Insulin, Long-Acting: Insulin formulations that contain substances that retard absorption thus extending the time period of action.Insulin, Isophane: An intermediate-acting INSULIN preparation with onset time of 2 hours and duration of 24 hours. It is produced by crystallizing ZINC-insulin-PROTAMINES at neutral pH 7. Thus it is called neutral protamine Hagedorn for inventor Hans Christian Hagedorn.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Receptor, Insulin: A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Insulin Lispro: Insulin that has been modified so that the B-chain contains a LYSINE at position 28 instead of a PROLINE and a PROLINE at position 29 instead of a LYSINE. It is used to manage BLOOD GLUCOSE levels in patients with TYPE 2 DIABETES.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Hypoglycemia: A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.Venoms: Poisonous animal secretions forming fluid mixtures of many different enzymes, toxins, and other substances. These substances are produced in specialized glands and secreted through specialized delivery systems (nematocysts, spines, fangs, etc.) for disabling prey or predator.Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated: Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.Insulin, Regular, Human: Regular insulin preparations that contain the HUMAN insulin peptide sequence.Insulins: Peptide hormones that cause an increase in the absorption of GLUCOSE by cells within organs such as LIVER, MUSCLE and ADIPOSE TISSUE. During normal metabolism insulins are produced by the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS in response to increased GLUCOSE. Natural and chemically-modified forms of insulin are also used in the treatment of GLUCOSE METABOLISM DISORDERS such as DIABETES MELLITUS.Insulin Aspart: Insulin that has been modified to contain an ASPARTIC ACID instead of a PROLINE at position 38 of the B-chain.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.C-Peptide: The middle segment of proinsulin that is between the N-terminal B-chain and the C-terminal A-chain. It is a pancreatic peptide of about 31 residues, depending on the species. Upon proteolytic cleavage of proinsulin, equimolar INSULIN and C-peptide are released. C-peptide immunoassay has been used to assess pancreatic beta cell function in diabetic patients with circulating insulin antibodies or exogenous insulin. Half-life of C-peptide is 30 min, almost 8 times that of insulin.Sulfonylurea CompoundsMetformin: A biguanide hypoglycemic agent used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus not responding to dietary modification. Metformin improves glycemic control by improving insulin sensitivity and decreasing intestinal absorption of glucose. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p289)Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Glucose Clamp Technique: Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins: A structurally-related group of signaling proteins that are phosphorylated by the INSULIN RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE. The proteins share in common an N-terminal PHOSPHOLIPID-binding domain, a phosphotyrosine-binding domain that interacts with the phosphorylated INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal TYROSINE-rich domain. Upon tyrosine phosphorylation insulin receptor substrate proteins interact with specific SH2 DOMAIN-containing proteins that are involved in insulin receptor signaling.Insulin Antibodies: Antibodies specific to INSULIN.Insulin-Secreting Cells: A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.Infusions, Subcutaneous: The administration of liquid medication or nutrients under the skin, usually over minutes or hours.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Drug Substitution: The practice of replacing one prescribed drug with another that is expected to have the same clinical or psychological effect.Insulin Antagonists: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or action of insulin.Insulin Infusion Systems: Portable or implantable devices for infusion of insulin. Includes open-loop systems which may be patient-operated or controlled by a pre-set program and are designed for constant delivery of small quantities of insulin, increased during food ingestion, and closed-loop systems which deliver quantities of insulin automatically based on an electronic glucose sensor.Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Hyperglycemia: Abnormally high BLOOD GLUCOSE level.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring: Self evaluation of whole blood glucose levels outside the clinical laboratory. A digital or battery-operated reflectance meter may be used. It has wide application in controlling unstable insulin-dependent diabetes.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Models, Economic: Statistical models of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, as well as of financial considerations. For the application of statistics to the testing and quantifying of economic theories MODELS, ECONOMETRIC is available.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.TriglyceridesCross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Insulin, Regular, Pork: Regular insulin preparations that contain the SUS SCROFA insulin peptide sequence.Hyperinsulinism: A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.Glucagon: A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Quality-Adjusted Life Years: A measurement index derived from a modification of standard life-table procedures and designed to take account of the quality as well as the duration of survival. This index can be used in assessing the outcome of health care procedures or services. (BIOETHICS Thesaurus, 1994)Proinsulin: A pancreatic polypeptide of about 110 amino acids, depending on the species, that is the precursor of insulin. Proinsulin, produced by the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, is comprised sequentially of the N-terminal B-chain, the proteolytically removable connecting C-peptide, and the C-terminal A-chain. It also contains three disulfide bonds, two between A-chain and B-chain. After cleavage at two locations, insulin and C-peptide are the secreted products. Intact proinsulin with low bioactivity also is secreted in small amounts.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Thiazolidinediones: THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic: Works about comparative studies to verify the effectiveness of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques determined in phase II studies. During these trials, patients are monitored closely by physicians to identify any adverse reactions from long-term use. These studies are performed on groups of patients large enough to identify clinically significant responses and usually last about three years. This concept includes phase III studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Multicenter Studies as Topic: Works about controlled studies which are planned and carried out by several cooperating institutions to assess certain variables and outcomes in specific patient populations, for example, a multicenter study of congenital anomalies in children.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Glucose Transporter Type 4: A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Insulin, Short-Acting: Insulin derivatives and preparations that are designed to induce a rapid HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECT.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Glucagon-Like Peptide 1: A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.Drug Costs: The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).Probability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.Glucose Intolerance: A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.Receptor, IGF Type 1: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is closely related in structure to the INSULIN RECEPTOR. Although commonly referred to as the IGF-I receptor, it binds both IGF-I and IGF-II with high affinity. It is comprised of a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The beta subunit contains an intrinsic tyrosine kinase domain.Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus, primarily of TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS with severe INSULIN deficiency and extreme HYPERGLYCEMIA. It is characterized by KETOSIS; DEHYDRATION; and depressed consciousness leading to COMA.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Insulin-Like Growth Factor I: A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Deoxyglucose: 2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.Rats, Zucker: Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.JapanDatabases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.PhosphoproteinsMonosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Maternal-Fetal Exchange: Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Insulinoma: A benign tumor of the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS. Insulinoma secretes excess INSULIN resulting in HYPOGLYCEMIA.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Biphasic Insulins: An insulin preparation that is designed to provide immediate and long term glycemic control in a single dosage. Biphasic insulin typically contains a mixture of REGULAR INSULIN or SHORT-ACTING INSULIN combined with a LONG-ACTING INSULIN.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.GlycogenAsian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Chronotherapy: The adaptation of therapeutic approaches such as pharmacological (DRUG CHRONOTHERAPY), surgical, radiological, or physical to the known variations in biological RHYTHMICITY, such as CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS. The treatment is aimed at supporting normal rhythms, or modifying the timing of therapy to achieve maximal efficacy and minimal adverse effect.Mice, Obese: Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Isoindoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number two carbon, in contrast to INDOLES which have the nitrogen adjacent to the six-membered ring.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.3T3-L1 Cells: A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Mice, Inbred C57BLMetabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Tolbutamide: A sulphonylurea hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROPAMIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290)Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Diet, High-Fat: Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors: Compounds that suppress the degradation of INCRETINS by blocking the action of DIPEPTIDYL-PEPTIDASE IV. This helps to correct the defective INSULIN and GLUCAGON secretion characteristic of TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS by stimulating insulin secretion and suppressing glucagon release.Streptozocin: An antibiotic that is produced by Stretomyces achromogenes. It is used as an antineoplastic agent and to induce diabetes in experimental animals.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Glycemic Index: A numerical system of measuring the rate of BLOOD GLUCOSE generation from a particular food item as compared to a reference item, such as glucose = 100. Foods with higher glycemic index numbers create greater blood sugar swings.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Glycogen Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of D-glucose from UDPglucose into 1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl chains. EC 2.4.1.11.Somatostatin: A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Great BritainGluconeogenesis: Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.3-O-Methylglucose: A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)Glucokinase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and D-glucose to ADP and D-glucose 6-phosphate. They are found in invertebrates and microorganisms, and are highly specific for glucose. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.2.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Insulysin: An enzyme the catalyzes the degradation of insulin, glucagon and other polypeptides. It is inhibited by bacitracin, chelating agents EDTA and 1,10-phenanthroline, and by thiol-blocking reagents such as N-ethylmaleimide, but not phosphoramidon. (Eur J Biochem 1994;223:1-5) EC 3.4.24.56.Monitoring, Ambulatory: The use of electronic equipment to observe or record physiologic processes while the patient undergoes normal daily activities.Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Diabetes Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
... as with insulin detemir and insulin glargine), all while retaining insulin's glucose-lowering action in the human body. However ... Sample regimen using insulin glargine and insulin lispro: Insulin glargine: 20 units at bedtime A more complicated method that ... such as NPH insulin), and longer-acting (such as insulin glargine). Insulin was first used as a medication in Canada by Charles ... Medical preparations of insulin are never just 'insulin in water'. Clinical insulins are specially prepared mixtures of insulin ...
... and insulin glargine (Lantus). Studies have had good results with insulin glargine in cats. Follow-up research shows that ... The rationale is that a low-carbohydrate diet reduces the amount of insulin needed and keeps the variation in blood sugar low ... Cats may be treated with animal insulin (bovine-based insulin is most similar to cat insulin), or with human synthetic insulin ... According to the manufacturer's website, the insulin's action profile in cats was similar to that of NPH insulin, and lowered ...
Royalties paid to Zealand for Soliqua are based on a fixed low double-digit percentage of net sales. In January 2017, Sanofi ... Insulin glargine/lixisenatide is a combination drug that combines insulin glargine and lixisenatide and is used as second-line ... following use of basal insulin. The use of insulin glargine/lixisenatide and lixisenatide-containing products is not ... Insulin glargine/lixisenatide was called HOE901/AVE0010 during development and as of October 2017 had been marketed under the ...
... and shorter than long acting insulins (ultralente, glargine or detemir). NPH insulin may be combined with faster acting insulin ... Versions are available that come premixed with a short-acting insulin, such as regular insulin. The common side effect is low ... NPH insulin, also known as isophane insulin, is an intermediate-acting insulin given to help control blood sugar levels in ... There are human and pig insulin based versions. Protamine insulin was first created in 1936 and NPH insulin in 1946. It is on ...
When nightly insulin is insufficient, twice daily insulin may achieve better control.[23] The long acting insulins glargine and ... Intensive blood sugar lowering (HbA1c,6%) as opposed to standard blood sugar lowering (HbA1c of 7-7.9%) does not appear to ... Type 2 diabetes is due to insufficient insulin production from beta cells in the setting of insulin resistance.[13] Insulin ... "Insulin detemir versus insulin glargine for type 2 diabetes mellitus". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (7): ...
It has a rich insulin portfolio-comprising recombinant human insulin, insulin glargine (a long-acting basal insulin analogue), ... a cholesterol-lowering molecule (2001) First company worldwide to develop human insulin on a Pichia expression system (2003) ... Some of Biocon's key brands in India include INSUGEN® (rh-insulin), BASALOG® (Glargine), BIOMAb EGFR™ (Nimotuzumab), BLISTO® ( ... Biosimilar insulin: With the worldwide insulin market expected to be worth over $11 billion by 2011 and an estimated 246 ...
The insulin toxin, closer in structure to fishes' than to snails' native insulin, slows down the prey fishes by lowering their ... The other type is long acting insulin; the first of these was Lantus (insulin glargine). These have a steady effect for an ... Insulin's increase in cellular potassium uptake lowers potassium levels in blood plasma. This possibly occurs via insulin- ... Bovine insulin differs from human in only three amino acid residues, and porcine insulin in one. Even insulin from some species ...
Insulin Therapy Long Acting Insulin: (Insulin glargine)-is a hormone that works by lowering levels of blood glucose. It starts ... Intermediate Insulin: (e.g. NPH insulin)- Usually taken in combination with a short acting insulin. Intermediate acting insulin ... "Short Acting Insulin - Regular, Neutral Insulin". Retrieved 2017-12-13. "Intermediate Acting Insulin - Isophane, NPH Insulins ... This medication signals the pancreas to release insulin and help the body's cells use insulin better. This medicaiton can lower ...
A beta release of AIDA [v4.5c (beta)] incorporating lispro, regular, NPH and glargine insulins is available for download from ... The AIDA diabetes software simulator developers have set up a very low volume announcement list so that users can be kept ... "Development of AIDA v4.3b diabetes simulator: technical upgrade to support incorporation of lispro, aspart and glargine insulin ... The tutorial is currently arranged in four sections: (1) Insulin-dosage adjustment, (2) Choosing the insulin dose, (3) Timing ...
When nightly insulin is insufficient, twice daily insulin may achieve better control.[23] The long acting insulins glargine and ... a low glycemic index diet or low carbohydrate diet has been found to improve blood sugar control.[86][87] A very low calorie ... Swinnen SG, Simon AC, Holleman F, Hoekstra JB, Devries JH (July 2011). Simon AC (ed.). "Insulin detemir versus insulin glargine ... Type 2 diabetes is due to insufficient insulin production from beta cells in the setting of insulin resistance.[13] Insulin ...
Insulin zinc (Lente) Examples of long acting insulins include Extended insulin zinc insulin (Ultralente) Insulin glargine ( ... Drugs used in diabetes treat diabetes mellitus by lowering glucose levels in the blood. With the exceptions of Insulin, ... They are rapid acting insulins, intermediate acting insulins and long acting insulins. Examples of rapid acting insulins ... Insulin lispro (Humalog) Insulin aspart (Novolog) Insulin glulisine (Apidra) Prompt insulin zinc (Semilente, Slightly slower ...
... like injectable insulin) are effective at lowering blood sugar, but can "overshoot" their target and cause blood sugar to ... compared with insulin glargine, in metformin-treated type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized, controlled trial". Diabetes Care. ... more appropriate amount of insulin that helps lower the rise in blood sugar from eating. Once blood sugar levels decrease ... It is a 39-amino-acid peptide, an insulin secretagogue, with glucoregulatory effects. Exenatide was approved by the FDA on ...
Insulin aspart. *Insulin degludec. *Insulin detemir. *Insulin glargine. *Insulin glulisine. *Insulin lispro ... A class of drugs called ACE inhibitors, which are used to lower blood pressure, increase bradykinin (by inhibiting its ... degradation), further lowering blood pressure. Bradykinin dilates blood vessels via the release of prostacyclin, nitric oxide, ...
Insulin aspart. *Insulin degludec. *Insulin detemir. *Insulin glargine. *Insulin glulisine. *Insulin lispro ... However, the levels of KISS1 mRNA expressed are decidedly lower than in the hypothalamus and amygdala. Studies have shown that ... Kisspeptin can stimulate secretion of aldosterone and the release of insulin. Kisspeptin appears to directly activate GnRH ... Athletes may not undergo menstruation due to low fat levels; fat produces the hormone leptin, which induces production of ...
Insulin aspart. *Insulin degludec. *Insulin detemir. *Insulin glargine. *Insulin glulisine. *Insulin lispro ... Feeling of fullness, bloating, and tenderness in the lower abdomen due to increasing size of the ovaries. ... with the alfa form tending towards a higher pregnancy rate and the beta form tending towards a lower pregnancy rate, but with ...
Insulin aspart. *Insulin degludec. *Insulin detemir. *Insulin glargine. *Insulin glulisine. *Insulin lispro ... although it can be toxic to eukaryotic cells at concentrations as low as 1 μg/ml. Puromycin acts quickly and can kill up to 99 ...
Insulin aspart. *Insulin degludec. *Insulin detemir. *Insulin glargine. *Insulin glulisine. *Insulin lispro ... High levels of orexin-A have been associated with happiness in human subjects, while low levels have been associated with ...
Insulin aspart. *Insulin degludec. *Insulin detemir. *Insulin glargine. *Insulin glulisine. *Insulin lispro ... EDTA exhibits low acute toxicity with LD50 (rat) of 2.0 g/kg to 2.2 g/kg.[8] It has been found to be both cytotoxic and weakly ... in practical applications it exhibits low efficiency in lower ion concentration solutions. It has many practical applications ... At very low pH (very acidic conditions) the fully protonated H6EDTA2+ form predominates, whereas at very high pH or very basic ...
long-acting (Insulin detemir. *Insulin glargine. *NPH insulin). *ultra-long-acting (Insulin degludec) ... In those taking sulphonylureas there is an increased risk of low blood sugar.[18] ... Oral anti-diabetic drugs, insulins and insulin analogs, and other drugs used in diabetes (A10) ... which in turn increases insulin secretion, decreases gastric emptying, and decreases blood glucose levels. ...
Insulin aspart. *Insulin degludec. *Insulin detemir. *Insulin glargine. *Insulin glulisine. *Insulin lispro ... NTSR1 mediates multiple biological through modulation by neurotensin, such as low blood pressure, high blood sugar, low body ...
long-acting (Insulin detemir. *Insulin glargine. *NPH insulin). *ultra-long-acting (Insulin degludec) ... The risk of hypoglycemia is low in the absence of other drugs that lower blood glucose. ... Oral anti-diabetic drugs, insulins and insulin analogs, and other drugs used in diabetes (A10) ... Pioglitazone is used to lower blood glucose levels in the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) either alone or in ...
... (INN/USAN) is an ultralong-acting basal insulin analogue that was developed by Novo Nordisk under the brand name Tresiba. It is administered via subcutaneous injection once daily to help control the blood sugar level of those with diabetes. It has a duration of action that lasts up to 42 hours (compared to 18 to 26 hours provided by other marketed long-acting insulins such as insulin glargine and insulin detemir), making it a once-daily basal insulin, that is one that provides a base insulin level, as opposed to the fast and short acting bolus insulins. Insulin degludec is a modified insulin that has one single amino acid deleted in comparison to human ...
... is a long-acting human insulin analogue for maintaining the basal level of insulin. Novo Nordisk markets it under the trade name Levemir. It is an insulin analogue in which a fatty acid (myristic acid) is bound to the lysine amino acid at position B29. It is quickly absorbed after which it binds to albumin in the blood through its fatty acid at position B29. It then slowly dissociates from this complex. In a clinical study that compared the efficacy and safety of using Levemir for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes who had suboptimal glycemic control while receiving maximally tolerated doses of metformin and sulfonylurea (common tablet therapies for type 2 diabetes), it was found that, "At 24 weeks, HbA1c (glycated hemoglobin) had decreased by 1.8 and 1.9% (from 8.6 to 6.8 and from 8.5 to 6.6%) for detemir and NPH, respectively (NS). In both groups, 70% of participants achieved an HbA1c of ...
An insulin analog is an altered form of insulin, different from any occurring in nature, but still available to the human body for performing the same action as human insulin in terms of glycemic control. Through genetic engineering of the underlying DNA, the amino acid sequence of insulin can be changed to alter its ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) characteristics. Officially, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) refers to these as "insulin receptor ligands", although they are more commonly referred to as insulin analogs. These modifications have been used to create two types of insulin analogs: those that are more readily absorbed from the injection site and therefore act faster than natural insulin ...
The Hagedorn temperature is the temperature in theoretical physics where hadronic matter (i.e. ordinary matter) is no longer stable, and must either "evaporate" or convert into quark matter; as such, it can be thought of as the "boiling point" of hadronic matter. The Hagedorn temperature exists because the amount of energy available is high enough that matter particle (quark-antiquark) pairs can be spontaneously pulled from vacuum. Thus, naively considered, a system at Hagedorn temperature can accommodate as much energy as one can put in, because the formed quarks provide new degrees of freedom, and thus the Hagedorn temperature would be an impassable absolute hot. However, if this phase is viewed as quarks instead, it becomes apparent that the matter has transformed into quark matter, which can be further heated. It is about the same as the mass-energy of the lightest hadrons, the pion, at 130-140 MeV per particle or about 2 × 1012 K. This energy range can be routinely probed in particle ...
The Hagedorn temperature is the temperature in theoretical physics where hadronic matter (i.e. ordinary matter) is no longer stable, and must either "evaporate" or convert into quark matter; as such, it can be thought of as the "boiling point" of hadronic matter. The Hagedorn temperature exists because the amount of energy available is high enough that matter particle (quark-antiquark) pairs can be spontaneously pulled from vacuum. Thus, naively considered, a system at Hagedorn temperature can accommodate as much energy as one can put in, because the formed quarks provide new degrees of freedom, and thus the Hagedorn temperature would be an impassable absolute hot. However, if this phase is viewed as quarks instead, it becomes apparent that the matter has transformed into quark matter, which can be further heated. It is about the same as the mass-energy of the lightest hadrons, the pion, at 130-140 MeV per particle or about 2 × 1012 K. This energy range can be routinely probed in particle ...
... is a long-acting human insulin analogue for maintaining the basal level of insulin. Novo Nordisk markets it under the trade name Levemir. It is an insulin analogue in which a fatty acid (myristic acid) is bound to the lysine amino acid at position B29. It is quickly absorbed after which it binds to albumin in the blood through its fatty acid at position B29. It then slowly dissociates from this complex. In a clinical study that compared the efficacy and safety of using Levemir for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes who had suboptimal glycemic control while receiving maximally tolerated doses of metformin and sulfonylurea (common tablet therapies for type 2 diabetes), it was found that, "At 24 weeks, HbA1c (glycated hemoglobin) had decreased by 1.8 and 1.9% (from 8.6 to 6.8 and from 8.5 to 6.6%) for detemir and NPH, respectively (NS). In both groups, 70% of participants achieved an HbA1c of ...
... (INN/USAN) is an ultralong-acting basal insulin analogue that was developed by Novo Nordisk under the brand name Tresiba. It is administered via subcutaneous injection once daily to help control the blood sugar level of those with diabetes. It has a duration of action that lasts up to 42 hours (compared to 18 to 26 hours provided by other marketed long-acting insulins such as insulin glargine and insulin detemir), making it a once-daily basal insulin, that is one that provides a base insulin level, as opposed to the fast and short acting bolus insulins. Insulin degludec is a modified insulin that has one single amino acid deleted in comparison to human ...
The Insulin Index of a food represents how much it elevates the concentration of insulin in the blood during the two-hour period after the food is ingested. The index is similar to the Glycemic Index (GI) and Glycemic Load (GL), but rather than relying on blood glucose levels, the Insulin Index is based upon blood insulin levels. The Insulin Index represents a comparison of food portions with equal overall caloric content (250 kcal or 1000 kJ), while GI represents a comparison of portions with equal digestible carbohydrate content (typically 50 g) and the GL represents portions of a typical serving size for various foods. The Insulin Index can be more useful than either the Glycemic Index or the Glycemic Load because certain foods (e.g., lean meats and proteins) cause an ...
... or flexible insulin therapy is a therapeutic regimen for diabetes mellitus treatment. This newer approach contrasts with conventional insulinotherapy. Rather than minimize the number of insulin injections per day (a technique which demands a rigid schedule for food and activities), the intensive approach favors flexible meal times with variable carbohydrate as well as flexible physical activities. The trade-off is the increase from 2 or 3 injections per day to 4 or more injections per day, which was considered "intensive" relative to the older approach. In North America in 2004, many endocrinologists prefer the term "flexible insulin therapy" (FIT) to "intensive therapy" and use it to refer to any method of replacing insulin that attempts to mimic the pattern of small continuous basal insulin secretion ...
An insulin analog is an altered form of insulin, different from any occurring in nature, but still available to the human body for performing the same action as human insulin in terms of glycemic control. Through genetic engineering of the underlying DNA, the amino acid sequence of insulin can be changed to alter its ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) characteristics. Officially, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) refers to these as "insulin receptor ligands", although they are more commonly referred to as insulin analogs. These modifications have been used to create two types of insulin analogs: those that are more readily absorbed from the injection site and therefore act faster than natural insulin ...
... (INN/USAN) is an ultralong-acting basal insulin analogue that was developed by Novo Nordisk under the brand name Tresiba. It is administered via subcutaneous injection once daily to help control the blood sugar level of those with diabetes. It has a duration of action that lasts up to 42 hours (compared to 18 to 26 hours provided by other marketed long-acting insulins such as insulin glargine and insulin detemir), making it a once-daily basal insulin, that is one that provides a base insulin level, as opposed to the fast and short acting bolus insulins. Insulin degludec is a modified insulin that has one single amino acid deleted in comparison to human ...
One of insulin's functions is to regulate delivery of glucose into cells to provide them with energy.[54] Insulin resistant cells cannot take in glucose, amino acids and fatty acids. Thus, glucose, fatty acids and amino acids 'leak' out of the cells. A decrease in insulin/glucagon ratio inhibits glycolysis which in turn decreases energy production. The resulting increase in blood glucose may raise levels outside the normal range and cause adverse health effects, depending on dietary conditions.[55] Certain cell types such as fat and muscle cells require insulin to absorb glucose. When these cells fail to respond adequately to circulating insulin, blood glucose levels rise. The liver helps regulate glucose levels by reducing its secretion of glucose in the presence of insulin. This normal reduction in the ...
The fluctuation o bluid succar (reid) an the succar-lawerin hormone insulin (blue) in humans during the coorse o a day wi three meals. Ane o the effects o a succar-rich vs a starch-rich meal is heichlichtit.[1] ...
Low-Volume Insulin Degludec 200 Units/mL Once Daily Improves Glycemic Control Similarly to Insulin Glargine With a Low Risk of ... A 26-week, randomized, controlled, multinational, treat-to-target trial: The BEGIN LOW VOLUME trial. Stephen C.L. Gough, Anuj ... Hypoglycemia in Insulin-Naïve Patients With Type 2 Diabetes. ...
Body weight decreased with dulaglutide and increased with glargine. Total hypoglycemia rates were lower with dulaglutide; ... Efficacy and Safety of Once-Weekly Dulaglutide Versus Insulin Glargine in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes on Metformin and ... Efficacy and Safety of Once-Weekly Dulaglutide Versus Insulin Glargine in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes on Metformin and ... Efficacy and Safety of Once-Weekly Dulaglutide Versus Insulin Glargine in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes on Metformin and ...
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The pharmacodynamic variability of insulin degludec is consistently lower than insulin glargine over 24 hours at steady state ( ... Insulin degludec, an ultra-longacting basal insulin, versus insulin glargine in basal-bolus treatment with mealtime insulin ... Insulin degludec, an ultra-longacting basal insulin, versus insulin glargine in basal-bolus treatment with mealtime insulin ... Insulin degludec, an ultra-long-acting basal insulin, once a day or three times a week versus insulin glargine once a day in ...
... is a long-acting insulin thats used to treat people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. ... Hypokalemia (low potassium levels in the blood). *A severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) to any medicines, especially insulin ... Toujeo is a brand name for the medicine insulin glargine, available in a prefilled injectable pen (SoloStar). ... This drug may cause a low blood sugar episode (hypoglycemia). You should know the symptoms of low blood sugar, and what to do ...
In comparing insulin glargine 100 U/mL and insulin glargine 300 U/mL, researchers may be able to use insulin glargine 300 U/mL ... 233 were randomly assigned to insulin glargine 300 U/mL, and 228 were randomly assigned to insulin glargine 100 U/mL. Both ... Could Higher-Dose and Lower-Dose Insulin Glargine be Equally Effective in Managing Type 1 Diabetes?. ... Could Higher-Dose and Lower-Dose Insulin Glargine be Equally Effective in Managing Type 1 Diabetes? ...
UK launch for new insulin glargine biosimilar Abasaglar. New study finds coffee can lower diabetes risk. ... coronavirus low carb program low carb kickstarter low carb life insurance hypoglycemia hyperglycemia nhs metformin diabetes ... Join the award-winning Low Carb Program. People who use Low Carb Program have achieved weight loss, improved HbA1c, reduced ... Over the course of the 7 years, 43% of the women went from having a low risk of heart disease to being at risk by having 2 or ...
The study compared Lyxumia with Novo Nordisk s ( NVO ) Victoza (liraglutide) in combination with Lantus (insulin glargine), ... According to the data, significantly fewer low blood sugar events (hypoglycemia) at any time of the day, including night-time ... Sanofi is developing a new formulation of insulin glargine, Toujeo, for diabetes. Sanofi released data from a pooled analysis ... In the study it was found that switching from Lantus to Novo Nordisks Levemir (insulin detemir) resulted in higher average ...
CONCLUSIONS: Lower FPG levels with fewer episodes of hypoglycemia were achieved with insulin glargine compared with once- or ... Less hypoglycemia with insulin glargine in intensive insulin therapy for type 1 diabetes. U.S. Study Group of Insulin Glargine ... Less hypoglycemia with insulin glargine in intensive insulin therapy for type 1 diabetes. U.S. Study Group of Insulin Glargine ... Less hypoglycemia with insulin glargine in intensive insulin therapy for type 1 diabetes. U.S. Study Group of Insulin Glargine ...
... insulin glargine. Glucose levels decreased during both treatments, but the glucose-lowering effect of liraglutide was ... Liraglutide Versus Insulin Lowers CNS Activation in Response to Food Pictures After Short-term Treatment. We compared the ... RESULTS After 12 weeks, the decrease in HbA1c was larger with liraglutide versus insulin glargine (Δ−0.7% vs. −0.2%, P , 0.001 ... During treatment with insulin glargine, three patients reported one or more mild hypoglycemic episodes. During liraglutide ...
... lower within-day variability) and more evenly distributed pharmacokinetic profiles, compared with Deg-100 in a once-daily ... Conclusion: Gla-300 provides less fluctuating steady state pharmacodynamic profiles (i.e. lower within-day variability) and ... Aim: To compare steady state pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profiles of insulin glargine 300U/mL (Gla-300) with insulin ... Morning administration of 0.4U/kg/day insulin glargine 300U/mL provides less fluctuating 24-hour pharmacodynamics and more even ...
Low-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol [LDL], Triglycerides, LDL Subfractions) [ Time Frame: 60 weeks from Baseline ]. * ... Drug: Insulin Glargine Insulin glargine administered subcutaneously once daily.. Drug: Insulin Glulisine Insulin glulisine will ... Drug: Insulin Glargine Insulin glargine administered subcutaneously once daily.. Drug: Insulin Glulisine Insulin glulisine will ... Drug: Insulin Glargine Insulin glargine administered subcutaneously once daily.. Drug: Insulin Glulisine Insulin glulisine will ...
... insulin glargine injection) in the U.S. to Expand Access for Patients Living with Diabetes ... the lowest available for a long-acting insulin glargine on the market. HERTFORDSHIRE, England and PITTSBURGH and BENGALURU, ... insulin glargine injection) to the reference insulin glargine in participants with Type 1 and 2 diabetes and found that Semglee ... representing the lowest WAC for any long-acting insulin glargine on the market. The list price of Semglee pen is equivalent to ...
... which is an injectable form of insulin designed to help people with diabetes lower their blood glucose levels. Lantus is ... Since the patent on Lantus expired in 2015, other biosimilar versions of insulin glargine have been coming to market (such as ... Lantus is considered a basal insulin. Its in the ... Insulin is the key that unlocks your cells, which allows the ... Lantus is the brand name for the synthetic insulin glargine, ... Insulin Glargine) * Humulin N (Insulin Isophane AKA Insulin NPH ...
Insulin Glargine. Aggressive treatment with insulin glargine of type 2 diabetes in high-risk obese youth did not preserve β- ... Opponents, who voiced concern about a lack of efficacy in terms of A1C lowering, were more likely to cite evidence to back up ... all in combination with insulin lispro. Both doses of dulaglutide were found to be noninferior to insulin glargine in terms of ... is safe and effective and can replace insulin glargine in patients with type 2 diabetes and moderate to severe chronic kidney ...
... insulin glargine is a clear solution when injected), and lower rates of hypoglycemia should translate into improvements in ... Abstract: Insulin glargine is an analogue of human insulin that is modified to provide a consistent level of plasma insulin ... This review appraises the evidence for the view that insulin glargine represents an advance in basal insulin therapy for both ... Insulin glargine in the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes 59. ...
... has expanded to include 11 different classes in addition to insulin. Since the 2008 Food and Drug Administration guidance for ... "New insulin glargine 300 U/ml versus glargine 100 U/ml in Japanese people with type 2 diabetes using basal insulin and oral ... Comparing Cardiovascular Safety of Insulin Degludec versus Insulin Glargine in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes at High Risk of ... The only existing placebo-controlled trial achieving this aim used insulin glargine in Outcome Reduction with Initial Glargine ...
... glargine insulin at bed time. Production system n. A hallucinogenic plant alkaloid found in people with type ii (lanchi) and ... Lower portions of the dizziness, if involved. Lepraphobia another name for the prevention of thrombosis, 8th ed: American ...
Additionally, comparative data with insulin glargine and exenatide therapy are available from Phase III trials. Once-daily ­ ... The glucose-dependent mechanism of insulin release with incretin analog therapy holds potential clinical significance in the ... s low risk for hypoglycemic events when used as monotherapy. ­Liraglutide has been studied as monotherapy and in ... and the drugs low risk for hypoglycemic events when used as monotherapy. -Liraglutide has been studied as monotherapy and in ...
47 The pharmacodynamic variability of insulin degludec is much lower than that of insulin glargine.41,48 Insulin degludec has ... Insulin degludec, an ultra-longacting basal insulin, versus insulin glargine in basal-bolus treatment with mealtime insulin ... Insulin degludec, an ultra-longacting basal insulin, versus insulin glargine in basal-bolus treatment with mealtime insulin ... Insulin degludec, an ultra-long-acting basal insulin, once a day or three times a week versus insulin glargine once a day in ...
Insulin glargine, which is associated with a lower risk of hypoglycemia than NPH insulin,5,37-40 has been reported to reduce ... Glimepiride combined with morning insulin glargine, bedtime neutral protamine hagedorn insulin, or bedtime insulin glargine in ... Basal insulin therapy in type 2 diabetes: 28-week comparison of insulin glargine (HOE 901) and NPH insulin. Diabetes Care. 2001 ... lower in regimens consisting of insulin glargine once daily plus oral antidiabetic agents than with human premixed insulin (30 ...
A 24-week, randomized, treat-to-target trial comparing initiation of insulin glargine once-daily with insulin detemir twice- ... Low Free 25(OH)D Vitamin D Is Best Predictor of Mortality ... Low Vitamin D in COVID-19 Predicts ICU Admission, Poor Survival ... Chen L. A literature review of intensive insulin therapy and mortality in critically ill patients. Clin Nurse Spec. 2010 Mar- ... Which oral antidiabetic drug to combine with metformin to minimize the risk of hypoglycemia when initiating basal insulin?: A ...
A 24-week, randomized, treat-to-target trial comparing initiation of insulin glargine once-daily with insulin detemir twice- ... Chen L. A literature review of intensive insulin therapy and mortality in critically ill patients. Clin Nurse Spec. 2010 Mar- ... encoded search term (What are the age predilections for hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?) and What are the age predilections for ... Which oral antidiabetic drug to combine with metformin to minimize the risk of hypoglycemia when initiating basal insulin?: A ...
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  • Insulin therapy is most effective if dosage titrations are done regularly and frequently, which is seldom practical for most clinicians, resulting in an insulin titration gap. (tripdatabase.com)
  • In 2010, Sanofi extended a license agreement it had with Zealand for lixisenatide to allow Sanofi to combine it with insulin glargine, which was Sanofi's best selling drug at the time, with sales of around €3 billion in 2009. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is the plaintiffs' contention that Sanofi prolonged its monopoly for insulin glargine by (1) improperly listing six patents in the U.S. Federal Drug Administration's Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations (the "Orange Book") and (2) pursuing sham litigation against Lilly in which Sanofi asserted claims of patent infringement, allegedly without any basis. (bloomberglaw.com)
  • Sanofi-aventis, which sells insulin glargine, is planning three new epidemiological studies to gauge the cancer risk, the FDA said, with results expected in June of this year. (natap.org)
  • Do not change brands or types of insulin without directions on how to do so from your doctor. (webmd.com)
  • There are different types of insulin depending on how quickly they work, when they peak, and how long they last. (diabetes.org)
  • Like other types of insulin, insulin glargine is used to keep your blood sugar level close to normal. (adam.com)