A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
A structurally-related group of signaling proteins that are phosphorylated by the INSULIN RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE. The proteins share in common an N-terminal PHOSPHOLIPID-binding domain, a phosphotyrosine-binding domain that interacts with the phosphorylated INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal TYROSINE-rich domain. Upon tyrosine phosphorylation insulin receptor substrate proteins interact with specific SH2 DOMAIN-containing proteins that are involved in insulin receptor signaling.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Insulin formulations that contain substances that retard absorption thus extending the time period of action.
Antibodies specific to INSULIN.
Substances which lower blood glucose levels.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or action of insulin.
Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.
Insulin that has been modified so that the B-chain contains a LYSINE at position 28 instead of a PROLINE and a PROLINE at position 29 instead of a LYSINE. It is used to manage BLOOD GLUCOSE levels in patients with TYPE 2 DIABETES.
A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
Portable or implantable devices for infusion of insulin. Includes open-loop systems which may be patient-operated or controlled by a pre-set program and are designed for constant delivery of small quantities of insulin, increased during food ingestion, and closed-loop systems which deliver quantities of insulin automatically based on an electronic glucose sensor.
Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.
Insulin that has been modified to contain an ASPARTIC ACID instead of a PROLINE at position 38 of the B-chain.
An intermediate-acting INSULIN preparation with onset time of 2 hours and duration of 24 hours. It is produced by crystallizing ZINC-insulin-PROTAMINES at neutral pH 7. Thus it is called neutral protamine Hagedorn for inventor Hans Christian Hagedorn.
Regular insulin preparations that contain the SUS SCROFA insulin peptide sequence.
A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.
Peptide hormones that cause an increase in the absorption of GLUCOSE by cells within organs such as LIVER, MUSCLE and ADIPOSE TISSUE. During normal metabolism insulins are produced by the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS in response to increased GLUCOSE. Natural and chemically-modified forms of insulin are also used in the treatment of GLUCOSE METABOLISM DISORDERS such as DIABETES MELLITUS.
A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Regular insulin preparations that contain the HUMAN insulin peptide sequence.
The middle segment of proinsulin that is between the N-terminal B-chain and the C-terminal A-chain. It is a pancreatic peptide of about 31 residues, depending on the species. Upon proteolytic cleavage of proinsulin, equimolar INSULIN and C-peptide are released. C-peptide immunoassay has been used to assess pancreatic beta cell function in diabetic patients with circulating insulin antibodies or exogenous insulin. Half-life of C-peptide is 30 min, almost 8 times that of insulin.
A pancreatic polypeptide of about 110 amino acids, depending on the species, that is the precursor of insulin. Proinsulin, produced by the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, is comprised sequentially of the N-terminal B-chain, the proteolytically removable connecting C-peptide, and the C-terminal A-chain. It also contains three disulfide bonds, two between A-chain and B-chain. After cleavage at two locations, insulin and C-peptide are the secreted products. Intact proinsulin with low bioactivity also is secreted in small amounts.
Abstaining from all food.
Glucose in blood.
Abnormally high BLOOD GLUCOSE level.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.
Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
Insulin derivatives and preparations that are designed to induce a rapid HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECT.
A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.
A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.
A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
A benign tumor of the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS. Insulinoma secretes excess INSULIN resulting in HYPOGLYCEMIA.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An insulin preparation that is designed to provide immediate and long term glycemic control in a single dosage. Biphasic insulin typically contains a mixture of REGULAR INSULIN or SHORT-ACTING INSULIN combined with a LONG-ACTING INSULIN.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
A biguanide hypoglycemic agent used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus not responding to dietary modification. Metformin improves glycemic control by improving insulin sensitivity and decreasing intestinal absorption of glucose. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p289)
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).
A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is closely related in structure to the INSULIN RECEPTOR. Although commonly referred to as the IGF-I receptor, it binds both IGF-I and IGF-II with high affinity. It is comprised of a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The beta subunit contains an intrinsic tyrosine kinase domain.
Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.
A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)
A sulphonylurea hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROPAMIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290)
The administration of liquid medication or nutrients under the skin, usually over minutes or hours.
The consumption of edible substances.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
An antibiotic that is produced by Stretomyces achromogenes. It is used as an antineoplastic agent and to induce diabetes in experimental animals.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of D-glucose from UDPglucose into 1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl chains. EC
A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.
The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.
Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.
A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and D-glucose to ADP and D-glucose 6-phosphate. They are found in invertebrates and microorganisms, and are highly specific for glucose. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.
Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.
A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
An enzyme the catalyzes the degradation of insulin, glucagon and other polypeptides. It is inhibited by bacitracin, chelating agents EDTA and 1,10-phenanthroline, and by thiol-blocking reagents such as N-ethylmaleimide, but not phosphoramidon. (Eur J Biochem 1994;223:1-5) EC
A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A gastrointestinal peptide hormone of about 43-amino acids. It is found to be a potent stimulator of INSULIN secretion and a relatively poor inhibitor of GASTRIC ACID secretion.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus, primarily of TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS with severe INSULIN deficiency and extreme HYPERGLYCEMIA. It is characterized by KETOSIS; DEHYDRATION; and depressed consciousness leading to COMA.
The time period before the development of symptomatic diabetes. For example, certain risk factors can be observed in subjects who subsequently develop INSULIN RESISTANCE as in type 2 diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 2).
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that includes two distinctive targeting motifs; an N-terminal motif specific for the INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal motif specific for the SH3 domain containing proteins. This subtype includes a hydrophobic domain which localizes it to the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
A glucose transport facilitator that is expressed primarily in PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; LIVER; and KIDNEYS. It may function as a GLUCOSE sensor to regulate INSULIN release and glucose HOMEOSTASIS.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.
A benzothiadiazine derivative that is a peripheral vasodilator used for hypertensive emergencies. It lacks diuretic effect, apparently because it lacks a sulfonamide group.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
A 12-kDa cysteine-rich polypeptide hormone secreted by FAT CELLS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is the founding member of the resistin-like molecule (RELM) hormone family. Resistin suppresses the ability of INSULIN to stimulate cellular GLUCOSE uptake.
Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Poisonous animal secretions forming fluid mixtures of many different enzymes, toxins, and other substances. These substances are produced in specialized glands and secreted through specialized delivery systems (nematocysts, spines, fangs, etc.) for disabling prey or predator.
Salts and esters of the 16-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--palmitic acid.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
Cell surface receptors that bind somatomedins and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Studies have disclosed two types of receptors for this family of peptide hormones. The type I receptor is homologous to the insulin receptor and has tyrosine kinase activity. The type II receptor is identical to the mannose-6-phosphate receptor which is important in trafficking of lysosomal enzymes.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
The transference of pancreatic islets within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
Self evaluation of whole blood glucose levels outside the clinical laboratory. A digital or battery-operated reflectance meter may be used. It has wide application in controlling unstable insulin-dependent diabetes.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
A ubiquitously expressed glucose transporter that is important for constitutive, basal GLUCOSE transport. It is predominately expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and ERYTHROCYTES at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and is responsible for GLUCOSE entry into the BRAIN.
A benign tumor of the pancreatic ISLET CELLS. Usually it involves the INSULIN-producing PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, as in INSULINOMA, resulting in HYPERINSULINISM.
An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.
A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Severe HYPOGLYCEMIA induced by a large dose of exogenous INSULIN resulting in a COMA or profound state of unconsciousness from which the individual cannot be aroused.
Devices for simulating the activity of the pancreas. They can be either electromechanical, consisting of a glucose sensor, computer, and insulin pump or bioartificial, consisting of isolated islets of Langerhans in an artificial membrane.
Diabetes mellitus induced by PREGNANCY but resolved at the end of pregnancy. It does not include previously diagnosed diabetics who become pregnant (PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS). Gestational diabetes usually develops in late pregnancy when insulin antagonistic hormones peaks leading to INSULIN RESISTANCE; GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; and HYPERGLYCEMIA.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A well-characterized neutral peptide believed to be secreted by the LIVER and to circulate in the BLOOD. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like and mitogenic activities. The growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on SOMATOTROPIN. It is believed to be a major fetal growth factor in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR I, which is a major growth factor in adults.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate and water to D-glucose and orthophosphate. EC
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Cell surface receptors that bind glucagon with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Activation of glucagon receptors causes a variety of effects; the best understood is the initiation of a complex enzymatic cascade in the liver which ultimately increases the availability of glucose to body organs.
Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.
BUTYRIC ACID substituted in the beta or 3 position. It is one of the ketone bodies produced in the liver.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.

Effect of trauma on plasma glucagon and insulin concentrations in sheep. (1/30793)

Portal plasma glucagon and insulin concentrations were measured before and after acute trauma (liver biosy). The trauma was sufficient to increase glucagon concentrations and depress insulin concentrations. These changes were associated with a marked hyperglycemia. Infusion of glucagon was insufficient to prevent stress inhibition of insulin secretion. The stimulation of glucagon secretion and inhibition of insulin secretion were of about one hour duration. These findings indicate that glucagon and insulin in conjunction with the nervous system may play an important role in the development of stress related hyperglycemia.  (+info)

Effects of glucagon and insulin on lipolysis and ketogenesis in sheep. (2/30793)

The hepatic and portal productions of acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate and lipolysis were studied in normal and insulin-controlled alloxan-diabetic sheep. Since hyperinsulinemia is associated with glucagon administration, the latter group of sheep were used to maintain constant plasma insulin levels. After control values were obtained glucagon was infused intraportally at 90 mug/hr for two hours. The ketone body production by portal drained viscera was not significantly affected by glucagon. In alloxanized sheep, glucagon significantly (P less than 0.01) increased net hepatic production of acetoacetate (from -0.54 +/- 0.08 to 0.46 +/- 0.07 g/hr). Lipolysis also increased. However, in the normal sheep, hyperinsulinemia prevented any stimulatory effect of glucagon on hepatic ketogenesis and lipolysis. Therefore, while glucagon appears capable of stimulating ketogenesis andlipolysis, these effects are readily suppressed by insulin.  (+info)

Vasopressin stimulation of acetate incorporation into lipids in a dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary tumor cell line. (3/30793)

In a preliminary report we described the effects of rat prolactin on the incorporation of [14C]acetate into lipids by a cell line from a dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary tumor. The characteristics of the response to prolactin were very similar to those described for the normal rat mammary gland; namely, insulin was required for full expression of the response, maximal activity was not seen until 36 hr after the addition of the hormones, and growth hormone was able to elicit the same response. However, we were unable to detect binding of 125I-labeled prolactin to these cells, and furthermore, other more purified prolactin preparations were inactive. Upon further investigation we discovered that the activity resided in a low-molecular-weight fraction of the rat prolactin B-1 preparation and was probably either vasopressin or oxytocin or both. These data suggest the possibility that vasopressin may play a role in rodent mammary tumorigenesis.  (+info)

Leptin suppression of insulin secretion and gene expression in human pancreatic islets: implications for the development of adipogenic diabetes mellitus. (4/30793)

Previously we demonstrated the expression of the long form of the leptin receptor in rodent pancreatic beta-cells and an inhibition of insulin secretion by leptin via activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels. Here we examine pancreatic islets isolated from pancreata of human donors for their responses to leptin. The presence of leptin receptors on islet beta-cells was demonstrated by double fluorescence confocal microscopy after binding of a fluorescent derivative of human leptin (Cy3-leptin). Leptin (6.25 nM) suppressed insulin secretion of normal islets by 20% at 5.6 mM glucose. Intracellular calcium responses to 16.7 mM glucose were rapidly reduced by leptin. Proinsulin messenger ribonucleic acid expression in islets was inhibited by leptin at 11.1 mM, but not at 5.6 mM glucose. Leptin also reduced proinsulin messenger ribonucleic acid levels that were increased in islets by treatment with 10 nM glucagon-like peptide-1 in the presence of either 5.6 or 11.1 mM glucose. These findings demonstrate direct suppressive effects of leptin on insulin-producing beta-cells in human islets at the levels of both stimulus-secretion coupling and gene expression. The findings also further indicate the existence of an adipoinsular axis in humans in which insulin stimulates leptin production in adipocytes and leptin inhibits the production of insulin in beta-cells. We suggest that dysregulation of the adipoinsular axis in obese individuals due to defective leptin reception by beta-cells may result in chronic hyperinsulinemia and may contribute to the pathogenesis of adipogenic diabetes.  (+info)

Cardiovascular disease in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: similar rates but different risk factors in the US compared with Europe. (5/30793)

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) has been linked to renal disease. However, little is known concerning international variation in the correlations with hyperglycaemia and standard CVD risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional comparison was made of prevalence rates and risk factor associations in two large studies of IDDM subjects: the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study (EDC) and the EURODIAB IDDM Complications Study from 31 centres in Europe. Subgroups of each were chosen to be comparable by age and duration of diabetes. The EDC population comprises 286 men (mean duration 20.1 years) and 281 women (mean duration 19.9 years); EURODIAB 608 men (mean duration 18.1 years) and 607 women (mean duration 18.9 years). The mean age of both populations was 28 years. Cardiovascular disease was defined by a past medical history of myocardial infarction, angina, and/or the Minnesota ECG codes (1.1-1.3, 4.1-4.3, 5.1-5.3, 7.1). RESULTS: Overall prevalence of CVD was similar in the two populations (i.e. men 8.6% versus 8.0%, women 7.4% versus 8.5%, EURODIAB versus EDC respectively), although EDC women had a higher prevalence of angina (3.9% versus 0.5%, P < 0.001). Multivariate modelling suggests that glycaemic control (HbA1c) is not related to CVD in men. Age and high density lipoprotein cholesterol predict CVD in EURODIAB, while triglycerides and hypertension predict CVD in EDC. For women in both populations, age and hypertension (or renal disease) are independent predictors. HbA1c is also an independent predictor-inversely in EURODIAB women (P < 0.008) and positively in EDC women (P = 0.03). Renal disease was more strongly linked to CVD in EDC than in EURODIAB. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a similar prevalence of CVD, risk factor associations appear to differ in the two study populations. Glycaemic control (HbA1c) does not show a consistent or strong relationship to CVD.  (+info)

Tissue-specific knockout of the insulin receptor in pancreatic beta cells creates an insulin secretory defect similar to that in type 2 diabetes. (6/30793)

Dysfunction of the pancreatic beta cell is an important defect in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, although its exact relationship to the insulin resistance is unclear. To determine whether insulin signaling has a functional role in the beta cell we have used the Cre-loxP system to specifically inactivate the insulin receptor gene in the beta cells. The resultant mice exhibit a selective loss of insulin secretion in response to glucose and a progressive impairment of glucose tolerance. These data indicate an important functional role for the insulin receptor in glucose sensing by the pancreatic beta cell and suggest that defects in insulin signaling at the level of the beta cell may contribute to the observed alterations in insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes.  (+info)

Hormonal regulation of messenger ribonucleic acid expression for steroidogenic factor-1, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, and cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage in bovine luteal cells. (7/30793)

To examine hormonal regulation of genes pertinent to luteal steroidogenesis, bovine theca and granulosa cells derived from preovulatory follicles were cultured with various combinations of forskolin and insulin. On Day 8 of culture, progesterone production was measured, and mRNA levels of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1), cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) were determined by means of semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Notably, the combination of forskolin plus insulin stimulated progesterone production in luteinized theca cells. This was probably a result of a synergistic interaction between forskolin and insulin, observed on both StAR and P450scc mRNA levels. However, in luteinized granulosa cells (LGC), forskolin and insulin each independently were able to up-regulate the levels of P450scc and StAR mRNA levels, respectively. Moreover, insulin alone was sufficient to maintain the high steady-state levels of StAR mRNA in LGC. Both insulin and insulin-like growth factor I enhanced StAR gene expression in LGC. SF-1 was constitutively expressed in bovine luteal cells; its amounts did not vary between the two luteal cell types or with hormonal treatments. In summary, this study demonstrates a distinct, cell-type specific regulation of StAR and P450scc mRNA in the two bovine luteal cell types.  (+info)

Plasma total homocysteine and cysteine in relation to glomerular filtration rate in diabetes mellitus. (8/30793)

BACKGROUND: The plasma concentrations of total homocysteine (tHcy) and total cysteine (tCys) are determined by intracellular metabolism and by renal plasma clearance, and we hypothesized that glomerular filtration is a major determinant of plasma tHcy and tCys. We studied the relationships between the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and plasma tHcy and tCys in populations of diabetic patients with particularly wide ranges of GFR. METHODS: We measured GFR, urine albumin excretion rate (UAER), plasma tHcy, tCys, methionine, vitamin B12, folate, C-peptide, and routine parameters in 50 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and 30 non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients. All patients underwent intensive insulin treatment and had a serum creatinine concentration below 115 micromol/liter. RESULTS: Mean plasma tHcy in diabetic patients (0.1 micromol/liter) was lower than in normal persons (11.1 micromol/liter, P = 0.0014). Mean plasma tCys in diabetic patients (266.1 micromol/liter) was also lower than in normal persons (281.9 micromol/liter, P = 0.0005). Seventy-three percent of the diabetic patients had relative hyperfiltration. Plasma tHcy and tCys were closely and independently associated with GFR, serum folate, and serum B12. However, plasma tHcy was not independently associated with any of the 22 other variables tested, including age, serum creatinine concentration, UAER, total daily insulin dose, and glycemic control. CONCLUSIONS: Glomerular filtration rate is an independent determinant of plasma tHcy and tCys concentrations, and GFR is rate limiting for renal clearance of both homocysteine and cysteine in diabetic patients without overt nephropathy. Declining GFR explains the age-related increase in plasma tHcy, and hyperfiltration explains the lower than normal mean plasma tHcy and tCys concentrations in populations of diabetic patients.  (+info)

Central leptin increases peripheral insulin sensitivity through unknown mechanisms. Central insulin signaling may also contribute to peripheral insulin sensitivity. To clarify the relationships among central leptin, central insulin, peripheral insulin sensitivity, and adiponectin, we examined the effects of intracerebroventricular leptin and insulin on peripheral insulin sensitivity and adiponectin concentrations in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Rats were cannulated in the lateral ventricle. Intravenous STZ was injected to induce diabetes. After establishment of hyperglycemia in STZ-treated rats, insulin (10 mU/day), leptin (10 µg/day), or vehicle was administered daily for 10 days. After one week of central administration, in vivo insulin sensitivity was measured by injecting IV insulin (0.025 U/kg body weight) and measuring blood glucose concentration 15 minutes after the injection. Rats treated with central leptin had increased peripheral insulin sensitivity. In addition, blood ...
The current insulin therapy is divided into the conventional insulin therapy (1~2 injections per day) and the intensive insulin therapy (3~4 injections per day). The kinetics of exogenous insulin in the intensive insulin therapy imitate the kinetics of insulin secretion in a healthy person. A previous large clinical study (e.g. DCCT, Kumamoto study, etc.) suggested that intensive insulin therapy prevented microangiopathy and macroangiopathy, and inhibited progression of them, however many patients chose conventional insulin therapy because many hoped that they injected insulin as few as possible. The patients thought that their life styles were disturbed by many times of insulin injection.. The current dual-acting insulin made from insulin as part modified by protamine is able to suppress postprandial hyperglycemia. The new insulin may possibly have the kinetics of insulin in the patient who uses insulin as the intensive insulin therapy. Moreover, the patients will receive the insulin therapy ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of insulin therapy on body fat distribution in NIDDM patients with secondary sulfonylurea failure. T2 - A preliminary report. AU - Takei, I.. AU - Takayama, S.. AU - Yamauchi, A.. AU - Nakamoto, S.. AU - Kitamura, Y.. AU - Katsukawa, Fuminori. AU - Yamazaki, H.. AU - Saruta, T.. AU - Inoue, S.. PY - 1998/2. Y1 - 1998/2. N2 - Objective: To clarify the influence of insulin therapy on body weight and fat distribution, we compared these parameters in five non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients, with secondary sulfonylurea failure, before and after insulin therapy. Body weight increased significantly after instituting insulin treatment. However, the visceral to subcutaneous fat (V/S) ratio decreased significantly due to a marked increase in S-fat without a change in V-fat. Insulin therapy necessitated by sulfonylurea failure does not appear to accelerate the atherogenic process in NIDDM patients as there is no increase in visceral fat.. AB - Objective: To ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Exendin-4 as a stimulator of rat insulin I gene promoter activity via bZIP/CRE interactions sensitive to serine/threonine protein kinase inhibitor Ro 31-8220. AU - Chepurny, Oleg G.. AU - Hussain, Mehboob A.. AU - Holz, George G.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Signal transduction properties of exendin-4 (Ex-4) underlying its ability to stimulate rat insulin I gene promoter (RIP1) activity were assessed in the pancreatic β-cell line INS-1. Ex-4 acted via glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors to stimulate RIP1 in a glucose-dependent manner, as measured in cells transfected with a -410-bp RIP1-luciferase construct (RIP1-Luc). The action of Ex-4 was independent of cAMP and PKA because it was not blocked by cotransfection with dominant-negative Gαs, was unaffected by pretreatment with the membrane-permeant cAMP antagonist 8-Br-Rp-cAMPS, and remained apparent after treatment with PKA inhibitors H-89 or KT 5720. Similarly, cotransfection with a dominant-negative isoform of the type-2 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion is coupled to the interaction of actin with the t-SNARE (target membrane soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor protein) complex. AU - Thurmond, Debbie C.. AU - Gonelle-Gispert, Carmen. AU - Furukawa, Megumi. AU - Halban, Philippe A.. AU - Pessin, Jeffrey E.. PY - 2003/4/1. Y1 - 2003/4/1. N2 - The actin monomer sequestering agent latrunculin B depolymerized β-cell cortical actin, which resulted in increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in both cultured MIN6 β-cells and isolated rat islet cells. In perifused islets, latrunculin B treatment increased both first- and second-phase glucose-stimulated insulin secretion without any significant effect on total insulin content. This increase in secretion was independent of calcium regulation because latrunculin B also potentiated calcium-stimulated insulin secretion in permeabilized MIN6 cells. Confocal immunofluorescent microscopy revealed a redistribution of ...
The Insulin Index of a food represents how much it elevates the concentration of insulin in the blood during the two-hour period after the food is ingested. The index is similar to the Glycemic Index (GI) and Glycemic Load (GL), but rather than relying on blood glucose levels, the Insulin Index is based upon blood insulin levels. The Insulin Index represents a comparison of food portions with equal overall caloric content (250 kcal or 1000 kJ), while GI represents a comparison of portions with equal digestible carbohydrate content (typically 50 g) and the GL represents portions of a typical serving size for various foods. The Insulin Index can be more useful than either the Glycemic Index or the Glycemic Load because certain foods (e.g., lean meats and proteins) cause an insulin response despite there being no carbohydrates present, and some foods cause a disproportionate insulin response relative to their carbohydrate load. Holt et al. have noted that the glucose and insulin scores of most ...
In our updated meta-analysis of randomized trials of intensive insulin therapy in critically ill patients, we found that such therapy had no effect on the overall risk of death. By including data from the largest trial of intensive insulin therapy, which was recently published,18 we provide the most current and precise estimate of the effect of intensive insulin therapy on mortality and severe hypoglycemia in the ICU setting. We found significant heterogeneity between studies, which was driven primarily by the 2 trials involving surgical patient populations.8,29 In keeping with this observation, our meta-regression analysis suggested that intensive insulin therapy may benefit patients in surgical ICUs. Finally, there was a 6-fold increased risk of severe hypoglycemia among patients given intensive insulin therapy compared with the control treatment. The risk of hypoglycemic events did not differ by type of ICU, or by intensity of insulin therapy.. Our meta-analysis showed a similar overall ...
Tenders from Ukraine for insulin human insulin human insulin human insulin human insulin human insulin human insulin glulisine insulin glargin insulin glargin insulin human insulin human insulin human insulin human insulin hu.... EuropeThe tender reference number is 19395499 and it is closing on 26th Jan 2019.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Insulin enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in healthy humans. AU - Bouche, Clara. AU - Lopez, Ximena. AU - Fleischman, Amy. AU - Cypess, Aaron M.. AU - OShea, Sheila. AU - Stefanovski, Darko. AU - Bergman, Richard N.. AU - Rogatsky, Eduard. AU - Stein, Daniel T.. AU - Kahn, C. Ronald. AU - Kulkarni, Rohit N.. AU - Goldfine, Allison B.. PY - 2010/3/9. Y1 - 2010/3/9. N2 - Islet β-cells express both insulin receptors and insulin-signaling proteins. Recent evidence from rodents in vivo and from islets isolated from rodents or humans suggests that the insulin signaling pathway is physiologically important for glucose sensing. We evaluated whether insulin regulates β-cell function in healthy humans in vivo. Glucose-induced insulin secretion was assessed in healthy humans following 4-h saline (low insulin/sham clamp) or isoglycemic-hyperinsulinemic (high insulin) clamps using B28-Asp insulin that could be immunologically distinguished from endogenous insulin. Insulin and ...
Basal insulin therapy is used by people with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Glucose is continuously released by the liver throughout the day when there is no food being digested. There are different ways that different types of insulin can mimic the action of this basal insulin in the body.. For people with type 1 and 2 diabetes, long-acting insulin is injected once or twice a day to mimic basal insulin. Those with type 1 would then take insulin to cover mealtimes. Mealtime treatment for type 2 diabetes varies.. For those with type 1 diabetes who are on a pump, quick-acting insulin is delivered at a low rate continuously throughout the day and night, and then a bolus amount of insulin is given to cover meals. Using the insulin pump is a good way to adjust the basal insulin levels in a very precise manner. You can program the basal insulin output such that it can match the bodys normal insulin production.. One study looked into the efficacy of basal insulin in being able to improve the A1c ...
We investigated the mechanisms by which peripheral or portal insulin can independently alter liver glucose production. Isotopic ([3-3H]glucose) and arteriovenous difference methods were used in conscious overnight-fasted dogs. A pancreatic clamp (somatostatin plus basal insulin and basal glucagon infusions) was used to control the endocrine pancreas. After a 40-min basal period, a 180-min experimental period followed in which selective increases in peripheral (PERI group, n = 5) or portal-vein (PORT group, n = 5) insulin were induced. In control dogs (CONT group, n = 10), insulin was not increased. Glucagon levels were fixed in all studies, and basal euglycemia was maintained by peripheral glucose infusion in the two experimental groups. In the PERI group, arterial insulin rose from 36 ± 12 to 120 ± 12 pmol/l, while portal insulin was unaltered. In the PORT group, portal insulin rose from 108 ± 42 to 192 ± 42 pmol/l, while arterial insulin was unaltered. Neither arterial nor portal insulin ...
The need for the delivery of insulin by injection can be reduced or eliminated by delivering an aerosolized monomeric insulin formulation. Repeatability of dosing and more particularly the repeatability of the blood concentration versus time profile is improved relative to regular insulin. The blood concentration versus time profile is substantially unaffected by specific aspects of the patients breathing maneuver at delivery. Further, the rate at which blood glucose is lowered is increased by the use of monomeric insulin. Particles of insulin and in particular monomeric insulin delivered to the surface of lung tissue will be absorbed into the circulatory system. The monomeric insulin may be a dry powder but is preferably in a liquid formulation delivered to the patient from a hand-held, self-contained device which automatically releases an aerosolized burst of formulation. The device includes a sensor which is preferably electronic which measures inspiratory flow and volume which measurement can be
The need for the delivery of insulin by injection can be reduced or eliminated by delivering an aerosolized monomeric insulin formulation. Repeatability of dosing and more particularly the repeatability of the blood concentration versus time profile is improved relative to regular insulin. The blood concentration versus time profile is substantially unaffected by specific aspects of the patients breathing maneuver at delivery. Further, the rate at which blood glucose is lowered is increased by the use of monomeric insulin. Particles of insulin and in particular monomeric insulin delivered to the surface of lung tissue will be absorbed into the circulatory system. The monomeric insulin may be a dry powder but is preferably in a liquid formulation delivered to the patient from a hand-held, self-contained device which automatically releases an aerosolized burst of formulation. The device includes a sensor which is preferably electronic which measures inspiratory flow and volume which measurement can be
Numerous prospective studies in various populations indicate that insulin resistance and insulin secretory dysfunction predict the development of type 2 diabetes (1,2,3,4,5,6). However, the majority of these studies included both individuals with NGT and IGT at baseline and used indirect measures of insulin action and insulin secretion derived from an OGTT. Moreover, to date, only two groups of investigators have examined the metabolic predictors of progression from NGT to IGT (6,8). Thus, although these studies provide evidence for a pathogenic role of insulin resistance and insulin secretory dysfunction in the development of type 2 diabetes, they give only limited information as to the relative importance of these abnormalities during the different stages of the development of the disease.. In the present study, we addressed this question by assessing the predictive effects of insulin resistance and low early-phase insulin secretion separately for the progression from NGT to IGT and also from ...
The current study represents a further contribution to the search of molecular transducers involved in the insulin-sensitizing effect of exercise. Here, we provide evidence to support that AMPK is necessary for increasing insulin sensitivity to stimulate glucose uptake in EDL muscle after in situ contraction, as well as enhancing whole-body insulin sensitivity and insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake after a single bout of acute exercise. We establish a causal link between a contraction-regulated signal and the subsequent improvement in muscle insulin sensitivity. On the basis of our findings, we propose that contraction-induced activation of AMPK potentiates the ability of insulin to increase phosphorylation of TBC1D4 leading to enhanced muscle glucose uptake.. Theoretically, synthesis of new proteins involved in muscle glucose uptake may mediate improvements in skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity after contraction. However, we found that greater insulin-stimulated glucose uptake after ...
This dissertation work is focused on the insulin-signal-transduction pathways to glucose transport in skeletal muscle from animal models of NIDDM. The overall objective is to determine the effectiveness of different pharmacological treatments to improve insulin action in skeletal muscle. Muscle-fiber-type-specific differences in insulin signal transduction was first considered. We noted increased insulin action on insulin signaling events including; IR, IRS- 1, IRS-2, PI 3-kinase, and AKT occur in oxidative soleus muscle versus glycolytic EPI and EDL muscles. The time course for insulin signal transduction was similar between oxidative and glycolytic muscles. We assessed the molecular mechanism underlining insulin resistance in skeletal muscle from diabetic the Goto- Kakizaki (GK) rats, a non-obese model of NIDDM. Impaired insulin signaling and glucose transport occurred in a muscle-fiber-type specific manner in GK rats. For glucose transport, defects in maximal insulin stimulation occurred in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Autocrine effect of Zn2+ on the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. AU - Slepchenko, Kira G.. AU - Daniels, Nigel A.. AU - Aili, Guo. AU - Li, Yang V.. PY - 2015/9/25. Y1 - 2015/9/25. N2 - It is well known that zinc (Zn2+) is required for the process of insulin biosynthesis and the maturation of insulin secretory granules in pancreatic beta (β)-cells, and that changes in Zn2+ levels in the pancreas have been found to be associated with diabetes. Glucose-stimulation causes a rapid co-secretion of Zn2+ and insulin with similar kinetics. However, we do not know whether Zn2+ regulates insulin availability and secretion. Here we investigated the effect of Zn2+ on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in isolated mouse pancreatic islets. Whereas Zn2+ alone (control) had no effect on the basal secretion of insulin, it significantly inhibited GSIS. The application of CaEDTA, by removing the secreted Zn2+ from the extracellular milieu of the islets, resulted in significantly ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A new technique to assess insulin sensitivity in humans. T2 - The Rapid Insulin Sensitivity Test (RIST). AU - Patarrão, Rita S.. AU - Wayne Lautt, W.. AU - Guarino, Maria P.. AU - Afonso, Ricardo A.. AU - Ribeiro, Rogério T.. AU - Fernandes, Ana B.. AU - Boavida, José M.. AU - Macedo, Maria Paula. PY - 2007/12/1. Y1 - 2007/12/1. N2 - The objective of this study was to develop a Rapid Insulin Sensitivity Test (RIST) in humans, a test already used in animal studies. Insulin sensitivity was assessed using a rapid modified euglycemic clamp, the RIST. In this test, glucose disposition was determined after an intravenous (IV) bolus (50mU/kg bw administered over 30 seconds) of insulin, before and after feeding a standardized test meal, in healthy male subjects (aged 27.8±2.4 years, BMI 23.5±1.2 kg/m2). The RIST uses as the index of insulin sensitivity, the total amount of glucose required to be infused to maintain euglycemia during insulin action following an IV bolus of insulin. ...
The pancreatic beta cell is an incredible machine producing tens of thousands of insulin molecules every second. When this process works normally, the result is tight regulation of blood glucose and whole body energy stores. However, breakdowns in insulin processing can rapidly overwhelm the beta cell leading to beta cell stress, destruction, and ultimately diabetes. A striking example of this breakdown can be found in the disease MIDY (Mutant INS-gene induced Diabetes of Youth) in which production of a single mutant insulin molecule leads to dominant beta cell failure and diabetes. Now, Cunningham et al. report a potential new pathway that can be exploited to diminish mutant insulin and restore normal insulin secretion.. Misfolded proteins are commonly trapped in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where they are triaged by a process known as ER-associated degradation (ERAD) and ultimately destroyed by the cytoplasmic proteasome. Unfortunately, due to insulins capacity to form disulfide bonds, ...
Small and speedy. Human insulin is a hormone that is produced in the pancreas and secreted to aid in the bodys uptake of glucose. The insulin molecule consists of an A region and a B region. Diabetes mellitus disorders arise from impairment of the bodys normal production of insulin. The most effective treatment for diabetes is injection of synthetic insulin.. But a part of the B region causes insulin molecules to stick together and form aggregations of six insulin molecules. Its how insulin is stored in the pancreas. But injected insulin must de-aggregate into individual molecules before doing a person any good - and that process can take up to an hour. The fastest-acting insulin on the market, Humalog, still takes 15-30 minutes to become active. The ideal scenario would be to take the region off of the B chain Safavi says. But then you completely abolish insulin activity.. Chou, Safavi, and colleagues found that insulin produced by the cone snail Conus geographus lacked the segment ...
What is Insulin Resistance?. Under normal circumstances, insulin is tightly controlled by a natural homoeostatic feedback mechanism. With every meal, insulin is released as carbohydrates enter the blood stream. In a healthy body, the insulin receptors in the cell membranes respond to the hormone, and take up carbohydrates and other nutrients. This, in turn, reduces the production of insulin.. The problem starts when the tissue fails to respond to insulin. When this happens, the sugar in the blood remains high despite the presence of insulin, and the body has no choice but to release more insulin. It becomes a vicious cycle because it is actually the presence of insulin that makes the tissue more and more resistant to it.. This is how insulin exposure determines the rate of ageing: with every insulin release, cell membranes become a little bit more insulin resistant. A gradual increase in insulin concentration over time is normal, but the current epidemic of severe insulin resistance is a modern ...
The second messenger cAMP mediates potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin release. Use of inhibitors of cAMP-hydrolyzing phosphodiesterase (PDE) 3 and overexpression of PDE3B in vitro have demonstrated a regulatory role for this enzyme in insulin secretion. In this work, the physiological significance of PDE3B-mediated degradation of cAMP for the regulation of insulin secretion in vivo and glucose homeostasis was investigated in transgenic mice overexpressing PDE3B in pancreatic beta-cells. A 2-fold overexpression of PDE3B protein and activity blunted the insulin response to intravenous glucose, resulting in reduced glucose disposal. The effects were dose-dependent because mice overexpressing PDE3B 7-fold failed to increase insulin in response to glucose and hence exhibited pronounced glucose intolerance. Also, the insulin secretory response to intravenous glucagon-like peptide 1 was reduced in vivo. Similarly, islets stimulated in vitro exhibited reduced insulin secretory capacity in ...
A system and method for generating a personalized diabetes management tool for diabetes mellitus is provided. An insulin activity curve for a patient population for an insulin preparation for diabetes mellitus treatment is identified. A personal insulin activity model for the patient is generated. An insulin sensitivity is determined by taking a derivative of the rate of change of blood glucose over time for the insulin preparation. An insulin sensitivity coefficient for the insulin preparation for a patient of diabetes mellitus is established. The insulin sensitivity coefficient is applied to the patient population insulin activity curve over a duration of action of the insulin preparation.
Intensive insulin therapy or flexible insulin therapy is a therapeutic regimen for diabetes mellitus treatment. This newer approach contrasts with conventional insulinotherapy. Rather than minimize the number of insulin injections per day (a technique which demands a rigid schedule for food and activities), the intensive approach favors flexible meal times with variable carbohydrate as well as flexible physical activities. The trade-off is the increase from 2 or 3 injections per day to 4 or more injections per day, which was considered intensive relative to the older approach. In North America in 2004, many endocrinologists prefer the term flexible insulin therapy (FIT) to intensive therapy and use it to refer to any method of replacing insulin that attempts to mimic the pattern of small continuous basal insulin secretion of a working pancreas combined with larger insulin secretions at mealtimes. The semantic distinction reflects changing treatment. Long-term studies like the UK ...
Podcast: Play in new window , Download. Subscribe: Apple Podcasts , Android , RSS. In episode 99 of the Real World Wellness podcast, Christine explains the critical role that insulin plays in lowering your glucose levels and how problems occur with insulin and lead to insulin resistance before you can detect prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. Since insulin resistance is associated with metabolic syndrome, PCOS, cancer, diabetes, and many other diseases, you want to get your insulin levels tested. Christine explains the risk factors for insulin resistance and what test to ask for. She also talks about the insulin index for food and beverages and what healthy foods produce a high insulin response and should be avoided.. Resources:. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18936729. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17259468. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18096375?log$=activity. Next Episode: Christine will talk more about strategies to increase insulin sensitivity ranging from supplements to ...
Elevated non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels may influence insulin secretion and contribute to the development of Type 2 DM. We investigated the effects of acute NEFA elevation in controls (n = 6) and subjects predisposed to Type 2 DM (n = 6) on basal insulin levels, and following glucose and arginine stimulation. Each subject had one study with a triglyceride (TG) plus heparin infusion (elevated NEFA levels) and another with normal saline. Twenty minutes after the TG or saline infusion began a glucose bolus was given and 10 min later a 90-min hyperglycaemic clamp (approximately 9 mmol l(-1)) was started. Intravenous arginine was given at 110 min. Elevated NEFA levels (approximately 4000 micromol l(-1)) did not enhance basal or first phase glucose stimulated insulin levels. During hyperglycaemia, NEFA elevation further increased insulin levels in both groups by 20-44% (p | 0.05) and C-peptide levels by 17-25% (p | 0.05). The post-arginine insulin levels during hyperglycaemia were increased by 45% in
589. An individual may get diabetes when the pancreas can no longer secrete the needed hormones that produce insulin. The insulin maintains the glucose in the blood to be normal. Low insulin means that the level of glucose, which is sugar in the blood, may get high and may lead to diabetes.. The autoimmune reaction is a type 1 diabetes where the cells in the pancreas organ that produces the needed insulin are destroyed. This results to the total loss of insulin in the hormones. …. diabetes. An individual may get diabetes when the pancreas can no longer secrete the needed hormones that produce insulin. The insulin maintains the glucose in the blood to be normal. Low insulin means that the level of glucose, which is sugar in the blood, may get high and may lead to diabetes.. The autoimmune reaction is a type 1 diabetes where the cells in the pancreas organ that produces the needed insulin are destroyed. This results to the total loss of insulin in the hormones. This happens because the body has ...
The importance of non-glucose carbohydrates, especially mannose and inositol, for normal development is increasingly recognized. Whether pregnancies complicated by abnormal glucose transfer to the fetus also affect the regulation of non-glucose carbohydrates is unknown. In pregnant sheep, maternal insulin infusions were used to reduce glucose supply to the fetus for both short (2-wk) and long (8-wk) durations to test the hypothesis that a maternal insulin infusion would suppress fetal mannose and inositol concentrations. We also used direct fetal insulin infusions (1-wk hyperinsulinemic-isoglycemic clamp) to determine the relative importance of fetal glucose and insulin for regulating non-glucose carbohydrates. A maternal insulin infusion resulted in lower maternal (50%, P | 0.01) and fetal (35-45%, P | 0.01) mannose concentrations, which were highly correlated (r2 = 0.69, P | 0.01). A fetal insulin infusion resulted in a 50% reduction of fetal mannose (P | 0.05). Neither maternal nor fetal plasma
Abstract:. Diabetes mellitus is a disease characterized by poor glycemic control which often leads to severe complications including cardiovascular disease and kidney failure. Many diabetic patients continually monitor their blood sugar and self-administer multiple daily doses of exogenous insulin to combat hyperglycemia. To reduce this patient burden, limit the occurrence of hypoglycemic events, and better mimic native insulin activity, therapies which can self-regulate insulin delivery are an attractive option. In this lecture, Volpatti will discuss three different glucose-responsive insulin delivery systems that she developed during her Ph.D. toward achieving this goal. These polymeric delivery systems encapsulate and store insulin until it is needed to combat elevated blood sugar levels. In normal glucose conditions, insulin release is minimal but is rapidly (, 1 h) released in response to hyperglycemia in a diabetic mouse model. More generally, the platforms developed here may be used for ...
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of blindness in working age adults. Approximately 95% of patients with Type 1 diabetes develop some degree of retinopathy within 25 years of diagnosis despite normalization of blood glucose by insulin therapy. The goal of this study was to identify molecular changes in the rodent retina induced by diabetes that are not normalized by insulin replacement and restoration of euglycemia. The retina transcriptome (22,523 genes and transcript variants) was examined after three months of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male Sprague Dawley rats with and without insulin replacement for the later one and a half months of diabetes. Selected gene expression changes were confirmed by qPCR, and also examined in independent control and diabetic rats at a one month time-point. Transcriptomic alterations in response to diabetes (1376 probes) were clustered according to insulin responsiveness. More than half (57%) of diabetes-induced mRNA changes (789 probes) observed at
IGFs are important regulators of pancreatic beta-cell development, growth, and maintenance. Mutations in the IGF genes have been found to be associated with type 2 diabetes, myocardial infarction, birth weight, and obesity. These associations could result from changes in insulin secretion. We have analyzed glucose-stimulated insulin secretion using hyperglycemic clamps in carriers of a CA repeat in the IGF-I promoter and an ApaI polymorphism in the IGF-II gene. Normal and impaired glucose-tolerant subjects (n = 237) were independently recruited from three different populations in the Netherlands and Germany to allow independent replication of associations. Both first- and second-phase insulin secretion were not significantly different between the various IGF-I or IGF-II genotypes. Remarkably, noncarriers of the IGF-I CA repeat allele had both a reduced insulin sensitivity index (ISI) and disposition index (DI), suggesting an altered balance between insulin secretion and insulin action. Other diabetes
There is a recognised need to develop insulin products with faster onset of action compared with the current state-of-the-art prandial insulin products. Prandial insulin is used by diabetics to control the blood glucose rise after meals. To ensure effective blood glucose management it is essential that, once injected, insulin begins to act as rapidly as possible. Whilst there has been good progress in developing rapid acting insulins in the last two decades, there is a strong need to develop products that are even more rapid-acting to ensure lower variability of post-meal blood glucose elevations and lower rates of hypoglycaemia. Ultra-rapid acting insulin is also a key component required for the development of efficient closed-loop pump systems that would enable automatic glucose control based on a combination of continuous glucose measurement, smart algorithms to decide how much insulin ultra-rapid acting insulin to deliver via an insulin pump. The rapidity of response is critical in such ...
Insulin was the first hormone measured successfully by radioisotope immunoassay, and insulin assay is now available in most sizable reference laboratories. Insulin is excreted primarily through the kidneys. In general, juvenile diabetics have low fasting insulin levels, and an OGTT using insulin determinations usually produces a flat curve. Mild diabetics have normal fasting insulin levels and display an insulin GTT curve that has a delayed rise, either to normal height or to a point moderately above normal; in either case the curve thereafter falls in a normal fashion. Decreased tolerance due to many other causes produces similar curves; an insulin OGTT has not been more efficient in uncovering subclinical diabetes than blood glucose OGTT. Some maintain that the ratio of insulin values to glucose values obtained on the same specimen during the OGTT is more reliable than insulin values alone. At any rate, most investigators believe that, at present, plasma insulin levels should not be used for ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lack of change of lipoprotein(a) levels by the optimization of glycemic control with insulin therapy in NIDDM patients. AU - Caixas̀, Assumpta. AU - Pérez, Antonio. AU - Ordóñez-Llanos, Jordi. AU - Bonet, Rosa. AU - Rigla, Mercedes. AU - Castellví, Agustina. AU - Bayén, L.. AU - De Leiva, Alberto. PY - 1997/1/1. Y1 - 1997/1/1. N2 - OBJECTIVE - To evaluate the effect of glycemic control improvement with insulin therapy on lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels in patients with NIDDM. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - We performed a longitudinal study in a tertiary referral center to compare lipid and Lp(a) levels before and after 3 months of insulin therapy in 60 poorly controlled NIDDM patients (32 men, 28 women). Patients previously treated with oral hypoglycemic agents (n = 50) received one to two insulin doses, and those previously treated with insulin (n = 10) received multiple insulin doses. Lp(a) levels were measured by the Terumo method. Differences between the two periods were ...
Obesity is considered a state of low-grade inflammation, and this inflammation is strongly related to development of systematic insulin resistance. Hyperglycemia develops during insulin resistance as insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in peripheral insulin sensitive tissues is reduced. Hepatic insulin resistance is often accompanied with increased gluconeogenesis and increased hepatic glucose output, which further increase blood glucose. To cope with the hyperglycemia, the pancreatic -cells compensate by increasing insulin secretion. However, after a certain amount of time, the -cells are no longer able to compensate, and insulin production stops. This may be accompanied with apoptosis in the -cells. Indomethacin is an NSAID and a non-selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1) and 2 (COX-2). In this study we have demonstrated that COX-inhibition using indomethacin, attenuated high fat/high sucrose-induced obesity in C57BL/6J mice. Obesity and glucose intolerance ...
The risk of surgical site infection has been reported to be higher in patients with poorly controlled diabetes. Since chronic hyperglycemia impairs neutrophil functions, preoperative glycemic control may restore neutrophil function. However, long-term insulin therapy may lead to a delay in surgery, which may be a problem, especially in cancer surgery. It is therefore unfortunate that there have been few studies in which the optimal duration of perioperative glycemic control for diabetes with chronic hyperglycemia was investigated. Therefore, we investigated the effects of preoperative long-term insulin therapy and short-term insulin therapy on perioperative neutrophil functions in diabetic mice with chronic hyperglycemia. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 J mice were divided into four groups (No insulin (Diabetes Mellitus: DM), Short-term insulin (DM), Long-term insulin (DM), and Non-diabetic groups). Diabetes was established by administrating repeated low-dose streptozotocin. The Short-term insulin (DM) group
β-cells release hexameric Zn2+-insulin into the extracellular space, but monomeric Zn2+-free insulin appears to be the only biologically active form. The mechanisms implicated in dissociation of the hexamer remain unclear, but they seem to be Zn2+ concentration-dependent. In this study, we investigate the influence of albumin binding to Zn2+ on Zn2+-insulin dissociation into Zn2+-free insulin and its physiological, methodological and therapeutic relevance. Glucose and K+-induced insulin release were analyzed in isolated mouse islets by static incubation and perifusion experiments in the presence and absence of albumin and Zn2+ chelators. Insulin tolerance tests were performed in rats using different insulin solutions with and without Zn2+ and/or albumin. Albumin-free buffer does not alter quantification by RIA of Zn2+-free insulin but strongly affects RIA measurements of Zn2+-insulin. In contrast, accurate determination of Zn2+-insulin was obtained only when bovine serum albumin or Zn2+ ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of duration of type 2 diabetes mellitus on insulin secretion. AU - Zangeneh, Farhad. AU - Arora, Puneet S.. AU - Dyck, Peter J.. AU - Bekris, Lynn. AU - Lernmark, Ake. AU - Achenbach, Sara J.. AU - Oberg, Ann L.. AU - Rizza, Robert A.. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. N2 - Objective: To gain insight into the effects of duration of type 2 diabetes on insulin secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: C-peptide concentrations were measured every 2 years before and after intravenous injection of 1 mg of glucagon in 89 patients with type 2 diabetes (51 men and 38 women) as part of the Rochester Diabetic Neuropathy Study in those subjects who participated in follow-up (median, 12 years; range, 6 to 14). Results: Although insulin secretion decreased over time (P,0.001) in the group as a whole, both the pattern and the rate of decline in C-peptide concentration differed considerably among the study subjects. Insulin secretion, whether measured as fasting C-peptide, ...
Different people need different types of insulin, so your treatment needs to be tailored to suit you. Your GP-or an endocrinologist-will prescribe the insulin that best suits your lifestyle and blood glucose level targets and advise you on how to use this insulin properly.. The different types of insulin are grouped together based on how long the insulin works in the body. There are five types of insulin (see table below). Insulin can be given as a basal or bolus dose. Basal insulin is a background insulin (intermediate or long acting). Bolus insulin is an ultra-short or short-acting insulin that is usually given with meals.. You may be prescribed more than one type of insulin depending on the type of diabetes you have and your individual management plan. Your insulin needs can also change over time, so its important to have regular reviews of your diabetes management with your GP or CDE. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Insulin receptor phosphorylation may not be a prerequisite for acute insulin action. AU - Simpson, Ian A.. AU - Hedo, José A.. PY - 1984/1/1. Y1 - 1984/1/1. N2 - An antiserum to the insulin receptor mimicked insulins acute actions on glucose transport, phosphorylation of integral membrane proteins, and internalization of the insulin receptor in isolated rat adipose cells. These insulinomimetic actions of the antiserum occurred without the equivalent increase in phosphorylation of the β subunit of the insulin receptor observed with insulin. Thus, a role of receptor phosphorylation in acute insulin action is now questioned.. AB - An antiserum to the insulin receptor mimicked insulins acute actions on glucose transport, phosphorylation of integral membrane proteins, and internalization of the insulin receptor in isolated rat adipose cells. These insulinomimetic actions of the antiserum occurred without the equivalent increase in phosphorylation of the β subunit of the insulin ...
We have developed a radioimmunoassay for human insulin receptor. Serum from a patient with Type B severe insulin resistance was used as anti-insulin receptor antiserum. Pure human placental insulin receptor was used as reference preparation and 125I labeled pure insulin receptor as trace. The radioimmunoassay was sensitive (limit of detection less than 17 fmol), reproducible (inter and intra-assay coefficients of variation 12.5% and 1.6% respectively) and specific (no crossreactivity with pure placental IGF-1 receptor, insulin and glucagon). The anti-insulin receptor antibody was, however, able to differentiate between insulin receptor from human placenta and from rat liver. To determine the number of insulin binding sites per receptor, we measured insulin binding (by insulin binding assay) and insulin receptor mass (by radioimmunoassay) in solubilized aliquots from 5 human placentas. The molar ratio of insulin binding to receptor mass was 0.86 +/- 0.12 when binding was determined with
Insulin is obtained from pork pancreas or is made chemically identical to human insulin by recombinant DNA technology or chemical modification of pork insulin. Insulin analogs have been developed by modifying the amino acid sequence of the insulin molecule.. Insulin is available in rapid-, short-, intermediate-, and long-acting types that may be injected separately or mixed in the same syringe. Rapid-acting insulin analogs (insulin lispro and insulin aspart) are available, and other analogs are in development. Regular is a short-acting insulin. Intermediate-acting insulins include lente and NPH. Ultralente and insulin glargine are long-acting insulins. Insulin preparations with a predetermined proportion of intermediate-acting insulin mixed with short- or rapid-acting insulin (e.g., 70% NPH/30% regular, 50% NPH/50% regular, and 75% NPL/25% insulin lispro) are available.. Different companies have adopted different names for the same short-, intermediate-, or long-acting types of insulin or their ...
Background: To evaluate the determinants of intensive insulin regimens (ITs) in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Methods: This multicenter study was conducted between December 2008 and December 2010 in 28 public clinics in 20 Brazilian cities. Data were obtained from 3,591 patients (56.0% female, 57.1% Caucasian). Insulin regimens were classified as follows: group 1, conventional therapy (CT) (intermediate human insulin, one to two injections daily); group 2 (three or more insulin injections of intermediate plus regular human insulin); group 3 (three or more insulin injections of intermediate human insulin plus short-acting insulin analogues); group 4, basal-bolus (one or two insulin injections of long-acting plus short-acting insulin analogues or regular insulin); and group 5, basal-bolus with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). Groups 2 to 5 were considered IT groups. Results: We obtained complete data from 2,961 patients. Combined intermediate plus regular human insulin was ...
A series of studies is described in which specific and conventional insulin immunoassays, the hyperinsulinaemic clamp technique and forearm venous occlusion plethysmography with local intra-arterial infusions have been used to investigate: the effect of insulin assay specificity on the relationships among serum insulin concentrations, insulin sensitivity, and blood pressure in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects with and without essential hypertension (Chapter 5) the effect of sustained physiological activation of the renin-angiotensin system induced by moderate dietary sodium restriction on insulin sensitivity in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (Chapter 6) the relationship between endothelial function and insulin sensitivity in healthy subjects (Chapter 7) Prior to these investigations, preliminary studies (Chapters 3 and 4) were performed in order to validate aspects of the clinical physiological techniques required for the measurement of blood flow and insulin ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Free fatty acid-induced peripheral insulin resistance augments splanchnic glucose uptake in healthy humans. AU - Bajaj, Mandeep. AU - Berria, Rachele. AU - Pratipanawatr, Thongchai. AU - Kashyap, Sangeeta. AU - Pratipanawatr, Wilailak. AU - Belfort, Renata. AU - Cusi, Kenneth. AU - Mandarino, Lawrence. AU - Defronzo, Ralph A.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - To investigate the effect of elevated plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations on splanchnic glucose uptake (SGU), we measured SGU in nine healthy subjects (age, 44 ± 4 yr; body mass index, 27.4 ± 1.2 kg/m2; fasting plasma glucose, 5.2 ± 0.1 mmol/l) during an Intralipid-heparin (LIP) infusion and during a saline (Sal) infusion. SGU was estimated by the oral glucose load (OGL)insulin clamp method: subjects received a 7-h euglycemic insulin (100 mU·m-2·min-1) clamp, and a 75-g OGL was ingested 3 h after the insulin clamp was started. After glucose ingestion, the steady-state glucose infusion rate (GIR) during the insulin ...
Chronic insulin treatment in both cell lines (C2C12 and Huh7) causes a decrease in phosphorylation of Akt, which is a hallmark of insulin resistance at the cellular level. The same effect was observed in both cell lines after chronic palmitate treatment. Chronic insulin treatment does not affect viability of (C2C12 and Huh7), while palmitate treatment decreases cell viability in both cell types. Chronic insulin treatment does not affect mitochondrial respiration, at variance with chronic palmitate treatment, which decreases respiration in C2C12 and Huh7 cells. However, chronic insulin treatment causes a decrease in respiratory acceptor control ratio (RCR) in C2C12, as observed with palmitate treatment. This is not the case for Huh7 cells, where RCR is unchanged after insulin treatment, while lowered only after palmitate treatment. Total ROS production does not change significantly in either cell line. Both C2C12 and Huh7 cells showed preserved mitochondrial morphology after chronic insulin ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dose-response characteristics for effects of insulin on production and utilization of glucose in man.. AU - Rizza, R. A.. AU - Mandarino, L. J.. AU - Gerich, J. E.. PY - 1981/6/1. Y1 - 1981/6/1. N2 - To determine the dose-response characteristics for the effects of insulin on glucose production, glucose utilization, and overall glucose metabolism in normal man, 15 healthy subjects were infused with insulin for 8 h at sequential rates ranging from 0.2 to 5.0 mU.kg-1.min-1; each rate was used for 2 h. Glucose production and utilization were measured isotopically ([3-3H]glucose). Tissue insulin receptor occupancy was estimated from erythrocyte insulin binding. Glucose production was completely suppressed at plasma insulin concentrations of approximately 60 microunits/ml. Maximal glucose utilization (10-11 mg.kg-1.min-1) occurred at insulin concentrations of 200-700 microunits/ml. The concentration of insulin causing half-maximal glucose utilization (55 + 7 microunits/ml) was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Membrane-targeted phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase mimics insulin actions and induces a state of cellular insulin resistance. AU - Egawa, Katsuya. AU - Sharma, Prem M.. AU - Nakashima, Naoki. AU - Huang, Yi. AU - Huver, Evana. AU - Boss, Gerry R.. AU - Olefsky, Jerrold M.. PY - 1999/5/14. Y1 - 1999/5/14. N2 - Phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase plays an important role in various insulin-stimulated biological responses including glucose transport, glycogen synthesis, and protein synthesis. However, the molecular link between PI 3- kinase and these biological responses is still unclear. We have investigated whether targeting of the catalytic p110 subunit of PI 3-kinase to cellular membranes is sufficient and necessary to induce PI 3-kinase dependent signaling responses, characteristic of insulin action. We overexpressed Myc- tagged, membrane-targeted p110 (p110(CAAX)), and wild-type p110 (p110(WT)) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer. Overexpressed p110(CAAX) ...
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Microtubules - cellular highways that deliver cargo to the cell membrane for secretion - have a surprising role in pancreatic beta cells. Instead of facilitating glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, they limit it, a team of Vanderbilt investigators reported recently in Developmental Cell.. The findings reveal that microtubules act as a cellular rheostat to precisely control insulin secretion and suggest that disturbance of this control may contribute to beta cell dysfunction and type 2 diabetes. Targeting the microtubule regulation of insulin secretion may offer new ways to treat diabetes.. Irina Kaverina, Ph.D., Xiadong Zhu, Ph.D., and colleagues began using pancreatic beta cells as a model to study microtubule function - to explore how microtubules traffic cargo such as insulin granules from the cell interior to the periphery.. In their initial studies, the researchers used compounds to destroy the microtubules, then stimulated the pancreatic islets with glucose and measured how much ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The in vivo interaction between gliclazide and glibenclamide and insulin on glucose disposal in the rat. AU - Tanira, Musbah O M. AU - Furman, Brian L.. PY - 1999/5. Y1 - 1999/5. N2 - Many reports suggest that extrapancreatic actions contribute to the antidiabetic effect of sulphonylurea drugs (SUs). In this work, the ability of two SUs, namely, gliclazide and glibenclamide, to augment insulin action was studied in vivo. Both drugs elevated the plasma concentration of immunoreactive insulin (IRI) and lowered the plasma concentrations of glucose and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) in normal intact rats. These changes were not reproduced in alloxan-diabetic or eviscerated rats. The actions of insulin on plasma glucose and NEFA were not augmented by gliclazide in alloxan-diabetic rats. Neither gliclazide nor glibenclamide (given acutely and for 30 days) augmented the actions of exogenously administered insulin in reducing plasma glucose or NEFA concentrations in intact or ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A comparative study of amino acid consumption by rat islet cells and the clonal beta-cell line BRIN-BD11 - the functional significance of L-alanine. AU - Dixon, G. AU - Nolan, J. AU - McClenaghan, Neville. AU - Flatt, Peter. AU - Newsholme, P. PY - 2003/12. Y1 - 2003/12. N2 - Evidence has been published that L-alanine may, under appropriate conditions, promote insulin secretion in normal rodent islets and various beta cell lines. Previous results utilising the clonal beta-cell line BRIN-BD11, demonstrated that alanine dramatically elevated insulin release by a mechanism requiring oxidative metabolism. We demonstrate in this paper that addition Of L-alanine had an insulinotropic effect in dispersed primary islet cells. Addition Of D-glucose increased L-alanine consumption in both BRIN-BD11 cells and primary islet cells. L-glutamine consumption in the BRIN-BD11 cell line and primary rat islets was also determined. The consumption rate was in line with that previously reported for ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pathophysiology of hyperinsulinemia following pancreas transplantation. T2 - Altered pulsatile versus basal insulin secretion and the role of specific transplant anatomy in dogs. AU - Earnhardt, Richard C.. AU - Veldhuis, Johannes D. AU - Cornett, Greg. AU - Hanks, John B.. AU - Andersen, Dana K.. AU - Brunicardi, F. Charles. AU - Thomas, Francis T.. AU - Najarian, John S.. PY - 2002/10. Y1 - 2002/10. N2 - Objective: To evaluate the effect of the anatomical alterations of the pancreas required for transplantation on pulsatile insulin secretion. Summary Background Data: Pancreas transplantation involves anatomical changes that have unknown consequences on glucose homeostasis. Pancreas transplant patients are free of exogenous insulin requirements, yet appear to have endogenous hyperinsulinemia. The effect of surgical alterations on posttransplant insulin release is not completely known, specifically with regards to possible alterations in patterns of pulsatile release. Methods: ...
As demonstrated by increased hippocampal insulin receptor density following learning in animal models and decreased insulin signaling, receptor density, and memory decline in aging and Alzheimers disease, numerous studies have emphasized the importance of insulin in learning and memory processes. This has been further supported by work showing that intranasal delivery of insulin can enhance insulin receptor signaling, alter cerebral blood flow, and improve memory recall. Additionally, inhibition of insulin receptor function or expression using molecular techniques has been associated with reduced learning. Here, we sought a different approach to increase insulin receptor activity without the need for administering the ligand. A constitutively active, modified human insulin receptor (IRβ) was delivered to the hippocampus of young (2 months) and aged (18 months) male Fischer 344 rats in vivo. The impact of increasing hippocampal insulin receptor expression was investigated using several outcome ...
Accumulated evidence suggests that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generated in cells during insulin stimulation plays an integral role in insulin receptor signal transduction. The role of insulin-induced H2O2 in neuronal insulin receptor activation and the origin of insulin-induced H2O2 in neurons remain unclear. The aim of the present study is to test the following hypotheses (1) whether insulin-induced H2O2 is required for insulin receptor autophosphorylation in neurons, and (2) whether mitochondrial respiratory chain is involved in insulin-stimulated H2O2 production, thus playing an integral role in insulin receptor autophosphorylation in neurons. Insulin stimulation elicited rapid insulin receptor autophosphorylation accompanied by an increase in H2O2 release from cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGN). N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a H2O2 scavenger, inhibited both insulin-stimulated H2O2 release and insulin-stimulated autophosphorylation of insulin receptor. Inhibitors of respiratory chain-mediated H2O2
TY - JOUR. T1 - SAD-A Potentiates Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion as a Mediator of Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Response in Pancreatic β Cells. AU - Nie, Jia. AU - Lilley, Brendan N.. AU - Pan, Y. Albert. AU - Faruque, Omar. AU - Liu, Xiaolei. AU - Zhang, Weiping. AU - Sanes, Joshua R.. AU - Han, Xiao. PY - 2013/7/1. Y1 - 2013/7/1. N2 - Type 2 diabetes is characterized by defective glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic cells, which can be restored by glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), an incretin hormone commonly used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. However, molecular mechanisms by which GLP-1 affects glucose responsiveness in islet β cells remain poorly understood. Here we investigated a role of SAD-A, an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-related kinase, in regulating GSIS in mice with conditional SAD-A deletion. We show that selective deletion of SAD-A in pancreas impaired incretins effect on GSIS, leading to glucose intolerance. Conversely, overexpression of ...
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Patients were randomly assigned, using a 1:1 block randomization scheme, to either the experimental protocol using a continuous insulin infusion (CII) protocol (1) or to the control group using a standard intermittent sliding-scale insulin bolus (IIB) protocol (2). In the CII regimen, the target blood glucose concentration was 100-150 mg/dl. If blood glucose levels exceeded 150 mg/dl, a continuous insulin infusion was initiated. Adjustments to the insulin infusion were determined by both the current blood glucose concentrations and insulin infusion rates and as specified in 1. Changes in the insulin infusion rate were made by the anesthesiologist in the operating room and by the patients nurse in the postanesthetic care unit and vascular intensive care unit. This protocol had previously been evaluated and shown to achieve blood glucose concentrations within the target range in more than 70% of patients.9 Blood glucose levels were measured in the CII group every hour until stable. Blood glucose ...
Objective: Skeletal muscle AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is important for regulating glucose homeostasis, mitochondrial content and exercise capacity. R419 is a mitochondrial complex-I inhibitor that has recently been shown to acutely activate AMPK in myotubes. Our main objective was to examine whether R419 treatment improves insulin sensitivity and exercise capacity in obese insulin resistant mice and whether skeletal muscle AMPK was important for mediating potential effects. Methods: Glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, exercise capacity, and electron transport chain content/activity were examined in wildtype (WT) and AMPK β1β2 muscle-specific null (AMPK-MKO) mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) with or without R419 supplementation. Results: There was no change in weight gain, adiposity, glucose tolerance or insulin sensitivity between HFD-fed WT and AMPK-MKO mice. In both HFD-fed WT and AMPK-MKO mice, R419 enhanced insulin tolerance, insulin-stimulated glucose disposal, skeletal muscle ...
Fetal rat pancreatic cells were isolated from pancreatic primordia on days 12-14 of pregnancy and cultured for 48 h in the presence of 5 mmol/l glucose. Insulin accumulation in the medium over the next 24 h was measured. Cultured cells from day 12 fetuses secreted about 1 fmol insulin per pancreas in response to 5 or 15 mmol/l glucose irrespective of whether 1 mmol/l tolbutamide, 400 mumol/l diazoxide, 5 mmol/l theophylline or 10 mmol/l mannoheptulose was present. In contrast, insulin released from day 13 cultured cells increased significantly from 3.0 +/- 0.6 to 6.2 +/- 2.2 fmol per pancreas, when the glucose concentration was raised. Tolbutamide increased, diazoxide and mannoheptulose decreased and theophylline had no effect on insulin release. Even more pronounced effects were found on insulin release from day 14 cultured cells, in which theophylline also increased the release. In addition, insulin release from cells from pregnancy day 14 was 75 +/- 16 amol/min per pancreas when the cells ...
The effect of xylazine and xylazine followed 20 minutes later by insulin upon glucose metabolism and plasma insulin concentrations was examined in three cows. After doses of 0.18 mg per kg xylazine given intramuscularly (IM) or 0.15 mg per kg given intravenously (IV) hepatic glucose production increased, plasma insulin concentrations decreased to 25 to 33 per cent of control values, and there was a prolonged hyperglycaemia. When 200 units of soluble insulin were given 20 minutes after similar doses of xylazine there was a rapid fall in blood glucose and a reduction in the rate of glucose production by the liver. Xylazine-induced hyperglycaemia arose from a combination of increased hepatic glucose production and reduced plasma insulin concentrations. Peripheral tissues were still responsive to insulin and when adequate insulin was available blood glucose concentrations rapidly decreased.. ...
New Insulin Analog The first of possibly 2 new insulin analogs to be introduced this year was approved by the FDA in late April. Insulin glargine is an insulin analog produced by recombinant DNA technology. A glycine substitution on the A-chain and the extension on the B-chain of 2 arginine residues creates a shift in the isoeletric point, reducing the aqueous solubility of this insulin at physiologic pH. Furthermore, the hexomeric structure of this molecule is stabilized which causes a delay in the dissociation into monomers. Consequently, insulin glargine has a delayed and prolonged absorption.The absorption of insulin glargine is flat and lasts 24 hours. Perhaps even more importantly, the absorption is more consistent, compared with the other commonly used basal insulins, NPH and Ultralente. The need to separate basal from prandial insulins will continue to become more important as insulin therapies for type 1 diabetes continues to evolve.Studies for insulin glargine show 1 common theme -- a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Defects in insulin receptor signaling in vivo in the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). AU - Dunaif, Andrea. AU - Wu, Xinqi. AU - Lee, Anna. AU - Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia. PY - 2001/8/27. Y1 - 2001/8/27. N2 - Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are insulin resistant secondary to a postbinding defect in insulin signaling. Sequential euglycemic glucose clamp studies at 40 and 400 mU·m-2·min-1 insulin doses with serial skeletal muscle biopsies were performed in PCOS and age-, weight-, and ethnicity-matched control women. Steady-state insulin levels did not differ, but insulin-mediated glucose disposal was significantly decreased in PCOS women (P , 0.05). Insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3K) activity was significantly decreased in PCOS (n = 12) compared with control skeletal muscle (n = 8; P , 0.05). There was no significant difference in the abundance of IR, IRS-1, or the p85 regulatory subunit of PI 3K in PCOS (n = 14) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immunobiological consequence of regulation of insulin receptor on alloactivated lymphocytes in normal and obese subjects. AU - Koffler, Michael. AU - Raskin, Philip. AU - Womble, Debra. AU - Helderman, J. Harold. PY - 1991/1/1. Y1 - 1991/1/1. N2 - Acute manipulations of insulin in vivo regulate the display of insulin receptors induced on activated T lymphocytes after presentation of alloantigen. This study explored the immunobiological consequences of regulation of insulin-receptor display by acute manipulations of insulin achieved during the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp in healthy normal individuals and obese subjects. T lymphocytes were isolated at 0, 1, and 4 h of hyperinsulinemia from seven normal volunteers and seven obese individuals and studied for their capacity to 1) synthesize a complement of insulin receptors on cell membrane, 2) respond to alloantigen in the mixed-lymphocyte culture (an immunologic activity unrelated to manipulations in insulin concentrations in ...
Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a progressive disorder of β-cell dysfunction until majority of patients with a longer duration of diabetes remain poorly controlled with oral agents, and use of insulin, which could improve glycemic control .Guidelines from the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes recommend that insulin secretagogues such as sulfonylureas be discontinued at the time of insulin initiation to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia, and that treatment be intensified if HbA1c levels remain above-target 3 months after insulin initiation. Study design and methods: It was a prospective study and patients diagnosed with T2DM initiating insulin and no prior insulin use. The study duration was six months (December 2016 to May 2017) among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients at Karuna Medical College and Hospital, Diabetic centre, Quality clinic-Palakkad. Result and Discussion: Out of total 308 study populations, 226(73.37%) were taking ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Do low glycemic index diets increase insulin sensitivity in overweight or obese patients?. AU - Jana, Kyu. PY - 2016/12/1. Y1 - 2016/12/1. N2 - Among overweight or obese patients without diabetes mellitus, lower glycemic index (GI) diets alone do not improve insulin sensitivity. However, low GI diets combined with high-intensity exercise do improve insulin sensitivity (SOR: C, trials using disease-oriented outcomes).. AB - Among overweight or obese patients without diabetes mellitus, lower glycemic index (GI) diets alone do not improve insulin sensitivity. However, low GI diets combined with high-intensity exercise do improve insulin sensitivity (SOR: C, trials using disease-oriented outcomes).. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85050716267&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85050716267&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:85050716267. VL - 19. SP - E12. JO - Evidence-Based Practice. JF - Evidence-Based Practice. SN - ...
The purpose of this study is to compare the change in glycemic control, as measured by hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) from baseline to study week 24, in subjects receiving insulin glulisine as mealtime insulin following a variable bolus insulin regimen (based on carbohydrate counting) versus a fixed bolus insulin regimen, with insulin glargine as basal insulin in both arms of the study ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Correction of hyperglycemia with phlorizin normalizes tissues sensitivity to insulin in diabetic rats. AU - Rossetti, L.. AU - Smith, D.. AU - Shulman, G. I.. AU - Papachristou, D.. AU - DeFronzo, R. A.. PY - 1987. Y1 - 1987. N2 - Insulin resistance is characteristic of the diabetic state. To define the role of hyperglycemia in generation of the insulin resistance, we examined the effect of phlorizin treatment on tissue sensitivity to insulin in partially pancreatectomized rats. Five groups were studied: group I, sham-operated controls; group II, partially pancreatectomized diabetic rats with moderate glucose intolerance; group III, diabetic rats treated with phlorizin to normalize glucose tolerance; group IV, phlorizin-treated controls; and group V, phlorizin-treated diabetic rats restudied after discontinuation of phlorizin. Insulin sensitivity was assessed with the euglyemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique in awake, unstressed rats. Insulin-mediated glucose metabolism was ...
1. The effects of glucose on insulin secretion and Rb-86 efflux from isolated rat islets were studied at six different times during a 24-h period (00.00, 04.00, 08.00, 12.00, 16.00 and 20.00 h), 2. In the absence of glucose and in the presence of substimulatory concentrations (2.8 mmol/L) of the sugar, insulin secretion did not vary with the time of day. At a glucose concentration of 5.6 mmol/L the stimulated insulin secretion was greater than basal levels only at 20.00 h, 3. At a higher sugar concentration (8.3 mmol/L) the increase in insulin secretion and the reduction in Rb-86 efflux rate were more marked during the dark period. No effect of the time of day on insulin secretion was observed at glucose concentrations above 8.3 mmol/L (except in 27.7 mmol/L), 4. The time of day appears to affect insulin secretion mainly at glucose concentrations close to physiological values (5.6-8.3 mmol/L), 5. This result agrees with the ability of physiological amounts of glucose to alter the ...
To elucidate cellular mechanisms of insulin resistance induced by excess dietary fat, we studied conscious chronically high-fat-fed (HFF) and control chow diet-fed rats during euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic (560 pmol/l plasma insulin) clamps. Compared with chow diet feeding, fat feeding significantly impaired insulin action (reduced whole body glucose disposal rate, reduced skeletal muscle glucose metabolism, and decreased insulin suppressibility of hepatic glucose production [HGP]). In HFF rats, hyperinsulinemia significantly suppressed circulating free fatty acids but not the intracellular availability of fatty acid in skeletal muscle (long chain fatty acyl-CoA esters remained at 230% above control levels). In HFF animals, acute blockade of beta-oxidation using etomoxir increased insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake, via a selective increase in the component directed to glycolysis, but did not reverse the defect in net glycogen synthesis or glycogen synthase. In clamp HFF animals, etomoxir did not
Objectives: We aimed to determine the effect of short-term intensive insulin therapy (SIIT) on long-term glycemic control in newly-diagnosed Type-2 diabetes mellitus (nT2DM) patients.. Methods: In this retrospectively study conducted at Sakarya University Medical Faculty Training and Research Hospital Outpatient Clinic between 2016 and 2019, 65 nT2DM patients were enrolled soon after their SIIT was initiated and were followed for at least a year. Intensive insulin treatment was discontinued after three or 12 months in a total of 65 (23-73-year-old) patients who had been newly diagnosed with T2DM. Intensive insulin therapy was discontinued when glycemic control and the target Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) level had been attained, after which oral anti-diabetic drug (OAD), long-term insulin, and diet therapies were pursued.. Results: There was a significant decrease in mean HbA1c from 11.25±1.96% to 6.67±1.07%. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was found to be an independent predictor of whether ...
Insulin secretion and glucose disappearance rate were measured in 66 subjects with a wide range of fasting plasma glucose levels. The acute insulin response was present in subjects with fasting glucose levels below 115 mg/dl but was absent above this level. The glucose disappearance rate related to …
Recent epidemiological findings suggest that high levels of dietary acid load can affect insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism. Consumption of high protein diets results in the over-production of metabolic acids which has been associated with the development of chronic metabolic disturbances. Mild metabolic acidosis has been shown to impair peripheral insulin action and several epidemiological findings suggest that metabolic acid load markers are associated with insulin resistance and impaired glycemic control through an interference intracellular insulin signaling pathways and translocation. In addition, higher incidence of diabetes, insulin resistance, or impaired glucose control have been found in subjects with elevated metabolic acid load markers. Hence, lowering dietary acid load may be relevant for improving glucose homeostasis and prevention of type 2 diabetes development on a long-term basis. However, limitations related to patient acid load estimation, nutritional determinants, and
Insulin responses and insulin levels seem to decline with age. However, the question of beta cell impairment attributable to ageing has been sparsely addressed in population-based studies. Non-fasting insulin levels are determined by the ambient degree of insulin resistance together with the capacity of beta cells to compensate by insulin secretion to prevent hyperglycaemia. A raised proinsulin-to-insulin ratio (proinsulin/insulin) due to impaired processing of proinsulin is an early marker of beta cell dysfunction. We hypothesised that in a general population, signs of beta cell failure with advancing age manifest not only by decreases in random insulin, but also with a corresponding increase in its precursor proinsulin. In the Tromsø Study 1994-95 we measured insulin and proinsulin concentrations in random blood samples from 6212 persons without self-reported diabetes mellitus and plotted the levels as percentiles according to age. In regression analyses we assessed the relationships between age and
The Lancet. Insulin pumps are significantly more effective at controlling blood glucose (sugar) in people with type 2 diabetes who have failed to respond to the usual standard of care, multiple daily insulin injections, according to the largest international study to examine the safety and effectiveness of the pumps to treat type 2 diabetes, published in The Lancet.. Type 2 diabetes is usually controlled by diet and medication, but most people with advanced disease also end up needing insulin therapy to achieve control of their blood sugar. However, roughly a third of these patients struggle to achieve the right level of blood sugar control with insulin injections many times a day. The growing obesity epidemic is adding to the problem by leading to greater insulin resistance.. Insulin pumps are portable devices attached to the body which deliver constant amounts of rapid or short acting insulin via a catheter placed under the skin. Previous randomised trials comparing the efficacy of insulin ...
Insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells is stimulated by glucose metabolism. However, the relative importance of metabolizing glucose via mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation versus glycolysis for insulin secretion remains unclear. von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor protein, pVHL, negatively regulates hypoxia-inducible factor HIF1alpha, a transcription factor implicated in promoting a glycolytic form of metabolism. Here we report a central role for the pVHL-HIF1alpha pathway in the control of beta-cell glucose utilization, insulin secretion, and glucose homeostasis. Conditional inactivation of Vhlh in beta cells promoted a diversion of glucose away from mitochondria into lactate production, causing cells to produce high levels of glycolytically derived ATP and to secrete elevated levels of insulin at low glucose concentrations. Vhlh-deficient mice exhibited diminished glucose-stimulated changes in cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration, electrical activity, and insulin secretion, which culminate
The benefit of pre-mixed insulin is that the fast- and long-acting insulin is combined. No mixing of the insulin is necessary, and there is only one injection.. The disadvantage is that NPH, which has a relatively unpredictable action, is the only long-acting insulin that can be used. Also, when the doses in a mixture is increased or decreased, the amount both of the short acting insulin and long-acting insulin changes, which increases the risk of both high and low blood sugars. Mixtures also dont allow a separate correction to be made for high blood sugars.. (You may wonder why there are NO pre-mixed insulins using Lantus and detemir. This is because insulin glargine (Lantus®) and detemir (Levemir®) cannot be mixed in the same syringe with other insulins!). Pre-mixed insulins are usually prescribed for patients needing a simple insulin treatment plan, and sliding scale therapy.. ...
Our previous studies showed that loss-of-function mutation of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) results in increased longevity and enhanced insulin sensitivity in mice. However, the details of improved insulin action and tissue-specific insulin signaling are largely unknown in this healthy-aging mouse model. We conducted hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp to investigate mechanisms underlying enhanced insulin sensitivity in growth hormone (GH) deficient mice. Further, we assessed in vivo tissue-specific insulin activity via activation of PI3K-AKT and MAPK-ERK1/2 cascades using western blot. Clamp results showed that the glucose infusion rate required for maintaining euglycemia was much higher in GHRH-/- mice compared to WT controls. Insulin-mediated glucose production was largely suppressed, whereas glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue were significant enhanced in GHRH-/- mice compared to WT controls. Enhanced capacity of insulin-induced activation
The role of splanchnic glucose uptake (SGU) after oral glucose administration as a potential factor contributing to postprandial hyperglycemia in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) has not been established conclusively. Therefore, we investigated SGU in six patients with NIDDM and six w …
The initial conclusion here was that metformin only facilitates blood glucose reduction in the presence of insulin. Metformin should, theoretically, blunt the action of insulin. But if we consider that at high levels of insulin the function of that insulin is to limit its own action, I think it would be much better viewed as metformin blunts insulin induced insulin resistance. Insulin was bolused iv at 90 minutes. It will have given a massively supra-physiological plasma level. Insulin induced insulin resistance in the insulin treated group appears to be absent at 30 minutes (ie 120 minutes on the graph), to have started at 60 minutes (150 minutes on the graph) and to have gotten p to below 0.05 at 90 minutes (180 minutes on the graph). Of course under an-insulinaemic conditions there is no insulin signalling to facilitate or block, hence the zero to 90 minutes on the graph where metformin has no effect on blood glucose before insulin was bolused ...
In insulin dependent diabetes mellitus[edit]. In type 1 diabetes both DR3 and DQ2 appear to play a role. DR3-DQ2.5 can be ...
Carbohydrate-insulin hypothesis[edit]. Low-carbohydrate diet advocates including Gary Taubes and David Ludwig have proposed a " ... "carbohydrate-insulin hypothesis" in which carbohydrates are said to be uniquely fattening because they raise insulin levels and ... Hall KD (2017). "A review of the carbohydrate-insulin model of obesity". Eur J Clin Nutr (Review). 71 (3): 323-326. doi:10.1038 ... Beneficial effects on blood lipids and insulin resistance are due to the weight loss, not to the change in caloric composition ...
Insulin receptors[edit]. Another example is the binding of insulin to insulin receptors. Once released into the bloodstream ... In the absence of insulin, the two intracellular domains of the β subunits are separated. Binding with insulin triggers a ... insulin can bind to receptors on the surface of cells in muscle or other tissues. This receptor is a protein with an (αβ)2 ...
Pulsatile insulin secretion from individual beta cells is driven by oscillation of the calcium concentration in the cells. In ... Insulin release from The Islet of Langerhans is pulsatile with a period of 3-6 minutes.[9] ... The most common examples of hormones that are secreted pulsatilely include insulin, thyrotropin, TRH, gonadotropin-releasing ... Antidiabetics should increase the pulsative component of the insulin release]". Lakartidningen. 104 (32-33): 2236-9. PMID ...
Synthetic human insulin[edit]. In 1978, City of Hope researchers Arthur Riggs and Keiichi Itakura, working with Herbert Boyer ... City of Hope played a role in the development of synthetic human insulin in 1978. The center has performed 13,000 hematopoietic ... "First Successful Laboratory Production of Human Insulin Announced". Genentech. 1978-09-06. Retrieved 2011-01-20.. ... became the first scientists to produce synthetic human insulin.[7] City of Hope licensed patents based on Riggs's and Itakura's ...
Insulin resistance[edit]. Activation of PKC-θ by diacylglycerol may cause insulin resistance in muscle by decreasing IRS1- ... "Insulin receptor Thr1160 phosphorylation mediates lipid-induced hepatic insulin resistance". Journal of Clinical Investigation ... associated PI3K activity.[8] Similarly, activation of PKCε by diacyglycerol may cause insulin resistance in the liver.[8][9] ... "Diacylglycerol-mediated insulin resistance". Nature Medicine. 16 (4): 400-402. doi:10.1038/nm0410-400. PMC 3730126. PMID ...
Insulin synthesis[edit]. Beta cells are the only site of insulin synthesis in mammals.[4] As glucose stimulates insulin ... Sulfonylureas are insulin secretagogues that act by closing the ATP-sensitive potassium channels, thereby causing insulin ... Amylin can be described as a synergistic partner to insulin, where insulin regulates long term food intake and amylin regulates ... The beta cells can still secrete insulin but the body has developed a resistance and its response to insulin has declined.[3] ...
Insulins[edit]. *Insulin injection (soluble). *Intermediate-acting insulin. Oral hypoglycaemic agents[edit]. *Gliclazide[note ...
Insulin. *Agonists: Chaetochromin (4548-G05). *Insulin-like growth factor 1. *Insulin-like growth factor 2 ...
Insulin. *Agonists: Chaetochromin (4548-G05). *Insulin-like growth factor 1. *Insulin-like growth factor 2 ...
Insulin. *Agonists: Chaetochromin (4548-G05). *Insulin-like growth factor 1. *Insulin-like growth factor 2 ...
Insulin. *Agonists: Chaetochromin (4548-G05). *Insulin-like growth factor 1. *Insulin-like growth factor 2 ...
Oral anti-diabetic drugs, insulins and insulin analogs, and other drugs used in diabetes (A10) ...
Insulin. *Agonists: Chaetochromin (4548-G05). *Insulin-like growth factor 1. *Insulin-like growth factor 2 ...
Insulin. *Agonists: Chaetochromin (4548-G05). *Insulin-like growth factor 1. *Insulin-like growth factor 2 ...
Insulin. Normal Homozygous viability at P14. Normal Homozygous Fertility. Normal Body weight. Normal ...
Oral anti-diabetic drugs, insulins and insulin analogs, and other drugs used in diabetes (A10) ... "The dopamine receptor D2 agonist bromocriptine inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by direct activation of the α2- ...
... in response to the hypoglycaemia caused by insulin, rises in prolactin and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) caused by TRH and ... It followed earlier reports combining insulin and vasopressin analogues in the diagnosis of hypopituitarism.[4] ...
Insulin. *Agonists: Chaetochromin (4548-G05). *Insulin-like growth factor 1. *Insulin-like growth factor 2 ...
Insulin-like growth factors *Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). *Insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2) ...
... can stimulate secretion of aldosterone and the release of insulin. Kisspeptin appears to directly activate GnRH ...
Insulin. *Agonists: Chaetochromin (4548-G05). *Insulin-like growth factor 1. *Insulin-like growth factor 2 ...
Oral anti-diabetic drugs, insulins and insulin analogs, and other drugs used in diabetes (A10) ... which in turn increases insulin secretion, decreases gastric emptying, and decreases blood glucose levels. ...
Insulin. *Agonists: Chaetochromin (4548-G05). *Insulin-like growth factor 1. *Insulin-like growth factor 2 ...
Insulin. *Agonists: Chaetochromin (4548-G05). *Insulin-like growth factor 1. *Insulin-like growth factor 2 ...
Insulin. *Agonists: Chaetochromin (4548-G05). *Insulin-like growth factor 1. *Insulin-like growth factor 2 ...
... animal and human cells and its re-expression triggered beta cell proliferation and corrected glucose regulation via insulin ...
Insulin, widely used for the treatment of diabetes, was previously extracted from the pancreas of abattoir animals (cattle or ... To cite one example, in 1978 Genentech developed synthetic humanized insulin by joining its gene with a plasmid vector inserted ... Computer-generated image of insulin hexamers highlighting the threefold symmetry, the zinc ions holding it together, and the ... pigs). The genetically engineered bacteria are able to produce large quantities of synthetic human insulin at relatively low ...
... insulin; 5. DHEA; 6. melatonin; 7. thyroid; 8. pregnenolone. In theory, if all or some of these hormones are replaced, the body ...
insulin receptor (Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome). *Insulin resistance. Hyperfunction. *Hypoglycemia. *beta cell (Hyperinsulinism) ...
An insulin pen must never be used for more than one person-a CDC recommendation. ... Insulin pens are pen-shaped injector devices that contain a reservoir for insulin or an insulin cartridge. These devices are ... Insulin pens containing multiple doses of insulin are meant for use on a single person only, and should never be used for more ... Insulin pens are designed to be used multiple times, for a single person, using a new needle for each injection. Insulin pens ...
Serum insulin level, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance scores, leptin, and adiponectin levels decreased in the ... We hypothesized that the lemon detox program would reduce body weight, body fat mass, thus lowering insulin resistance and ... Lemon detox diet reduced body fat, insulin resistance, and serum hs-CRP level without hematological changes in overweight ... Therefore, we suppose that the lemon detox program reduces body fat and insulin resistance through caloric restriction and ...
Avoid or minimize sugar: High amounts of fructose and sucrose promote insulin resistance and raise insulin levels (. 10. , 11. ... Get enough magnesium: Insulin resistant people are often low in magnesium, and magnesium supplements can improve insulin ... When cells are insulin resistant (very common), both blood sugar and insulin levels go up significantly. ... Overeating - especially sugar, refined carbohydrates, and fast food - drives insulin resistance and increases insulin levels ( ...
An insulin pump is an alternative to multiple daily injections of insulin by insulin syringes or an insulin pen and allows for ... With an insulin pump there are many to consider. Some of the pros of insulin pump therapy are precise insulin delivery down to ... Use of insulin pumps is increasing because of: *Easy delivery of multiple insulin injections for those using intensive insulin ... Since the basal insulin is provided as a rapid-acting insulin, the basal insulin can be immediately increased or decreased as ...
Fasting insulin levels[edit]. A fasting serum insulin level greater than 25 mU/L or 174 pmol/L indicates insulin resistance. ... Modified insulin suppression test[edit]. Another measure of insulin resistance is the modified insulin suppression test ... to release insulin into the blood. The insulin makes insulin-sensitive tissues in the body (primarily skeletal muscle cells, ... Insulin resistance (IR) is a pathological condition in which cells fail to respond normally to the hormone insulin. ...
Viral insulin-like peptides activate human insulin and IGF-1 receptor signaling: A paradigm shift for host-microbe interactions ... Insulin promoter in human pancreatic β cells contacts diabetes susceptibility loci and regulates genes affecting insulin ... MicroRNA-277 targets insulin-like peptides 7 and 8 to control lipid metabolism and reproduction in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes Lin ... Serotonin signaling regulates insulin-like peptides for growth, reproduction, and metabolism in the disease vector Aedes ...
... types of insulin (short- or long-acting insulin), insulin intolerance, and insulin delivery systems (daily injections, insulin ... and guidelines about insulin therapy, including interpretation of glucose and insulin levels, ... Insulin Therapy : Review in-depth clinical information, latest medical news, ...
Skyrocketing cost of insulin pushes Americans to buy drug in Canada Insulin is a vital drug that some 7.4 million Americans ... The price of insulin in the U.S. has more than doubled since 2012 alone. Thats put the lifesaving hormone out of reach for ... Rising insulin prices are once again shining an uncomfortable spotlight on drug-company CEOs, who have been dutifully taking a ... The insulin market is heading for a shakeup. But patients may not benefit By Rebecca Robbins, STAT ...
Why give someone with prediabetes insulin? Most people do not want to get diabetes because they do not want to go on insulin, ... I gave the patient the choice of going on a DPP-4 inhibitor or going on a once-a-day shot of long-acting insulin in the hopes ... This experience taught me that insulin was helpful, that we do have this richness of clinical trials that are now available to ... It is just [long-acting] basal insulin, rates of hypoglycemia are low with it, and it is easily tolerated. ...
... the body doesnt let insulin do its job as well and its harder for glucose to get into the cells. This is called insulin ... Even though the pancreas is still making insulin, ... This is called insulin resistance. People who have insulin ... but the insulin cant work the way it should. Even though the pancreas is still making insulin, the body doesnt let insulin do ... Kids who are starting to get type 2 diabetes are still able to make insulin, ...
Insulin pens. Some insulin pens contain a cartridge of insulin that is inserted into the pen and some are pre-filled with ... Cartridges and pre-filled insulin pens only contain one type of insulin. Two injections must be given with an insulin pen if ... insulin and discarded after all the insulin has been used. The insulin dose is dialed on the pen, and the insulin is injected ... Insulin therapy. With the help of your health care team, you can find an insulin routine that will keep your blood sugar (blood ...
Characteristics of insulin. Insulin has 3 characteristics:. *Onset is the length of time before insulin reaches the bloodstream ... Duration is how long insulin continues to lower blood glucose.. Insulin strength. All insulins come dissolved or suspended in ... Types: Insulin glulisine (Apidra), insulin lispro (Admelog, Humalog), and insulin aspart (Fiasp, NovoLog) ... Insulin Basics. *There are different types of insulin depending on how quickly they work, when they peak, and how long they ...
Although researchers are testing other ways to give insulin, its only available now in a form that must be injected just under ... Insulin Injections. Insulin is a hormone that lowers the level of glucose (a type of sugar) in the blood by helping glucose ... There are many types of injectable insulin, both short- and long-acting. Most people with diabetes take insulin injections ... Although researchers are testing other ways to give insulin, its only available now in a form that must be injected just under ...
Learn about the different types of insulin and how they affect your blood sugar. ... Duration - How long insulin works to lower your blood sugar.. Your doctor will prescribe the best insulin or insulins for you ... Types of Insulin. Insulin Type. Onset. Peak Time. Duration. Method. Rapid acting​. 15 minutes. 1 hour. 2 to 4 hours. Usually ... Often used with rapid- or short-acting insulin.. Long acting. 2 hours. Does not peak. Up to 24 hours. Covers insulin needs for ...
Mercks Lusduna Nexvue biosimilar basal insulin product is one step closer to being available for public use in the United ... Basal insulin is designed to be injected once or twice daily. Long-acting, it provides a constant level of insulin action ... Basal insulin essentially helps one keep blood sugars at consistent levels when not eating. Prandial, or meal-time, insulins, ... Another biosimilar basal insulin product is one step closer to being available for public use in the United States. ...
Human insulin. BMJ 1991; 303 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.303.6812.1266-b (Published 16 November 1991) Cite this as: BMJ ...
People with diabetes produce either insufficient or ineffective insulin and often require shots of insulin to resume daily ... Read on to learn about the way insulin works. ... Insulin is a hormone that plays a central role in controlling ... Types of insulin. A person can take different types of insulin based on how long they need the effects of the supplementary ... Pre-mixed insulin: This is a mixture of NPH with a fast-acting insulin, and its effects are a combination of the intermediate- ...
Exocytosis of Insulin,. Signaling by Insulin receptor,. Insulin degradation,. Regulation of insulin secretion,. Insulin ... ar); peptidový hormon (cs); hormon gušterače (bs) Humaninsulin (de); human insulin (en); insulin, humant insulin (nn); insulin ... Insulin (sl); инсулин (ru); insulin (sv); Insulin (pam); Insulin (war); Insulina (pl); ഇൻസുലിൻ (ml); Inzulin (sh); อินซูลิน (th ... Insulin (sco); humaninsulin (nn); insulin (nb); İnsulin (az); ಇನ್ಸುಲಿನ್ (kn); ئەنسۆلین (ckb); insulin (en); إنسولين (ar); အင် ...
Human insulin.. British Medical Journal 1989; 299 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.299.6706.991 (Published 21 October 1989) ...
These patients need to be supplemented with insulin injections from outside. *Type 2 or Non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus ... may lead to relative insulin deficiency. *Gestational diabetes - Some pregnant women require more insulin than their body can ... NIDDM) - This is a condition where the body fails to produce the required amount of insulin. Thus there is a relative insulin ... Values of insulin greater than 7 mU/mL after a more prolonged fast in the presence of a blood glucose less than 40 mg/dL also ...
Insulin Lispro Injection is now available for order in pharmacies for people who ... ... Indication for Humalog® (insulin lispro) and Insulin Lispro Injection. Humalog and Insulin Lispro Injection are used to treat ... How should I use Humalog or Insulin Lispro Injection?. *Humalog and Insulin Lispro Injection are rapid-acting insulins. Take ... Do not use alcohol while using Humalog or Insulin Lispro Injection.. What are the possible side effects of Humalog or Insulin ...
... and insulin. How is an athletes performance aided by insulin, a substance more commonly used by diabetics to control their ... The hazards of insulin abuse are well-documented. An overdose can cause the body to break down far too much glucose, leading to ... Bonus Explainer: Insulin has been on the International Olympic Committees list of banned substances since 1998. But the IOC ... Unfortunately, insulin also passes through the body rather quickly-usually within an hour-and so post-competition tests have ...
The device pumps insulin continuously day and night. It can also deliver insulin more rapidly (bolus) before ... An insulin pump is a small device that delivers insulin through a small plastic tube (catheter). ... An insulin pump is a small device that delivers insulin through a small plastic tube (catheter). The device pumps insulin ... HOW INSULIN PUMPS WORK. An insulin pump delivers insulin continuously to the body. The device usually uses only rapid-acting ...
... he or she has trouble with a hormone called insulin. ... he or she has trouble with a hormone called insulin. Insulin, ... But without insulin, glucose cant get into the cells. In diabetes, the pancreas doesnt make enough insulin or the body cant ... Insulin. Say: in-suh-lin. If someone has diabetes, ... respond normally to the insulin that is made. This causes the ...
Insulin resistance happens when the body does not respond properly to insulin. It can can raise a childs risk for type 2 ... What Is Insulin Resistance?. Insulin resistance happens when the body doesnt respond to the hormone insulin as it should, ... Normally, insulin helps glucose enter the cells.. Insulin resistance can raise a childs risk for type 2 diabetes and other ... Who Gets Insulin Resistance?. Insulin resistance is most common in people who are overweight and have too much belly fat. ...
Canadian scientists Frederick Banting and Charles Best successfully isolate insulin-a hormone they believe could prevent ... By 1923, insulin had become widely available, and Banting and Macleod were awarded the Nobel Prize in medicine. ... Enlisting the aid of biochemist J.B. Collip, they were able to extract a reasonably pure formula of insulin from the pancreases ... Within a year, the first human sufferers of diabetes were receiving insulin treatments, and countless lives were saved from ...
... will my insulin be more easily absorbed, which will mean increasing my insulin dose, or is it the opposite way?. ... Summer insulin intake. When the summer months come, will my insulin be more easily absorbed, which will mean increasing my ... When the summer months come, will my insulin be more easily absorbed, which will mean increasing my insulin dose, or is it the ... Insulin absorption depends upon a number of biochemical processes involving the bodys cells, which are unaffected by changes ...
Aside from medication, changing certain lifestyle factors can improve insulin resistance. ... Insulin resistance often goes unnoticed in the initial stages when an individual is described as prediabetic. If the condition ... Aside from medication, changing certain lifestyle factors can improve insulin resistance. In general, treatment of insulin ... Insulin resistance often goes unnoticed in the initial stages when an individual is described as prediabetic. If the condition ...
Insulin pumps. An alternative to insulin injections is the insulin pump. The pump is a computerized device, about the size of a ... Inhaled Insulin. Afrezza, a quick acting inhaled insulin, can be an alternative to injectable pre-meal insulin. It is inhaled ... Long-acting insulin is meant to mimic the bodys natural insulin production, while short-acting insulin is administered to ... Insulin injections typically occur at regularly scheduled times during the day. Syringes or insulin pens are both used for ...
Method of administering insulin include insulin pumps and injections. Read on to know about the working of insulin in the body ... How to Use an Insulin Pump. Insulin pump is a computerized device, which is far more convenient than regular insulin injections ... How to Mix Insulin in a Syringe. Are you supposed to take you regular doses of insulin injections on your own? Then you must be ... Types of Insulin Pumps. Are you planning to buy an insulin pump, and want to know what are the types available in the market? ...
  • The onset of regular human insulin is between 30 minutes and an hour, and its effects on blood sugar last around 8 hours. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A larger dose speeds up the onset but also delay the peak effect of regular human insulin. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Insulin inhalation is a short-acting, man-made version of human insulin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Their experiments proved that the VILPs could indeed bind to human insulin receptors and receptors for a closely related hormone called IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor 1). (eurekalert.org)
  • Additionally, the peptides could stimulate all of the signaling pathways inside the cells that were stimulated by human insulin and IGF-1. (eurekalert.org)
  • Human insulin is a hormone that is produced in the pancreas and secreted to aid in the body's uptake of glucose. (eurekalert.org)
  • Tests on insulin receptors in the lab showed that although the snail insulin was less effective than human insulin, it was still effective, and could possibly start acting in five minutes. (eurekalert.org)
  • Studying the structure of the cone snail insulin could help researchers modify human insulin to lose its self-aggregation but retain its potency, Safavi says. (eurekalert.org)
  • Now we can look at the human insulin and see if we can make it more snail-like. (eurekalert.org)
  • The team still needs to conduct more experiments to measure how quickly snail insulin, or a modified human insulin, would work when injected into an organism. (eurekalert.org)
  • Chou studies human insulin for use in an artificial pancreas device that could automatically deliver insulin in response to changing blood sugar levels, much as the natural organ does. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the last decade, however, American insulin manufacturers have almost completely shifted to use of 'recombinant DNA' technology, enabling laboratory production of a close analog to real human insulin. (nfb.org)
  • This 'human' insulin is said to more closely match our endogenous (pancreatic) insulin. (nfb.org)
  • Insulin is obtained from pork pancreas or is made chemically identical to human insulin by recombinant DNA technology or chemical modification of pork insulin. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Human insulin is preferred for use in pregnant women, women considering pregnancy, individuals with allergies or immune resistance to animal-derived insulins, those initiating insulin therapy, and those expected to use insulin only intermittently. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Human insulin manufactured using recombinant DNA technology is replacing insulin isolated from pigs. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • If there is doubt about the principal species, human insulin should be administered until adequate information is available. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • If the firm can demonstrate that the plant-based insulin is identical with human insulin, it won't have to go through all the long and costly stages of full clinical trials. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Not surprisingly, there are numerous companies competing to grab a share of the market and newer forms of insulin have been introduced, notably, analog insulins that are man-made and differ slightly from human insulin. (pbs.org)
  • The NMR spectra were compatible with well folded proteins, showing close conformational identity for the human insulin in the four products. (rcsb.org)
  • For example, two trials conducted at the University of Washington, Seattle, between 2011 and 2013 evaluated insulin detemir, a long-acting insulin analog that differs from human insulin by one amino acid. (alzforum.org)
  • However, the altered amino acid sequence of human insulin carries the risk of altered interaction with the insulin and/or IGF-I receptors, which might lead to the activation of different pathways and potentially increase mitogenic activity ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • With the recombinant human insulin analog insulin glulisine (Lys B3 , Glu B29 ), the tendency to form dimers and hexamers is significantly reduced in subcutaneous adipose tissue due to genetic engineering, leading to a more rapid onset and shorter duration of action than human regular insulin. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • For decades, manufacturers improved formulas, first using animal parts, then producing human insulin using bacteria and recombinant DNA. (organicconsumers.org)
  • The human insulin protein is composed of 51 amino acids, and has a molecular mass of 5808 Da. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insulin from animal sources differs somewhat in effectiveness (in carbohydrate metabolism effects) from human insulin because of these variations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Porcine insulin is especially close to the human version, and was widely used to treat type 1 diabetics before human insulin could be produced in large quantities by recombinant DNA technologies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lemon detox diet reduced body fat, insulin resistance, and serum hs-CRP level without hematological changes in overweight Korean women. (nih.gov)
  • We hypothesized that the lemon detox program would reduce body weight, body fat mass, thus lowering insulin resistance and known risk factors of cardiovascular disease. (nih.gov)
  • Serum insulin level, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance scores, leptin, and adiponectin levels decreased in the Lemon-D and Positive-C groups. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, we suppose that the lemon detox program reduces body fat and insulin resistance through caloric restriction and might have a potential beneficial effect on risk factors for cardiovascular disease related to circulating hs-CRP reduction without hematological changes. (nih.gov)
  • Overeating - especially sugar, refined carbohydrates, and fast food - drives insulin resistance and increases insulin levels ( 7 , 8 , 9 ). (healthline.com)
  • High amounts of fructose and sucrose promote insulin resistance and raise insulin levels ( 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 ). (healthline.com)
  • However, it should lead to long-term reductions in insulin resistance by helping you lose belly fat ( 20 , 21 ). (healthline.com)
  • Two potential causes of leptin resistance are chronically elevated insulin levels and inflammation in the hypothalamus ( 5 , 37 , 38 , 39 , 40 , 41 ). (healthline.com)
  • Insulin resistance ( IR ) is a pathological condition in which cells fail to respond normally to the hormone insulin . (wikipedia.org)
  • In states of insulin resistance, the same amount of insulin does not have the same effect on glucose transport and blood sugar levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many causes of insulin resistance and the underlying process is still not completely understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Risk factors for insulin resistance include obesity , sedentary lifestyle , family history of diabetes, various health conditions, and certain medications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insulin resistance is considered a component of the metabolic syndrome . (wikipedia.org)
  • There are multiple ways to measure insulin resistance such as fasting insulin levels or glucose tolerance tests but these are not often used in clinical practice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insulin resistance can be improved or reversed with lifestyle approaches such as exercise and dietary changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are a number of risk factors for insulin resistance, including being overweight or obese or having a sedentary lifestyle . (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] Various genetic factors can increase risk, such as a family history of diabetes, and there are some specific medical conditions associated with insulin resistance, such as polycystic ovary syndrome . (wikipedia.org)
  • Dietary factors likely contribute to insulin resistance, however, causative foods are difficult to determine given the limitations of nutrition research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Foods that have independently been linked to insulin resistance include those high in sugar with high glycemic indices , high in dietary fat and fructose, low in omega-3 and fiber, and which are hyper-palatable which increases risk of overeating. (wikipedia.org)
  • The percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is inversely correlated with insulin resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • [3] It is hypothesized that increasing cell membrane fluidity by increasing PUFA concentration might result in an enhanced number of insulin receptors, an increased affinity of insulin to its receptors, and reduced insulin resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitamin D deficiency has also been associated with insulin resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sedentary lifestyle increases the likelihood of development of insulin resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies have consistently shown that there is a link between insulin resistance and circadian rhythm, with insulin sensitivity being higher in the morning and lower in the evening. (wikipedia.org)
  • A mismatch between the circadian rhythm and the meals schedule, such as in circadian rhythm disorders , may increase insulin resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many hormones can induce insulin resistance including cortisol , [13] growth hormone , and human placental lactogen . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cortisol counteracts insulin and can lead to increased hepatic gluconeogenesis , reduced peripheral utilization of glucose, and increased insulin resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • It's often used to diagnose and monitor insulin resistance, a condition in which the tissues become less sensitive to the effects of insulin, causing the pancreas to overcompensate and produce more insulin. (kidshealth.org)
  • Insulin resistance is common among obese people who may go on to develop type 2 diabetes and also in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome. (kidshealth.org)
  • The inability of insulin to exert its effect on tissues is called insulin resistance . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Type 2 diabetes will develop when the islets cannot produce enough insulin to overcome insulin resistance. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Since the early 20th century, doctors have been able to isolate insulin and provide it in an injectable form to supplement the hormone for people who cannot produce it themselves or have increased insulin resistance. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Genetic susceptibility, environmental factors, obesity, lack of physical exercise, insulin resistance etc. may lead to relative insulin deficiency. (news-medical.net)
  • The basic underlying cause may be the insulin resistance of type 2 diabetes. (news-medical.net)
  • Most women with PCOS also exhibit features of the metabolic syndrome, including insulin resistance, obesity and disturbed blood lipid or cholesterol levels. (news-medical.net)
  • What Is Insulin Resistance? (kidshealth.org)
  • Insulin resistance happens when the body doesn't respond to the hormone insulin as it should, making it hard for glucose to get into cells. (kidshealth.org)
  • Insulin resistance can raise a child's risk for type 2 diabetes and other health problems. (kidshealth.org)
  • What Are the Signs & Symptoms of Insulin Resistance? (kidshealth.org)
  • Who Gets Insulin Resistance? (kidshealth.org)
  • Insulin resistance is most common in people who are overweight and have too much belly fat. (kidshealth.org)
  • Insulin resistance is also linked to some genetic syndromes, conditions that affect hormone levels and stress levels, and some medicines. (kidshealth.org)
  • Obesity and insulin resistance tends to run in families. (kidshealth.org)
  • How Is Insulin Resistance Diagnosed? (kidshealth.org)
  • Doctors might think it's insulin resistance if an overweight or obese person has acanthosis nigricans or a family history of diabetes or heart disease. (kidshealth.org)
  • Insulin resistance and obesity tend to go hand-in-hand. (kidshealth.org)
  • How Is Insulin Resistance Treated? (kidshealth.org)
  • Insulin resistance is treated with positive lifestyle changes. (kidshealth.org)
  • Sometimes, insulin resistance and other problems don't get better with lifestyle changes. (kidshealth.org)
  • For some teens with insulin resistance and severe obesity, doctors may recommend weight loss surgery . (kidshealth.org)
  • You can't tell that you have insulin resistance by how you feel. (webmd.com)
  • Likewise, you won't know if you have most of the other conditions that are part of insulin resistance syndrome ( high blood pressure , low "good" cholesterol levels, and high triglycerides) without seeing your doctor. (webmd.com)
  • If you already have insulin resistance, you can take actions that will help your health. (webmd.com)
  • Some people with insulin resistance may also need to take metformin . (webmd.com)
  • Insulin resistance means your body isn't using the hormone insulin the right way. (webmd.com)
  • When you have insulin resistance, your cells aren't reacting to insulin the way they're supposed to -- they're resisting it -- and sugar stays in your blood. (webmd.com)
  • There's also a serious link between insulin resistance and other parts of your health, including your heart health. (webmd.com)
  • That's because there are many ways that insulin resistance affects your heart and blood vessels. (webmd.com)
  • Insulin resistance raises blood sugar levels, and high blood sugar leads to inflammation, which damages the lining inside arteries. (webmd.com)
  • Insulin resistance and diabetes can cause many types of heart-related conditions. (webmd.com)
  • Insulin resistance can also lead to weight gain. (webmd.com)
  • National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases: "Insulin Resistance. (webmd.com)
  • Association between insulin resistance and the development of cardiovascular disease. (webmd.com)
  • Added sugars drive coronary heart disease via insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia: a new paradigm. (webmd.com)
  • Insulin resistance often goes unnoticed in the initial stages when an individual is described as prediabetic. (news-medical.net)
  • Aside from medication, changing certain lifestyle factors can improve insulin resistance. (news-medical.net)
  • The diet should also be low in monounsaturated fatty acids and saturated fats as these can trigger insulin resistance. (news-medical.net)
  • Medications such as metformin, exenatide and a class of drugs called the thiazolidinediones can help improve insulin resistance. (news-medical.net)
  • These are approved in the treatment of type 2 diabetes but not for the treatment of insulin resistance alone. (news-medical.net)
  • Growth hormone replacement therapy, on the other hand, can be used when insulin resistance exists alone without type 2 diabetes. (news-medical.net)
  • Retrieved on November 18, 2019 from https://www.news-medical.net/health/Insulin-Resistance-Treatment.aspx. (news-medical.net)
  • This is often referred to as insulin resistance. (diabetesaustralia.com.au)
  • Exercise may help prevent insulin resistance. (medicinenet.com)
  • Insulin resistance may be part of the metabolic syndrome , and it has been associated with higher risk of developing heart disease . (medicinenet.com)
  • Insulin resistance precedes the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). (medicinenet.com)
  • The causes of insulin resistance include both genetic ( inherited ) and lifestyle factors. (medicinenet.com)
  • There are no specific signs and symptoms of insulin resistance. (medicinenet.com)
  • Individuals are more likely to have insulin resistance if they have any of several associated medical conditions. (medicinenet.com)
  • While there are genetic risk factors, insulin resistance can be managed with diet , exercise , and proper medication. (medicinenet.com)
  • The test for insulin resistance is the measurement of fasting blood glucose and insulin levels. (medicinenet.com)
  • Insulin resistance is treated by lifestyle modifications and in some cases, medications. (medicinenet.com)
  • In some cases insulin resistance cannot be prevented, but modifiable risk factors include maintaining a healthy weight and getting regular exercise . (medicinenet.com)
  • Insulin resistance (IR) is a condition in which the body's cells become resistant to the effects of insulin. (medicinenet.com)
  • This resistance occurs in response to the body's own insulin (endogenous) or when insulin is administered by injection (exogenous). (medicinenet.com)
  • With insulin resistance, the pancreas produces more and more insulin until the pancreas can no longer produce sufficient insulin for the body's demands, and then blood sugar rises. (medicinenet.com)
  • Insulin resistance is a risk factor for development of diabetes and heart disease . (medicinenet.com)
  • What causes insulin resistance? (medicinenet.com)
  • There are several causes for insulin resistance, and genetic factors (inherited component) are usually significant. (medicinenet.com)
  • Some medications can contribute to insulin resistance. (medicinenet.com)
  • What is the relationship between insulin resistance and diabetes? (medicinenet.com)
  • In individuals who will ultimately develop type 2 diabetes , research shows that blood glucose and insulin levels are normal for many years, until at some point in time, insulin resistance develops. (medicinenet.com)
  • Insulin resistance induces chronic peripheral insulin elevations and is associated with reduced insulin activity both in periphery and brain. (springer.com)
  • The insulin resistance syndrome underlies conditions such as Type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension, which are associated with age-related cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. (springer.com)
  • Given the recent pandemic of conditions associated with insulin resistance, it is imperative that we achieve a comprehensive knowledge of the mechanisms through which insulin resistance affects brain function in order to develop therapeutic strategies to address these effects. (springer.com)
  • Insulin resistance and prediabetes occur when your body doesn't use insulin well. (nih.gov)
  • Insulin resistance is when cells in your muscles, fat, and liver don't respond well to insulin and can't easily take up glucose from your blood. (nih.gov)
  • Prediabetes usually occurs in people who already have some insulin resistance or whose beta cells in the pancreas aren't making enough insulin to keep blood glucose in the normal range. (nih.gov)
  • Who is more likely to develop insulin resistance or prediabetes? (nih.gov)
  • People who have genetic or lifestyle risk factors are more likely to develop insulin resistance or prediabetes. (nih.gov)
  • These lifestyle changes can lower your chances of developing insulin resistance or prediabetes. (nih.gov)
  • Being overweight or having obesity are risk factors for developing insulin resistance or prediabetes. (nih.gov)
  • What causes insulin resistance and prediabetes? (nih.gov)
  • Researchers don't fully understand what causes insulin resistance and prediabetes, but they think excess weight and lack of physical activity are major factors. (nih.gov)
  • Experts believe obesity , especially too much fat in the abdomen and around the organs, called visceral fat, is a main cause of insulin resistance. (nih.gov)
  • A waist measurement of 40 inches or more for men and 35 inches or more for women is linked to insulin resistance. (nih.gov)
  • However, research has shown that Asian Americans may have an increased risk for insulin resistance even without a high BMI. (nih.gov)
  • Inflammation may play a role in insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease . (nih.gov)
  • Excess weight may lead to insulin resistance, which in turn may play a part in the development of fatty liver disease . (nih.gov)
  • Not getting enough physical activity is linked to insulin resistance and prediabetes. (nih.gov)
  • U-500 is only used in rare cases of insulin resistance when the patient requires extremely large doses. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Increased intakes of choline and betaine may improve insulin resistance in the general population, says a new study. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • In this situation, blood glucose and insulin levels are measured at pre-established time intervals to evaluate insulin resistance. (labcorp.com)
  • An insulin test may also be done when an individual has or is suspected of having insulin resistance. (labcorp.com)
  • The opposite is insulin resistance , which means the body does not use insulin properly. (medicinenet.com)
  • Insulin resistance is a major feature of type 2 diabetes . (medicinenet.com)
  • This condition is called insulin resistance, and your body will try to fix the problem by making more insulin. (wikihow.com)
  • Full fat dairy, butter, and heavy cream may not always lead to insulin resistance. (wikihow.com)
  • Considerable evidence supports the association between insulin resistance and vascular disease, and this has led to wide acceptance of the clustering of hyperlipidemia, glucose intolerance, hypertension, and obesity as a clinical entity, the metabolic syndrome. (jci.org)
  • While insulin resistance, by promoting dyslipidemia and other metabolic abnormalities, is part of the proatherogenic milieu, it is possible that insulin resistance itself in the vascular wall does not promote atherosclerosis. (jci.org)
  • Recent findings suggest that insulin resistance and atherosclerosis could represent independent and ultimately maladaptive responses to the disruption of cellular homeostasis caused by the excess delivery of fuel. (jci.org)
  • Associations with low HDL cholesterol and hypertension followed, and Reaven integrated this information in his 1988 Banting Lecture ( 6 ) when he coined the term "syndrome X" for the insulin resistance syndrome. (jci.org)
  • The WHO has similar criteria that include a prerequisite of diabetes, impaired glucose metabolism, or documented (by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp) insulin resistance. (jci.org)
  • Long before people with insulin resistance develop abnormalities of glucose metabolism, circulating FFA levels increase. (jci.org)
  • Thus, a combination of excess delivery of fatty acids and limited degradation of apoB explains the hypertriglyceridemia characteristic of insulin resistance. (jci.org)
  • The association of obesity with type 2 diabetes has been recognized for decades, and the major basis for this link is the ability of obesity to engender insulin resistance. (jci.org)
  • Although many details of the mechanisms by which the enlarged adipose tissue mass that defines obesity causes systemic insulin resistance remain unknown, the past several years have witnessed an explosive increase in our understanding of what may now be referred to as the adipo-insulin axis. (jci.org)
  • There are also grounds for considering the related possibility that insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, in addition to being caused by obesity, can contribute to the development of obesity. (jci.org)
  • Insulin resistance is a state in which a given concentration of insulin produces a less-than-expected biological effect. (medscape.com)
  • Insulin resistance has also been arbitrarily defined as the requirement of 200 or more units of insulin per day to attain glycemic control and to prevent ketosis. (medscape.com)
  • The syndromes of insulin resistance actually make up a broad clinical spectrum, which includes obesity, glucose intolerance, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome, as well as an extreme insulin-resistant state. (medscape.com)
  • In clinical practice, no single laboratory test is used to diagnose insulin resistance syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • Treatment involves pharmacologic therapy to reduce insulin resistance, along with surgical management of underlying causes if appropriate. (medscape.com)
  • Medications that reduce insulin resistance (insulin-sensitizing and antihyperglycemic effects) include metformin and the thiazolidinediones. (medscape.com)
  • In insulin resistance, various clinical entities of this state are evident. (medscape.com)
  • thus, insulin resistance results in increased insulin secretion to maintain normal glucose and lipid homeostasis. (medscape.com)
  • The mechanisms responsible for insulin resistance syndromes include genetic or primary target cell defects, autoantibodies to insulin, and accelerated insulin degradation. (medscape.com)
  • This would avoid the unwanted effect of increasing systemic insulin levels, which could lead to hypoglycemia or insulin resistance (e.g. (alzforum.org)
  • Insulin resistance, Type 2 diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome are risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (see AlzRisk Diabetes , AlzRisk Obesity ). (alzforum.org)
  • Dog insulin resistance sometimes occurs in diabetic dogs. (vetinfo.com)
  • Insulin resistance is typically identified when a dog receiving a standard amount of insulin for his weight consistently has elevated blood sugar levels for the majority of the day. (vetinfo.com)
  • Insulin resistance may also be indicated by the dog's need to receive substantially increased amounts of insulin in order to keep his blood sugar levels under control. (vetinfo.com)
  • There are several reasons why a dog might develop insulin resistance. (vetinfo.com)
  • Weight gain can also cause insulin resistance. (vetinfo.com)
  • Because diabetics are susceptible to bacterial infections, a broad spectrum antibiotic can often be used to eliminate any offending bacteria and possibly reverse the insulin resistance. (vetinfo.com)
  • A diabetic dog can also develop insulin resistance due to the presence of other diseases. (vetinfo.com)
  • Certain drugs can cause a diabetic dog to develop insulin resistance. (vetinfo.com)
  • Diabetes is an endocrine disorder and other endocrine disorders can lead to the development of insulin resistance. (vetinfo.com)
  • Just because your diabetic dog's insulin may have become ineffective, doesn't automatically mean he has developed insulin resistance. (vetinfo.com)
  • Whether administering antibiotics to eliminate an infection or making adjustments to insulin dosages, insulin resistance can be effectively dealt with and diabetic complications avoided. (vetinfo.com)
  • Type 2 diabetes generally results from the combination of impaired beta cell function and insulin resistance acting on susceptible genes. (mendosa.com)
  • But if you have other factors that tend to damage the beta cells or to produce insulin resistance, then you would get more severe diabetes. (mendosa.com)
  • This forces us to open our minds to the idea that insulin action and resistance in the brain contribute in some way to the development of diabetes. (mendosa.com)
  • Although most cats respond favorably to insulin, few develop insulin resistance, which occurs due to bodily changes or inability of the body to respond to insulin. (vetinfo.com)
  • In addition, insulin that has passed the expiration date or insulin that's kept in high temperatures may not function effectively, and can cause insulin resistance. (vetinfo.com)
  • The insulin dosage will then be altered in order to determine if the cat is really suffering from insulin resistance. (vetinfo.com)
  • Administration of drugs such as prednisone, cortisone or glucocorticoids such as dexamethasone can interfere with insulin absorption or reduce the effectiveness of insulin and lead to insulin resistance. (vetinfo.com)
  • In addition, pets treated with medication for underlying conditions such as hyperthyroidism, liver disease or pancreatitis may also develop insulin resistance. (vetinfo.com)
  • Pets suffering from insulin resistance may have a high number of antibodies present in the blood. (vetinfo.com)
  • However, newer forms of insulin reduce the pet's susceptibility to insulin resistance caused by antibodies. (vetinfo.com)
  • The vet will have to re-examine pets that don't respond to insulin or develop insulin resistance, to choose a treatment option that works effectively to control diabetes. (vetinfo.com)
  • In reality, the condition is rooted in insulin resistance and faulty leptin signaling, caused by chronically elevated insulin and leptin levels. (organicconsumers.org)
  • Certain outside influences can increase your resistance to insulin. (healthy.net)
  • When I was diagnosed with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), I did a ton of research on the condition and found that insulin resistance is common among women who have PCOS. (popsugar.com)
  • Although I knew that insulin resistance was related to elevated blood sugar levels and could lead to type 2 diabetes, I wasn't exactly sure what insulin resistance meant. (popsugar.com)
  • Luckily, I tapped a few experts to weight in on what exactly insulin resistance is and how it can be treated. (popsugar.com)
  • The good news: an insulin resistance diagnosis doesn't have to foretell diabetes or other chronic disease. (popsugar.com)
  • In insulin resistance, cells and muscles stop absorbing glucose as efficiently and more glucose stays in the blood," explained Rebecca Elbaum, RD, CDE. (popsugar.com)
  • And while people who have insulin resistance aren't necessarily more prone to gaining weight, being overweight or obese can cause insulin resistance, explained Kathleen Wyne, MD, endocrinologist at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center. (popsugar.com)
  • Other than the likelihood of having insulin resistance from being overweight or obese, the only other physical symptom is acanthosis nigricans , or a dark coloring of the skin on the neck or armpit. (popsugar.com)
  • The best way to reverse [insulin resistance], if it's caught early enough, is through lifestyle modifications ," said Eduardo Grunvald, MD, program director at UC San Diego's Weight Management Program. (popsugar.com)
  • In addition to working out, losing weight will improve insulin resistance - losing just 15 pounds and keeping it off will slow the progression to diabetes, said Dr. Wyne. (popsugar.com)
  • Loss of insulin signaling in hepatocytes leads to severe insulin resistance and progressive hepatic dysfunction," Molecular Cell , vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 87-97, 2000. (hindawi.com)
  • Glomerular-specific protein kinase C- β -induced insulin receptor substrate-1 dysfunction and insulin resistance in rat models of diabetes and obesity," Kidney International , vol. 79, no. 8, pp. 883-896, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • Hepatic insulin resistance is sufficient to produce dyslipidemia and susceptibility to atherosclerosis," Cell Metabolism , vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 125-134, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • Characterization of selective resistance to insulin signaling in the vasculature of obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats," The Journal of Clinical Investigation , vol. 104, no. 4, pp. 447-457, 1999. (hindawi.com)
  • Several etiologies are incriminated but the hyperandrogenism-insulin resistance-acanthosis nigricans syndrome is rare. (hindawi.com)
  • It must be retained after discarding the tumoral causes and when there are signs of insulin resistance. (hindawi.com)
  • The hyperandrogenism-insulin resistance-acanthosis nigricans syndrome (HAIR-AN syndrome) is also incriminated [ 4 , 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes is not well understood but reduced population of islet beta-cells, reduced secretory function of islet beta-cells that survive, and peripheral tissue insulin resistance are known to be involved. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells of your pancreas. (healthline.com)
  • Insulin is released by the pancreas in response to carbohydrates consumed in the diet. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucose levels in the blood rise after meals and trigger the pancreas to make insulin and release it into the blood. (kidshealth.org)
  • Inside the pancreas, the hormone insulin is made in the beta cells, which are part of the Islets of Langerhans. (diabetes.org)
  • In people with type 1 diabetes , the pancreas no longer makes insulin. (diabetes.org)
  • The study showed for the first time that insulin-producing cells, or islets, taken from a donor's pancreas, can be transplanted into monkeys without being destroyed by their bodies and apparently without side effects, effectively freeing the animals from their dependence on insulin. (wired.com)
  • The pancreas is an organ behind the stomach that is the main source of insulin in the body. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Type 1 diabetes or Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) - In these patients there are auto-immune mechanisms in which the body's own immune cells attack the insulin producing beta cells of the pancreas. (news-medical.net)
  • As diabetics know well, insulin, which is produced naturally by the pancreas, is a hormone that regulates blood-sugar levels by enabling the breakdown of glucose. (slate.com)
  • Theoretically, at least, it shouldn't be difficult to test for the presence of illicitly consumed insulin, as the injectable variety-which is either genetically engineered or taken from animals-differs chemically from the stuff manufactured by the human pancreas. (slate.com)
  • Insulin, which is made in the pancreas, lowers the level of glucose (a type of sugar) in the blood. (kidshealth.org)
  • In diabetes, the pancreas doesn't make enough insulin or the body can't respond normally to the insulin that is made. (kidshealth.org)
  • People with diabetes have a deficiency or absence of a hormone manufactured by the pancreas called insulin. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Insulin is a naturally occurring hormone secreted by the beta cells of the islands of Langerhans in the pancreas, in response to increased levels of glucose in the blood. (healthcentral.com)
  • Insulin , hormone that regulates the level of sugar ( glucose ) in the blood and that is produced by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas . (britannica.com)
  • The pancreas of a normal adult contains approximately 200 units of insulin, and the average daily secretion of insulin into the circulation in healthy individuals ranges from 30 to 50 units. (britannica.com)
  • As a result, higher levels of insulin are needed in order for insulin to have its proper effects, and the pancreas compensates by trying to produce more insulin. (medicinenet.com)
  • It's how insulin is stored in the pancreas. (eurekalert.org)
  • For seven million Americans, treatment entails several daily doses of insulin, a synthetic version of the hormone excreted by a healthy pancreas. (commondreams.org)
  • Enlisting the aid of biochemist J.B. Collip, they were able to extract a reasonably pure formula of insulin from the pancreas of cattle from slaughterhouses and used it to treat Leonard Thompson. (history.com)
  • Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas that helps glucose in your blood enter cells in your muscle, fat, and liver, where it's used for energy. (nih.gov)
  • When blood glucose, also called blood sugar, levels rise after you eat, your pancreas releases insulin into the blood. (nih.gov)
  • As a result, your pancreas makes more insulin to help glucose enter your cells. (nih.gov)
  • As long as your pancreas can make enough insulin to overcome your cells' weak response to insulin, your blood glucose levels will stay in the healthy range. (nih.gov)
  • The percentage of insulin-producing cells in the pancreas was 59 percent for the normal rats and 21 percent for the diabetic rats, but feeding diabetic rats the pumpkin extract brought their percentage of insulin-producing cells up to 51 percent, the researchers found. (reuters.com)
  • The drug may interfere with the body's mistaken destruction of the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, the researchers reported in the New England Journal of Medicine. (reuters.com)
  • Insulin and C-peptide are produced by the body at the same rate as part of the conversion of proinsulin to insulin in the pancreas. (labcorp.com)
  • The test for insulin measures insulin from both sources while the C-peptide test reflects insulin produced by the pancreas. (labcorp.com)
  • The insulin-producing cells in the pancreas may be working hard and pumping out lots of insulin, but the body's cells no longer respond," study leader Dr. Anna Gloyn, at the Oxford Centre for Diabetes , Endocrinology and Metabolism, explained in an Oxford University news release. (medicinenet.com)
  • The answer, they found, is the beta cells of the pancreas that make and secrete insulin. (mendosa.com)
  • Cat diabetes occurs when the pancreas doesn't produce sufficient insulin or if the body doesn't respond appropriately to the amount of insulin produced. (vetinfo.com)
  • Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that is necessary for cells to be able to use blood sugar. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Insulin is a hormone secreted by the pancreas to help digest carbohydrates to glucose, so that your cells can absorb glucose to use as energy. (popsugar.com)
  • Frederick Banting and Charles Herbert Best, working in the laboratory of J. J. R. Macleod at the University of Toronto, were the first to isolate insulin from dog pancreas in 1921. (wikipedia.org)
  • This test measures the amount of insulin, the hormone that lets cells take in glucose. (kidshealth.org)
  • Type 2 or Non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) - This is a condition where the body fails to produce the required amount of insulin. (news-medical.net)
  • Basal dose: A small amount of insulin delivered all day and night. (medlineplus.gov)
  • When a person wearing a pump eats, she pushes a button on the pump to deliver an extra amount of insulin called a bolus to provide insulin for their food. (jdrf.org)
  • When the body fails to generate adequate amount of insulin, it has to be supplied externally to regulate the amount of glucose in the body. (buzzle.com)
  • That is, the normal response to a given amount of insulin is reduced. (medicinenet.com)
  • But there are other dilutions in other countries, and if you were to encounter one of these (all perfectly usable), and inject your usual volume of insulin, you'd get a different amount of insulin. (nfb.org)
  • Although labelled much like 'animal source' insulins, recombinant DNA insulins are not quite the same, either in time-of-onset or in amount of insulin required. (nfb.org)
  • This is also known as the Somogyi response, and occurs when an excess amount of insulin is injected into the pet's body. (vetinfo.com)
  • For example, regular insulin works best if you take it 30 minutes before you eat. (diabetes.org)
  • New treatments could free diabetics from regular insulin injections. (wired.com)
  • The study, to be published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences in the near future, could be a key development for diabetes patients who need regular insulin injections, researchers said. (wired.com)
  • Insulin pump is a computerized device, which is far more convenient than regular insulin injections and their pricking pain. (buzzle.com)
  • An insulin pump is a battery-operated device that provides your body with regular insulin throughout the day. (diabetes.org.uk)
  • On average, Exubera users attained peak levels in 49 minutes, compared with 105 minutes for regular insulin. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Short-acting (regular) insulin begins to work with 30 to 60 minutes. (healthline.com)
  • We propose the use of MS, SAXS, NMR fingerprint, and PX as a precise chemical and structural proof of folding identity of regular insulin in the final, formulated product. (rcsb.org)
  • A subsequent four-month study compared 20 IUs twice daily of insulin detemir to 20 IUs of regular insulin twice daily in 36 patients. (alzforum.org)
  • REGULAR INSULIN (REG yuh ler IN su lin) is a human-made form of insulin. (nationwidechildrens.org)
  • This medicine is a rapid-acting insulin that starts working faster than regular insulin. (nationwidechildrens.org)
  • It will not work as long as regular insulin. (nationwidechildrens.org)
  • In recent years, recombinant DNA technology has been used to design insulin molecules that overcome the limitations of regular insulin in mealtime supplementation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • C57BL/6 mice were injected with insulin glulisine or regular insulin and Western blot analysis was performed for liver and muscle tissue. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The extent and time course of insulin receptor phosphorylation and activation of downstream signaling elements after insulin glulisine treatment was similar to that of human regular insulin in vivo. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • People diagnosed with type 1 diabetes usually start with two injections of insulin per day of two different types of insulin and generally progress to three or four injections per day of insulin of different types. (diabetes.org)
  • The types of insulin used depend on their blood sugar levels. (diabetes.org)
  • Sometimes diabetes pills stop working, and people with type 2 diabetes will start with two injections per day of two different types of insulin. (diabetes.org)
  • Two injections must be given with an insulin pen if using two types of insulin. (diabetes.org)
  • There are different types of insulin depending on how quickly they work, when they peak, and how long they last. (diabetes.org)
  • Many types of insulin are used to treat diabetes. (cdc.gov)
  • For more information about types of insulin and when to take them, talk to your doctor or diabetes educator. (cdc.gov)
  • A person can take different types of insulin based on how long they need the effects of the supplementary hormone to last. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The following article will tell you about the types of insulin pumps and enable you to select the appropriate one. (buzzle.com)
  • Long-acting, short-acting and intermediate-acting are some of the main types of insulin prescribed depending upon individual needs and circumstances. (buzzle.com)
  • Insulin glulisine is usually given in combination with intermediate or longer-acting types of insulin, which provide control over blood glucose throughout the day. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Different companies have adopted different names for the same short-, intermediate-, or long-acting types of insulin or their mixture. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • These are the types of insulin you take before meals. (healthline.com)
  • Other types of insulin are more lasting and are used for basal insulin. (healthline.com)
  • Insulin pens are designed to be used multiple times, for a single person, using a new needle for each injection. (cdc.gov)
  • Regurgitation of blood into the insulin cartridge can occur after injection [ 1 ] creating a risk of bloodborne pathogen transmission if the pen is used for more than one person, even when the needle is changed. (cdc.gov)
  • Some may need a single injection of insulin in the evening (at supper or bedtime) along with diabetes pills. (diabetes.org)
  • Each mealtime injection of insulin should be given in the same general area for best results. (diabetes.org)
  • For example, giving your before-breakfast insulin injection in the abdomen and your before-supper insulin injection in the leg each day give more similar blood sugar results. (diabetes.org)
  • In some rare cases insulin can lead to an allergic reaction at the injection site. (diabetes.org)
  • Rapid-acting insulin , begins to work about 15 minutes after injection, peaks in about 1 hour, and continues to work for 2 to 4 hours. (diabetes.org)
  • Regular or short-acting insulin usually reaches the bloodstream within 30 minutes after injection, peaks anywhere from 2 to 3 hours after injection, and is effective for approximately 3 to 6 hours. (diabetes.org)
  • Intermediate-acting insulin generally reaches the bloodstream about 2 to 4 hours after injection, peaks 4 to 12 hours later, and is effective for about 12 to 18 hours. (diabetes.org)
  • the route of delivery, or whether the insulin requires injection under the skin,into a vein, or into the lungs by inhalation. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • LLY ) Insulin Lispro Injection is now available for order in pharmacies for people who use Lilly's rapid-acting insulin and need a lower-cost option. (prnewswire.com)
  • Because they are the same insulin, pharmacists will be able to substitute Insulin Lispro Injection for Humalog. (prnewswire.com)
  • In March, Lilly announced plans to introduce Insulin Lispro Injection, which fills another gap in the healthcare system. (prnewswire.com)
  • The people who are most likely to benefit from Insulin Lispro Injection are Medicare Part D beneficiaries, people with high-deductible health plans and the uninsured who use Humalog. (prnewswire.com)
  • The availability of Lilly's Insulin Lispro Injection is important progress that helps more people afford their insulin,' said Mike Mason , senior vice president, Connected Care and Insulins. (prnewswire.com)
  • With the launch of Insulin Lispro Injection, even more people will pay lower amounts at the pharmacy. (prnewswire.com)
  • Because most insurance plans provide affordable copays for chronic medicines that are much lower than list price, people should ask their pharmacist whether Insulin Lispro Injection or Humalog is the lower-cost option for them. (prnewswire.com)
  • Insulin Lispro Injection has a list price of $137.35 per vial and $265.20 for a package of five KwikPens. (prnewswire.com)
  • In addition to wholesaler contracts that have been secured, Lilly is working with payers to gain broad insurance coverage for Insulin Lispro Injection. (prnewswire.com)
  • But even one person with diabetes who can't afford insulin is too many, which is why we introduced Insulin Lispro Injection. (prnewswire.com)
  • Humalog and Insulin Lispro Injection are used to treat people with diabetes for the control of high blood sugar. (prnewswire.com)
  • What is the most important information I should know about Humalog and Insulin Lispro Injection? (prnewswire.com)
  • Do not share your Humalog or Insulin Lispro Injection KwikPen or syringe with other people, even if the needle has been changed. (prnewswire.com)
  • When used in a pump, do not mix or dilute Humalog or Insulin Lispro Injection with any other insulin or liquid. (prnewswire.com)
  • Who should not take Humalog or Insulin Lispro Injection? (prnewswire.com)
  • Do not take Humalog or Insulin Lispro Injection if your blood sugar is too low (hypoglycemia) or if you are allergic to Humalog or Insulin Lispro Injection or any of the ingredients in Humalog or Insulin Lispro Injection. (prnewswire.com)
  • Before using Humalog or Insulin Lispro Injection, what should I tell my healthcare providers? (prnewswire.com)
  • If you are in a quandary regarding the size of syringes you should buy for your insulin injection, then you should know that the size of the syringe will vary as per your insulin dose. (buzzle.com)
  • The range of injection devices and tiny needles available today make injecting insulin much easier than most people imagine. (diabetesaustralia.com.au)
  • Injection devices are made in different sizes, and the size used depends on the quantity of insulin being injected. (diabetesaustralia.com.au)
  • The most effective treatment for diabetes is injection of synthetic insulin. (eurekalert.org)
  • At Toronto General Hospital, 14-year-old Canadian Leonard Thompson becomes the first person to receive an insulin injection as treatment for diabetes. (history.com)
  • There is quite an art to insulin mixing, as you must consider diet, exercise, injection frequency, total insulin volume, ratio of slow-to-fast insulins, general health (including other medications you might be taking! (nfb.org)
  • Yes, you can vary your total dosage, total volume, and injection frequency, but, as the different insulins are really there for different purposes, adjusting insulin with a premix can be like scratching an itch--with a sledgehammer. (nfb.org)
  • The tube can be left in for two to three days before it needs to be replaced and moved to a different insulin injection site. (diabetes.org.uk)
  • Insulin type and species, injection technique, insulin antibodies, site of injection, and individual patient response differences can all affect the onset, degree, and duration of insulin activity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Insulin Injection in minutes with SmartDraw. (smartdraw.com)
  • Young adult giving himself an insulin injection in the upper left thigh. (smartdraw.com)
  • For decades, there was only one way to get insulin into the body: injection under the skin. (scientificamerican.com)
  • We created a series of tip sheets for diabetes care and education specialists to use when assisting their patients with understanding how insulin works and teaching proper injection technique, whether using a syringe, pen, or pump for delivery. (diabeteseducator.org)
  • For people with diabetes who are just getting started in insulin, it covers the delivery methods and provides injection techniques. (diabeteseducator.org)
  • I gave the patient the choice of going on a DPP-4 inhibitor or going on a once-a-day shot of long-acting insulin in the hopes of preventing progression to overt diabetes. (medscape.com)
  • I summarized the literature as best I could for a sophisticated patient, and in the end, he chose to go on a once-a-day shot of long-acting insulin. (medscape.com)
  • Afrezza is not a substitute for long-acting insulin. (diabetes.org)
  • Afrezza must be used in combination with injectable long-acting insulin in patients with type 1 diabetes and in type 2 patients who use long-acting insulin. (diabetes.org)
  • Often used with injectable long-acting insulin. (cdc.gov)
  • Long-acting insulin is meant to mimic the body's natural insulin production, while short-acting insulin is administered to account for the glucose intake from food, given at mealtime, and to correct high blood sugar levels. (jdrf.org)
  • Insulin inhalation is used in combination with a long-acting insulin to treat type 1 diabetes (condition in which the body does not produce insulin and therefore cannot control the amount of sugar in the blood). (medlineplus.gov)
  • When you begin using insulin inhalation, your doctor may need to adjust the doses of your other diabetes medications, such as long-acting insulin and oral medications for diabetes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Exubera also didn't necessarily mean the end of needles: because it was only available as a rapid-acting insulin for mealtimes, patients still had to inject long-acting insulin as part of their daily routine. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Since the pump continuously delivers insulin, there's no need for long acting insulin. (umassmed.edu)
  • Most people with Type 1 diabetes, which usually strikes in childhood, and some people with Type 2, or adult-onset diabetes, use long-acting insulin. (latimes.com)
  • The introduction of new short- and long-acting insulin and the development of analogs with increased stability, less variability, and selective action will allow more individualized treatment strategies targeted to specific needs. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Most pets are prescribed long acting insulin medication that controls blood glucose for a longer period of time. (vetinfo.com)
  • Insulin pumps make it possible to deliver more precise amounts of insulin than can be injected using a syringe. (wikipedia.org)
  • Syringe is the most common form of insulin delivery, but there are other options, including insulin pens and pumps. (diabetes.org)
  • Many people who take insulin use a syringe, but there are other options as well. (diabetes.org)
  • The insulin dose is dialed on the pen, and the insulin is injected through a needle, much like using a syringe. (diabetes.org)
  • If you're traveling outside of the U.S., be certain to match your insulin strength with the correct size syringe. (diabetes.org)
  • What Size Insulin Syringe Should You Buy? (buzzle.com)
  • Then you must be worried about how to mix insulin in a syringe before taking a dose. (buzzle.com)
  • If the syringe had been preloaded with an insulin solution ('clear insulin'), make sure the insulin is still clear before injecting. (healthcentral.com)
  • Insulin can be injected by an insulin syringe, an insulin pen with a fine needle, or via an insulin pump. (diabetesaustralia.com.au)
  • This position statement addresses issues regarding the use of conventional insulin administration (i.e., via syringe or pen with needle and cartridge) in the self-care of the individual with diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Insulin is available in rapid-, short-, intermediate-, and long-acting types that may be injected separately or mixed in the same syringe. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In these instances, special care must be taken to ensure that the correct dose of the diluted insulin is administered with an ordinary insulin syringe. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • I remember sitting and staring at the insulin syringe for long time during my pregnancy and feeling sorry for myself for being in that situation. (empowher.com)
  • You should only use a U-500 insulin syringe. (nationwidechildrens.org)
  • Do not use a U-100 insulin syringe or a tuberculin syringe. (nationwidechildrens.org)
  • Various factors such as using a different syringe or faulty administration can change the body's response to insulin. (vetinfo.com)
  • We investigated anthropometric indices, insulin sensitivity, levels of serum adipokines, and inflammatory markers in overweight Korean women before and after clinical intervention trial. (nih.gov)
  • Overweight women who walked briskly or jogged had an improvement in insulin sensitivity after 14 weeks in one study ( 23 , 24 , 25 ). (healthline.com)
  • Insulin resistant people are often low in magnesium, and magnesium supplements can improve insulin sensitivity ( 26 , 27 , 28 ). (healthline.com)
  • Based on the significant improvement in insulin sensitivity in humans after bariatric surgery and rats with surgical removal of the duodenum, [18] [19] it has been proposed that some substance is produced in the mucosa of that initial portion of the small intestine that signals body cells to become insulin resistant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Losing just 5% to 7 % of the body weight can prevent or delay the onset of diabetes by 60% and improve insulin sensitivity. (news-medical.net)
  • By contrast, polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3) increase insulin sensitivity. (news-medical.net)
  • Magnesium supplementation has been used as a preventive approach in type 2 diabetes by improving insulin sensitivity. (news-medical.net)
  • A combination of strawberry and cranberry polyphenols may improve insulin sensitivity in overweight and non-diabetic, insulin-resistant adults, according to a new study. (nutraingredients.com)
  • A type of fibre may improve insulin sensitivity in adults and help those with type 2 diabetes (T2D), studies have found. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Improved insulin sensitivity was noted in overweight and obese non-diabetic, insulin-resistant human study participants after a 6-week dietary intervention with polyphenols. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Supplements of vitamin K1 and K2 may help reduce the risk of diabetes by improving insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism, says a new review of the scientific literature. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • WEDNESDAY, Sept. 12 (HealthDay News) -- Scientists have discovered the single gene that causes insulin sensitivity, which they say might someday help lead to new diabetes treatment. (medicinenet.com)
  • Insulin sensitivity refers to how well the body uses insulin -- a hormone -- to regulate glucose ( sugar ) in the blood. (medicinenet.com)
  • Finding a genetic cause of the opposite -- insulin sensitivity -- gives us a new window on the biological processes involved. (medicinenet.com)
  • Such understanding could be important in developing new drugs that restore insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes . (medicinenet.com)
  • The study revealed the people with Cowden syndrome had significantly higher insulin sensitivity. (medicinenet.com)
  • Normally insulin sensitivity goes with being lean," said Professor Fredrik Karpe, who established the Oxford database. (medicinenet.com)
  • Most likely, the pathways that mediate insulin's metabolic effects diverge downstream of PI3K ( 7 , 9 ) and show differential sensitivity to varying levels of insulin. (jci.org)
  • failure of the signals or of the B cells to adapt adequately in relation to insulin sensitivity results in inappropriate insulin levels, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and type 2 diabetes. (medscape.com)
  • So just exercise, independent of weight loss, just regular exercise will improve insulin sensitivity. (popsugar.com)
  • Preserved Na/HCO 3 cotransporter sensitivity to insulin may promote hypertension in metabolic syndrome," Kidney International , vol. 87, no. 3, pp. 535-542, 2015. (hindawi.com)
  • IRS2 and PTEN are key molecules in controlling insulin sensitivity in podocytes," Biochimica et Biophysica Acta-Molecular Cell Research , vol. 1853, no. 12, pp. 3224-3234, 2015. (hindawi.com)
  • Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase overexpression selectively attenuates insulin signaling and hepatic insulin sensitivity in transgenic mice," The Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 277, no. 26, pp. 23301-23307, 2002. (hindawi.com)
  • When insulin falls, especially in those with high insulin sensitivity, body cells begin only to have access to lipids that do not require transport across the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, diabetics must constantly monitor blood sugar levels and take regular injections of insulin. (wired.com)
  • How is an athlete's performance aided by insulin, a substance more commonly used by diabetics to control their blood sugar? (slate.com)
  • Although users of the insulin pump generally take only fast- acting insulin, most insulin-using diabetics employ a mix of faster and slower insulins, to provide best control. (nfb.org)
  • Sembiosys has predicted an "explosion" in demand for insulin because of a growing number of diabetics. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Here's a sticking point for diabetics: the cost of insulin more than tripled - from $231 to $736 a year per patient - between 2002 and 2013, according to a new analysis . (pbs.org)
  • Diabetics, both Type 1 and insulin-dependent Type 2 diabetics, must take insulin to stay alive. (usatoday.com)
  • While insulin can be accessible through the Affordable Care Act - in states where Medicaid has been expanded - only certain insulins are subsidized, limiting the quality of care that diabetics are able to receive. (usatoday.com)
  • As diabetics, we're seen as a cash cow both by insurance companies and insulin manufacturers. (usatoday.com)
  • Federal regulators Friday approved the first inhaled insulin treatment, offering millions of diabetics a chance to ease the grueling ritual of repeated daily injections. (latimes.com)
  • Many diabetics, however, are reluctant to start insulin because they loathe taking injections. (latimes.com)
  • Type 1 diabetics, on the other hand, do require a steady supply of insulin for their survival, as their bodies produce little or no insulin at all. (organicconsumers.org)
  • Tragically, as prices of insulin have skyrocketed, many Type 1 diabetics are now risking their lives by rationing their insulin use. (organicconsumers.org)
  • As noted in the featured article, 3 the three researchers (Frederick Banting, Charles Best and James Collip 4 ) who in 1921 discovered insulin - thereby transforming diabetic treatment and offering hope for a more or less normal life for Type 1 diabetics, who were previously doomed to die young - sold their patent to the University of Toronto for $1 each. (organicconsumers.org)
  • It may be worth discussing lowering your insulin requirements with your practitioner as there is evidence that some diabetics are taking too much insulin. (healthy.net)
  • [3] Another disadvantage of insulin pump use is a higher risk of developing diabetic ketoacidosis if the pump malfunctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a study at the University of Miami's Diabetes Research Institute , six diabetic monkeys given the drug, called anti-CD154, along with a transplant of insulin-producing pancreatic cells, became insulin independent. (wired.com)
  • The immune system of a diabetic destroys cells that produce insulin. (wired.com)
  • A breakthrough came at the University of Toronto in the summer of 1921, when Canadians Frederick Banting and Charles Best successfully isolated insulin from canine test subjects, produced diabetic symptoms in the animals, and then began a program of insulin injections that returned the dogs to normalcy. (history.com)
  • The diabetic teenager improved dramatically, and the University of Toronto immediately gave pharmaceutical companies license to produce insulin, free of royalties. (history.com)
  • Manufactured insulin' has proved to be a boon for diabetic patients. (buzzle.com)
  • Insulin formulated for diabetic patients is available in different types. (buzzle.com)
  • Insulin inhalation is not used for the treatment diabetic ketoacidosis (a serious condition that may develop if high blood sugar is not treated). (medlineplus.gov)
  • In the US, Insulin Lispro (insulin lispro systemic) is a member of the drug class insulin and is used to treat Diabetes - Type 1 , Diabetes - Type 2 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Nonketotic Hyperosmolar Syndrome . (drugs.com)
  • Chinese researchers found that animals with drug-induced diabetes treated with pumpkin extract had lower blood glucose levels, greater insulin secretion, and more insulin-producing beta cells than diabetic rats that weren't given the extract. (reuters.com)
  • I know many of my diabetic friends and family members feel that they could use an alternative for injections like insulin patches or pills. (empowher.com)
  • Insulin-mediated lipohypertrophy: An uncommon cause of diabetic ketoacidosis. (springer.com)
  • The maker of an insulin pump that's susceptible to wireless hacking was identified for the first time on Thursday by a diabetic researcher who said the company repeatedly ignored his warnings. (theregister.co.uk)
  • Mitragotri went on to test the effect of varying ultrasound intensity on the permeability to insulin of the skin of diabetic rats. (newscientist.com)
  • Shane was a Type 1 diabetic (T1D), dependent on insulin, a hormone that the nondiabetic body naturally creates to regulate blood sugar and convert glucose into energy. (usatoday.com)
  • Without insulin, a diabetic will go into diabetic ketoacidosis, where blood glucose continues to build up and your body will use fat for fuel instead, creating ketones, which wreak havoc on the diabetic body and I can tell you from first hand experience, it is a painful, slow, process where you feel yourself becoming weaker, your body unable to sustain you. (usatoday.com)
  • If the "right to life" is a basic human right, then insulin is a human right for a diabetic. (usatoday.com)
  • If your diabetic dog suddenly requires a substantially higher dose of insulin to keep his blood sugars in line, it's important to consult your veterinarian. (vetinfo.com)
  • You may never be able to come off insulin completely if you are diabetic but, with certain adjustments in lifestyle, you may be able to reduce the amount you need each day. (healthy.net)
  • The insulin works in the same way as natural insulin, by binding to insulin receptors on cells in the body. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Like other protein hormones, insulin binds to specific receptors on the outer membrane of its target cells, thereby activating metabolic processes within the cells. (britannica.com)
  • A commercially available ingredient containing bitter melon peptides could help manage blood sugar by binding to insulin receptors, say researchers. (nutraingredients.com)
  • First, brain areas affected in Alzheimer's disease have been shown to express insulin receptors, and insulin levels as well as insulin receptor signaling are thought to be reduced in Alzheimer's (e.g. (alzforum.org)
  • However, safety issues have been raised with these alternatives, as the alteration of the three-dimensional structure may alter the interaction with the insulin and/or IGF-I receptors and therefore lead to the activation of alternate metabolic as well as mitogenic signaling pathways. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Excessive weight can block the insulin receptors, making it difficult for the insulin to effectively control blood sugar levels. (vetinfo.com)
  • The article, 'Role of Brain Insulin Receptor in Control of Body Weight and Reproduction,' showed that mice lacking insulin receptors in the brain have increased body fat content. (mendosa.com)
  • The researchers, led by Dr. C. Ronald Kahn, Joslin's president, created bioengineered mice whose brain cells lacked insulin receptors, the structures that insulin molecules normally bind to. (mendosa.com)
  • With the receptors knocked out, the researchers knew that insulin wouldn't have any activity in the brain, but they didn't know what would happen. (mendosa.com)
  • Most people thought that if insulin and the insulin receptors in the brain had any function at all, it would be in the development of the brain,' Kahn says. (mendosa.com)
  • Insulin absorption depends upon a number of biochemical processes involving the body's cells, which are unaffected by changes in the ambient temperature and peripheral circulation. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Insulin also regulates the functions of the body's cells, including their growth. (medicinenet.com)
  • Insulin is critical for the body's use of glucose as energy. (medicinenet.com)
  • Diabetes mellitus disorders arise from impairment of the body's normal production of insulin. (eurekalert.org)
  • Insulin helps transport glucose , the body's main source of energy, from the blood to within cells. (labcorp.com)
  • These antibodies are the body's response to insulin medication, as it treats insulin like a foreign object and develops antibodies to combat insulin. (vetinfo.com)
  • The 1990s saw the advent of insulin analogs, synthetic drugs made to better mimic the body's own insulin production," The Washington Post writes. (organicconsumers.org)
  • Nearly 10 percent of Americans have been diagnosed with diabetes, which hinders the body's ability to make or properly use the blood sugar-regulating hormone insulin. (upi.com)
  • Eventually, the cells that secrete insulin fail to keep up with the body's need and blood glucose builds up in the blood stream and stays elevated. (popsugar.com)
  • The use of rapid-acting insulin for basal needs offers relative freedom from a structured meal and exercise regime previously needed to control blood sugar with slow-acting insulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Assuming that rapid-acting insulin analogs last for 4 hours is a safe general rule. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The device usually uses only rapid-acting insulin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Afrezza would be the most convenient, discreet and rapid-acting insulin alternative for diabetes, one of the largest pharmaceuticals markets," Butt said. (latimes.com)
  • Rapid-acting insulin analogs (insulin lispro and insulin aspart) are available, and other analogs are in development. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Insulin preparations with a predetermined proportion of intermediate-acting insulin mixed with short- or rapid-acting insulin (e.g., 70% NPH/30% regular, 50% NPH/50% regular, and 75% NPL/25% insulin lispro) are available. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Only rapid acting insulin is used in a pump. (umassmed.edu)
  • An insulin pump is a medical device used for the administration of insulin in the treatment of diabetes mellitus , also known as continuous subcutaneous insulin therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • In diabetes mellitus patients, where this hormone is not secreted in the body, insulin has to be injected externally. (buzzle.com)
  • Inadequate secretion of insulin results in hyperglycemia (high glucose levels in the blood), and hyperlipemia (high lipid levels), and in the characteristic signs of diabetes mellitus - including polydipsia (excessive intake of fluids due to increased thirst, polyuria (excessive urination), and, eventually, lethargy and weight loss. (healthcentral.com)
  • beta, cells) secrete the hormone insulin , inadequate production of which is responsible for the condition called diabetes mellitus. (britannica.com)
  • People with type 1 diabetes mellitus do not produce enough of this hormone to sustain life and therefore depend on exogenous insulin for survival. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Cat insulin is a synthetic form of insulin that's administered to cats suffering from diabetes mellitus. (vetinfo.com)
  • Decreased or absent insulin activity results in diabetes mellitus, a condition of high blood sugar level (hyperglycaemia). (wikipedia.org)
  • In type 1 diabetes mellitus, the beta cells are destroyed by an autoimmune reaction so that insulin can no longer be synthesized or be secreted into the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • These are tumors of the pancreatic beta cells that lead to excess production of insulin and this results in hypoglycaemia. (news-medical.net)
  • Insulin was first reported in pancreatic extracts in 1921, having been identified by Canadian scientists Frederick G. Banting and Charles H. Best and by Romanian physiologist Nicolas C. Paulescu , who was working independently and called the substance "pancrein. (britannica.com)
  • Neurons share more similarities with insulin-producing pancreatic islet cells than with any other cell type. (springer.com)
  • An insulin regimen is often required in the treatment of gestational diabetes and diabetes associated with certain conditions or syndromes (e.g., pancreatic diseases, drug- or chemical-induced diabetes, endocrinopathies, insulin-receptor disorders, certain genetic syndromes). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Vitamin A deficiency decreases insulin production capability of pancreatic beta-cells, claims new study in Endocrine Journal. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which your immune system attacks and destroys your pancreatic cells that produce insulin, which is why it's also referred to as insulin-dependent diabetes. (organicconsumers.org)
  • Insulin is produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets in most vertebrates and by the Brockmann body in some teleost fish. (wikipedia.org)
  • The importance of insulin in the regulation of corporal aging has been established by the dramatic increases in longevity experienced by animals in which the adipose insulin receptor has been genetically eliminated, or in which the insulin-related daf genes have been mutated. (springer.com)
  • The initial molecular signal for insulin action involves activation of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase, which results in phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (IRSs) on multiple tyrosine residues. (jci.org)
  • Ambient insulin levels, various physiologic and disease states, and drugs regulate insulin receptor concentration or affinity. (medscape.com)
  • In this study, we determined in vivo the insulin receptor signaling characteristics activated by insulin glulisine (Lys B3 , Glu B29 ) at the level of insulin receptor phosphorylation, insulin receptor substrate phosphorylation, and downstream signaling elements such as phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase, AKT, and mitogen-activated protein kinase. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Although predominant activation of the IGF-I receptor correlates with increased mitogenic potency, stimulation of the insulin receptor is mainly associated with enhanced glucose transport, glycogen synthesis, and inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis as long as insulin receptor binding kinetics remain normal ( 3 , 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Insulin binds to its cell surface receptor and stimulates autophosphorylation of the β-subunit, followed by phosphorylation of substrates, including the insulin receptor substrate (IRS) protein family members. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Each IRS protein contains a highly conserved NH 2 -terminal pleckstrin homology domain followed by a phosphotyrosine binding domain, which couples IRS proteins to the activated insulin or IGF-I receptor ( 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We found evidence of a decrease in the ability of insulin to lower blood glucose levels, increased appetite, obesity, and increased infertility in the mice in which the insulin receptor in the brain had been genetically knocked out,' Kahn says. (mendosa.com)
  • L. J. Hale and R. J. Coward, "The insulin receptor and the kidney," Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension , vol. 22, pp. 100-106, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • Par14 protein associates with insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), thereby enhancing insulin-induced IRS-1," The Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 288, no. 28, pp. 20692-20701, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • Role of the insulin receptor substrate 1 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway in insulin-induced expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c and glucokinase genes in rat hepatocytes," Diabetes , vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 1672-1680, 2002. (hindawi.com)
  • J. Landis and L. M. Shaw, "Insulin receptor substrate 2-mediated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling selectively inhibits glycogen synthase kinase 3 β to regulate aerobic glycolysis," The Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 289, no. 26, pp. 18603-18613, 2014. (hindawi.com)
  • The insulin receptor (IR) is a transmembrane receptor that is activated by insulin, IGF-I, IGF-II and belongs to the large class of receptor tyrosine kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolically, the insulin receptor plays a key role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis, a functional process that under degenerate conditions may result in a range of clinical manifestations including diabetes and cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biochemically, the insulin receptor is encoded by a single gene INSR, from which alternate splicing during transcription results in either IR-A or IR-B isoforms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Downstream post-translational events of either isoform result in the formation of a proteolytically cleaved α and β subunit, which upon combination are ultimately capable of homo or hetero-dimerisation to produce the ≈320 kDa disulfide-linked transmembrane insulin receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • These changes facilitate the recruitment of specific adapter proteins such as the insulin receptor substrate proteins (IRS) in addition to SH2-B (Src Homology 2 - B ), APS and protein phosphatases, such as PTP1B, eventually promoting downstream processes involving blood glucose homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Often used with rapid- or short-acting insulin. (cdc.gov)
  • Combines intermediate- and short-acting insulin. (cdc.gov)
  • The exact number of injections varies from person to person, and comes in the form of long-acting and short-acting insulin. (jdrf.org)
  • Short-acting insulin is clear in appearance. (diabetesaustralia.com.au)
  • Mixed insulin is cloudy in appearance and contains pre-mixed combinations of either a fast-acting or a short-acting insulin and an intermediate-acting insulin. (diabetesaustralia.com.au)
  • Regular is a short-acting insulin. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • It is a short-acting insulin that starts working about 30 minutes after it is injected. (nationwidechildrens.org)
  • In some people, the immune system attacks the islets, and they cease to produce insulin or do not produce enough. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In people with type 1 diabetes , the body produces little or no insulin as the cells that produce insulin have been destroyed by an autoimmune reaction in the body. (diabetesaustralia.com.au)
  • Some viruses produce insulin-like hormones that can stimulate human cells -- and have potential to cause disease. (eurekalert.org)
  • In an unexpected finding, scientists at Joslin Diabetes Center have identified four viruses that can produce insulin-like hormones that are active on human cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • Insulin is a hormone that affects metabolism and vascular compliance. (buzzle.com)
  • Insulin acts to regulate the metabolism of glucose and the process necessary for the intermediary metabolism of fats, carbohydrates and proteins. (healthcentral.com)
  • Insulin acts primarily to stimulate glucose uptake by three tissues- adipose (fat), muscle , and liver -that are important in the metabolism and storage of nutrients. (britannica.com)
  • Most actions of insulin are directed at metabolism (control) of carbohydrates (sugars and starches), lipids ( fats ), and proteins. (medicinenet.com)
  • Insulin is necessary for normal carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A combination of three probiotic strains and prebiotic inulin may improve markers of insulin metabolism and lipid levels in women with gestational diabetes, says a new study. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Grapefruit has been shown to improve metabolism, help with weight loss, and lower insulin levels. (wikihow.com)
  • The lack of appropriate insulin signaling, especially in peripheral tissues such as adipose cells, results in abnormal lipid metabolism that consistently produces a proatherogenic phenotype (Figure 1 ). (jci.org)
  • however, only in the early stages of impaired insulin metabolism do hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia appear to be significant contributors to the presence of hypertension. (medscape.com)
  • Insulin enhances glucose uptake and metabolism in the cells, thereby reducing blood sugar level. (wikipedia.org)
  • So, in this way, insulin is the key regulator of fat metabolism as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • The other data we have are from the ORIGIN trial, [ 1 ] and in case you do not remember the ORIGIN trial, it is a big multicenter study with over 12,000 patients, looking at whether early treatment with insulin glargine in patients with prediabetes or diabetes prevented cardiovascular disease, and in the subset with prediabetes, whether it helped slow progression. (medscape.com)
  • Last July, U.S. pharmaceutical company Merck received tentative FDA approval for its Lusduna Nexvue product , a biosimilar insulin glargine delivered in a pre-filled pen. (beyondtype1.org)
  • However, at least one insulin (Lantus, AKA insulin glargine) becomes cloudy by day 3 and hence the manufacturer 'does not recommend prefilling syringes with Lantus and storing for any period longer than needed for application. (healthcentral.com)
  • Ultralente and insulin glargine are long-acting insulins. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Insulin pump, showing an infusion set loaded into spring-loaded insertion device. (wikipedia.org)
  • An insulin pump is an alternative to multiple daily injections of insulin by insulin syringes or an insulin pen and allows for flexible insulin therapy when used in conjunction with blood glucose monitoring and carbohydrate counting . (wikipedia.org)
  • [3] This can happen if the pump battery is discharged, if the insulin is inactivated by heat exposure, if the insulin reservoir runs empty, the tubing becomes loose and insulin leaks rather than being injected, or if the cannula becomes bent or kinked in the body, preventing delivery. (wikipedia.org)
  • [3] Therefore, pump users typically monitor their blood sugars more frequently to evaluate the effectiveness of insulin delivery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the insulin pump needs to be worn most of the time, pump users need strategies to participate in activities that may damage the pump, such as rough sports and activities in the water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Possibility of insulin pump malfunctioning, and having to resort back to multiple daily injections until a replacement becomes available. (wikipedia.org)
  • An insulin pump is a small device that delivers insulin through a small plastic tube (catheter). (medlineplus.gov)
  • A separate wireless device programs insulin delivery from the pump. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This allows you (or in some cases the pump) to stop insulin delivery if blood glucose is becoming too low. (medlineplus.gov)
  • An insulin pump delivers insulin continuously to the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • An alternative to insulin injections is the insulin pump. (jdrf.org)
  • The pump delivers a continuous low (basal) dose of insulin through a cannula (a flexible plastic tube), which attaches to the body through a small needle inserted into the skin. (jdrf.org)
  • However, it is very important to use an insulin pump with correct technique and efficiency to gain. (buzzle.com)
  • Are you planning to buy an insulin pump, and want to know what are the types available in the market? (buzzle.com)
  • Some now control their insulin levels via a small, portable insulin pump. (infoplease.com)
  • Thinking about getting an insulin pump to manage your Type 1 diabetes? (diabetes.org.uk)
  • As an alternative to injecting insulin with a pen, an insulin pump can help improve your diabetes control and give you more flexibility. (diabetes.org.uk)
  • What does an insulin pump do? (diabetes.org.uk)
  • When eating, you can release extra insulin using the pump. (diabetes.org.uk)
  • How can I get an insulin pump? (diabetes.org.uk)
  • The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) has published criteria for suitability to use an insulin pump . (diabetes.org.uk)
  • Your diabetes consultant recommends that you use an insulin pump. (diabetes.org.uk)
  • How much does an insulin pump cost? (diabetes.org.uk)
  • If you and your team decide a pump is right for you - and you meet the NICE criteria - you should be able to receive an NHS insulin pump for free. (diabetes.org.uk)
  • If you don't meet the criteria, you'll have to buy the pump and supplies yourself, except for insulin. (diabetes.org.uk)
  • And then comes the insulin pump, I hope I won't get into that situation and someone would come up with a better alternative like a pace maker or a medicated stent that would take years to release the insulin as the body needs. (empowher.com)
  • An insulin pump is a small device with the ability to deliver insulin continuously (basal) or quickly (bolus) for carbohydrate intake. (umassmed.edu)
  • You can also correct a high blood glucose level by typing into the insulin pump your blood glucose or grams of carbohydrate to be eaten. (umassmed.edu)
  • Information in the insulin pump is programmed to meet the needs of the individual wearing it. (umassmed.edu)
  • Insulin is infused into fatty tissue through a small plastic tube, called a cannula, that's attached to a reservoir in the pump. (umassmed.edu)
  • Studies have shown that an insulin pump can improve diabetes control and lessen the risk of hypoglycemia . (umassmed.edu)
  • Many people find increased flexibility in the timing of meals and exercise when wearing an insulin pump. (umassmed.edu)
  • Sharing insulin pump data with your care team between office visits helps to make the most of the time you spend with them during your appointments. (umassmed.edu)
  • Is an insulin pump right for you? (umassmed.edu)
  • Candidates for insulin pump therapy receive multiple daily insulin injections, check blood glucose levels several times each day, are motivated to use the pump, and have good problem solving skills. (umassmed.edu)
  • The UMass Memorial Diabetes Center of Excellence offers monthly workshops to help you determine if an insulin pump may be right for you. (umassmed.edu)
  • A commercially available pump made by Medtronic, the world's biggest medical device manufacturer, is vulnerable to attacks that allow strangers to increase, decrease, or stop the flow of insulin being administered, the Associated Press reported . (theregister.co.uk)
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the Tandem Diabetes Care t-Slim X2 insulin pump, the first to allow a patient to customize treatment. (upi.com)
  • But the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved Tandem Diabetes Care t-Slim X2 insulin pump, which allows a patient to tailor diabetes management to their preferences. (upi.com)
  • Visit the American Diabetes Association for more on insulin pump systems. (upi.com)
  • After more than a decade of work and nearly $1 billion of his personal fortune, Los Angeles inventor Alfred Mann's quest to develop an inhalable form of insulin for people with diabetes won approval Friday from U.S. regulators. (latimes.com)
  • One exception has been the widely used long-acting form of insulin called Lantus, which is marketed by Sanofi. (pbs.org)
  • INSULIN LISPRO (IN su lin LYE sproe) is a human-made form of insulin. (nationwidechildrens.org)
  • Exubera is a powdered form of insulin that comes with a new type of inhaler the size of an eyeglass case. (npr.org)
  • The standard and most commonly used strength in the United States today is U-100, which means it has 100 units of insulin per milliliter of fluid, though U-500 insulin is available for patients who are extremely insulin resistant. (diabetes.org)
  • U-40, which has 40 units of insulin per milliliter of fluid, has generally been phased out around the world, but it is possible that it could still be found in some places (and U-40 insulin is still used in veterinary care). (diabetes.org)
  • An insulin cartridge (3 ml, containing 300 units of insulin) fits into the device. (diabetesaustralia.com.au)
  • All insulins sold in the United States today are of U-100 strength, 100 units of insulin per cc of fluid. (nfb.org)
  • The list price for a package of five Lilly pens, each of which come prefilled with 300 units of insulin, is $60, although some discount chains offer them at about $55. (mendosa.com)
  • The most common strength is U-100, or 100 units of insulin per milliliter of fluid. (healthline.com)
  • Insulin pumps are used to deliver insulin on a continuous basis to a person with type I diabetes . (wikipedia.org)
  • The improvement in QOL is reported in type 1 and insulin-requiring type 2 diabetes subjects on pumps. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many modern "smart" pumps have a "bolus wizard" that calculates how much bolus insulin you need taking into account expected carbohydrate intake, blood sugar level, and still-active insulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insulin pumps can provide an accurate record of insulin usage through their history menus. (wikipedia.org)
  • On many insulin pumps, this history can be uploaded to a computer and graphed for trend analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are reports of alleviation or even total disappearance of resistant neuropathic pain with the use of insulin pumps. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent studies of use of insulin pumps in Type 2 diabetes have shown profound improvements in HbA1c, sexual performance, and neuropathy pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insulin pumps help you manage diabetes by delivering insulin 24 hours a day through a catheter placed under the skin. (diabetes.org)
  • Read more about insulin pumps . (diabetes.org)
  • The device pumps insulin continuously day and night. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Insulin pumps can help some people with diabetes have more control in managing blood glucose. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Most insulin pumps are about the size of a small mobile phone, but models keep getting smaller. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Traditional pumps include an insulin reservoir (cartridge) and a catheter. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Pumps come with features such as waterproofing, touchscreen, and alerts for dosage time and insulin reservoir capacity. (medlineplus.gov)
  • With pumps you can change the amount of basal insulin being delivered at different times of day. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This is the biggest advantage of pumps over injected insulin because you can customize the amount of basal insulin you are getting at different times of day. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Insulin pumps continue to be improved and have changed a lot since they were first introduced. (medlineplus.gov)
  • There are three primary methods to administer insulin: injections, inhaled insulin (if you are at least 18 years old) and insulin pumps. (jdrf.org)
  • Method of administering insulin include insulin pumps and injections. (buzzle.com)
  • Alfred Mann is a Los Angeles physicist, inventor and philanthropist whose previous companies have produced pacemakers, hearing aid implants, insulin pumps and other devices. (latimes.com)
  • These are strictly for use in insulin pumps, and should not be used for any other purpose! (nfb.org)
  • It does not address the use of insulin pumps. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Insulin pens and pumps offered some measure of discretion and flexibility, but people uncomfortable with needles and catheters have been, in a word, stuck. (scientificamerican.com)
  • There's a variety of insulin pumps on the market, offering options to meet individual needs. (umassmed.edu)
  • View the latest insulin pumps on the market and learn the features and benefits of each. (umassmed.edu)
  • The research into the vulnerability of wireless insulin pumps and other medical devices recently attracted the attention of two US lawmakers . (theregister.co.uk)
  • The Medtronic spokeswoman didn't address Radcliffe's claims directly, but said the "risk of deliberate, malicious or unauthorized manipulation of our insulin pumps is extremely low. (theregister.co.uk)
  • Chronically elevated insulin levels (termed hyperinsulinemia ) can lead to many health problems, including obesity and metabolic syndrome ( 4 , 5 , 6 ). (healthline.com)
  • Some people with type 2 diabetes will also need to take insulin. (cdc.gov)
  • When you take insulin it acts to reduce the level of glucose in your blood. (diabetesaustralia.com.au)
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , 12 percent of adults with diabetes take insulin only, and 14 percent take both insulin and an oral medication. (healthline.com)
  • Like all medications, you need to take insulin in the right amounts. (healthline.com)
  • It's inhalable, and it's the first new way to take insulin since the therapy was developed in the 1920s. (npr.org)
  • Without enough insulin, extra glucose stays in your bloodstream rather than entering your cells. (nih.gov)
  • Eventually, your body might not be able to create enough insulin, which could lead to type 2 diabetes. (wikihow.com)
  • More than 20 million Americans have diabetes and about one-quarter inject insulin daily because their bodies do not produce enough insulin or use insulin effectively. (latimes.com)
  • In addition to not producing enough insulin, your body may be insulinresistant, in which case more insulin may not be the best way to approach the problem. (healthy.net)
  • People most often deliver insulin into the subcutaneous tissue, or the fatty tissue located near the surface of the skin. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • It can also deliver insulin more rapidly (bolus) before meals. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This allows the user to program the device to deliver insulin as needed. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Scientists are developing a range of new ways to deliver insulin to the body. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The forms of insulin available early in the 20th cent. (infoplease.com)
  • The trials of intranasal insulin vary in that some test fast-acting forms of insulin as used in diabetes therapy, while others evaluate longer-acting insulin analogs. (alzforum.org)
  • Cone snails Conus geographus and Conus tulipa, venomous sea snails that hunt small fish, use modified forms of insulin in their venom cocktails. (wikipedia.org)
  • High insulin levels are often associated with central obesity, cholesterol abnormalities, and/or high blood pressure ( hypertension ). (medicinenet.com)
  • Abscisic acid (ABA) works synergistically with insulin to improve cellular glucose uptake while decreasing obesity related systemic inflammation, according to a new research in mice. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • So you can get varying amounts of diabetes and obesity,' he says, 'but they will tend to occur together because of fact that insulin tends to store fat and tells the brain how fat you are, preventing overstorage. (mendosa.com)
  • Protein actually raises insulin in the short-term. (healthline.com)
  • Insulin cannot be taken as a pill because it would be broken down during digestion just like the protein in food. (diabetes.org)
  • The molecular weight of 35,100 deduced by Prof. Svedberg is in agreement with the physicochemical behaviour of insulin, and is of the same order as those of ovalbumin and Bence Jones protein. (nature.com)
  • Insulin is a protein composed of two chains, an A chain (with 21 amino acids ) and a B chain (with 30 amino acids), which are linked together by sulfur atoms. (britannica.com)
  • The signals downstream of PI3K are still unknown, and there is controversy as to whether the serine/threonine kinase Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) ( 6 , 7 ) or the protein kinase C (PKC) isoform λ/ζ ( 8 ) mediates insulin stimulation of glucose transport. (jci.org)
  • Frederick Sanger sequenced the amino acid structure in 1951, which made insulin the first protein to be fully sequenced. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insulin is also the first protein to be chemically synthesised and produced by DNA recombinant technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Absorption of insulin varies depending on the part of the body into which you inject. (diabetesaustralia.com.au)
  • More predictable absorption of insulin than injections. (diabetes.org.uk)
  • Respiratory infections can also make absorption difficult-which could make a common cold potentially dangerous for people who rely on inhaled insulin. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Recently, a number of insulin variants generated by genetic engineering were found to retard and stabilize absorption kinetics of insulin preparations. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • People use fast-acting insulin to correct hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar, as well as control blood sugar spikes after eating. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This is a mixture of NPH with a fast-acting insulin, and its effects are a combination of the intermediate- and rapid-acting insulins. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This is known as a fast-acting insulin. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Fast-acting insulin is clear in appearance, and starts to work from 1 to 20 minutes. (diabetesaustralia.com.au)
  • You must eat immediately after injecting fast-acting insulin. (diabetesaustralia.com.au)
  • When cells are insulin resistant (very common), both blood sugar and insulin levels go up significantly. (healthline.com)
  • A low-carb diet can cause an immediate drop in insulin levels ( 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 ). (healthline.com)
  • Omega-3 fats found in fatty fish can help lower fasting insulin levels ( 22 ). (healthline.com)
  • Green tea may lower blood sugar and insulin levels ( 29 , 30 ). (healthline.com)
  • Reducing sugar intake, cutting carbs and exercise are the best ways to lower insulin levels. (healthline.com)
  • For good health, the body must be able to keep insulin and glucose levels in balance. (kidshealth.org)
  • Insulin levels are very low - despite the presence of high blood sugar levels - in children who have type 1 diabetes. (kidshealth.org)
  • Basal insulin essentially helps one keep blood sugars at consistent levels when not eating. (beyondtype1.org)
  • The higher the level of glucose, the more insulin goes into production to balance sugar levels in the blood. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • If insulin levels are too low or high, excessively high or low blood sugar can start to cause symptoms. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • It can be programmed to release different doses of insulin based on your blood glucose levels. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Bolus dose: A higher dose of insulin at meals when blood sugar levels rise due to carbohydrates in food. (medlineplus.gov)
  • I am sure the diabetes nurse at your general practice or hospital clinic would be able to give you further information on the way in which sudden changes in diet or activity levels can affect your insulin needs. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Magnesium supplements administered daily can restore depleted levels of magnesium which can also improve the glucose uptake from blood mediated by insulin. (news-medical.net)
  • Insulin is a hormone secreted in the human body to regulate the sugar levels. (buzzle.com)
  • As insulin overdose causes hypoglycemia (decreased blood sugar levels), initial treatment involves intake of sugary foods. (buzzle.com)
  • Insulin injections act as a replacement for natural insulin, and allow people with diabetes to achieve normal blood glucose levels. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • This type of insulin should be injected up to 15 minutes before, or if necessary immediately after a meal, to control increasing blood glucose levels after eating. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • You should measure your blood sugar levels every day when using insulin injections. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Insulin lowers blood glucose levels and promotes transport and entry of glucose into muscle cells and other tissues. (healthcentral.com)
  • Lifestyle changes can delay the need for tablets and/or insulin to stabilise blood glucose levels. (diabetesaustralia.com.au)
  • When starting insulin, your doctor and Credentialled Diabetes Educator will help you adjust to the new routine and task of giving insulin and find the right dose to reduce your blood glucose levels to acceptable levels. (diabetesaustralia.com.au)
  • And mice injected with the viral peptides exhibited lower levels of blood glucose, another sign of insulin action. (eurekalert.org)
  • Their health outcomes depend heavily not only on taking proper doses, but on minimizing variance between blood sugar levels-an imperative that demands a vigilant routine of measurement and monitoring, often facilitated by supplies and multiple variations of insulins. (commondreams.org)
  • for example, by having at least four insulin injections a day, checking your blood sugar levels at least four times a day, counting carbohydrates and adjusting insulin doses. (diabetes.org.uk)
  • You need to test your blood sugar levels more often - the insulin is short-acting, which means you constantly need to be aware of your insulin needs. (diabetes.org.uk)
  • While rats with diabetes had 41 percent less insulin in their blood than normal rats, giving them pumpkin extract for 30 days boosted levels of the blood-sugar-regulating hormone by 36 percent, the researchers found. (reuters.com)
  • Insulin levels are also sometimes used in conjunction with the glucose tolerance test (GTT) . (labcorp.com)
  • Insulin levels are most frequently ordered following a low glucose and/or when someone has acute or chronic symptoms of low blood glucose (hypoglycemia) caused by, for example, an insulinoma. (labcorp.com)
  • Inhaling insulin certainly has some advantages: for one, it allows the body to reach peak insulin levels much more quickly than injections can. (scientificamerican.com)
  • [1] To lower insulin levels and hopefully avoid developing diabetes, make changes to your diet and get more exercise. (wikihow.com)
  • These options will also be helpful for you as you manage your insulin levels. (wikihow.com)
  • Some foods will likely raise your blood sugar and insulin levels. (wikihow.com)
  • This, in turn, may raise your insulin levels. (wikihow.com)
  • Their artificial sweeteners can still raise insulin levels, increase your BMI, and negatively affect your overall health. (wikihow.com)
  • In the early 1920s, Canadian surgeon Dr. Frederick Banting and medical student Charles Best discovered that insulin could help normalize blood sugar levels. (healthline.com)
  • Ultimately, such a device would release a drug such as insulin in response to direct information from a sensor monitoring the person's blood sugar levels. (newscientist.com)
  • Called Exubera, the drug allows patients to control their blood-sugar levels by inhaling a fine insulin powder through a flashlight-size device. (latimes.com)
  • The drug's label will warn that smokers should not use Exubera because smoking increases the effects of inhaled insulin and could cause dangerous drops in blood-sugar levels. (latimes.com)
  • Insulin levels vary widely in specimens taken from non-fasting individuals. (questdiagnostics.com)
  • Pets suffering from type 1 diabetes should also have a diet plan, as diets high in carbohydrates can reduce the effectiveness of insulin, causing pets to require higher dosages to keep the blood glucose levels normal. (vetinfo.com)
  • Low insulin levels in the blood have the opposite effect by promoting widespread catabolism, especially of reserve body fat. (wikipedia.org)
  • and inhibit secretion of insulin when glucose levels are low. (wikipedia.org)
  • The insulin toxin, closer in structure to fishes' than to snails' native insulin, slows down the prey fishes by lowering their blood glucose levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is just [long-acting] basal insulin, rates of hypoglycemia are low with it, and it is easily tolerated. (medscape.com)
  • This test is often used to evaluate the cause of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) or any other conditions related to abnormal insulin production. (kidshealth.org)
  • In some circumstances, however, other tests, such as insulin-induced hypoglycemia, are utilized to evaluate the response to stress, particularly when ACTH deficiency is suspected as the cause. (uptodate.com)
  • Details of the insulin-induced hypoglycemia test in adults will be reviewed here. (uptodate.com)
  • If someone makes too much, as may happen with an insulin-producing tumor (insulinoma) for example, then symptoms of low blood glucose (hypoglycemia) emerge. (labcorp.com)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has become increasingly aware of reports of improper use of insulin pens, which places individuals at risk of infection with pathogens including hepatitis viruses and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (cdc.gov)
  • This notice serves as a reminder that insulin pens must never be used on more than one person. (cdc.gov)
  • Insulin pens are pen-shaped injector devices that contain a reservoir for insulin or an insulin cartridge. (cdc.gov)
  • In 2009, in response to reports of improper use of insulin pens in hospitals, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an alert for healthcare professionals reminding them that insulin pens are meant for use on a single patient only and are not to be shared between patients [ 2 ]. (cdc.gov)
  • In spite of this alert, there have been continuing reports of patients placed at risk through inappropriate reuse and sharing of insulin pens, including an incident in 2011 that required notification of more than 2,000 potentially exposed patients [ 3 ]. (cdc.gov)
  • Anyone using insulin pens should review the following recommendations to ensure that they are not placing persons in their care at risk for infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Insulin pens containing multiple doses of insulin are meant for use on a single person only, and should never be used for more than one person, even when the needle is changed. (cdc.gov)
  • Insulin pens should be clearly labeled with the person's name or other identifying information to ensure that the correct pen is used only on the correct individual. (cdc.gov)
  • Hospitals and other facilities should review their policies and educate their staff regarding safe use of insulin pens and similar devices. (cdc.gov)
  • These recommendations apply to any setting where insulin pens are used, including assisted living or residential care facilities, skilled nursing facilities, clinics, health fairs, shelters, detention facilities, senior centers, schools, and camps as well as licensed healthcare facilities. (cdc.gov)
  • Some insulin pens contain a cartridge of insulin that is inserted into the pen and some are pre-filled with insulin and discarded after all the insulin has been used. (diabetes.org)
  • Cartridges and pre-filled insulin pens only contain one type of insulin. (diabetes.org)
  • Syringes or insulin pens are both used for injections, but both essentially do the same thing. (jdrf.org)
  • I'll assume that you are not interested in using insulin pens, which contain insulin that was prefilled by the manufacturer. (healthcentral.com)
  • Apidra vials, Apidra SoloStar pre-filled pens and Apidra penfill cartridges (for use with ClikSTAR or Autopen 24 pens) all contain the active ingredient insulin glulisine. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Many people with diabetes already use convenient insulin pens at meal time, he said. (latimes.com)
  • It's kind of like who really needs inhaled insulin at this point with the convenience of the pens and the small size of the needles," Roach said. (latimes.com)
  • Insulin syringes and insulin pens (pen needles) are currently the most common way of administering insulin. (diabetesaustralia.com.au)
  • In February, Lilly introduced a line of three disposable pens prefilled with the most widely used insulins. (mendosa.com)
  • Per unit of insulin delivered, injecting insulin via pens is about twice as expensive as injecting with syringes. (mendosa.com)
  • The disadvantage is that patients may find it more cumbersome in comparison to the currently available devices for injectable insulin, such as insulin pens, which have become essentially painless due to the size of the needles, etc. (npr.org)
  • Can syringes be prefilled for future use of insulin for the next few days? (healthcentral.com)
  • For some insulin products, pre-filling insulin syringes for use in the next few days has been a standard practice in some settings. (healthcentral.com)
  • Prefilling syringes with insulin has been commonly done in some settings, such as when a home health nurse or aide is visiting a blind person with diabetes every-few-days. (healthcentral.com)
  • Store the preloaded syringes in the refrigerator , both to preserve the potency of the insulin and to help decrease the very remote chance of bacterial contamination causing bugs to grow in or on the syringes or needles. (healthcentral.com)
  • If you're going to prefill syringes with an insulin product that's a suspension (so-called 'cloudy insulin' such as NPH), be sure to periodically remix the insulin that's in the vial as you're loading the syringes so that the doses are all equally concentrated. (healthcentral.com)
  • The proportion of individual users is higher since they use more insulin than those who use syringes for their injections. (mendosa.com)
  • This can be caused by the owner providing the wrong dosage, using the wrong syringes (U100 instead of U40 syringes) or improper administration of insulin. (vetinfo.com)
  • Afrezza, a quick acting inhaled insulin, can be an alternative to injectable pre-meal insulin. (jdrf.org)
  • Two rivals to Pfizer are working on inhaled insulin that would be delivered in smaller devices, and other companies are developing an inhaled version of an injectable drug for osteoporosis. (latimes.com)
  • It won't replace all injectable insulin, and shouldn't be used by smokers, people with asthma or other breathing problems. (npr.org)
  • Some people -- including all those with type 1 diabetes -- will still have to take a slow acting injectable insulin that continues to work between meals. (npr.org)
  • In some people, especially those who are overweight, obese, or inactive, insulin is not effective in transporting glucose into the cells and unable to fulfill its actions. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • They also are more likely to be insulin resistant if obese or of Latino, African-American, Native American, or Asian-American heritage. (medicinenet.com)
  • Most people who are obese are insulin resistant," she said. (popsugar.com)
  • The place on your body where you inject insulin affects your blood sugar level. (diabetes.org)
  • If you inject insulin near the same place each time, hard lumps or extra fatty deposits may develop. (diabetes.org)
  • The idea of not having to inject insulin resonates with people," he said. (latimes.com)
  • The cost of insulin medications has steadily risen over the past decade by nearly 300 percent. (pbs.org)
  • In certain cases of mild diabetes, oral medications that stimulate production of insulin can be taken in lieu of insulin. (infoplease.com)
  • It is also used in combination with other medications to treat people with type 2 diabetes (condition in which the body does not use insulin normally and, therefore, cannot control the amount of sugar in the blood) who need insulin to control their diabetes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Insulin medications also come in different types. (healthline.com)
  • BOSTON -- (Feb. 19, 2018) -- Every cell in your body responds to the hormone insulin, and if that process starts to fail, you get diabetes. (eurekalert.org)
  • The fastest-acting insulin on the market, Humalog, still takes 15-30 minutes to become active. (eurekalert.org)
  • The different insulin types: Humalog, Regular, NPH, Lente, Ultralente, and the pre-mixes: 70/30 and 50/50, divided and distinguished by their time of onset and duration. (nfb.org)
  • Where Humalog, Regular, and 50/50 premix have sharp and definable 'peaks,' the long-acting Lente insulins come on slowly, and have long, flat 'peaks,' and a slow rate of decline. (nfb.org)
  • The idea is to let the fast insulins (Regular or Humalog) cover meals, and let the longer-acting types (NPH, Lente, Ultralente) cover the period between meals. (nfb.org)
  • If you don't have the market leader-somebody who has an 80 percent share of the insulin market here in the U.S.-if you don't have us involved in driving a particular technology, you are not as likely to see a radical transformation of the marketplace,' notes Thane Wettig, Lilly's marketing director for Humulin and Humalog. (mendosa.com)
  • People with type 2 diabetes make insulin, but their bodies don't respond well to it. (diabetes.org)
  • In the two years since her son's death, Smith-Holt has fought alongside diabetes patients and their allies to make insulin the public face of the drug-pricing crisis. (commondreams.org)
  • Another biosimilar basal insulin product is one step closer to being available for public use in the United States. (beyondtype1.org)
  • With its large market of primary care relationships, Merck believes it can make an impressive entry into the biosimilar basal insulin world, piggybacking on the success of Basaglar, which totaled $434 million in sales in 2017. (beyondtype1.org)
  • The hope is that Lusduna Nexvue will continue the trend, carrying a further 15 to 20 percent reduction in basal insulin costs. (beyondtype1.org)
  • Basal insulin is designed to be injected once or twice daily. (beyondtype1.org)
  • Basal insulin is the insulin that keeps your blood sugar steady all day. (healthline.com)
  • Insulin also assists in breaking down fats or proteins for energy. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • that's why, when bodies are starved of insulin (and, as a result, glycogen), they tend to quickly metabolize muscle proteins in order to gain energy. (slate.com)
  • He began to hypothesize whether bacteria or viruses could create insulin-like peptides (small versions of proteins) that could help to trigger the disease. (eurekalert.org)
  • Circulating insulin also affects the synthesis of proteins in a wide variety of tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apart from animals, insulin-like proteins are also known to exist in the Fungi and Protista kingdoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lilly reportedly paid undisclosed royalties to Sanofi in exchange for the license to the disputed Lantus insulin patents. (beyondtype1.org)
  • Below is a general approximation, derived from data furnished by both U.S. insulin manufacturers, Eli Lilly and Company and Novo Nordisk Pharmaceuticals Inc. (nfb.org)
  • There are several insulins not charted above, 'buffered insulins' from Lilly and Novo Nordisk, and a special U-400 insulin from Hoechst of Germany. (nfb.org)
  • A vial of Lilly Humulin insulin costs as little as $20. (mendosa.com)
  • 8 At present, the three dominant makers of insulin, Eli Lilly, Sanofi and Novo Nordisk - which control 96% of the insulin market 9 - all sell their insulin for approximately the same prices, and have raised them in lockstep, raising suspicions of price fixing. (organicconsumers.org)
  • Many, but not all, of the symptoms of diabetes can be controlled by the administration of insulin. (infoplease.com)
  • This is why the medical community's approach to Type 2 diabetes treatment, which typically involves the administration of insulin, is fatally flawed and professionally irresponsible. (organicconsumers.org)
  • When the level of blood glucose falls, secretion of insulin stops, and the liver releases glucose into the blood. (britannica.com)
  • When blood glucose concentrations increase (i.e., following a meal), large amounts of glucose are taken up and metabolized by the beta cells, and the secretion of insulin increases. (britannica.com)
  • The secretion of insulin may also be stimulated by certain amino acids, fatty acids , keto acids (products of fatty acid oxidation), and several hormones secreted by the gastrointestinal tract . (britannica.com)
  • The secretion of insulin is inhibited by somatostatin and by activation of the sympathetic nervous system (the branch of the autonomic nervous system responsible for the fight-or-flight response ). (britannica.com)
  • The secretion of insulin and glucagon into the blood in response to the blood glucose concentration is the primary mechanism of glucose homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Pumpkin extract has insulin-like effects that could help people with diabetes keep their blood sugar under control, results of an animal study hint. (reuters.com)
  • Some people with diabetes may wonder why the "insulin bong," the nickname given to the Exubera inhaler because of its distinctive shape, needed to look quite so much like drug paraphernalia, but the more enduring question was whether it worked. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The Food and Drug Administration has approved a new type of insulin for people with diabetes. (npr.org)
  • Healthcare professionals have been advised that people with diabetes will need to be transferred to a suitable alternative insulin by 15 June. (diabetes.org.uk)
  • If a person makes too little insulin or is resistant to its effects, cells starve. (labcorp.com)
  • The correct dosage for it depends on many things, such the time of day and if you are insulin resistant. (healthline.com)
  • People who are more insulin-resistant may require more than that, so the drug is available at up to U-500 strength. (healthline.com)
  • In adipose tissue , insulin stimulates glucose uptake and utilization. (britannica.com)
  • If you do transfer to a different insulin, eg different type (short, intermediate or long acting), different species (human or animal), different brand, or different strength of insulin, your doctor may need to alter your dose, and your warning symptoms of low blood sugar may be slightly different. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Usually, by the time diabetes symptoms appear, 80 to 90 percent of those insulin-producing cells have been destroyed. (reuters.com)
  • And it killed Shane Patrick Boyle, who came $50 short of crowdfunding his month's dose of insulin. (usatoday.com)
  • Are you supposed to take you regular doses of insulin injections on your own? (buzzle.com)
  • however, even during fasting , small amounts of insulin are secreted. (britannica.com)
  • While some people may use excessive amounts of insulin intentionally, many others take too much insulin by accident. (healthline.com)
  • Studies have shown that three or four injections of insulin a day give the best blood sugar control and can prevent or delay the eye, kidney, and nerve damage caused by diabetes. (diabetes.org)
  • They may progress to three or four injections of insulin per day. (diabetes.org)
  • People with type one diabetes need to have injections of insulin to control the amount of glucose in their bloodstream. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Insulin is required for people with type 1 diabetes and sometimes necessary for people with type 2 diabetes. (diabetes.org)
  • Some people with type 2 diabetes need diabetes pills or insulin shots to help their bodies use glucose for energy. (diabetes.org)
  • In 2015 an inhaled insulin product, Afrezza, became available in the U.S. Afrezza is a rapid-acting inhaled insulin that is administered at the beginning of each meal and can be used by adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. (diabetes.org)
  • If you have type 1 diabetes, you'll likely take a combination of insulins. (cdc.gov)
  • Different brands of insulin vary in onset, peak time, and duration, even if they're the same type, such as rapid acting. (cdc.gov)
  • Lusduna Nexvue is Merck's first insulin product and marks a company that is more consciously expanding its diabetes platform into Type 1 diabetes treatment needs. (beyondtype1.org)
  • This is the onset of type 1 diabetes , and a person with this version of diabetes will need regular shots of insulin to survive. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Living with type 1 diabetes (T1D) requires perpetual insulin delivery. (jdrf.org)
  • Insulin injections form a part of the treatment for type 1 diabetes. (buzzle.com)
  • Apidra contains a type of insulin called insulin glulisine. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • What type(s) of insulin should I use? (healthcentral.com)
  • What type of insulin delivery will you be recommending? (healthcentral.com)
  • In people with type 2 diabetes the body produces insulin but the insulin does not work as well as it should. (diabetesaustralia.com.au)
  • Your doctor or Credentialled Diabetes Educator will work out with you what type of insulin is right for you. (diabetesaustralia.com.au)
  • Do not switch to another type of insulin without talking to your doctor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It may be that these or similar microbial insulin-like molecules could be an environmental trigger to start the autoimmune reaction in type 1 diabetes. (eurekalert.org)
  • For Type 1 diabetes patients, uninterrupted access to insulin is especially critical. (commondreams.org)
  • In contrast, individuals with type 2 diabetes are not dependent on exogenous insulin for survival. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Pharmacists and health care providers should not interchange insulin species or types without the approval of the prescribing physician and without informing the patient of the type of insulin change being made. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • If an individual is admitted to a hospital, the type of insulin he or she has been using should not be changed inadvertently. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • When purchasing insulin, the patient should make sure that the type and species are correct and that the insulin will be used before the expiration date. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Specific compounds within cocoa promote the release of insulin and may help protect against the onset of type-2 diabetes (T2D), reports a new study in Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. (nutraingredients.com)
  • All people with type 1 diabetes and 39 percent of people with type 2 were using insulin. (mendosa.com)
  • Of those with type 1 diabetes 62 percent took two or more insulin injections daily. (mendosa.com)
  • There are people with type 1 diabetes who will die without insulin. (pbs.org)
  • Insulin is an essential medicine that is needed for all people with type 1 diabetes, and a growing number of people with type 2 diabetes. (who.int)
  • Type 1 diabetes generally requires insulin treatment. (vetinfo.com)
  • Treating Type 2 diabetes with insulin is actually one of the worst things you can do, as it simply accelerates dying from the disease. (organicconsumers.org)
  • Calculate the Insulin Units required to stabilize the Blood Glucose Level for Diabetes Type 1 patients taking the current blood glucose level and carbohydrates intake into consideration. (appbrain.com)
  • Stimulatory effect of insulin on renal proximal tubule sodium transport is preserved in type 2 diabetes with nephropathy," Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications , vol. 461, no. 1, pp. 154-158, 2015. (hindawi.com)
  • Insulin allows your cells to take in blood sugar for energy or storage, depending on what is needed at the time. (healthline.com)
  • Insulin is a hormone that allows glucose to enter cells which also reduces blood glucose (blood sugar). (wikipedia.org)
  • With too little insulin, blood sugar remains higher than normal (a condition known as hyperglycemia) and cells can't get the energy they need. (kidshealth.org)
  • With the help of your health care team, you can find an insulin routine that will keep your blood sugar (blood glucose) near normal, help you feel good, and fit your lifestyle. (diabetes.org)
  • With each meal, beta cells release insulin to help the body use or store the blood sugar it gets from food. (diabetes.org)
  • Onset is the length of time before insulin reaches the bloodstream and begins lowering blood sugar. (diabetes.org)
  • Peaktime is the time during which insulin is at maximum strength in terms of lowering blood sugar. (diabetes.org)
  • Onset - How quickly insulin lowers your blood sugar. (cdc.gov)
  • Duration - How long insulin works to lower your blood sugar. (cdc.gov)
  • A delicate balance of insulin regulates blood sugar and many processes in the body. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Exercise activates the muscle cells that utilize blood sugar for energy and therefore increases insulin responsiveness. (news-medical.net)
  • Low blood sugar (hypoglycaemia) is a potential side effect of insulin therapy. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Others, including C. geographus , secrete insulin, alongside other compounds, into the water, causing the blood sugar in nearby fish to plummet and sending the fish into hypoglycemic sedation. (eurekalert.org)
  • He found that as he increased the intensity, the rats' blood sugar level dropped, suggesting that more insulin was getting through the skin. (newscientist.com)
  • The free insulin measurement is helpful in interpreting blood sugar concentration and its relationship to insulin injections in insulin-treated patients with insulin antibodies. (questdiagnostics.com)
  • As Nicole [Alec's mother] cleaned out his cluttered blue car, littered with old prescription receipts, she started to cobble together just how much his insulin and blood sugar testing supplies cost without insurance or discounts. (organicconsumers.org)
  • Insulin analogs have been developed by modifying the amino acid sequence of the insulin molecule. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • speed of onset, or how quickly a person taking insulin can expect the effects to start. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Insulins are described and subdivided by concentration strength, source, and time of onset/peak. (nfb.org)
  • Human insulins have a more rapid onset and shorter duration of activity than pork insulins. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Body weight, body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR), respiratory quotient (RQ), temperature, fasting serum glucose, insulin, free fatty acids, and ghrelin were assessed at baseline and after 21 d (12-h fast) and 22 d (36-h fast) of alternate-day fasting. (nih.gov)
  • Insulin is also the main fat storage hormone in the body. (healthline.com)
  • Insulin should be injected in the same general area of the body for consistency, but not the exact same place. (diabetes.org)
  • Insulin is classified by how fast and how long it works in your body. (cdc.gov)
  • How long it takes your body to absorb insulin and how long it stays active. (cdc.gov)
  • In this article, we look at how the body produces insulin and what happens when not enough of it circulates, as well as the different types that a person can use to supplement insulin. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Insulin is a hormone that helps the body utilize glucose as a source of energy from food. (news-medical.net)
  • There are several diseased conditions associated with disturbed insulin secretion and utilization by the body. (news-medical.net)
  • Gestational diabetes - Some pregnant women require more insulin than their body can produce during pregnancy. (news-medical.net)
  • Unfortunately, insulin also passes through the body rather quickly-usually within an hour-and so post-competition tests have almost zero chance of catching a miscreant red-handed. (slate.com)
  • It means your body can't respond properly to the insulin it makes. (webmd.com)
  • Insulin helps move the glucose (sugar) in your blood to parts of your body that need it to make energy, like the cells in your muscles. (webmd.com)
  • Read on to know about the working of insulin in the body and the positive and negative effects the external administration of this hormone can have. (buzzle.com)
  • Insulin inhalation works by replacing the insulin that is normally produced by the body and by helping to move sugar from the blood into other body tissues where it is used for energy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The insulin produced is released into the blood stream and travels throughout the body. (medicinenet.com)
  • Insulin is an essential hormone that has many actions within the body. (medicinenet.com)
  • 1. When does this insulin begin to act in my body? (nfb.org)
  • The treatment worked at first and the body produced more insulin. (reuters.com)
  • Both tests may be ordered when a health practitioner wants to evaluate how much insulin in the blood is made by the body and how much is from outside (exogenous) sources such as insulin injections. (labcorp.com)
  • A high insulin level usually happens when your body doesn't respond correctly to insulin and, as a result, can't easily absorb glucose from your blood. (wikihow.com)
  • Excess insulin in the bloodstream causes cells in your body to absorb too much glucose (sugar) from your blood. (healthline.com)
  • Infections can cause the body to decrease the effectiveness of insulin. (vetinfo.com)
  • Disorders such as kidney disease, liver disease or pancreatitis can cause the body to release hormones that cause the insulin given to be less effective in processing blood sugars. (vetinfo.com)
  • These can all affect how the dog's body utilizes its insulin. (vetinfo.com)
  • Insulin has two apparently contradictory impacts on your body, Porte says. (mendosa.com)
  • The body then needs more insulin to absorb glucose so that it can be delivered to the cells. (popsugar.com)
  • Insulin signalling controls access to blood glucose in body cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This February, Merck announced tentative FDA approval for a 10 ml vial of the insulin as well, expanding the company's potential product line of basal insulins. (beyondtype1.org)
  • If you use U-500 insulin: Make sure you are using the right insulin vial prior to each use. (nationwidechildrens.org)
  • IN a consideration of the mode of action of insulin it is of some importance to know the equivalent relationship between the amounts of hormone and dextrose, that is, the number of molecules of dextrose equivalent to one molecule of insulin. (nature.com)
  • A key action of insulin in these cells is to stimulate the translocation of glucose transporters (molecules that mediate cell uptake of glucose) from within the cell to the cell membrane. (britannica.com)
  • But a part of the B region causes insulin molecules to stick together and form aggregations of six insulin molecules. (eurekalert.org)
  • But injected insulin must de-aggregate into individual molecules before doing a person any good - and that process can take up to an hour. (eurekalert.org)
  • Mitragotri showed that applying ultrasound at 20 kilohertz enabled much larger molecules such as insulin to pass through the skin. (newscientist.com)