Glucose Transporter Type 2: A glucose transport facilitator that is expressed primarily in PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; LIVER; and KIDNEYS. It may function as a GLUCOSE sensor to regulate INSULIN release and glucose HOMEOSTASIS.Glucose Transporter Type 4: A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.Glucose Transporter Type 1: A ubiquitously expressed glucose transporter that is important for constitutive, basal GLUCOSE transport. It is predominately expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and ERYTHROCYTES at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and is responsible for GLUCOSE entry into the BRAIN.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Glucose Transporter Type 3: A major glucose transporter found in NEURONS.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Glucose Transporter Type 5: A hexose transporter that mediates FRUCTOSE transport in SKELETAL MUSCLE and ADIPOCYTES and is responsible for luminal uptake of dietary fructose in the SMALL INTESTINE.Vesicular Monoamine Transport Proteins: A family of vesicular amine transporter proteins that catalyze the transport and storage of CATECHOLAMINES and indolamines into SECRETORY VESICLES.Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 3: A neuronal and epithelial type glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein.Tetrabenazine: A drug formerly used as an antipsychotic and treatment of various movement disorders. Tetrabenazine blocks neurotransmitter uptake into adrenergic storage vesicles and has been used as a high affinity label for the vesicle transport system.Glycine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: A family of sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters that transport the amino acid GLYCINE. They differ from GLYCINE RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to GLYCINE. They are located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of NEURONS; GLIAL CELLS; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and RED BLOOD CELLS where they remove inhibitory neurotransmitter glycine from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE.Glutamate Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that couple the uptake of GLUTAMATE with the import of SODIUM ions and PROTONS and the export of POTASSIUM ions. In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM they regulate neurotransmission through synaptic reuptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. Outside the central nervous system they function as signal mediators and regulators of glutamate metabolism.Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative: A family of monosaccharide transport proteins characterized by 12 membrane spanning helices. They facilitate passive diffusion of GLUCOSE across the CELL MEMBRANE.Sarcosine: An amino acid intermediate in the metabolism of choline.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Receptor, Insulin: A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.Deoxyglucose: 2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.Amino Acid Transport System X-AG: A family of POTASSIUM and SODIUM-dependent acidic amino acid transporters that demonstrate a high affinity for GLUTAMIC ACID and ASPARTIC ACID. Several variants of this system are found in neuronal tissue.Vesicular Biogenic Amine Transport Proteins: Integral membrane proteins of the LIPID BILAYER of SECRETORY VESICLES that catalyze transport and storage of biogenic amine NEUROTRANSMITTERS such as ACETYLCHOLINE; SEROTONIN; MELATONIN; HISTAMINE; and CATECHOLAMINES. The transporters exchange vesicular protons for cytoplasmic neurotransmitters.3-O-Methylglucose: A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)Cytochalasin B: A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).MethylglucosidesATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Sodium-Glucose Transporter 1: The founding member of the sodium glucose transport proteins. It is predominately expressed in the INTESTINAL MUCOSA of the SMALL INTESTINE.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Glucose Intolerance: A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.Isoflurane: A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins: A structurally-related group of signaling proteins that are phosphorylated by the INSULIN RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE. The proteins share in common an N-terminal PHOSPHOLIPID-binding domain, a phosphotyrosine-binding domain that interacts with the phosphorylated INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal TYROSINE-rich domain. Upon tyrosine phosphorylation insulin receptor substrate proteins interact with specific SH2 DOMAIN-containing proteins that are involved in insulin receptor signaling.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.PhlorhizinOrganic Anion Transporters: Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.PhloretinIslets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Insulin Antagonists: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or action of insulin.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Sodium-Glucose Transport Proteins: Monosaccharide transport proteins that function as active symporters. They utilize SODIUM or HYDROGEN IONS to transport GLUCOSE across CELL MEMBRANES.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.GlycogenInsulin, Long-Acting: Insulin formulations that contain substances that retard absorption thus extending the time period of action.Monocarboxylic Acid Transporters: A family of proteins involved in the transport of monocarboxylic acids such as LACTIC ACID and PYRUVIC ACID across cellular membranes.Glucagon: A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Hexokinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 188.8.131.52.PropylaminesSymporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Insulin Antibodies: Antibodies specific to INSULIN.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.HexosesGene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.3T3-L1 Cells: A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Affinity Labels: Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Glucose Oxidase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 184.108.40.206.Hyperinsulinism: A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.Insulin-Secreting Cells: A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Hypoglycemia: A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of serotonergic neurons. They are different than SEROTONIN RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to SEROTONIN. They remove SEROTONIN from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. Regulates signal amplitude and duration at serotonergic synapses and is the site of action of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Insulin Lispro: Insulin that has been modified so that the B-chain contains a LYSINE at position 28 instead of a PROLINE and a PROLINE at position 29 instead of a LYSINE. It is used to manage BLOOD GLUCOSE levels in patients with TYPE 2 DIABETES.Glucokinase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and D-glucose to ADP and D-glucose 6-phosphate. They are found in invertebrates and microorganisms, and are highly specific for glucose. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 220.127.116.11.Insulin Infusion Systems: Portable or implantable devices for infusion of insulin. Includes open-loop systems which may be patient-operated or controlled by a pre-set program and are designed for constant delivery of small quantities of insulin, increased during food ingestion, and closed-loop systems which deliver quantities of insulin automatically based on an electronic glucose sensor.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Azides: Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cystinyl Aminopeptidase: A zinc-containing sialoglycoprotein that is used to study aminopeptidase activity in the pathogenesis of hypertension. EC 18.104.22.168.Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 2: A glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein found in ASTROCYTES and in the LIVER.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Glucose Clamp Technique: Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.C-Peptide: The middle segment of proinsulin that is between the N-terminal B-chain and the C-terminal A-chain. It is a pancreatic peptide of about 31 residues, depending on the species. Upon proteolytic cleavage of proinsulin, equimolar INSULIN and C-peptide are released. C-peptide immunoassay has been used to assess pancreatic beta cell function in diabetic patients with circulating insulin antibodies or exogenous insulin. Half-life of C-peptide is 30 min, almost 8 times that of insulin.Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring: Self evaluation of whole blood glucose levels outside the clinical laboratory. A digital or battery-operated reflectance meter may be used. It has wide application in controlling unstable insulin-dependent diabetes.Nerve Tissue ProteinsDisaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Amino Acid Transport Systems: Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Organic Cation Transporter 1: An organic cation transporter found in kidney. It is localized to the basal lateral membrane and is likely to be involved in the renal secretion of organic cations.Hyperglycemia: Abnormally high BLOOD GLUCOSE level.Rats, Zucker: Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.Dehydroascorbic Acid: The reversibly oxidized form of ascorbic acid. It is the lactone of 2,3-DIKETOGULONIC ACID and has antiscorbutic activity in man on oral ingestion.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 1: A glial type glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein found predominately in ASTROCYTES. It is also expressed in HEART and SKELETAL MUSCLE and in the PLACENTA.Mice, Inbred C57BLPhosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Gluconeogenesis: Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.Norepinephrine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of noradrenergic neurons. They remove NOREPINEPHRINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. It regulates signal amplitude and duration at noradrenergic synapses and is the target of ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Leishmania enriettii: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that has been found as a natural infection of the Brazilian guinea pig. Its host-tissue relationship is, in general, comparable to that of L. braziliensis.Insulin Aspart: Insulin that has been modified to contain an ASPARTIC ACID instead of a PROLINE at position 38 of the B-chain.Glucose-6-Phosphate: An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)Insulin, Isophane: An intermediate-acting INSULIN preparation with onset time of 2 hours and duration of 24 hours. It is produced by crystallizing ZINC-insulin-PROTAMINES at neutral pH 7. Thus it is called neutral protamine Hagedorn for inventor Hans Christian Hagedorn.Cation Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.4-Chloromercuribenzenesulfonate: A cytotoxic sulfhydryl reagent that inhibits several subcellular metabolic systems and is used as a tool in cellular physiology.Organic Anion Transporters, Sodium-Independent: A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS that do not rely directly or indirectly upon sodium ion gradients for the transport of organic ions.Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2: A sodium-glucose transporter that is expressed in the luminal membrane of the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULES.Proinsulin: A pancreatic polypeptide of about 110 amino acids, depending on the species, that is the precursor of insulin. Proinsulin, produced by the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, is comprised sequentially of the N-terminal B-chain, the proteolytically removable connecting C-peptide, and the C-terminal A-chain. It also contains three disulfide bonds, two between A-chain and B-chain. After cleavage at two locations, insulin and C-peptide are the secreted products. Intact proinsulin with low bioactivity also is secreted in small amounts.Nucleoside Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOSIDES across cellular membranes.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Organic Cation Transport Proteins: A family of proteins involved in the transport of organic cations. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics, and their metabolites from the body.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Insulin, Regular, Pork: Regular insulin preparations that contain the SUS SCROFA insulin peptide sequence.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.GABA Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that regulates extracellular levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They differ from GABA RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They control GABA reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM through high-affinity sodium-dependent transport.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Glucose 1-Dehydrogenase: A glucose dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation of beta-D-glucose to form D-glucono-1,5-lactone, using NAD as well as NADP as a coenzyme.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Organic Anion Transporters, Sodium-Dependent: A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS whose transport of organic anions is driven either directly or indirectly by a gradient of sodium ions.Sodium-Coupled Vitamin C Transporters: Membrane transport proteins that actively co-transport ASCORBIC ACID and sodium ions across the CELL MEMBRANE. Dietary absorption of VITAMIN C is highly dependent upon this class of transporters and a subset of SODIUM GLUCOSE TRANSPORTERS which transport the oxidized form of vitamin C, DEHYDROASCORBIC ACID.Insulins: Peptide hormones that cause an increase in the absorption of GLUCOSE by cells within organs such as LIVER, MUSCLE and ADIPOSE TISSUE. During normal metabolism insulins are produced by the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS in response to increased GLUCOSE. Natural and chemically-modified forms of insulin are also used in the treatment of GLUCOSE METABOLISM DISORDERS such as DIABETES MELLITUS.Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.Deoxy SugarsStreptozocin: An antibiotic that is produced by Stretomyces achromogenes. It is used as an antineoplastic agent and to induce diabetes in experimental animals.TriglyceridesTissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.
... rate of glucose entry is proportional to blood glucose levels. GLUT4 transporters are insulin sensitive, and are found in ... There are two types of secondary active transporter found within the kidney tubule; close to the glomerulus, where glucose ... There are over 10 different types of glucose transporters; however, the most significant for study are GLUT1-4. GLUT1 and GLUT3 ... glucose reenters the bloodstream through facilitated diffusion through GLUT2 transporters. Hence reabsorption of glucose is ...
"Analysis of the gene sequences of the insulin receptor and the insulin-sensitive glucose transporter (GLUT-4) in patients with ... Atypical MFS Transporter Families), suggesting there are at least 64 different families including SLC proteins of MFS type. Pao ... These include a fungal phosphate transporter PiPT, plant nitrate transporter NRT1.1, and the human glucose transporter GLUT1. ... Deng D, Xu C, Sun P, Wu J, Yan C, Hu M, Yan N (June 2014). "Crystal structure of the human glucose transporter GLUT1". Nature. ...
Sui D, Wilson JE (October 2000). "Interaction of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-4, Miz-1, leptin, lipocalin-type ... "Expression of hexokinases and glucose transporters in treated and untreated oesophageal adenocarcinoma". Histology and ... By phosphorylating glucose, HK3 effectively prevents glucose from leaving the cell and, thus, commits glucose to energy ... Hexokinases phosphorylate glucose to produce glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), the first step in most glucose metabolism pathways. ...
This means the body can no longer produce and secrete insulin into the blood and regulate the blood glucose concentration. Type ... glucose molecules move into the cell by facilitated diffusion, down its concentration gradient through the GLUT2 transporter. ... Rudenski A, Matthews D, Levy J, Turner R (1991). "Understanding "insulin resistance": both glucose resistance and insulin ... Type 1 diabetes mellitus, also known as insulin dependent diabetes, is believed to be caused by an autoimmune response where ...
... of the glucose reabsorption in the kidney. Blocking this transporter mechanism causes blood glucose to be eliminated through ... Added to Therapy of Patients With Type 2 Diabetes With Inadequate Glycemic Control on Insulin, ClinicalTrials.gov, April 2009 ... The glucose acts as an osmotic diuretic (this effect is the cause of polyuria in diabetes) which can lead to dehydration. The ... The FDA approved dapagliflozin on January 8, 2014 for glycemic control, along with diet and exercise, in adults with type 2 ...
In the pancreas these genes influence expression of, among others, the genes for insulin, the principal glucose transporter ( ... Mutations in the alternative promoter of HNF4A are linked to development of type 2 diabetes. Stokes, A; and ... Although pancreatic beta cells produce adequate insulin in infancy, the capacity for insulin production declines thereafter. ... The degree of insulin deficiency is slowly progressive. Many patients with MODY 1 are treated with sulfonylureas for years ...
Sep 2009). "Insulin storage and glucose homeostasis in mice null for the granule zinc transporter ZnT8 and studies of the type ... 2007). "The cation efflux transporter ZnT8 (Slc30A8) is a major autoantigen in human type 1 diabetes". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U ... Feb 2010). "New genetic loci implicated in fasting glucose homeostasis and their impact on type 2 diabetes risk". Nature ... Solute carrier family 30 (zinc transporter), member 8, also known as SLC30A8, is a human gene that codes for a zinc transporter ...
Additionally, this action was dependent on extracellular glucose level. NaGly has been shown to inhibit the glycine transporter ... Sheskin T, Hanus L, Slager J, Vogel Z, Mechoulam R (February 1997). "Structural requirements for binding of anandamide-type ... NaGly was identified as a novel insulin secretagogue and was shown to increase intracellular calcium concentration through ... "N-Arachidonyl-glycine inhibits the glycine transporter, GLYT2a". Journal of Neurochemistry. 99 (3): 781-6. doi:10.1111/j.1471- ...
... or a decrease in insulin receptor signaling, leads to diabetes mellitus type 2 - the cells are unable to take up glucose, and ... Akt triggers the translocation of glucose transporter (GLUT4) containing vesicles to the cell membrane, via the activation of ... The main activity of activation of the insulin receptor is inducing glucose uptake. For this reason "insulin insensitivity", ... 4548-G05 Insulin Insulin-like growth factor 1 Mecasermin Insulin receptor has been shown to interact with ENPP1, GRB10, GRB7, ...
... independent of insulin. SGLT-2 is a member of the glucose transporter family and is a low-affinity, high-capacity glucose ... Gliflozins are a class of drugs in the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). They act by inhibiting sodium/glucose cotransporter ... which are secondary active glucose transporters. The sodium glucose transporters proteins SGLT-1 and SGLT-2 are the two premier ... Almost all remaining filtered glucose is reabsorbed by sodium/glucose transporter 1 so under normal circumstances almost all ...
Insulin receptor. *Some types of cell adhesion proteins or cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) such as integrins, cadherins, NCAMs, ... Classification of transporters can be found in Transporter Classification Database.. As an example of the relationship ... Glucose Permease. *Ion channels and Gates. *Gap junction Proteins. *G protein coupled receptors (e.g., Beta-adrenergic receptor ... Type V proteins are anchored to the lipid bilayer through covalently linked lipids. Finally Type VI proteins have both ...
... stimulates translocation of glucose transporter GLUT4 in skeletal muscle through a mechanism distinct from that of insulin". ... Regular monitoring of weight, blood sugar, and insulin are advised, as hyperinsulinemia may develop into diabetes mellitus type ... In insulin resistant tissues, a threshold concentration of insulin is reached causing the cells to uptake glucose and therefore ... Studies have shown that the high levels of insulin resulting from insulin resistance might enhance insulin resistance. Studies ...
... and glucose transporter isoform 2 (GLUT2), intestinal transporters for vitamin C and Glucose". The Journal of Biological ... New York, NY SH Holt; JC Miller; P Petocz (1 November 1997). "An insulin index of foods: the insulin demand generated by 1000- ... By some accounts, up to 18% of the population was using one type of low-carbohydrate diet or another at the peak of their ... the amount of insulin in the bloodstream to food rather than glycemic response the amount of glucose in the bloodstream. ...
GLUT is a type of uniporter transporter protein. Most non-autotrophic cells are unable to produce free glucose because they ... but it has clearly been established that insulin does not promote GLUT6 and GLUT8 cell-surface translocation. In August 1960, ... Glucose transporters are a wide group of membrane proteins that facilitate the transport of glucose over a plasma membrane. ... Each glucose transporter isoform plays a specific role in glucose metabolism determined by its pattern of tissue expression, ...
... is used to assist regulation of blood glucose level of diabetes mellitus type 2 patients. It can be used alone or ... it works as an insulin sensitizer by binding to the PPAR receptors in fat cells and making the cells more responsive to insulin ... Among six major membrane transporters, recommended by US FDA, lobeglitazone interacts with OATP1B1, OAT3, and MDR1. In vitro, ... 50 (5): 872-877. doi:10.1016/j.jpba.2009.06.003. PMID 19577404. "MFDS permission information of Duvie Tablet 0.5mg" (Release of ...
"The Krüppel-like factor KLF15 regulates the insulin-sensitive glucose transporter GLUT4". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (37): 34322-8. doi ... 2007). "Analysis of KLF transcription factor family gene variants in type 2 diabetes". BMC Med. Genet. 8: 53. doi:10.1186/1471- ... However, they also exhibit improved glucose tolerance as a result of enhanced insulin secretion. The enhancement of insulin ... Insulin and its counteracting hormones regulate the hepatic expression of KLF15. Forced expression of KLF15 in cultured ...
A recent siRNA screen identified the involvement of MAP4K4 in the regulation of the glucose transporter GLUT4. The silencing of ... MAP4K4 has been identified to be involved in the negative regulation of insulin-dependent glucose transport. There is ... Mutations to the p53 gene are often found in many types of cancers. The MAP4K4 gene contains four binding sites for p53. Upon ... TNF-α specifically attenuates the signaling pathway initiated by insulin receptors, reducing the amount of glucose transport ...
December 1996). "Immunohistochemical Localization of Facilitated-Diffusion Glucose Transporters in Rat Pancreatic Islets". ... D. L. Curry (1989). "Effects of Mannose and Fructose on the Synthesis and Secretion of Insulin". Pancreas. 4 (1): 2-9. doi: ... "Low-carbohydrate diet in type 2 diabetes. Stable improvement of bodyweight and glycemic control during 22 months follow-up" ... and does not cause insulin production, probably because β cells have low levels of GLUT5. Leptin, an appetite- ...
Akt2 is required for the insulin-induced translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) to the plasma membrane. Glycogen ... A new type of Akt inhibitor has been discovered. Ipatasertib is in phase II trials for breast cancer. AKT activation is ... Akt2 is an important signaling molecule in the insulin signaling pathway. It is required to induce glucose transport. In a ... insulin resistance), again consistent with the idea that Akt2 is more specific for the insulin receptor signaling pathway. Akt ...
This protein also functions as a DNA-binding transactivator of the glucose transporter GLUT2. RE1-silencing transcription ... This gene is found to be mutated in a type 2 diabetes family, and thus is thought to be a susceptibility gene for type 2 ... Bonny C, Nicod P, Waeber G (March 1998). "IB1, a JIP-1-related nuclear protein present in insulin-secreting cells". J Biol Chem ... 2000). "The gene MAPK8IP1, encoding islet-brain-1, is a candidate for type 2 diabetes". Nat. Genet. 24 (3): 291-5. doi:10.1038/ ...
... insulin signaling and glucose homeostatis, cell type progression and proliferation, and myeloid cell differentiation. It was ... Hepatic ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 is a key molecule in high-density lipoprotein cholesteryl ester metabolism in mice ... "Cellular cholesterol synthesis-the relationship to post-prandial glucose and insulin following weight loss". Atherosclerosis. ... 8-oxoG, a common type of oxidative damage in DNA, is found to accumulate in plaque vascular smooth muscle cells, macrophages ...
... glucose transporter type 1 MeSH D12.776.543.585.500.500.750 -- glucose transporter type 2 MeSH D12.776.543.585.500.500.875 -- ... igf type 1 MeSH D12.776.543.750.060.484 -- receptor, insulin MeSH D12.776.543.750.060.492 -- receptor, macrophage colony- ... glucose transporter type 3 MeSH D12.776.543.585.500.500.937 -- glucose transporter type 4 MeSH D12.776.543.585.500.500.968 -- ... sodium-glucose transporter 1 MeSH D12.776.543.585.450.625.562.750 -- sodium-glucose transporter 2 MeSH D12.776.543.585.450.625. ...
Type A2: abnormal OGTT compounded by abnormal glucose levels during fasting and/or after meals; additional therapy with insulin ... There is a two- to three-fold increase in the expression of syncytiotrophoblast glucose transporters with advancing gestation. ... Since insulin promotes the entry of glucose into most cells, insulin resistance prevents glucose from entering the cells ... Effect of insulin on glucose uptake and metabolism. Insulin binds to its receptor (1) on the cell membrane which in turn starts ...
Glucose Transporter Type 2 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... Unlike GLUT4, it does not rely on insulin for facilitated diffusion. In humans, this protein is encoded by the SLC2A2 gene. ... Glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) also known as solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), member 2 (SLC2A2) is a ... GLUT2 could reasonably be referred to as the "diabetic glucose transporter" or a "stress hyperglycemia glucose transporter." ...
Glucose enters the β-cells through the glucose transporters, GLUT2. These glucose transporters have a relatively low affinity ... Insulin was offered for sale shortly thereafter. Purified animal-sourced insulin was the only type of insulin available to ... resulting in absolute insulin deficiency Type 2 - either inadequate insulin production by the β-cells or insulin resistance or ... Insulin decreases blood glucose concentration by inducing intake of glucose by the cells. This is possible because Insulin ...
Management of blood glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus (PDF). American family physician. 2009, 79 (1): 29-36. PMID 19145963.. ... SGLT2抑制劑：鈉-葡萄糖共同運輸蛋白（sodium-glucose co-transporter 2）：幫助患者直接將糖份排出體外。 ... 始於胰島素抵抗作用異常（細胞對於胰島素的反應不正常）或細胞對胰島素沒有反應
The most cutting-edge CME diabetes education surrounding the new basal insulins. Geared towards MDs, RNs, CDEs, and all other ... Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter 2) Inhibitors SGLT-2 Inhibitors including Invokana (canagliflozin), Farxiga (dapagliflozin), ... Develop a rationale when and how to use new basal insulin preparations in type 1 versus type 2 diabetes. ... Compare and contrast the etiology, natural history and basal insulin needs in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. ...
Glucose transporter 4; HCAR, Hydroxycarboxylic acid receptors; HDAC, Histone deacetylase; IGF-1, Insulin-like growth factor 1; ... As in other cell types, different bone cell types have the capacity to release factors into the circulation (176). For instance ... Interleukin-6 increases insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in humans and glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation in vitro via ... Muscle insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism are controlled by the intrinsic muscle clock. Mol Metab. (2014) 3:29-41. doi ...
Glucose transporter; GSIS: Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion; IR: Insulin receptor; IRS: Insulin receptor Substrate; JNK: c- ... Keywords: Glucose transporter protein, insulin, type 2 diabetes mellitus, flavonoids, glucose uptake. ... Type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance. Defects in Insulin Release. Role of glucagon, incretin.... Dietary Flavonoids. Glucose ... in insulin-resistant type 2 diabetics is the defect in glucose uptake due to defective regulation of glucose transporter-4 ( ...
Glucose Transporter Type 4/metabolism. *Hyperglycemia/blood. *Hyperglycemia/metabolism. *Hyperglycemia/therapy. *Insulin ... improved fasting glucose level, and insulin sensitivity index. Moreover, resistance training accelerated glucose transporter-4 ... fasting glucose level, insulin sensitivity index, and GLUT-4 signaling, with a decline in muscular DHT levels. These findings ... can contribute to skeletal muscle hypertrophy and concomitant improvement of muscular glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetic ...
Keywords: Glucose transporter protein, insulin, type 2 diabetes mellitus, flavonoids, glucose uptake. ... Modulation of Glucose Transporter Protein by Dietary Flavonoids in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Fatemeh Hajiaghaalipour1*✉, ... Hajiaghaalipour F, Khalilpourfarshbafi M, Arya A. Modulation of Glucose Transporter Protein by Dietary Flavonoids in Type 2 ... The antidiabetic potential of flavonoids are mainly through their modulatory effects on glucose transporter by enhancing GLUT-2 ...
Glucose Transporter Type 2. 1. + 69. Liver Glycogen. 1. + 70. Dietary Proteins. 1. + ... Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins. 1. + 59. Tungsten Compounds. 1. + 60. Cholesterol. 1. + ...
Muscle, Skeletal;Muscle Proteins;Insulin Resistance;Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2;Glucose Transporter Type 4;Cystinyl ... Glucose Transporter Type 1;Glucose Transporter Type 4;RNA, Messenger;Rats, Wistar;Hindlimb ... Muscle, Skeletal;Muscle Proteins;Insulin Resistance;Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2;Glucose Transporter Type 4;Cystinyl ... Insulin Resistance;Hexosamines;Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt;Phosphorylation;Uridine Diphosphate;Glucose Transporter Type 4; ...
The potential role and rationale for treatment of heart failure with sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors. Eur J Heart ... 2 HFpEF is well-recognized as the predominant type of HF in patients with T2D and is possibly related to insulin resistance and ... Ketoacidosis (increased ketones in your blood or urine). Ketoacidosis has happened in people who have type 1 or type 2 diabetes ... Exclusion criteria include treatment with a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor (current or within three months ...
Activates insulin, somatostatin, glucokinase, islet amyloid polypeptide and glucose transporter type 2 gene transcription. ... Particularly involved in glucose-dependent regulation of insulin gene transcription. Binds preferentially the DNA motif 5-[CT] ... onset during adulthood and insulin resistance.. Defects in PDX1 are the cause of maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 4 ( ... By product type. Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. Agonists, activators, antagonists and inhibitors. Lysates. Multiplex ...
Evidence for the association of,i, SLC30A8,/i, variants with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is inconclusive. We interrogated single ... i,SLC30A8,/i, encodes zinc transporter 8 which is involved in packaging and release of insulin. ... "Insulin storage and glucose homeostasis in mice null for the granule zinc transporter ZnT8 and studies of the type 2 diabetes- ... fasting glucose, rs6469667 (. ); fasting insulin, rs2938864 (. ); 2-hour glucose, rs1394874 (. ); 2-hour insulin, rs1394875 (. ...
... insulin 1 (Ins 1), insulin 2 (Ins 2), and glucose transporter gene (slc2g5) in type I and type II diabetes and obesity in ... Multiple (pleiotropic) mapping of eQTL that influence gene expression traits insulin 1, insulin 2, and glucose transporter gene ... insulin I (Ins1), insulin II (Ins2), and solute carrier family 2 (Slc2a5; a facilitated glucose transporter member 5). The ... Figure 1 shows results from a whole-genome scan for eQTL influencing gene expression of insulin (Ins1) on Chr 19 (at 51.83 Mb) ...
Moving the insulin-regulated glucose transporter GLUT4 into and out of storage. Holman, G. D. & Sandoval, I. V., 2001, In : ... D-ribofuranoside increases insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation in rat skeletal muscles in a fiber type- ... Human podocytes rapidly utilize glucose by both GLUT1 and GLUT4 in response to insulin; with significant differences in glucose ... Synthesis of biotinylated bis(D-glucose) derivatives for glucose transporter photoaffinity labelling. Hashimoto, M., Hatanaka, ...
7 The ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) has been shown to modulate insulin secretion,6 and HDL can reverse the ... Conclusions- rHDL reduced plasma glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus by increasing plasma insulin and activating ... Interleukin-6 increases insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in humans and glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation in vitro via ... Glucose Uptake Glucose uptake was determined by the 2-deoxy-glucose method.15 Nonspecific uptake was assessed with the use of ...
Glucose-transporter-type-I-gene amplification correlates with sialyl-Lewis-X synthesis and proliferation in lung cancer. Ogawa ... Binding of insulin-like growth factors to Tera-2 human embryonal carcinoma cells during differentiation. Fleck, J.F., Sledge, G ... Glucose-transporter-type-I-gene amplification correlates with sialyl-Lewis-X synthesis and proliferation in lung cancer . ... Expression of alpha-1,3-fucosyltransferase type IV and VII genes is related to poor prognosis in lung cancer. Ogawa, J., Inoue ...
... type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance, and thus the inability of insulin to stimulate glucose utilization in ... glucose facilitated transporters (GLUT) and sodium dependent D-glucose co-transporters (SGLT). GLUT allows transport of glucose ... Glucose transporter and Na+/glucose cotransporter as molecular targets of anti-diabetic drugs. Curr Med Chem. 2004 ;11(20):2717 ... Roles of glucose transport and glucose phosphorylation in muscle insulin resistance of NIDDM. Diabetes. 1996 ;45(7):915-25 ...
... rate of glucose entry is proportional to blood glucose levels. GLUT4 transporters are insulin sensitive, and are found in ... There are two types of secondary active transporter found within the kidney tubule; close to the glomerulus, where glucose ... There are over 10 different types of glucose transporters; however, the most significant for study are GLUT1-4. GLUT1 and GLUT3 ... glucose reenters the bloodstream through facilitated diffusion through GLUT2 transporters. Hence reabsorption of glucose is ...
We applied this technique to make parallel measurements of the time-course of insulin-triggered activation of ... The technique should have wide applicability to various cell types and diverse signaling processes. ... Single Cell Imaging of PI3K Activity and Glucose Transporter Insertion Into the Plasma Membrane by Dual Color Evanescent Wave ... Single Cell Imaging of PI3K Activity and Glucose Transporter Insertion Into the Plasma Membrane by Dual Color Evanescent Wave ...
Sodium glucose-cotransporter type 2 inhibitors provide significant improvement in two main adverse effects of insulin, namely ... Cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in patients with type 2 diabetes following initiation of sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 ... Effects of LX4211, a dual sodium-dependent glucose cotransporters 1 and 2 inhibitor, on postprandial glucose, insulin, glucagon ... Their insulin-independent mechanism of action makes them an attractive and promising treatment option in patients with type 1 ...
Endogenous insulin lowers blood glucose by recruiting glucose transporter isoform GLUT4 to the plasma membrane of the cell (11 ... 2014). Insulin administration may trigger type 1 diabetes in Japanese type 2 diabetes patients with type 1 diabetes high-risk ... type 1 diabetes may necessitate immediate need for exogenous insulin replacement (4). However, with type 2 diabetes, insulin ... daily insulin doses and anti-insulin antibody in anti-insulin antibody-positive subjects with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes & ...
Glucose transporter type 4 redistribution on the membrane induced by insulin through akt in hydrocortisone treatment in rat ...
... which are promoted by obesity and may later lead to Type II diabetes mellitus. In recent years, researchers have identified ... Hence, studying insulin resistance is of particular importance in unravelling the pathways employed by such diseases. In this ... Understanding these factors and their mechanisms may be essential for comprehending the progression of insulin resistance ... asserted to be responsible in the development of insulin resistance, will be discussed. Suggested mechanisms for actions in ...
... glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4), phospho-AMPK/AMPK, and p-acetyl-coA carboxylase (P-ACC)/ACC in the skeletal muscles and ... blood glucose, serum insulin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C and HDL-C were investigated, and its effect on liver and ... Callicarpa nudiflora extract improved oral glucose tolerance, lipid metabolism, insulin resistance, and reversed the diabetes- ... including serum insulin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C, and HDL-C. Callicarpa nudiflora extract improved insulin ...
... an inhibitor of sodium glucose co-transporter 2, added on to insulin therapy with or without oral agents in type 2 diabetes. ... Canagliflozin lowers postprandial glucose and insulin by delaying intestinal glucose absorption in addition to increasing ... As a result, glucose excretion in the urine occurs only at higher plasma glucose levels, causing conservation of glucose and ... In type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), renal glucose handling and transport is increased, likely due to upregulation of SGLT2. ...
The increased renal expression of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2), but not that of glucose transporter type-5 (GLUT5), ... d-glucose uptake by the transporter are stimulated by protons, glucose, insulin, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), protein ... glucose transporters, lactate transporters, and amino acid transporters. Tumor cells enhance glucose uptake via induction of ... The rate of glucose uptake, translocation of glucose transporters to the cells plasma membrane and the main glucose transport ...
insulin independent fructose transporter in spermatocytes, GI tract 9 what cell type always uses glucose for energy even in ... bidirectional insulin independent glucose transporter on beta islet cells, liver, kidney, small intestine ... low blood glucose, symptoms of hypoglycemia, resolution of symptoms after normalization of glucose levels ... increase insulin, decrease glucagon release used in T2DM se: mild urinary or respiratory infections ...
UptakeMetabolismInhibitorsDiabeticGLUTReceptorHomeostasisGeneIntracellularPlasma glucoseAdipocytesProtein kinaseDifferent types of glucose transportersMetabolicAbstractT2DMMechanismsBloodPhosphorylationConcentrationAltered glucose transportCarbohydratesDeficiencyInhibitionGenesRenalOxidativeGlycogenIncreasesLevelsSubstrateGLUT3IntoleranceHyperglycemia and insulin resistanceReabsorption of glucoseGlycemic
- In addition, skeletal muscle accounts for a large portion of oxidative metabolism and of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. (frontiersin.org)
- 8 In skeletal muscle, AMPK activation generates ATP by increasing fatty acid β-oxidation through activation of acetyl Co-A carboxylase β (ACCβ) and by increasing glucose uptake. (ahajournals.org)
- Cellular glucose uptake requires transport proteins because it does not freely permeate the plasma membrane [ 2 ]. (medsci.org)
- This is of concerned given that skeletal muscle plays an important role in glucose homeostasis, primarily due to its effect on postprandial glucose uptake [ 9 ]. (medsci.org)
- The two ways in which glucose uptake can take place are facilitated diffusion (a passive process) and secondary active transport (an active process which depends on the ion-gradient which is established through the hydrolysis of ATP, known as primary active transport). (wikipedia.org)
- GLUT1 and GLUT3 are located in the plasma membrane of cells throughout the body, as they are responsible for maintaining a basal rate of glucose uptake. (wikipedia.org)
- therefore GLUT1 and GLUT3 have a high affinity for glucose and uptake from the bloodstream is constant. (wikipedia.org)
- The first group (Type I) is often used to describe the onset of diabetes, which is triggered by the inability of the pancreas to produce sufficient amounts of insulin for glucose uptake and metabolism. (hindawi.com)
- Areas covered: The effect of in vitro fluoxetine exposure on cellular glucose uptake and cerebral glucose transporter function was assessed in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and murine neuroblastoma N2a cells. (bvsalud.org)
- Fluoxetine augmented glucose uptake, measured by utilizing the radionuclide-labled glucose analog F-fluorodeoxyglucose, in PBMC without affecting glucose transporter protein content. (bvsalud.org)
- The absence of a Glut isoform in the alveolar lining epithelial cells suggests minimal expression of the Glut isoform or the presence of some other transport system, reliance on adjacent cells for substrate supply, or uptake of nonglucose substrate to fuel a relatively low glucose-demanding cellular system. (mysciencework.com)
- The polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR) might influence 5-HTT expression and serotonin uptake. (cdc.gov)
- Enhancement effect of poly(amino acid)s on insulin uptake in alveolar epithelial cells. (hirokoku-u.ac.jp)
- A number of in vitro studies implicate several pathways by which arsenic can influence pancreatic β-cell function and insulin sensitivity, including oxidative stress, glucose uptake and transport, gluconeogenesis, adipocyte differentiation, and Ca 2+ signaling (reviewed by Díaz-Villaseñor et al. (medscape.com)
- 100 μM) of arsenic and report inhibition of insulin signaling and insulin-dependent glucose uptake by adipocytes or myotubes (Paul et al. (medscape.com)
- Mammalian cells use glucose for the generation of ATP through oxidative and nonoxidative metabolism, but because the lipid bilayer of cellular membranes is impermeable to carbohydrates, the cell must rely on a system of hexose transporters to facilitate uptake of these sugars. (ahajournals.org)
- When the pancreas can produce insulin, but the amount is insufficient, or when there's a problem with the uptake of insulin into cells, it's termed type 2 diabetes. (thediabetesrepair.com)
- 100 µmol/l indinavir inhibited 80% of both basal and insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake in L6GLUT4myc myotubes and myoblasts, but only 25% in L6GLUT1myc cells. (springer.com)
- In isolated soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles, primary white and brown adipocytes, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was inhibited 70 to 80% by indinavir. (springer.com)
- The effect of indinavir on glucose uptake was variable in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, averaging 45% and 67% inhibition of basal and maximally insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, respectively. (springer.com)
- In this cell, fractional inhibition of glucose uptake by indinavir correlated positively with the fold-stimulation of glucose uptake by insulin, and was higher with sub-maximal insulin concentrations. (springer.com)
- The direct assessment of glucose uptake through a specific isoform is mostly limited by the lack of inhibitors with sufficient selectivity for a specific GLUT. (springer.com)
- In primary adipocytes, the inhibitory effect of indinavir on glucose uptake was further shown to be reversible and non-competitive [ 13 ]. (springer.com)
- In the case of the muscle and liver this property allows for the basal glucose uptake into the cells of the muscle and liver. (oxbridgenotes.co.uk)
- This property results in glucose binding to the transport protein at lower concentrations and allows a greater uptake of glucose. (oxbridgenotes.co.uk)
- 1. In the January 2014 Journal of Clinical Investigation (124 (1), 367 - 384), scientists Yasuhito Onodera, Jin Min Nam and Min J Bissel showed that increased glucose uptake actually promotes cancer via two pathways - EPAC/RAP1 and O-GicNAc. (canceractive.com)
- Insulin induces a change in the intracellular localization of this protein, which translates into increased glucose uptake into the blastocyst, a process that is inhibited by antisense oligoprobes. (pnas.org)
- Moreover, as a major storage site for glucose, lipids and amino acids, muscle is an essential coordinator of whole-body energy metabolism. (frontiersin.org)
- For example, muscle protein metabolism rapidly adapts in response to physical exercise, dietary protein or anabolic hormones such as insulin-like growth factor 1 or testosterone ( 10 , 11 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Increased Muscular 5α-Dihydrotestosterone in Response to Resistance Training Relates to Skeletal Muscle Mass and Glucose Metabolism in Type 2 Diabe. (nih.gov)
- Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether increase in muscle DHT levels, induced by chronic resistance exercise, can contribute to skeletal muscle hypertrophy and concomitant improvement of muscular glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats. (nih.gov)
- We hypothesized that HDL modulates glucose metabolism via elevation of plasma insulin and through activation of the key metabolic regulatory enzyme, AMP-activated protein kinase, in skeletal muscle. (ahajournals.org)
- 6 While your body uses up glucose, for example the brain for energy, hepatic metabolism of fructose leads to the free fatty acids (FFAs), VLDL (the damaging form of cholesterol), and triglycerides, which get stored as fat. (thepaleodiet.com)
- We compared body weight, visceral fat weight, liver fat content, serum parameters, mRNA levels of lipid metabolism-related enzymes and adiponectin in mice fed either a low-fat diet (5 % TAG), high-fat diet (30 % TAG) or high-fat diet containing 0.5 and 1.0 % (w/w) SDG for 4 weeks. (nih.gov)
- A glucose-signaling pathway is indeed triggered, independently of glucose metabolism, through its large cytoplasmic loop domain. (physiology.org)
- In nondiabetic persons with normal glucose metabolism the glycosylated hemoglobin is usually 4-6% by the most common methods (normal ranges may vary by method). (thediabetesrepair.com)
- This is an extract of our Essay On Glucose Metabolism In Liver And Muscle document, which we sell as part of our Biochemistry Notes collection written by the top tier of Oxford students. (oxbridgenotes.co.uk)
- Bavidra kulendrarajah Compare metabolism of Glucose in the liver and in type 2 skeletal muscle fibres Glucose is metabolised in both the liver and type 2 skeletal muscle but in both of these tissues the glucose is used for different reasons. (oxbridgenotes.co.uk)
- In type 2 skeletal muscle fibre the glucose is used to provide ATP for muscle contraction whereas in the liver glucose metabolism is controlled to regulate the blood glucose concentrations. (oxbridgenotes.co.uk)
- Presence of this transporter may be necessary for successful blastocyst development, fuel metabolism, and subsequent implantation. (pnas.org)
- The simultaneous appearance of all three transporters corresponds to the critical time in mammalian development when embryonic fuel metabolism switches from the oxidation of lactate and pyruvate via the Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation to anaerobic metabolism of glucose via glycolysis. (pnas.org)
- Insulin is an anabolic (part of metabolism that builds larger molecules) polypeptide hormone and regulates carbohydrate metabolism in animals. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Apart from being the primary agent in carbohydrate homeostasis, insulin in vertebrates has effects on fat metabolism and it changes the liver 's activity in storing or releasing glucose and in processing blood lipids . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Insulin from animal sources differs somewhat in regulatory function strength (i.e., in carbohydrate metabolism) when used medically in humans because of those variations. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Musclin is a novel skeletal muscle-derived secretory factor considered to be a potent regulator of the glucose metabolism and therefore may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance (IR). (biomedcentral.com)
- Our data support the hypothesis that musclin has a strong relationship with obesity-associated IR by impairing the glucose metabolism and, at least in part, through causing endoplasmic reticulum stress. (biomedcentral.com)
- An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. (curehunter.com)
- It is an agonist for the transcription factor PPARγ which regulates hundreds of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, and mitochondrial function. (asploro.com)
- In principle, glucose could act on target cells either by binding to the receptor at the cell surface or through its metabolism. (physiology.org)
- Although taste bud cells on the tongue sense glucose through a cell surface receptor, glucose sensing by islet, liver, adipose, and muscle cells almost certainly involves metabolism of the sugar. (physiology.org)
- Here we will survey those genes in animals that are transcriptionally regulated by glucose through its intracellular metabolism. (physiology.org)
- Insulin is a hormone that's necessary for the metabolism of carbohydrates in foods. (drugs.com)
- Glucose metabolism in humans is exceedingly complex. (dovepress.com)
- In the pancreas these genes influence expression of, among others, the genes for insulin, the principal glucose transporter (GLUT2), and several proteins involved in glucose and mitochondrial metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
- Thus, it is deduced that in patients following a gluten free diet, sotagliflozin will inhibit both SGLT1 and SGLT2 inhibitors, maximizing its glucose lowering properties. (termedia.pl)
- The FDA recently approved 2 medications from a novel class called sodium- glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. (pharmacytimes.com)
- After excluding 27 patients whose HbA1c levels could not be evaluated 3 months after treatment, the glucose-lowering effects of SGLT2 inhibitors were assessed in 275 patients by measuring HbA1c levels before and 3 months after treatment. (springer.com)
- SGLT2 inhibitors work in the proximal tubules of the kidney just beyond nephrons - the tiny filters within the kidneys - where they block the reabsorption of glucose back into the blood system. (endocrineweb.com)
- Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have been associated with cardiovascular (CV) benefits in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) . (bmj.com)
- First, the three CV outcomes RCTs assessing SGLT2 inhibitors [3-5] showed conflicting results regarding the risk of amputation. (bmj.com)
- ABSTRACT: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have been shown to confer benefits in diabetic patients with heart failure, cardiovascular disease, and renal disease. (uspharmacist.com)
- 4 SGLT2 inhibitors block sodium-glucose cotransporters in the proximal convoluted tubule in the kidney, lowering the glucose threshold of the kidney and thereby decreasing renal glucose reabsorption. (uspharmacist.com)
- 5 Recent studies have established that SGLT2 inhibitors offer a benefit in cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and heart failure. (uspharmacist.com)
- White, W.B. Effects of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (eurekaselect.com)
- Phase II-IV clinical trials have investigated the use of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, sodium glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors, and dual sodium glucose transporter-1 and sodium glucose transporter-2 (SGLT-1/SGLT-2) inhibitors as adjunctive therapy with insulin for adult patients with T1D. (cadth.ca)
- Available data suggest that these drugs may reduce A1C by 0.1 to 0.6% and total daily insulin dose by 1 to 25 units per day, although combining insulin with some of the DDP-4 inhibitors or GLP-1 agonists did not appear to provide additional benefit in some studies. (cadth.ca)
- A healthy lifestyle such as diet, exercise and weight control can provide the foundation for managing of T 2 DM, however anti-diabetic agents are required to regulate blood glucose levels in the serious conditions. (ijbs.com)
- Moreover, we highlighted the anti-diabetic effects of the flavonoids in the management of T 2 DM, through modulating glucose transporters, with particular emphasis on the investigations and recent findings. (ijbs.com)
- Male 20-week-old type 2 diabetic rats (OLETF) were randomly divided into 3 groups: sedentary control, resistance training (3 times a week on alternate days for 8 weeks), or resistance training with continuous infusion of a 5α-reductase inhibitor (n = 8 each group). (nih.gov)
- These findings suggest that resistance training-induced elevation of muscular DHT levels may contribute to improvement of hyperglycemia and skeletal muscle hypertrophy in type 2 diabetic rats. (nih.gov)
- There are sufficient data regarding their contribution to significant improvement in the major cardiometabolic parameters (HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose, blood pressure, lipid profile, body weight), with promising results in cardiovascular and diabetic kidney disease [1- (termedia.pl)
- The latter makes sotagliflozin an interesting therapeutic option in diabetic patients . (termedia.pl)
- 100 mg/dl start continuous IV insulin infusion Diabetic neuropathy is the result of prolonged periods of excess glucose in the blood damaging fragile nerve fibers. (bestcities.eu)
- or whole body protein The Role of Inflammatory Cytokines in Diabetic Nephropathy: Potential Use as Predictive Markers for Early Detection and Progression D uring exercise to maintain a constant blood glucose level the blood concentration of insulin drops to counter the "insulin-like" effect of muscle contraction. (bestcities.eu)
- The L allele of 5-HTTLPR was related to the increased serum lipids and blood pressure in the diabetic patients. (cdc.gov)
- Defect in insulin action on expression of the muscle/adipose tissue glucose transporter gene in skeletal muscle of type 1 diabetic patients. (semanticscholar.org)
- Despite the progress in the development presence of sodium-glucose co-transporters (SGLTs) in of diabetic medications, many lose their effectiveness over the renal proximal tubule (Mather and Pollock 2011). (deepdyve.com)
- Our time, which makes achieving blood glucose control targets hypothesis was that direct stimulation of renal nerves at difficult for many diabetic patients (Blak et al. (deepdyve.com)
- Hyperinsulinemia is able to increase IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and PI3-kinase function in normal human skeletal muscle compared to skeletal muscle of non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects [ 11 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Because the main macronutrient diet carbohydrates that elevate blood glucose levels, researchers have aimed to reduce the amount of carbohydrates in meals to examine the effects on the drug dose between glycemic load, antidiabetic regimen and diabetic people [ 5 ]. (asploro.com)
- Molecular Interaction of Anti-Diabetic Drugs With Acetylcholinesterase (show AChE ELISA Kits ) and Sodium Glucose Co-Transporter 2. (antibodies-online.com)
- The key to preventing diabetic complications is to achieve tight control of blood glucose as well as meticulous control of other cardiovascular disease risk factors. (drugs.com)
- The antidiabetic potential of flavonoids are mainly through their modulatory effects on glucose transporter by enhancing GLUT-2 expression in pancreatic β cells and increasing expression and promoting translocation of GLUT-4 via PI3K/AKT, CAP/Cb1/TC10 and AMPK pathways. (ijbs.com)
- Moreover, resistance training accelerated glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4) translocation and protein kinase B and C-ζ/λ phosphorylation. (nih.gov)
- GLUT allows transport of glucose down its concentration gradient, while SGLT transports glucose against its concentration gradient. (medsci.org)
- n = 4), and adults (n = 4) was analyzed for facilitative Glut isoforms and the energy-dependent sodium-glucose cotransporters (SGLT) by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. (mysciencework.com)
- Antibodies specific for human Glut-1 (erythrocyt, blood-brain barrier type), Glut-3 (brain), Glut-4 (insulin-responsive skeletal muscle/adipocyte), and Glut-5 (kidney/jejunum) were employed. (mysciencework.com)
- Glut-4, Glut-5, and SGLT1 were not detected in lung. (mysciencework.com)
- We conclude that Gluts are expressed in nonalveolar lung cell types arising from stem cells of the erythroid cell lineage and tissue barrier epithelia (Glut-1), foregut epithelium (Glut-2), myeloid cell lineage (Glut-3), and neuroectoderm (Glut-3). (mysciencework.com)
- No detectable levels of Glut-4, Glut-5, or SGLT1 Gluts were noted in mammalian lung. (mysciencework.com)
- Turns out a short burst of muscle contractions bring glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT-4) into the muscles. (wordpress.com)
- Tim Ferriss says the increased presence of GLUT-4 opens more "muscular gates" through which glucose can flow before insulin is triggered to send glucose to the fat cells for storage. (wordpress.com)
- Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle may be caused due to defect in glucose transporter GLUT-4 [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- 1 The GLUT transporters are homologous glycosylated polypeptides with distinct substrate specificity, affinity, and tissue distribution. (ahajournals.org)
- Commonly used measurements of the total cellular content or of the subcellular location of a given glucose transporter (GLUT) isoform provide only an indirect and incomplete assessment of their functional importance to overall glucose influx into cells. (springer.com)
- GLUT 1 and GLUT 3 which are found in all cells have a low Km for glucose (1mM) and this means the glucose strongly binds to its binding site. (oxbridgenotes.co.uk)
- GLUT 2 is only present in the liver and has a very high Km for glucose (15-20mM) and this means glucose only enters the liver when there are very high blood glucose concentrations which means that glucose only enters liver cells when there is a surplus of glucose. (oxbridgenotes.co.uk)
- In contrast to this muscle cells have GLUT 4 which has a lower Km (5mM) than liver's glucose transport protein. (oxbridgenotes.co.uk)
- For these reasons, we hypothesized that a previously unidentified, insulin-regulated GLUT may be expressed at this stage of development. (pnas.org)
- Glut-2 is a low-affinity transporter present in the plasma membrane of pancreatic beta-cells, hepatocytes and intestine and kidney absorptive epithelial cells of mice. (nih.gov)
- Whereas some reports have supported a specific role for Glut-2 (refs 5,6), others have suggested that GSIS could proceed normally even in the presence of low or almost undetectable levels of this transporter. (nih.gov)
- Effects of resistance training on 3β-HSD (A), 17β-HSD (B), 5α-reductase (C), and androgen receptor (D) protein levels in gastrocnemius muscle. (nih.gov)
- Both the insulin receptor and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) receptor are expressed at approximately the same time as this increase in glucose demand ( 6 , 7 ). (pnas.org)
- Others have shown that insulin and IGF-1 regulate glucose transport in mouse blastocysts via the IGF-1 receptor ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
- Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is thought to interfere with glucose homeostasis and satiety through down-regulation of insulin and leptin signaling pathways. (bmrat.org)
- Glucose-sensitive neurons are localized in brain areas involved in energy homeostasis, mainly the hypothalamus and hindbrain (reviewed in Refs. (physiology.org)
- Bruns, Tim 2018-05-29 00:00:00 Background: The role of the kidney in glucose homeostasis has gained global interest. (deepdyve.com)
- When vitamin D is complemented in GDM patients, it facilitates better glycemic control when measured by a decrease in fasting plasma glucose and/or insulin and improvement in homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance (20,21,22,23,24,30,31). (jtgga.org)
- In this study, we have compared ClC-5 KO mice with age and gender matched wild-type (WT) control mice to investigate if the underlying cause of manifested glycosuria is an impairment of glucose homeostasis and/or an alteration in expression levels of proximal tubule (PT) glucose transporters. (elsevier.com)
- The musclin levels were positively correlated with triglyceride, fasting plasma glucose, and homeostasis model assessment of IR levels. (biomedcentral.com)
- Activates insulin, somatostatin, glucokinase, islet amyloid polypeptide and glucose transporter type 2 gene transcription. (abcam.com)
- Particularly involved in glucose-dependent regulation of insulin gene transcription. (abcam.com)
- Since the publication of the first association reports in 2007, several other studies testing the association of the variants in the SLC30A8 gene that encodes the ZnT8 transporter and the risk of T2D have been reported. (hindawi.com)
- 1995). "Human and rat beta cells differ in glucose transporter but not in glucokinase gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
- The protein encoded by this gene is a transcriptional activator of several genes, including insulin, somatostatin, glucokinase, islet amyloid polypeptide, and glucose transporter type 2. (genecards.org)
- Seven patients who were negative for all antibodies were analyzed for insulin gene mutations by DNA direct sequencing, along with four ZnT8A + patients (control subjects). (diabetesjournals.org)
- END induced adipogenesis-related gene mRNA expression including adiponectin, leptin, glucose transporter 4 and PPARgamma, and induced PPARgamma DNA binding activity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (nih.gov)
- Introduction of a single transporter gene ABCA3 directs RLE-6TN to more type-II like alveolar epithelial cells. (hirokoku-u.ac.jp)
- Relationship between concentration ratios of SN-38 glucuronide against SN-38 in plasma and neutropenia induction in Japanese patients with colorectal cancer and wild-type UGT1A1 gene. (hirokoku-u.ac.jp)
- The constitutive, glucose-repression-insensitive mutation of the yeast MAL4 locus is an alteration of the MAL43 gene. (elsevier.com)
- It's all to do with the P13K gene which is turned on by insulin and stuffs cancer cells full of sugar if it is in the blood stream. (canceractive.com)
- A partial cDNA clone was identified, and gene-specific primers were used to identify the remainder of the GLUT8 cDNA by using 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends (CLONTECH) with RNA obtained from the murine embryonic teratocarcinoma cell line F9. (pnas.org)
- Here we review recent advances in understanding how glucose regulates gene transcription in mammals. (physiology.org)
- In the liver, the glucokinase gene is transcriptionally activated by insulin through a "direct" intracellular signaling mechanism that is independent of extracellular glucose. (physiology.org)
- see below), an important transcription factor in the regulation of the fatty acid synthase ( FAS ) gene, is independent of external glucose. (physiology.org)
- In the liver, these genes are all activated by external glucose in the physiological concentration range (4-16 mM) provided that insulin is present ( 5 ) The requirement for insulin is explained by the need for the prior induction of the glucokinase gene. (physiology.org)
- Phosphorylated by the SAPK2 pathway at high intracellular glucose concentration. (abcam.com)
- Intracellular transport of glucose is accomplished by membrane-associated glycoproteins termed glucose transporters (Gluts). (mysciencework.com)
- Until recently, research into the intracellular signaling mechanisms whereby glucose regulates genes in mammalian cells has been undertaken largely without reference to simpler organisms. (physiology.org)
- Recent cell-based studies suggest that HDL may modulate plasma glucose through both insulin-dependent 5,6 and -independent mechanisms. (ahajournals.org)
- As a result, glucose excretion in the urine occurs only at higher plasma glucose levels, causing conservation of glucose and prolongation of hyperglycemia. (pharmacytimes.com)
- 13 Canagliflozin 100 mg and 300 mg have also been shown to significantly decrease fasting plasma glucose (FPG), weight, and systolic blood pressure (SBP) compare with placebo and compared with glimepiride 9 and sitagliptin. (pharmacytimes.com)
- SGLT1 mRNA is highly and significantly correlated with fasting and postprandial plasma glucose and HbA1c. (antibodies-online.com)
- Recently, we showed that a reduced lipogenic/adipogenic expression and number of hypertrophic adipocytes may be linked to hepatic steatosis as well as to insulin resistance in obese adolescents ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with 0, 5, 10 and 20 mumol/l END and then assayed for mRNA expression of adipogenesis-related genes and DNA binding activity of PPARgamma to the PPAR response element consensus sequence. (nih.gov)
- The broad definition of CAAs may include several types of adipocytes. (jci.org)
- Indinavir (up to 100 µmol/l) was added to the glucose transport solution after insulin stimulation of wild-type L6 muscle cells, L6 cells over-expressing either GLUT4myc or GLUT1myc, 3T3-L1 adipocytes, isolated mouse brown or white adipocytes, and isolated mouse muscle preparations. (springer.com)
- the metabolic needs of the tissue and availability of glucose. (wikipedia.org)
- Even so, insulin resistance has been closely related to reduced metabolic responsiveness to normal insulin circulation [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Additionally, insulin resistance involves an abnormal biological response of the body systems with regard to physiological levels of insulin, and this pathological feature of the disease is the key to the metabolic syndrome. (hindawi.com)
- The excessive overweight, increased regional adiposity, insulin resistance (IR), and laminitis are the typical signs of EMS [ 2 ], but a definitive understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the metabolic syndrome still remains an open problem. (mdpi.com)
- Glycolysis Glycolysis is a common metabolic pathway that occurs in the cytoplasm of both the skeletal muscle and the liver where glucose is converted into pyruvate and the free energy released is used to form high energy compounds ATP and reduced NADH. (oxbridgenotes.co.uk)
- Similarly, there are two types of mutually opposing but complementary groups of metabolic hormones affecting blood glucose levels, the catabolic hormones (such as glucagon , growth hormone, and catecholamines), which increase blood glucose, and one anabolic hormone (insulin), which decreases blood glucose. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Lipodystrophy: The Metabolic Link of HIV Infection with Insulin-Resistance SyndromePaula Freitas1, Davide Carvalho1, Selma Souto1, Antonio Sarmento1 and Jose Luis Medina1 Department of Endocrinology, Centro Hospitalar Sao Joao and University of Porto Medical School, Porto, Portugal1. (amazonaws.com)
- Insulin resistance underlies metabolic disease. (stanford.edu)
- In this review, mechanisms involving free fatty acids, adipocytokines such as TNF α and PPAR γ and serine kinases like JNK and IKK β , asserted to be responsible in the development of insulin resistance, will be discussed. (hindawi.com)
- Suggested mechanisms for actions in normal and disrupted states were also visualised in several manually constructed diagrams to capture an overall view of the insulin-signalling pathway and its related components. (hindawi.com)
- BACKGROUND: During cerebral ischemia, energy restoration through the regulation of glucose transporters and antioxidant defense mechanisms is essential to maintain cell viability. (bvsalud.org)
- Exercise and skeletal muscle glucose transporter 4 expression: molecular mechanisms. (biomedsearch.com)
- Future work is needed to examine the underlying mechanisms and identify approaches for enhancing regulation of glucose excretion. (deepdyve.com)
- This occurrence suggests that optimal glucose transport mechanisms are necessary for preimplantation embryo survival. (pnas.org)
- For example, the phospho- enol pyruvate carboxykinase ( PEPCK ) and glucose 6-phosphatase genes are repressed by insulin both through glucose-dependent and -independent mechanisms. (physiology.org)
- Administration of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a sex steroid hormone precursor, increases 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) synthesis and is associated with improvements in fasting blood glucose level and skeletal muscle hypertrophy. (nih.gov)
- Basal blood glucose level is approximately 5mM (5 millimolar). (wikipedia.org)
- rate of glucose entry is proportional to blood glucose levels. (wikipedia.org)
- While regular glucose blood concentration is with 5.5 mmol/L , that of fructose is about 0.01 mmol/L in peripheral blood. (thepaleodiet.com)
- Insulin resistance is also closely related to hyperinsulinemia, though high blood glucose is observed in the former while high insulin is observed in the latter. (hindawi.com)
- Does Hand Sanitizer Impact Blood Glucose Readings? (asweetlife.org)
- The target blood glucose ranges below are indicated as a guide. (bestcities.eu)
- Blood Glucose Monitoring System Before using this product to test your blood glucose carefully read this User Guide and the inserts that come with the OneTouch Learn more at Everyday Health. (bestcities.eu)
- The effects of Callicarpa nudiflora extract on body weight, blood glucose, serum insulin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C and HDL-C were investigated, and its effect on liver and pancreatic pathology was assessed by histopathological analysis. (bvsalud.org)
- As a result these drugs reduce blood sugar levels and make the glucose stay in urine. (endocrineweb.com)
- After a meal, the amount of glucose in your blood rises, which triggers the release of insulin. (amazonaws.com)
- After a meal, the amount of insulin secreted into the blood increases as blood sugar rises. (amazonaws.com)
- A single system monitors blood glucose levels around the clock and provides insulin or a combination of insulin and a second hormone, glucagon, automatically. (thediabetesrepair.com)
- According to the ADA/ EASD algorithm, initiating combination insulin injectable therapy should be considered when the blood glucose is [greater than or equal to] 300 mg/dL or HbA1c is [greater than or equal to] 10% or if the patient has symptoms of hyperglycemia (ie, polyuria, polydipsia). (thefreedictionary.com)
- Transport of glucose Glucose from the blood plasma originates from the breakdown of starch and a small amount of glycogen in the small intestine. (oxbridgenotes.co.uk)
- It is important for people to maintain blood glucose levels within a narrow range, despite intervals between meals or the occasional consumption of meals with substantial carbohydrates. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- some type 2 diabetics eventually require insulin when other medications become insufficient in controlling blood glucose levels. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- As glucose is filtered from the blood in the kidneys it is reabsorbed into the bloodstream. (newswire.ca)
- As a result, glucose builds up in the blood instead of being used for energy. (newswire.ca)
- Insulin resistance" is caused by too high blood sugar and thus too much insulin over a long period of time. (njroute22.com)
- In addition, high blood sugar and insulin resistance create oxidative stress and inflammation, which can contribute to premature aging, Alzheimer's disease, heart disease, high blood pressure, and cancers 9-11 . (njroute22.com)
- In complex animals, including mammals, the job of sensing changes in nutrient concentration in the blood and responding with the expression of genes involved in storing the sugar is performed by highly specialized cell types. (physiology.org)
- The first major cell/tissue group comprises those that must accumulate and store glucose when the concentration in the blood rises-namely liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue. (physiology.org)
- Islet β-cells secrete insulin when blood glucose rises, whereas islet α-cells release the stress hormone glucagon when it falls. (physiology.org)
- A key message was that many physicians have been too complacent about the need for tight blood glucose control. (drugs.com)
- Without enough insulin, blood sugar levels can skyrocket, leading to serious complications or death. (drugs.com)
- Too much insulin, however, can also cause a dangerous condition called hypoglycemia, which occurs when blood sugar levels drop too low. (drugs.com)
- The most recent recommendations available are to keep serum blood glucose levels below 150 mg/dL and to avoid hypoglycemia. (dovepress.com)
- Glucose-induced excitation of hypothalamic neurons requires glucose phosphorylation, ATP production by glucose oxidation, and subsequent closure of ATP-sensitive potassium (K ATP ) channels that induces a membrane depolarization (reviewed in Refs. (physiology.org)
- Addition of IL-4 to the culturing medium during IR induction led to a dose-dependent stimulation of the insulin-promoted phosphorylation of IRS1, Akt, and AS160. (chemweb.com)
- Control of glycolysis in skeletal muscle Glycolysis is very important in type 2 skeletal muscle fibres because they have a low capacity for oxidative phosphorylation and no triglyceride stores. (oxbridgenotes.co.uk)
- However, in the kidney, glucose is reabsorbed from the filtrate in the tubule lumen, where it is at a relatively low concentration, passes through the simple cuboidal epithelia lining the kidney tubule, and into the bloodstream where glucose is at a comparatively high concentration. (wikipedia.org)
- Therefore, the concentration gradient of glucose opposes its reabsorption, and energy is required for its transport. (wikipedia.org)
- Na+ ions diffuse down their concentration gradient into the columnar epithelia, co-transporting glucose. (wikipedia.org)
- 4 Glucose is also transferred out of the cell with the concentration gradient and subsequently returned to the bloodstream by glucose transporters. (pharmacytimes.com)
- This concentration is known as the renal threshold for glucose. (pharmacytimes.com)
- Urine samples were collected at 5-10-min intervals, and colorimetric assays were used to quantify glucose excretion and concentration between stimulated and non-stimulated kidneys. (deepdyve.com)
- At the optimal concentration of 50 ng/ml, IL-4 fully restored activation of the insulin cascade in IR cells, but it did not affect insulin signaling activation in the control cells. (chemweb.com)
- Selecting agent hygromycin B alters expression of glucose-regulated genes in transfected Caco-2 cells. (semanticscholar.org)
- For example, when their preferred carbon source, glucose, is unavailable, bacteria activate genes that enable them to use lactose through the familiar lac operon. (physiology.org)
- Glucose increases the expression of genes whose protein products catalyze important regulatory steps in the pathways of lipid synthesis (Table 1 ⇓ ) ( 3 , 15 ). (physiology.org)
- We will refer to these as "purely insulin-responsive" (pIR) genes. (physiology.org)
- In contrast, several genes appear to be responsive to both insulin and to glucose (GIR genes). (physiology.org)
- Kidneys are innervated by renal nerves, and renal denervation animal models have shown improved glucose regulation. (deepdyve.com)
- We hypothesized that stimulation of renal nerves at kilohertz frequencies, which can block propagation of action potentials, would increase urine glucose excretion. (deepdyve.com)
- Conversely, we hypothesized that low frequency stimulation, which has been shown to increase renal nerve activity, would decrease urine glucose excretion. (deepdyve.com)
- Renal nerves were stimulated at kilohertz frequencies (1-50 kHz) or low frequencies (2-5 Hz), with intravenous administration of a glucose bolus shortly into the 25-40-min stimulation period. (deepdyve.com)
- Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate electrical stimulation of renal nerves to modulate urine glucose excretion. (deepdyve.com)
- Our experimental results show that stimulation of renal nerves may modulate urine glucose excretion, however, this response may be associated with urine flow rate. (deepdyve.com)
- Insulin resistance may be caused by an insulin signaling defect (5), glucose transporter defect (6), or lipotoxicity (7), and β-cell dysfunction is postulated to be caused by amyloid deposition in the islets (8), oxidative stress (9), excess fatty acid (10), or lack of incretin effect (11). (thediabetesrepair.com)
- Glucose rate of appearance (R a ) and disappearance (R d ), and muscle glycogen utilization were not significantly different among treatments during exercise. (humankinetics.com)
- Glycogen is a strongly branched polymer of α-D-glucose, with glucose residues in the linear chains linked by 1→4-bonds (~93% of the total number of bonds) and with branching after every 4-8 residues formed by 1→6-glycosidic bonds (~7% of the total number of bonds). (chemweb.com)
- It is thought currently that a fully formed glycogen molecule (β-particle) with the self-glycosylating protein glycogenin in the center has a spherical shape with diameter of ~42 nm and contains ~ 55,000 glucose residues. (chemweb.com)
- Once the glucose is taken up into the liver or the skeletal muscle it can be broken down by glycolysis or stored as glycogen. (oxbridgenotes.co.uk)
- Insulin helps in the transporting of glucose into skeletal muscle and liver, stimulates skeletal muscle and liver to convert glucose to a storage form called glycogen , stimulates fat cells to synthesize fat, and acts on the hypothalamus to reduce appetite. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Protein expression levels of these transporters were confirmed by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. (medsci.org)
- Theoretically, insulin resistance is defined as a state in a cell, tissue, system, or body for which levels of insulin needed to produce a quantitatively normal response are greater than normal. (hindawi.com)
- CONCLUSIONS: This data suggests that SAC and AGE might induce neuroprotection, while controlling reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, as indicated by the increase in GCLC expression, and regulating the energy content of the cell by increasing glucose transport mediated by GLUT3. (bvsalud.org)
- DKA - dangerously high acid levels in the bloodstream - happens when your body breaks down fat instead of glucose for energy, releasing acidic compounds called ketones. (endocrineweb.com)
- Furthermore, in vivo administration of dexamethasone to rats reduced the circulating levels of GLP-1 concurrent with induction of insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. (clinsci.org)
- However, it may be difficult for some patients to reach target glycated hemoglobin (A1C) levels on insulin monotherapy. (cadth.ca)
- In normoglycemic conditions, the aldose reductase pathway is non-operative as glucose is a poor substrate for aldose reductase because of its high binding constant. (ophthalmicresearch.in)
- Lining this aqueous cavity are the amino-acids which bind the substrate(s) and define transporter specificity. (wikipedia.org)
- Upon substrate release, the transporter recycles to the periplasmic facing orientation. (wikipedia.org)
- While most MFS structures suggest large, rigid body structural changes with substrate binding, the movements may be small in the cases of small substrates, such as the nitrate transporter NarK. (wikipedia.org)
- While one substrate of particular biological importance is often used to name the transporter or family, there may also be co-transported or leaked ions or molecules. (wikipedia.org)
- In the myocardium, fatty acids (FA) represent the main energy substrate, although other secondary substrates, such as glucose and ketone bodies, may also be used. (vpjournal.net)
- This finding suggests that hSGLT3, an insulin-independent glucose transporter, is activated with exercise and it may play a significant role in glycemic control with muscle contraction. (medsci.org)
- While the glycemic and insulin indices of many foods are similar, some foods cause unexpected responses. (amazonaws.com)
- Various diets have been studied to improve glycemic control, such as a low-calorie diet, a low-fat diet, a low-protein diet, a high protein diet, and a low glycemic diet [ 5 ]. (asploro.com)
- Both of these risks can result from aggressive insulin therapy, and glycemic control protocols must be appropriately planned and implemented to avoid hypoglycemia and excessive externally induced variability. (dovepress.com)