A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
A structurally-related group of signaling proteins that are phosphorylated by the INSULIN RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE. The proteins share in common an N-terminal PHOSPHOLIPID-binding domain, a phosphotyrosine-binding domain that interacts with the phosphorylated INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal TYROSINE-rich domain. Upon tyrosine phosphorylation insulin receptor substrate proteins interact with specific SH2 DOMAIN-containing proteins that are involved in insulin receptor signaling.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Insulin formulations that contain substances that retard absorption thus extending the time period of action.
Antibodies specific to INSULIN.
Substances which lower blood glucose levels.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or action of insulin.
Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.
Insulin that has been modified so that the B-chain contains a LYSINE at position 28 instead of a PROLINE and a PROLINE at position 29 instead of a LYSINE. It is used to manage BLOOD GLUCOSE levels in patients with TYPE 2 DIABETES.
A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
Portable or implantable devices for infusion of insulin. Includes open-loop systems which may be patient-operated or controlled by a pre-set program and are designed for constant delivery of small quantities of insulin, increased during food ingestion, and closed-loop systems which deliver quantities of insulin automatically based on an electronic glucose sensor.
Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.
Insulin that has been modified to contain an ASPARTIC ACID instead of a PROLINE at position 38 of the B-chain.
An intermediate-acting INSULIN preparation with onset time of 2 hours and duration of 24 hours. It is produced by crystallizing ZINC-insulin-PROTAMINES at neutral pH 7. Thus it is called neutral protamine Hagedorn for inventor Hans Christian Hagedorn.
Regular insulin preparations that contain the SUS SCROFA insulin peptide sequence.
A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.
Peptide hormones that cause an increase in the absorption of GLUCOSE by cells within organs such as LIVER, MUSCLE and ADIPOSE TISSUE. During normal metabolism insulins are produced by the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS in response to increased GLUCOSE. Natural and chemically-modified forms of insulin are also used in the treatment of GLUCOSE METABOLISM DISORDERS such as DIABETES MELLITUS.
A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Regular insulin preparations that contain the HUMAN insulin peptide sequence.
The middle segment of proinsulin that is between the N-terminal B-chain and the C-terminal A-chain. It is a pancreatic peptide of about 31 residues, depending on the species. Upon proteolytic cleavage of proinsulin, equimolar INSULIN and C-peptide are released. C-peptide immunoassay has been used to assess pancreatic beta cell function in diabetic patients with circulating insulin antibodies or exogenous insulin. Half-life of C-peptide is 30 min, almost 8 times that of insulin.
A pancreatic polypeptide of about 110 amino acids, depending on the species, that is the precursor of insulin. Proinsulin, produced by the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, is comprised sequentially of the N-terminal B-chain, the proteolytically removable connecting C-peptide, and the C-terminal A-chain. It also contains three disulfide bonds, two between A-chain and B-chain. After cleavage at two locations, insulin and C-peptide are the secreted products. Intact proinsulin with low bioactivity also is secreted in small amounts.
Abstaining from all food.
Glucose in blood.
Abnormally high BLOOD GLUCOSE level.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.
Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
Insulin derivatives and preparations that are designed to induce a rapid HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECT.
A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.
A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.
A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Triglycerides are a type of fat found in the blood that are made up of three fatty acids and a glycerol molecule.
Phosphoproteins are proteins that have been modified by the attachment of a phosphate group, which can regulate their activity and function in various cellular processes.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
A benign tumor of the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS. Insulinoma secretes excess INSULIN resulting in HYPOGLYCEMIA.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An insulin preparation that is designed to provide immediate and long term glycemic control in a single dosage. Biphasic insulin typically contains a mixture of REGULAR INSULIN or SHORT-ACTING INSULIN combined with a LONG-ACTING INSULIN.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.
Glycogen is a storage form of glucose in animals and humans, primarily found in liver and muscle cells.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
A biguanide hypoglycemic agent used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus not responding to dietary modification. Metformin improves glycemic control by improving insulin sensitivity and decreasing intestinal absorption of glucose. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p289)
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).
A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is closely related in structure to the INSULIN RECEPTOR. Although commonly referred to as the IGF-I receptor, it binds both IGF-I and IGF-II with high affinity. It is comprised of a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The beta subunit contains an intrinsic tyrosine kinase domain.
Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.
A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)
A sulphonylurea hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROPAMIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290)
The administration of liquid medication or nutrients under the skin, usually over minutes or hours.
The consumption of edible substances.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
An antibiotic that is produced by Stretomyces achromogenes. It is used as an antineoplastic agent and to induce diabetes in experimental animals.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of D-glucose from UDPglucose into 1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl chains. EC 2.4.1.11.
A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.
The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.
Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.
A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and D-glucose to ADP and D-glucose 6-phosphate. They are found in invertebrates and microorganisms, and are highly specific for glucose. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.2.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.
Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.
A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
An enzyme the catalyzes the degradation of insulin, glucagon and other polypeptides. It is inhibited by bacitracin, chelating agents EDTA and 1,10-phenanthroline, and by thiol-blocking reagents such as N-ethylmaleimide, but not phosphoramidon. (Eur J Biochem 1994;223:1-5) EC 3.4.24.56.
Sulfonylurea compounds are a class of medications used to treat type 2 diabetes by stimulating the release of insulin from the pancreas.
A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A gastrointestinal peptide hormone of about 43-amino acids. It is found to be a potent stimulator of INSULIN secretion and a relatively poor inhibitor of GASTRIC ACID secretion.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus, primarily of TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS with severe INSULIN deficiency and extreme HYPERGLYCEMIA. It is characterized by KETOSIS; DEHYDRATION; and depressed consciousness leading to COMA.
The time period before the development of symptomatic diabetes. For example, certain risk factors can be observed in subjects who subsequently develop INSULIN RESISTANCE as in type 2 diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 2).
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that includes two distinctive targeting motifs; an N-terminal motif specific for the INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal motif specific for the SH3 domain containing proteins. This subtype includes a hydrophobic domain which localizes it to the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
A glucose transport facilitator that is expressed primarily in PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; LIVER; and KIDNEYS. It may function as a GLUCOSE sensor to regulate INSULIN release and glucose HOMEOSTASIS.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.
A benzothiadiazine derivative that is a peripheral vasodilator used for hypertensive emergencies. It lacks diuretic effect, apparently because it lacks a sulfonamide group.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
A 12-kDa cysteine-rich polypeptide hormone secreted by FAT CELLS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is the founding member of the resistin-like molecule (RELM) hormone family. Resistin suppresses the ability of INSULIN to stimulate cellular GLUCOSE uptake.
Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Methylglucosides are a type of sugar alcohol that can be used as a sweetener and have potential medical applications, such as in the treatment of diabetes.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Poisonous animal secretions forming fluid mixtures of many different enzymes, toxins, and other substances. These substances are produced in specialized glands and secreted through specialized delivery systems (nematocysts, spines, fangs, etc.) for disabling prey or predator.
Salts and esters of the 16-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--palmitic acid.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
Cell surface receptors that bind somatomedins and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Studies have disclosed two types of receptors for this family of peptide hormones. The type I receptor is homologous to the insulin receptor and has tyrosine kinase activity. The type II receptor is identical to the mannose-6-phosphate receptor which is important in trafficking of lysosomal enzymes.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
The transference of pancreatic islets within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
Self evaluation of whole blood glucose levels outside the clinical laboratory. A digital or battery-operated reflectance meter may be used. It has wide application in controlling unstable insulin-dependent diabetes.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
A ubiquitously expressed glucose transporter that is important for constitutive, basal GLUCOSE transport. It is predominately expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and ERYTHROCYTES at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and is responsible for GLUCOSE entry into the BRAIN.
A benign tumor of the pancreatic ISLET CELLS. Usually it involves the INSULIN-producing PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, as in INSULINOMA, resulting in HYPERINSULINISM.
An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.
A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Severe HYPOGLYCEMIA induced by a large dose of exogenous INSULIN resulting in a COMA or profound state of unconsciousness from which the individual cannot be aroused.
Devices for simulating the activity of the pancreas. They can be either electromechanical, consisting of a glucose sensor, computer, and insulin pump or bioartificial, consisting of isolated islets of Langerhans in an artificial membrane.
Diabetes mellitus induced by PREGNANCY but resolved at the end of pregnancy. It does not include previously diagnosed diabetics who become pregnant (PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS). Gestational diabetes usually develops in late pregnancy when insulin antagonistic hormones peaks leading to INSULIN RESISTANCE; GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; and HYPERGLYCEMIA.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A well-characterized neutral peptide believed to be secreted by the LIVER and to circulate in the BLOOD. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like and mitogenic activities. The growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on SOMATOTROPIN. It is believed to be a major fetal growth factor in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR I, which is a major growth factor in adults.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate and water to D-glucose and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.9.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Cell surface receptors that bind glucagon with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Activation of glucagon receptors causes a variety of effects; the best understood is the initiation of a complex enzymatic cascade in the liver which ultimately increases the availability of glucose to body organs.
Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.
BUTYRIC ACID substituted in the beta or 3 position. It is one of the ketone bodies produced in the liver.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.

Effect of trauma on plasma glucagon and insulin concentrations in sheep. (1/30793)

Portal plasma glucagon and insulin concentrations were measured before and after acute trauma (liver biosy). The trauma was sufficient to increase glucagon concentrations and depress insulin concentrations. These changes were associated with a marked hyperglycemia. Infusion of glucagon was insufficient to prevent stress inhibition of insulin secretion. The stimulation of glucagon secretion and inhibition of insulin secretion were of about one hour duration. These findings indicate that glucagon and insulin in conjunction with the nervous system may play an important role in the development of stress related hyperglycemia.  (+info)

Effects of glucagon and insulin on lipolysis and ketogenesis in sheep. (2/30793)

The hepatic and portal productions of acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate and lipolysis were studied in normal and insulin-controlled alloxan-diabetic sheep. Since hyperinsulinemia is associated with glucagon administration, the latter group of sheep were used to maintain constant plasma insulin levels. After control values were obtained glucagon was infused intraportally at 90 mug/hr for two hours. The ketone body production by portal drained viscera was not significantly affected by glucagon. In alloxanized sheep, glucagon significantly (P less than 0.01) increased net hepatic production of acetoacetate (from -0.54 +/- 0.08 to 0.46 +/- 0.07 g/hr). Lipolysis also increased. However, in the normal sheep, hyperinsulinemia prevented any stimulatory effect of glucagon on hepatic ketogenesis and lipolysis. Therefore, while glucagon appears capable of stimulating ketogenesis andlipolysis, these effects are readily suppressed by insulin.  (+info)

Vasopressin stimulation of acetate incorporation into lipids in a dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary tumor cell line. (3/30793)

In a preliminary report we described the effects of rat prolactin on the incorporation of [14C]acetate into lipids by a cell line from a dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary tumor. The characteristics of the response to prolactin were very similar to those described for the normal rat mammary gland; namely, insulin was required for full expression of the response, maximal activity was not seen until 36 hr after the addition of the hormones, and growth hormone was able to elicit the same response. However, we were unable to detect binding of 125I-labeled prolactin to these cells, and furthermore, other more purified prolactin preparations were inactive. Upon further investigation we discovered that the activity resided in a low-molecular-weight fraction of the rat prolactin B-1 preparation and was probably either vasopressin or oxytocin or both. These data suggest the possibility that vasopressin may play a role in rodent mammary tumorigenesis.  (+info)

Leptin suppression of insulin secretion and gene expression in human pancreatic islets: implications for the development of adipogenic diabetes mellitus. (4/30793)

Previously we demonstrated the expression of the long form of the leptin receptor in rodent pancreatic beta-cells and an inhibition of insulin secretion by leptin via activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels. Here we examine pancreatic islets isolated from pancreata of human donors for their responses to leptin. The presence of leptin receptors on islet beta-cells was demonstrated by double fluorescence confocal microscopy after binding of a fluorescent derivative of human leptin (Cy3-leptin). Leptin (6.25 nM) suppressed insulin secretion of normal islets by 20% at 5.6 mM glucose. Intracellular calcium responses to 16.7 mM glucose were rapidly reduced by leptin. Proinsulin messenger ribonucleic acid expression in islets was inhibited by leptin at 11.1 mM, but not at 5.6 mM glucose. Leptin also reduced proinsulin messenger ribonucleic acid levels that were increased in islets by treatment with 10 nM glucagon-like peptide-1 in the presence of either 5.6 or 11.1 mM glucose. These findings demonstrate direct suppressive effects of leptin on insulin-producing beta-cells in human islets at the levels of both stimulus-secretion coupling and gene expression. The findings also further indicate the existence of an adipoinsular axis in humans in which insulin stimulates leptin production in adipocytes and leptin inhibits the production of insulin in beta-cells. We suggest that dysregulation of the adipoinsular axis in obese individuals due to defective leptin reception by beta-cells may result in chronic hyperinsulinemia and may contribute to the pathogenesis of adipogenic diabetes.  (+info)

Cardiovascular disease in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: similar rates but different risk factors in the US compared with Europe. (5/30793)

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) has been linked to renal disease. However, little is known concerning international variation in the correlations with hyperglycaemia and standard CVD risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional comparison was made of prevalence rates and risk factor associations in two large studies of IDDM subjects: the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study (EDC) and the EURODIAB IDDM Complications Study from 31 centres in Europe. Subgroups of each were chosen to be comparable by age and duration of diabetes. The EDC population comprises 286 men (mean duration 20.1 years) and 281 women (mean duration 19.9 years); EURODIAB 608 men (mean duration 18.1 years) and 607 women (mean duration 18.9 years). The mean age of both populations was 28 years. Cardiovascular disease was defined by a past medical history of myocardial infarction, angina, and/or the Minnesota ECG codes (1.1-1.3, 4.1-4.3, 5.1-5.3, 7.1). RESULTS: Overall prevalence of CVD was similar in the two populations (i.e. men 8.6% versus 8.0%, women 7.4% versus 8.5%, EURODIAB versus EDC respectively), although EDC women had a higher prevalence of angina (3.9% versus 0.5%, P < 0.001). Multivariate modelling suggests that glycaemic control (HbA1c) is not related to CVD in men. Age and high density lipoprotein cholesterol predict CVD in EURODIAB, while triglycerides and hypertension predict CVD in EDC. For women in both populations, age and hypertension (or renal disease) are independent predictors. HbA1c is also an independent predictor-inversely in EURODIAB women (P < 0.008) and positively in EDC women (P = 0.03). Renal disease was more strongly linked to CVD in EDC than in EURODIAB. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a similar prevalence of CVD, risk factor associations appear to differ in the two study populations. Glycaemic control (HbA1c) does not show a consistent or strong relationship to CVD.  (+info)

Tissue-specific knockout of the insulin receptor in pancreatic beta cells creates an insulin secretory defect similar to that in type 2 diabetes. (6/30793)

Dysfunction of the pancreatic beta cell is an important defect in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, although its exact relationship to the insulin resistance is unclear. To determine whether insulin signaling has a functional role in the beta cell we have used the Cre-loxP system to specifically inactivate the insulin receptor gene in the beta cells. The resultant mice exhibit a selective loss of insulin secretion in response to glucose and a progressive impairment of glucose tolerance. These data indicate an important functional role for the insulin receptor in glucose sensing by the pancreatic beta cell and suggest that defects in insulin signaling at the level of the beta cell may contribute to the observed alterations in insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes.  (+info)

Hormonal regulation of messenger ribonucleic acid expression for steroidogenic factor-1, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, and cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage in bovine luteal cells. (7/30793)

To examine hormonal regulation of genes pertinent to luteal steroidogenesis, bovine theca and granulosa cells derived from preovulatory follicles were cultured with various combinations of forskolin and insulin. On Day 8 of culture, progesterone production was measured, and mRNA levels of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1), cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) were determined by means of semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Notably, the combination of forskolin plus insulin stimulated progesterone production in luteinized theca cells. This was probably a result of a synergistic interaction between forskolin and insulin, observed on both StAR and P450scc mRNA levels. However, in luteinized granulosa cells (LGC), forskolin and insulin each independently were able to up-regulate the levels of P450scc and StAR mRNA levels, respectively. Moreover, insulin alone was sufficient to maintain the high steady-state levels of StAR mRNA in LGC. Both insulin and insulin-like growth factor I enhanced StAR gene expression in LGC. SF-1 was constitutively expressed in bovine luteal cells; its amounts did not vary between the two luteal cell types or with hormonal treatments. In summary, this study demonstrates a distinct, cell-type specific regulation of StAR and P450scc mRNA in the two bovine luteal cell types.  (+info)

Plasma total homocysteine and cysteine in relation to glomerular filtration rate in diabetes mellitus. (8/30793)

BACKGROUND: The plasma concentrations of total homocysteine (tHcy) and total cysteine (tCys) are determined by intracellular metabolism and by renal plasma clearance, and we hypothesized that glomerular filtration is a major determinant of plasma tHcy and tCys. We studied the relationships between the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and plasma tHcy and tCys in populations of diabetic patients with particularly wide ranges of GFR. METHODS: We measured GFR, urine albumin excretion rate (UAER), plasma tHcy, tCys, methionine, vitamin B12, folate, C-peptide, and routine parameters in 50 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and 30 non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients. All patients underwent intensive insulin treatment and had a serum creatinine concentration below 115 micromol/liter. RESULTS: Mean plasma tHcy in diabetic patients (0.1 micromol/liter) was lower than in normal persons (11.1 micromol/liter, P = 0.0014). Mean plasma tCys in diabetic patients (266.1 micromol/liter) was also lower than in normal persons (281.9 micromol/liter, P = 0.0005). Seventy-three percent of the diabetic patients had relative hyperfiltration. Plasma tHcy and tCys were closely and independently associated with GFR, serum folate, and serum B12. However, plasma tHcy was not independently associated with any of the 22 other variables tested, including age, serum creatinine concentration, UAER, total daily insulin dose, and glycemic control. CONCLUSIONS: Glomerular filtration rate is an independent determinant of plasma tHcy and tCys concentrations, and GFR is rate limiting for renal clearance of both homocysteine and cysteine in diabetic patients without overt nephropathy. Declining GFR explains the age-related increase in plasma tHcy, and hyperfiltration explains the lower than normal mean plasma tHcy and tCys concentrations in populations of diabetic patients.  (+info)

Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates the amount of glucose (sugar) in the bloodstream. It helps the body's cells absorb glucose from the bloodstream and use it for energy or store it for later use. Insulin is essential for maintaining normal blood sugar levels and preventing conditions such as diabetes. In the medical field, insulin is used to treat diabetes and other conditions related to high blood sugar levels. It is typically administered through injections or an insulin pump.

In the medical field, a receptor, insulin refers to a protein molecule found on the surface of cells in the body that binds to the hormone insulin and allows it to exert its effects. Insulin receptors are primarily located on the liver, muscle, and adipose (fat) cells, and play a critical role in regulating glucose metabolism. When insulin binds to its receptor, it triggers a series of intracellular signaling pathways that promote the uptake of glucose from the bloodstream into the cells, where it can be used for energy production or stored as glycogen or fat. Insulin also stimulates the synthesis of proteins and lipids, and inhibits the breakdown of these molecules. Abnormalities in insulin receptor function can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including diabetes mellitus, which is characterized by high blood glucose levels due to either insufficient insulin production or insulin resistance. In addition, mutations in the insulin receptor gene can cause rare genetic disorders such as Donohue syndrome and Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome, which are characterized by insulin resistance and other metabolic abnormalities.

Insulin resistance is a condition in which the body's cells do not respond properly to the hormone insulin, which is produced by the pancreas and helps regulate blood sugar levels. As a result, the body needs to produce more insulin to maintain normal blood sugar levels, which can lead to high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) and eventually type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance is often associated with obesity, physical inactivity, and a diet high in refined carbohydrates and saturated fats. It can also be caused by certain medical conditions, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and Cushing's syndrome. Symptoms of insulin resistance may include fatigue, frequent urination, increased thirst, and blurred vision. Treatment typically involves lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise, and may also include medication to help regulate blood sugar levels.

Insulin receptor substrate proteins (IRS proteins) are a family of proteins that play a crucial role in the insulin signaling pathway. They are intracellular proteins that are recruited to the insulin receptor upon binding of insulin to the receptor's extracellular domain. Once recruited, IRS proteins undergo a series of phosphorylation events that activate downstream signaling pathways, including the PI3K/Akt pathway and the Ras/MAPK pathway. These pathways regulate various cellular processes, such as glucose metabolism, cell growth, and survival. Mutations in IRS proteins have been implicated in several diseases, including type 2 diabetes, obesity, and certain types of cancer. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of IRS proteins is important for developing new therapeutic strategies for these diseases.

Glucose is a simple sugar that is a primary source of energy for the body's cells. It is also known as blood sugar or dextrose and is produced by the liver and released into the bloodstream by the pancreas. In the medical field, glucose is often measured as part of routine blood tests to monitor blood sugar levels in people with diabetes or those at risk of developing diabetes. High levels of glucose in the blood, also known as hyperglycemia, can lead to a range of health problems, including heart disease, nerve damage, and kidney damage. On the other hand, low levels of glucose in the blood, also known as hypoglycemia, can cause symptoms such as weakness, dizziness, and confusion. In severe cases, it can lead to seizures or loss of consciousness. In addition to its role in energy metabolism, glucose is also used as a diagnostic tool in medical testing, such as in the measurement of blood glucose levels in newborns to detect neonatal hypoglycemia.

Insulin, Long-Acting is a type of insulin medication that is used to treat diabetes. It is called "long-acting" because it works slowly and provides a steady supply of insulin to the body over a period of several hours to up to 24 hours. This helps to keep blood sugar levels stable and prevent high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) and low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) episodes. There are several types of long-acting insulin medications, including: * Insulin glargine (Lantus) * Insulin detemir (Levemir) * Insulin degludec (Tresiba) These medications are usually injected once or twice a day, depending on the type and the individual's needs. They are often used in combination with other types of insulin, such as rapid-acting insulin, to provide a more complete coverage of the daily insulin needs.

Insulin antibodies are proteins that are produced by the immune system in response to insulin, a hormone that regulates blood sugar levels. These antibodies can interfere with the action of insulin, leading to high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia) and other complications of diabetes. Insulin antibodies can be detected in the blood through laboratory tests, and their presence can be a sign of type 1 diabetes, in which the immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. Insulin antibodies can also be present in people with type 2 diabetes, although they are less common in this condition. In some cases, the presence of insulin antibodies can be a sign of an autoimmune disorder, in which the immune system attacks the body's own tissues. Treatment for insulin antibodies may involve medications to suppress the immune system or to increase insulin production, as well as lifestyle changes such as diet and exercise to help manage blood sugar levels.

Insulin antagonists are drugs that block or reduce the effects of insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates blood sugar levels. These drugs are used to treat type 2 diabetes, a condition in which the body becomes resistant to insulin and is unable to use it effectively. Insulin antagonists work by either inhibiting the production of insulin or blocking its receptors on cells, which prevents glucose from entering the cells and being used for energy. This leads to an increase in blood sugar levels, which can be harmful to the body if left untreated. Examples of insulin antagonists include sulfonylureas, meglitinides, and thiazolidinediones. These drugs are typically used in combination with other diabetes medications or lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise, to help manage blood sugar levels and prevent complications associated with diabetes.

Insulin Lispro is a fast-acting insulin analog used to treat type 1 and type 2 diabetes. It is a modified version of human insulin that is designed to mimic the body's natural insulin release pattern, allowing for more rapid absorption and action in the bloodstream. Insulin Lispro is typically administered through injection or an insulin pump and is used to regulate blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. It is often used in combination with other types of insulin, such as long-acting insulin, to provide a more balanced insulin profile throughout the day. Insulin Lispro is available in various forms, including prefilled pens, cartridges for insulin pumps, and vials for injection. It is important to follow the dosing instructions provided by a healthcare provider and to monitor blood sugar levels regularly to ensure proper management of diabetes.

Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by high blood sugar levels due to insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. It is the most common form of diabetes, accounting for about 90-95% of all cases. In type 2 diabetes, the body's cells become resistant to insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas that helps regulate blood sugar levels. As a result, the pancreas may not produce enough insulin to overcome this resistance, leading to high blood sugar levels. The symptoms of type 2 diabetes may include increased thirst, frequent urination, fatigue, blurred vision, slow-healing sores, and unexplained weight loss. If left untreated, type 2 diabetes can lead to serious complications such as heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, nerve damage, and vision loss. Treatment for type 2 diabetes typically involves lifestyle changes such as diet and exercise, as well as medication to help regulate blood sugar levels. In some cases, insulin therapy may be necessary.

Insulin Aspart is a type of insulin that is used to treat diabetes. It is a fast-acting insulin that is similar to the insulin that the body produces naturally. It is typically used to control blood sugar levels after meals, as it begins to work within 15 minutes of injection and peaks within 1 to 2 hours. Insulin Aspart is available in prefilled pens and cartridges, as well as in vials for injection. It is usually given by subcutaneous injection, which means it is injected just under the skin. Insulin Aspart is an important part of diabetes management and can help people with diabetes maintain healthy blood sugar levels.

Insulin, Isophane is a long-acting insulin that is used to treat diabetes mellitus. It is a suspension of insulin in a solution that contains protamine, which helps to slow down the absorption of insulin into the bloodstream. This allows for a more sustained release of insulin over a longer period of time, which can help to regulate blood sugar levels and prevent high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) and low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) episodes. Insulin, Isophane is typically given by injection and is often used in combination with other types of insulin to provide a more balanced insulin regimen. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider when using insulin, Isophane and to monitor blood sugar levels regularly.

Insulin, Regular, Pork is a medication used to treat diabetes. It is a form of insulin that is derived from pigs and is used to regulate blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. It is typically given by injection and works by helping the body use glucose (sugar) for energy or store it for later use. Regular insulin is usually taken at mealtimes to help control blood sugar levels after meals. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider when using insulin and to monitor blood sugar levels regularly.

Hyperinsulinism is a medical condition characterized by the overproduction of insulin by the pancreas. Insulin is a hormone that regulates blood sugar levels by allowing glucose to enter cells for energy. In hyperinsulinism, the pancreas produces too much insulin, leading to low blood sugar levels (hypoglycemia). There are two main types of hyperinsulinism: congenital and acquired. Congenital hyperinsulinism is present at birth and is caused by genetic mutations that affect the function of pancreatic beta cells. Acquired hyperinsulinism can occur due to various factors, such as certain medications, tumors, or infections. Symptoms of hyperinsulinism can include dizziness, confusion, irritability, seizures, and loss of consciousness. Treatment for hyperinsulinism depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to manage blood sugar levels and prevent complications.

Insulins are a class of hormones produced by the pancreas that regulate glucose metabolism in the body. There are several types of insulin, including: 1. Human insulin: This is the most commonly used insulin in the United States and is made from human genes in bacteria or yeast. 2. Animal insulin: This is derived from animals, such as pigs or cows, and is less commonly used today due to the risk of allergic reactions. 3. Biosynthetic insulin: This is a combination of human and animal insulin and is used to reduce the risk of allergic reactions. Insulins are used to treat diabetes, a condition in which the body is unable to produce enough insulin or use it effectively. Insulin helps to lower blood sugar levels by allowing cells in the body to take up glucose from the bloodstream and use it for energy. It is typically administered by injection or infusion and is an essential part of diabetes management for many people.

Glucagon is a hormone produced by the alpha cells of the pancreas. It plays a crucial role in regulating blood glucose levels in the body. When blood glucose levels are low, such as during fasting or prolonged exercise, the pancreas releases glucagon into the bloodstream. Glucagon signals the liver to break down stored glycogen into glucose and release it into the bloodstream, thereby increasing blood glucose levels. In addition to its role in regulating blood glucose levels, glucagon also has other functions in the body. It can stimulate the breakdown of fats in adipose tissue and increase the release of fatty acids into the bloodstream. It can also stimulate the breakdown of proteins in muscle tissue and increase the release of amino acids into the bloodstream. Glucagon is used in medical treatment for a variety of conditions, including type 1 diabetes, hypoglycemia, and certain types of liver disease. It is typically administered as an injection or infusion.

Obesity is a medical condition characterized by an excessive accumulation of body fat, which increases the risk of various health problems. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines obesity as a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or higher, where BMI is calculated as a person's weight in kilograms divided by their height in meters squared. Obesity is a complex condition that results from a combination of genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors. It can lead to a range of health problems, including type 2 diabetes, heart disease, stroke, certain types of cancer, and respiratory problems. In the medical field, obesity is often treated through a combination of lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise, and medical interventions, such as medications or bariatric surgery. The goal of treatment is to help individuals achieve and maintain a healthy weight, reduce their risk of health problems, and improve their overall quality of life.

Insulin, Regular, Human is a medication used to treat diabetes mellitus, a condition in which the body is unable to properly regulate blood sugar levels. It is a hormone produced by the pancreas that helps the body use glucose (sugar) for energy. In people with diabetes, the body either does not produce enough insulin or does not use it effectively, leading to high blood sugar levels. Insulin, Regular, Human is a form of insulin that is produced using human cells and has a relatively short duration of action, typically lasting about 6-8 hours after injection. It is typically used to treat type 1 diabetes, which is an autoimmune disorder in which the body attacks and destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, as well as type 2 diabetes in which the body becomes resistant to insulin. Insulin, Regular, Human is usually given by injection or infusion and is typically taken in combination with other medications to help manage blood sugar levels. It is important to carefully follow the dosing instructions provided by a healthcare provider and to monitor blood sugar levels regularly to ensure that they are within a healthy range.

C-peptide is a hormone that is produced along with insulin by the beta cells of the pancreas. It is a byproduct of the cleavage of proinsulin, the precursor molecule of insulin, during the process of insulin synthesis. In the medical field, C-peptide is often used as a diagnostic tool to assess insulin production and secretion by the pancreas. It is measured in the blood and can be used to diagnose conditions such as diabetes mellitus, where the body either does not produce enough insulin or is unable to use it effectively. C-peptide levels can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatments for diabetes, such as insulin therapy, and to assess the degree of beta cell dysfunction in patients with type 1 diabetes. Additionally, C-peptide has been studied as a potential biomarker for the early detection of type 1 diabetes and for the monitoring of the progression of the disease.

Proinsulin is a protein hormone precursor that is synthesized in the beta cells of the pancreas. It is a larger molecule than insulin and is converted into insulin through a series of proteolytic cleavage reactions. Proinsulin is the first step in the production of insulin, and it is essential for regulating blood glucose levels. When blood glucose levels rise, the beta cells of the pancreas synthesize and secrete proinsulin, which is then converted into insulin in the bloodstream. Insulin then helps to regulate glucose uptake by cells, promoting the storage of glucose in the liver and muscles and preventing the release of glucose from the liver. Proinsulin is also used as a diagnostic tool in the medical field to detect and monitor conditions such as diabetes mellitus, where the body is unable to produce enough insulin or properly use the insulin that is produced. In these cases, the levels of proinsulin in the blood may be elevated, indicating a problem with insulin production or action.

Blood glucose, also known as blood sugar, is the level of glucose (a type of sugar) in the blood. Glucose is the primary source of energy for the body's cells, and it is produced by the liver and released into the bloodstream in response to the body's needs. In the medical field, blood glucose levels are often measured as part of a routine check-up or to monitor the health of people with diabetes or other conditions that affect blood sugar levels. Normal blood glucose levels for adults are typically between 70 and 100 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) before a meal and between 80 and 120 mg/dL two hours after a meal. Elevated blood glucose levels, also known as hyperglycemia, can be caused by a variety of factors, including diabetes, stress, certain medications, and high-carbohydrate meals. Low blood glucose levels, also known as hypoglycemia, can be caused by diabetes treatment that is too aggressive, skipping meals, or certain medications. Monitoring blood glucose levels is important for people with diabetes, as it helps them manage their condition and prevent complications such as nerve damage, kidney damage, and cardiovascular disease.

Hyperglycemia is a medical condition characterized by high levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood. It is typically defined as a fasting blood glucose level of 126 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or higher, or as a random blood glucose level of 200 mg/dL or higher. Hyperglycemia can be caused by a variety of factors, including diabetes, certain medications, stress, and certain medical conditions such as liver disease or kidney disease. It can also be a complication of diabetes, particularly if it is not well-controlled. Hyperglycemia can have a range of symptoms, including increased thirst, frequent urination, fatigue, blurred vision, and slow healing of wounds. In severe cases, it can lead to more serious complications such as diabetic ketoacidosis, which can be life-threatening if left untreated. Treatment for hyperglycemia depends on the underlying cause and may include lifestyle changes such as diet and exercise, medication, or insulin therapy. It is important to monitor blood glucose levels regularly and work with a healthcare provider to manage hyperglycemia effectively.

Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by high blood sugar levels due to the body's inability to produce insulin, a hormone that regulates blood sugar levels. This type of diabetes is also known as insulin-dependent diabetes or juvenile diabetes, as it typically develops in childhood or adolescence. In Type 1 diabetes, the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, leaving the body unable to produce insulin. Without insulin, glucose (sugar) cannot enter the body's cells for energy, leading to high blood sugar levels. Symptoms of Type 1 diabetes may include frequent urination, excessive thirst, hunger, fatigue, blurred vision, and slow healing of wounds. Treatment typically involves insulin injections or an insulin pump, along with a healthy diet and regular exercise.

In the medical field, "Fatty Acids, Nonesterified" refers to free fatty acids that are not bound to glycerol in triglycerides. These fatty acids are found in the bloodstream and are an important source of energy for the body. They can be obtained from dietary fats or synthesized by the liver and adipose tissue. Nonesterified fatty acids are also involved in various physiological processes, such as the regulation of insulin sensitivity and the production of signaling molecules. Abnormal levels of nonesterified fatty acids in the blood can be associated with various medical conditions, including diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease.

Glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) is a protein that plays a crucial role in regulating glucose uptake and metabolism in muscle and adipose tissue. It is encoded by the SLC2A4 gene and is a member of the glucose transporter family of proteins. GLUT4 is primarily expressed in muscle and adipose tissue, where it is responsible for facilitating the uptake of glucose from the bloodstream into these cells. This process is important for maintaining blood glucose levels within a normal range and for providing energy to the body's cells. In response to insulin, GLUT4 is translocated from intracellular storage vesicles to the cell membrane, where it can bind to glucose and facilitate its uptake into the cell. This process is known as insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and is a key mechanism for regulating glucose metabolism in the body. Disruptions in GLUT4 function can lead to a variety of metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, understanding the regulation of GLUT4 expression and function is an important area of research in the medical field.

Insulin, short-acting is a type of insulin that works quickly to lower blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. It is typically taken before meals to help the body use glucose from food for energy. Short-acting insulin begins to work within 15-30 minutes after injection and peaks within 1-2 hours. The effects of short-acting insulin last for about 4-6 hours. There are several types of short-acting insulin available, including regular insulin, NPH insulin, and insulin lispro. Regular insulin is the most commonly used short-acting insulin and is usually given in combination with long-acting insulin to provide a more stable blood sugar control throughout the day. It is important to note that the use of short-acting insulin should be closely monitored by a healthcare provider to ensure that blood sugar levels are properly controlled and to prevent hypoglycemia (low blood sugar).

Hypoglycemia is a medical condition characterized by low blood sugar levels (glucose). It occurs when the body produces too much insulin or when the body cannot use insulin properly, leading to a decrease in blood glucose levels. Symptoms of hypoglycemia can include dizziness, weakness, confusion, irritability, shakiness, sweating, rapid heartbeat, and hunger. In severe cases, hypoglycemia can lead to seizures, loss of consciousness, and even coma. Hypoglycemia is typically treated by consuming foods or drinks that contain sugar or other carbohydrates, which can quickly raise blood glucose levels. In some cases, medications may be prescribed to help regulate blood sugar levels. Hypoglycemia can be a serious condition, especially for people with diabetes who rely on insulin to manage their blood sugar levels. It is important for individuals with diabetes to monitor their blood sugar levels regularly and to have a plan in place for treating hypoglycemia if it occurs.

Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental refers to a type of diabetes that is studied in laboratory animals, such as mice or rats, to better understand the disease and develop potential treatments. This type of diabetes is typically induced by injecting the animals with chemicals or viruses that mimic the effects of diabetes in humans. The experimental diabetes in animals is used to study the pathophysiology of diabetes, test new drugs or therapies, and investigate the underlying mechanisms of the disease. The results of these studies can then be used to inform the development of new treatments for diabetes in humans.

Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia) due to either a lack of insulin production by the pancreas or the body's inability to effectively use insulin. There are two main types of diabetes mellitus: type 1 and type 2. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. This results in little or no insulin production, and the body is unable to regulate blood sugar levels properly. Type 1 diabetes typically develops in childhood or adolescence, but can occur at any age. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes and is characterized by insulin resistance, which means that the body's cells do not respond effectively to insulin. This leads to high blood sugar levels, and the pancreas may eventually become unable to produce enough insulin to keep up with the body's needs. Type 2 diabetes is often associated with obesity, physical inactivity, and a family history of the disease. Other forms of diabetes include gestational diabetes, which occurs during pregnancy, and secondary diabetes, which is caused by other medical conditions such as kidney disease or certain medications.

Glucose intolerance is a medical condition in which the body is unable to properly regulate blood sugar levels after consuming carbohydrates. This can lead to high blood sugar levels, or hyperglycemia, which can cause a range of symptoms and health problems over time. There are several types of glucose intolerance, including: 1. Impaired fasting glucose (IFG): This occurs when blood sugar levels are higher than normal after an overnight fast, but not high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes. 2. Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT): This occurs when blood sugar levels are higher than normal after consuming a meal, but not high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes. 3. Gestational diabetes: This occurs during pregnancy and can cause high blood sugar levels in the mother. Glucose intolerance is often diagnosed through a glucose tolerance test, in which a person is given a drink containing a high amount of sugar and their blood sugar levels are measured over time. Treatment for glucose intolerance typically involves lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise, and may also include medication. If left untreated, glucose intolerance can lead to the development of type 2 diabetes.

Insulin-like Growth Factor I (IGF-I) is a protein hormone that plays a crucial role in regulating growth and development in humans and other animals. It is produced by the liver, as well as by other tissues such as the kidneys, muscles, and bones. IGF-I has insulin-like effects on cells, promoting the uptake of glucose and the synthesis of proteins. It also stimulates the growth and differentiation of various cell types, including muscle cells, bone cells, and cartilage cells. In the medical field, IGF-I is often used as a diagnostic tool to measure growth hormone (GH) levels in patients with growth disorders or other conditions that affect GH production. It is also used as a treatment for certain conditions, such as growth hormone deficiency, Turner syndrome, and short stature. However, excessive levels of IGF-I have been linked to an increased risk of certain cancers, such as colon cancer and breast cancer, and it is therefore important to monitor IGF-I levels carefully in patients with these conditions.

Leptin is a hormone that is produced by fat cells and plays a role in regulating appetite and metabolism. It helps to signal the brain when the body has enough energy stores and can therefore reduce hunger and increase energy expenditure. Leptin also plays a role in regulating the body's immune system and has been linked to a number of other physiological processes, including reproduction and bone health. In the medical field, leptin is often studied in relation to obesity and other metabolic disorders, as well as in the treatment of these conditions.

Deoxyglucose is a synthetic analog of glucose that is commonly used in medical imaging studies, particularly in positron emission tomography (PET) scans. It is a glucose analog that has one oxygen atom removed, making it unable to be metabolized by cells in the body. Instead, it is taken up by cells and trapped there, allowing for visualization of cellular activity in the body. In a PET scan, deoxyglucose is injected into the bloodstream and travels to the cells in the body where it is taken up. Once inside the cells, the deoxyglucose is converted to a radioactive compound that can be detected by the PET scanner. The amount of radioactivity detected in a particular area of the body can be used to determine the level of cellular activity in that area, which can be useful in diagnosing and monitoring a variety of medical conditions, including cancer, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular disease.

In the medical field, body weight refers to the total mass of an individual's body, typically measured in kilograms (kg) or pounds (lbs). It is an important indicator of overall health and can be used to assess a person's risk for certain health conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. Body weight is calculated by measuring the amount of mass that a person's body contains, which includes all of the organs, tissues, bones, and fluids. It is typically measured using a scale or other weighing device, and can be influenced by factors such as age, gender, genetics, and lifestyle. Body weight can be further categorized into different types, such as body mass index (BMI), which takes into account both a person's weight and height, and waist circumference, which measures the size of a person's waist. These measures can provide additional information about a person's overall health and risk for certain conditions.

Triglycerides are a type of fat that are found in the blood and are an important source of energy for the body. They are made up of three fatty acids and one glycerol molecule, and are stored in fat cells (adipocytes) in the body. Triglycerides are transported in the bloodstream by lipoproteins, which are complex particles that also carry cholesterol and other lipids. In the medical field, triglycerides are often measured as part of a routine lipid panel, which is a blood test that assesses levels of various types of lipids in the blood. High levels of triglycerides, known as hypertriglyceridemia, can increase the risk of heart disease and other health problems. Treatment for high triglyceride levels may include lifestyle changes such as diet and exercise, as well as medications.

Phosphoproteins are proteins that have been modified by the addition of a phosphate group to one or more of their amino acid residues. This modification is known as phosphorylation, and it is a common post-translational modification that plays a critical role in regulating many cellular processes, including signal transduction, metabolism, and gene expression. Phosphoproteins are involved in a wide range of biological functions, including cell growth and division, cell migration and differentiation, and the regulation of gene expression. They are also involved in many diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Phosphoproteins can be detected and studied using a variety of techniques, including mass spectrometry, Western blotting, and immunoprecipitation. These techniques allow researchers to identify and quantify the phosphorylation status of specific proteins in cells and tissues, and to study the effects of changes in phosphorylation on protein function and cellular processes.

Monosaccharide transport proteins (MSTPs) are a group of proteins that are responsible for the transport of monosaccharides (simple sugars) across cell membranes. These proteins are found in various tissues and cells throughout the body, and they play a critical role in regulating the uptake and utilization of monosaccharides for energy production and other metabolic processes. There are several different types of MSTPs, including glucose transporters (GLUTs), sodium-glucose cotransporters (SGLTs), and facilitated diffusion transporters. Each type of MSTP has a specific affinity for different monosaccharides, and they are regulated by various factors, including hormones, nutrients, and cellular energy status. Disruptions in the function of MSTPs can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including diabetes, obesity, and certain types of cancer. For example, mutations in the GLUT2 gene can cause a rare genetic disorder called maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), which is characterized by an early-onset form of diabetes that is caused by a defect in the body's ability to produce insulin. Similarly, overexpression of SGLT2, a type of MSTP that is found in the kidneys, has been linked to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are a family of enzymes that play a critical role in cellular signaling pathways. They are involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, survival, migration, and metabolism. PI3Ks are activated by various extracellular signals, such as growth factors, hormones, and neurotransmitters, and they generate second messengers by phosphorylating phosphatidylinositol lipids on the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. This leads to the recruitment and activation of downstream effector molecules, such as protein kinases and phosphatases, which regulate various cellular processes. Dysregulation of PI3K signaling has been implicated in the development of various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders. Therefore, PI3Ks are important targets for the development of therapeutic agents for these diseases.

An insulinoma is a rare type of tumor that develops in the pancreas, specifically in the islet cells that produce insulin. Insulinomas are usually benign, but they can cause excessive production of insulin, leading to low blood sugar levels (hypoglycemia). The symptoms of insulinoma can include weakness, fatigue, dizziness, confusion, sweating, shaking, rapid heartbeat, and blurred vision. If left untreated, severe hypoglycemia can lead to seizures, coma, and even death. Diagnosis of insulinoma typically involves a combination of blood tests to measure blood sugar levels and imaging studies such as CT scans or MRI scans to locate the tumor. Treatment options for insulinoma may include surgery to remove the tumor, medication to control blood sugar levels, or a combination of both.

Biphasic insulins are a type of insulin that are used to manage blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. They are a combination of two different types of insulin, usually insulin lispro or insulin aspart, which are released at different rates to provide a more sustained and balanced effect on blood sugar levels. There are several different types of biphasic insulins available, including biphasic human insulin, biphasic insulin aspart, and biphasic insulin lispro. These insulins are typically taken once or twice a day, depending on the specific formulation and the individual's needs. Biphasic insulins are often used in combination with other diabetes medications, such as oral medications or long-acting insulin, to help manage blood sugar levels throughout the day and night. They are typically prescribed by a healthcare provider and should be used under their guidance.

Proto-oncogene proteins c-akt, also known as protein kinase B (PKB), is a serine/threonine kinase that plays a critical role in various cellular processes, including cell survival, proliferation, and metabolism. It is a member of the Akt family of kinases, which are activated by various growth factors and cytokines. In the context of cancer, c-akt has been shown to be frequently activated in many types of tumors and is often associated with poor prognosis. Activation of c-akt can lead to increased cell survival and resistance to apoptosis, which can contribute to tumor growth and progression. Additionally, c-akt has been implicated in the regulation of angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis, further contributing to the development and progression of cancer. Therefore, the study of c-akt and its role in cancer has become an important area of research in the medical field, with the goal of developing targeted therapies to inhibit its activity and potentially treat cancer.

Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated (HbA1c) is a type of hemoglobin that is produced when hemoglobin A (the most common form of hemoglobin in red blood cells) combines with glucose in the blood. HbA1c is a measure of a person's average blood glucose level over the past 2-3 months. It is often used as a diagnostic tool for diabetes mellitus, as well as a way to monitor blood sugar control in people who have already been diagnosed with the condition. A high HbA1c level indicates poor blood sugar control, while a normal or low HbA1c level suggests good blood sugar control.

Glycogen is a complex carbohydrate that is stored in the liver and muscles of animals, including humans. It is the primary storage form of glucose in the body and serves as a readily available source of energy when glucose levels in the bloodstream are low. Glycogen is made up of glucose molecules that are linked together by alpha-1,4 and alpha-1,6 glycosidic bonds. It is stored in the form of granules in the liver and muscle cells, and can be broken down into glucose molecules through a process called glycogenolysis. In the liver, glycogen can be converted into glucose and released into the bloodstream to maintain blood sugar levels. In the muscles, glycogen can be broken down into glucose and used as energy during physical activity. Disorders of glycogen storage, such as glycogen storage disease, can result from mutations in genes that are involved in the synthesis, breakdown, or transport of glycogen. These disorders can lead to a variety of symptoms, including muscle weakness, fatigue, and liver dysfunction.

Adiponectin is a hormone that is primarily produced by adipose (fat) tissue. It plays a role in regulating glucose metabolism, fatty acid oxidation, and energy expenditure. Adiponectin levels are typically higher in people with a healthy body weight compared to those who are obese. In addition, adiponectin has been linked to a reduced risk of several chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer. Low levels of adiponectin have been associated with an increased risk of these conditions.

Lipids are a diverse group of organic compounds that are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents such as ether or chloroform. They are an essential component of cell membranes and play a crucial role in energy storage, insulation, and signaling in the body. In the medical field, lipids are often measured as part of a routine blood test to assess an individual's risk for cardiovascular disease. The main types of lipids that are measured include: 1. Total cholesterol: This includes both low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, which is often referred to as "bad" cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, which is often referred to as "good" cholesterol. 2. Triglycerides: These are a type of fat that is stored in the body and can be converted into energy when needed. 3. Phospholipids: These are a type of lipid that is a major component of cell membranes and helps to regulate the flow of substances in and out of cells. 4. Steroids: These are a type of lipid that includes hormones such as testosterone and estrogen, as well as cholesterol. Abnormal levels of lipids in the blood can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, including heart attack and stroke. Therefore, monitoring and managing lipid levels is an important part of maintaining overall health and preventing these conditions.

Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a hormone that is produced by the cells of the small intestine in response to the presence of food in the stomach. It plays a key role in regulating blood sugar levels by stimulating the pancreas to release insulin and inhibiting the release of glucagon, another hormone that raises blood sugar levels. GLP-1 also has other effects on the body, including slowing down the rate at which food is digested and absorbed, reducing appetite, and promoting weight loss. It is also involved in the regulation of the digestive system and the cardiovascular system. In the medical field, GLP-1 is used as a treatment for type 2 diabetes. It is administered as a medication, either through injection or inhalation, and works by stimulating the pancreas to release more insulin and reducing the amount of glucagon that is released. This helps to lower blood sugar levels and improve glucose control in people with type 2 diabetes.

Metformin is an oral medication that is commonly used to treat type 2 diabetes. It works by lowering glucose production in the liver and improving the body's sensitivity to insulin, which helps to lower blood sugar levels. Metformin is also sometimes used to treat polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes in people who are at high risk. It is usually taken once or twice a day with meals. Common side effects of metformin include nausea, diarrhea, and stomach upset. However, these side effects are usually mild and go away on their own.

In the medical field, dietary fats refer to the fats that are consumed as part of a person's diet. These fats can come from a variety of sources, including animal products (such as meat, dairy, and eggs), plant-based oils (such as olive oil, canola oil, and avocado oil), and nuts and seeds. Dietary fats are an important source of energy for the body and are also necessary for the absorption of certain vitamins and minerals. However, excessive consumption of certain types of dietary fats, particularly saturated and trans fats, has been linked to an increased risk of heart disease, stroke, and other health problems. Therefore, healthcare professionals often recommend that people limit their intake of saturated and trans fats and increase their consumption of unsaturated fats, such as those found in nuts, seeds, and plant-based oils. This can help to promote overall health and reduce the risk of chronic diseases.

In the medical field, RNA, Messenger (mRNA) refers to a type of RNA molecule that carries genetic information from DNA in the nucleus of a cell to the ribosomes, where proteins are synthesized. During the process of transcription, the DNA sequence of a gene is copied into a complementary RNA sequence called messenger RNA (mRNA). This mRNA molecule then leaves the nucleus and travels to the cytoplasm of the cell, where it binds to ribosomes and serves as a template for the synthesis of a specific protein. The sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule determines the sequence of amino acids in the protein that is synthesized. Therefore, changes in the sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule can result in changes in the amino acid sequence of the protein, which can affect the function of the protein and potentially lead to disease. mRNA molecules are often used in medical research and therapy as a way to introduce new genetic information into cells. For example, mRNA vaccines work by introducing a small piece of mRNA that encodes for a specific protein, which triggers an immune response in the body.

Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are a class of drugs that are used to treat type 2 diabetes. They work by increasing the sensitivity of insulin receptors in muscle, fat, and liver cells, which helps the body to use insulin more effectively and lower blood sugar levels. TZDs are also thought to have anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic effects, which may help to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in people with diabetes. Some examples of TZDs include pioglitazone (Actos) and rosiglitazone (Avandia). These drugs are typically used in combination with other diabetes medications, such as metformin or sulfonylureas, to achieve better blood sugar control.

Muscle proteins are proteins that are found in muscle tissue. They are responsible for the structure, function, and repair of muscle fibers. There are two main types of muscle proteins: contractile proteins and regulatory proteins. Contractile proteins are responsible for the contraction of muscle fibers. The most important contractile protein is actin, which is found in the cytoplasm of muscle fibers. Actin interacts with another protein called myosin, which is found in the sarcomeres (the functional units of muscle fibers). When myosin binds to actin, it causes the muscle fiber to contract. Regulatory proteins are responsible for controlling the contraction of muscle fibers. They include troponin and tropomyosin, which regulate the interaction between actin and myosin. Calcium ions also play a role in regulating muscle contraction by binding to troponin and causing it to change shape, allowing myosin to bind to actin. Muscle proteins are important for maintaining muscle strength and function. They are also involved in muscle growth and repair, and can be affected by various medical conditions and diseases, such as muscular dystrophy, sarcopenia, and cancer.

The term "Receptor, IGF Type 1" refers to a protein receptor that is responsible for binding to insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), a hormone that plays a crucial role in regulating growth and development in the body. IGF-1 receptor is a transmembrane protein that is expressed on the surface of many different types of cells, including muscle cells, bone cells, and cells of the immune system. When IGF-1 binds to its receptor, it triggers a signaling cascade within the cell that leads to a variety of cellular responses, including cell growth, differentiation, and survival. Mutations in the IGF-1 receptor gene can lead to abnormal activation of the receptor, which can contribute to the development of certain types of cancer, such as breast cancer and colon cancer. In addition, changes in the expression or function of the IGF-1 receptor have been implicated in a number of other diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and osteoporosis.

Metabolic Syndrome X, also known as Syndrome X or Insulin Resistance Syndrome, is a cluster of conditions that increase the risk of developing heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes. The five key components of Metabolic Syndrome X are: 1. Abdominal obesity: A waist circumference of 102 cm (40 inches) or more in men and 88 cm (35 inches) or more in women. 2. High blood pressure: A systolic blood pressure of 130 mmHg or higher, or a diastolic blood pressure of 85 mmHg or higher. 3. High fasting blood sugar: A fasting blood sugar level of 100 mg/dL or higher. 4. High triglyceride levels: A triglyceride level of 150 mg/dL or higher. 5. Low HDL cholesterol levels: An HDL cholesterol level of less than 40 mg/dL in men and less than 50 mg/dL in women. These conditions are often found together and can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lifestyle, and certain medical conditions. Treatment for Metabolic Syndrome X typically involves lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise, and may also include medication to manage blood pressure, blood sugar, and cholesterol levels.

Tolbutamide is an oral antidiabetic medication that belongs to the sulfonylurea class of drugs. It works by stimulating the release of insulin from the pancreas, which helps to lower blood sugar levels in people with type 2 diabetes. Tolbutamide is typically used in combination with diet and exercise to manage blood sugar levels in people with type 2 diabetes who are not able to control their blood sugar levels with diet and exercise alone. It is not recommended for use in people with type 1 diabetes or diabetic ketoacidosis. Tolbutamide may cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, and low blood sugar. It is important to follow the dosage instructions provided by your healthcare provider and to monitor your blood sugar levels regularly while taking tolbutamide.

In the medical field, dietary carbohydrates refer to the carbohydrates that are consumed as part of a person's diet. Carbohydrates are one of the three macronutrients (along with protein and fat) that provide energy to the body. They are found in a variety of foods, including grains, fruits, vegetables, and dairy products. Dietary carbohydrates are classified into two main types: simple carbohydrates and complex carbohydrates. Simple carbohydrates, also known as sugars, are made up of one or two sugar molecules and are quickly digested and absorbed by the body. Examples of simple carbohydrates include table sugar, honey, and fruit juice. Complex carbohydrates, on the other hand, are made up of long chains of sugar molecules and take longer to digest and absorb. Examples of complex carbohydrates include whole grains, legumes, and starchy vegetables. The amount and type of carbohydrates that a person consumes can have a significant impact on their health. Consuming too many simple carbohydrates, particularly those that are high in added sugars, can contribute to weight gain and an increased risk of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and heart disease. On the other hand, consuming adequate amounts of complex carbohydrates can provide important nutrients and fiber that are essential for good health.

Streptozocin is a medication that is used to treat certain types of cancer, including pancreatic cancer, bladder cancer, and ovarian cancer. It is a type of chemotherapy drug that works by interfering with the growth and division of cancer cells. Streptozocin is usually given intravenously (through a vein) or by injection into a muscle. It can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and low blood sugar levels. It is important to carefully follow the instructions of a healthcare provider when taking this medication.

Glycogen synthase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of carbohydrates in the body. It is responsible for the synthesis of glycogen, a complex carbohydrate that serves as the primary storage form of glucose in the liver and muscles. Glycogen synthase is activated by insulin, a hormone that is released in response to high blood glucose levels. When insulin binds to its receptors on the surface of liver and muscle cells, it triggers a signaling cascade that leads to the activation of glycogen synthase. This allows the cells to take up glucose from the bloodstream and convert it into glycogen for storage. In the absence of insulin, glycogen synthase is inactive, and the cells are unable to synthesize glycogen. Instead, they break down glycogen into glucose and release it into the bloodstream, which can lead to high blood glucose levels and the development of diabetes. Glycogen synthase is also regulated by other hormones and signaling molecules, such as glucagon and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). These molecules can inhibit glycogen synthase, preventing the synthesis of glycogen and promoting the breakdown of glycogen instead. In the medical field, glycogen synthase is an important target for the treatment of diabetes and other metabolic disorders. By modulating the activity of glycogen synthase, researchers are exploring new ways to improve glucose metabolism and prevent the development of diabetes and other related conditions.

Somatostatin is a hormone that is produced by the pancreas and the hypothalamus in the brain. It is also known as growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH) or somatotropin release-inhibiting hormone (SRIF). Somatostatin plays a role in regulating the release of other hormones, including growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and insulin. It also has a role in controlling the digestive system, as it can inhibit the release of digestive enzymes and slow down the movement of food through the digestive tract. In the medical field, somatostatin is used to treat a variety of conditions, including acromegaly (a condition in which the body produces too much growth hormone), carcinoid syndrome (a condition in which the body produces too much serotonin), and certain types of diarrhea. It is also being studied for its potential use in treating other conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease and cancer.

3-O-Methylglucose (3-OMG) is a synthetic analog of glucose that is commonly used in medical research as a tracer to study glucose metabolism in the body. It is a glucose analog that is similar in structure to glucose, but with a methyl group added to the third carbon atom. 3-OMG is taken up by cells in the body in the same way as glucose, but it is not metabolized by the same enzymes, so it can be used to study glucose metabolism in specific tissues or organs. For example, it can be used to study glucose uptake and metabolism in the brain, liver, or muscle. In clinical settings, 3-OMG has been used to diagnose and monitor conditions such as diabetes, insulin resistance, and liver disease. It is also used in research to study the effects of drugs and other interventions on glucose metabolism.

Glucokinase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in regulating glucose metabolism in the liver and pancreatic beta cells. It is responsible for phosphorylating glucose to glucose-6-phosphate, which is the first step in glycolysis, the process by which glucose is broken down to produce energy. In the liver, glucokinase is primarily found in the liver cells and is activated by high levels of glucose in the bloodstream. It helps to regulate blood glucose levels by converting excess glucose into glycogen for storage or into fatty acids for energy production. When blood glucose levels are low, glucokinase activity decreases, and glucose is released into the bloodstream to maintain normal blood glucose levels. In pancreatic beta cells, glucokinase is involved in the regulation of insulin secretion. When glucose levels rise, glucokinase activity increases, leading to the production of ATP and the closure of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in the cell membrane. This causes an influx of calcium ions into the cell, which triggers the release of insulin into the bloodstream. Overall, glucokinase plays a critical role in maintaining glucose homeostasis in the body and is an important target for the treatment of diabetes.

Growth hormone (GH) is a peptide hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland in the brain. It plays a crucial role in regulating growth and development in humans and other animals. GH stimulates the liver to produce insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), which promotes the growth of bones, muscles, and other tissues. In children, GH is essential for normal growth and development. It stimulates the growth plates in bones to lengthen, leading to increased height. In adults, GH is involved in maintaining muscle mass, bone density, and overall body composition. GH deficiency can lead to a variety of health problems, including short stature in children, decreased muscle mass and strength, increased body fat, and decreased bone density. GH replacement therapy is sometimes used to treat GH deficiency, particularly in children with growth disorders. In addition to its role in growth and development, GH has been studied for its potential therapeutic effects in a variety of conditions, including obesity, diabetes, and aging. However, the use of GH as a performance-enhancing drug is banned by most sports organizations due to its potential to increase muscle mass and strength.

Fatty liver, also known as hepatic steatosis, is a condition in which excess fat accumulates in the liver cells. It is a common condition that can affect people of all ages and is often associated with obesity, diabetes, and high blood pressure. Fatty liver can be classified into two types: 1. Simple fatty liver: This is the most common type of fatty liver and is characterized by the accumulation of fat in the liver cells. It is usually reversible with lifestyle changes such as weight loss, exercise, and a healthy diet. 2. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): This type of fatty liver is caused by factors other than alcohol consumption, such as obesity, insulin resistance, and high blood pressure. NAFLD can progress to more severe liver diseases such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis, and liver cancer. Fatty liver can be diagnosed through blood tests, imaging studies such as ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and liver biopsy. Treatment for fatty liver depends on the underlying cause and may include lifestyle changes, medication, or in severe cases, liver transplantation.

Tyrosine is an amino acid that is essential for the production of certain hormones, neurotransmitters, and other important molecules in the body. It is a non-essential amino acid, which means that it can be synthesized by the body from other amino acids or from dietary sources. In the medical field, tyrosine is often used as a dietary supplement to support the production of certain hormones and neurotransmitters, particularly dopamine and norepinephrine. These hormones play important roles in regulating mood, motivation, and other aspects of brain function. Tyrosine is also used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as phenylketonuria (PKU), a genetic disorder that affects the metabolism of phenylalanine, another amino acid. In PKU, tyrosine supplementation can help to prevent the buildup of toxic levels of phenylalanine in the body. In addition, tyrosine has been studied for its potential benefits in the treatment of other conditions, such as depression, anxiety, and fatigue. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits and to determine the optimal dosage and duration of tyrosine supplementation.

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a common hormonal disorder that affects women of reproductive age. It is characterized by the presence of multiple small cysts on the ovaries, hormonal imbalances, and irregular menstrual cycles. PCOS can cause a range of symptoms, including acne, excessive hair growth, weight gain, infertility, and an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The exact cause of PCOS is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to genetic and environmental factors. Diagnosis of PCOS typically involves a physical examination, blood tests to measure hormone levels, and imaging studies such as ultrasound. Treatment for PCOS may include lifestyle changes such as weight loss, exercise, and dietary modifications, as well as medications to regulate menstrual cycles, reduce androgen levels, and improve insulin sensitivity. In some cases, fertility treatments may be necessary to help women with PCOS conceive.

Fatty acids are organic compounds that are composed of a long chain of carbon atoms with hydrogen atoms attached to them. They are a type of lipid, which are molecules that are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. Fatty acids are an important source of energy for the body and are also used to synthesize other important molecules, such as hormones and cell membranes. In the medical field, fatty acids are often studied in relation to their role in various diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity. They are also used in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases (PSTKs) are a family of enzymes that play a crucial role in regulating various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, metabolism, and apoptosis. These enzymes phosphorylate specific amino acids, such as serine and threonine, on target proteins, thereby altering their activity, stability, or localization within the cell. PSTKs are involved in a wide range of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of PSTKs is important for developing new therapeutic strategies for these diseases.

Hormones are chemical messengers produced by glands in the endocrine system that regulate various bodily functions. They are transported through the bloodstream to target cells or organs, where they bind to specific receptors and trigger a response. Hormones play a crucial role in regulating growth and development, metabolism, reproduction, and other essential processes in the body. Examples of hormones include insulin, thyroid hormones, estrogen, testosterone, and cortisol. Imbalances in hormone levels can lead to a range of medical conditions, including diabetes, thyroid disorders, infertility, and mood disorders.

Insulysin, also known as insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), is an enzyme that is primarily found in the pancreas and the brain. It is responsible for breaking down insulin, a hormone that regulates blood sugar levels in the body. Insulysin plays a role in the metabolism of insulin and is involved in the clearance of insulin from the bloodstream. In the brain, IDE is involved in the regulation of neurotransmitter levels and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.

Sulfonylurea compounds are a class of drugs that are commonly used to treat type 2 diabetes. They work by stimulating the release of insulin from the pancreas, which helps to lower blood sugar levels. Sulfonylureas are typically taken orally and are often used in combination with other diabetes medications or lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise, to help manage blood sugar levels. Some common sulfonylurea compounds include glyburide, glipizide, and tolbutamide. These drugs can be effective in controlling blood sugar levels, but they can also cause side effects such as low blood sugar, weight gain, and digestive problems.

Fructose is a simple sugar that is found naturally in many fruits, honey, and some vegetables. It is also added to many processed foods as a sweetener. In the medical field, fructose is often used as a source of energy for the body and is an important component of the diet for people with certain medical conditions, such as diabetes. However, excessive consumption of fructose has been linked to a number of health problems, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. As a result, many healthcare professionals recommend limiting the amount of fructose in the diet.

Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide (GIP) is a hormone that is produced by the cells of the small intestine in response to the presence of food in the stomach. It is also known as glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) because it stimulates the release of insulin from the pancreas in response to an increase in blood glucose levels. GIP plays an important role in regulating glucose metabolism and has been implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes. It is also involved in the regulation of appetite and satiety, and may play a role in the development of obesity. In the medical field, GIP is often measured as a marker of glucose metabolism and as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. It is also being studied as a potential biomarker for the early detection of type 2 diabetes and as a predictor of treatment response to certain medications.

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious complication of diabetes that occurs when the body is unable to produce enough insulin to regulate blood sugar levels. In DKA, the body starts to break down fat for energy, which produces ketones. These ketones can build up in the blood and cause the blood to become acidic, leading to a condition called ketoacidosis. DKA is a medical emergency that requires prompt treatment. Symptoms of DKA can include: - Excessive thirst and urination - Hunger - Nausea and vomiting - Abdominal pain - fruity-smelling breath - Dry mouth and skin - Confusion or altered mental status - Rapid or deep breathing - Rapid heartbeat If left untreated, DKA can lead to serious complications, including diabetic coma and even death. Treatment typically involves hospitalization and the administration of insulin, fluids, and electrolytes to correct the underlying cause of the DKA and prevent further complications.

In the medical field, prediabetes is a condition in which a person's blood sugar levels are higher than normal but not yet high enough to be diagnosed as type 2 diabetes. Prediabetes is often considered a precursor to type 2 diabetes and is associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease, stroke, and other health problems. There are two main types of prediabetes: impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). IFG occurs when a person's fasting blood sugar level is between 100 and 125 mg/dL, while IGT occurs when a person's two-hour blood sugar level after consuming a glucose load is between 140 and 199 mg/dL. Prediabetes can be diagnosed through blood tests that measure fasting blood sugar levels or glucose tolerance tests. Once diagnosed, lifestyle changes such as weight loss, regular exercise, and a healthy diet can help prevent or delay the progression to type 2 diabetes. In some cases, medication may also be prescribed to help manage blood sugar levels.

Proteins are complex biomolecules made up of amino acids that play a crucial role in many biological processes in the human body. In the medical field, proteins are studied extensively as they are involved in a wide range of functions, including: 1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the body, such as digestion, metabolism, and energy production. 2. Hormones: Proteins that regulate various bodily functions, such as growth, development, and reproduction. 3. Antibodies: Proteins that help the immune system recognize and neutralize foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria. 4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across cell membranes, such as oxygen and nutrients. 5. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide support and shape to cells and tissues, such as collagen and elastin. Protein abnormalities can lead to various medical conditions, such as genetic disorders, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of proteins is essential for developing effective treatments and therapies for these conditions.

Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 1 (PTPN1) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in regulating cellular signaling pathways by removing phosphate groups from tyrosine residues on proteins. It is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family, which is a large group of enzymes that are involved in various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. PTPN1 is expressed in many different tissues and cell types, and it has been implicated in a variety of physiological and pathological processes, including immune function, cancer, and neurological disorders. In the immune system, PTPN1 is involved in the regulation of T cell activation and differentiation, and it has been shown to play a role in the development of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. In cancer, PTPN1 has been shown to have both tumor suppressor and oncogenic functions, depending on the context in which it is expressed and the specific signaling pathways it regulates. For example, PTPN1 has been shown to inhibit the growth and proliferation of certain types of cancer cells, while in other cases, it can promote tumor growth and invasion. Overall, PTPN1 is a highly regulated enzyme that plays a critical role in maintaining cellular homeostasis and regulating a wide range of cellular processes. Dysregulation of PTPN1 activity has been implicated in a variety of diseases, and it is an important target for the development of new therapeutic strategies.

Glucose transporter type 2 (GLUT2) is a protein that plays a crucial role in the transport of glucose across the cell membrane in various tissues, including the liver, pancreas, and small intestine. It is a member of the glucose transporter family, which is responsible for facilitating the movement of glucose into and out of cells. GLUT2 is primarily expressed in the liver and pancreas, where it is involved in the uptake of glucose from the bloodstream and its release into the bloodstream, respectively. In the small intestine, GLUT2 is responsible for the absorption of glucose from the gut into the bloodstream. Mutations in the gene encoding GLUT2 can lead to a rare genetic disorder called maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 5 (MODY5), which is characterized by early-onset diabetes and a partial deficiency in insulin secretion. Additionally, defects in GLUT2 function have been implicated in the development of other metabolic disorders, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes.

Androstadienes are a group of organic compounds that are derived from testosterone, a hormone produced by the testes in males. They are characterized by a six-membered ring structure with two double bonds, and are classified as a type of androgen. Androstadienes are found in a variety of plants, including yams, potatoes, and soybeans, and are also synthesized by the human body. In the medical field, androstadienes are sometimes used as a treatment for conditions such as prostate cancer and erectile dysfunction. They are also being studied for their potential use in the development of new drugs for the treatment of other diseases.

Protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs) are a family of enzymes that play a crucial role in various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, metabolism, and signal transduction. These enzymes catalyze the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to the hydroxyl group of tyrosine residues on specific target proteins, thereby modifying their activity, localization, or interactions with other molecules. PTKs are involved in many diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disorders. They are also targets for many drugs, including those used to treat cancer and other diseases. In the medical field, PTKs are studied to understand their role in disease pathogenesis and to develop new therapeutic strategies.

Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases (S6Ks) are a family of protein kinases that play a crucial role in regulating cell growth, proliferation, and survival. They are activated by the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, which is a key regulator of cellular metabolism and growth. In the context of the medical field, S6Ks have been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders. For example, the activation of S6Ks has been shown to promote the growth and survival of cancer cells, making them a potential target for cancer therapy. In addition, dysregulation of S6Ks has been linked to insulin resistance and the development of type 2 diabetes. Overall, the study of S6Ks has important implications for the understanding and treatment of a wide range of diseases, and ongoing research in this area is likely to yield new insights and therapeutic strategies in the future.

Diazoxide is a medication that is used to treat low blood pressure (hypotension) and to increase urine output in people with kidney disease. It works by relaxing blood vessels and increasing the amount of blood flow to the kidneys, which helps to improve kidney function and increase urine output. Diazoxide is also used to treat certain types of heart rhythm disorders, such as atrial fibrillation, and to treat low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) in people with diabetes. It is usually given by mouth, but it can also be given by injection.

Epinephrine, also known as adrenaline, is a hormone and neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in the body's "fight or flight" response. It is produced by the adrenal glands and is released into the bloodstream in response to stress or danger. In the medical field, epinephrine is used as a medication to treat a variety of conditions, including anaphylaxis (a severe allergic reaction), cardiac arrest, and asthma. It works by constricting blood vessels, increasing heart rate and contractility, and relaxing smooth muscles in the bronchial tubes, which can help to open airways and improve breathing. Epinephrine is typically administered via injection, either intravenously or subcutaneously (under the skin). It is a powerful medication and should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Glycerol, also known as glycerin, is a simple sugar alcohol that is commonly used in the medical field as a lubricant, a moisturizer, and a preservative. It is a clear, odorless, and tasteless liquid that is derived from fats and oils. In the medical field, glycerol is used in a variety of applications, including: 1. As a lubricant: Glycerol is used as a lubricant in various medical procedures, such as colonoscopies, cystoscopies, and endoscopies, to reduce friction and discomfort. 2. As a moisturizer: Glycerol is used as a moisturizer in skin care products, such as lotions and creams, to hydrate and soothe dry, irritated skin. 3. As a preservative: Glycerol is used as a preservative in some medical products, such as eye drops and nasal sprays, to prevent the growth of bacteria and other microorganisms. 4. As an antifreeze: Glycerol is used as an antifreeze in some medical equipment, such as dialysis machines, to prevent the equipment from freezing during cold weather. Overall, glycerol is a safe and effective ingredient that is widely used in the medical field for a variety of purposes.

Resistin is a hormone that is primarily produced by adipose (fat) tissue. It is a protein that plays a role in regulating energy metabolism and glucose homeostasis. Resistin levels are elevated in individuals with obesity and type 2 diabetes, and it has been suggested that resistin may contribute to the development of these conditions by promoting insulin resistance and inflammation. However, the exact role of resistin in the development of these diseases is still not fully understood, and more research is needed to clarify its function in the body.

Methylglucosides are a type of carbohydrate that are derived from glucose by the addition of a methyl group (-CH3) to one of the hydroxyl groups (-OH) on the glucose molecule. They are commonly found in plants and are used as a sweetener in some foods and beverages. In the medical field, methylglucosides are sometimes used as a source of energy for people who are unable to digest other carbohydrates, such as those with certain digestive disorders. They are also used in some medications as a solvent or excipient to help dissolve other active ingredients.

Leucine is an essential amino acid that plays a crucial role in various biological processes in the human body. It is one of the nine essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized by the body and must be obtained through the diet. In the medical field, leucine is often used as a dietary supplement to promote muscle growth and recovery, particularly in athletes and bodybuilders. It is also used to treat certain medical conditions, such as phenylketonuria (PKU), a genetic disorder that affects the metabolism of amino acids. Leucine has been shown to have various physiological effects, including increasing protein synthesis, stimulating muscle growth, and improving insulin sensitivity. It is also involved in the regulation of gene expression and the production of neurotransmitters. However, excessive consumption of leucine can have negative effects on health, such as liver damage and increased risk of certain cancers. Therefore, it is important to consume leucine in moderation and as part of a balanced diet.

Adipokines are hormones that are produced by adipose (fat) tissue. They play a role in regulating various physiological processes, including metabolism, inflammation, and immune function. Some examples of adipokines include leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin. These hormones are secreted in response to changes in body weight, diet, and physical activity, and they can have both beneficial and harmful effects on overall health. For example, adiponectin has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity and reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes, while leptin can help to regulate appetite and energy expenditure. However, some adipokines, such as resistin, have been linked to an increased risk of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

Amino acids are organic compounds that are the building blocks of proteins. They are composed of an amino group (-NH2), a carboxyl group (-COOH), and a side chain (R group) that varies in size and structure. There are 20 different amino acids that are commonly found in proteins, each with a unique side chain that gives it distinct chemical and physical properties. In the medical field, amino acids are important for a variety of functions, including the synthesis of proteins, enzymes, and hormones. They are also involved in energy metabolism and the maintenance of healthy tissues. Deficiencies in certain amino acids can lead to a range of health problems, including muscle wasting, anemia, and neurological disorders. In some cases, amino acids may be prescribed as supplements to help treat these conditions or to support overall health and wellness.

In the medical field, venoms are toxic substances produced by certain animals, such as snakes, spiders, scorpions, and some fish, that are injected into their prey or predators through specialized structures called venom glands. These venoms contain a complex mixture of proteins, enzymes, and other molecules that can cause a range of physiological effects in the victim, including pain, swelling, paralysis, and even death. Venoms are often used as a defense mechanism by animals to protect themselves from predators or to subdue their prey. In some cases, venoms are also used for hunting or as a means of communication between animals. In medicine, venoms are studied for their potential therapeutic uses, such as in the development of new drugs for pain relief, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer treatments. However, venoms can also be dangerous and can cause serious harm or death if not treated properly. Therefore, medical professionals must be trained in the proper handling and treatment of venomous animals and their bites or stings.

Palmitates are esters of palmitic acid, which is a saturated fatty acid. In the medical field, palmitates are commonly used as emulsifiers, thickening agents, and stabilizers in various pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. They are also used as a source of energy in some dietary supplements and as a carrier for drugs in some formulations. Palmitates can be derived from natural sources such as palm oil or synthesized in the laboratory.

Calcium is a chemical element with the symbol Ca and atomic number 20. It is a vital mineral for the human body and is essential for many bodily functions, including bone health, muscle function, nerve transmission, and blood clotting. In the medical field, calcium is often used to diagnose and treat conditions related to calcium deficiency or excess. For example, low levels of calcium in the blood (hypocalcemia) can cause muscle cramps, numbness, and tingling, while high levels (hypercalcemia) can lead to kidney stones, bone loss, and other complications. Calcium supplements are often prescribed to people who are at risk of developing calcium deficiency, such as older adults, vegetarians, and people with certain medical conditions. However, it is important to note that excessive calcium intake can also be harmful, and it is important to follow recommended dosages and consult with a healthcare provider before taking any supplements.

Receptors, Somatomedin are a type of cell surface receptors that are activated by the hormone somatomedin, also known as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). These receptors are found on a variety of cell types, including muscle cells, bone cells, and fat cells, and play a role in regulating growth and development. When somatomedin binds to its receptors, it triggers a signaling cascade within the cell that leads to the activation of various genes and the production of proteins that are involved in cell growth and differentiation. This process is important for normal growth and development, as well as for the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Abnormalities in the function of somatomedin receptors or the production of somatomedin can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including dwarfism, gigantism, and certain types of cancer.

In the medical field, "Disease Models, Animal" refers to the use of animals to study and understand human diseases. These models are created by introducing a disease or condition into an animal, either naturally or through experimental manipulation, in order to study its progression, symptoms, and potential treatments. Animal models are used in medical research because they allow scientists to study diseases in a controlled environment and to test potential treatments before they are tested in humans. They can also provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of a disease and help to identify new therapeutic targets. There are many different types of animal models used in medical research, including mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, and monkeys. Each type of animal has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of model depends on the specific disease being studied and the research question being addressed.

Hydrocortisone is a synthetic glucocorticoid hormone that is used in the medical field to treat a variety of conditions. It is a potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agent that can help reduce inflammation, swelling, and redness in the body. Hydrocortisone is also used to treat conditions such as allergies, asthma, eczema, and psoriasis, as well as to reduce the symptoms of adrenal insufficiency, a condition in which the body does not produce enough of the hormone cortisol. It is available in a variety of forms, including oral tablets, topical creams, and injections.

Intracellular signaling peptides and proteins are molecules that are involved in transmitting signals within cells. These molecules can be either proteins or peptides, and they play a crucial role in regulating various cellular processes, such as cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. Intracellular signaling peptides and proteins can be activated by a variety of stimuli, including hormones, growth factors, and neurotransmitters. Once activated, they initiate a cascade of intracellular events that ultimately lead to a specific cellular response. There are many different types of intracellular signaling peptides and proteins, and they can be classified based on their structure, function, and the signaling pathway they are involved in. Some examples of intracellular signaling peptides and proteins include growth factors, cytokines, kinases, phosphatases, and G-proteins. In the medical field, understanding the role of intracellular signaling peptides and proteins is important for developing new treatments for a wide range of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Ghrelin is a hormone produced by the stomach that plays a role in regulating appetite and metabolism. It is primarily produced by cells in the stomach called ghrelin cells, which are stimulated by the presence of food in the stomach. Ghrelin is released into the bloodstream in response to fasting and low blood sugar levels, and it signals the brain to increase appetite and stimulate the release of growth hormone. In addition to its role in appetite regulation, ghrelin has been shown to play a role in the regulation of energy metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and the body's response to stress.

In the medical field, weight gain refers to an increase in body weight over a period of time. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including changes in diet, lack of physical activity, hormonal imbalances, certain medications, and medical conditions such as hypothyroidism or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Weight gain can be measured in kilograms or pounds and is typically expressed as a percentage of body weight. A healthy weight gain is generally considered to be 0.5 to 1 kilogram (1 to 2 pounds) per week, while an excessive weight gain may be defined as more than 0.5 to 1 kilogram (1 to 2 pounds) per week over a period of several weeks or months. In some cases, weight gain may be a sign of a more serious medical condition, such as diabetes or heart disease. Therefore, it is important to monitor weight changes and consult with a healthcare provider if weight gain is a concern.

Glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT1) is a protein that plays a crucial role in the transport of glucose across the blood-brain barrier and into cells throughout the body. It is encoded by the SLC2A1 gene and is found in many tissues, including the brain, heart, liver, and kidneys. GLUT1 is responsible for the facilitated diffusion of glucose into cells, which is an essential process for energy production. It is also involved in the transport of other small molecules, such as amino acids and fatty acids. Mutations in the SLC2A1 gene can lead to a rare genetic disorder called GLUT1 deficiency syndrome, which is characterized by seizures, developmental delays, and neurological problems. Treatment for this disorder typically involves increasing the intake of dietary carbohydrates to compensate for the reduced glucose transport.

Adenoma, Islet Cell is a type of benign (non-cancerous) tumor that develops in the islet cells of the pancreas. These cells are responsible for producing hormones such as insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin, which regulate blood sugar levels and other important bodily functions. Islet cell adenomas can cause an overproduction of hormones, leading to a condition called hyperinsulinism or hyperglucagonemia. Symptoms of these conditions may include low blood sugar levels, weight loss, fatigue, and abdominal pain. Treatment for islet cell adenomas typically involves surgery to remove the tumor. In some cases, medications may be used to manage symptoms or control hormone production. It is important to note that islet cell adenomas are relatively rare and may not always cause symptoms. Therefore, they may be discovered incidentally during imaging tests for other conditions.

Phosphotyrosine is a chemical modification of the amino acid tyrosine, in which a phosphate group is added to the side chain of the tyrosine residue. This modification is important in cell signaling and is often used as a marker for the activation of signaling pathways in cells. Phosphotyrosine is typically detected using techniques such as immunoblotting or mass spectrometry. In the medical field, the presence or absence of phosphotyrosine on specific proteins can be used as a diagnostic or prognostic marker for various diseases, including cancer.

PPAR gamma, also known as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, is a type of nuclear receptor that plays a critical role in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism in the body. It is a transcription factor that is activated by certain hormones and lipids, and it regulates the expression of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis, glucose uptake, and insulin sensitivity. In the medical field, PPAR gamma is an important target for the treatment of a variety of metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Drugs that activate PPAR gamma, known as PPAR gamma agonists, have been developed and are used to improve insulin sensitivity and reduce blood sugar levels in people with type 2 diabetes. They can also help to reduce body weight and improve lipid profiles, which can help to reduce the risk of heart disease. PPAR gamma is also being studied as a potential target for the treatment of other conditions, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and certain types of cancer.

Palmitic acid is a saturated fatty acid that is commonly found in animal fats and some plant oils. It is a long-chain fatty acid with 16 carbon atoms and is one of the most abundant fatty acids in the human body. Palmitic acid is an important source of energy for the body and is also used to synthesize other important molecules, such as cholesterol and hormones. In the medical field, palmitic acid is sometimes used as a dietary supplement or as a component of certain medications. It has been studied for its potential effects on weight loss, blood sugar control, and other health conditions. However, excessive consumption of palmitic acid has been linked to an increased risk of heart disease and other health problems, so it is important to consume it in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

Dexamethasone is a synthetic glucocorticoid hormone that is used in the medical field as an anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and antipyretic agent. It is a potent corticosteroid that has a wide range of therapeutic applications, including the treatment of allergic reactions, inflammatory diseases, autoimmune disorders, and cancer. Dexamethasone is available in various forms, including tablets, injections, and inhalers, and is used to treat a variety of conditions, such as asthma, COPD, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, multiple sclerosis, and inflammatory bowel disease. It is also used to treat severe cases of COVID-19, as it has been shown to reduce inflammation and improve outcomes in patients with severe illness. However, dexamethasone is a potent drug that can have significant side effects, including weight gain, fluid retention, high blood pressure, increased risk of infection, and mood changes. Therefore, it is typically prescribed only when other treatments have failed or when the potential benefits outweigh the risks.

Proto-oncogenes are normal genes that are involved in regulating cell growth and division. When these genes are mutated or overexpressed, they can become oncogenes, which can lead to the development of cancer. Proto-oncogenes are also known as proto-oncogene proteins.

Insulin coma is a medical treatment used to control high blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. It involves administering a large dose of insulin intravenously to rapidly lower blood sugar levels to a safe range. The patient is then placed in a coma-like state to prevent seizures and other complications that can occur when blood sugar levels drop too low. The insulin coma is typically used as a last resort when other treatments have failed to control blood sugar levels. It is usually only used in hospital settings under the supervision of a medical team.

Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy. It is caused by hormonal changes that occur during pregnancy, which can make it harder for the body to regulate blood sugar levels. Gestational diabetes typically goes away after the baby is born, but it can increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life. Women who have had gestational diabetes are also at increased risk of having a baby with certain birth defects, such as neural tube defects. Treatment for gestational diabetes typically involves making dietary changes and exercising regularly, and in some cases, taking medication to help control blood sugar levels. It is important for women who have gestational diabetes to work closely with their healthcare provider to manage their condition and reduce the risk of complications for themselves and their baby.

Transcription factors are proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences and controlling the transcription of genetic information from DNA to RNA. They play a crucial role in the development and function of cells and tissues in the body. In the medical field, transcription factors are often studied as potential targets for the treatment of diseases such as cancer, where their activity is often dysregulated. For example, some transcription factors are overexpressed in certain types of cancer cells, and inhibiting their activity may help to slow or stop the growth of these cells. Transcription factors are also important in the development of stem cells, which have the ability to differentiate into a wide variety of cell types. By understanding how transcription factors regulate gene expression in stem cells, researchers may be able to develop new therapies for diseases such as diabetes and heart disease. Overall, transcription factors are a critical component of gene regulation and have important implications for the development and treatment of many diseases.

Insulin-like Growth Factor II (IGF-II) is a protein that plays a crucial role in the growth and development of various tissues in the human body. It is produced by the liver and other tissues, and its levels are regulated by the hormones insulin and growth hormone. IGF-II has several functions in the body, including promoting cell growth and differentiation, regulating metabolism, and modulating the immune response. It is also involved in the development of the fetal brain and skeletal system. In the medical field, IGF-II is often studied in relation to various diseases and conditions, including cancer, diabetes, and growth disorders. For example, high levels of IGF-II have been associated with an increased risk of certain types of cancer, while low levels may be associated with growth disorders such as dwarfism. Additionally, IGF-II has been used as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of certain types of cancer.

Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a signaling molecule that plays a crucial role in many cellular processes, including metabolism, gene expression, and cell proliferation. It is synthesized from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the enzyme adenylyl cyclase, and its levels are regulated by various hormones and neurotransmitters. In the medical field, cAMP is often studied in the context of its role in regulating cellular signaling pathways. For example, cAMP is involved in the regulation of the immune system, where it helps to activate immune cells and promote inflammation. It is also involved in the regulation of the cardiovascular system, where it helps to regulate heart rate and blood pressure. In addition, cAMP is often used as a tool in research to study cellular signaling pathways. For example, it is commonly used to activate or inhibit specific signaling pathways in cells, allowing researchers to study the effects of these pathways on cellular function.

In the medical field, lactates refer to the byproducts of anaerobic metabolism in the body. Specifically, lactate is a type of organic acid that is produced when the body breaks down glucose in the absence of oxygen. This process, known as anaerobic glycolysis, occurs in muscle cells and other tissues when oxygen levels are low. Lactate levels in the blood can be measured using a blood test, and elevated levels of lactate can indicate a variety of medical conditions, including hypoxia (low oxygen levels in the body), sepsis (infection), and certain types of cancer. In addition, lactate is often used as a marker of exercise intensity, as it increases during physical activity. Overall, lactates play an important role in the body's metabolism and can provide valuable information to healthcare providers in the diagnosis and treatment of various medical conditions.

Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of glucose in the liver and kidneys. It is responsible for the final step in the breakdown of glycogen, the storage form of glucose in the body, and the conversion of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) to glucose. G6Pase is also involved in the regulation of blood glucose levels by controlling the rate at which glucose is released from the liver into the bloodstream. When blood glucose levels are high, G6Pase activity is increased, leading to the conversion of G6P to glucose and its release into the bloodstream. Conversely, when blood glucose levels are low, G6Pase activity is decreased, leading to the storage of glucose as glycogen in the liver. Mutations in the G6Pase gene can lead to a deficiency in the enzyme, resulting in a rare genetic disorder called glycogen storage disease type I (GSDI). This disorder is characterized by an inability to break down glycogen, leading to high blood glucose levels, liver damage, and other complications.

Arginine is an amino acid that plays a crucial role in various physiological processes in the human body. It is an essential amino acid, meaning that it cannot be synthesized by the body and must be obtained through the diet. In the medical field, arginine is used to treat a variety of conditions, including: 1. Erectile dysfunction: Arginine is a precursor to nitric oxide, which helps to relax blood vessels and improve blood flow to the penis, leading to improved sexual function. 2. Cardiovascular disease: Arginine has been shown to improve blood flow and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease by lowering blood pressure and improving the function of the endothelium, the inner lining of blood vessels. 3. Wound healing: Arginine is involved in the production of collagen, a protein that is essential for wound healing. 4. Immune function: Arginine is involved in the production of antibodies and other immune system components, making it important for maintaining a healthy immune system. 5. Cancer: Arginine has been shown to have anti-cancer properties and may help to slow the growth of tumors. However, it is important to note that the use of arginine as a supplement is not without risks, and it is important to consult with a healthcare provider before taking any supplements.

Receptors, Glucagon are proteins found on the surface of cells in the body that bind to the hormone glucagon and initiate a signaling cascade within the cell. Glucagon is a hormone produced by the pancreas that plays a role in regulating blood sugar levels. When blood sugar levels are low, the pancreas releases glucagon, which signals the liver to break down stored glycogen into glucose and release it into the bloodstream. The glucagon receptors on liver cells allow the hormone to bind and initiate this process. Understanding the function and regulation of glucagon receptors is important for understanding and treating conditions related to blood sugar regulation, such as diabetes.

In the medical field, weight loss refers to a decrease in body weight as a result of various factors, including diet, exercise, medication, or surgery. Weight loss is often used as a treatment for obesity, which is a medical condition characterized by excessive body fat that can lead to health problems such as heart disease, diabetes, and certain types of cancer. Weight loss can also be used as a treatment for other medical conditions, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and sleep apnea. In some cases, weight loss may be recommended as a preventive measure to reduce the risk of developing these conditions. It is important to note that weight loss should be achieved through a healthy and sustainable approach, such as a balanced diet and regular exercise, rather than through crash diets or extreme measures that can be harmful to the body. Medical professionals can provide guidance and support to help individuals achieve safe and effective weight loss.

3-Hydroxybutyric acid (3-HBA) is a metabolic byproduct of the breakdown of fatty acids in the liver. It is also known as beta-hydroxybutyric acid or beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). In the medical field, 3-HBA is often used as a biomarker for ketosis, a metabolic state in which the body burns fat for energy instead of carbohydrates. When the body is in a state of ketosis, the levels of 3-HBA in the blood and urine increase. 3-HBA is also used as a dietary supplement in the form of ketone esters or ketone salts, which can help to increase the levels of ketones in the body and promote weight loss. However, the use of ketone supplements is not without controversy, and their safety and efficacy have not been fully established. In addition, 3-HBA has been studied for its potential therapeutic effects in various medical conditions, including epilepsy, diabetes, and cancer. However, more research is needed to fully understand its potential benefits and risks.

Lactic acid is a naturally occurring organic acid that is produced by the metabolism of glucose in the body. It is a byproduct of the process of glycolysis, which occurs in the cytoplasm of cells when there is not enough oxygen available for complete oxidation of glucose to carbon dioxide and water. In the medical field, lactic acid is often measured in the blood as an indicator of tissue oxygenation and energy metabolism. High levels of lactic acid in the blood can be a sign of tissue hypoxia, which is a lack of oxygen supply to the body's tissues. This can occur in a variety of medical conditions, including sepsis, shock, and certain types of cancer. Lactic acidosis is a condition characterized by high levels of lactic acid in the blood and can be caused by a variety of factors, including liver disease, kidney failure, and certain medications. It can be a serious medical condition and requires prompt treatment. In addition to its role in metabolism and energy production, lactic acid has also been used in various medical treatments, including as a topical antiseptic and as a component of certain medications.

Inflammation is a complex biological response of the body to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. It is a protective mechanism that helps to eliminate the cause of injury, remove damaged tissue, and initiate the healing process. Inflammation involves the activation of immune cells, such as white blood cells, and the release of chemical mediators, such as cytokines and prostaglandins. This leads to the characteristic signs and symptoms of inflammation, including redness, heat, swelling, pain, and loss of function. Inflammation can be acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is a short-term response that lasts for a few days to a few weeks and is usually beneficial. Chronic inflammation, on the other hand, is a prolonged response that lasts for months or years and can be harmful if it persists. Chronic inflammation is associated with many diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and autoimmune disorders.

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a molecule that serves as the primary energy currency in living cells. It is composed of three phosphate groups attached to a ribose sugar and an adenine base. In the medical field, ATP is essential for many cellular processes, including muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and the synthesis of macromolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. ATP is produced through cellular respiration, which involves the breakdown of glucose and other molecules to release energy that is stored in the bonds of ATP. Disruptions in ATP production or utilization can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including muscle weakness, fatigue, and neurological disorders. In addition, ATP is often used as a diagnostic tool in medical testing, as levels of ATP can be measured in various bodily fluids and tissues to assess cellular health and function.

Protein kinases are enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP (adenosine triphosphate) to specific amino acid residues on proteins. This process, known as phosphorylation, can alter the activity, localization, or stability of the target protein, and is a key mechanism for regulating many cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, metabolism, and signaling pathways. Protein kinases are classified into different families based on their sequence, structure, and substrate specificity. Some of the major families of protein kinases include serine/threonine kinases, tyrosine kinases, and dual-specificity kinases. Each family has its own unique functions and roles in cellular signaling. In the medical field, protein kinases are important targets for the development of drugs for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Many cancer drugs target specific protein kinases that are overactive in cancer cells, while drugs for diabetes and cardiovascular disease often target kinases involved in glucose metabolism and blood vessel function, respectively.

Recombinant proteins are proteins that are produced by genetically engineering bacteria, yeast, or other organisms to express a specific gene. These proteins are typically used in medical research and drug development because they can be produced in large quantities and are often more pure and consistent than proteins that are extracted from natural sources. Recombinant proteins can be used for a variety of purposes in medicine, including as diagnostic tools, therapeutic agents, and research tools. For example, recombinant versions of human proteins such as insulin, growth hormones, and clotting factors are used to treat a variety of medical conditions. Recombinant proteins can also be used to study the function of specific genes and proteins, which can help researchers understand the underlying causes of diseases and develop new treatments.

Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 (GSK3) is a family of serine/threonine protein kinases that play a crucial role in various cellular processes, including metabolism, cell signaling, and gene expression. In the medical field, GSK3 has been implicated in the development and progression of several diseases, including diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer. GSK3 is activated by various stimuli, including stress, inflammation, and insulin resistance, and its activity is regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. When activated, GSK3 phosphorylates and inactivates glycogen synthase, the enzyme responsible for glycogen synthesis, leading to reduced glycogen storage in the liver and muscles. This can contribute to the development of diabetes and other metabolic disorders. In addition to its role in metabolism, GSK3 has also been implicated in the regulation of cell signaling pathways, including the Wnt signaling pathway, which plays a critical role in cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Dysregulation of GSK3 activity in the Wnt signaling pathway has been implicated in the development of several types of cancer, including colon, breast, and ovarian cancer. Overall, GSK3 is a key regulator of cellular processes and its dysregulation has been implicated in the development and progression of several diseases. As such, it is an important target for the development of new therapeutic strategies for these diseases.

Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1 (SREBP-1) is a transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating lipid metabolism in the liver and other tissues. It is a key regulator of genes involved in cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis, as well as cholesterol transport and uptake. SREBP-1 is activated in response to low levels of cholesterol in the cell. When activated, it translocates to the nucleus and binds to specific DNA sequences called sterol regulatory elements (SREs) in the promoters of target genes. This binding leads to the recruitment of other transcription factors and coactivators, which stimulate gene transcription and increase the production of cholesterol and fatty acids. In addition to its role in lipid metabolism, SREBP-1 has also been implicated in the development of metabolic disorders such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Dysregulation of SREBP-1 activity has been linked to the development of these conditions, and drugs that target SREBP-1 are being investigated as potential treatments.

Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance that is produced by the liver and is also found in some foods. It is an essential component of cell membranes and is necessary for the production of hormones, bile acids, and vitamin D. However, high levels of cholesterol in the blood can increase the risk of developing heart disease and stroke. There are two main types of cholesterol: low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, which is often referred to as "bad" cholesterol because it can build up in the walls of arteries and lead to plaque formation, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, which is often referred to as "good" cholesterol because it helps remove excess cholesterol from the bloodstream and transport it back to the liver for processing.

In the medical field, starvation refers to a severe lack of nutrition and energy due to a prolonged period of not eating enough food. Starvation can occur as a result of various factors, including malnutrition, illness, and intentional fasting. The body requires a certain amount of nutrients, including carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals, to function properly. When a person does not consume enough of these nutrients, the body begins to break down its own tissues, including muscle and fat, to provide energy. This can lead to a range of symptoms, including weakness, fatigue, dizziness, and weight loss. In severe cases of starvation, the body may also experience more serious complications, such as organ failure, electrolyte imbalances, and even death. Treatment for starvation typically involves providing adequate nutrition and hydration, as well as addressing any underlying medical conditions that may have contributed to the starvation.

Pancreatic hormones are hormones produced by the pancreas that play important roles in regulating various bodily functions. The pancreas is a glandular organ located in the abdomen, behind the stomach, and it produces both digestive enzymes and hormones. The main pancreatic hormones are: 1. Insulin: This hormone regulates blood sugar levels by promoting the uptake of glucose by cells and the storage of glucose in the liver and muscles. 2. Glucagon: This hormone raises blood sugar levels by stimulating the liver to release stored glucose into the bloodstream. 3. Somatostatin: This hormone inhibits the release of insulin and glucagon, as well as the production of digestive enzymes. 4. Pancreatic polypeptide: This hormone regulates appetite and digestion. 5. VIP (Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide): This hormone regulates the contraction and relaxation of smooth muscles in the digestive tract. Pancreatic hormones play a crucial role in maintaining normal blood sugar levels, regulating digestion, and controlling appetite. Imbalances in these hormones can lead to various medical conditions, such as diabetes, pancreatitis, and pancreatic cancer.

Islet Amyloid Polypeptide (IAPP), also known as amylin, is a hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreas. It plays a role in regulating blood sugar levels by slowing down the rate at which food is digested and absorbed into the bloodstream. In individuals with type 2 diabetes, IAPP is often found in abnormal clumps or aggregates within the pancreatic islets, which can lead to the death of beta cells and contribute to the development of the disease. These aggregates are also known as islet amyloid deposits. IAPP has also been linked to the development of a rare form of diabetes called familial amyloid polyneuropathy, which is characterized by the accumulation of IAPP aggregates in various organs and tissues throughout the body, leading to nerve damage and other complications. Overall, IAPP is an important biomarker for diabetes and is being studied as a potential target for the development of new treatments for the disease.

Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein 1 (IGFBP-1) is a protein that plays a crucial role in regulating the activity of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), which are hormones that promote cell growth and division. IGFBP-1 binds to IGFs and modulates their activity, either by enhancing or inhibiting their effects on cells. In the medical field, IGFBP-1 is often studied in relation to various diseases and conditions, including cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. For example, IGFBP-1 has been shown to have anti-cancer properties, as it can inhibit the growth and proliferation of cancer cells. It has also been implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes, as levels of IGFBP-1 are often elevated in individuals with this condition. Additionally, IGFBP-1 has been linked to cardiovascular disease, as it can affect the function of the heart and blood vessels. Overall, IGFBP-1 is an important protein that plays a critical role in regulating cell growth and division, and its activity is closely tied to a number of important medical conditions.

Thiazoles are a class of heterocyclic compounds that contain a five-membered ring with one nitrogen atom and two sulfur atoms. They are commonly used in the medical field as pharmaceuticals, particularly as diuretics, antihistamines, and anti-inflammatory agents. Some examples of thiazole-based drugs include hydrochlorothiazide (a diuretic), loratadine (an antihistamine), and celecoxib (a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug). Thiazoles are also used as intermediates in the synthesis of other drugs and as corrosion inhibitors in various industrial applications.

Lipodystrophy is a medical condition characterized by abnormal fat distribution in the body. It can affect both children and adults and can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, hormonal imbalances, and certain medications. The most common type of lipodystrophy is partial lipodystrophy, which affects specific areas of the body, such as the face, neck, and limbs. In contrast, generalized lipodystrophy affects the entire body and can lead to severe insulin resistance and an increased risk of diabetes and heart disease. Symptoms of lipodystrophy can vary depending on the type and severity of the condition. They may include obesity, insulin resistance, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and an increased risk of diabetes and heart disease. Treatment for lipodystrophy typically involves managing the associated symptoms and complications, such as insulin resistance and high blood pressure. In some cases, lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise, may be sufficient to manage the condition. However, in more severe cases, medications or other medical interventions may be necessary.

Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of enzymes that play a crucial role in various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. In the medical field, PKC is often studied in relation to its involvement in various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. PKC enzymes are activated by the binding of diacylglycerol (DAG) and calcium ions, which leads to the phosphorylation of target proteins. This phosphorylation can alter the activity, localization, or stability of the target proteins, leading to changes in cellular signaling pathways. PKC enzymes are divided into several subfamilies based on their structure and activation mechanisms. The different subfamilies have distinct roles in cellular signaling and are involved in different diseases. For example, some PKC subfamilies are associated with cancer progression, while others are involved in the regulation of the immune system. Overall, PKC enzymes are an important area of research in the medical field, as they have the potential to be targeted for the development of new therapeutic strategies for various diseases.

Pancreatic Polypeptide (PP) is a hormone produced by the pancreas, specifically by the PP cells located in the pancreatic islets. It is a 36-amino acid peptide that is released into the bloodstream in response to food intake, particularly proteins and fats. The primary function of PP is to regulate appetite and food intake. It is believed to act on the hypothalamus, a region of the brain that controls hunger and satiety, to suppress appetite and reduce food intake. PP also has a role in the regulation of gastrointestinal motility and secretion, and it has been shown to slow down gastric emptying and reduce the secretion of digestive enzymes. In addition to its physiological effects, PP has been studied for its potential therapeutic applications. It has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, and it may be useful in the treatment of various conditions, including inflammatory bowel disease, cancer, and obesity. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential therapeutic uses of PP.

In the medical field, carrier proteins are proteins that transport molecules across cell membranes or within cells. These proteins bind to specific molecules, such as hormones, nutrients, or waste products, and facilitate their movement across the membrane or within the cell. Carrier proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the proper balance of molecules within cells and between cells. They are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including nutrient absorption, hormone regulation, and waste elimination. There are several types of carrier proteins, including facilitated diffusion carriers, active transport carriers, and ion channels. Each type of carrier protein has a specific function and mechanism of action. Understanding the role of carrier proteins in the body is important for diagnosing and treating various medical conditions, such as genetic disorders, metabolic disorders, and neurological disorders.

In the medical field, peptides are short chains of amino acids that are linked together by peptide bonds. They are typically composed of 2-50 amino acids and can be found in a variety of biological molecules, including hormones, neurotransmitters, and enzymes. Peptides play important roles in many physiological processes, including growth and development, immune function, and metabolism. They can also be used as therapeutic agents to treat a variety of medical conditions, such as diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. In the pharmaceutical industry, peptides are often synthesized using chemical methods and are used as drugs or as components of drugs. They can be administered orally, intravenously, or topically, depending on the specific peptide and the condition being treated.

In the medical field, "thinness" refers to a low body weight or a low body mass index (BMI) that is considered below the normal range for an individual's age, sex, and height. Thinness can be a result of a variety of factors, including genetics, diet, exercise, and underlying medical conditions. In some cases, thinness may be a sign of an underlying health problem, such as an eating disorder or a hormonal imbalance. It can also increase the risk of certain health conditions, such as osteoporosis, heart disease, and certain types of cancer. Medical professionals may use various measures to assess thinness, including BMI, waist circumference, and body fat percentage. Treatment for thinness may involve addressing the underlying cause, such as working with a therapist to address an eating disorder, or making lifestyle changes to improve nutrition and increase physical activity.

In the medical field, liver glycogen refers to the stored form of glucose in the liver. It is a complex carbohydrate made up of glucose molecules linked together by alpha-1,4 and alpha-1,6 glycosidic bonds. The liver plays a crucial role in regulating blood glucose levels by storing excess glucose as glycogen and releasing it into the bloodstream when blood glucose levels drop. This process is known as glycogenolysis. Liver glycogen is an important source of energy for the body, particularly during periods of fasting or prolonged exercise. It can also be converted into glucose by a process called glycogenesis, which is the synthesis of glycogen from glucose. Disorders that affect liver glycogen metabolism, such as glycogen storage diseases, can lead to a buildup of glycogen in the liver and other tissues, which can cause a range of symptoms and complications.

AMP-Activated Protein Kinases (AMPK) are a family of enzymes that play a critical role in regulating cellular energy metabolism and maintaining cellular homeostasis. They are activated in response to a decrease in the ratio of ATP to AMP, which occurs under conditions of energy stress, such as during exercise or fasting. AMPK acts as a cellular energy sensor, and its activation leads to a variety of metabolic changes that help to restore energy balance. These changes include increasing glucose uptake and metabolism, inhibiting fatty acid synthesis, and stimulating fatty acid oxidation. AMPK also plays a role in regulating cell growth and survival, and has been implicated in the development of a number of diseases, including diabetes, obesity, and cancer. In the medical field, AMPK is a target for the development of new drugs for the treatment of metabolic disorders and other diseases. Activation of AMPK has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity, reduce body weight, and lower blood pressure, making it a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease.

Retinol-binding proteins (RBP) are a group of proteins that transport retinol (vitamin A) in the bloodstream. There are several types of RBP, including RBP4, which is the most abundant type in plasma. RBP4 is synthesized in the liver and adipose tissue and is involved in the regulation of retinol metabolism and distribution. It is also a marker of liver function and has been associated with various diseases, including diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. In the medical field, measuring plasma RBP4 levels can be useful in diagnosing and monitoring these conditions.

Maf transcription factors, large are a family of transcription factors that play a role in regulating gene expression in various biological processes, including cell differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. They are characterized by the presence of a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain, which allows them to form homodimers or heterodimers with other transcription factors to regulate gene expression. In the medical field, Maf transcription factors, large have been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and cardiovascular disease. For example, some Maf transcription factors have been shown to play a role in the development and progression of certain types of cancer, such as melanoma and lung cancer. Additionally, dysregulation of Maf transcription factors has been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis, and cardiovascular disease, such as atherosclerosis. Overall, Maf transcription factors, large are important regulators of gene expression and their dysregulation can contribute to the development and progression of various diseases.

TOR (Target of Rapamycin) Serine-Threonine Kinases are a family of protein kinases that play a central role in regulating cell growth, proliferation, and metabolism in response to nutrient availability and other environmental cues. The TOR kinase complex is a key regulator of the cell's response to nutrient availability and growth signals, and is involved in a variety of cellular processes, including protein synthesis, ribosome biogenesis, and autophagy. Dysregulation of TOR signaling has been implicated in a number of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders. Inhibitors of TOR have been developed as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of these diseases.

Hypertension, also known as high blood pressure, is a medical condition in which the force of blood against the walls of the arteries is consistently too high. This can lead to damage to the blood vessels, heart, and other organs over time, and can increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and other health problems. Hypertension is typically defined as having a systolic blood pressure (the top number) of 140 mmHg or higher, or a diastolic blood pressure (the bottom number) of 90 mmHg or higher. However, some people may be considered hypertensive if their blood pressure is consistently higher than 120/80 mmHg. Hypertension can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lifestyle choices (such as a diet high in salt and saturated fat, lack of physical activity, and smoking), and certain medical conditions (such as kidney disease, diabetes, and sleep apnea). It is often a chronic condition that requires ongoing management through lifestyle changes, medication, and regular monitoring of blood pressure levels.

Diabetes complications refer to the various health problems that can arise as a result of having diabetes. These complications can affect various organs and systems in the body, including the eyes, kidneys, heart, blood vessels, nerves, and feet. Some common diabetes complications include: 1. Diabetic retinopathy: Damage to the blood vessels in the retina, which can lead to vision loss or blindness. 2. Diabetic nephropathy: Damage to the kidneys, which can lead to kidney failure. 3. Cardiovascular disease: Increased risk of heart attack, stroke, and other heart problems. 4. Peripheral artery disease: Narrowing or blockage of blood vessels in the legs and feet, which can lead to pain, numbness, and even amputation. 5. Neuropathy: Damage to the nerves, which can cause pain, numbness, and weakness in the hands and feet. 6. Foot ulcers: Sores or wounds on the feet that can become infected and lead to serious complications. 7. Gum disease: Increased risk of gum disease, which can lead to tooth loss. 8. Sexual dysfunction: Impaired sexual function in men and women. It is important for people with diabetes to manage their blood sugar levels and receive regular medical check-ups to prevent or delay the onset of these complications.

Human Growth Hormone (HGH) is a peptide hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland in the brain. It plays a crucial role in regulating growth and development in children and adolescents, as well as maintaining various bodily functions in adults. In children, HGH stimulates the growth of bones, muscles, and other tissues, and helps to regulate metabolism. It also plays a role in the development of the brain and the immune system. In adults, HGH is involved in maintaining muscle mass, bone density, and overall body composition. It also plays a role in regulating metabolism and energy levels, and may help to improve cognitive function and mood. HGH deficiency can occur due to various factors, including genetic disorders, pituitary gland tumors, and aging. Treatment for HGH deficiency typically involves hormone replacement therapy, which involves administering synthetic HGH to replace the naturally occurring hormone in the body.

Mannoheptulose is a rare sugar that is found in small amounts in the human body. It is a type of ketone body, which are molecules that are produced when the body breaks down fat for energy. Mannoheptulose is thought to play a role in regulating blood sugar levels and may have potential therapeutic applications in the treatment of diabetes and other metabolic disorders. However, more research is needed to fully understand the function and potential uses of mannoheptulose in the medical field.

Protein precursors are molecules that are converted into proteins through a process called translation. In the medical field, protein precursors are often referred to as amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins. There are 20 different amino acids that can be combined in various ways to form different proteins, each with its own unique function in the body. Protein precursors are essential for the proper functioning of the body, as proteins are involved in a wide range of biological processes, including metabolism, cell signaling, and immune function. They are also important for tissue repair and growth, and for maintaining the structure and function of organs and tissues. Protein precursors can be obtained from the diet through the consumption of foods that are rich in amino acids, such as meat, fish, eggs, and dairy products. In some cases, protein precursors may also be administered as supplements or medications to individuals who are unable to obtain sufficient amounts of these nutrients through their diet.

Chromones are a class of organic compounds that contain a chromene ring structure. They are found in a variety of plants and have been shown to have a range of biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer properties. In the medical field, chromones are of interest as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of various diseases and conditions. Some examples of chromones that have been studied for their medicinal properties include quercetin, fisetin, and kaempferol. These compounds are often found in fruits, vegetables, and other plant-based foods and may be used as dietary supplements or incorporated into pharmaceuticals.

Peptide hormones are a type of hormone that are composed of chains of amino acids. They are synthesized in the endocrine glands and are released into the bloodstream to regulate various bodily functions. Peptide hormones are involved in a wide range of processes, including growth and development, metabolism, reproduction, and the regulation of the body's response to stress. Examples of peptide hormones include insulin, growth hormone, and thyroid-stimulating hormone. These hormones act on specific receptors in target cells to produce their effects, and they are often regulated by feedback mechanisms to maintain homeostasis in the body.

Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases (PTPs) are a family of enzymes that play a crucial role in regulating cellular signaling pathways by removing phosphate groups from tyrosine residues on proteins. These enzymes are involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis. PTPs are classified into two main groups: receptor-type PTPs (RPTPs) and non-receptor-type PTPs (NPTPs). RPTPs are transmembrane proteins that are anchored to the cell surface and are involved in cell-cell communication and signaling. NPTPs are cytoplasmic proteins that are involved in intracellular signaling pathways. PTPs are important regulators of many signaling pathways, including the insulin, growth factor, and cytokine signaling pathways. Dysregulation of PTP activity has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. In the medical field, PTPs are being studied as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of various diseases. For example, inhibitors of PTPs have been shown to have anti-cancer activity by blocking the growth and survival of cancer cells. Additionally, PTPs are being studied as potential targets for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus.

Metabolic diseases are a group of disorders that affect the body's ability to process food and use it for energy. These diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, hormonal imbalances, and environmental factors. Metabolic diseases can affect various organs and systems in the body, including the liver, kidneys, pancreas, and heart. Some common examples of metabolic diseases include diabetes, obesity, hyperlipidemia, and thyroid disorders. Diabetes is a metabolic disease characterized by high blood sugar levels due to either a lack of insulin production or insulin resistance. Obesity is a metabolic disease caused by an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure, leading to the accumulation of excess body fat. Hyperlipidemia is a metabolic disorder characterized by high levels of lipids (fats) in the blood, which can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke. Thyroid disorders, such as hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, affect the thyroid gland's ability to produce hormones that regulate metabolism. Treatment for metabolic diseases typically involves lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise, as well as medication and other medical interventions. Early diagnosis and management of metabolic diseases are essential to prevent complications and improve quality of life.

Cholesterol, HDL (high-density lipoprotein) is a type of cholesterol that is considered "good" cholesterol. It is transported in the bloodstream and helps remove excess cholesterol from the body's tissues, including the arteries. HDL cholesterol is often referred to as "good" cholesterol because it helps prevent the buildup of plaque in the arteries, which can lead to heart disease and stroke. High levels of HDL cholesterol are generally considered to be beneficial for overall cardiovascular health.

Ketone bodies are organic compounds that are produced by the liver when there is a lack of glucose available for energy production. They are formed from acetyl-CoA, which is a byproduct of fatty acid metabolism. The three main types of ketone bodies are acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone. Ketone bodies are an important source of energy for the brain and other tissues when glucose is not available. They are also used by the liver to produce glucose through a process called gluconeogenesis. In normal physiological conditions, the body produces small amounts of ketone bodies. However, in certain medical conditions such as diabetes, starvation, or prolonged fasting, the production of ketone bodies increases significantly. High levels of ketone bodies in the blood can lead to a condition called ketosis, which can cause symptoms such as fruity breath odor, nausea, vomiting, and confusion. In summary, ketone bodies are organic compounds produced by the liver in response to a lack of glucose and are an important source of energy for the body.

Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is a skin condition characterized by dark, velvety, and thickened skin, typically found in skin folds or creases. It is often associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes, but can also be caused by other factors such as certain medications, hormonal changes, and genetic predisposition. AN is not a disease in itself, but rather a symptom of an underlying health condition. It can be a sign of an increased risk for certain medical conditions, such as type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and certain types of cancer. Treatment for AN depends on the underlying cause and may include lifestyle changes, medications, and in some cases, surgery.

In the medical field, a peptide fragment refers to a short chain of amino acids that are derived from a larger peptide or protein molecule. Peptide fragments can be generated through various techniques, such as enzymatic digestion or chemical cleavage, and are often used in diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Peptide fragments can be used as biomarkers for various diseases, as they may be present in the body at elevated levels in response to specific conditions. For example, certain peptide fragments have been identified as potential biomarkers for cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and cardiovascular disease. In addition, peptide fragments can be used as therapeutic agents themselves. For example, some peptide fragments have been shown to have anti-inflammatory or anti-cancer properties, and are being investigated as potential treatments for various diseases. Overall, peptide fragments play an important role in the medical field, both as diagnostic tools and as potential therapeutic agents.

Glucagon-like peptides (GLPs) are a group of hormones that are produced by the gastrointestinal tract and the pancreas. They are structurally related to the hormone glucagon, which is produced by the alpha cells of the pancreas and plays a role in regulating blood sugar levels. GLPs have a variety of functions in the body, including the regulation of appetite, metabolism, and insulin secretion. They are also involved in the immune response and the regulation of blood pressure. There are several different types of GLPs, including GLP-1, GLP-2, and GLP-3. GLP-1 is the most well-studied of these hormones and has been the subject of extensive research in the field of diabetes treatment. GLP-1 receptor agonists, which mimic the effects of GLP-1, are now widely used as a treatment for type 2 diabetes. GLP-2 is primarily involved in the regulation of gut motility and has been shown to be effective in treating conditions such as short bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. GLP-3 is a less well-understood hormone that has been shown to have a variety of effects on metabolism and appetite regulation.

In the medical field, "Hormones, Ectopic" refers to the production of hormones by cells or tissues outside of their normal location in the body. This can occur when cells that normally do not produce hormones begin to produce them, or when cells that normally produce hormones begin to produce them in excess. Ectopic hormone production can lead to a variety of medical conditions, depending on the type of hormone that is being produced and the location of the cells that are producing it. For example, if cells in the pancreas begin to produce insulin in excess, this can lead to a condition called insulinoma, which can cause low blood sugar levels and other symptoms. Similarly, if cells in the ovaries begin to produce estrogen in excess, this can lead to a condition called polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which can cause irregular periods, infertility, and other symptoms. Ectopic hormone production can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including blood tests, imaging studies, and biopsy. Treatment for ectopic hormone production depends on the underlying cause and may include medications to regulate hormone levels, surgery to remove the affected cells or tissues, or other therapies.

Glyburide is a medication used to treat type 2 diabetes. It belongs to a class of drugs called sulfonylureas, which work by stimulating the pancreas to produce more insulin. Glyburide is typically used in combination with diet and exercise to help lower blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. It can also be used alone in people who are not able to control their blood sugar levels with diet and exercise alone. Glyburide can cause side effects such as low blood sugar, nausea, and headache. It is important to take glyburide exactly as prescribed by a healthcare provider and to monitor blood sugar levels regularly while taking this medication.

Hyperlipidemias are a group of disorders characterized by abnormally high levels of lipids (fats) in the blood. These disorders can be classified into primary and secondary hyperlipidemias. Primary hyperlipidemias are genetic disorders that result in elevated levels of lipids in the blood. They are usually inherited and can be classified into five types: familial hypercholesterolemia, familial combined hyperlipidemia, familial dysbetalipoproteinemia, type I hyperlipoproteinemia, and type II hyperlipoproteinemia. Secondary hyperlipidemias are caused by other medical conditions or medications. Examples of secondary hyperlipidemias include diabetes, kidney disease, hypothyroidism, liver disease, and the use of certain medications such as corticosteroids and oral contraceptives. Hyperlipidemias can increase the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, and stroke. Treatment for hyperlipidemias typically involves lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet and regular exercise, as well as medications to lower cholesterol and triglyceride levels.

Pregnancy in diabetics refers to the condition where a woman with diabetes becomes pregnant. Diabetes is a chronic condition characterized by high blood sugar levels, and it can have significant complications during pregnancy if not well-controlled. Pregnancy in diabetics is considered high-risk because it increases the risk of complications for both the mother and the baby. Poorly controlled diabetes during pregnancy can lead to high blood pressure, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, and preterm labor. These complications can increase the risk of stillbirth, low birth weight, and neonatal hypoglycemia. Therefore, women with diabetes who are planning to become pregnant or who are already pregnant should work closely with their healthcare provider to manage their diabetes effectively. This may involve adjusting their diabetes medication, monitoring their blood sugar levels closely, and making dietary and lifestyle changes to ensure a healthy pregnancy.

Serine is an amino acid that is a building block of proteins. It is a non-essential amino acid, meaning that it can be synthesized by the body from other compounds. In the medical field, serine is known to play a role in various physiological processes, including the production of neurotransmitters, the regulation of blood sugar levels, and the maintenance of healthy skin and hair. It is also used as a dietary supplement to support these functions and to promote overall health. In some cases, serine may be prescribed by a healthcare provider to treat certain medical conditions, such as liver disease or depression.

In the medical field, the term "chromans" refers to a class of organic compounds that contain a chromene ring system. Chromene is a six-membered aromatic ring with two double bonds and two oxygen atoms. Chromans are found in a variety of natural products, including plants, fungi, and bacteria. They have a wide range of biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-viral properties. Some chromans are also used as pharmaceuticals, such as the anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen, which is derived from the natural compound 2-methyl-1,3-benzodioxole-5-carboxylic acid. In addition to their biological activities, chromans are also used as dyes and pigments in various industries, including textiles, plastics, and cosmetics.

Hypertriglyceridemia is a medical condition characterized by abnormally high levels of triglycerides, a type of fat, in the blood. Triglycerides are the main form of fat in the body and are produced when the liver converts excess carbohydrates and fatty acids into energy. Hypertriglyceridemia can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, and certain medications. It can also be a symptom of other medical conditions, such as hypothyroidism, kidney disease, and liver disease. High levels of triglycerides in the blood can increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, including heart attack and stroke. Treatment for hypertriglyceridemia typically involves lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet and regular exercise, as well as medications to lower triglyceride levels. In some cases, more aggressive treatment may be necessary to prevent complications.

In the medical field, overweight is a condition where a person's body weight is greater than what is considered healthy for their height and body composition. The term "overweight" is often used interchangeably with "obesity," but they are not the same thing. The body mass index (BMI) is a commonly used tool to determine whether a person is overweight or obese. BMI is calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by their height in meters squared. A BMI of 25 to 29.9 is considered overweight, while a BMI of 30 or higher is considered obese. Being overweight can increase the risk of developing a variety of health problems, including heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. Therefore, it is important to maintain a healthy weight through a balanced diet and regular physical activity.

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a group of conditions that affect the heart and blood vessels. They are the leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for more than 17 million deaths each year. CVDs include conditions such as coronary artery disease (CAD), heart failure, arrhythmias, valvular heart disease, peripheral artery disease (PAD), and stroke. These conditions can be caused by a variety of factors, including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, obesity, and a family history of CVDs. Treatment for CVDs may include lifestyle changes, medications, and in some cases, surgery.

Alloxan is a chemical compound that is used in the medical field as an antidiabetic drug. It is a toxic glucose analogue that selectively destroys pancreatic beta cells, leading to a decrease in insulin production and the development of diabetes mellitus. Alloxan is typically used in research to study the pathophysiology of diabetes and to develop new treatments for the disease. It is not used as a treatment for diabetes in humans due to its toxic effects.

1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine, also known as IBMX, is a chemical compound that belongs to the xanthine family. It is a selective inhibitor of the enzyme phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4), which is involved in the breakdown of cyclic AMP (cAMP) in cells. In the medical field, IBMX is used as a research tool to study the effects of PDE4 inhibition on various physiological processes, including inflammation, pain, and airway smooth muscle contraction. It has also been investigated as a potential treatment for a variety of conditions, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and psoriasis. However, IBMX is not currently approved for use as a therapeutic agent in humans, as it can have significant side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and increased heart rate. Additionally, prolonged use of IBMX can lead to the development of tolerance and dependence.

Morpholines are a class of organic compounds that contain a six-membered ring with four carbon atoms and two nitrogen atoms. They are often used as intermediates in the synthesis of various pharmaceuticals and other chemicals. In the medical field, morpholines have been studied for their potential use as antiviral, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory agents. Some specific examples of morpholine-based drugs that have been developed for medical use include the antiviral drug ribavirin and the antipsychotic drug risperidone.

Hyperandrogenism is a medical condition characterized by an excess of androgens, which are male sex hormones such as testosterone. This excess can lead to a variety of symptoms and health problems, particularly in women and girls. In women, hyperandrogenism can cause symptoms such as acne, excess hair growth (hirsutism), irregular menstrual periods, and infertility. It can also lead to conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which is a hormonal disorder that affects women of reproductive age. In boys, hyperandrogenism can cause symptoms such as early puberty, excessive growth, and acne. It can also lead to conditions such as precocious puberty, which is the early onset of puberty. Hyperandrogenism can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic disorders, certain medications, and certain medical conditions such as Cushing's syndrome or adrenal gland tumors. Treatment for hyperandrogenism depends on the underlying cause and may include medications to lower androgen levels, lifestyle changes, or surgery.

Phenylalanine is an essential amino acid that is required for the production of proteins in the body. It is one of the building blocks of the protein called tyrosine, which is important for the production of hormones, neurotransmitters, and other important molecules in the body. Phenylalanine is also used in the production of certain neurotransmitters, including dopamine and norepinephrine, which play important roles in regulating mood, motivation, and other aspects of brain function. In the medical field, phenylalanine is often used as a dietary supplement to help individuals with certain medical conditions, such as phenylketonuria (PKU), which is a genetic disorder that affects the metabolism of phenylalanine. In PKU, the body is unable to properly break down phenylalanine, which can lead to a buildup of the amino acid in the blood and brain, causing damage to the brain and other organs. Phenylalanine is also used in some medications, such as certain antidepressants, to help regulate the production of neurotransmitters in the brain. However, it is important to note that phenylalanine can interact with other medications and may not be safe for everyone to take, so it is important to consult with a healthcare provider before taking any supplements or medications containing phenylalanine.

In the medical field, iodine isotopes refer to different forms of the element iodine that have different atomic weights due to the presence of different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei. The most commonly used iodine isotopes in medicine are iodine-123 (I-123) and iodine-131 (I-131). I-123 is a short-lived isotope with a half-life of 13.2 hours, which makes it useful for imaging the thyroid gland and other organs. It is often used in diagnostic procedures such as thyroid scans and radioiodine uptake tests. I-131, on the other hand, is a longer-lived isotope with a half-life of 8 days. It is commonly used in the treatment of thyroid cancer and hyperthyroidism. In these treatments, I-131 is administered to the patient, and it is taken up by the thyroid gland, where it emits beta particles that destroy the cancerous or overactive cells. Overall, iodine isotopes play an important role in medical imaging and treatment, particularly in the diagnosis and management of thyroid disorders.

Glyceraldehyde is a simple sugar alcohol that is a key intermediate in the metabolism of carbohydrates. It is a three-carbon compound that is produced when glucose is broken down through a process called glycolysis. In the medical field, glyceraldehyde is often used as a starting material for the synthesis of other compounds, such as amino acids and nucleotides. It is also used as a reagent in analytical chemistry to detect and measure the presence of certain compounds in biological samples. In addition, glyceraldehyde has been studied for its potential therapeutic applications, including as a treatment for diabetes and as a component of anti-cancer drugs.

Adiponectin receptors are proteins found on the surface of cells in the body that bind to and respond to the hormone adiponectin. Adiponectin is a protein produced by fat cells (adipocytes) that plays a role in regulating metabolism, glucose levels, and inflammation. The two main types of adiponectin receptors are AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, which are expressed in a variety of tissues including the liver, skeletal muscle, and heart. When adiponectin binds to its receptors, it triggers a cascade of signaling pathways within the cell that can have a variety of effects. For example, adiponectin can increase the breakdown of fat in adipocytes, improve insulin sensitivity in muscle and liver cells, and reduce inflammation in various tissues. Dysregulation of adiponectin receptors has been implicated in the development of a number of metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease.

Morbid obesity is a medical condition characterized by an excessive amount of body fat that significantly increases the risk of various health problems. It is defined as a body mass index (BMI) of 40 or higher, or a BMI of 35 or higher with associated health problems such as diabetes, high blood pressure, or sleep apnea. Morbid obesity can lead to a range of health complications, including heart disease, stroke, liver disease, and certain types of cancer. Treatment options for morbid obesity may include lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise, as well as medical interventions, such as medications or bariatric surgery.

Diabetic Angiopathies refer to a group of circulatory disorders that affect the blood vessels of people with diabetes. These disorders can occur in any part of the body, but are most commonly seen in the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and heart. The most common type of diabetic angiopathy is diabetic retinopathy, which affects the blood vessels in the retina of the eye. This can lead to vision loss or blindness if left untreated. Another type of diabetic angiopathy is diabetic nephropathy, which affects the blood vessels in the kidneys and can lead to kidney failure. Diabetic neuropathy, which affects the nerves, is also a common type of diabetic angiopathy. Diabetic angiopathies are caused by damage to the blood vessels that occurs as a result of high blood sugar levels over a long period of time. This damage can lead to the formation of abnormal blood vessels, which can become blocked or leaky, leading to a range of complications. Treatment for diabetic angiopathies typically involves managing blood sugar levels through diet, exercise, and medication, as well as addressing any underlying risk factors such as high blood pressure or high cholesterol. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to treat more severe cases of diabetic angiopathy.

In the medical field, isoenzymes refer to different forms of enzymes that have the same chemical structure and catalytic activity, but differ in their amino acid sequence. These differences can arise due to genetic variations or post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation or glycosylation. Isoenzymes are often used in medical diagnosis and treatment because they can provide information about the function and health of specific organs or tissues. For example, the presence of certain isoenzymes in the blood can indicate liver or kidney disease, while changes in the levels of specific isoenzymes in the brain can be indicative of neurological disorders. In addition, isoenzymes can be used as biomarkers for certain diseases or conditions, and can be targeted for therapeutic intervention. For example, drugs that inhibit specific isoenzymes can be used to treat certain types of cancer or heart disease.

Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a cytokine, a type of signaling protein, that plays a crucial role in the immune response and inflammation. It is produced by various cells in the body, including macrophages, monocytes, and T cells, in response to infection, injury, or other stimuli. TNF-alpha has multiple functions in the body, including regulating the immune response, promoting cell growth and differentiation, and mediating inflammation. It can also induce programmed cell death, or apoptosis, in some cells, which can be beneficial in fighting cancer. However, excessive or prolonged TNF-alpha production can lead to chronic inflammation and tissue damage, which can contribute to the development of various diseases, including autoimmune disorders, inflammatory bowel disease, and certain types of cancer. In the medical field, TNF-alpha is often targeted in the treatment of these conditions. For example, drugs called TNF inhibitors, such as infliximab and adalimumab, are used to block the action of TNF-alpha and reduce inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, and other inflammatory conditions.

Glycosuria refers to the presence of glucose (sugar) in the urine. It is a common sign of diabetes mellitus, a chronic condition characterized by high blood sugar levels. In people with diabetes, the body is unable to produce enough insulin or use it effectively, leading to high levels of glucose in the bloodstream. This excess glucose can then be filtered through the kidneys and excreted in the urine, resulting in glycosuria. Glycosuria can also occur in non-diabetic individuals, such as during pregnancy, after a high-carbohydrate meal, or as a side effect of certain medications. However, persistent glycosuria in the absence of other causes is typically a sign of diabetes or prediabetes and should be evaluated by a healthcare provider.

Adenylate kinase (AK) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in cellular metabolism by catalyzing the reversible transfer of a high-energy phosphate group from one adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecule to another, generating adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate (Pi). This reaction helps to maintain the balance of ATP and ADP levels within cells, which is essential for energy metabolism and other cellular processes. In the medical field, AK is involved in various physiological and pathological processes, including muscle contraction, glucose metabolism, and cell proliferation. AK is also a potential therapeutic target for various diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, understanding the regulation and function of AK is important for developing new treatments and therapies for these diseases.

In the medical field, "Liver Neoplasms, Experimental" refers to the study of liver tumors or cancer in experimental settings, such as in laboratory animals or tissue cultures. This type of research is typically conducted to better understand the underlying mechanisms of liver cancer and to develop new treatments or therapies for the disease. Experimental liver neoplasms may involve the use of various techniques, such as genetic manipulation, drug administration, or exposure to environmental toxins, to induce the development of liver tumors in animals or cells. The results of these studies can provide valuable insights into the biology of liver cancer and inform the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for the disease.

Phlorhizin is a natural compound found in certain plants, particularly apple trees. It is a type of polyphenol, which is a type of antioxidant that is thought to have a number of potential health benefits. In the medical field, phlorhizin has been studied for its potential effects on blood sugar levels and insulin resistance. Some research suggests that phlorhizin may help to lower blood sugar levels and improve insulin sensitivity in people with type 2 diabetes. It may also have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. Phlorhizin is not currently approved for use as a medical treatment, and more research is needed to fully understand its potential benefits and risks. It is available as a dietary supplement, but the safety and effectiveness of these supplements have not been well-studied. As with any supplement, it is important to talk to a healthcare provider before taking phlorhizin or any other supplement.

Hexokinase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the first step of glycolysis, the metabolic pathway that converts glucose into energy. It catalyzes the phosphorylation of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate, which is a key intermediate in the glycolytic pathway. There are several types of hexokinases, including hexokinase I, hexokinase II, and hexokinase III, which are found in different tissues and have different properties. Hexokinase I is the most abundant form of the enzyme and is found in most tissues, including the liver, muscle, and brain. Hexokinase II is found primarily in the liver and muscle and has a higher affinity for glucose than hexokinase I. Hexokinase III is found in the testes and is thought to play a role in sperm metabolism. In the medical field, hexokinase is used as a diagnostic tool to detect and monitor various diseases, including diabetes, cancer, and liver disease. Abnormal levels of hexokinase can indicate problems with glucose metabolism or liver function. Additionally, hexokinase is used as a target for cancer therapy, as many cancer cells rely on glycolysis for energy production and are therefore more sensitive to inhibitors of hexokinase.

Receptors, Leptin are proteins found on the surface of cells in the body that bind to the hormone leptin, which is produced by fat cells. Leptin plays a role in regulating appetite, metabolism, and body weight. When leptin binds to its receptors, it sends signals to the brain that the body has enough fat stores and that the body should reduce appetite and increase energy expenditure. Mutations in the genes that encode leptin or its receptors can lead to disorders such as obesity or leptin resistance, where the body is unable to respond to normal levels of leptin.

Phosphoserine is a molecule that contains a phosphate group attached to a serine amino acid. It is a common post-translational modification of proteins, where the phosphate group is added to the serine residue by a kinase enzyme. This modification can affect the function and activity of the protein, and is involved in a variety of cellular processes, including signal transduction, gene expression, and protein-protein interactions. In the medical field, phosphoserine is often studied in the context of diseases such as cancer, where changes in protein phosphorylation patterns can contribute to disease progression.

In the medical field, "Keto Acids" refer to a group of acidic compounds that are produced when the body breaks down fat for energy. These compounds are called ketones and are produced in the liver when there is not enough glucose (sugar) available for the body to use as fuel. Keto acids are an important source of energy for the body, especially during periods of fasting or when the body is under stress. They are also used by the brain as a source of fuel, which is why people on a ketogenic diet (a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet) often report feeling more alert and focused. However, high levels of ketones in the blood can also be a sign of a medical condition called diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), which is a serious complication of diabetes that requires immediate medical attention. In DKA, the body produces too many ketones and the blood becomes acidic, which can lead to dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and other complications.

Forkhead transcription factors (Fox proteins) are a family of transcription factors that play important roles in regulating gene expression in various biological processes, including development, metabolism, and cell proliferation. They are characterized by a conserved DNA-binding domain called the forkhead domain, which is responsible for recognizing and binding to specific DNA sequences. Fox proteins are involved in a wide range of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders. For example, mutations in FoxA2, a member of the Fox family, have been linked to the development of type 2 diabetes. In cancer, Fox proteins can act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors, depending on the specific gene and the context in which it is expressed. In the medical field, understanding the role of Fox proteins in disease can provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of disease and may lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies. For example, targeting specific Fox proteins with small molecules or other drugs may be a promising approach for treating cancer or other diseases.

Receptors, cell surface are proteins that are located on the surface of cells and are responsible for receiving signals from the environment. These signals can be chemical, electrical, or mechanical in nature and can trigger a variety of cellular responses. There are many different types of cell surface receptors, including ion channels, G-protein coupled receptors, and enzyme-linked receptors. These receptors play a critical role in many physiological processes, including sensation, communication, and regulation of cellular activity. In the medical field, understanding the function and regulation of cell surface receptors is important for developing new treatments for a wide range of diseases and conditions.

Adaptor proteins, signal transducing are a class of proteins that play a crucial role in transmitting signals from the cell surface to the interior of the cell. These proteins are involved in various cellular processes such as cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. Adaptor proteins function as molecular bridges that connect signaling receptors on the cell surface to downstream signaling molecules inside the cell. They are characterized by their ability to bind to both the receptor and the signaling molecule, allowing them to transmit the signal from the receptor to the signaling molecule. There are several types of adaptor proteins, including SH2 domain-containing adaptor proteins, phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain-containing adaptor proteins, and WW domain-containing adaptor proteins. These proteins are involved in a wide range of signaling pathways, including the insulin, growth factor, and cytokine signaling pathways. Disruptions in the function of adaptor proteins can lead to various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and immune disorders. Therefore, understanding the role of adaptor proteins in signal transduction is important for the development of new therapeutic strategies for these diseases.

DNA primers are short, single-stranded DNA molecules that are used in a variety of molecular biology techniques, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. They are designed to bind to specific regions of a DNA molecule, and are used to initiate the synthesis of new DNA strands. In PCR, DNA primers are used to amplify specific regions of DNA by providing a starting point for the polymerase enzyme to begin synthesizing new DNA strands. The primers are complementary to the target DNA sequence, and are added to the reaction mixture along with the DNA template, nucleotides, and polymerase enzyme. The polymerase enzyme uses the primers as a template to synthesize new DNA strands, which are then extended by the addition of more nucleotides. This process is repeated multiple times, resulting in the amplification of the target DNA sequence. DNA primers are also used in DNA sequencing to identify the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. In this application, the primers are designed to bind to specific regions of the DNA molecule, and are used to initiate the synthesis of short DNA fragments. The fragments are then sequenced using a variety of techniques, such as Sanger sequencing or next-generation sequencing. Overall, DNA primers are an important tool in molecular biology, and are used in a wide range of applications to study and manipulate DNA.

Iodine radioisotopes are radioactive forms of the element iodine that are used in medical imaging and treatment procedures. These isotopes have a nucleus that contains an odd number of neutrons, which makes them unstable and causes them to emit radiation as they decay back to a more stable form of iodine. There are several different iodine radioisotopes that are commonly used in medical applications, including iodine-123, iodine-125, and iodine-131. Each of these isotopes has a different half-life, which is the amount of time it takes for half of the radioactive material to decay. The half-life of an iodine radioisotope determines how long it will remain in the body and how much radiation will be emitted during that time. Iodine radioisotopes are often used in diagnostic imaging procedures, such as thyroid scans, to help doctors visualize the structure and function of the thyroid gland. They may also be used in therapeutic procedures, such as radiation therapy, to treat thyroid cancer or other thyroid disorders. In these cases, the radioactive iodine is administered to the patient and selectively absorbed by the thyroid gland, where it emits radiation that damages or destroys cancerous cells.

Glucocorticoids are a class of hormones produced by the adrenal gland that regulate glucose metabolism and have anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. They are commonly used in medicine to treat a variety of conditions, including: 1. Inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and asthma 2. Autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease 3. Allergies and anaphylaxis 4. Skin conditions such as eczema and psoriasis 5. Cancer treatment to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system 6. Endocrine disorders such as Cushing's syndrome and Addison's disease Glucocorticoids work by binding to specific receptors in cells throughout the body, leading to changes in gene expression and protein synthesis. They can also increase blood sugar levels by stimulating the liver to produce glucose and decreasing the body's sensitivity to insulin. Long-term use of high doses of glucocorticoids can have serious side effects, including weight gain, high blood pressure, osteoporosis, and increased risk of infection.

Diabetic coma is a serious medical condition that occurs when a person with diabetes experiences a severe and prolonged low blood sugar level (hypoglycemia) or high blood sugar level (hyperglycemia). It is a life-threatening emergency that requires immediate medical attention. In diabetic coma, the body is unable to regulate blood sugar levels properly, leading to a range of symptoms that can include confusion, drowsiness, slurred speech, seizures, and loss of consciousness. If left untreated, diabetic coma can lead to permanent brain damage or even death. Diabetic coma can be caused by a variety of factors, including missed or delayed insulin doses, severe illness or infection, alcohol or drug use, or certain medications. It is important for people with diabetes to monitor their blood sugar levels regularly and to seek medical attention immediately if they experience any symptoms of hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia.

Glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) is a chemical compound that is a key intermediate in the metabolism of glucose. It is formed when glucose is phosphorylated by the enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase, which is found in many tissues throughout the body. G6P is an important source of energy for cells and is also involved in the synthesis of other important molecules, such as glycogen and nucleotides. In the medical field, G6P is often measured as part of routine blood tests to assess glucose metabolism and to diagnose certain medical conditions, such as diabetes.

DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is a molecule that carries genetic information in living organisms. It is composed of four types of nitrogen-containing molecules called nucleotides, which are arranged in a specific sequence to form the genetic code. In the medical field, DNA is often studied as a tool for understanding and diagnosing genetic disorders. Genetic disorders are caused by changes in the DNA sequence that can affect the function of genes, leading to a variety of health problems. By analyzing DNA, doctors and researchers can identify specific genetic mutations that may be responsible for a particular disorder, and develop targeted treatments or therapies to address the underlying cause of the condition. DNA is also used in forensic science to identify individuals based on their unique genetic fingerprint. This is because each person's DNA sequence is unique, and can be used to distinguish one individual from another. DNA analysis is also used in criminal investigations to help solve crimes by linking DNA evidence to suspects or victims.

Dietary sucrose refers to the consumption of table sugar, which is a type of carbohydrate that is commonly added to food and beverages. Sucrose is made up of two molecules of glucose and one molecule of fructose, and it is a source of energy for the body. In the medical field, dietary sucrose is often discussed in the context of its potential health effects, such as its role in the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and other chronic diseases. Some studies have suggested that reducing or eliminating dietary sucrose from the diet may be beneficial for improving health outcomes in certain populations. However, more research is needed to fully understand the relationship between dietary sucrose and health.

In the medical field, "trans-activators" refer to proteins or molecules that activate the transcription of a gene, which is the process by which the information in a gene is used to produce a functional product, such as a protein. Trans-activators can bind to specific DNA sequences near a gene and recruit other proteins, such as RNA polymerase, to initiate transcription. They can also modify the chromatin structure around a gene to make it more accessible to transcription machinery. Trans-activators play important roles in regulating gene expression and are involved in many biological processes, including development, differentiation, and disease.

Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is an enzyme that plays a critical role in the biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), a coenzyme involved in various cellular processes, including energy metabolism, DNA repair, and inflammation. NAMPT is also known as the rate-limiting enzyme in the NAD+ salvage pathway, which recycles NAD+ from its degradation products. In the medical field, NAMPT has gained attention as a potential therapeutic target for various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and metabolic disorders. NAMPT is often upregulated in cancer cells, leading to increased NAD+ biosynthesis and enhanced cell survival and proliferation. Inhibiting NAMPT activity has been shown to reduce cancer cell growth and sensitize cancer cells to chemotherapy. In addition, NAMPT has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, as well as metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes and obesity. In these conditions, NAMPT activity is often dysregulated, leading to reduced NAD+ levels and impaired cellular function. Therefore, targeting NAMPT has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of various diseases. Several NAMPT inhibitors have been developed and are currently being tested in preclinical and clinical studies.

Dyslipidemias are a group of disorders characterized by abnormal levels of lipids (fats) in the blood. These disorders can lead to the accumulation of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood, which can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, including heart attack and stroke. There are several types of dyslipidemias, including: 1. Hypercholesterolemia: This is an elevated level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in the blood. LDL cholesterol is often referred to as "bad" cholesterol because it can build up in the walls of arteries and lead to the formation of plaques. 2. Hypertriglyceridemia: This is an elevated level of triglycerides in the blood. Triglycerides are a type of fat that is found in the blood and is a component of lipoproteins. 3. Combined hyperlipidemia: This is a combination of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. 4. Familial dyslipidemia: This is an inherited disorder that causes high levels of LDL cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood. Dyslipidemias are typically diagnosed through blood tests that measure the levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood. Treatment may include lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise, and medications to lower cholesterol and triglyceride levels.

Recombinant fusion proteins are proteins that are produced by combining two or more genes in a single molecule. These proteins are typically created using genetic engineering techniques, such as recombinant DNA technology, to insert one or more genes into a host organism, such as bacteria or yeast, which then produces the fusion protein. Fusion proteins are often used in medical research and drug development because they can have unique properties that are not present in the individual proteins that make up the fusion. For example, a fusion protein might be designed to have increased stability, improved solubility, or enhanced targeting to specific cells or tissues. Recombinant fusion proteins have a wide range of applications in medicine, including as therapeutic agents, diagnostic tools, and research reagents. Some examples of recombinant fusion proteins used in medicine include antibodies, growth factors, and cytokines.

Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) is an enzyme that plays a critical role in the regulation of fatty acid synthesis in the body. It catalyzes the conversion of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA, which is the first committed step in the synthesis of fatty acids from carbohydrates and lipids. In the medical field, ACC is of particular interest because it is a key enzyme in the regulation of energy metabolism and is involved in the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and other metabolic disorders. Inhibition of ACC has been proposed as a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of these conditions. Additionally, ACC is also involved in the regulation of gluconeogenesis, the process by which the liver produces glucose from non-carbohydrate sources.

Calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMKs) are a family of enzymes that play a crucial role in regulating various cellular processes in response to changes in intracellular calcium levels. These enzymes are activated by the binding of calcium ions to a regulatory protein called calmodulin, which then binds to and activates the CaMK. CaMKs are involved in a wide range of cellular functions, including muscle contraction, neurotransmitter release, gene expression, and cell division. They are also involved in the regulation of various diseases, including heart disease, neurological disorders, and cancer. In the medical field, CaMKs are the target of several drugs, including those used to treat heart disease and neurological disorders. For example, calcium channel blockers, which are used to treat high blood pressure and chest pain, can also block the activity of CaMKs. Similarly, drugs that target CaMKs are being developed as potential treatments for neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease.

Sulfonylurea receptors (SURs) are a family of membrane proteins that are found on the beta cells of the pancreas. They are responsible for regulating the release of insulin from the beta cells in response to an increase in blood glucose levels. Sulfonylurea drugs, which are commonly used to treat type 2 diabetes, work by binding to the SURs and activating them, which in turn causes the beta cells to release insulin. The activation of SURs by sulfonylurea drugs is thought to be an important mechanism for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

Glucose metabolism disorders refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the way the body processes glucose, a type of sugar that is the primary source of energy for the body's cells. These disorders can be classified into two main categories: insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (Type 1 diabetes) and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (Type 2 diabetes). In Type 1 diabetes, the body's immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, leading to a lack of insulin in the body. This results in high blood sugar levels, which can cause a range of health problems if left untreated. In Type 2 diabetes, the body becomes resistant to insulin, meaning that the cells do not respond properly to the hormone. This can lead to high blood sugar levels, which can also cause a range of health problems if left untreated. Other glucose metabolism disorders include prediabetes, which is a condition in which blood sugar levels are higher than normal but not yet high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes, and glycogen storage diseases, which are genetic disorders that affect the body's ability to store and use glucose.

Aminoisobutyric acids (AIBA) are a type of amino acid that are naturally occurring in the human body. They are also known as beta-alanine and are found in small amounts in muscle tissue. AIBA is a non-essential amino acid, meaning that it can be synthesized by the body from other amino acids. It is thought to play a role in muscle metabolism and may have potential as a dietary supplement for athletes. In the medical field, AIBA is not typically used as a treatment for any specific condition, but it is sometimes used in research studies to investigate its effects on muscle function and performance.

Glycogen Synthase Kinases (GSKs) are a family of enzymes that play a crucial role in regulating glucose metabolism in the body. They are responsible for phosphorylating and activating glycogen synthase, an enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of glycogen from glucose. In the medical field, GSKs are of particular interest because they are involved in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. Dysregulation of GSK activity has been implicated in a number of metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes, obesity, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. GSKs are also involved in other cellular processes, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. As such, they have potential therapeutic applications in the treatment of a variety of diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and inflammatory conditions.

C-Reactive Protein (CRP) is a protein that is produced by the liver in response to inflammation or infection in the body. It is a nonspecific marker of inflammation and is often used as a diagnostic tool in the medical field. CRP levels can be measured in the blood using a blood test. Elevated levels of CRP are often seen in people with infections, autoimmune diseases, and certain types of cancer. However, it is important to note that CRP levels can also be elevated in response to other factors such as exercise, injury, and stress. In addition to its diagnostic role, CRP has also been studied as a potential predictor of future health outcomes. For example, high levels of CRP have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and other chronic conditions. Overall, CRP is an important biomarker in the medical field that can provide valuable information about a person's health and help guide treatment decisions.

Testosterone is a hormone that is primarily produced in the testicles in males and in smaller amounts in the ovaries and adrenal glands in females. It is responsible for the development of male sexual characteristics, such as the growth of facial hair, deepening of the voice, and muscle mass. Testosterone also plays a role in bone density, red blood cell production, and the regulation of the body's metabolism. In the medical field, testosterone is often used to treat conditions related to low testosterone levels, such as hypogonadism (a condition in which the body does not produce enough testosterone), delayed puberty, and certain types of breast cancer in men. It can also be used to treat conditions related to low estrogen levels in women, such as osteoporosis and menopause symptoms. Testosterone therapy can be administered in various forms, including injections, gels, patches, and pellets. However, it is important to note that testosterone therapy can have side effects, such as acne, hair loss, and an increased risk of blood clots, and should only be prescribed by a healthcare professional.

Alanine is an amino acid that is a building block of proteins. It is an essential amino acid, meaning that it cannot be synthesized by the body and must be obtained through the diet. Alanine plays a number of important roles in the body, including: 1. Energy production: Alanine can be converted into glucose, which is a source of energy for the body. 2. Muscle function: Alanine is involved in the metabolism of muscle tissue and can help to prevent muscle damage. 3. Liver function: Alanine is an important component of the liver's detoxification process and can help to protect the liver from damage. 4. Acid-base balance: Alanine helps to regulate the body's acid-base balance by buffering excess acid in the blood. In the medical field, alanine is often used as a biomarker to assess liver function. Elevated levels of alanine in the blood can indicate liver damage or disease. Alanine is also used as a dietary supplement to support muscle growth and recovery.

Potassium channels, inwardly rectifying (Kir) are a type of ion channel found in the cell membrane of many different types of cells. These channels are selective for potassium ions and allow them to flow into the cell, but not out of it. This means that the channels are "rectifying" because they conduct ions in one direction (inward) more easily than the opposite direction (outward). Kir channels play an important role in regulating the flow of potassium ions in and out of cells, which is important for many cellular processes, including the generation of electrical signals in nerve and muscle cells. Mutations in Kir channels can cause a variety of diseases, including certain types of heart arrhythmias and neurological disorders.

Methylglycosides are a type of carbohydrate derivative that are formed by the addition of a methyl group to a glycoside molecule. In the medical field, methylglycosides are often used as drugs or as intermediates in the synthesis of other drugs. They have a variety of biological activities, including antiviral, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory effects. Some examples of methylglycosides that are used in medicine include acyclovir, which is used to treat herpes simplex virus infections, and ribavirin, which is used to treat hepatitis C.

Norepinephrine, also known as noradrenaline, is a neurotransmitter and hormone that plays a crucial role in the body's "fight or flight" response. It is produced by the adrenal glands and is also found in certain neurons in the brain and spinal cord. In the medical field, norepinephrine is often used as a medication to treat low blood pressure, shock, and heart failure. It works by constricting blood vessels and increasing heart rate, which helps to raise blood pressure and improve blood flow to vital organs. Norepinephrine is also used to treat certain types of depression, as it can help to increase feelings of alertness and energy. However, it is important to note that norepinephrine can have side effects, including rapid heartbeat, high blood pressure, and anxiety, and should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

Hydroxybutyrates are a class of compounds that contain a hydroxybutyrate functional group. They are commonly used in the medical field as medications to treat a variety of conditions, including epilepsy, anxiety, and depression. Some examples of hydroxybutyrates include valproic acid, which is used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder, and diazepam, which is used to treat anxiety and seizures. Hydroxybutyrates are also used as dietary supplements to promote muscle growth and improve athletic performance.

Homeodomain proteins are a class of transcription factors that play a crucial role in the development and differentiation of cells and tissues in animals. They are characterized by a highly conserved DNA-binding domain called the homeodomain, which allows them to recognize and bind to specific DNA sequences. Homeodomain proteins are involved in a wide range of biological processes, including embryonic development, tissue differentiation, and organogenesis. They regulate the expression of genes that are essential for these processes by binding to specific DNA sequences and either activating or repressing the transcription of target genes. There are many different types of homeodomain proteins, each with its own unique function and target genes. Some examples of homeodomain proteins include the Hox genes, which are involved in the development of the body plan in animals, and the Pax genes, which are involved in the development of the nervous system. Mutations in homeodomain proteins can lead to a variety of developmental disorders, including congenital malformations and intellectual disabilities. Understanding the function and regulation of homeodomain proteins is therefore important for the development of new treatments for these conditions.

In the medical field, diglycerides are a type of fat molecule that consists of two fatty acid chains attached to a glycerol backbone. They are commonly used as emulsifiers, stabilizers, and thickening agents in various food and cosmetic products. In the context of nutrition, diglycerides are sometimes used as a source of energy for the body. They are also used in some dietary supplements and medical foods. In the pharmaceutical industry, diglycerides are used as a component of various drug delivery systems, such as liposomes and microemulsions, to improve the stability and bioavailability of drugs. Overall, diglycerides are a versatile and widely used component of many products in the medical and food industries.

Pyruvic acid is a chemical compound that is produced during the metabolism of carbohydrates in the body. It is a key intermediate in the process of cellular respiration, which is the process by which cells convert glucose into energy. Pyruvic acid is produced when glucose is broken down in the cytoplasm of cells through a process called glycolysis. It is then transported into the mitochondria, where it is converted into acetyl-CoA, which is used in the citric acid cycle to produce energy in the form of ATP. Pyruvic acid is also used in the production of certain amino acids and other important compounds in the body. In the medical field, pyruvic acid is sometimes used as a dietary supplement or in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as lactic acidosis, a condition in which there is an excess of lactic acid in the blood.

Receptors, drug, in the medical field refer to specific proteins or molecules on the surface or inside cells that bind to and respond to drugs or other molecules. These receptors play a crucial role in the body's response to drugs and are the target of many medications. When a drug binds to a receptor, it can activate or inhibit the receptor's function, leading to changes in cellular signaling and ultimately resulting in a therapeutic effect. There are many different types of drug receptors, including ion channels, G-protein coupled receptors, and enzyme-linked receptors, and each type of receptor has a specific role in the body's response to drugs. Understanding the properties and functions of drug receptors is essential for the development of effective and safe medications.

Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs) are a family of enzymes that play a crucial role in cellular signaling pathways. They are involved in regulating various cellular processes such as cell growth, differentiation, proliferation, survival, and apoptosis. MAPKs are activated by extracellular signals such as growth factors, cytokines, and hormones, which bind to specific receptors on the cell surface. This activation leads to a cascade of phosphorylation events, where MAPKs phosphorylate and activate downstream effector molecules, such as transcription factors, that regulate gene expression. In the medical field, MAPKs are of great interest due to their involvement in various diseases, including cancer, inflammatory disorders, and neurological disorders. For example, mutations in MAPK signaling pathways are commonly found in many types of cancer, and targeting these pathways has become an important strategy for cancer therapy. Additionally, MAPKs are involved in the regulation of immune responses, and dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in various inflammatory disorders. Finally, MAPKs play a role in the development and maintenance of the nervous system, and dysfunction of these pathways has been linked to neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease.

Oncogene Protein v-akt is a protein that is involved in the development of cancer. It is a member of the AKT family of proteins, which play a role in regulating cell growth, survival, and metabolism. The v-akt protein is encoded by the v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 (akt1) gene, which is a retroviral oncogene that is commonly found in certain types of cancer. Activation of the v-akt protein can lead to uncontrolled cell growth and division, which can contribute to the development of cancer.

Cycloheximide is a synthetic antibiotic that is used in the medical field as an antifungal agent. It works by inhibiting the synthesis of proteins in fungal cells, which ultimately leads to their death. Cycloheximide is commonly used to treat fungal infections of the skin, nails, and hair, as well as systemic fungal infections such as candidiasis and aspergillosis. It is usually administered orally or topically, and its effectiveness can be enhanced by combining it with other antifungal medications. However, cycloheximide can also have side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and allergic reactions, and it may interact with other medications, so it should be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

Gliclazide is a type of medication called a sulfonylurea, which is used to treat type 2 diabetes. It works by stimulating the pancreas to produce more insulin, which helps the body to regulate blood sugar levels. Gliclazide is usually taken once or twice a day, with or without food. It can be used alone or in combination with other diabetes medications. Common side effects of gliclazide include nausea, headache, and low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). It is important to monitor blood sugar levels carefully when taking gliclazide and to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider.

Mitochondrial proteins are proteins that are encoded by genes located in the mitochondrial genome and are synthesized within the mitochondria. These proteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including energy production, cell growth and division, and regulation of the cell cycle. Mitochondrial proteins are essential for the proper functioning of the mitochondria, which are often referred to as the "powerhouses" of the cell. Mutations in mitochondrial proteins can lead to a variety of inherited disorders, including mitochondrial diseases, which can affect multiple organ systems and cause a range of symptoms, including muscle weakness, fatigue, and neurological problems.

Pancreatic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the pancreas, a gland located in the abdomen behind the stomach. These neoplasms can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Pancreatic neoplasms can occur in various parts of the pancreas, including the exocrine gland (which produces digestive enzymes), the endocrine gland (which produces hormones), and the ducts (which carry digestive juices from the pancreas to the small intestine). Symptoms of pancreatic neoplasms can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor, but may include abdominal pain, weight loss, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), nausea, vomiting, and unexplained fatigue. Diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasms typically involves imaging tests such as CT scans, MRI scans, or ultrasound, as well as blood tests and biopsies. Treatment options may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these approaches, depending on the type and stage of the neoplasm.

Fatty acid synthases (FAS) are a group of enzymes that are responsible for the de novo synthesis of long-chain fatty acids in the body. These enzymes are found in the cytoplasm of most cells and are composed of multiple subunits that work together to catalyze a series of reactions that convert acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA into palmitate, a 16-carbon fatty acid. Fatty acid synthases play a critical role in the metabolism of lipids, which are essential for the production of energy, the formation of cell membranes, and the synthesis of other important molecules such as hormones and signaling molecules. Dysregulation of fatty acid synthases has been implicated in a number of diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and certain types of cancer. In the medical field, fatty acid synthases are often studied as potential targets for the development of new drugs and therapies for these and other diseases. For example, drugs that inhibit fatty acid synthases have been shown to have anti-cancer effects in preclinical studies, and are currently being tested in clinical trials for their potential to treat various types of cancer.

Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of lipids (fats) in the human body. It is primarily found in the capillary endothelial cells of adipose tissue (fat tissue) and muscle tissue, where it is responsible for hydrolyzing triglycerides (fatty acids) from circulating lipoproteins, such as chylomicrons and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL). The hydrolysis of triglycerides by LPL releases free fatty acids, which can then be taken up by adipose tissue and muscle cells for energy production or storage. LPL also plays a role in the metabolism of high-density lipoproteins (HDL), the "good" cholesterol, by hydrolyzing triglycerides in HDL particles. Abnormalities in LPL activity can lead to a variety of metabolic disorders, including hypertriglyceridemia (elevated levels of triglycerides in the blood), familial chylomicronemia syndrome, and lipemia retinalis. In addition, LPL has been implicated in the development of atherosclerosis, a condition characterized by the buildup of plaque in the arteries, which can lead to heart attack and stroke.

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a cytokine, a type of signaling molecule that plays a crucial role in the immune system. It is produced by a variety of cells, including immune cells such as macrophages, monocytes, and T cells, as well as non-immune cells such as fibroblasts and endothelial cells. IL-6 has a wide range of functions in the body, including regulating the immune response, promoting inflammation, and stimulating the growth and differentiation of immune cells. It is also involved in the regulation of metabolism, bone metabolism, and hematopoiesis (the production of blood cells). In the medical field, IL-6 is often measured as a marker of inflammation and is used to diagnose and monitor a variety of conditions, including autoimmune diseases, infections, and cancer. It is also being studied as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of these conditions, as well as for the management of chronic pain and other conditions.

In the medical field, "polyenes" typically refers to a class of organic compounds that contain multiple conjugated double bonds. These compounds are often used as antibiotics and antifungal agents. One of the most well-known polyenes is nystatin, which is used to treat fungal infections of the skin, mouth, and throat. Another example is amphotericin B, which is used to treat severe fungal infections, such as cryptococcal meningitis and aspergillosis. Polyenes work by disrupting the cell membrane of fungi and bacteria, leading to their death. They are particularly effective against fungi that are resistant to other types of antibiotics. It is important to note that while polyenes can be effective in treating infections, they can also have side effects, such as nausea, vomiting, and allergic reactions. Therefore, they are typically used only when other treatments have failed or when the infection is severe.

DNA-binding proteins are a class of proteins that interact with DNA molecules to regulate gene expression. These proteins recognize specific DNA sequences and bind to them, thereby affecting the transcription of genes into messenger RNA (mRNA) and ultimately the production of proteins. DNA-binding proteins play a crucial role in many biological processes, including cell division, differentiation, and development. They can act as activators or repressors of gene expression, depending on the specific DNA sequence they bind to and the cellular context in which they are expressed. Examples of DNA-binding proteins include transcription factors, histones, and non-histone chromosomal proteins. Transcription factors are proteins that bind to specific DNA sequences and regulate the transcription of genes by recruiting RNA polymerase and other factors to the promoter region of a gene. Histones are proteins that package DNA into chromatin, and non-histone chromosomal proteins help to organize and regulate chromatin structure. DNA-binding proteins are important targets for drug discovery and development, as they play a central role in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and infectious diseases.

RNA, Small Interfering (siRNA) is a type of non-coding RNA molecule that plays a role in gene regulation. siRNA is approximately 21-25 nucleotides in length and is derived from double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules. In the medical field, siRNA is used as a tool for gene silencing, which involves inhibiting the expression of specific genes. This is achieved by introducing siRNA molecules that are complementary to the target mRNA sequence, leading to the degradation of the mRNA and subsequent inhibition of protein synthesis. siRNA has potential applications in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, viral infections, and genetic disorders. It is also used in research to study gene function and regulation. However, the use of siRNA in medicine is still in its early stages, and there are several challenges that need to be addressed before it can be widely used in clinical practice.

In the medical field, dietary proteins refer to the proteins that are obtained from food sources and are consumed by individuals as part of their daily diet. These proteins are essential for the growth, repair, and maintenance of tissues in the body, including muscles, bones, skin, and organs. Proteins are made up of amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins. There are 20 different amino acids that can be combined in various ways to form different proteins. The body requires a specific set of amino acids, known as essential amino acids, which cannot be synthesized by the body and must be obtained through the diet. Dietary proteins can be classified into two categories: complete and incomplete proteins. Complete proteins are those that contain all of the essential amino acids in the required proportions, while incomplete proteins are those that lack one or more of the essential amino acids. Animal-based foods, such as meat, poultry, fish, and dairy products, are typically complete proteins, while plant-based foods, such as beans, lentils, and grains, are often incomplete proteins. In the medical field, the amount and quality of dietary proteins consumed by individuals are important factors in maintaining optimal health and preventing various diseases, including malnutrition, osteoporosis, and certain types of cancer.

Amyloid is a type of protein that is abnormal and forms deposits in tissues throughout the body. These deposits are made up of fibrils, which are long, twisted strands of protein. Amyloidosis is a disease that occurs when amyloid fibrils build up in tissues, leading to damage and dysfunction. There are many different types of amyloidosis, which can affect different organs and tissues in the body. Some types of amyloidosis are inherited, while others are acquired. Treatment for amyloidosis depends on the specific type and severity of the disease.

Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) is a protein that plays a crucial role in cell growth, repair, and differentiation. It is produced by various cells in the body, including epithelial cells in the skin, respiratory tract, and digestive system. EGF binds to specific receptors on the surface of cells, triggering a signaling cascade that leads to the activation of various genes involved in cell growth and proliferation. It also promotes the production of new blood vessels and stimulates the formation of new skin cells, making it an important factor in wound healing and tissue repair. In the medical field, EGF has been used in various therapeutic applications, including the treatment of skin conditions such as burns, wounds, and ulcers. It has also been studied for its potential use in treating cancer, as it can stimulate the growth of cancer cells. However, the use of EGF in cancer treatment is still controversial, as it can also promote the growth of normal cells.

GRB10 Adaptor Protein is a protein that plays a role in cell signaling pathways. It is encoded by the GRB10 gene and is found in humans and other mammals. The protein is a member of the Grb7 family of adaptor proteins, which are involved in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, and survival. GRB10 Adaptor Protein is thought to function by binding to signaling molecules, such as growth factor receptors, and transmitting signals from these molecules to the interior of the cell. It has been implicated in a number of diseases, including cancer, and is being studied as a potential therapeutic target.

Vanadates are compounds that contain the element vanadium. In the medical field, vanadates have been studied for their potential therapeutic effects on a variety of conditions, including diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. One of the most well-known vanadate compounds is vanadyl sulfate, which has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in people with type 2 diabetes. Vanadyl sulfate has also been studied for its potential to reduce body weight and improve lipid profiles in people with obesity. Other vanadate compounds that have been studied in the medical field include sodium metavanadate, which has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects, and vanadyl phosphate, which has been studied for its potential to improve bone health and reduce the risk of osteoporosis. It is important to note that while vanadates have shown promise in preclinical and clinical studies, more research is needed to fully understand their potential therapeutic effects and to determine the optimal dosages and treatment regimens for various medical conditions.

Tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA) is a synthetic compound that belongs to a class of chemicals called phorbol esters. It is a potent tumor promoter and has been used in research to study the mechanisms of cancer development and progression. TPA works by activating protein kinase C (PKC), a family of enzymes that play a key role in cell signaling and proliferation. When TPA binds to a specific receptor on the cell surface, it triggers a cascade of events that leads to the activation of PKC, which in turn promotes cell growth and division. TPA has been shown to promote the growth of tumors in animal models and has been linked to the development of certain types of cancer in humans, including skin cancer and breast cancer. It is also used in some experimental treatments for cancer, although its use is limited due to its potential toxicity and side effects.

Glucosamine is a naturally occurring amino sugar that is found in the shells of crustaceans and in the cartilage of animals. It is also synthesized in the human body from the amino acid glutamine and the sugar glucose. In the medical field, glucosamine is often used as a dietary supplement to support joint health and reduce the symptoms of osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease that affects millions of people worldwide. It is believed to work by stimulating the production of proteoglycans, which are essential components of cartilage that help to cushion and lubricate joints. There is some evidence to suggest that glucosamine may be effective in reducing joint pain and stiffness, improving joint function, and slowing the progression of osteoarthritis. However, more research is needed to confirm these effects and to determine the optimal dosage and duration of treatment. It is important to note that glucosamine supplements are not regulated by the FDA and may contain varying amounts of the active ingredient. Therefore, it is important to choose a high-quality supplement from a reputable manufacturer and to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen.

Intercellular signaling peptides and proteins are molecules that are secreted by cells and act as messengers to communicate with other cells. These molecules can be hormones, growth factors, cytokines, or other signaling molecules that are capable of transmitting information between cells. They play a crucial role in regulating various physiological processes, such as cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis, as well as immune responses and inflammation. In the medical field, understanding the function and regulation of intercellular signaling peptides and proteins is important for developing new treatments for various diseases and disorders, including cancer, autoimmune diseases, and neurological disorders.

Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear are proteins that are found within the cytoplasm and nucleus of cells. These receptors are responsible for binding to specific molecules, such as hormones or neurotransmitters, and triggering a response within the cell. This response can include changes in gene expression, enzyme activity, or other cellular processes. In the medical field, understanding the function and regulation of these receptors is important for understanding how cells respond to various stimuli and for developing treatments for a wide range of diseases.

Sirolimus is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called immunosuppressants. It is primarily used to prevent organ rejection in people who have received a kidney, liver, or heart transplant. Sirolimus works by inhibiting the growth of T-cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the immune response. By suppressing the immune system, sirolimus helps to prevent the body from attacking the transplanted organ as a foreign object. It is also used to treat certain types of cancer, such as lymphoma and renal cell carcinoma.

Nerve tissue proteins are proteins that are found in nerve cells, also known as neurons. These proteins play important roles in the structure and function of neurons, including the transmission of electrical signals along the length of the neuron and the communication between neurons. There are many different types of nerve tissue proteins, each with its own specific function. Some examples of nerve tissue proteins include neurofilaments, which provide structural support for the neuron; microtubules, which help to maintain the shape of the neuron and transport materials within the neuron; and neurofilament light chain, which is involved in the formation of neurofibrillary tangles, which are a hallmark of certain neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Nerve tissue proteins are important for the proper functioning of the nervous system and any disruption in their production or function can lead to neurological disorders.

KATP channels, also known as ATP-sensitive potassium channels, are ion channels found in the cell membrane of various types of cells, including pancreatic beta cells, cardiac muscle cells, and smooth muscle cells. These channels are sensitive to changes in the concentration of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), a molecule that serves as the primary energy source for cells. In pancreatic beta cells, KATP channels play a critical role in regulating insulin secretion. When blood glucose levels are high, ATP levels in the cell increase, causing the KATP channels to close and allowing more potassium ions to flow out of the cell. This depolarizes the cell membrane and triggers the release of insulin. In cardiac muscle cells, KATP channels help regulate the heart rate and contractility. When ATP levels in the cell are low, the KATP channels open, allowing potassium ions to flow into the cell and hyperpolarize the cell membrane. This slows down the heart rate and reduces contractility. In smooth muscle cells, KATP channels play a role in regulating blood vessel tone and gastrointestinal motility. When ATP levels in the cell are low, the KATP channels open, allowing potassium ions to flow into the cell and relax the smooth muscle. Overall, KATP channels are important regulators of various physiological processes and are the target of several drugs used to treat conditions such as diabetes, heart disease, and gastrointestinal disorders.

Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling (SOCS) proteins are a family of proteins that play a role in regulating the immune system and other signaling pathways in the body. They are induced by cytokines, which are signaling molecules that help regulate immune responses and other cellular processes. SOCS proteins function as negative regulators of cytokine signaling by binding to and inhibiting the activity of specific enzymes called Janus kinases (JAKs). JAKs are involved in the activation of cytokine receptors, which in turn activate downstream signaling pathways that regulate immune responses and other cellular processes. By inhibiting JAK activity, SOCS proteins help to dampen the effects of cytokines and prevent overactivation of immune responses. This is important for maintaining immune homeostasis and preventing autoimmune diseases, as well as for regulating other signaling pathways in the body. SOCS proteins have been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases. They are also being studied as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of these conditions.

Glucose transport proteins, also known as GLUTs or SGLTs, are a family of proteins that facilitate the transport of glucose across cell membranes. There are 14 different types of GLUTs, each with specific functions and tissue distributions. Facilitative glucose transport proteins are responsible for the majority of glucose uptake in most tissues, including muscle, liver, and adipose tissue. They are transmembrane proteins that span the cell membrane and use a facilitated diffusion mechanism to transport glucose from the extracellular fluid into the cell. GLUT1 is the most abundant glucose transporter in the body and is found in most tissues. It is responsible for the transport of glucose across the blood-brain barrier and is also important for the transport of glucose into cells during fasting or exercise. GLUT2 is found primarily in the liver, pancreas, and small intestine and is responsible for the transport of glucose from the bloodstream into these tissues. GLUT3 and GLUT4 are found primarily in muscle and adipose tissue and are responsible for the transport of glucose into these tissues during exercise or insulin stimulation. GLUT5 is found primarily in the small intestine and is responsible for the transport of fructose into the bloodstream. GLUT6 is found primarily in the liver and is involved in the regulation of glucose metabolism. GLUT7 is found primarily in the liver and is involved in the regulation of glucose metabolism. GLUT8 is found primarily in the brain and is involved in the regulation of glucose metabolism. GLUT9 is found primarily in the placenta and is involved in the transport of glucose across the placenta to the fetus. GLUT10 is found primarily in the brain and is involved in the regulation of glucose metabolism. GLUT11 is found primarily in the placenta and is involved in the transport of glucose across the placenta to the fetus. GLUT12 is found primarily in the liver and is involved in the regulation of glucose metabolism. GLUT13 is found primarily in the placenta and is involved in the transport of glucose across the placenta to the fetus. GLUT14 is found primarily in the liver and is involved in the regulation of glucose metabolism.

Protein isoforms refer to different forms of a protein that are produced by alternative splicing of the same gene. Alternative splicing is a process by which different combinations of exons (coding regions) are selected from the pre-mRNA transcript of a gene, resulting in the production of different protein isoforms with slightly different amino acid sequences. Protein isoforms can have different functions, localization, and stability, and can play distinct roles in cellular processes. For example, the same gene may produce a protein isoform that is expressed in the nucleus and another isoform that is expressed in the cytoplasm. Alternatively, different isoforms of the same protein may have different substrate specificity or binding affinity for other molecules. Dysregulation of alternative splicing can lead to the production of abnormal protein isoforms, which can contribute to the development of various diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of alternative splicing and the functional consequences of protein isoforms is an important area of research in the medical field.

Membrane proteins are proteins that are embedded within the lipid bilayer of a cell membrane. They play a crucial role in regulating the movement of substances across the membrane, as well as in cell signaling and communication. There are several types of membrane proteins, including integral membrane proteins, which span the entire membrane, and peripheral membrane proteins, which are only in contact with one or both sides of the membrane. Membrane proteins can be classified based on their function, such as transporters, receptors, channels, and enzymes. They are important for many physiological processes, including nutrient uptake, waste elimination, and cell growth and division.

Isoproterenol is a synthetic beta-adrenergic agonist that is used in the medical field as a medication. It is a drug that mimics the effects of adrenaline (epinephrine) and can be used to treat a variety of conditions, including asthma, heart failure, and bradycardia (a slow heart rate). Isoproterenol works by binding to beta-adrenergic receptors on the surface of cells, which triggers a cascade of events that can lead to increased heart rate, relaxation of smooth muscle, and dilation of blood vessels. This can help to improve blood flow and oxygen delivery to the body's tissues, and can also help to reduce inflammation and bronchoconstriction (narrowing of the airways). Isoproterenol is available in a variety of forms, including tablets, inhalers, and intravenous solutions. It is typically administered as a short-acting medication, although longer-acting formulations are also available. Side effects of isoproterenol can include tremors, palpitations, and increased heart rate, and the drug may interact with other medications that affect the heart or blood vessels.

In the medical field, ketones are organic compounds that are produced when the body breaks down fatty acids for energy. They are typically produced in the liver and are released into the bloodstream as a result of starvation, diabetes, or other conditions that cause the body to use fat as its primary source of energy. Ketones are often measured in the blood or urine as a way to diagnose and monitor certain medical conditions, such as diabetes or ketoacidosis. High levels of ketones in the blood or urine can indicate that the body is not getting enough insulin or is not using glucose effectively, which can be a sign of diabetes or other metabolic disorders. In some cases, ketones may be used as a treatment for certain medical conditions, such as epilepsy or cancer. They may also be used as a source of energy for people who are unable to consume carbohydrates due to certain medical conditions or dietary restrictions.

Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) are a family of proteins that bind to insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and regulate their activity. There are six different IGFBPs, each with a distinct structure and function. IGFBPs play an important role in regulating cell growth, differentiation, and survival. They can either enhance or inhibit the effects of IGFs, depending on the specific IGFBP and the cellular context. In the medical field, IGFBPs have been studied in relation to various diseases, including cancer, osteoporosis, and diabetes. For example, some studies have suggested that altered levels of IGFBPs may be involved in the development and progression of certain types of cancer. Additionally, IGFBPs have been investigated as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of these diseases.

Obesity, abdominal, also known as central obesity, is a medical condition characterized by an excessive accumulation of fat in the abdominal region. It is defined as having a waist circumference of 102 cm (40 inches) or more in men and 88 cm (35 inches) or more in women, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Abdominal obesity is associated with an increased risk of various health problems, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure, stroke, and certain types of cancer. It is also linked to an increased risk of metabolic syndrome, a cluster of conditions that increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. Treatment for abdominal obesity typically involves lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet and regular exercise, as well as medication or surgery in severe cases.

Potassium is a mineral that is essential for the proper functioning of many bodily processes. It is the most abundant positively charged ion in the body and plays a crucial role in maintaining fluid balance, regulating muscle contractions, transmitting nerve impulses, and supporting the proper functioning of the heart. In the medical field, potassium is often measured in blood tests to assess its levels and determine if they are within the normal range. Abnormal potassium levels can be caused by a variety of factors, including certain medications, kidney disease, hormonal imbalances, and certain medical conditions such as Addison's disease or hyperaldosteronism. Low levels of potassium (hypokalemia) can cause muscle weakness, cramps, and arrhythmias, while high levels (hyperkalemia) can lead to cardiac arrhythmias, muscle weakness, and even cardiac arrest. Treatment for potassium imbalances typically involves adjusting the patient's diet or administering medications to correct the imbalance.

Chlorpropamide is an oral antidiabetic medication that belongs to a class of drugs called sulfonylureas. It works by stimulating the release of insulin from the pancreas, which helps to lower blood sugar levels in people with type 2 diabetes. Chlorpropamide is typically used in combination with diet and exercise to manage blood sugar levels in people with type 2 diabetes who are not able to control their blood sugar levels with diet and exercise alone. It may also be used to treat certain types of diabetes that are caused by the pancreas not producing enough insulin. Chlorpropamide can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and low blood sugar levels. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider when taking chlorpropamide and to monitor blood sugar levels regularly.

In the medical field, starch refers to a type of carbohydrate that is found in plants, particularly in grains such as wheat, corn, and potatoes. Starch is a complex carbohydrate that is made up of long chains of glucose molecules. Starch is an important source of energy for the body and is broken down into glucose during digestion. It is also used in the production of various medical products, such as intravenous fluids, medications, and medical devices. In some cases, starch may be used as a thickening agent in medical products, such as eye drops or nasal sprays. It can also be used as a filler in certain medications to help with their texture or consistency. However, it is important to note that not all starches are created equal. Some types of starch, such as amylose, are more easily digested than others, such as amylopectin. Additionally, some people may have difficulty digesting certain types of starches, which can lead to digestive issues such as bloating or diarrhea.

Acetoacetates are a group of organic compounds that contain the functional group -COOCH3. They are formed as intermediates in the metabolism of fatty acids and are involved in the production of ketone bodies, which are used as a source of energy by the liver and other tissues in the body. In the medical field, acetoacetates are often used as a diagnostic tool to measure the body's ability to produce ketone bodies, which can be an indicator of certain medical conditions such as diabetes, liver disease, and certain types of cancer. They are also used as a precursor in the synthesis of other compounds, such as acetoacetic esters, which have applications in the pharmaceutical industry.

In the medical field, macromolecular substances refer to large molecules that are composed of repeating units, such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids. These molecules are essential for many biological processes, including cell signaling, metabolism, and structural support. Macromolecular substances are typically composed of thousands or even millions of atoms, and they can range in size from a few nanometers to several micrometers. They are often found in the form of fibers, sheets, or other complex structures, and they can be found in a variety of biological tissues and fluids. Examples of macromolecular substances in the medical field include: - Proteins: These are large molecules composed of amino acids that are involved in a wide range of biological functions, including enzyme catalysis, structural support, and immune response. - Carbohydrates: These are molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms that are involved in energy storage, cell signaling, and structural support. - Lipids: These are molecules composed of fatty acids and glycerol that are involved in energy storage, cell membrane structure, and signaling. - Nucleic acids: These are molecules composed of nucleotides that are involved in genetic information storage and transfer. Macromolecular substances are important for many medical applications, including drug delivery, tissue engineering, and gene therapy. Understanding the structure and function of these molecules is essential for developing new treatments and therapies for a wide range of diseases and conditions.

Potassium chloride is a medication used to treat low potassium levels in the blood (hypokalemia). It is also used to treat certain heart rhythm problems and to help manage certain types of heart failure. Potassium chloride is available as a tablet, oral solution, and injection. It is usually taken by mouth, but can also be given intravenously (into a vein) or by injection into a muscle. Potassium chloride is a salt that contains potassium, which is an important mineral that helps regulate the heartbeat and maintain proper muscle and nerve function. It is important to follow the instructions of your healthcare provider when taking potassium chloride, as high levels of potassium in the blood can be dangerous.

In the medical field, fats are a type of macronutrient that are essential for the body to function properly. Fats are made up of fatty acids and glycerol and are found in a variety of foods, including meats, dairy products, nuts, and oils. Fats play several important roles in the body, including providing energy, insulation for the body, protecting vital organs, and helping to absorb certain vitamins. The body can break down fats into smaller molecules called fatty acids, which can be used as a source of energy. However, excessive consumption of certain types of fats, such as saturated and trans fats, can increase the risk of certain health problems, including heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, it is important to consume fats in moderation and choose healthy sources of fats, such as monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats found in nuts, seeds, and fatty fish.

Nitric oxide (NO) is a colorless, odorless gas that is produced naturally in the body by various cells, including endothelial cells in the lining of blood vessels. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of blood flow and blood pressure, as well as in the immune response and neurotransmission. In the medical field, NO is often studied in relation to cardiovascular disease, as it is involved in the regulation of blood vessel dilation and constriction. It has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of various conditions, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, and heart failure. NO is also used in medical treatments, such as in the treatment of erectile dysfunction, where it is used to enhance blood flow to the penis. It is also used in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension, where it helps to relax blood vessels in the lungs and improve blood flow. Overall, NO is a critical molecule in the body that plays a vital role in many physiological processes, and its study and manipulation have important implications for the treatment of various medical conditions.

Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin (SHBG) is a protein produced by the liver that binds to sex hormones such as testosterone and estradiol in the bloodstream. SHBG helps regulate the levels of these hormones in the body by controlling their availability for use by target tissues. SHBG is a type of glycoprotein that has a high affinity for sex hormones, particularly testosterone. It can bind up to 98% of the circulating testosterone in the bloodstream, making it the primary carrier of testosterone in the body. SHBG also binds to estradiol, but to a lesser extent. The concentration of SHBG in the blood is influenced by a variety of factors, including age, sex, body weight, and hormonal status. For example, SHBG levels tend to be higher in women than in men, and they increase during pregnancy and menopause. SHBG levels can also be affected by certain medications, such as oral contraceptives and anti-androgens. In the medical field, SHBG levels are often measured as part of routine hormone testing, particularly in cases of hormonal imbalances or disorders. Abnormal levels of SHBG can indicate underlying health conditions, such as liver disease, hyperthyroidism, or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Additionally, SHBG levels can be used as a biomarker for assessing the effectiveness of hormone therapy in conditions such as prostate cancer and breast cancer.

PPAR alpha, also known as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, is a type of nuclear receptor protein that plays a crucial role in regulating lipid metabolism and glucose homeostasis in the body. It is activated by various ligands, including fatty acids and their derivatives, and regulates the expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation, lipogenesis, and glucose uptake and utilization. In the medical field, PPAR alpha is of particular interest in the treatment of metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Activation of PPAR alpha has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity, reduce triglyceride levels, and increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels, which are all important factors in the prevention and treatment of these conditions. Additionally, PPAR alpha agonists have been used as therapeutic agents in the treatment of these disorders, although their long-term safety and efficacy are still being studied.

Oleic acid is a monounsaturated fatty acid that is commonly found in plant oils, such as olive oil, sunflower oil, and canola oil. It is a liquid at room temperature and has a melting point of 13.4°C (56.1°F). In the medical field, oleic acid is used in a variety of applications. One of its most common uses is as a lubricant for medical instruments and procedures, such as colonoscopies and endoscopies. It is also used as a component in some medications, such as oral contraceptives and topical creams. Oleic acid has anti-inflammatory properties and has been studied for its potential therapeutic effects in a variety of conditions, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. It may also have potential as a natural preservative in food products. However, it is important to note that while oleic acid has some potential health benefits, it is also a type of fat and should be consumed in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

Receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatases, class 8 (PTPRC8) are a group of proteins that are involved in cell signaling and have been identified as potential therapeutic targets for various diseases. These proteins are characterized by their ability to remove phosphate groups from tyrosine residues on other proteins, which can regulate their activity and function. PTPRC8 proteins are expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types, including immune cells, neurons, and epithelial cells. They have been implicated in a number of biological processes, including cell adhesion, migration, and differentiation, as well as in the regulation of the immune response. In the medical field, PTPRC8 proteins have been studied in the context of various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases. For example, some studies have suggested that PTPRC8 may play a role in the development and progression of certain types of cancer, such as breast cancer and leukemia. Other research has suggested that PTPRC8 may be involved in the regulation of the immune response to infections, such as those caused by viruses and bacteria. Overall, PTPRC8 proteins are an important area of research in the medical field, as they have the potential to play a role in the development and treatment of a variety of diseases.

The Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex (PDC) is a multi-enzyme complex that plays a critical role in cellular metabolism. It is located in the mitochondrial matrix and is responsible for converting pyruvate, a three-carbon compound produced during glycolysis, into acetyl-CoA, a two-carbon compound that enters the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle or TCA cycle). The PDC is composed of five enzymes: pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1), dihydrolipoyl transacetylase (E2), dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (E3), and three accessory enzymes: dihydrolipoyl succinyltransferase (E4), dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (E3), and lipoamide synthase (E3). Together, these enzymes work in a coordinated manner to catalyze the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate, the transfer of the acetyl group to CoA, and the regeneration of the lipoyl groups that are essential for the activity of the complex. The PDC is a key regulatory enzyme in cellular metabolism, as its activity is tightly controlled by a variety of factors, including the levels of ATP, NADH, and acetyl-CoA. In addition, the PDC is a target for several drugs and toxins, including dichloroacetate, which is used to treat lactic acidosis, and certain organophosphate insecticides, which can inhibit the activity of the complex.

Sucrose is a disaccharide sugar that is commonly found in many foods and beverages, including fruits, vegetables, and sweetened beverages. In the medical field, sucrose is often used as a source of energy for patients who are unable to consume other sources of calories, such as solid foods. It is also used as a diagnostic tool in medical testing, such as in the measurement of blood glucose levels in people with diabetes. In some cases, sucrose may be used as a medication to treat certain medical conditions, such as low blood sugar levels. However, it is important to note that excessive consumption of sucrose can lead to weight gain and other health problems, so it should be consumed in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

Chloroquine is an antimalarial drug that was first discovered in the 1930s. It is a synthetic derivative of quinine, a natural alkaloid found in the bark of the cinchona tree. Chloroquine is used to treat and prevent malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, and other species of Plasmodium. Chloroquine works by inhibiting the growth and reproduction of the Plasmodium parasite within red blood cells. It does this by interfering with the parasite's ability to synthesize heme, a vital component of hemoglobin, which is necessary for the survival of the parasite. Chloroquine is also used to treat autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. It works by suppressing the immune system's response to foreign substances, reducing inflammation and pain. Chloroquine is available in tablet form and is usually taken orally. It can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, headache, and dizziness. Long-term use of chloroquine can also cause retinopathy, a condition that affects the eyes and can lead to vision loss.

Diabetes Mellitus, Lipoatrophic is a type of diabetes that is characterized by the absence or reduction of fat cells in certain areas of the body, particularly in the buttocks, hips, and thighs. This condition is also known as lipodystrophy and is often associated with insulin resistance and impaired glucose metabolism. Lipoatrophic diabetes is a rare form of diabetes that affects both children and adults. It is often associated with other medical conditions, such as acromegaly, Cushing's syndrome, and hypothyroidism. The exact cause of lipoatrophic diabetes is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to genetic factors and hormonal imbalances. The symptoms of lipoatrophic diabetes may include weight loss, fatigue, muscle weakness, and difficulty regulating blood sugar levels. Treatment typically involves insulin therapy and lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet and regular exercise. In some cases, medications may also be prescribed to help manage blood sugar levels and prevent complications.

Bucladesine is a medication that is used to treat certain types of cancer, including lung cancer and pancreatic cancer. It works by slowing the growth of cancer cells and preventing them from dividing and multiplying. Bucladesine is usually given as an injection into a vein, and it is typically administered in a hospital setting. It is important to note that bucladesine is not a cure for cancer, but it can help to slow the progression of the disease and improve the quality of life for people who are living with cancer.

Hexoses are a type of monosaccharide, which is a simple sugar consisting of six carbon atoms. They are one of the two main types of sugars found in nature, the other being pentoses, which have five carbon atoms. In the medical field, hexoses are important because they are the building blocks of many complex carbohydrates, such as starches and glycogen, which are used by the body for energy. They are also important components of many biological molecules, such as DNA and RNA. Hexoses are classified based on the position of the hydroxyl group (OH) on the carbon atoms. The most common hexoses are glucose, fructose, and galactose, which are found in many foods and are important sources of energy for the body. Other hexoses, such as mannose and xylose, are found in specific types of carbohydrates and may have specific functions in the body.

Autoantibodies are antibodies that are produced by the immune system against the body's own cells, tissues, or organs. In other words, they are antibodies that mistakenly target and attack the body's own components instead of foreign invaders like viruses or bacteria. Autoantibodies can be present in people with various medical conditions, including autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and multiple sclerosis. They can also be found in people with certain infections, cancer, and other diseases. Autoantibodies can cause damage to the body's own cells, tissues, or organs, leading to inflammation, tissue destruction, and other symptoms. They can also interfere with the normal functioning of the body's systems, such as the nervous system, digestive system, and cardiovascular system. Diagnosis of autoantibodies is typically done through blood tests, which can detect the presence of specific autoantibodies in the blood. Treatment for autoimmune diseases that involve autoantibodies may include medications to suppress the immune system, such as corticosteroids or immunosuppressants, as well as other therapies to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of fatty acids in the body. It is responsible for converting stearoyl-CoA, a saturated fatty acid, into oleoyl-CoA, a monounsaturated fatty acid. This process is known as desaturation, and it involves the addition of a double bond to the carbon chain of the fatty acid. SCD is primarily found in the liver, adipose tissue, and mammary glands, and it is involved in the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids, which are important for the production of cholesterol and other lipids. In addition, SCD has been implicated in the development of obesity, insulin resistance, and other metabolic disorders. In the medical field, SCD is often studied as a potential target for the treatment of these conditions. For example, drugs that inhibit SCD activity have been shown to reduce body weight and improve insulin sensitivity in animal models of obesity and diabetes. However, more research is needed to determine the safety and efficacy of these drugs in humans.

In the medical field, deoxy sugars are a type of sugar molecule that lack a hydroxyl (-OH) group at the 2' carbon position. This group is replaced by an aldehyde or ketone group, which gives deoxy sugars their characteristic properties. Deoxy sugars are important components of DNA and RNA, where they serve as the backbone of the nucleic acid chain. They are also found in other biological molecules, such as glycoproteins and glycolipids, where they play a role in cell signaling and recognition. Deoxy sugars are often used in medical research and drug development as building blocks for the synthesis of complex molecules.

Theophylline is a medication that is used to treat a variety of respiratory conditions, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and bronchitis. It works by relaxing the muscles in the airways, making it easier to breathe. Theophylline is available in both oral and inhaled forms, and it is usually taken on a regular basis to prevent symptoms from occurring. It is important to note that theophylline can have side effects, including nausea, vomiting, and an irregular heartbeat, and it should only be taken under the supervision of a healthcare provider.

GRB2 (growth factor receptor-bound protein 2) adaptor protein is a protein that plays a role in cell signaling pathways. It is a member of the Grb2 family of adaptor proteins, which are involved in the transmission of signals from cell surface receptors to intracellular signaling pathways. GRB2 is activated by the binding of growth factors or other signaling molecules to cell surface receptors, and it then interacts with other proteins to transmit the signal to downstream signaling pathways. GRB2 is involved in a variety of cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration. It has been implicated in the development of certain types of cancer, and it is a target for cancer therapy.

GTPase-Activating Proteins (GAPs) are a family of enzymes that regulate the activity of small GTPases, which are a class of proteins that play important roles in cell signaling and regulation. GTPases cycle between an active, GTP-bound state and an inactive, GDP-bound state, and GAPs accelerate the rate of this cycling by promoting the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP. In the medical field, GAPs are of interest because many small GTPases are involved in cellular processes that are important for human health, such as cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Mutations or dysregulation of small GTPases or their regulators, including GAPs, have been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disorders. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of GAPs and other small GTPases is an important area of research in medicine.

Prolactin is a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland in the brain. It plays a crucial role in the development and function of the mammary glands in both males and females, but it is particularly important for lactation in females. In females, prolactin stimulates the production of milk in the mammary glands after childbirth. It also plays a role in regulating the menstrual cycle and fertility. In males, prolactin helps to regulate the production of sperm and testosterone. Prolactin levels can be affected by a variety of factors, including stress, sleep, and certain medications. Abnormal levels of prolactin can lead to a condition called hyperprolactinemia, which can cause a range of symptoms including breast tenderness, infertility, and sexual dysfunction.

Hexosamines are a type of sugar molecule that are found in the human body. They are composed of a hexose (a sugar with six carbon atoms) and an amine group. Hexosamines are important components of the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) molecules that are found in the extracellular matrix of connective tissue. GAGs are complex carbohydrates that play a variety of roles in the body, including providing structural support to tissues, regulating cell signaling, and participating in the immune response. Hexosamines are also found in other types of molecules, such as glycoproteins and proteoglycans. In the medical field, hexosamines are of interest because they have been implicated in a number of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and inflammatory disorders.

Threonine is an essential amino acid that plays a crucial role in various biological processes in the human body. It is a polar amino acid with a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to the alpha carbon atom, which makes it hydrophilic and capable of forming hydrogen bonds. In the medical field, threonine is important for several reasons. Firstly, it is a building block of proteins, which are essential for the structure and function of cells and tissues in the body. Secondly, threonine is involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids, which are important sources of energy for the body. Thirdly, threonine is a precursor for the synthesis of several important molecules, including carnitine, which plays a role in the metabolism of fatty acids. Threonine deficiency can lead to a range of health problems, including muscle wasting, impaired growth and development, and weakened immune function. It is therefore important to ensure that the body receives adequate amounts of threonine through a balanced diet or supplements.

Lipoproteins are complex particles that consist of a lipid core surrounded by a protein shell. They are responsible for transporting lipids, such as cholesterol and triglycerides, throughout the bloodstream. There are several types of lipoproteins, including low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL). LDL, often referred to as "bad cholesterol," carries cholesterol from the liver to the rest of the body. When there is too much LDL in the bloodstream, it can build up in the walls of arteries, leading to the formation of plaques that can cause heart disease and stroke. HDL, often referred to as "good cholesterol," helps remove excess cholesterol from the bloodstream and transport it back to the liver for processing and elimination. High levels of HDL are generally considered protective against heart disease. VLDL and IDL are intermediate lipoproteins that are produced by the liver and transport triglycerides to other parts of the body. VLDL is converted to IDL, which is then converted to LDL. Lipoprotein levels can be measured through blood tests, and their levels are often used as a diagnostic tool for assessing cardiovascular risk.

Potassium channels are a type of ion channel found in the cell membrane of many types of cells, including neurons, muscle cells, and epithelial cells. These channels are responsible for regulating the flow of potassium ions (K+) in and out of the cell, which is important for maintaining the cell's resting membrane potential and controlling the generation and propagation of electrical signals in the cell. Potassium channels are classified into several different types based on their biophysical properties, such as their voltage sensitivity, pharmacology, and gating mechanisms. Some of the most well-known types of potassium channels include voltage-gated potassium channels, inwardly rectifying potassium channels, and leak potassium channels. In the medical field, potassium channels play a critical role in many physiological processes, including muscle contraction, neurotransmission, and regulation of blood pressure. Abnormalities in potassium channel function can lead to a variety of diseases and disorders, such as epilepsy, hypertension, and cardiac arrhythmias. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of potassium channels is important for developing new treatments for these conditions.

Soybean oil is a vegetable oil that is extracted from soybeans. It is commonly used in the production of margarine, cooking oil, and biodiesel. In the medical field, soybean oil is sometimes used as a carrier oil for topical applications, such as creams and ointments. It is also sometimes used as a source of fat in parenteral nutrition solutions for people who are unable to consume food by mouth. Soybean oil is a good source of vitamin E and contains no cholesterol. However, it is also high in polyunsaturated fatty acids, which can be converted to arachidonic acid in the body and may contribute to the development of certain inflammatory conditions.

Glipizide is a medication used to treat type 2 diabetes. It belongs to a class of drugs called sulfonylureas, which work by stimulating the pancreas to produce more insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps the body use glucose (sugar) for energy. Glipizide is typically taken once or twice a day, with or without food. It can be used alone or in combination with other diabetes medications. Common side effects of glipizide include nausea, headache, and low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). It is important to monitor blood sugar levels regularly when taking glipizide and to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider.

Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are a family of small, cytoplasmic proteins that bind to long-chain fatty acids and other hydrophobic molecules. They are found in a variety of tissues, including adipose tissue, muscle, liver, and brain, and play important roles in the transport and metabolism of fatty acids. FABPs are thought to function by shuttling fatty acids between intracellular compartments and the plasma membrane, where they can be used for energy production or other metabolic processes. They may also play a role in the regulation of gene expression and the development of certain diseases, such as obesity and diabetes. There are several different types of FABPs, each with its own specific properties and functions. Some FABPs are expressed in a tissue-specific manner, while others are more widely distributed. Overall, FABPs are an important class of proteins that play a critical role in the metabolism of fatty acids and other lipids in the body.

Pyruvates are organic compounds that are produced during the metabolism of carbohydrates in the body. They are the end product of glycolysis, the first stage of cellular respiration, which occurs in the cytoplasm of cells. In the medical field, pyruvates are often used as a source of energy for cells. They can be converted into acetyl-CoA, which enters the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle or TCA cycle) and is further metabolized to produce ATP, the primary energy currency of the cell. Pyruvates are also used in the production of certain amino acids, such as alanine and glutamate, and in the synthesis of other important molecules, such as lipids and nucleotides. In some cases, pyruvates can also be converted into lactic acid, which can accumulate in the muscles during periods of intense exercise and contribute to muscle fatigue. This process is known as anaerobic glycolysis. Overall, pyruvates play a critical role in the metabolism of carbohydrates and the production of energy in the body.

RNA, or ribonucleic acid, is a type of nucleic acid that is involved in the process of protein synthesis in cells. It is composed of a chain of nucleotides, which are made up of a sugar molecule, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. There are three types of RNA: messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). In the medical field, RNA is often studied as a potential target for the development of new drugs and therapies. For example, some researchers are exploring the use of RNA interference (RNAi) to silence specific genes and treat diseases such as cancer and viral infections. Additionally, RNA is being studied as a potential biomarker for various diseases, as changes in the levels or structure of certain RNA molecules can indicate the presence of a particular condition.

In the medical field, "Burns" refer to damage to the skin and other tissues caused by heat, electricity, chemicals, radiation, or friction. Burns can be classified into three categories based on the severity of the damage: 1. First-degree burns: These are the mildest type of burns and affect only the outer layer of the skin (epidermis). They may appear red, painful, and slightly swollen, but usually heal on their own within a few days. 2. Second-degree burns: These burns penetrate the epidermis and affect the underlying layer of skin (dermis). They may appear white, moist, and painful, and may blister. Second-degree burns can take several weeks to heal, and may leave scars. 3. Third-degree burns: These are the most severe type of burns and affect all layers of the skin, as well as underlying tissues such as fat, muscle, and bone. Third-degree burns appear white or black, are painless at first, and may require surgery and skin grafts to heal. They can also lead to serious complications such as infection, shock, and organ damage. Burns can also be classified based on the cause, such as thermal burns (caused by heat), chemical burns (caused by chemicals), electrical burns (caused by electricity), and radiation burns (caused by radiation). Treatment for burns depends on the severity and type of burn, and may include wound care, pain management, antibiotics, and surgery.

Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) is an enzyme that plays a critical role in the production of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a neurotransmitter that inhibits the activity of neurons in the central nervous system. GABA is involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including muscle relaxation, anxiety reduction, and sleep regulation. In the medical field, GAD is primarily studied in the context of neurological disorders, particularly those that involve an imbalance in GABA levels. For example, GAD deficiency has been implicated in the development of certain forms of epilepsy, while excessive GABA activity has been linked to anxiety disorders and depression. GAD is also a target for drug development in the treatment of these conditions. For example, medications that increase GABA levels in the brain, such as benzodiazepines, are commonly used to treat anxiety and insomnia. Additionally, drugs that target GAD directly, such as GABA agonists or antagonists, are being investigated as potential treatments for a variety of neurological disorders.

Glutamine is an amino acid that plays a crucial role in various physiological processes in the body. It is one of the most abundant amino acids in the human body and is involved in a wide range of functions, including: 1. Energy production: Glutamine is a major source of fuel for cells in the body, particularly in the muscles and immune system. 2. Protein synthesis: Glutamine is a key building block for proteins and is essential for the growth and repair of tissues. 3. Immune function: Glutamine plays a critical role in the function of the immune system, particularly in the production of white blood cells. 4. Gut health: Glutamine is important for maintaining the health of the gut lining and preventing damage to the gut. In the medical field, glutamine is often used as a supplement to support various health conditions, including: 1. Wound healing: Glutamine has been shown to promote wound healing and reduce the risk of infection. 2. Cancer treatment: Glutamine supplementation may help to reduce the side effects of cancer treatment, such as fatigue and muscle wasting. 3. Immune system support: Glutamine supplementation may help to boost the immune system and reduce the risk of infections. 4. Digestive disorders: Glutamine may be helpful in treating digestive disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome. Overall, glutamine is an important nutrient that plays a crucial role in many physiological processes in the body and may be beneficial in supporting various health conditions.

Colforsin is a synthetic decapeptide that mimics the action of adenosine, a naturally occurring molecule that plays a role in regulating various physiological processes in the body. It is used in the medical field as a bronchodilator, which means it helps to relax and widen the airways in the lungs, making it easier to breathe. Colforsin is typically administered as an aerosol or nebulizer solution and is used to treat conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and bronchitis. It works by activating adenosine receptors in the lungs, which leads to the release of calcium from the cells lining the airways, causing them to relax and open up.

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) is a family of enzymes that play a crucial role in cellular signaling pathways. PI3Ks are involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell growth, proliferation, survival, migration, and metabolism. In the medical field, PI3Ks are of particular interest because they are often dysregulated in various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. In cancer, for example, mutations in PI3K genes or overexpression of PI3K enzymes can lead to uncontrolled cell growth and proliferation, contributing to tumor development and progression. Therefore, PI3K inhibitors are being developed as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of various cancers. These inhibitors target the activity of PI3K enzymes, thereby disrupting the signaling pathways that promote cancer cell growth and survival. Additionally, PI3K inhibitors are also being investigated for their potential to treat other diseases, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3 (IGFBP-3) is a protein that plays a crucial role in regulating the growth and development of cells in the body. It is produced by various tissues, including the liver, muscle, and bone, and is secreted into the bloodstream. IGFBP-3 binds to insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), which are hormones that stimulate cell growth and division. By binding to IGFs, IGFBP-3 regulates their activity and helps to control the growth and development of cells. In addition to its role in cell growth and development, IGFBP-3 has been implicated in a number of other physiological processes, including bone metabolism, glucose metabolism, and immune function. It has also been studied in relation to a number of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and osteoporosis. Overall, IGFBP-3 is an important protein that plays a critical role in regulating cell growth and development, and its function is closely tied to a number of other physiological processes in the body.

Very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) are a type of lipoprotein that are produced in the liver and are responsible for transporting triglycerides (fats) from the liver to other tissues in the body. VLDL particles are composed of a core of triglycerides surrounded by a layer of phospholipids and proteins, including apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100). VLDL particles are formed in the liver when excess triglycerides are packaged into lipoprotein particles. The liver releases VLDL particles into the bloodstream, where they are taken up by cells in the liver, muscles, and other tissues. As the VLDL particles deliver their triglyceride cargo to these tissues, they are broken down and the triglycerides are used for energy or stored as fat. Elevated levels of VLDL in the blood, known as hypertriglyceridemia, can increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. This is because high levels of VLDL can lead to the formation of fatty deposits (plaques) in the arteries, which can narrow the arteries and reduce blood flow to the heart and brain.

Amino acids, branched-chain, are a group of three essential amino acids that are commonly found in high-protein foods such as meat, dairy products, and eggs. These amino acids are called leucine, isoleucine, and valine, and they are known for their branched chemical structures. In the medical field, amino acids, branched-chain, are often used as supplements to help individuals meet their daily protein needs, especially those who are unable to consume enough protein through their diet. They are also used to treat certain medical conditions, such as liver disease, where the body is unable to produce enough of these essential amino acids. In addition, amino acids, branched-chain, have been shown to have various health benefits, including improving muscle mass and strength, enhancing athletic performance, and reducing the risk of certain diseases, such as type 2 diabetes and obesity. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential health benefits of these amino acids.

In the medical field, "DNA, Complementary" refers to the property of DNA molecules to pair up with each other in a specific way. Each strand of DNA has a unique sequence of nucleotides (adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine), and the nucleotides on one strand can only pair up with specific nucleotides on the other strand in a complementary manner. For example, adenine (A) always pairs up with thymine (T), and guanine (G) always pairs up with cytosine (C). This complementary pairing is essential for DNA replication and transcription, as it ensures that the genetic information encoded in one strand of DNA can be accurately copied onto a new strand. The complementary nature of DNA also plays a crucial role in genetic engineering and biotechnology, as scientists can use complementary DNA strands to create specific genetic sequences or modify existing ones.

Aminoimidazole Carboxamide (AICAR) is a compound that has been studied for its potential therapeutic effects in various medical conditions, including diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. It is a synthetic analog of the naturally occurring compound adenosine monophosphate (AMP), which plays a key role in regulating cellular energy metabolism. AICAR works by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a cellular enzyme that plays a central role in regulating energy metabolism and maintaining cellular homeostasis. Activation of AMPK leads to increased fatty acid oxidation, glucose uptake, and energy production, while reducing glucose production and fatty acid synthesis. These effects have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity, reduce body weight, and improve cardiovascular function in animal models of diabetes and obesity. AICAR has been studied in clinical trials for its potential therapeutic effects in type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. While some studies have shown promising results, more research is needed to fully understand its potential benefits and risks in humans.

Estradiol is a naturally occurring hormone that is produced by the ovaries in females and by the testes in males. It is a type of estrogen, which is a group of hormones that play a key role in the development and regulation of the female reproductive system, as well as in the maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics in both males and females. Estradiol is a potent estrogen and is one of the most biologically active forms of estrogen in the body. It is involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including the regulation of the menstrual cycle, the development of female sexual characteristics, and the maintenance of bone density. Estradiol also plays a role in the regulation of the cardiovascular system, the brain, and the immune system. Estradiol is used in medicine to treat a variety of conditions, including menopause, osteoporosis, and certain types of breast cancer. It is available in a variety of forms, including tablets, patches, and gels, and is typically administered by mouth or applied to the skin. It is important to note that estradiol can have side effects, and its use should be carefully monitored by a healthcare provider.

Gastrointestinal hormones are chemical messengers produced by cells in the lining of the gastrointestinal tract that regulate various functions of the digestive system, including appetite, digestion, and absorption of nutrients. These hormones are secreted in response to various stimuli, such as the presence of food in the stomach or the stretching of the gut wall. Some examples of gastrointestinal hormones include gastrin, secretin, cholecystokinin, and ghrelin. Gastrin stimulates the production of stomach acid and the release of digestive enzymes, while secretin and cholecystokinin help regulate the release of bile from the liver and the movement of food through the digestive tract. Ghrelin, on the other hand, is involved in regulating appetite and energy balance. Gastrointestinal hormones play a crucial role in maintaining the normal functioning of the digestive system and are often studied in the context of various digestive disorders, such as gastrointestinal ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease, and obesity.

Receptors, Gastrointestinal Hormone are proteins found on the surface of cells in the gastrointestinal tract that bind to specific hormones produced by the gut. These hormones, also known as gastrointestinal hormones, play important roles in regulating various bodily functions, including digestion, metabolism, and appetite. When a hormone binds to its receptor, it triggers a series of chemical reactions within the cell that ultimately lead to a specific physiological response. Examples of gastrointestinal hormones include gastrin, secretin, and cholecystokinin, which are involved in regulating the production and release of digestive enzymes and acids. Understanding the function and regulation of these receptors and hormones is important for the development of treatments for various gastrointestinal disorders.

Tritium is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen with the atomic number 3 and the symbol T. It is a beta emitter with a half-life of approximately 12.3 years. In the medical field, tritium is used in a variety of applications, including: 1. Medical imaging: Tritium is used in nuclear medicine to label molecules and track their movement within the body. For example, tritium can be used to label antibodies, which can then be injected into the body to track the movement of specific cells or tissues. 2. Radiation therapy: Tritium is used in radiation therapy to treat certain types of cancer. It is typically combined with other isotopes, such as carbon-14 or phosphorus-32, to create a radioactive tracer that can be injected into the body and targeted to specific areas of cancerous tissue. 3. Research: Tritium is also used in research to study the behavior of molecules and cells. For example, tritium can be used to label DNA, which can then be used to study the process of DNA replication and repair. It is important to note that tritium is a highly radioactive isotope and requires careful handling to minimize the risk of exposure to radiation.

Acarbose is a medication used to treat type 2 diabetes. It works by slowing down the digestion of carbohydrates in the stomach and small intestine, which helps to lower blood sugar levels. Acarbose is typically taken before meals and is usually prescribed in combination with other diabetes medications or insulin. It may cause side effects such as bloating, gas, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.

Proglucagon is a hormone precursor that is synthesized and secreted by the alpha cells of the pancreas. It is a 76-amino acid polypeptide that is cleaved by proteases to form several different hormones, including glucagon, amylin, and glicentin. Glucagon is a hormone that plays a key role in regulating blood sugar levels by stimulating the liver to release glucose into the bloodstream. Amylin is a hormone that helps to regulate food intake and glucose metabolism. Glicentin is a hormone that has both pancreatic and gastrointestinal functions. Proglucagon is also produced by the intestinal L cells and is cleaved to form GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1), which is a hormone that regulates glucose metabolism and appetite. In the medical field, proglucagon is used as a diagnostic tool to measure the levels of glucagon in the blood, which can be useful in the diagnosis and management of conditions such as diabetes mellitus, hypoglycemia, and pancreatic disorders. It is also being studied as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and other metabolic disorders.

Atherosclerosis is a medical condition characterized by the hardening and narrowing of the arteries due to the buildup of plaque. Plaque is made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances that accumulate on the inner walls of the arteries over time. As the plaque builds up, it can restrict blood flow to the organs and tissues that the arteries supply, leading to a range of health problems. Atherosclerosis is a common condition that can affect any artery in the body, but it is most commonly associated with the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart. When atherosclerosis affects the coronary arteries, it can lead to the development of coronary artery disease (CAD), which is a major cause of heart attacks and strokes. Atherosclerosis can also affect the arteries that supply blood to the brain, legs, kidneys, and other organs, leading to a range of health problems such as peripheral artery disease, stroke, and kidney disease. Risk factors for atherosclerosis include high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, obesity, and a family history of the condition.

Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) is a protein that plays a crucial role in lipid metabolism and transport in the human body. It is a component of several lipoproteins, including low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), which are responsible for transporting cholesterol and other lipids throughout the bloodstream. ApoB is synthesized in the liver and is essential for the assembly and secretion of VLDL and LDL particles. It binds to specific receptors on the surface of cells, allowing the lipoproteins to deliver cholesterol and other lipids to the cells. In addition, ApoB plays a role in the regulation of lipoprotein metabolism by interacting with enzymes and other proteins involved in lipid metabolism. Abnormal levels of ApoB have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, including atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, and stroke. High levels of ApoB are typically seen in individuals with high levels of LDL cholesterol, which is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Therefore, measuring ApoB levels is often used as a diagnostic tool in the assessment of cardiovascular risk.

Phosphoprotein phosphatases are enzymes that remove phosphate groups from phosphoproteins, which are proteins that have been modified by the addition of a phosphate group. These enzymes play a crucial role in regulating cellular signaling pathways by modulating the activity of phosphoproteins. There are several types of phosphoprotein phosphatases, including protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), protein serine/threonine phosphatases (S/T phosphatases), and phosphatases that can dephosphorylate both tyrosine and serine/threonine residues. Phosphoprotein phosphatases are involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell growth and division, metabolism, and immune response. Dysregulation of phosphoprotein phosphatase activity has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Flavonoids are a group of naturally occurring compounds found in plants that have a wide range of biological activities. They are classified as polyphenols and are known for their antioxidant properties, which can help protect cells from damage caused by free radicals. In the medical field, flavonoids have been studied for their potential health benefits, including their ability to reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. They may also have anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive, and anti-diabetic effects. Flavonoids are found in a variety of foods, including fruits, vegetables, tea, and chocolate. Some of the most common flavonoids include quercetin, kaempferol, and anthocyanins.

Cholesterol, LDL (Low-Density Lipoprotein) is a type of cholesterol that is commonly referred to as "bad" cholesterol. It is one of the two main types of cholesterol found in the blood, the other being HDL (High-Density Lipoprotein) or "good" cholesterol. LDL cholesterol is produced by the liver and carries cholesterol from the liver to other parts of the body, such as the muscles and the brain. However, when there is too much LDL cholesterol in the blood, it can build up in the walls of arteries, leading to the formation of plaques. These plaques can narrow the arteries and reduce blood flow, which can increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and other cardiovascular problems. Therefore, high levels of LDL cholesterol are considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and doctors often recommend lifestyle changes and medications to lower LDL cholesterol levels in patients with high levels.

Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3 (MAPK3), also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1), is a protein kinase enzyme that plays a crucial role in cellular signaling pathways. It is part of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, which is involved in regulating various cellular processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, and apoptosis. MAPK3 is activated by a variety of extracellular signals, including growth factors, cytokines, and hormones, and it transduces these signals into the cell by phosphorylating and activating downstream target proteins. These target proteins include transcription factors, cytoskeletal proteins, and enzymes involved in metabolism. In the medical field, MAPK3 is of interest because it has been implicated in the development and progression of various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and inflammatory diseases. For example, dysregulation of MAPK3 signaling has been observed in many types of cancer, and targeting this pathway has been proposed as a potential therapeutic strategy. Additionally, MAPK3 has been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, as well as in the regulation of immune responses and inflammation.

In the medical field, a multienzyme complex is a group of two or more enzymes that are physically and functionally linked together to form a single, larger enzyme complex. These complexes can work together to catalyze a series of sequential reactions, or they can work in parallel to carry out multiple reactions simultaneously. Multienzyme complexes are found in a variety of biological processes, including metabolism, DNA replication and repair, and signal transduction. They can be found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, and they can be composed of enzymes from different cellular compartments. One example of a multienzyme complex is the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex, which is involved in the citric acid cycle and the metabolism of amino acids. This complex consists of three enzymes that work together to catalyze the conversion of 2-oxoglutarate to succinyl-CoA. Multienzyme complexes can have important implications for human health. For example, mutations in genes encoding enzymes in these complexes can lead to metabolic disorders, such as maple syrup urine disease and glutaric acidemia type II. Additionally, some drugs target specific enzymes in multienzyme complexes as a way to treat certain diseases, such as cancer.

Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are highly reactive molecules that are produced as a byproduct of normal cellular metabolism. They include oxygen radicals such as superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radicals, as well as non-radical species such as singlet oxygen and peroxynitrite. In small amounts, ROS play important roles in various physiological processes, such as immune responses, cell signaling, and the regulation of gene expression. However, when produced in excess, ROS can cause oxidative stress, which can damage cellular components such as lipids, proteins, and DNA. This damage can lead to various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, ROS are often studied in the medical field as potential therapeutic targets for the prevention and treatment of diseases associated with oxidative stress.

Cystinyl aminopeptidase, also known as CAP or cysteine aminopeptidase, is an enzyme that is found in the lysosomes of cells. It is responsible for breaking down proteins by cleaving amino acids from the N-terminus of peptides and proteins. This enzyme plays a role in the degradation of various cellular proteins, including extracellular matrix proteins, and is involved in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation. In the medical field, cystinyl aminopeptidase has been studied in relation to various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and infections.

Tolazamide is an oral medication that is used to treat type 2 diabetes. It belongs to a class of drugs called sulfonylureas, which work by stimulating the pancreas to produce more insulin. Tolazamide is typically used in combination with other diabetes medications or insulin to help lower blood sugar levels in people with type 2 diabetes. It is not recommended for people with type 1 diabetes or those who are allergic to sulfonylureas. Tolazamide can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). It is important to follow the dosage instructions provided by your healthcare provider and to monitor your blood sugar levels regularly while taking this medication.

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... the Insulin Index is based upon blood insulin levels. The Insulin Index represents a comparison of food portions with equal ... The insulin index of food represents how much it elevates the concentration of insulin in the blood during the two-hour period ... "An insulin index of foods: the insulin demand generated by 1000-kJ portions of common foods" (PDF). American Journal of ... The insulin index compares foods in amounts with equal overall caloric content (240 kcal or 1000 kJ). Insulin indexes are ...
... insulin detemir, insulin glargine, insulin degludec) in both children and adults with Type 1 diabetes. Insulin detemir appeared ... There are human and pig insulin based versions. Protamine insulin was first created in 1936 and NPH insulin in 1946. It is on ... "Insulin Human; Insulin Isophane Human - Drug Usage Statistics". ClinCalc. Retrieved 7 October 2022. "NPH insulin , DrugBank ... Neutral Protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin, also known as isophane insulin, is an intermediate-acting insulin given to help ...
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... compared to 25 hours of the previous longest-acting insulin analogue insulin degludec), making it a once-weekly basal insulin. ... Insulin icodec is an investigational ultralong-acting basal insulin analogue that is developed by Novo Nordisk. It has a plasma ... 8 July 2021). "Molecular Engineering of Insulin Icodec, the First Acylated Insulin Analog for Once-Weekly Administration in ... July 2021). "Molecular Engineering of Insulin Icodec, the First Acylated Insulin Analog for Once-Weekly Administration in ...
... is a rapid-acting modified form of medical insulin that differs from human insulin in that the amino acid ... When injected subcutaneously, it appears in the blood earlier than human insulin. When used as a meal time insulin, the dose is ... "Insulin Glulisine". Drugs.com. "Insulin glulisine". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Portal: ... "Insulin glulisine Use During Pregnancy". Drugs.com. 6 April 2020. Retrieved 21 September 2020. "Apidra- insulin glulisine ...
... to release insulin into the blood. The insulin makes insulin-sensitive tissues in the body (primarily skeletal muscle cells, ... In states of insulin resistance, the same amount of insulin does not have the same effect on glucose transport and blood sugar ... Insulin resistance (IR) is a pathological condition in which cells either fail to respond normally to the hormone insulin or ... A fasting serum insulin level greater than 29 microIU/mL or 174 pmol/L indicates insulin resistance. The same levels apply ...
An insulin analog (also called an insulin analogue) is any of several types of medical insulin that are altered forms of the ... However, some insulin analogues, such as insulin detemir, bind to albumin rather than fat like earlier insulin varieties, and ... Basal insulin support is required throughout the day representing about 50% of daily insulin requirement, the insulin amount ... Bovine insulin and porcine insulin may be considered as the first clinically used insulin analogs (naturally occurring, ...
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A recent Cochrane systematic review also compared the effects of insulin detemir to NPH insulin and other insulin analogues ( ... Insulin detemir, sold under the brand name Levemir among others, is a long-acting modified form of medical insulin used to ... insulin glargine, insulin degludec) in both children and adults with Type 1 diabetes. With respect to blood sugar management, ... It is an insulin analogue in which a fatty acid (myristic acid) is bound to the lysine amino acid at position B29. It is ...
The insulin oscillations are generated by pulsatile release of the hormone from the pancreas. Insulin originates from beta ... Disturbances of the insulin oscillations occur early in type 2 diabetes and may contribute to insulin resistance. Pulsatile ... Insulin Diabetes Hellman B, Gylfe E, Grapengiesser E, Dansk H, Salehi A (2007). "[Insulin oscillations--clinically important ... This signal is believed to entrain pulsatile insulin release from the islets into a common pancreatic rhythm. The insulin ...
Injection of insulin in pulses mimics the physiological secretions of insulin by the pancreas into the portal vein which then ... The insulin retained by the hepatocytes may itself be essential for the long-term effects of insulin on hepatic glucose ... Intermittent intravenous insulin administration with peaks of insulin concentrations may enhance suppression of gluconeogenesis ... the more insulin the pancreas will secrete) among other factors. Continuous exposure to insulin and glucagon is known to ...
... is a modified insulin that has one single amino acid deleted in comparison to human insulin, and is conjugated ... compared to 18 to 26 hours provided by other marketed long-acting insulins such as insulin glargine and insulin detemir), ... Insulin degludec (INN/USAN) is an ultralong-acting basal insulin analogue that was developed by Novo Nordisk under the brand ... making it a once-daily basal insulin, that is one that provides a base insulin level, as opposed to the fast- and short-acting ...
... insulin and a rapid/regular insulin to provide both a basal insulin and prandial insulin. There are several challenges involved ... Medical preparations of insulin are never just insulin in water (with nothing else). Clinical insulins are mixtures of insulin ... Prandial insulin, also called mealtime or bolus insulin, is designed as a bolus dose of insulin prior to a meal to regulate the ... The unit evolved eventually to the old USP insulin unit, where one unit (U) of insulin was set equal to the amount of insulin ...
... is a powdered form of insulin, delivered with an inhaler into the lungs where it is absorbed. In general ... "100 Years of Insulin". Diabetes UK. Gillis J (January 28, 2006). "Inhaled Form of Insulin Is Approved". The Washington Post. ... AIR Inhaled Insulin System Human insulin inhalation powder Began Phase III trial to evaluate effectiveness in improving glucose ... with Technosphere Inhaled Insulin (TI) Compared with Insulin Aspart in T1D Patients-STAT Study". Diabetes. 67 (Supplement 1): ...
... the production of insulin at lab scale ― is almost complete". The cost to produce insulin via Open Insulin methods is estimated ... Access to insulin remains so insufficient around the globe that "Half of all people who need insulin lack the financial or ... "Insulin's High Cost Leads To Lethal Rationing". NPR.org. Retrieved 2020-08-16. "New Frontiers for the New Year". Open Insulin ... This lack of availability has led to fatalities, such as Alec Smith, who died in 2017 due to lack of insulin. The Open Insulin ...
In "modified insulin therapy", used in the treatment of neurosis, patients were given lower (sub-coma) doses of insulin. A few ... Insulin shock therapy or insulin coma therapy was a form of psychiatric treatment in which patients were repeatedly injected ... By the late 1940s, the majority of psychiatric hospitals in the US were using insulin coma treatment. Insulin coma therapy was ... Insulin Coma Therapy Archived 15 October 2002 at the Wayback Machine by the head of the insulin coma unit at the Hillside ...
... , also known as IDE, is an enzyme. Known alternatively as insulysin or insulin protease, IDE is a large ... April 2003). "Insulin-degrading enzyme regulates the levels of insulin, amyloid beta-protein, and the beta-amyloid precursor ... Semple JW, Lang Y, Speck ER, Delovitch TL (October 1992). "Processing and presentation of insulin. III. Insulin degrading ... "Entrez Gene: IDE insulin-degrading enzyme". Aleshin AE, Gramatikova S, Hura GL, Bobkov A, Strongin AY, Stec B, et al. (November ...
The carbohydrate-insulin model (CIM) posits that obesity is caused by excess consumption of carbohydrate, which then disrupts ... Notable proponents of the carbohydrate-insulin model include Gary Taubes and David Ludwig. The CIM has been tested in mice and ... According to the carbohydrate-insulin model, low-carbohydrate diets would be the most effective in causing long-term weight ... Hall, K. D. (2017). "A review of the carbohydrate-insulin model of obesity". European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 71 (3): ...
... is characterized by: Insulin injections of a mixture of regular (or rapid) and intermediate acting ... acting insulin alone for dinner and intermediate acting insulin at bedtime (instead of being mixed in at dinner). Meals are ... The down side of this method is that it is difficult to achieve as good results of glycemic control as with intensive insulin ... Conventional insulin therapy is a therapeutic regimen for treatment of diabetes mellitus which contrasts with the newer ...
A smart insulin patch, also known as a glucose-responsive insulin patch, is a type of wearable medical device for diabetes ... Researchers first reported the concept of "smart insulin patch" in 2015. The prototype of smart insulin patch "was demonstrated ... Insulin was introduced by Frederick Banting and Charles Best from the University of Toronto in 1921 as an injectable agent. ... developed "Smart Insulin Patch 2.0" and validated its feasibility in a diabetic minipig model. Currently, Zenomics is applying ...
An insulin tolerance test (ITT) is a medical diagnostic procedure during which insulin is injected into a patient's vein, after ... When used to assess insulin sensitivity, a standard dose of insulin is administered, and blood glucose is monitored with ... "Usefulness of the insulin tolerance test in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving insulin therapy". J Diabetes Investig. 5 (3 ... Greenwood FC, Landon J, Stamp TC (1965). "The plasma sugar, free fatty acid, cortisol, and growth hormone response to insulin. ...
The insulin pump is about the size of a beeper. It can be programmed to send a steady stream of insulin as basal insulin. It ... This insulin is referred to as basal insulin secretion, and constitutes almost half the insulin produced by the normal pancreas ... Long-acting insulin analogs such as insulin glargine (brand name Lantus, made by Sanofi-Aventis) and insulin detemir (brand ... These three components of the insulin regimen are commonly referred to as basal insulin, bolus insulin, and high glucose ...
... types of insulin (short- or long-acting insulin), insulin intolerance, and insulin delivery systems (daily injections, insulin ... and guidelines about insulin therapy, including interpretation of glucose and insulin levels, ... Insulin Therapy : Review in-depth clinical information, latest medical news, ... Dr Anne Peters reports on the latest updates presented at EASD 2023 on insulin therapy for T2D, including insights from the ...
Learn about the different types of insulin and how they affect your blood sugar. ... Types of Insulin. Insulin Type. Onset. Peak Time. Duration. Method. Rapid acting​. 15 minutes. 1 hour. 2 to 4 hours. Usually ... Often used with rapid- or short-acting insulin.. Long acting. 2 hours. Does not peak. Up to 24 hours. Covers insulin needs for ... Provides steady insulin for long periods.. Premixed. 5 to 60 minutes. Peaks vary. 10 to 16 hours. Combines intermediate- and ...
You can take insulin several different ways. The most common are with a needle and syringe, an insulin pen, or an insulin pump ... Diabetes - insulin therapy (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Giving an insulin injection (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in ... Insulin Therapy (American Academy of Family Physicians) Also in Spanish * Insulin, Medicines, and Other Diabetes Treatments ( ... A hormone called insulin helps the glucose get into your cells.. With type 1 diabetes, your body does not make insulin. With ...
Insulin resistance is a state in which a given concentration of insulin produces a less-than-expected biological effect. (See ... Age distribution for insulin resistance. Type A insulin resistance typically occurs in younger patients, while type B insulin ... Insulin therapy: Low-titer immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-insulin antibody levels are present in most patients who receive insulin ... Insulin sensitivity and secretion are reciprocally related; thus, insulin resistance results in increased insulin secretion to ...
LBXIN - Insulin (uU/mL). Variable Name: LBXIN. SAS Label: Insulin (uU/mL). English Text: Insulin (uU/mL). Target: Both males ... LBDINSI - Insulin (pmol/L). Variable Name: LBDINSI. SAS Label: Insulin (pmol/L). English Text: Insulin (pmol/L). Target: Both ... The insulin molecule is synthesized in the pancreas as pro-insulin and is later cleaved to form C-peptide and insulin. The ... Insulin present in the sample will bind to anti-insulin antibodies bound to the sample well, while the peroxidase-conjugated ...
... insulin - Sharing our stories on preparing for and responding to public health events ... meaning their bodies dont make enough insulin or cant use the insulin they make to turn food into energy. In either case, the ... Tags disaster readiness, emergency preparedness, insulin, medication safety, pharmacist, pharmacy, power outage, prescription ... insulin, medicine, power outage, power shutoff, power sources, Prepare Your Health, refrigeration, wildfire ...
... insulin pumps, and other diabetes supplies and preventive services under certain conditions. ... Medicare Part B and Part D may provide coverage for insulin, ... we look at Medicare coverage for insulin pumps and insulin. We ... Medicare Part B will cover insulin pumps and insulin, while Part D will cover prescribed insulin and related medical supplies. ... Discover how regular insulin works and helps manage diabetes. We describe how much regular insulin to take, potential side ...
Treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes and prediabetes include insulin, a diabetic diet, exercise, and medication. Guidelines ... Examples are insulin lispro, insulin aspart, and insulin glulisine.. *Regular insulin takes effect within 30 minutes, peaks at ... Insulin pumps. An insulin pump is composed of a reservoir similar to that of an insulin cartridge, a battery-operated pump, and ... Insulin resistance means that although the body can produce insulin, the bodys cells do not respond properly to the insulin ...
Insulin Resistance News and Research. RSS Insulin Resistance is a condition in which the body does not respond to insulin ... Diminished effectiveness of insulin in lowering blood glucose levels requiring 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent ... Genetics and diet shape insulin signaling in mice Researchers have produced a comprehensive picture of insulin signalling in ... Theabrownin from dark tea may have the potential to treat insulin resistance The effects of theabrownin (TB) from dark tea ...
If the body doesnt make enough of this substance, a person may need to get insulin injections. ... Insulin is an important hormone that keeps the body working. ... Insulin Injections. Say: IN-suh-lin in-JEK-shuns. Insulin is an ... There are many types of injectable insulin, both short- and long-acting. Most people with diabetes take insulin injections ... If the body doesnt make enough of this substance, a person might need to get insulin injections, or shots. ...
Researchers say elevated insulin levels can be toxic to the placenta, but there are things you can do to reduce the risks. ... Insulin resistance occurs when cells in your muscles, fat, and liver dont react properly to insulin. ... "as long as your pancreas can make enough insulin to overcome your cells weak response to insulin, your blood glucose levels ... Researchers say elevated insulin levels can be toxic to the placenta, but there are things you can do to reduce the risks. ...
Clinical studies suggest a link between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and insulin resistance (IR) and cognitive dysfunction, ... Biessels and Reagan discuss findings from human studies and animal models which suggest that hippocampal insulin resistance is ... This Review highlights these observations and discusses intervention studies which suggest that the restoration of insulin ... Insulin resistance. (IR). A state in which an increase in release of insulin from the pancreas is required to maintain normal ...
Recombinant Human Insulin
In addition, insulin is the most important factor in the regulation of plasma glucose homeostasis, as it counteracts glucagon ... Insulin is an anabolic hormone that promotes glucose uptake, glycogenesis, lipogenesis, and protein synthesis of skeletal ... Insulin Sensitivity. Insulin levels can also be used to assess insulin resistance versus sensitivity. In insulin resistance, ... A standard insulin test is positive for endogenous insulin and exogenous insulin. In addition, there is a minimal cross- ...
Legislative Guide for Insulin for All. How States Can Make Medicines Affordable ... Public Citizen and T1International have developed a state legislative guide for insulin activists. It analyzes both the short- ... term steps intended to promote immediate access, and more transformative solutions intended to realize insulin for all. The ...
Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion]. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android ... The variation of the daily insulin requirements after pump placement was 12.75 units of insulin (p = 0.015), equivalent to a ... The variation of the daily insulin requirements after pump placement was 12.75 units of insulin (p = 0.015), equivalent to a ... The importance of anti-insulin antibody in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin ...
The amount of insulin and the best time for you to take your insulin may need to change if you take different types of insulin. ... These insulin antibodies may increase or decrease the efficacy of insulin and may require adjustment of the insulin dose. In ... INSULIN DETEMIR (UNII: 4FT78T86XV) (INSULIN DETEMIR - UNII:4FT78T86XV) INSULIN DETEMIR. 100 [iU] in 1 mL. ... INSULIN DETEMIR (UNII: 4FT78T86XV) (INSULIN DETEMIR - UNII:4FT78T86XV) INSULIN DETEMIR. 100 [iU] in 1 mL. ...
... could hold the key to restoring the bodys ability to produce insulin and help millions of Americans who suffer from insulin- ... Capsules of insulin produced in genetically modified lettuce ... Lettuce-grown insulin relieves diabetes in mice. July 30, 2007 ... Insulin-dependent, or Type 1, diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which the bodys immune system attacks and destroys insulin ... Diabetes can be caused by too little insulin (a hormone produced by the pancreas to control blood sugar), resistance to insulin ...
Find patient medical information for Insulin Reaction Gel oral on WebMD including its uses, side effects and safety, ... How to use Insulin Reaction Gel 40 % Read and follow all directions on the product package before you need to take this product ... Insulin Reaction Gel 40 % - Uses, Side Effects, and More. Generic Name(S): dextrose ... Have you ever purchased Insulin Reaction Gel 40 %? Yes, In the past 3 months. ...
Covers what is needed, including syringe and vial or cartridge of insulin. Offers ... Describes how to give an insulin injection when you have gestational diabetes. ... To prepare a shot with a single type of insulin, follow the steps for preparing a single dose of insulin. ... To prepare a shot containing two types of insulin, follow the steps for preparing a mixed dose of insulin. ...
Automatic Insulin Delivery System Cuts A1c, With or Without Bolusing. - Using the system only in auto-mode still achieved a 1.5 ... Insulin dose remained stable for all groups throughout the study, as well as time spent below range (70 mg/dL). ... At baseline, the average HbA1c was 9.4% and insulin dose was 0.54 units/kg/day. Bolus-behavior groups were matched for age, sex ... Bolusing included both meal-time insulin bolusing and correction-related doses.. "The Tandem Control IQ gives an auto-bolus ...
The presence of IRs at the surface membrane allows proper insulin signaling and synapse function. Right image: AβO binding to ... at the neuronal plasma membrane, causing removal of IRs from the membrane and disrupting insulin signaling and synapse function ... In this article, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying defective brain insulin signaling in AD are discussed, with ... Intriguingly, a connection between these diseases has been established during the past decade, since insulin resistance, a ...
Insulin Detemir​ is used to reduce high blood sugar levels in patients with diabetes mellitus. ... Insulin Detemir - What is it for. ​Detemir is a long acting insulin. It is used to reduce high blood sugar levels in patients ...
... in a similar way to insulin. A direct regulation of apelin expression by insulin is observed in both human and mouse adipocytes ... Apelin, a newly identified adipokine up-regulated by insulin and obesity Endocrinology. 2005 Apr;146(4):1764-71. doi: 10.1210/ ... The lack of insulin in streptozotocin-treated mice is associated with a decreased expression of apelin in adipocytes. ... These data provide evidence that insulin exerts a direct control on apelin gene expression in adipocytes. In obese patients, ...
Insulin Glulisine Insulin Glulisine. Medicine Status PIL SPC XPIL Legal Category Active Ingredient(s) Company Apidra 100 units/ ...
Superior to once-a-day insulin glargine U100 and degludec ... "Insulin is insulin," said Rosenstock. "When we use insulin, ... Once-Weekly Insulin Icodec Bests Daily Insulin Options for Type 2 Diabetes. - Superior to once-a-day insulin glargine U100 and ... Source Reference: Lingvay I, et al "Once-weekly insulin icodec vs once-daily insulin degludec in adults with insulin-naive type ... "If approved, insulin icodec will represent the first and only once-weekly basal insulin option for adults with diabetes, ...
"Understanding how insulin interacts with the insulin receptor is fundamental to the development of novel insulins for the ... "The insulin receptor is a large protein on the surface of cells to which the hormone insulin binds. The generation of new types ... "Both insulin and its receptor undergo rearrangement as they interact - a piece of insulin folds out and key pieces within the ... "This discovery could conceivably lead to new types of insulin that could be given in ways other than injection, or an insulin ...
The House has passed a bill capping the monthly cost of insulin at $35 for insured patients. Thursdays vote is part of an ... WASHINGTON (AP) - The House has passed a bill capping the monthly cost of insulin at $35 for insured patients. ... President Joe Bidens stalled social legislation would do much more, authorizing Medicare to negotiate prices for insulin and ... House passes $35-a-month insulin cap as Dems seek wider bill. ... enrollees facing rising out-of-pocket costs for insulin.. Some ...
It may provide the link between inflammation and insulin sensitivity. TNF-α results in insulin insensitivity, indirectly by ... Inflammatory status and insulin resistance. Grimble, Robert F.. Author Information Institute of Human Nutrition, School of ... Inflammatory status and insulin resistance : Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care. ... Insulin resistance and disordering of lipid metabolism occur in obesity, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis. This review ...
Human Insulin Human insulin was discovered as a treatment for diabetes approximately 100 years ago and has been on WHOs Model ... Invitation for Expression of Interest (EOI) to Manufacturers of Human Insulin 2nd Invitation to manufacturers of human insulin ... As stated in the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, insulin is used principally to treat diabetes. Insulin biotherapeutic ... current insulin prices pose a barrier to treatment in most LMIC. *established WHO technical guidance exists for evaluation of ...
  • Many types of insulin are used to treat diabetes. (cdc.gov)
  • For more information about types of insulin and when to take them, talk to your doctor or diabetes educator. (cdc.gov)
  • There are different types of insulin that start to work at different speeds, and the effects of each last a different length of time. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Have the right dose of insulin, especially if you are giving two types of insulin in the same syringe. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Your preparation will depend on whether you are giving one type of insulin or mixing two types of insulin. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • To prepare a shot containing two types of insulin, follow the steps for preparing a mixed dose of insulin . (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • A landmark discovery about how insulin docks on cells could help in the development of improved types of insulin for treating both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. (edu.au)
  • The generation of new types of insulin have been limited by our inability to see how insulin docks into its receptor in the body. (edu.au)
  • This discovery could conceivably lead to new types of insulin that could be given in ways other than injection, or an insulin that has improved properties or longer activity so that it doesn't need to be taken as often. (edu.au)
  • This initial batch of 14 400 insulin supply contains 2 types of insulin pens and needles and will serve over 2000 patients with type 1 diabetes. (who.int)
  • Insulin resistance is a state in which a given concentration of insulin produces a less-than-expected biological effect. (medscape.com)
  • Insulin resistance has also been arbitrarily defined as the requirement of 200 or more units of insulin per day to attain glycemic control and to prevent ketosis. (medscape.com)
  • The syndromes of insulin resistance actually make up a broad clinical spectrum, which includes obesity, glucose intolerance, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome, as well as an extreme insulin-resistant state. (medscape.com)
  • In clinical practice, no single laboratory test is used to diagnose insulin resistance syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • Treatment involves pharmacologic therapy to reduce insulin resistance, along with surgical management of underlying causes if appropriate. (medscape.com)
  • Medications that reduce insulin resistance (insulin-sensitizing and antihyperglycemic effects) include metformin and the thiazolidinediones. (medscape.com)
  • In insulin resistance, various clinical entities of this state are evident. (medscape.com)
  • thus, insulin resistance results in increased insulin secretion to maintain normal glucose and lipid homeostasis. (medscape.com)
  • The mechanisms responsible for insulin resistance syndromes include genetic or primary target cell defects, autoantibodies to insulin, and accelerated insulin degradation. (medscape.com)
  • Insulin resistance means that although the body can produce insulin, the body's cells do not respond properly to the insulin that is made. (medicinenet.com)
  • Type 2 diabetes is more a result of insulin resistance (cells not being able to use insulin effectively or at all. (medicinenet.com)
  • Insulin Resistance is a condition in which the body does not respond to insulin properly. (news-medical.net)
  • This groundbreaking nine-year study used advanced mass spectrometry to analyze lipid profiles in human plasma, revealing dynamic changes tied to aging, insulin resistance, and viral infections. (news-medical.net)
  • The effects of theabrownin (TB) from dark tea treatment on insulin resistance (IR). (news-medical.net)
  • In addition, metformin , a common medication used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, as well as a reduced-carbohydrate, low-sugar diet can provide a low-cost, safe solution for women with insulin resistance to carry a pregnancy to full term. (healthline.com)
  • And while the link between insulin resistance and pregnancy loss is nothing new, the culprit before this study was thought to be glucose sugar. (healthline.com)
  • Insulin resistance occurs when cells in your muscles, fat, and liver don't react properly to insulin. (healthline.com)
  • It's Williams' hope that insulin resistance can be detected at an early stage to prevent pregnancy loss. (healthline.com)
  • While pre-screening is always a good idea, women in certain demographics have a higher risk of insulin resistance, according to the NIDDK. (healthline.com)
  • Similarly, women who are experiencing the following symptoms should make screening a priority as these can be signs of insulin resistance, according to Williams. (healthline.com)
  • What's more, "metformin happens to be an incredibly well-studied, widely used, and low-cost medication that's been used for decades for treatment of insulin resistance and diabetes," he said. (healthline.com)
  • Clinical studies suggest that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for cognitive decline and dementia, and have found evidence that insulin resistance (IR) occurs in the brain of patients with T2DM and Alzheimer disease (AD). (nature.com)
  • Clinical studies suggest a link between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and insulin resistance (IR) and cognitive dysfunction, but there are significant gaps in our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying this relationship. (nature.com)
  • Research suggests that mitochondrial reactive oxygen species are linked to the development of insulin resistance in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. (medscape.com)
  • A study by Gabay et al indicated that insulin resistance in female adolescents with obesity may have a negative impact on brain structure and function. (medscape.com)
  • The report found, for example, that in the study population, the insular cortices in such patients tended to be thinner, a phenomenon that was not seen in male adolescents with obesity and insulin resistance. (medscape.com)
  • In type 2 diabetes (late stage), beta cells fail to secrete insulin for maintaining the blood glucose level, owing to insulin resistance and genetic defect. (medscape.com)
  • Diabetes can be caused by too little insulin (a hormone produced by the pancreas to control blood sugar), resistance to insulin, or both. (scienceblog.com)
  • Intriguingly, a connection between these diseases has been established during the past decade, since insulin resistance, a hallmark of type 2 diabetes, also develops in Alzheimer brains. (jci.org)
  • Insulin resistance and disordering of lipid metabolism occur in obesity, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis. (lww.com)
  • LEVEMIR is a long-acting human insulin analog indicated to improve glycemic control in adult and pediatric patients with diabetes mellitus ( 1 ). (nih.gov)
  • SAN DIEGO -- Investigational once-weekly insulin icodec outperformed once-daily insulin glargine U100 when it came to glycemic control in type 2 diabetes, the phase IIIa ONWARDS 1 trial found. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Human insulin was discovered as a treatment for diabetes approximately 100 years ago and has been on WHO's Model List of Essential Medicines since the first list was published in 1977. (who.int)
  • Based on the experience gained during the pilot process, WHO may revise the prequalification procedure for human insulin accordingly. (who.int)
  • I feel that weekly insulins have the potential to become transformational as preferred options for basal insulin replacement in people with type 2 diabetes in need of initiation of insulin therapy," Rosenstock said during an ADA presentation. (medpagetoday.com)
  • I think that basal insulin analogues 20 years ago, 22 years ago, were transformational on how to treat type 2 diabetes with once-daily glargine or degludec, and so on. (medpagetoday.com)
  • It turns out that these concerns about hypoglycemia not only prevent or postpone the initiation of insulin, but they also often prevent us from being able to titrate basal insulin up to help patients reach their glycemic targets. (medscape.com)
  • If all things were equal and this were available to our patients, I would recommend that we start one of the ultra-long-acting insulins as the basal insulin of choice. (medscape.com)
  • The chief benefit of insulin pump therapy is customized flexible basal and bolus dosing to meet patients' individual requirements. (medscape.com)
  • Insulin pumps allow users to program different basal rates to allow for variations in lifestyle and bolus doses to allow for variations in diet. (medscape.com)
  • Without enough insulin, glucose can't get into your cells as quickly as usual. (medlineplus.gov)
  • November is National Diabetes Month About 34.2 million Americans live with diabetes, meaning their bodies don't make enough insulin or can't use the insulin they make to turn food into energy. (cdc.gov)
  • If a person has diabetes, their body either cannot use insulin properly or does not produce enough insulin. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) , "as long as your pancreas can make enough insulin to overcome your cells' weak response to insulin, your blood glucose levels will stay in the healthy range. (healthline.com)
  • GLP-1 is an incretin hormone that stimulates insulin secretion, causes B-cell mitosis while inhibiting apoptosis, inhibits glucagon secretion, and delays gastric emptying with overall antidiabetic effects. (medscape.com)
  • Insulin is the primary hormone responsible for controlling glucose metabolism, and its secretion is determined by plasma glucose concentration. (cdc.gov)
  • Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease characterized by high blood sugar (glucose) levels that result from defects in insulin secretion or the body's ability to use insulin. (medicinenet.com)
  • The present work identifies apelin as a novel adipocyte endocrine secretion and focuses on its potential link with obesity-associated variations of insulin sensitivity status. (nih.gov)
  • Dr Anne Peters reports on the latest updates presented at EASD 2023 on insulin therapy for T2D, including insights from the ONWARDS trials and STOP study. (medscape.com)
  • failure of the signals or of the B cells to adapt adequately in relation to insulin sensitivity results in inappropriate insulin levels, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and type 2 diabetes. (medscape.com)
  • It may provide the link between inflammation and insulin sensitivity. (lww.com)
  • Improvement of Vascular Insulin Sensitivity by Ranolazine. (bvsalud.org)
  • However, RN has not been shown to improve insulin (IN) sensitivity . (bvsalud.org)
  • The average weekly insulin dose was 214 U per week (about 31 U per day) in the icodec group and 222 U per week (about 32 U per day) in the glargine U100 group during the main phase of the trial. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Patients with type 2 diabetes were randomized to receive either insulin glargine or insulin degludec and were titrated weekly to attempt to get the fasting glucose down to less than 90 mg/dL. (medscape.com)
  • Overall, hypoglycemia was reduced by 30% with insulin degludec compared with insulin glargine. (medscape.com)
  • A hormone called insulin helps the glucose get into your cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Normally, blood glucose levels are tightly controlled by insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas. (medicinenet.com)
  • Insulin is an important hormone that keeps your body working. (kidshealth.org)
  • Insulin is an anabolic hormone that promotes glucose uptake, glycogenesis, lipogenesis, and protein synthesis of skeletal muscle and fat tissue through the tyrosine kinase receptor pathway. (medscape.com)
  • In addition, insulin is the most important factor in the regulation of plasma glucose homeostasis, as it counteracts glucagon and other catabolic hormones-epinephrine, glucocorticoid, and growth hormone. (medscape.com)
  • Insulin is a hormone that is needed to convert sugar, starches and other food into energy. (scienceblog.com)
  • Insulin typically is given through shots and not pills so the hormone can go straight into the bloodstream. (scienceblog.com)
  • We have now found that the insulin hormone engages its receptor in a very unusual way," Associate Professor Lawrence said. (edu.au)
  • Both insulin and its receptor undergo rearrangement as they interact - a piece of insulin folds out and key pieces within the receptor move to engage the insulin hormone. (edu.au)
  • The insulin receptor is a large protein on the surface of cells to which the hormone insulin binds. (edu.au)
  • Ambient insulin levels, various physiologic and disease states, and drugs regulate insulin receptor concentration or affinity. (medscape.com)
  • Figure 3: Insulin receptor signalling in the hippocampus. (nature.com)
  • Autoimmunity to insulin or insulin receptor is associated with elevated insulin levels. (medscape.com)
  • Associate Professor Mike Lawrence, Ms Mai Margetts, Dr Geoffrey Kong and Dr John Menting (from left to right) are part of a research team that has solved the structure of insulin bound to its receptor, the first time that this structure has been visualised. (edu.au)
  • For the first time, researchers have captured the intricate way in which insulin uses the insulin receptor to bind to the surface of cells. (edu.au)
  • For more than 20 years scientists have been trying to solve the mystery of how insulin binds to the insulin receptor. (edu.au)
  • Associate Professor Lawrence from the institute's Structural Biology division said the team was excited to reveal for the first time a three-dimensional view of insulin bound to its receptor. (edu.au)
  • Understanding how insulin interacts with the insulin receptor is fundamental to the development of novel insulins for the treatment of diabetes," Associate Professor Lawrence said. (edu.au)
  • Less common ways to take insulin include inhalers, injection ports, and jet injectors. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Make changes to a patient's insulin regimen (e.g., insulin strength, manufacturer, type, injection site or method of administration) under close medical supervision with increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring ( 5.2 ). (nih.gov)
  • Instruct patients to check insulin labels before injection ( 5.4 ). (nih.gov)
  • Follow the steps for giving an insulin injection into the belly with a insulin pen . (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Insulin delivery via a pump is more consistent and precise than via syringe or injection pen. (medscape.com)
  • The insulin molecule is synthesized in the pancreas as pro-insulin and is later cleaved to form C-peptide and insulin. (cdc.gov)
  • When the blood glucose elevates (for example, after eating food), insulin is released from the pancreas. (medicinenet.com)
  • In type 1 diabetes , the pancreas cannot produce insulin. (medicinenet.com)
  • Insulin-dependent, or Type 1, diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system attacks and destroys insulin and insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. (scienceblog.com)
  • Ultimately, this technology will likely lead to an "artificial pancreas" that automatically senses glucose level and its rate of change and adjusts insulin dosing accordingly. (medscape.com)
  • however, only in the early stages of impaired insulin metabolism do hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia appear to be significant contributors to the presence of hypertension. (medscape.com)
  • In patients with diabetes, the absence of insufficient production or lack of response to insulin causes hyperglycemia . (medicinenet.com)
  • Diminished effectiveness of insulin in lowering blood glucose levels requiring 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent hyperglycemia or ketosis. (news-medical.net)
  • Some people with type 2 diabetes will also need to take insulin. (cdc.gov)
  • If you have type 1 diabetes, you must take insulin because your body no longer makes it. (medlineplus.gov)
  • You can take insulin several different ways. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you use a needle and syringe or a pen, you have to take insulin several times during the day, including with meals. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Even if you don't usually take insulin, you may need it at special times, such as during pregnancy or if you are in the hospital. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Most people with diabetes take insulin injections based on their blood glucose levels , according to a plan that they've worked out with their doctor. (kidshealth.org)
  • See Full Prescribing Information for recommended starting dose in insulin naïve patients and patients already on insulin therapy ( 2.3 , 2.4 ). (nih.gov)
  • Store the insulin properly so that each dose will work well. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • To prepare a shot with a single type of insulin, follow the steps for preparing a single dose of insulin . (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • If you are using an insulin pen, follow the manufacturer's instructions for attaching the needle, priming the pen, and setting the dose. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Insulin dose remained stable for all groups throughout the study, as well as time spent below range (70 mg/dL). (medpagetoday.com)
  • At baseline, the average HbA1c was 9.4% and insulin dose was 0.54 units/kg/day. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Diabetes management is incredibly hard because insulin has no fixed dose or timing, leaving individuals to constantly determine their doses and configure devices as they make multiple critical decisions. (hmenews.com)
  • Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) and multiple daily injections (MDI) represent two strategies of intensive insulin therapy, obtaining a strict metabolic control. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - [Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion]. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • [ 1 ] insulin pump therapy, also known as continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), has been used for more than 30 years. (medscape.com)
  • Diabetes mellitus was assessed by measures of fasting plasma glucose, two-hour glucose (OGTT) and serum insulin in participants aged 12 years and over in the morning (AM) examination session only. (cdc.gov)
  • Insulin concentrations are severely reduced in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and some other conditions, while insulin concentrations are raised in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), obesity, and some endocrine disorders. (cdc.gov)
  • 9 hours, taking insulin or oral medications for diabetes, refusing phlebotomy, and not drinking all the entire Trutol solution within the allotted time. (cdc.gov)
  • Type 2 diabetes may be managed with non-insulin medications, insulin, weight reduction, or dietary changes. (medicinenet.com)
  • If other medications become ineffective treatment with insulin may be initiated. (medicinenet.com)
  • Each diabetes diet plan must be balanced with the intake of insulin and other diabetes medications. (medicinenet.com)
  • We can now exploit this knowledge to design new insulin medications with improved properties, which is very exciting. (edu.au)
  • An insulin pump gives you small, steady doses throughout the day. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Bolusing included both meal-time insulin bolusing and correction-related doses. (medpagetoday.com)
  • MILPITAS, Calif. - Bigfoot Biomedical has received 510(k) clearance from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for its Bigfoot Unity Diabetes Management System, which features connected smart pen caps that recommend insulin doses for people using multiple daily injections. (hmenews.com)
  • There are newer electronics with complex algorithms capable of calculating insulin bolus doses necessary to maintain glucose level within a set range as measured by a continuous glucose monitor (CGM). (medscape.com)
  • Never Share a LEVEMIR FlexPen, insulin syringe, or needle between patients, even if the needle is changed ( 5.1 ). (nih.gov)
  • The most common are with a needle and syringe, an insulin pen, or an insulin pump. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These include insulin that a person injects with a syringe, antidiabetic drugs, and related medical supplies, such as inhaled insulin devices, alcohol wipes, gauze, and syringes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • You will need an insulin syringe , your bottle of insulin, and an alcohol wipe or a cotton ball dipped in alcohol. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Do not throw your used syringe, disposable insulin pen, or needle in a trash can. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Capsules of insulin produced in genetically modified lettuce could hold the key to restoring the body's ability to produce insulin and help millions of Americans who suffer from insulin-dependent diabetes, according to University of Central Florida biomedical researchers. (scienceblog.com)
  • Be sure to check the dosing information that comes with your insulin and follow your doctor's instructions. (cdc.gov)
  • Do not mix other medicine with insulin without your doctor's instruction. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Laboratory tests include the plasma glucose level, the fasting insulin level, and a lipid profile, among others. (medscape.com)
  • Researchers say elevated insulin levels can be toxic to the placenta, but there are things you can do to reduce the risks. (healthline.com)
  • Metformin was found in the study to prevent the negative effects of elevated insulin levels on early placenta cells, but is it safe for pregnant women? (healthline.com)
  • Excessive administration of insulin is associated with elevated insulin levels. (medscape.com)
  • The variation of the daily insulin requirements after pump placement was 12.75 units of insulin (p = 0.015), equivalent to a decrease of 0.20 units/kg (p = 0.023). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The introduction of CSII allowed optimization of metabolic control, reduction of the daily insulin requirements and achievement of a higher level of satisfaction with no change in lipid profile, no weight gain and without increasing the frequency of adverse events. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Here, similar findings were seen among a 588-participant group comparing once-weekly icodec to once-daily insulin degludec in insulin-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Less Hypoglycemia With Insulin Degludec? (medscape.com)
  • Today we reported on the SWITCH 2 study , [ 1 ] which looks at insulin degludec . (medscape.com)
  • Nocturnal hypoglycemia was reduced by 42%, and severe hypoglycemia, although it did not reach statistical significance, was 50% lower with insulin degludec. (medscape.com)
  • Monoject™ Insulin Syringes are sterile, single-use, and individually packaged. (who.int)
  • Recent studies on diseases which involve insulin insensitivity (e.g. obesity, type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis) also show increased cytokine production and markers of inflammation. (lww.com)
  • When we use insulin, there always will be hypoglycemia, but we only had less than one event per year. (medpagetoday.com)
  • When our patients with type 2 diabetes are ready to start insulin, there is great concern on the part of the provider as well as the patient as to the risk that this medication will pose for hypoglycemia . (medscape.com)
  • The lower hypoglycemia rate shown with ultra-long-acting insulins is important information for providers so that they may have more confidence in starting insulin in their patients. (medscape.com)
  • Often used with injectable long-acting insulin. (cdc.gov)
  • These data provide evidence that insulin exerts a direct control on apelin gene expression in adipocytes. (nih.gov)
  • If you have type 1 diabetes, you'll likely take a combination of insulins. (cdc.gov)
  • Different brands of insulin vary in onset, peak time, and duration, even if they're the same type, such as rapid acting. (cdc.gov)
  • With type 1 diabetes , your body does not make insulin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • People with type 1 diabetes need to take a diabetes medicine called insulin to control their blood sugar. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Your health care provider will measure your blood glucose to decide on the type of insulin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Type 1 diabetes is managed with insulin as well as dietary changes and exercise . (medicinenet.com)
  • Type 1 diabetes was formerly known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes. (medicinenet.com)
  • SAN DIEGO -- An automatic insulin delivery system bolstered type 1 diabetes outcomes even among users who didn't follow recommendations on boluses for meals and other corrections, according to a retrospective study. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Among patients with uncontrolled type 1 diabetes, use of the Tandem Control IQ automated insulin delivery system overall lowered hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and increased time spent in target range, said Viral N. Shah, MD, of the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus in Aurora. (medpagetoday.com)
  • In my opinion, everyone with type 1 diabetes should get an automatic insulin delivery system," Shah said. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The 143-site open-label trial include 492 participants in both groups, all of whom had type 2 diabetes (baseline HbA1c between 7-11%) and were never previously treated with insulin. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reported that approximately 375,000 adults with type 1 diabetes used external insulin infusion pumps in 2007, compared to 130,000 in 2002. (medscape.com)
  • There are many types of injectable insulin, both short- and long-acting. (kidshealth.org)
  • What Are Insulin Injections? (kidshealth.org)
  • If the body doesn't make enough of this substance, a person might need to get insulin injections, or shots. (kidshealth.org)
  • Onset - How quickly insulin lowers your blood sugar. (cdc.gov)
  • Insulin lowers the blood glucose level. (medicinenet.com)
  • The calculator can also adjust the bolus amount based the amount of insulin still in the patient's system from a previous bolus. (medscape.com)
  • Some insulin pumps facilitate direct communication between the patient's glucose meter and insulin pump. (medscape.com)
  • The FDA first cleared this device in December 2019, making it the first interoperable, automated insulin dosing controller on the market. (medpagetoday.com)
  • In the original trial underpinning Tandem Control IQ's approval, published in The New England Journal of Medicine in 2019, closed-loop users utilized a Tandem t:slim X2 insulin pump with Control-IQ Technology with a Dexcom G6 continuous glucose monitor. (medpagetoday.com)
  • November 14, 2019 - The FAA has released a new protocol to allow individuals with insulin-controlled diabetes to apply for and obtain second- and first-class medical certificates. (eaa.org)
  • Therefore, these patients tend to not be seen as "ideal candidates" for insulin pump therapy. (medpagetoday.com)
  • In this article, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying defective brain insulin signaling in AD are discussed, with emphasis on evidence that Alzheimer's and diabetes share common inflammatory signaling pathways. (jci.org)
  • [ 2 ] The patient is instructed to fast, and plasma glucose, insulin, proinsulin, and C-peptide levels are measured every 6 hours until the plasma glucose level is less than 65 mg/dL, after which the testing frequency is increased to every 1-2 hours. (medscape.com)
  • Though produced in lettuce, the insulin would be delivered to human patients as a powder in capsules because the dosage must be controlled carefully. (scienceblog.com)
  • In obese patients, both plasma apelin and insulin levels were significantly higher, suggesting that the regulation of apelin by insulin could influence blood concentrations of apelin. (nih.gov)
  • WASHINGTON (AP) - The House has passed a bill capping the monthly cost of insulin at $35 for insured patients. (wxyz.com)
  • Experts say the legislation would provide significant relief for privately insured patients with skimpier plans and for Medicare enrollees facing rising out-of-pocket costs for insulin. (wxyz.com)
  • The protocol makes used of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) technology, which has seen widespread adoption among patients with insulin-controlled diabetes in recent years. (eaa.org)
  • The latest models of insulin pumps include new features to help patients manage insulin delivery. (medscape.com)
  • The Merocodia Insulin ELISA is a two-site enzyme immunoassay utilizing the direct sandwich technique with two monoclonal antibodies directed against separate antigenic determinants of the insulin molecule. (cdc.gov)
  • Specimen, control, or standard is pipetted into the sample well, and then followed by the addition of peroxidase-conjugated anti-insulin antibodies. (cdc.gov)
  • Insulin present in the sample will bind to anti-insulin antibodies bound to the sample well, while the peroxidase-conjugated anti-insulin antibodies will also bind to the insulin at the same time. (cdc.gov)
  • Adjustment of insulin dosage may be needed. (nih.gov)
  • The physician prescribes bolus insulin based on the carbohydrate content of a meal and for the correction of any elevation of blood sugar levels. (medscape.com)
  • Here the data is suggesting that it might even be before the sugar levels start to get high that the insulin levels are high and treatment is necessary," Williams said. (healthline.com)
  • By the end of the study, the diabetic mice had normal blood and urine sugar levels, and their cells were producing normal levels of insulin. (scienceblog.com)
  • If you have gestational diabetes and you have not been able to keep your blood sugar levels within a target range , you may need insulin shots. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • There are also medicines that you inject under your skin, such as insulin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • As stated in the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, insulin is used principally to treat diabetes. (who.int)
  • It delivers 60% of the total correction bolus calculated based on the users personal profile correction factor, current continuous glucose monitor reading, and insulin on board. (medpagetoday.com)
  • It works by connecting to an alternate controller-enabled insulin pump (ACE pump) and integrated continuous glucose monitor in order to automatically adjust insulin delivery to the user. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The principal function of insulin is to control the uptake and utilization of glucose in the peripheral tissues. (cdc.gov)
  • This release of insulin promotes the uptake of glucose into body cells. (medicinenet.com)
  • Duration - How long insulin works to lower your blood sugar. (cdc.gov)
  • In rare cases, taking insulin alone might not be enough to manage your blood sugar. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Taking insulin can help prevent high blood sugar. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Check that a disposable pen's insulin has not expired. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Most insulin pumps on the market consist of 3 parts: the pump itself (which is a programmable electronic device that includes a user interface, electronic processor, worm screw to control dosing, and batteries), a disposable reservoir that stores the insulin, and a disposable infusion set (which is the tubing that connects to the reservoir and which terminates in a cannula or needle through which the insulin is infused). (medscape.com)
  • If you are using an insulin pen, you will need a needle that works with your pen. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • The needle or cannula is inserted under the skin, and the insulin pump itself is worn externally. (medscape.com)
  • Professor Henry Daniell's research team genetically engineered tobacco plants with the insulin gene and then administered freeze-dried plant cells to five-week-old diabetic mice as a powder for eight weeks. (scienceblog.com)