death. (cmaj.ca)
  • Long-term, high-quality studies are needed to determine whether insulin analogues reduce the risk of long-term complications of diabetes. (cmaj.ca)
  • 4 Insulin is indicated for all patients with type 1 diabetes and for patients with type 2 diabetes if adequate glycemic control cannot be achieved through exercise, diet or oral antidiabetic therapy. (cmaj.ca)
  • 7 - 10 However, through our comprehensive search of the literature, we did not identify any reviews of long-acting insulin analogues in the management of type 1 diabetes or gestational diabetes. (cmaj.ca)
  • In this article, we provide an up-to-date, comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of outcomes associated with the use of rapid-and long-acting insulin analogues in type 1 and type 2 diabetes (adult and pediatric patients) and gestational diabetes. (cmaj.ca)
  • Insulin is used medically to treat some forms of diabetes mellitus in humans. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus depend on external insulin (most commonly injected subcutaneously) for their survival because of an absolute deficiency of the hormone. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Rapid-acting insulin analogues have only a minor benefit over short-acting soluble insulin in most type 1 diabetes patients (Ô 0.1% HbA1C). (slideserve.com)
  • in patients with type 1 diabetes or type 2 patients on The duration of diabetes ranged from 1 to 28 years insulin. (who.int)
  • Commencing insulin glargine 100 U/mL therapy in individuals with type 2 diabetes: Determinants of achievement of HbA1c goal less than 7.0. (nih.gov)
  • Hypoglycaemia risk in the first 8 weeks of titration with insulin glargine 100 U/mL in previously insulin-naive individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (nih.gov)
  • The risks of nocturnal hypoglycaemia in insulin-treated diabetes. (nih.gov)
  • A UK Civil Aviation Authority protocol to allow pilots with insulin-treated diabetes to fly commercial aircraft. (nih.gov)
  • Regarding Insulin Initiation in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and the Risk for Hypoglycemia. (nih.gov)
  • The patients with diabetes mellitus may not be able to utilize glucose due to the insufficient production of insulin or due to the body's inability to use the insulin produced or both. (practo.com)
  • This article describes available insulin products and published guidelines to aid clinicians in making treatment decisions for insulin-dependent patients with type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • It establishes the need for a thorough evaluation of the literature regarding ambulatory insulin dosing to further inform providers who manage insulin therapy for patients with type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 3 , 4 Insulin glargine is among the top 25 individual products in terms of spending, accounting for $2 billion, or 10.5% of total prescription costs for the treatment of diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 5 Despite these staggering numbers, ~ 16% of patients with diabetes do not take any medication, and only 26% of patients with diabetes (type 1 and type 2 diabetes combined) are prescribed some form of insulin. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The loss of pancreatic function is a hallmark for the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes and is the reason insulin is a necessary treatment modality for patients with that form of the disease. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The continued decline of β-cell function results in the need for medication(s) and eventually exogenous administration of insulin for type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 7 , 8 The prescribing information for NPH insulin (sold under the trade names Novolin N and Humulin N) is available in "patient package inserts," which provide a brief description of how the insulin is manufactured, along with patient education regarding diabetes and administration of the product. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Although insulin therapy is an integral part of treatment for patients with type 2 diabetes, a lack of consensus exists regarding insulin dosing in the ambulatory setting. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The World Health Organization developed these guidelines to provide guidance on selection of medicines for treatment intensification in type 2 diabetes and on use of insulin (human or analogue) in type 1 and 2 diabetes. (annals.org)
  • Introduce human insulin treatment to patients with type 2 diabetes who do not achieve glycemic control with metformin and/or a sulfonylurea (strong recommendation, very-low-quality evidence). (annals.org)
  • Tight glucose control with intensive therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes (formerly known as juvenile-onset or insulin-dependent diabetes) can delay the onset and slow the progression of retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy. (aafp.org)
  • Patients with type 1 diabetes (formerly known as juvenile-onset or insulin-dependent diabetes) have an increased risk of developing retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, coronary heart disease, stroke and peripheral vascular disease. (aafp.org)
  • Humulin I vials, pre-filled pens (KwikPens) and cartridges (for use with Humapen or Autopen Classic pens) all contain human isophane insulin. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Humulin I contains a type of insulin called isophane insulin. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Humulin 70/30 (insulin isophane-insulin regular). (drugs.com)
  • If you are using Humulin N brand vials, your open insulin vial should be thrown away after 31 days. (kramesonline.com)
  • Humulin I is a sterile suspension of a white, crystalline precipitate of isophane human insulin in an isotonic phosphate buffer. (medicines.org.uk)
  • Care should be taken when injecting any Humulin insulin preparations to ensure that a blood vessel has not been entered. (medicines.org.uk)
  • Your doctor may tell you to use Humulin I as well as a fast-acting insulin. (medicines.org.uk)
  • The amino acid sequence of HUMULIN 70/30 is identical to human insulin and has the empirical formula C 257 H 383 N 65 O 77 S 6 with a molecular weight of 5808. (rxlist.com)
  • Do not mix HUMULIN 70/30 with any other insulins or diluents. (rxlist.com)
  • Do not administer HUMULIN 70/30 intravenously or intramuscularly and do not use HUMULIN 70/30 in an insulin infusion pump. (rxlist.com)
  • The proportion of rapid acting and long acting insulin is fixed in a premixed insulin such as HUMULIN 70/30. (rxlist.com)
  • Genentech developed the technique used to produce the first such insulin, Humulin, but did not commercially market the product themselves. (wikipedia.org)
  • What conditions does Insulin Isophane Pork Pure Suspension treat? (webmd.com)
  • a modified form of protamine zinc insulin suspension. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Mebendazole (isophane insulin suspension) - Special internet prices. (wz.cz)
  • NPH insulin (isophane insulin suspension) is a topic covered in the Davis's Drug Guide . (unboundmedicine.com)
  • NPH human insulin (rDNA origin) isophane suspension U-100. (anabolic-steroids.biz)
  • Do not use the insulin if it contains crystals, if the bottle or vial looks frosted, or if the suspension remains clear after being rolled between your hands. (medbroadcast.com)
  • Insulin is the main hormone responsible for the control of sugar (glucose) in the blood. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Insulin causes cells in the liver, muscle and fat tissue to increase their uptake of glucose form the bloodstream. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • It is important to monitor your blood glucose regularly and adjust your insulin dose as required. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Insulin is a hormone that works by lowering levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood. (rexhealth.com)
  • MedroxyPROGESTERone may interfere with blood glucose control and reduce the effectiveness of insulin isophane (NPH) and other diabetic medications. (drugs.com)
  • Insulin requirements are generally lower in women who breastfeed, most likely due to glucose being used for milk production. (drugs.com)
  • Insulin isophane works by helping blood sugar ( glucose ) get into cells so your body can use it for energy. (webmd.com)
  • Newer synthetic insulins, so-called (ultra-)long-acting insulin-analogues, have been developed with the intention of minimising side effects and allowing better blood glucose control. (cochrane.org)
  • Loading dose of 0.15 units/kg (nonconcentrated regular insulin) I.V. bolus, followed by continuous infusion of 0.1 unit/kg/hour until glucose level drops. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the liver, insulin facilitates glucose catabolism catabolism , subdivision of metabolism involving all degradative chemical reactions in the living cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Patients whose blood glucose is greatly improved, e.g. by intensified insulin therapy, may lose some or all of the warning symptoms of hypoglycaemia and should be advised accordingly. (medicines.org.uk)
  • After we eat, insulin works by causing sugar (glucose) to go from the blood into our body's cells to make fat, sugar, and protein. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Without insulin, glucose cannot get into the body's cells. (mayoclinic.org)
  • If you change your diet, your exercise, or both without changing your insulin dose, your blood glucose level can drop too low or rise too high. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Hepatic glucose output is decreased and peripheral, insulin-stimulated uptake is increased. (medscape.com)
  • Subjects were studied at baseline (diet alone) and after 2 months on each of the two insulin programmes in a random crossover design, in which dosage was increased until at least one daily preprandial blood glucose was consistently in the range of 3.9 to 6.0 mmol l -1 . (elsevier.com)
  • 1,2 As insulin has a greater blood glucose lowering ability than any other hypoglycaemic medicine, it is important that initiation of insulin treatment is considered in all patients with poor glycaemic control, following appropriate lifestyle changes and the use of oral hypoglycaemic medicines. (bpac.org.nz)
  • They decrease how much sugar your intestines absorb, make your body more sensitive to insulin, and help your muscles absorb glucose. (healthline.com)
  • Insulin is a naturally occurring hormone made by the pancreas that helps our body use or store the glucose (sugar) it gets from food. (medbroadcast.com)
  • The timing of insulin with respect to your meals is crucial to keeping blood glucose under control and preventing unwanted side effects. (medbroadcast.com)
  • Infants do not produce enough insulin, leading to an increase in glucose accumulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hyperglycemia A condition characterized as high blood glucose, which occurs when the body has too little insulin or when the body cannot use insulin properly. (wikipedia.org)
  • This type of insulin is often combined, when needed, with Rapid-acting or Short-acting insulin as a bolus before meals or to correct for high blood glucose. (diabetesdaily.com)
  • Bolus insulin, or a "bolus" refers to insulin that is fast acting and is given to cover the carbohydrates in a meal or to bring down high blood glucose. (diabetesdaily.com)
  • Insulin is a protein hormone that is used as a medication to treat high blood glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • insulin sensitizer (increases glucose uptake and use), inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis, decreases appetite. (studystack.com)
  • exogenous incretins: stimulate insulin release, decrease glucagon production, reduce hepatic glucose production, slows gastric emptying. (studystack.com)
  • Apart from being the primary agent in carbohydrate homeostasis, insulin in vertebrates has effects on fat metabolism and it changes the liver 's activity in storing or releasing glucose and in processing blood lipids . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Insulin helps in the transporting of glucose into skeletal muscle and liver, stimulates skeletal muscle and liver to convert glucose to a storage form called glycogen , stimulates fat cells to synthesize fat, and acts on the hypothalamus to reduce appetite. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Similarly, there are two types of mutually opposing but complementary groups of metabolic hormones affecting blood glucose levels, the catabolic hormones (such as glucagon , growth hormone, and catecholamines), which increase blood glucose, and one anabolic hormone (insulin), which decreases blood glucose. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • some type 2 diabetics eventually require insulin when other medications become insufficient in controlling blood glucose levels. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • All nine type 1 patients were health systems, owning a glucose meter for diabetic on twice-daily insulin regimens using a pre-mix 30/70 patients is the rule, rather than the exception. (who.int)
  • Insulin is a natural substance produced by the body which helps in utilizing the glucose for energy production. (practo.com)
  • If insulin is unsuitable, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, a sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor, or a thiazolidinedione (TZD) may be added (weak recommendation, very-low-quality evidence). (annals.org)
  • Guidelines include maintaining blood glucose levels at near normal by taking doses of short-acting insulin throughout the day supplemented by a nighttime dose of intermediate-acting insulin, monitoring blood glucose levels frequently, following a prudent diet, exercising regularly and effectively managing hypoglycemia, as well as empowering patients to lead their control efforts and rigorously controlling other risk factors for cardiovascular disease. (aafp.org)
  • Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) is used in selected type 1 diabetic subjects to achieve strict blood glucose control. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Review of controlled trials shows that, in most patients, mean blood glucose concentrations and glycated hemoglobin percentages are either slightly lower or similar on CSII versus multiple insulin injections. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Your insulin dose may also need adjusting during periods of emotional disturbance, or if you increase your physical activity or change your usual diet. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • If you do transfer to a different insulin, eg different type (short, intermediate or long acting), different species (human or animal), different brand, or different strength of insulin, your doctor may need to alter your dose, and your warning symptoms of low blood sugar may be slightly different. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Comment: Breast-feeding mothers may require adjustments in insulin dose. (drugs.com)
  • Ask your doctor before changing your insulin dose or schedule. (cigna.com)
  • Measure each dose very carefully because even small changes in the amount of insulin may have a large effect on your blood sugar . (webmd.com)
  • This is very important in order to determine the correct insulin dose. (webmd.com)
  • Your insulin dose needs adjustment. (patientassistance.com)
  • You will need to test your blood sugar often for several months in case your insulin dose needs to be changed. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Independent adjustment of the basal or prandial dose is not possible when using a premixed insulin. (rxlist.com)
  • long-acting (or intermediate-acting) insulin is given once or twice a day as background insulin to maintain blood sugar levels - this is called a basal dose of insulin. (mydr.com.au)
  • 1. An oral dosage form comprising a therapeutically effective dose of insulin and a biguanide. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The dose of insulin is adjusted depending upon the blood or urine sugar levels. (hubpages.com)
  • Some cases may require an additional dose of soluble insulin before the evening meal. (hubpages.com)
  • Your required dose of insulin depends on how much natural insulin your pancreas is producing and how well your body is able to use the insulin. (medbroadcast.com)
  • The dose of insulin is measured in international units (IU). (medbroadcast.com)
  • initially through an 8-week dose titration phase, followed by a 16-week maintenance phase during which insulin doses were adjusted only to avoid symptomatic hypoglycemia. (nih.gov)
  • TTD (Total Daily Dose) for insulin about: How does that divide up in a 60 kg pt? (studystack.com)
  • The manufacturers of the two available long-acting insulin products-glargine and detemir-provide guidance about the initiation of therapy with a fixed or weight-based dose, depending on how the product was studied in clinical trials. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Similarly, dose determination statements by the manufacturer of detemir focus on conversion from other types of basal insulin and report the mean dose of detemir required by patients in comparison to NPH insulin at the end of a clinical trial. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Insulin can be obtained from beef or pork pancreas glands. (mayoclinic.org)
  • These days, most types of insulin are synthetic (created in a laboratory), but there are some that are extracted from the pancreas of animals. (mydr.com.au)
  • Hypurin Neutral (short-acting insulin obtained from the pancreas of cattle - bovine insulin). (mydr.com.au)
  • These drugs can also help the pancreas make more insulin. (healthline.com)
  • Presently available insulin is made chiefly from beef or pork pancreas after various chemical processes for purification. (hubpages.com)
  • Insulin can be made from the pancreas of pigs or cows. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insulin is an endogenous hormone, which is produced by the pancreas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initially, the only way to obtain insulin for clinical use was to extract it from the pancreas of another creature. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word insulin comes from the Latin insula, meaning "island," as it is produced in mammals in the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In mammals , insulin is synthesized in the pancreas within the beta cells (β-cells) of the islets of Langerhans. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Insulin is an endogenous hormone produced and secreted by the β-cells of the pancreas. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Insuman comb pre-filled SoloStar pens, cartridges (for use with clikSTAR or Autopen 24 pens) and vials all contain human biphasic isophane insulin. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Together, this combination of insulin is called biphasic isophane insulin. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Mixed insulin (also called biphasic premixed or combination insulin) is a premixed combination of 2 different types of insulin. (mydr.com.au)
  • 1 ml contains 100 IU insulin human (produced in E. coli by recombinant DNA technology). (medicines.org.uk)
  • Changes in strength, brand (manufacturer), type (soluble, isophane, mixture), species (animal, human, human insulin analogue), and/or method of manufacture (recombinant DNA versus animal-source insulin) may result in the need for a change in dosage. (medicines.org.uk)
  • It is just like the insulin made by humans but it is made by methods called semi-synthetic or recombinant DNA. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Human insulin is produced by recombinant DNA technology utilizing a non- pathogenic laboratory strain of Escherichia coli . (rxlist.com)
  • Beginning in 1982, biosynthetic "human" insulin has been manufactured for clinical use through genetic engineering techniques using recombinant DNA technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • All Verified recombinant human insulin suppliers & recombinant human insulin manufacturers have passed our Business License Check, they can provide quality recombinant human insulin products. (entremaqueros.com)
  • Isophane insulin is normally used in combination with a short-acting insulin, which is given before meals to control the spikes in blood sugar levels that occur after eating. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Soluble insulin is known as short acting insulin. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Insulin regular is an short-acting insulin. (rexhealth.com)
  • The SAPT-NODAT study will test the hypotheses that intensive subcutaneous insulin treatment with short acting insulin, applied continuously through an insulin pump, (i) improves glycemic control, (ii) reduces the prevalence of NODAT and prediabetes, and (iii) offers further β-cell protection, in comparison to the standard of care control group, and the basal insulin treatment group. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Short-acting insulin ( insulin neutral ) starts to work about half an hour after being injected, peaks from between 3 and 5 hours, and lasts for about 6-8 hours. (mydr.com.au)
  • Short-acting insulin is given 20-30 minutes before a meal. (mydr.com.au)
  • Intermediate-acting insulin is often used in conjunction with short-acting insulin. (mydr.com.au)
  • Some short acting insulin drugs are modified. (brainscape.com)
  • Short-acting insulin is different different from Rapid-acting in its Onset and Peak. (diabetesdaily.com)
  • This type of insulin is often combined with Rapid-acting or Short-acting insulin to cover meals before and/or after its Peak. (diabetesdaily.com)
  • This technology, continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) (often now just called "insulin pump therapy"), uses a portable electromechanical pump to help mimic nondiabetic insulin delivery, infusing short-acting insulin into the subcutaneous tissue at preselected rates-essentially a slow basal rate throughout the 24 h with patient-activated boosts at mealtimes ( 1 - 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Therefore, new insulins which are thought to show more favourable properties of action have been developed: insulin glargine and insulin detemir. (cochrane.org)
  • While the effects on HbA1c were comparable, treatment with insulin glargine and insulin detemir resulted in fewer participants experiencing hypoglycaemia when compared with NPH insulin. (cochrane.org)
  • the long-acting agents insulin glargine and insulin detemir are marketed as basal insulins. (cmaj.ca)
  • Insuman comb contains a mix of two types of insulin, soluble insulin and isophane insulin. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Insuman comb preparations contain these two types of insulin in varying proportions. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Do not change brands or types of insulin without directions on how to do so from your doctor. (webmd.com)
  • When mixing two types of insulin, draw up regular insulin into syringe first. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • All types of insulin must be injected because, if taken by mouth, insulin is destroyed in the stomach. (mayoclinic.org)
  • There are a variety of types of insulin and ways to give it, including injections, pens and pumps. (mydr.com.au)
  • The numbers written after the brand name show the mix of the 2 types of insulin. (mydr.com.au)
  • your individual reaction to the different types of insulin available. (mydr.com.au)
  • There are many different types of insulin and they are absorbed at different rates and work for varying periods of time. (medbroadcast.com)
  • Different types of insulin work differently in different people. (diabetesdaily.com)
  • Here's a chart of how the types of insulin work to replicate the normal pancreatic delivery of insulin and how they are typically used. (diabetesdaily.com)
  • In addition to NPH insulin, doses of fast-acting insulin are usually used to control the impact of food intake on blood sugar levels during the day. (medbroadcast.com)
  • We compared basal regimens of glargine or NPH among insulin-naïve, U.S. inner city, ethnic minority type 2 diabetic patients who were sub-optimally controlled on maximally tolerated doses of combination oral agents. (nih.gov)
  • Weight gain was greater with either glargine regimen (+3.1 ± 4.1 kg and +1.7 ± 4.2 kg) compared to NPH (-0.2 ± 3.9 kg), despite comparable total insulin doses. (nih.gov)
  • Type of insulin used for patients on high doses of insulin. (studystack.com)
  • Breastfeeding women generally require lower doses of insulin. (practo.com)
  • Each time you inject your insulin make sure you use a different site. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Your care provider will show you where on your body to inject insulin isophane. (rexhealth.com)
  • Do not inject insulin isophane and insulin regular into a vein or a muscle. (cigna.com)
  • Do not inject cold insulin because this can be painful. (webmd.com)
  • Never inject a mixture of different insulins into a vein. (webmd.com)
  • Consult your health care professional about which products may be mixed, the proper method for mixing insulin, and the proper way to inject mixtures of insulin. (webmd.com)
  • Learn the proper way to inject insulin. (patientassistance.com)
  • Do not inject cold insulin. (patientassistance.com)
  • Each pack contains a patient information leaflet with instructions on how to inject insulin. (medicines.org.uk)
  • Speak to your doctor if you need to inject your insulin by another method. (medicines.org.uk)
  • Do not inject insulin NPH into the vein and do not use insulin NPH in insulin infusion pumps. (medbroadcast.com)
  • Insulin was derived primarily from cows (Eli Lilly and Company) and pigs (Nordisk Insulinlaboratorium). (wikipedia.org)
  • Some patients taking human insulin may require a change in dosage from that used with animal-source insulins. (medicines.org.uk)
  • Adjustment of insulin dosage may also be necessary if patients change their level of physical activity or change their usual diet. (medicines.org.uk)
  • Mean (± SEM) daily total insulin dosage was equivalent for the morning (0.36 ± 0.03 units kg -1 ) and for the bedtime (0.37 ± 0.03 units kg -1 ) insulin administration schedules. (elsevier.com)
  • 8. The dosage form according to claim 1, wherein the amount of insulin contained in said dosage form is from about 10 Units to about 600 Units. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • You should not use insulin isophane if you are allergic to it, or if you are having an episode of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar). (rexhealth.com)
  • Too much insulin can cause low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). (patientassistance.com)
  • Hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar, is the most common side effect of insulin isophane and insulin regular. (rxlist.com)
  • Rapid-and long-acting insulin analogues offer little benefit relative to conventional insulins in terms of glycemic control or reduced hypoglycemia. (cmaj.ca)
  • A basal insulin regimen is the preferred option in most clinical situations. (bpac.org.nz)
  • With the availability of four distinct types of synthetic and analog insulin products, initial dosing and titration may vary depending on the regimen selected and patient-specific characteristics. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A case report of IgE-mediated insulin allergy successfully managed with a fixed combination of degludec and liraglutide. (springer.com)
  • The aim of this trial is to investigate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (the exposure of the trial drug in the body) and pharmacodynamics (the effect of the investigated drug on the body) of insulin degludec (insulin 454), an explorative formulation, not similar to the proposed commerical formulation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Your body can't make enough insulin to keep your blood sugar levels normal. (healthline.com)
  • This condition occurs when the body cannot produce enough insulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eventually, many people will require insulin treatment. (cochrane.org)
  • A lot of people require insulin therapy to manage their blood sugar levels and keep them within a target range. (wikipedia.org)
  • Administer mixtures of regular and NPH or regular and lente insulins within 5 to 15 minutes of mixing. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • For patients who are not acutely ill, treatment can be started on medium- acting insulins like NPH or lente, given before breakfast and further adjustments are done as required. (hubpages.com)
  • Human isophane or lente insulin? (bmj.com)
  • isophane insulin (neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH)) and zinc insulin (lente) have been used commonly since the 1950s. (bmj.com)
  • Glycaemic control was improved on both insulin regimens, but was better on bedtime than morning insulin. (elsevier.com)
  • Which insulin regimens are used? (slideserve.com)
  • The theoretical benefits of newer insulin analogues might result in fewer macrovascular and microvascular events. (cochrane.org)
  • We wanted to compare the effects of treatment with (ultra-)long-acting insulin analogues with NPH (neutral protamine Hagedorn) insulin (human isophane insulin). (cochrane.org)
  • It is unclear if or to what extent (ultra-)long-acting insulin analogues show more benefit or less harm compared to NPH insulin. (cochrane.org)
  • When available, study results did not suggest clear differences between insulin analogues and NPH insulin. (cochrane.org)
  • There was no clear difference between insulin analogues and NPH insulin for side effects or weight gain. (cochrane.org)
  • With higher target values, hypoglycaemia occurs less frequently and more people need to be treated with insulin analogues instead of NPH insulin to prevent hypoglycaemia in one person. (cochrane.org)
  • Therefore, a further decrease in the benefit of insulin analogues is expected. (cochrane.org)
  • This means that potentially important differences between insulin analogues and NPH insulin were not detected. (cochrane.org)
  • These are all synthetic copies (analogues) of human insulin and are clear in appearance. (mydr.com.au)
  • Both types of long-acting insulin are human insulin analogues (synthetic copies of human insulin) and are clear in appearance. (mydr.com.au)
  • We updated 2 earlier systematic reviews of the efficacy and safety of rapid-and long-acting insulin analogues. (cmaj.ca)
  • We searched electronic databases, conference proceedings and "grey literature" up to April 2007 to identify randomized controlled trials that compared insulin analogues with conventional insulins. (cmaj.ca)
  • We included 68 randomized controlled trials in the analysis of rapid-acting insulin analogues and 49 in the analysis of long-acting insulin analogues. (cmaj.ca)
  • Insulin analogues are modified human insulins developed to address this limitation. (cmaj.ca)
  • Systematic reviews of the insulin analogues have been published previously. (cmaj.ca)
  • We based our current study on 2 health technology assessments of the insulin analogues from the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH). (cmaj.ca)
  • Are insulin analogues better? (slideserve.com)
  • The amount of insulin you need may also change if you drink alcohol. (medicines.org.uk)
  • To work properly, the amount of insulin you use must be balanced against the amount and type of food you eat and the amount of exercise you do. (mayoclinic.org)
  • The amount of insulin you need changes during and after pregnancy. (mayoclinic.org)
  • The amount of insulin in circulation has extremely widespread effects throughout the body. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Insuman comb 15 contains 15% soluble insulin and 85% isophane insulin. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Soluble insulin is effective for a few hours if given intramuscularly and only for a few minutes if given intravenously. (hubpages.com)
  • and soluble insulin aspartame and protamine) together accounted for 63% of all the insulin prescribed, and 67% of the total cost of prescribed insulin. (who.int)
  • Overall hypoglycaemia: comparable effects with soluble insulin. (slideserve.com)
  • This is known as an intermediate-acting insulin. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Insulin isophane is a intermediate-acting insulin. (rexhealth.com)
  • It is an intermediate-acting insulin (isophane). (webmd.com)
  • It is an intermediate-acting insulin that starts working about 1.5 hours after it is injected. (brighamandwomens.org)
  • It is an intermediate-acting insulin that is a stable, commonly prescribed preparation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It is concluded that bedtime administration of intermediate acting insulin results in increased basal insulinaemia, leading to improved basal glycaemia and consequent improved overall metabolic control, compared to morning insulin administration. (elsevier.com)
  • Intermediate-acting insulin ( isophane insulin ) is cloudy in appearance. (mydr.com.au)
  • Intermediate-acting insulin is usually given once or twice a day. (mydr.com.au)
  • Mixed insulin that contains short-acting neutral insulin and intermediate-acting isophane insulin include the following. (mydr.com.au)
  • It comes in three main types: short-acting (such as regular insulin), intermediate-acting (such as neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin), and longer-acting (such as insulin glargine). (wikipedia.org)
  • An intermediate-acting INSULIN preparation with onset time of 2 hours and duration of 24 hours. (curehunter.com)
  • Conclusions Long acting insulin analogs are probably superior to intermediate acting insulin analogs, although the difference is small for hemoglobin A 1c . (bmj.com)
  • Conventional insulins include regular human insulin and intermediate-acting neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin. (cmaj.ca)
  • conventional therapy consisted of one or two daily injections of regular and intermediate-acting insulins. (aafp.org)
  • Low blood sugar (hypoglycaemia) is a potential side effect of insulin therapy. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • The most common side effects of insulin treatment are low blood sugar (hypoglycaemia) and weight gain. (cochrane.org)
  • Treatment with insulin glargine or insulin detemir instead of NPH insulin resulted in fewer people with hypoglycaemia. (cochrane.org)
  • Treatment with insulin detemir reduced the risk of serious hypoglycaemia. (cochrane.org)
  • However, serious hypoglycaemia occurred only rarely in the studies, in fewer than one in 100 people treated with insulin detemir and in about one in 100 people treated with NPH insulin. (cochrane.org)
  • A few people who have had hypoglycaemia (low blood sugar) after switching from animal insulin to human insulin have reported that the early warning symptoms were less obvious or different. (medicines.org.uk)
  • Permanent brain damage following parasuicide with severe insulin-induced hypoglycaemia. (nih.gov)
  • Transferring a patient to another type or brand of insulin should be done under strict medical supervision. (medicines.org.uk)
  • Each type of insulin has a different colour and symbol on the pack and the cartridge so that you can easily tell the difference. (medicines.org.uk)
  • Another type of insulin that you may use is called human insulin. (mayoclinic.org)
  • This type of insulin is injected immediately before meal times and is also used in insulin pumps. (mydr.com.au)
  • The type of insulin you need depends on how severe your insulin depletion is. (healthline.com)
  • This type of insulin is often used with longer-acting insulin, which is used to cover the body's metabolic need for insulin. (diabetesdaily.com)
  • There is currently one type of inhalable insulin on the market called Afrezza. (diabetesdaily.com)
  • Also you don't need a prescription to buy ANY type of insulin in Canada. (diabetesforum.com)
  • Insulin isophane,beef subcutane. (patientassistance.com)
  • Tell your doctor if you have had allergic reactions, especially to beef, pork or human insulin and of your medical history especially of: thyroid problems, kidney or liver disease, any current infection. (patientassistance.com)
  • What are the generic drug sources for insulin susp isophane beef/pork and what is the scope of insulin susp isophane beef/pork freedom to operate? (drugpatentwatch.com)
  • There are thirty-eight drug master file entries for insulin susp isophane beef/pork. (drugpatentwatch.com)
  • The University of California, San Francisco explains that insulin "was initially extracted from beef and pork pancreases. (diabetesdaily.com)
  • Synthetic human insulin has replaced beef and pork insulin in the US. (diabetesdaily.com)
  • For insulin glargine one study found a higher rate of progression of diabetic retinopathy in patients treated with insulin glargine, while in another investigation the opposite result was found. (cochrane.org)
  • Severe symptoms of NDM (Deficiency of insulin): Ketoacidosis Is a diabetic complication that occurs when the body produces high levels of acid in the blood (ketones). (wikipedia.org)
  • In the absence or lack of insulin, the body of a diabetic individual will break down fat as fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many people put down their diabetic cat or dog because they don't have the money for the insulin and they use the same insulin as people. (diabetesforum.com)
  • Allergy to insulin affected about 2% of people, of which most reactions are not due to the insulin itself but to preservatives added to insulin such as zinc, protamine, and meta-cresol. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is produced by crystallizing ZINC-insulin-PROTAMINES at neutral pH 7. (curehunter.com)
  • This product may be mixed only with certain other insulin products such as insulin regular (pork). (webmd.com)
  • Recently, insulin exactly resembling human insulin has been synthesized from pork insulin. (hubpages.com)
  • Physiological factors, disease states and concomitant drugs may impact the onset and duration of action of all insulins. (rxlist.com)
  • Basal insulins are long-acting insulins with delayed onset of action covering the basic insulin needs of the body. (cochrane.org)
  • Analog, most used insulin onset w/in 10-20 min (premeal) lasting 3-5 hours. (studystack.com)
  • Onset 1-2 hours, insulin Glargine with pH 4.0 or insulin Detemir (long flat curve, no sharp uptake). (studystack.com)
  • Six studies comparing insulin glargine to NPH (Neutral Protamine Hagedorn) insulin and two studies comparing insulin detemir to NPH insulin were identified. (cochrane.org)
  • This medicine is not recommended for use if you have a known allergy to Neutral Protamine Hagedorn insulin or any other components present along with it. (practo.com)
  • You should measure your blood sugar levels every day when using insulin injections. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • There is a potential risk of delayed insulin absorption and worsened glycaemic control following insulin injections at sites with these reactions. (medicines.org.uk)
  • Insulin types and delivery systems have improved over the years and injections now cause minimal discomfort while allowing discreet use. (bpac.org.nz)
  • The number of basal insulin injections administered per day had no effect on HbA(1c) levels (p = 0.50). (nih.gov)
  • Insulin derived from different sources is similar in action but due to the presence of exogenous substances, which alter the action of insulin, different preparations vary in biological activity. (hubpages.com)
  • Insulin isophane must not be given with an insulin pump, or mixed with other insulins. (rexhealth.com)
  • Do not give insulin isophane and insulin regular with an insulin pump. (rexhealth.com)
  • Do not mix insulins if you are using an insulin pump . (webmd.com)
  • In the SAPT-NODAT study, we will employ sensor-augmented insulin-pump technology, which performs like a semi-closed loop to prevent hypoglycemic events. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Continuous subcutaneous sensor-augmented insulin-pump therapy (SAPT) with an insulin pump from Medtronic (Paradigm® Velo) for a period of approximately 3 months post-transplantation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • But enthusiasm from some is mixed with uncertainty from others, who are concerned about the possible complications of pump therapy ( 22 ) or intensive insulin therapy in general ( 23 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • For I.V. infusion, mix regular insulin only with normal or half-normal saline solution, as prescribed, to yield a concentration of 1 unit/ml. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Insulin treatment is frequently performed by administering human basal insulins once or twice daily. (cochrane.org)
  • In most studies, glycaemic control (HbA1C) with insulin glargine and detemir appears to be comparable to that achieved with daily or twice daily isophane (NPH) insulin. (slideserve.com)
  • The long- acting insulins are not given intravenously. (hubpages.com)
  • Sixteen studies compared the long-acting insulin glargine to NPH insulin and eight studies compared the long-acting insulin detemir to NPH insulin. (cochrane.org)
  • If you are allergic to human insulin or any of the other ingredients of this medicine (listed in section 6). (medicines.org.uk)
  • Allergic reactions are caused either by the sensitization to insulin or the impurities. (hubpages.com)
  • Initially, lower preparation purity resulted in allergic reactions to the presence of non-insulin substances. (wikipedia.org)
  • Minor allergic reactions still occur occasionally, even to synthetic "human" insulin varieties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypurin Isophane (NPH) (bovine isophane insulin). (mydr.com.au)
  • Insulin from these sources is effective in humans as it is highly similar to human insulin (three amino acid difference in bovine insulin, one amino acid difference in porcine). (wikipedia.org)
  • Bovine insulin differs from human in only three amino acid residues, and porcine insulin in one. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • What is the most important information I should know about insulin isophane and insulin regular? (rexhealth.com)
  • Insulin isophane and insulin regular may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. (rexhealth.com)
  • What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before using insulin isophane and insulin regular? (rexhealth.com)
  • How should I use insulin isophane and insulin regular? (rexhealth.com)
  • After using insulin isophane and insulin regular, you should eat a meal within 30 to 45 minutes. (rexhealth.com)
  • Insulin isophane and insulin regular is not approved for use by anyone younger than 18 years old. (cigna.com)
  • How should I take insulin isophane and insulin regular? (cigna.com)
  • It starts to work more slowly but lasts longer than regular insulin. (webmd.com)
  • Always draw the insulin regular into the syringe first, then follow with the longer-acting insulin. (webmd.com)
  • Save on Insulin Isophane Insulin Regular at your pharmacy with the free discount below. (helprx.info)
  • What are the possible side effects of insulin isophane and insulin regular? (rxlist.com)
  • The insulin is separated and these are available for regular use now. (hubpages.com)
  • However combination of regular and isophane insulin. (who.int)
  • Losing weight, exercising and eating well can improve the body's sensitivity to insulin and therefore this is something that the patient can do to reduce their need for medicines. (bpac.org.nz)
  • Usually taken once or twice a day as a basal insulin to cover the body's metabolic need for insulin. (diabetesdaily.com)
  • The different insulins reduced HbA1c by about the same amount. (cochrane.org)