Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.
The deposit of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.
Human artificial insemination in which the husband's semen is used.
Human artificial insemination in which the semen used is that of a man other than the woman's husband.
The process by which semen is kept viable outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.
The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
Passive or active movement of SPERMATOZOA from the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES through the male reproductive tract as well as within the female reproductive tract.
Occurrence or induction of ESTRUS in all of the females in a group at the same time, applies only to non-primate mammals with ESTROUS CYCLE.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Methods for recognizing the state of ESTRUS.
The thick, yellowish-white, viscid fluid secretion of male reproductive organs discharged upon ejaculation. In addition to reproductive organ secretions, it contains SPERMATOZOA and their nutrient plasma.
Movement characteristics of SPERMATOZOA in a fresh specimen. It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion such as rapid, linear, and forward progression.
Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.
A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.
Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.
An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.
Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.
Occurrence or induction of release of more ova than are normally released at the same time in a given species. The term applies to both animals and humans.
Method to determine the occurrence of OVULATION by direct or indirect means. Indirect methods examine the effects of PROGESTERONE on cervical mucus (CERVIX MUCUS), or basal body temperature. Direct ovulation detection, generally used in fertility treatment, involves analyses of circulating hormones in blood and ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
Interactive processes between the oocyte (OVUM) and the sperm (SPERMATOZOA) including sperm adhesion, ACROSOME REACTION, sperm penetration of the ZONA PELLUCIDA, and events leading to FERTILIZATION.
A triphenyl ethylene stilbene derivative which is an estrogen agonist or antagonist depending on the target tissue. Note that ENCLOMIPHENE and ZUCLOMIPHENE are the (E) and (Z) isomers of Clomiphene respectively.
Compounds which increase the capacity to conceive in females.
Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.
The inability of the male to effect FERTILIZATION of an OVUM after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Male sterility is permanent infertility.
The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
Clinical and laboratory techniques used to enhance fertility in humans and animals.
A synthetic fluorinated steroid that is used as a progestational hormone.
Methods for controlling genetic SEX of offspring.
Sexual activities of animals.
The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Tests to determine whether or not an individual is pregnant.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.
A 6-methyl PROGESTERONE acetate with reported glucocorticoid activity and effect on ESTRUS.
The condition of carrying two or more FETUSES simultaneously.
Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.
The emission of SEMEN to the exterior, resulting from the contraction of muscles surrounding the male internal urogenital ducts.
The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.
Extracts of urine from menopausal women that contain high concentrations of pituitary gonadotropins, FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and LUTEINIZING HORMONE. Menotropins are used to treat infertility. The FSH:LH ratio and degree of purity vary in different preparations.
The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the VULVA; BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS; and CLITORIS. The internal organs include the VAGINA; UTERUS; OVARY; and FALLOPIAN TUBES.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
A technique that came into use in the mid-1980's for assisted conception in infertile women with normal fallopian tubes. The protocol consists of hormonal stimulation of the ovaries, followed by laparoscopic follicular aspiration of oocytes, and then the transfer of sperm and oocytes by catheterization into the fallopian tubes.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.
Gonadotropins secreted by the pituitary or the placenta in horses. This term generally refers to the gonadotropins found in the pregnant mare serum, a rich source of equine CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. Unlike that in humans, the equine LUTEINIZING HORMONE, BETA SUBUNIT is identical to the equine choronic gonadotropin, beta. Equine gonadotropins prepared from pregnant mare serum are used in reproductive studies.
'Dairying' is not a term used in medical definitions; it refers to the practice of keeping dairy animals for milk production and its related processes, which is an agricultural or farming concept.
The quality of SEMEN, an indicator of male fertility, can be determined by semen volume, pH, sperm concentration (SPERM COUNT), total sperm number, sperm viability, sperm vigor (SPERM MOTILITY), normal sperm morphology, ACROSOME integrity, and the concentration of WHITE BLOOD CELLS.
An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).
A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.
Methods pertaining to the generation of new individuals, including techniques used in selective BREEDING, cloning (CLONING, ORGANISM), and assisted reproduction (REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, ASSISTED).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Bugs of the family CIMICIDAE, genus Cimex. They are flattened, oval, reddish insects which inhabit houses, wallpaper, furniture, and beds. C. lectularius, of temperate regions, is the common bedbug that attacks humans and is frequently a serious pest in houses, hotels, barracks, and other living quarters. Experiments have shown that bedbugs can transmit a variety of diseases, but they are not normal vectors under natural conditions. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p272)
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
Unsaturated pregnane derivatives containing two keto groups on side chains or ring structures.
Conditions of sexual ambiguity in which the individual possesses gonadal tissues of both sexes, tissues from the OVARY and the TESTIS. There can be a testis on one side and an ovary on the other (lateral), or there may be combined ovarian and testicular tissue (ovotestes) on each side (bilateral). The karyotype may be 46,XX; 46,XY; or a mosaic of 46,XX/46,XY. These disorders have historically been called true hermaphroditism.
A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.
Endoscopes for examining the interior of the uterus.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Ducts that serve exclusively for the passage of eggs from the ovaries to the exterior of the body. In non-mammals, they are termed oviducts. In mammals, they are highly specialized and known as FALLOPIAN TUBES.
Substances that provide protection against the harmful effects of freezing temperatures.
The number of males per 100 females.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.
The cap-like structure covering the anterior portion of SPERM HEAD. Acrosome, derived from LYSOSOMES, is a membrane-bound organelle that contains the required hydrolytic and proteolytic enzymes necessary for sperm penetration of the egg in FERTILIZATION.
The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.
The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.
A tough transparent membrane surrounding the OVUM. It is penetrated by the sperm during FERTILIZATION.
Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.
The structural and functional changes by which SPERMATOZOA become capable of oocyte FERTILIZATION. It normally requires exposing the sperm to the female genital tract for a period of time to bring about increased SPERM MOTILITY and the ACROSOME REACTION before fertilization in the FALLOPIAN TUBES can take place.
The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Transfer of preovulatory oocytes from donor to a suitable host. Oocytes are collected, fertilized in vitro, and transferred to a host that can be human or animal.
The earliest developmental stage of a fertilized ovum (ZYGOTE) during which there are several mitotic divisions within the ZONA PELLUCIDA. Each cleavage or segmentation yields two BLASTOMERES of about half size of the parent cell. This cleavage stage generally covers the period up to 16-cell MORULA.
In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).
The event that a FETUS is born alive with heartbeats or RESPIRATION regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE. Such liveborn is called a newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN).
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Centers for acquiring and storing semen.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
The capability of producing eggs (OVA) from which young are hatched outside the body. While mostly referring to nonmammalian species, this does include MAMMALS of the order MONOTREMATA.
A family of marsupials in the order Diprotodontia, native to Australia and possessing vestigial tails. There is a single living genus and species: Phascolarctos cinereus, the koala.
The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).
Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.
The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.
An inactive metabolite of PROGESTERONE by reduction at C5, C3, and C20 position. Pregnanediol has two hydroxyl groups, at 3-alpha and 20-alpha. It is detectable in URINE after OVULATION and is found in great quantities in the pregnancy urine.
A slightly alkaline secretion of the endocervical glands. The consistency and amount are dependent on the physiological hormone changes in the menstrual cycle. It contains the glycoprotein mucin, amino acids, sugar, enzymes, and electrolytes, with a water content up to 90%. The mucus is a useful protection against the ascent of bacteria and sperm into the uterus. (From Dictionary of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1988)
Procedures to obtain viable OOCYTES from the host. Oocytes most often are collected by needle aspiration from OVARIAN FOLLICLES before OVULATION.
Sexual stimulation or gratification of the self.
The potential of the FETUS to survive outside the UTERUS after birth, natural or induced. Fetal viability depends largely on the FETAL ORGAN MATURITY, and environmental conditions.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
Drugs used to increase fertility or to treat infertility.
Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.
Procedures to obtain viable sperm from the male reproductive tract, including the TESTES, the EPIDIDYMIS, or the VAS DEFERENS.
A condition in which the percentage of progressively motile sperm is abnormally low. In men, it is defined as
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
Establishing the father relationship of a man and a child.
Mammals of the families Delphinidae (ocean dolphins), Iniidae, Lipotidae, Pontoporiidae, and Platanistidae (all river dolphins). Among the most well-known species are the BOTTLE-NOSED DOLPHIN and the KILLER WHALE (a dolphin). The common name dolphin is applied to small cetaceans having a beaklike snout and a slender, streamlined body, whereas PORPOISES are small cetaceans with a blunt snout and rather stocky body. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp978-9)
The family of carnivorous or omnivorous bears, having massive bodies, coarse heavy fur, relatively short limbs, and almost rudimentary tails.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.
The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.
An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.
The division of a ZYGOTE into two parts, each of which is capable of further development.
The maturing process of SPERMATOZOA after leaving the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. Maturation in SPERM MOTILITY and FERTILITY takes place in the EPIDIDYMIS as the sperm migrate from caput epididymis to cauda epididymis.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the uterus.
Sexual attraction or relationship between females.
A complication of OVULATION INDUCTION in infertility treatment. It is graded by the severity of symptoms which include OVARY enlargement, multiple OVARIAN FOLLICLES; OVARIAN CYSTS; ASCITES; and generalized EDEMA. The full-blown syndrome may lead to RENAL FAILURE, respiratory distress, and even DEATH. Increased capillary permeability is caused by the vasoactive substances, such as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS, secreted by the overly-stimulated OVARIES.
Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.
Changes that occur to liberate the enzymes of the ACROSOME of a sperm (SPERMATOZOA). Acrosome reaction allows the sperm to penetrate the ZONA PELLUCIDA and enter the OVUM during FERTILIZATION.
The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).
The transformation of a liquid to a glassy solid i.e., without the formation of crystals during the cooling process.
A potent synthetic analog of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with D-serine substitution at residue 6, glycine10 deletion, and other modifications.
Large mammals in the family Elephantidae, with columnar limbs, bulky bodies, and elongated snouts. They are the only surviving members of the PROBOSCIDEA MAMMALS.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.
The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.
Large woodland game BIRDS in the subfamily Meleagridinae, family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. Formerly they were considered a distinct family, Melegrididae.

Intraperitoneal insemination of the guinea pig with synchronized estrus induced by progesterone implant. (1/818)

Female guinea pigs with synchronized ovulation by means of implantation of progesterone-filled tubing (P-tube) followed by a progesterone injection, were inseminated by intraperitoneal injection with sperm suspension. First, to obtain the optimum conditions for insemination, the females were inseminated singly over the range of 1-10 x 10(7) spermatozoa before and after the synchronized ovulation. The incidence of conception and implantation was 100% in the females given more than 5 x 10(7)/animal at 9:00 h on the 5th day after removal of the P-tube. Second, the reproductive ability of the inseminated females under this optimal condition was observed throughout the pregnancy to delivery. Inseminated females had a mean +/- S.D. gestation period of 68.7 +/- 0.5 days, a litter size of 2.8 +/- 0.6 pups and body weight of 110 +/- 14 g. These data were comparable to those of naturally-mated females. Our findings suggest that the artificial insemination by intraperitoneal injection in combination with the synchronized estrus technique is very useful for production control in a small colony of guinea pigs.  (+info)

Characterization of uterine leukocyte infiltration in gilts after artificial insemination. (2/818)

The objective of this study was to characterize the uterine leukocyte influx after artificial insemination (AI). After detection of oestrus with a boar at intervals of 1.5 h, seventy-two gilts were randomly assigned to a 2 x 3 x 4 factorial arrangement. AI was performed with 100 ml extended semen containing 5 x 10(9) spermatozoa (semen; n = 36) or 100 ml VSP semen extender (extender; n = 36) at one of three times after detection of oestrus: 12, 24 or 36 h (n = 24/time). The uterus was lavaged at 6, 12, 18 or 24 h (n = 18/time) after AI to determine the total number of uterine leukocytes. In addition, uterine lavage was performed on nine untreated gilts immediately after the detection of oestrus to establish a baseline number of leukocytes. The leukocyte response in all samples consisted predominately (92-99%) of polymorphonuclear neutrophilic granulocytes (PMNs). The mean number of PMNs recovered from the uteri of gilts treated with semen was greater than in gilts treated with extender and in untreated gilts (P < 0.01). The greatest number of PMNs in semen-treated gilts was found 12 h after AI (P < 0.01), and this number was sustained for 24 h. In contrast, the number of uterine PMNs recovered from extender-treated gilts reached a peak at 6 h and had declined by 12 h after AI (P < 0.05). It was concluded that an extensive influx of PMNs into the uterus is a normal sequence to AI. The consequences and importance of semen-induced uterine leukocytosis needs further investigation.  (+info)

Sperm migration into and through the oviduct following artificial insemination at different stages of the estrous cycle in the rat. (3/818)

In order to examine whether sperm migration into and through the oviduct follows an invariable pattern or is subject to regulation, rats in proestrus, estrus, metestrus, or diestrus were inseminated in the upper third of each uterine horn with 10-20 million epididymal spermatozoa. Three or eight hours later, the numbers of spermatozoa free and adhering to the epithelium in the ampullary and isthmic segments were determined. A significantly higher number of spermatozoa were recovered in estrus than in other stages, at 3 h than at 8 h, and at all stages from the isthmus than from the ampulla. Spermatozoa adhering to the epithelium were observed only in proestrus and estrus and in the isthmus. The effect of exogenous estradiol-17beta (E2) and progesterone (P4) on sperm migration was investigated in rats in which the estrous cycle was inhibited pharmacologically. E2 facilitated sperm migration into the oviduct and P4 antagonized this effect, whereas P4 alone had no effect. Concomitant treatment with E2+P4 induced adhesion of spermatozoa to the oviductal epithelium. In conclusion, the pattern of sperm migration into and through the rat oviduct varies with the stage of the cycle, being dependent on E2 and P4. The adhesion of spermatozoa to the rat oviductal epithelium is stage- and segment-specific and requires the combined action of both hormones.  (+info)

Serum progesterone in predicting pregnancy outcome after assisted reproductive technology. (4/818)

PURPOSE: Our purpose was to determine whether serum progesterone predicts pregnancy outcome after superovulation. METHODS: One hundred twenty-three consecutively pregnant patients were divided into three groups: group I, 55 patients following superovulation for assisted reproductive technologies; group II, 23 patients after correction of oligoovulation; and group III, 45 patients who conceived spontaneously. When beta-human chorionic gonadotropin was positive, progesterone was measured on the same serum sample. A serum progesterone level of 45 microns/L was set to differentiate between nonviable pregnancy and ongoing pregnancy. RESULTS: In group I, zero (0%) of 38 ongoing pregnancies and 10 (59%) of 17 nonviable pregnancies were observed with a progesterone level of < 45 microns/L [14.2 ng/ml (P < 0.001)]. In group II, 4 (27%) of 15 ongoing pregnancies and 5 (63%) of 8 nonviable pregnancies had a progesterone level of < 45 microns/L (P = NS). In group III, 10 (42%) of 24 ongoing pregnancies and 15 (71%) of 21 nonviable pregnancies were observed with a progesterone level of < 45 microns/L (14.2 ng/ml) (P = NS). CONCLUSIONS: A serum progesterone level of < 45 nM predicts nonviable pregnancy after superovulation for assisted reproductive technology.  (+info)

Status of genomic imprinting in mouse spermatids. (5/818)

The advent of human round spermatid microinjection (ROSI) into oocytes as a treatment for severe male infertility raises the question of whether spermatids have undergone all of the maturation processes necessary for normal development. It is particularly important to know whether spermatids have undergone correct genomic imprinting, which results in the parent-of-origin-specific expression of only one allele of a gene. We assessed the imprinting status of three maternally and three paternally expressed genes in interspecific hybrid embryos generated by injecting Mus castaneus spermatids into Mus musculus oocytes. We used the single nucleotide primer extension (SNuPE) assay to measure the relative expression of maternal and paternal alleles on the basis of sequence polymorphisms in the transcripts. Expression of imprinted genes in mouse embryos derived by ROSI did not differ from controls, indicating that paternal genes have undergone proper imprinting by the round spermatid stage.  (+info)

Estrus synchronization of beef cattle with a combination of melengestrol acetate and an injection of progesterone and 17beta-estradiol. (6/818)

Our hypothesis was that estrus synchronization in beef cattle using melengestrol acetate (MGA) and an injection of progesterone (P4) and 17beta-estradiol (E2) to regress dominant ovarian follicles would improve pregnancy rate (number conceived/number in group) to AI compared with feeding only MGA or injecting PGF2alpha. During 2 yr, peripubertal heifers (n = 52) and cows (n = 327) received either 1) MGA for 18 d (d 0 = 1st d of MGA) plus an injection of P4 and E2 in sesame oil (vehicle) on d 11 to regress persistent ovarian follicles (MGA+P4), 2) MGA for 18 d plus vehicle on d 11 (MGA), or 3) two injections of PGF2alpha 10 d apart (d 7 and 17, PG). Concentration of P4 was assessed in blood samples obtained on d 0, 7, and 17 to indicate estrual status (anestrual or estrual) during treatment to induce estrus synchrony. Observations for detection of estrus occurred every 6 h for 180 h following treatment cessation. Females showing estrus were inseminated 6 to 12 h after estrus detection. Conception to AI was determined by ultrasonography 35 to 40 d later. Conception rate was greater (P < .05) in females in the PG than in those in the MGA group but did not differ from conception rate of females in the MGA+P4 group. Among anestrual females, estrus synchrony rates were greatest (P < .10) among females treated with MGA+P4. Among females that were estrual before treatment cessation, estrus synchrony rates were greater (P < .10) among females treated with MGA+P4 or PG than among those given MGA. Pregnancy rates were greater (P < .05) among females that were anestrual before treatment cessation and treated with MGA or MGA+P4 than among those treated with PG. Estrus synchronization using MGA+P4 and E2 differentially improves estrus synchronization and pregnancy rates among anestrual and estrual beef cattle while maintaining conception rates similar to those of PGF2alpha-treated females.  (+info)

Mouse spermatid nuclei can support full term development after premature chromosome condensation within mature oocytes. (7/818)

The nucleus of round spermatids, the earliest haploid male germ cells, can participate in the formation of normal zygotes when incorporated into activated oocytes. In this study, we injected mouse round spermatids into homologous mature oocytes that were kept arrested at metaphase II to induce premature chromosome condensation (PCC) of the spermatid nuclei. After full condensation of the spermatid chromosomes, the oocytes were activated by Sr2+-containing medium, into which cytochalasin B was added to prevent extrusion of the segregated female and male chromosomes as polar bodies. Out of 142 oocytes examined, 104 (73%) formed two male (pseudo)pronuclei and two female pronuclei. To restore the diploid state of these zygotes, one of the female pronuclei was removed. When cultured in vitro for 72 hours, all (n = 37) of the constructed embryos developed to the morula/blastocyst stage. When 2-cell embryos and morulae/blastocysts were transferred into pseudopregnant females, 14 (13/96) and 24% (9/37), respectively, developed into term offspring. This study indicates that the spermatid chromosomes, which had undergone PCC, moved safely to opposite poles after oocyte activation. Since round spermatids contain no (in the mouse) or little (in patients with spermatogenic failure) oocyte-activating factor, this method may be used to rescue oocytes that fail to be activated at the time of spermatid injection.  (+info)

Duration of estrus in relation to reproduction results in pigs on commercial farms. (8/818)

This research was conducted to determine factors that influence duration of estrus, AI strategy, and reproduction results between and within commercial swine farms that use AI. Data from 15,186 sows and gilts on 55 farms for a period of 6.1+/-4.2 mo per farm were used in this study. The average duration of estrus was 48.4+/-1.0 h, ranging from 31 to 64 h, and was consistent from month to month within a farm (repeatability of 86%). Differences in duration of estrus between farms accounted for 23% of the total variation in duration of estrus. On most farms (n = 45), gilts showed a shorter (P < .05) duration of estrus than sows (40.8+/-1.1 h vs 48.5+/-1.0 h). The duration of first estrus after weaning was longer (P < .0001) compared with that of repeat-breeder sows (50.2+/-1.0 h vs 46.8+/-1.0 h). Duration of estrus decreased (P < .05) when interval from weaning to estrus increased from 4 to 6 d (56.0 +/- 1.2 h vs 45.8 +/-1.2 h). The regression of interval from onset to estrus to first AI and interval from weaning to estrus varied between farms and ranged from -7.4 to +1.3 h/d; four farms had a positive relationship. Farrowing rate decreased (P < .05) from 89.7+/-2.7% to 78.2+/-5.74 when the interval from weaning to estrus increased from 4 to 10 d. The litter size decreased (P < .05) from 11.7 to 10.6 pigs when the interval from weaning to estrus increased from 4 to 7 d. Compared with a single AI, double AI in sows and gilts resulted in a 4.3 and 7.0% higher (P < .05) farrowing rate, respectively. When the first AI was performed after expected ovulation, reproduction results were lower than when AI was performed before or at expected ovulation in sows. Duration of estrus was not related to farrowing rate or litter size in individual pigs. Number of inseminations per estrus, time of AI, and duration of estrus were correlated, which made it difficult to assess which of these factors was primarily related to the farrowing rate or litter size. Knowledge of average duration of estrus on farms and of factors that influence the duration of estrus on commercial farms can help to improve the efficiency of the AI strategy specific for each farm.  (+info)

Artificial insemination (AI) is a medical procedure that involves the introduction of sperm into a female's cervix or uterus for the purpose of achieving pregnancy. This procedure can be performed using sperm from a partner or a donor. It is often used when there are issues with male fertility, such as low sperm count or poor sperm motility, or in cases where natural conception is not possible due to various medical reasons.

There are two types of artificial insemination: intracervical insemination (ICI) and intrauterine insemination (IUI). ICI involves placing the sperm directly into the cervix, while IUI involves placing the sperm directly into the uterus using a catheter. The choice of procedure depends on various factors, including the cause of infertility and the preferences of the individuals involved.

Artificial insemination is a relatively simple and low-risk procedure that can be performed in a doctor's office or clinic. It may be combined with fertility drugs to increase the chances of pregnancy. The success rate of artificial insemination varies depending on several factors, including the age and fertility of the individuals involved, the cause of infertility, and the type of procedure used.

Insemination, in a medical context, refers to the introduction of semen into the reproductive system of a female for the purpose of achieving pregnancy. This can be done through various methods including intracervical insemination (ICI), intrauterine insemination (IUI), and in vitro fertilization (IVF).

Intracervical insemination involves placing the semen at the cervix, the opening to the uterus. Intrauterine insemination involves placing the sperm directly into the uterus using a catheter. In vitro fertilization is a more complex process where the egg and sperm are combined in a laboratory dish and then transferred to the uterus.

Insemination is often used in cases of infertility, either because of male or female factors, or unexplained infertility. It can also be used for those who wish to become pregnant but do not have a partner, such as single women and same-sex female couples.

Artificial insemination, homologous is a medical procedure where sperm from a woman's partner (the husband or male partner in a heterosexual relationship) is collected, processed and then inserted into the woman's reproductive tract through various methods to achieve fertilization and pregnancy. This method is often used when the male partner has issues with infertility, such as low sperm count or poor sperm motility, or when there are physical barriers that prevent natural conception from occurring. It is a type of artificial insemination that utilizes sperm from a genetically related source, as opposed to artificial insemination with donor (AID) sperm, which uses sperm from an anonymous or known donor.

Artificial insemination, heterologous (also known as donor insemination) is a medical procedure that involves the introduction of sperm from a donor into a woman's reproductive tract with the aim of achieving pregnancy. The sperm used in this procedure comes from a donor who is not the woman's sexual partner. This method may be used when the male partner has severe fertility problems, such as azoospermia (absence of sperm in the ejaculate), or when the couple has a high risk of passing on genetic disorders to their offspring. The donor sperm can be injected into the woman's uterus through intrauterine insemination (IUI) or placed directly into the cervix through intracervical insemination (ICI).

Semen preservation is the process of collecting, liquefying, testing, and storing semen samples for future use in assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as artificial insemination (AI), in vitro fertilization (IVF), or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The semen sample is usually collected through masturbation, and then it is mixed with a cryoprotectant solution to prevent damage during the freezing and thawing process. After that, the sample is divided into straws or vials and frozen in liquid nitrogen tanks at temperatures below -196°C. Properly preserved semen can be stored for many years without significant loss of quality or fertility potential. Semen preservation is often recommended for men who are about to undergo medical treatments that may affect their sperm production or fertility, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy, or for those who wish to postpone fatherhood for personal or medical reasons.

The pregnancy rate is a measure used in reproductive medicine to determine the frequency or efficiency of conception following certain treatments, interventions, or under specific conditions. It is typically defined as the number of pregnancies per 100 women exposed to the condition being studied over a specified period of time. A pregnancy is confirmed when a woman has a positive result on a pregnancy test or through the detection of a gestational sac on an ultrasound exam.

In clinical trials and research, the pregnancy rate helps healthcare professionals evaluate the effectiveness of various fertility treatments such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), intrauterine insemination (IUI), or ovulation induction medications. The pregnancy rate can also be used to assess the impact of lifestyle factors, environmental exposures, or medical conditions on fertility and conception.

It is important to note that pregnancy rates may vary depending on several factors, including age, the cause of infertility, the type and quality of treatment provided, and individual patient characteristics. Therefore, comparing pregnancy rates between different studies should be done cautiously, considering these potential confounding variables.

Fertilization is the process by which a sperm cell (spermatozoon) penetrates and fuses with an egg cell (ovum), resulting in the formation of a zygote. This fusion of genetic material from both the male and female gametes initiates the development of a new organism. In human biology, fertilization typically occurs in the fallopian tube after sexual intercourse, when a single sperm out of millions is able to reach and penetrate the egg released from the ovary during ovulation. The successful fusion of these two gametes marks the beginning of pregnancy.

Spermatozoa are the male reproductive cells, or gametes, that are produced in the testes. They are microscopic, flagellated (tail-equipped) cells that are highly specialized for fertilization. A spermatozoon consists of a head, neck, and tail. The head contains the genetic material within the nucleus, covered by a cap-like structure called the acrosome which contains enzymes to help the sperm penetrate the female's egg (ovum). The long, thin tail propels the sperm forward through fluid, such as semen, enabling its journey towards the egg for fertilization.

Fertility is the natural ability to conceive or to cause conception of offspring. In humans, it is the capacity of a woman and a man to reproduce through sexual reproduction. For women, fertility usually takes place during their reproductive years, which is from adolescence until menopause. A woman's fertility depends on various factors including her age, overall health, and the health of her reproductive system.

For men, fertility can be affected by a variety of factors such as age, genetics, general health, sexual function, and environmental factors that may affect sperm production or quality. Factors that can negatively impact male fertility include exposure to certain chemicals, radiation, smoking, alcohol consumption, drug use, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

Infertility is a common medical condition affecting about 10-15% of couples trying to conceive. Infertility can be primary or secondary. Primary infertility refers to the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected sexual intercourse, while secondary infertility refers to the inability to conceive following a previous pregnancy.

Infertility can be treated with various medical and surgical interventions depending on the underlying cause. These may include medications to stimulate ovulation, intrauterine insemination (IUI), in vitro fertilization (IVF), or surgery to correct anatomical abnormalities.

Sperm transport refers to the series of events that occur from the production of sperm in the testes to their release into the female reproductive tract during sexual intercourse. This process involves several stages:

1. Spermatogenesis: The production of sperm cells (spermatozoa) takes place in the seminiferous tubules within the testes.
2. Maturation: The newly produced sperm are immature and incapable of fertilization. They undergo a maturation process as they move through the epididymis, where they acquire motility and the ability to fertilize an egg.
3. Ejaculation: During sexual arousal, sperm are mixed with seminal fluid produced by the seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral glands to form semen. This mixture is propelled through the urethra during orgasm (ejaculation) and released from the penis into the female reproductive tract.
4. Transport within the female reproductive tract: Once inside the female reproductive tract, sperm must travel through the cervix, uterus, and fallopian tubes to reach the site of fertilization, the ampullary-isthmic junction of the fallopian tube. This journey can take several hours to a few days.
5. Capacitation: During their transport within the female reproductive tract, sperm undergo further changes called capacitation, which prepares them for fertilization by increasing their motility and making them more responsive to the egg's chemical signals.
6. Acrosome reaction: The final step in sperm transport is the acrosome reaction, where the sperm releases enzymes from the acrosome (a cap-like structure on the head of the sperm) to penetrate and fertilize the egg.

Estrus synchronization is a veterinary medical procedure used in the management of domestic animals, such as cattle and sheep. It is a process of coordinating the estrous cycles of animals so that they can be bred at the same time or have their fertility treatments performed simultaneously. This is achieved through the use of various hormonal therapies, including progestins, prostaglandins, and gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH).

The goal of estrus synchronization is to improve reproductive efficiency in animal production systems by ensuring that a larger number of animals become pregnant during a shorter breeding season. This can lead to more uniform calf or lamb crops, reduced labor and management costs, and increased profitability for farmers and ranchers.

Estrus synchronization is a complex process that requires careful planning and implementation, as well as ongoing monitoring and evaluation of the animals' reproductive performance. It is typically performed under the guidance of a veterinarian or animal reproduction specialist.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Estrus detection in veterinary medicine refers to the process of identifying when a female animal is in heat or estrus, which is the period of time when she is fertile and receptive to mating. This is an important aspect of managing breeding programs for livestock and other animals.

Detection of estrus can be done through various methods, including:

1. Observing behavioral changes: Female animals in heat may show signs of increased interest in males, becoming more vocal or restless, and may adopt a mating stance.
2. Physical examination: A veterinarian may perform a physical exam to check for signs of estrus, such as swelling or reddening of the vulva.
3. Hormonal assays: Blood or vaginal fluid samples can be tested for hormone levels, such as estradiol and progesterone, to determine if an animal is in heat.
4. Use of teaser animals: Intact males can be used to stimulate a response in females, indicating that they are in estrus.

Accurate detection of estrus is critical for successful breeding and management of animal reproduction.

Semen is a complex, whitish fluid that is released from the male reproductive system during ejaculation. It is produced by several glands, including the seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral glands. Semen contains several components, including sperm (the male reproductive cells), as well as various proteins, enzymes, vitamins, and minerals. Its primary function is to transport sperm through the female reproductive tract during sexual intercourse, providing nutrients and aiding in the protection of the sperm as they travel toward the egg for fertilization.

Sperm motility is the ability of sperm to move actively and effectively through the female reproductive tract towards the egg for fertilization. It is typically measured as the percentage of moving sperm in a sample, and their progressiveness or velocity. Normal human sperm motility is generally defined as forward progression of at least 25 micrometers per second, with at least 50% of sperm showing progressive motility. Reduced sperm motility, also known as asthenozoospermia, can negatively impact fertility and reproductive outcomes.

Ovulation induction is a medical procedure that involves the stimulation of ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries) in women who have difficulties conceiving due to ovulatory disorders. This is typically achieved through the use of medications such as clomiphene citrate or gonadotropins, which promote the development and maturation of follicles in the ovaries containing eggs. The process is closely monitored through regular ultrasounds and hormone tests to ensure appropriate response and minimize the risk of complications like multiple pregnancies. Ovulation induction may be used as a standalone treatment or in conjunction with other assisted reproductive technologies (ART), such as intrauterine insemination (IUI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF).

Sperm count, also known as sperm concentration, is the number of sperm present in a given volume of semen. The World Health Organization (WHO) previously defined a normal sperm count as at least 20 million sperm per milliliter of semen. However, more recent studies suggest that fertility may be affected even when sperm counts are slightly lower than this threshold. It's important to note that sperm count is just one factor among many that can influence male fertility. Other factors, such as sperm motility (the ability of sperm to move properly) and morphology (the shape of the sperm), also play crucial roles in successful conception.

Infertility is a reproductive health disorder defined as the failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular, unprotected sexual intercourse or due to an impairment of a person's capacity to reproduce either as an individual or with their partner. It can be caused by various factors in both men and women, including hormonal imbalances, structural abnormalities, genetic issues, infections, age, lifestyle factors, and others. Infertility can have significant emotional and psychological impacts on individuals and couples experiencing it, and medical intervention may be necessary to help them conceive.

Fertilization in vitro, also known as in-vitro fertilization (IVF), is a medical procedure where an egg (oocyte) and sperm are combined in a laboratory dish to facilitate fertilization. The fertilized egg (embryo) is then transferred to a uterus with the hope of establishing a successful pregnancy. This procedure is often used when other assisted reproductive technologies have been unsuccessful or are not applicable, such as in cases of blocked fallopian tubes, severe male factor infertility, and unexplained infertility. The process involves ovarian stimulation, egg retrieval, fertilization, embryo culture, and embryo transfer. In some cases, additional techniques such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) or preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) may be used to increase the chances of success.

Cryopreservation is a medical procedure that involves the preservation of cells, tissues, or organs by cooling them to very low temperatures, typically below -150°C. This is usually achieved using liquid nitrogen. The low temperature slows down or stops biological activity, including chemical reactions and cellular metabolism, which helps to prevent damage and decay.

The cells, tissues, or organs that are being cryopreserved must be treated with a cryoprotectant solution before cooling to prevent the formation of ice crystals, which can cause significant damage. Once cooled, the samples are stored in specialized containers or tanks until they are needed for use.

Cryopreservation is commonly used in assisted reproductive technologies, such as the preservation of sperm, eggs, and embryos for fertility treatments. It is also used in research, including the storage of cell lines and stem cells, and in clinical settings, such as the preservation of skin grafts and corneas for transplantation.

Superovulation, also known as controlled ovarian stimulation (COS), refers to the process of inducing the development and release of multiple mature ova (eggs) from the ovaries during a single reproductive cycle. This is achieved through the administration of exogenous gonadotropins or other fertility medications, which stimulate the ovarian follicles to grow and mature beyond the normal number. Superovulation is commonly used in assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) to increase the chances of successful conception by obtaining a larger number of ova for fertilization and embryo transfer.

Ovulation detection refers to the process of identifying the time period during which an ovary releases an oocyte (mature egg) from its follicle, ready for fertilization. This is a crucial aspect of reproductive health and assisted reproduction technologies (ART), such as in vitro fertilization (IVF).

There are several methods to detect ovulation, including:

1. Ovulation Predictor Kits (OPKs): These are home-use test kits that detect the surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) in urine, which occurs 24-36 hours prior to ovulation.
2. Basal Body Temperature (BBT) Charting: This involves tracking and recording daily basal body temperature (the lowest temperature attained by the body during rest), as it tends to rise slightly after ovulation due to increased progesterone levels.
3. Hormonal Monitoring: Blood tests can be used to measure hormone levels, such as estrogen and progesterone, throughout a menstrual cycle to detect ovulation.
4. Transvaginal Ultrasound: This imaging technique is often used in clinical settings to monitor follicular development and determine the exact time of ovulation by observing changes in the ovarian follicle and endometrial lining.
5. Saliva Ferning Tests: A microscope is used to examine the patterns formed by dried saliva, which can indicate increased estrogen levels prior to ovulation.

Accurate ovulation detection helps individuals or couples trying to conceive optimize their chances of success and provides valuable information for healthcare providers in managing reproductive health issues.

Sperm-ovum interactions, also known as sperm-egg interactions, refer to the specific series of events that occur between a spermatozoon (sperm) and an oocyte (egg or ovum) during fertilization in sexual reproduction.

The process begins with the sperm's attachment to the zona pellucida, a glycoprotein layer surrounding the oocyte. This interaction is mediated by specific proteins on the surface of both the sperm and the zona pellucida. Following attachment, the sperm undergoes the acrosome reaction, during which enzymes are released from the sperm's head to help digest and penetrate the zona pellucida.

Once the sperm has successfully traversed the zona pellucida, it makes contact with the oocyte's plasma membrane, triggering the fusion of the sperm and egg membranes. This results in the release of the sperm's genetic material into the oocyte's cytoplasm and the initiation of a series of intracellular signaling events within the oocyte that ultimately lead to its completion of meiosis II and formation of a zygote, marking the beginning of embryonic development.

Proper sperm-ovum interactions are crucial for successful fertilization and subsequent embryonic development, and any disruptions in these processes can result in infertility or early pregnancy loss.

Clomiphene is a medication that is primarily used to treat infertility in women. It is an ovulatory stimulant, which means that it works by stimulating the development and release of mature eggs from the ovaries (a process known as ovulation). Clomiphene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), which means that it binds to estrogen receptors in the body and blocks the effects of estrogen in certain tissues, while enhancing the effects of estrogen in others.

In the ovary, clomiphene works by blocking the negative feedback effect of estrogen on the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, which results in an increase in the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). These hormones stimulate the growth and development of ovarian follicles, which contain eggs. As the follicles grow and mature, they produce increasing amounts of estrogen, which eventually triggers a surge in LH that leads to ovulation.

Clomiphene is typically taken orally for 5 days, starting on the 3rd, 4th, or 5th day of the menstrual cycle. The dosage may be adjusted based on the patient's response to treatment. Common side effects of clomiphene include hot flashes, mood changes, breast tenderness, and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), which is a potentially serious complication characterized by the enlargement of the ovaries and the accumulation of fluid in the abdomen.

It's important to note that clomiphene may not be suitable for everyone, and its use should be carefully monitored by a healthcare provider. Women with certain medical conditions, such as liver disease, thyroid disorders, or uterine fibroids, may not be able to take clomiphene. Additionally, women who become pregnant while taking clomiphene have an increased risk of multiple pregnancies (e.g., twins or triplets), which can pose additional risks to both the mother and the fetuses.

Female fertility agents are medications or treatments that are used to enhance or restore female fertility. They can work in various ways such as stimulating ovulation, improving the quality of eggs, facilitating the implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus, or addressing issues related to the reproductive system.

Some examples of female fertility agents include:

1. Clomiphene citrate (Clomid, Serophene): This medication stimulates ovulation by causing the pituitary gland to release more follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).
2. Gonadotropins: These are hormonal medications that contain FSH and LH, which stimulate the ovaries to produce mature eggs. Examples include human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).
3. Letrozole (Femara): This medication is an aromatase inhibitor that can be used off-label to stimulate ovulation in women who do not respond to clomiphene citrate.
4. Metformin (Glucophage): This medication is primarily used to treat type 2 diabetes, but it can also improve fertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) by regulating insulin levels and promoting ovulation.
5. Bromocriptine (Parlodel): This medication is used to treat infertility caused by hyperprolactinemia, a condition characterized by high levels of prolactin in the blood.
6. Assisted reproductive technologies (ART): These include procedures such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT). They involve manipulating eggs and sperm outside the body to facilitate fertilization and implantation.

It is important to consult with a healthcare provider or reproductive endocrinologist to determine the most appropriate fertility agent for individual needs, as these medications can have side effects and potential risks.

Female infertility is a condition characterized by the inability to conceive after 12 months or more of regular, unprotected sexual intercourse or the inability to carry a pregnancy to a live birth. The causes of female infertility can be multifactorial and may include issues with ovulation, damage to the fallopian tubes or uterus, endometriosis, hormonal imbalances, age-related factors, and other medical conditions.

Some common causes of female infertility include:

1. Ovulation disorders: Conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid disorders, premature ovarian failure, and hyperprolactinemia can affect ovulation and lead to infertility.
2. Damage to the fallopian tubes: Pelvic inflammatory disease, endometriosis, or previous surgeries can cause scarring and blockages in the fallopian tubes, preventing the egg and sperm from meeting.
3. Uterine abnormalities: Structural issues with the uterus, such as fibroids, polyps, or congenital defects, can interfere with implantation and pregnancy.
4. Age-related factors: As women age, their fertility declines due to a decrease in the number and quality of eggs.
5. Other medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as diabetes, celiac disease, and autoimmune disorders, can contribute to infertility.

In some cases, female infertility can be treated with medications, surgery, or assisted reproductive technologies (ART) like in vitro fertilization (IVF). A thorough evaluation by a healthcare professional is necessary to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Male infertility is a condition characterized by the inability to cause pregnancy in a fertile female. It is typically defined as the failure to achieve a pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected sexual intercourse.

The causes of male infertility can be varied and include issues with sperm production, such as low sperm count or poor sperm quality, problems with sperm delivery, such as obstructions in the reproductive tract, or hormonal imbalances that affect sperm production. Other factors that may contribute to male infertility include genetic disorders, environmental exposures, lifestyle choices, and certain medical conditions or treatments.

It is important to note that male infertility can often be treated or managed with medical interventions, such as medication, surgery, or assisted reproductive technologies (ART). A healthcare provider can help diagnose the underlying cause of male infertility and recommend appropriate treatment options.

Litter size is a term used in veterinary medicine, particularly in relation to breeding of animals. It refers to the number of offspring that are born to an animal during one pregnancy. For example, in the case of dogs or cats, it would be the number of kittens or puppies born in a single litter. The size of the litter can vary widely depending on the species, breed, age, and health status of the parent animals.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

Ovulation is the medical term for the release of a mature egg from an ovary during a woman's menstrual cycle. The released egg travels through the fallopian tube where it may be fertilized by sperm if sexual intercourse has occurred recently. If the egg is not fertilized, it will break down and leave the body along with the uterine lining during menstruation. Ovulation typically occurs around day 14 of a 28-day menstrual cycle, but the timing can vary widely from woman to woman and even from cycle to cycle in the same woman.

During ovulation, there are several physical changes that may occur in a woman's body, such as an increase in basal body temperature, changes in cervical mucus, and mild cramping or discomfort on one side of the lower abdomen (known as mittelschmerz). These symptoms can be used to help predict ovulation and improve the chances of conception.

It's worth noting that some medical conditions, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or premature ovarian failure, may affect ovulation and make it difficult for a woman to become pregnant. In these cases, medical intervention may be necessary to help promote ovulation and increase the chances of conception.

Pregnancy outcome refers to the final result or status of a pregnancy, including both the health of the mother and the newborn baby. It can be categorized into various types such as:

1. Live birth: The delivery of one or more babies who show signs of life after separation from their mother.
2. Stillbirth: The delivery of a baby who has died in the womb after 20 weeks of pregnancy.
3. Miscarriage: The spontaneous loss of a pregnancy before the 20th week.
4. Abortion: The intentional termination of a pregnancy before the fetus can survive outside the uterus.
5. Ectopic pregnancy: A pregnancy that develops outside the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube, which is not viable and requires medical attention.
6. Preterm birth: The delivery of a baby before 37 weeks of gestation, which can lead to various health issues for the newborn.
7. Full-term birth: The delivery of a baby between 37 and 42 weeks of gestation.
8. Post-term pregnancy: The delivery of a baby after 42 weeks of gestation, which may increase the risk of complications for both mother and baby.

The pregnancy outcome is influenced by various factors such as maternal age, health status, lifestyle habits, genetic factors, and access to quality prenatal care.

Embryo transfer is a medical procedure that involves the transfer of an embryo, which is typically created through in vitro fertilization (IVF), into the uterus of a woman with the aim of establishing a pregnancy. The embryo may be created using the intended parent's own sperm and eggs or those from donors. After fertilization and early cell division, the resulting embryo is transferred into the uterus of the recipient mother through a thin catheter that is inserted through the cervix. This procedure is typically performed under ultrasound guidance to ensure proper placement of the embryo. Embryo transfer is a key step in assisted reproductive technology (ART) and is often used as a treatment for infertility.

Copulation is the act of sexual reproduction in animals, achieved through the process of mating and engaging in sexual intercourse. It involves the insertion of the male's reproductive organ (the penis) into the female's reproductive organ (vagina), followed by the ejaculation of semen, which contains sperm. The sperm then travels up through the cervix and into the uterus, where they may fertilize an egg or ovum that has been released from one of the ovaries.

In a broader sense, copulation can also refer to the act of reproduction in other organisms, such as plants, fungi, and protists, which may involve different processes such as pollination, fusion of gametes, or vegetative reproduction.

Progesterone is a steroid hormone that is primarily produced in the ovaries during the menstrual cycle and in pregnancy. It plays an essential role in preparing the uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg and maintaining the early stages of pregnancy. Progesterone works to thicken the lining of the uterus, creating a nurturing environment for the developing embryo.

During the menstrual cycle, progesterone is produced by the corpus luteum, a temporary structure formed in the ovary after an egg has been released from a follicle during ovulation. If pregnancy does not occur, the levels of progesterone will decrease, leading to the shedding of the uterine lining and menstruation.

In addition to its reproductive functions, progesterone also has various other effects on the body, such as helping to regulate the immune system, supporting bone health, and potentially influencing mood and cognition. Progesterone can be administered medically in the form of oral pills, intramuscular injections, or vaginal suppositories for various purposes, including hormone replacement therapy, contraception, and managing certain gynecological conditions.

The uterus, also known as the womb, is a hollow, muscular organ located in the female pelvic cavity, between the bladder and the rectum. It has a thick, middle layer called the myometrium, which is composed of smooth muscle tissue, and an inner lining called the endometrium, which provides a nurturing environment for the fertilized egg to develop into a fetus during pregnancy.

The uterus is where the baby grows and develops until it is ready for birth through the cervix, which is the lower, narrow part of the uterus that opens into the vagina. The uterus plays a critical role in the menstrual cycle as well, by shedding its lining each month if pregnancy does not occur.

Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone that is produced during pregnancy. It is produced by the placenta after implantation of the fertilized egg in the uterus. The main function of hCG is to prevent the disintegration of the corpus luteum, which is a temporary endocrine structure that forms in the ovary after ovulation and produces progesterone during early pregnancy. Progesterone is essential for maintaining the lining of the uterus and supporting the pregnancy.

hCG can be detected in the blood or urine as early as 10 days after conception, and its levels continue to rise throughout the first trimester of pregnancy. In addition to its role in maintaining pregnancy, hCG is also used as a clinical marker for pregnancy and to monitor certain medical conditions such as gestational trophoblastic diseases.

Assisted reproductive techniques (ART) are medical procedures that involve the handling of human sperm and ova to establish a pregnancy. These techniques are used when other methods of achieving pregnancy have failed or are not available. Examples of ART include in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), and zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT). These procedures may be used to treat infertility, prevent genetic disorders, or to help same-sex couples or single people have children. It is important to note that the use of ART can involve significant physical, emotional, and financial costs, and it may not always result in a successful pregnancy.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but I was unable to find a medical definition for "Flurogestone Acetate." It is possible that there may be a spelling error or it could be a medication that is not widely recognized in the medical field. If you have more information about this term, such as its alternate names or the context in which it's used, I might be able to provide a more accurate response.

Fluorogestone acetate is a synthetic progestogen, which is a type of hormone that is similar to the natural progesterone produced by the body. It has been used in some formulations for hormonal contraception and hormone replacement therapy. However, it's important to note that specific medications and their uses may vary depending on the country and region, so I cannot provide a definitive medical definition without more context.

If you have any concerns about your medication or its effects, please consult with a healthcare professional for accurate information tailored to your situation.

"Sex preselection," also known as "gender selection" or "family balancing," is the process of influencing the sex of an offspring before birth. It can be achieved through various methods, including preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) in conjunction with in vitro fertilization (IVF), sperm sorting techniques, and embryo manipulation.

PGD is a technique where one or more cells are taken from an embryo created through IVF and tested for genetic disorders or chromosomal abnormalities. During this process, the sex of the embryo can also be determined. Only embryos of the desired sex are then transferred to the uterus for implantation.

Sperm sorting techniques involve separating X-chromosome-bearing sperm (which produce female offspring) from Y-chromosome-bearing sperm (which produce male offspring). The sorted sperm can then be used for artificial insemination or IVF.

It's important to note that sex preselection is a controversial topic due to ethical considerations and legal restrictions in some countries.

Sexual behavior in animals refers to a variety of behaviors related to reproduction and mating that occur between members of the same species. These behaviors can include courtship displays, mating rituals, and various physical acts. The specific forms of sexual behavior displayed by a given species are influenced by a combination of genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors.

In some animals, sexual behavior is closely tied to reproductive cycles and may only occur during certain times of the year or under specific conditions. In other species, sexual behavior may be more frequent and less closely tied to reproduction, serving instead as a means of social bonding or communication.

It's important to note that while humans are animals, the term "sexual behavior" is often used in a more specific sense to refer to sexual activities between human beings. The study of sexual behavior in animals is an important area of research within the field of animal behavior and can provide insights into the evolutionary origins of human sexual behavior as well as the underlying mechanisms that drive it.

"Animal pregnancy" is not a term that is typically used in medical definitions. However, in biological terms, animal pregnancy refers to the condition where a fertilized egg (or eggs) implants and develops inside the reproductive tract of a female animal, leading to the birth of offspring (live young).

The specific details of animal pregnancy can vary widely between different species, with some animals exhibiting phenomena such as placental development, gestation periods, and hormonal changes that are similar to human pregnancy, while others may have very different reproductive strategies.

It's worth noting that the study of animal pregnancy and reproduction is an important area of biological research, as it can provide insights into fundamental mechanisms of embryonic development, genetics, and evolution.

A pregnancy test is a medical diagnostic tool used to determine whether or not a woman is pregnant. These tests detect the presence of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a hormone produced by the placenta after fertilization. Pregnancy tests can be performed using a variety of methods, including urine tests and blood tests.

Urine pregnancy tests are typically performed at home and involve either dipping a test strip into a sample of urine or holding the strip under a stream of urine for several seconds. The test strip contains antibodies that react with hCG, producing a visual signal such as a line or plus sign if hCG is present.

Blood pregnancy tests are performed by a healthcare provider and can detect lower levels of hCG than urine tests. There are two types of blood pregnancy tests: qualitative and quantitative. Qualitative tests simply detect the presence or absence of hCG, while quantitative tests measure the exact amount of hCG present in the blood.

Pregnancy tests are generally very accurate when used correctly, but false positives and false negatives can occur. False positives may occur due to certain medical conditions or medications that contain hCG. False negatives may occur if the test is taken too early or if it is not performed correctly. It is important to follow the instructions carefully and consult with a healthcare provider if there is any uncertainty about the results.

In medical terms, "breeding" is not a term that is commonly used. It is more frequently used in the context of animal husbandry to refer to the process of mating animals in order to produce offspring with specific desired traits or characteristics. In human medicine, the term is not typically applied to people and instead, related concepts such as reproduction, conception, or pregnancy are used.

Reproduction, in the context of biology and medicine, refers to the process by which organisms produce offspring. It is a complex process that involves the creation, development, and growth of new individuals from parent organisms. In sexual reproduction, this process typically involves the combination of genetic material from two parents through the fusion of gametes (sex cells) such as sperm and egg cells. This results in the formation of a zygote, which then develops into a new individual with a unique genetic makeup.

In contrast, asexual reproduction does not involve the fusion of gametes and can occur through various mechanisms such as budding, fragmentation, or parthenogenesis. Asexual reproduction results in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent organism.

Reproduction is a fundamental process that ensures the survival and continuation of species over time. It is also an area of active research in fields such as reproductive medicine, where scientists and clinicians work to understand and address issues related to human fertility, contraception, and genetic disorders.

The Fallopian tubes, also known as uterine tubes or oviducts, are a pair of slender tubular structures in the female reproductive system. They play a crucial role in human reproduction by providing a passageway for the egg (ovum) from the ovary to the uterus (womb).

Each Fallopian tube is typically around 7.6 to 10 centimeters long and consists of four parts: the interstitial part, the isthmus, the ampulla, and the infundibulum. The fimbriated end of the infundibulum, which resembles a fringe or frill, surrounds and captures the released egg from the ovary during ovulation.

Fertilization usually occurs in the ampulla when sperm meets the egg after sexual intercourse. Once fertilized, the zygote (fertilized egg) travels through the Fallopian tube toward the uterus for implantation and further development. The cilia lining the inner surface of the Fallopian tubes help propel the egg and the zygote along their journey.

In some cases, abnormalities or blockages in the Fallopian tubes can lead to infertility or ectopic pregnancies, which are pregnancies that develop outside the uterus, typically within the Fallopian tube itself.

Melengestrol Acetate (MGA) is a synthetic progestin, which is a type of steroid hormone. It is used primarily as a growth promoter in the livestock industry to increase weight gain and feed efficiency in beef cattle. MGA works by suppressing the animal's natural hormonal balance, particularly the levels of estrogen and testosterone, which leads to changes in metabolism and behavior that promote weight gain.

It is not approved for use in humans in many countries, including the United States, due to concerns about potential health risks associated with its long-term use, such as reproductive and developmental effects. However, it has been used off-label in some cases to treat certain medical conditions in women, such as endometriosis or abnormal uterine bleeding, under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Multiple pregnancy is a type of gestation where more than one fetus is carried simultaneously in the uterus. The most common forms of multiple pregnancies are twins (two fetuses), triplets (three fetuses), and quadruplets (four fetuses). Multiple pregnancies can occur when a single fertilized egg splits into two or more embryos (monozygotic) or when more than one egg is released and gets fertilized during ovulation (dizygotic). The risk of multiple pregnancies increases with the use of assisted reproductive technologies, such as in vitro fertilization. Multiple pregnancies are associated with higher risks for both the mother and the fetuses, including preterm labor, low birth weight, and other complications.

Progesterone congeners refer to synthetic or naturally occurring compounds that are structurally similar to progesterone, a steroid hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis. These compounds have similar chemical structures to progesterone and may exhibit similar physiological activities, although they can also have unique properties and uses. Examples of progesterone congeners include various synthetic progestins used in hormonal contraceptives and other medical treatments.

Ejaculation is the discharge of semen, typically accompanied by orgasm, during sexual activity. It occurs when the male reproductive system releases semen from the penis. This process is usually brought on by sexual arousal and stimulation, which cause the sperm-carrying vas deferens to contract and push the semen into the urethra, from where it is expelled through the tip of the penis.

There are two types of ejaculation:

1. **Reflex ejaculation**: This occurs when there is a high level of sexual excitement or stimulation, leading to an involuntary and automatic response.
2. **Premature ejaculation**: This refers to the condition where ejaculation happens too quickly, often before or shortly after penetration, causing distress and affecting sexual satisfaction for both partners.

It is essential to understand that a healthy male can experience variations in the timing of ejaculation throughout their life, influenced by factors such as age, stress levels, and overall health. If you have concerns about your ejaculation patterns or any related issues, it is recommended to consult a healthcare professional for advice and treatment options.

Estrus is a term used in veterinary medicine to describe the physiological and behavioral state of female mammals that are ready to mate and conceive. It refers to the period of time when the female's reproductive system is most receptive to fertilization.

During estrus, the female's ovaries release one or more mature eggs (ovulation) into the fallopian tubes, where they can be fertilized by sperm from a male. This phase of the estrous cycle is often accompanied by changes in behavior and physical appearance, such as increased vocalization, restlessness, and swelling of the genital area.

The duration and frequency of estrus vary widely among different species of mammals. In some animals, such as dogs and cats, estrus occurs regularly at intervals of several weeks or months, while in others, such as cows and mares, it may only occur once or twice a year.

It's important to note that the term "estrus" is not used to describe human reproductive physiology. In humans, the equivalent phase of the menstrual cycle is called ovulation.

Menotropins are a preparation of natural follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) derived from the urine of postmenopausal women. They are used in infertility treatment to stimulate the development of multiple follicles in the ovaries, leading to an increased chance of pregnancy through assisted reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF).

Menotropins contain a mixture of FSH and LH in a ratio that is similar to the natural hormone levels found in the human body. The FSH component stimulates the growth and development of follicles in the ovaries, while the LH component triggers ovulation when the follicles have matured.

Menotropins are typically administered by subcutaneous injection and are available under various brand names, such as Menopur and Repronex. The use of menotropins requires careful medical supervision to monitor the response of the ovaries and to minimize the risk of complications such as ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS).

Female genitalia refer to the reproductive and sexual organs located in the female pelvic region. They are primarily involved in reproduction, menstruation, and sexual activity. The external female genitalia, also known as the vulva, include the mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, and the external openings of the urethra and vagina. The internal female genitalia consist of the vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. These structures work together to facilitate menstruation, fertilization, pregnancy, and childbirth.

An oocyte, also known as an egg cell or female gamete, is a large specialized cell found in the ovary of female organisms. It contains half the number of chromosomes as a normal diploid cell, as it is the product of meiotic division. Oocytes are surrounded by follicle cells and are responsible for the production of female offspring upon fertilization with sperm. The term "oocyte" specifically refers to the immature egg cell before it reaches full maturity and is ready for fertilization, at which point it is referred to as an ovum or egg.

Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer (GIFT) is a type of assisted reproductive technology (ART) that involves the transfer of both sperm and eggs directly into a woman's fallopian tubes through a surgical procedure. This process allows for fertilization to occur naturally within the woman's body, increasing the chances of successful implantation and pregnancy.

In GIFT, mature eggs are collected from the woman's ovaries through a minor surgical procedure called follicular aspiration. These eggs are then mixed with prepared sperm from the partner or a donor in the laboratory. The mixture of eggs and sperm is then transferred into the fallopian tubes using a thin catheter, which is inserted through a small incision made in the woman's abdomen.

GIFT is typically recommended for couples who have unexplained infertility or mild to moderate male factor infertility and for whom other fertility treatments, such as intrauterine insemination (IUI), have been unsuccessful. However, due to the invasive nature of the procedure and the need for general anesthesia, GIFT is less commonly used than other ART procedures, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF).

An ovum is the female reproductive cell, or gamete, produced in the ovaries. It is also known as an egg cell and is released from the ovary during ovulation. When fertilized by a sperm, it becomes a zygote, which can develop into a fetus. The ovum contains half the genetic material necessary to create a new individual.

An ovarian follicle is a fluid-filled sac in the ovary that contains an immature egg or ovum (oocyte). It's a part of the female reproductive system and plays a crucial role in the process of ovulation.

Ovarian follicles start developing in the ovaries during fetal development, but only a small number of them will mature and release an egg during a woman's reproductive years. The maturation process is stimulated by hormones like follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).

There are different types of ovarian follicles, including primordial, primary, secondary, and tertiary or Graafian follicles. The Graafian follicle is the mature follicle that ruptures during ovulation to release the egg into the fallopian tube, where it may be fertilized by sperm.

It's important to note that abnormal growth or development of ovarian follicles can lead to conditions like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and ovarian cancer.

Equine Gonadotropins are glycoprotein hormones derived from the pituitary gland of horses. They consist of two subunits: a common alpha subunit and a unique beta subunit that determines the biological activity of each hormone. There are two main types of equine gonadotropins: Equine Follicle Stimulating Hormone (eFSH) and Equine Luteinizing Hormone (eLH).

eFSH plays a crucial role in the growth and development of ovarian follicles in females, while eLH stimulates ovulation and the production of sex steroids in both males and females. These hormones are often used in veterinary medicine to induce ovulation and improve fertility in horses, as well as in research to study the physiology and biochemistry of gonadotropins and reproduction. It's important to note that equine gonadotropins have limited application in human reproductive medicine due to potential immunogenic reactions and other safety concerns.

"Dairying" is not a medical term. It refers to the industry or practice of producing and processing milk and milk products, such as butter, cheese, and yogurt, typically from cows but also from other animals like goats and sheep. Dairying involves various activities including breeding and raising dairy animals, milking, processing, and marketing milk and milk products. It is not a medical concept or procedure.

Semen analysis is a laboratory test that evaluates various characteristics of semen, the fluid that is released during ejaculation. These characteristics include:

1. Volume: The amount of semen produced in one ejaculation.
2. Liquefaction time: The time it takes for the semen to change from a gel-like consistency to a liquid state.
3. pH: The acidity or alkalinity of the semen.
4. Sperm concentration: The number of sperm present in each milliliter of semen.
5. Total sperm count: The total number of sperm in the entire ejaculate.
6. Motility: The percentage of sperm that are moving and their forward progression.
7. Morphology: The shape and size of the sperm.
8. Vitality: The percentage of live sperm in the sample.
9. White blood cell count: The presence of white blood cells, which can indicate an infection.

Semen analysis is often used to help diagnose male infertility, as well as to monitor the effectiveness of treatments for infertility. It may also be used to detect abnormalities in the reproductive system or to evaluate the effects of certain medications on sperm production and quality.

Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) is a specialized form of assisted reproductive technology (ART), specifically used in the context of in vitro fertilization (IVF). It involves the direct injection of a single sperm into the cytoplasm of a mature egg (oocyte) to facilitate fertilization. This technique is often used when there are issues with male infertility, such as low sperm count or poor sperm motility, to increase the chances of successful fertilization. The resulting embryos can then be transferred to the uterus in hopes of achieving a pregnancy.

Dinoprost is a synthetic form of prostaglandin F2α, which is a naturally occurring hormone-like substance in the body. It is used in veterinary medicine as a uterotonic agent to induce labor and abortion in various animals such as cows and pigs. In human medicine, it may be used off-label for similar purposes, but its use must be under the close supervision of a healthcare provider due to potential side effects and risks.

It is important to note that Dinoprost is not approved by the FDA for use in humans, and its availability may vary depending on the country or region. Always consult with a licensed healthcare professional before using any medication, including Dinoprost.

Reproductive techniques refer to various methods and procedures used to assist individuals or couples in achieving pregnancy, carrying a pregnancy to term, or preserving fertility. These techniques can be broadly categorized into assisted reproductive technology (ART) and fertility preservation.

Assisted reproductive technology (ART) includes procedures such as:

1. In vitro fertilization (IVF): A process where an egg is fertilized by sperm outside the body in a laboratory dish, and then the resulting embryo is transferred to a woman's uterus.
2. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI): A procedure where a single sperm is directly injected into an egg to facilitate fertilization.
3. Embryo culture and cryopreservation: The process of growing embryos in a laboratory for a few days before freezing them for later use.
4. Donor gametes: Using eggs, sperm, or embryos from a known or anonymous donor to achieve pregnancy.
5. Gestational surrogacy: A method where a woman carries and gives birth to a baby for another individual or couple who cannot carry a pregnancy themselves.

Fertility preservation techniques include:

1. Sperm banking: The process of freezing and storing sperm for future use in artificial reproduction.
2. Egg (oocyte) freezing: A procedure where a woman's eggs are extracted, frozen, and stored for later use in fertility treatments.
3. Embryo freezing: The cryopreservation of embryos created through IVF for future use.
4. Ovarian tissue cryopreservation: The freezing and storage of ovarian tissue to restore fertility after cancer treatment or other conditions that may affect fertility.
5. Testicular tissue cryopreservation: The collection and storage of testicular tissue in prepubertal boys undergoing cancer treatment to preserve their future fertility potential.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Bedbugs are small, wingless insects that belong to the family Cimicidae. The scientific name for the most common species of bedbug is Cimex lectularius. Adult bedbugs are oval-shaped, flat, and reddish-brown in color, while nymphs (immature bedbugs) are smaller, lighter in color, and translucent.

Bedbugs feed on the blood of humans and other warm-blooded animals, usually at night when their hosts are asleep. They are attracted to body heat and carbon dioxide exhaled by their hosts. Bedbug bites can cause itchy red welts or bumps on the skin, but they are not known to transmit any diseases.

Bedbugs can be found in a variety of places where people sleep or rest for extended periods, including homes, hotels, hostels, and college dormitories. They can hide in cracks and crevices in furniture, walls, floors, and bedding, making them difficult to detect and eliminate.

To prevent bedbug infestations, it is recommended to inspect second-hand furniture carefully before bringing it into your home, use protective encasements on mattresses and box springs, and avoid storing items under beds or near walls. If you suspect a bedbug infestation, contact a pest management professional for assistance.

Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH), also known as Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone (LHRH), is a hormonal peptide consisting of 10 amino acids. It is produced and released by the hypothalamus, an area in the brain that links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland.

GnRH plays a crucial role in regulating reproduction and sexual development through its control of two gonadotropins: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). These gonadotropins, in turn, stimulate the gonads (ovaries or testes) to produce sex steroids and eggs or sperm.

GnRH acts on the anterior pituitary gland by binding to its specific receptors, leading to the release of FSH and LH. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is under negative feedback control, meaning that when sex steroid levels are high, they inhibit the release of GnRH, which subsequently decreases FSH and LH secretion.

GnRH agonists and antagonists have clinical applications in various medical conditions, such as infertility treatments, precocious puberty, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, prostate cancer, and hormone-responsive breast cancer.

Pregnenediones are a class of steroid hormones that contain a pregnane structure, which is a skeleton formed by four fused cyclohexane rings. Specifically, pregnenediones are characterized by having a ketone group (a carbonyl group, -C=O) at the 20th carbon position of this pregnane structure. They can be further classified into various subgroups based on the presence and location of other functional groups in the molecule.

Pregnenediones are not typically used as medications, but they do play important roles in the human body. For example, progesterone is a naturally occurring pregnenedione that plays a crucial role in maintaining pregnancy and preparing the uterus for childbirth. Other pregnenediones may also have hormonal activity or serve as intermediates in the synthesis of other steroid hormones.

Ovotesticular Disorders of Sex Development (OT-DSD), also known as true gonadal intersex, are rare conditions where the individual has both ovarian and testicular tissue in their gonads. This condition is characterized by the presence of both ovarian and testicular structures in the same person, which can be found in various combinations and locations within the body.

Individuals with OT-DSD may have varying degrees of development of internal reproductive organs (such as the uterus, fallopian tubes, or vas deferens) and external genitalia that may not clearly fit typical definitions of male or female. The chromosomal patterns in these individuals can also vary, with 46,XX, 46,XY, or mosaic karyotypes (a combination of both).

The diagnosis of OT-DSD is typically made during infancy, adolescence, or adulthood, depending on the individual's presentation. Treatment usually involves surgical management of the gonads and genitalia, hormone replacement therapy, and psychological support for the person and their family. The ultimate goal is to help the individual establish a gender identity that aligns with their personal sense of self while ensuring their physical health and well-being.

A blastocyst is a stage in the early development of a fertilized egg, or embryo, in mammals. It occurs about 5-6 days after fertilization and consists of an outer layer of cells called trophoblasts, which will eventually form the placenta, and an inner cell mass, which will give rise to the fetus. The blastocyst is characterized by a fluid-filled cavity called the blastocoel. This stage is critical for the implantation of the embryo into the uterine lining.

A hysteroscope is a thin, lighted tube with a camera that is used to examine the inside of the uterus. It is inserted through the vagina and cervix, allowing the healthcare provider to view the lining of the uterus and the openings of the fallopian tubes on a video screen. Hysteroscopy can be used to diagnose and treat various conditions affecting the uterus, such as abnormal bleeding, fibroids, polyps, and adhesions (scar tissue). It is typically performed as an outpatient procedure in a doctor's office or clinic.

"Swine" is a common term used to refer to even-toed ungulates of the family Suidae, including domestic pigs and wild boars. However, in a medical context, "swine" often appears in the phrase "swine flu," which is a strain of influenza virus that typically infects pigs but can also cause illness in humans. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was caused by a new strain of swine-origin influenza A virus, which was commonly referred to as "swine flu." It's important to note that this virus is not transmitted through eating cooked pork products; it spreads from person to person, mainly through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

Oviducts, also known as fallopian tubes in humans, are pair of slender tubular structures that serve as the conduit for the ovum (egg) from the ovaries to the uterus. They are an essential part of the female reproductive system, providing a site for fertilization of the egg by sperm and early embryonic development before the embryo moves into the uterus for further growth.

In medical terminology, the term "oviduct" refers to this functional description rather than a specific anatomical structure in all female organisms. The oviducts vary in length and shape across different species, but their primary role remains consistent: to facilitate the transport of the egg and provide a site for fertilization.

Cryoprotective agents are substances that are used to protect biological material from damage during freezing and thawing. These agents work by reducing the amount of ice that forms in the cells, which can help to prevent the formation of damaging ice crystals. Commonly used cryoprotective agents include dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), glycerol, and ethylene glycol.

When biological material, such as cells or tissues, is cooled to very low temperatures for storage or transportation, the water in the cells can freeze and form ice crystals. These ice crystals can damage the cell membranes and other structures within the cell, leading to cell death. Cryoprotective agents help to prevent this by lowering the freezing point of the solution that the cells are stored in, which reduces the amount of ice that forms.

Cryoprotective agents are often used in the field of assisted reproductive technology (ART) to protect sperm, eggs, and embryos during freezing and thawing. They are also used in research settings to preserve cells and tissues for later use. It is important to note that while cryoprotective agents can help to reduce the amount of damage that occurs during freezing and thawing, they cannot completely prevent it. Therefore, it is important to carefully control the freezing and thawing process to minimize any potential harm to the biological material.

The sex ratio is not a medical term per se, but it is a term used in demography and population health. The sex ratio is the ratio of males to females in a given population. It is typically expressed as the number of males for every 100 females. A sex ratio of 100 would indicate an equal number of males and females.

In the context of human populations, the sex ratio at birth is usually around 103-107 males per 100 females, reflecting a slightly higher likelihood of male births. However, due to biological factors such as higher male mortality rates in infancy and childhood, as well as social and behavioral factors, the sex ratio tends to equalize over time and can even shift in favor of women in older age groups.

It's worth noting that significant deviations from the expected sex ratio at birth or in a population can indicate underlying health issues or societal problems. For example, skewed sex ratios may be associated with gender discrimination, selective abortion of female fetuses, or exposure to environmental toxins that affect male reproductive health.

Embryonic and fetal development is the process of growth and development that occurs from fertilization of the egg (conception) to birth. The terms "embryo" and "fetus" are used to describe different stages of this development:

* Embryonic development: This stage begins at fertilization and continues until the end of the 8th week of pregnancy. During this time, the fertilized egg (zygote) divides and forms a blastocyst, which implants in the uterus and begins to develop into a complex structure called an embryo. The embryo consists of three layers of cells that will eventually form all of the organs and tissues of the body. During this stage, the basic structures of the body, including the nervous system, heart, and gastrointestinal tract, begin to form.
* Fetal development: This stage begins at the end of the 8th week of pregnancy and continues until birth. During this time, the embryo is called a fetus, and it grows and develops rapidly. The organs and tissues that were formed during the embryonic stage continue to mature and become more complex. The fetus also begins to move and kick, and it can hear and respond to sounds from outside the womb.

Overall, embryonic and fetal development is a complex and highly regulated process that involves the coordinated growth and differentiation of cells and tissues. It is a critical period of development that lays the foundation for the health and well-being of the individual throughout their life.

The acrosome is a specialized structure located on the anterior part of the sperm head in many species of animals, including humans. It contains enzymes that help the sperm penetrate the outer covering of the egg (zona pellucida) during fertilization. The acrosome reaction is the process by which the acrosome releases its enzymes, allowing the sperm to digest a path through the zona pellucida and reach the egg plasma membrane for fusion and fertilization.

The acrosome is formed during spermatogenesis, the process of sperm production in the testis, from the Golgi apparatus, a cellular organelle involved in protein trafficking and modification. The acrosome contains hydrolytic enzymes such as hyaluronidase, acrosin, and proteases that are activated during the acrosome reaction to facilitate sperm-egg fusion.

Abnormalities in acrosome formation or function can lead to infertility in males.

Animal husbandry is the practice of breeding and raising animals for agricultural purposes, such as for the production of meat, milk, eggs, or fiber. It involves providing proper care for the animals, including feeding, housing, health care, and breeding management. The goal of animal husbandry is to maintain healthy and productive animals while also being mindful of environmental sustainability and animal welfare.

Intravaginal administration refers to the delivery of medications or other substances directly into the vagina. This route of administration can be used for local treatment of vaginal infections or inflammation, or to deliver systemic medication that is absorbed through the vaginal mucosa.

Medications can be administered intravaginally using a variety of dosage forms, including creams, gels, foams, suppositories, and films. The choice of dosage form depends on several factors, such as the drug's physicochemical properties, the desired duration of action, and patient preference.

Intravaginal administration offers several advantages over other routes of administration. It allows for direct delivery of medication to the site of action, which can result in higher local concentrations and fewer systemic side effects. Additionally, some medications may be more effective when administered intravaginally due to their ability to bypass first-pass metabolism in the liver.

However, there are also potential disadvantages to intravaginal administration. Some women may find it uncomfortable or inconvenient to use this route of administration, and there is a risk of leakage or expulsion of the medication. Additionally, certain medications may cause local irritation or allergic reactions when administered intravaginally.

Overall, intravaginal administration can be a useful route of administration for certain medications and conditions, but it is important to consider the potential benefits and risks when choosing this method.

Zona pellucida is a term used in the field of reproductive biology and it refers to the glycoprotein membrane that surrounds mammalian oocytes (immature egg cells). This membrane plays a crucial role in the fertilization process. It has receptors for sperm, and upon binding with the sperm, it undergoes changes that prevent other sperm from entering, a process known as the zona reaction. This membrane is also involved in the early development of the embryo.

Gonadotropins are hormones that stimulate the gonads (sex glands) to produce sex steroids and gametes (sex cells). In humans, there are two main types of gonadotropins: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which are produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland.

FSH plays a crucial role in the development and maturation of ovarian follicles in females and sperm production in males. LH triggers ovulation in females, causing the release of a mature egg from the ovary, and stimulates testosterone production in males.

Gonadotropins are often used in medical treatments to stimulate the gonads, such as in infertility therapies where FSH and LH are administered to induce ovulation or increase sperm production.

Sperm capacitation is a complex process that occurs in the female reproductive tract and prepares sperm for fertilization. It involves a series of biochemical modifications to the sperm's membrane and motility, which enable it to undergo the acrosome reaction and penetrate the zona pellucida surrounding the egg.

The capacitation process typically takes several hours and requires the sperm to be exposed to specific factors in the female reproductive tract, including bicarbonate ions, calcium ions, and certain proteins. During capacitation, cholesterol is removed from the sperm's plasma membrane, which leads to an increase in membrane fluidity and the exposure of receptors that are necessary for binding to the egg.

Capacitation is a critical step in the fertilization process, as it ensures that only sperm that have undergone this process can successfully fertilize the egg. Abnormalities in sperm capacitation have been linked to infertility and other reproductive disorders.

A zygote is the initial cell formed when a sperm fertilizes an egg, also known as an oocyte. This occurs in the process of human reproduction and marks the beginning of a new genetic identity, containing 46 chromosomes - 23 from the sperm and 23 from the egg. The zygote starts the journey of cell division and growth, eventually developing into a blastocyst, then an embryo, and finally a fetus over the course of pregnancy.

Luteinizing Hormone (LH) is a glycoprotein hormone, which is primarily produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland. In women, a surge of LH triggers ovulation, the release of an egg from the ovaries during the menstrual cycle. During pregnancy, LH stimulates the corpus luteum to produce progesterone. In men, LH stimulates the testes to produce testosterone. It plays a crucial role in sexual development, reproduction, and maintaining the reproductive system.

Oocyte donation is a medical procedure in which mature oocytes (or immature oocytes that are matured in the lab) are donated by one woman to another woman for the purpose of assisted reproduction. The recipient woman typically receives hormonal treatments to prepare her uterus for embryo implantation. The donated oocytes are then fertilized with sperm from the recipient's partner or a sperm donor in a laboratory, and the resulting embryos are transferred into the recipient's uterus.

Oocyte donation is often recommended for women who have poor ovarian function or who have a high risk of passing on genetic disorders to their offspring. It is also used in cases where previous attempts at in vitro fertilization (IVF) using the woman's own eggs have been unsuccessful.

The process of oocyte donation involves rigorous screening and evaluation of both the donor and recipient, including medical, psychological, and genetic evaluations, to ensure the safety and success of the procedure. The donor's ovaries are stimulated with hormonal medications to produce multiple mature oocytes, which are then retrieved through a minor surgical procedure.

Overall, oocyte donation is a complex and emotionally charged process that requires careful consideration and counseling for both the donor and recipient. It offers hope for many women who would otherwise be unable to conceive a biological child.

The cleavage stage of an ovum, also known as a fertilized egg, refers to the series of rapid cell divisions that occur after fertilization. During this stage, the single cell (zygote) divides into multiple cells, forming a blastomere. This process occurs in the fallopian tube and continues until the blastocyst reaches the uterus, typically around 5-6 days after fertilization. The cleavage stage is a critical period in early embryonic development, as any abnormalities during this time can lead to implantation failure or developmental defects.

The postpartum period refers to the time frame immediately following childbirth, typically defined as the first 6-12 weeks. During this time, significant physical and emotional changes occur as the body recovers from pregnancy and delivery. Hormone levels fluctuate dramatically, leading to various symptoms such as mood swings, fatigue, and breast engorgement. The reproductive system also undergoes significant changes, with the uterus returning to its pre-pregnancy size and shape, and the cervix closing.

It is essential to monitor physical and emotional health during this period, as complications such as postpartum depression, infection, or difficulty breastfeeding may arise. Regular check-ups with healthcare providers are recommended to ensure a healthy recovery and address any concerns. Additionally, proper rest, nutrition, and support from family and friends can help facilitate a smooth transition into this new phase of life.

A live birth is the complete expulsion or extraction from its mother of a product of human conception, irrespective of the duration of the pregnancy, that, after such separation, breathes or shows any other evidence of life - such as beating of the heart, pulsation of the umbilical cord, or definite movement of voluntary muscles - whether or not the umbilical cord has been cut or the placenta is attached.

This definition is used by the World Health Organization (WHO) and most national statistical agencies to distinguish live births from stillbirths. It's important to note that in some medical contexts, a different definition of live birth may be used.

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) is a glycoprotein hormone secreted and released by the anterior pituitary gland. In females, it promotes the growth and development of ovarian follicles in the ovary, which ultimately leads to the maturation and release of an egg (ovulation). In males, FSH stimulates the testes to produce sperm. It works in conjunction with luteinizing hormone (LH) to regulate reproductive processes. The secretion of FSH is controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and its release is influenced by the levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), estrogen, inhibin, and androgens.

A sperm bank is a facility that collects, stores, and distributes semen from donors for the purpose of artificial insemination. The sperm samples are typically collected through masturbation and then frozen in liquid nitrogen to preserve them for long-term storage. Potential donors undergo rigorous screening processes, including medical examinations, genetic testing, and background checks, to ensure that their sperm is healthy and free from infectious diseases.

Sperm banks may be used by individuals or couples who are unable to conceive naturally due to male infertility, same-sex female couples, single women, or those with genetic disorders who wish to avoid passing on certain genetic conditions to their offspring. Recipients can choose a donor based on various factors such as physical characteristics, ethnicity, education level, and personality traits.

It is important to note that the regulations governing sperm banks vary by country and even by state or province within countries. Therefore, it is essential to research and understand the specific laws and guidelines that apply in your location before using a sperm bank.

Lactation is the process by which milk is produced and secreted from the mammary glands of female mammals, including humans, for the nourishment of their young. This physiological function is initiated during pregnancy and continues until it is deliberately stopped or weaned off. The primary purpose of lactation is to provide essential nutrients, antibodies, and other bioactive components that support the growth, development, and immune system of newborns and infants.

The process of lactation involves several hormonal and physiological changes in a woman's body. During pregnancy, the hormones estrogen and progesterone stimulate the growth and development of the mammary glands. After childbirth, the levels of these hormones drop significantly, allowing another hormone called prolactin to take over. Prolactin is responsible for triggering the production of milk in the alveoli, which are tiny sacs within the breast tissue.

Another hormone, oxytocin, plays a crucial role in the release or "let-down" of milk from the alveoli to the nipple during lactation. This reflex is initiated by suckling or thinking about the baby, which sends signals to the brain to release oxytocin. The released oxytocin then binds to receptors in the mammary glands, causing the smooth muscles around the alveoli to contract and push out the milk through the ducts and into the nipple.

Lactation is a complex and highly regulated process that ensures the optimal growth and development of newborns and infants. It provides not only essential nutrients but also various bioactive components, such as immunoglobulins, enzymes, and growth factors, which protect the infant from infections and support their immune system.

In summary, lactation is the physiological process by which milk is produced and secreted from the mammary glands of female mammals for the nourishment of their young. It involves hormonal changes, including the actions of prolactin, oxytocin, estrogen, and progesterone, to regulate the production, storage, and release of milk.

Carnivora is an order of mammals that consists of animals whose primary diet consists of flesh. The term "Carnivora" comes from the Latin words "caro", meaning flesh, and "vorare", meaning to devour. This order includes a wide variety of species, ranging from large predators such as lions, tigers, and bears, to smaller animals such as weasels, otters, and raccoons.

While members of the Carnivora order are often referred to as "carnivores," it is important to note that not all members exclusively eat meat. Some species, such as raccoons and bears, have an omnivorous diet that includes both plants and animals. Additionally, some species within this order have evolved specialized adaptations for their specific diets, such as the elongated canines and carnassial teeth of felids (cats) and canids (dogs), which are adapted for tearing and shearing meat.

Overall, the medical definition of Carnivora refers to an order of mammals that have a diet primarily consisting of flesh, although not all members exclusively eat meat.

Estradiol is a type of estrogen, which is a female sex hormone. It is the most potent and dominant form of estrogen in humans. Estradiol plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics in women, such as breast development and regulation of the menstrual cycle. It also helps maintain bone density, protect the lining of the uterus, and is involved in cognition and mood regulation.

Estradiol is produced primarily by the ovaries, but it can also be synthesized in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands and fat cells. In men, estradiol is produced from testosterone through a process called aromatization. Abnormal levels of estradiol can contribute to various health issues, such as hormonal imbalances, infertility, osteoporosis, and certain types of cancer.

Oviparity is a form of reproduction in which an animal lays eggs with externally developing embryos. The eggs are usually equipped with a protective shell and all the nutrients necessary for the development of the embryo, which allows the female to lay and abandon them, without any further care. This method of reproduction is common in many species of fish, reptiles, insects, and birds.

In oviparous animals, the fertilization of the egg may occur either internally or externally. In internal fertilization, the male deposits sperm directly into the female's reproductive tract, which then travel to the ova and fertilize them. The fertilized eggs are subsequently laid by the female. In external fertilization, the male and female release their gametes (sperm and eggs) into the surrounding environment, where fertilization takes place.

Oviparity is distinct from viviparity, a reproductive strategy in which the embryo develops inside the mother's body and receives nutrients through a placenta. In viviparous animals, such as mammals (excluding monotremes), the young are born live instead of hatching from eggs.

Phascolarctidae is a family of marsupials commonly known as koalas or koala bears, although they are not actually bears. They are native to Australia and are recognized by their thick, woolly fur, large ears, and distinctive nose. The medical definition related to Phascolarctidae might refer to any health issues specifically affecting koalas, such as diseases that impact their unique gut microbiome or conservation efforts addressing threats to their population.

The estrous cycle is the reproductive cycle in certain mammals, characterized by regular changes in the reproductive tract and behavior, which are regulated by hormonal fluctuations. It is most commonly observed in non-primate mammals such as dogs, cats, cows, pigs, and horses.

The estrous cycle consists of several stages:

1. Proestrus: This stage lasts for a few days and is characterized by the development of follicles in the ovaries and an increase in estrogen levels. During this time, the female may show signs of sexual receptivity, but will not allow mating to occur.
2. Estrus: This is the period of sexual receptivity, during which the female allows mating to take place. It typically lasts for a few days and is marked by a surge in luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), which triggers ovulation.
3. Metestrus: This stage follows ovulation and is characterized by the formation of a corpus luteum, a structure that produces progesterone to support pregnancy. If fertilization does not occur, the corpus luteum will eventually regress, leading to the next phase.
4. Diestrus: This is the final stage of the estrous cycle and can last for several weeks or months. During this time, the female's reproductive tract returns to its resting state, and she is not sexually receptive. If pregnancy has occurred, the corpus luteum will continue to produce progesterone until the placenta takes over this function later in pregnancy.

It's important to note that the human menstrual cycle is different from the estrous cycle. While both cycles involve hormonal fluctuations and changes in the reproductive tract, the menstrual cycle includes a shedding of the uterine lining (menstruation) if fertilization does not occur, which is not a feature of the estrous cycle.

"Freezing" is a term used in the medical field to describe a phenomenon that can occur in certain neurological conditions, most notably in Parkinson's disease. It refers to a sudden and temporary inability to move or initiate movement, often triggered by environmental factors such as narrow spaces, turning, or approaching a destination. This can increase the risk of falls and make daily activities challenging for affected individuals.

Freezing is also known as "freezing of gait" (FOG) when it specifically affects a person's ability to walk. During FOG episodes, the person may feel like their feet are glued to the ground, making it difficult to take steps forward. This can be very distressing and debilitating for those affected.

It is important to note that "freezing" has different meanings in different medical contexts, such as in the field of orthopedics, where it may refer to a loss of joint motion due to stiffness or inflammation. Always consult with a healthcare professional for accurate information tailored to your specific situation.

The epididymis is a tightly coiled tube located on the upper and posterior portion of the testicle that serves as the site for sperm maturation and storage. It is an essential component of the male reproductive system. The epididymis can be divided into three parts: the head (where newly produced sperm enter from the testicle), the body, and the tail (where mature sperm exit and are stored). Any abnormalities or inflammation in the epididymis may lead to discomfort, pain, or infertility.

Pregnanediol is a steroid hormone that is produced as a metabolite of progesterone. It is primarily used as a biomarker to measure the exposure to progesterone, particularly in cases where progesterone levels need to be monitored, such as during pregnancy or in certain medical conditions. Pregnanediol can be measured in urine, blood, or other bodily fluids and is often used in clinical and research settings to assess hormonal status. It is important to note that pregnanediol itself does not have any known physiological effects on the body, but rather serves as an indicator of progesterone levels.

The cervix is the lower, narrow part of the uterus that opens into the vagina. Cervical mucus is a clear or cloudy secretion produced by glands in the cervix. The amount and consistency of cervical mucus changes throughout a woman's menstrual cycle, influenced by hormonal fluctuations.

During the fertile window (approximately mid-cycle), estrogen levels rise, causing the cervical mucus to become more abundant, clear, and stretchy (often described as resembling raw egg whites). This "fertile" mucus facilitates the movement of sperm through the cervix and into the uterus, increasing the chances of fertilization.

As the menstrual cycle progresses and progesterone levels rise after ovulation, cervical mucus becomes thicker, cloudier, and less abundant, making it more difficult for sperm to penetrate. This change in cervical mucus helps prevent additional sperm from entering and fertilizing an already-fertilized egg.

Changes in cervical mucus can be used as a method of natural family planning or fertility awareness, with women checking their cervical mucus daily to identify their most fertile days. However, this method should be combined with other tracking methods for increased accuracy and reliability.

Oocyte retrieval is a medical procedure that is performed to obtain mature eggs (oocytes) from the ovaries of a female patient, typically for the purpose of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).

During the procedure, which is usually done under sedation or anesthesia, a thin needle is inserted through the vaginal wall and guided into the ovarian follicles using ultrasound imaging. The mature eggs are then gently aspirated from the follicles and collected in a test tube.

Oocyte retrieval is typically performed after several days of hormonal stimulation, which helps to promote the development and maturation of multiple eggs within the ovaries. After the procedure, the eggs are examined for maturity and quality before being fertilized with sperm in the laboratory. The resulting embryos are then transferred to the uterus or frozen for future use.

It's important to note that oocyte retrieval carries some risks, including bleeding, infection, and damage to surrounding organs. However, these complications are generally rare and can be minimized with careful monitoring and skilled medical care.

Masturbation is the self-stimulation of the genitals to achieve sexual pleasure or orgasm. It's a normal and healthy sexual behavior that is commonly practiced by people of all ages, gender identities, and sexual orientations. Masturbation is generally considered safe and has few, if any, negative physical side effects.

It's important to note that masturbation is a personal choice, and individuals should feel comfortable and unpressured in their decision to engage in this behavior or not. Some people may choose not to masturbate due to personal, cultural, or religious beliefs, while others may find it to be a valuable way to explore their bodies, learn about their sexual responses, and relieve sexual tension.

If you have any concerns or questions about masturbation, it's always a good idea to speak with a healthcare provider who can provide you with accurate information and address any concerns you may have.

Fetal viability is the point in pregnancy at which a fetus is considered capable of surviving outside the uterus, given appropriate medical support. Although there is no precise gestational age that defines fetal viability, it is generally considered to occur between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation. At this stage, the fetus has developed sufficient lung maturity and body weight, and the risk of neonatal mortality and morbidity significantly decreases. However, the exact definition of fetal viability may vary depending on regional standards, medical facilities, and individual clinical assessments.

An ovary is a part of the female reproductive system in which ova or eggs are produced through the process of oogenesis. They are a pair of solid, almond-shaped structures located one on each side of the uterus within the pelvic cavity. Each ovary measures about 3 to 5 centimeters in length and weighs around 14 grams.

The ovaries have two main functions: endocrine (hormonal) function and reproductive function. They produce and release eggs (ovulation) responsible for potential fertilization and development of an embryo/fetus during pregnancy. Additionally, they are essential in the production of female sex hormones, primarily estrogen and progesterone, which regulate menstrual cycles, sexual development, and reproduction.

During each menstrual cycle, a mature egg is released from one of the ovaries into the fallopian tube, where it may be fertilized by sperm. If not fertilized, the egg, along with the uterine lining, will be shed, leading to menstruation.

Fertility agents, also known as fertility drugs or medications, are substances that are used to enhance or restore fertility in individuals who are having difficulty conceiving a child. These agents work by affecting various aspects of the reproductive system, such as stimulating ovulation, enhancing sperm production, or improving the quality and quantity of eggs produced by the ovaries.

There are several types of fertility agents available, including:

1. Ovulation Inducers: These medications are used to stimulate ovulation in women who do not ovulate regularly or at all. Examples include clomiphene citrate (Clomid) and letrozole (Femara).
2. Gonadotropins: These hormones are administered to stimulate the ovaries to produce multiple eggs during a single menstrual cycle. Examples include human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH).
3. Inhibins: These medications are used to prevent premature ovulation and improve the quality of eggs produced by the ovaries. Examples include ganirelix acetate and cetrorelix acetate.
4. Sperm Motility Enhancers: These medications are used to improve sperm motility in men with low sperm count or poor sperm movement. Examples include pentoxifylline and caffeine.
5. Fertility Preservation Medications: These medications are used to preserve fertility in individuals who are undergoing treatments that may affect their reproductive system, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Examples include gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRH) and cryopreservation of sperm, eggs, or embryos.

It is important to note that fertility agents can have side effects and should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional. It is also essential to discuss any underlying medical conditions, allergies, and potential risks before starting any fertility treatment.

A tissue donor is an individual who has agreed to allow organs and tissues to be removed from their body after death for the purpose of transplantation to restore the health or save the life of another person. The tissues that can be donated include corneas, heart valves, skin, bone, tendons, ligaments, veins, and cartilage. These tissues can enhance the quality of life for many recipients and are often used in reconstructive surgeries. It is important to note that tissue donation does not interfere with an open casket funeral or other cultural or religious practices related to death and grieving.

Sperm retrieval is a medical procedure that involves obtaining sperm from a male patient, usually for the purpose of assisted reproduction. This can be indicated in cases where the man has obstructive or non-obstructive azoospermia (absence of sperm in the semen), ejaculatory dysfunction, or other conditions that prevent the successful collection of sperm through conventional means, such as masturbation.

There are several methods for sperm retrieval, including:

1. Testicular sperm aspiration (TESA): A procedure where a fine needle is inserted into the testicle to aspirate (or draw out) sperm.
2. Percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA): Similar to TESA, but the needle is inserted into the epididymis, a small structure that stores and transports sperm from the testicle.
3. Microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration (MESA): A more invasive procedure where an incision is made in the scrotum to directly visualize the epididymis with a surgical microscope, allowing for the careful removal of sperm.
4. Testicular sperm extraction (TESE): Involves making a small incision in the testicle and removing a piece of tissue containing sperm-producing tubules. The tissue is then processed to extract viable sperm.
5. Microdissection testicular sperm extraction (microTESE): A refined version of TESE, where a surgical microscope is used to identify and isolate individual seminiferous tubules containing sperm in men with non-obstructive azoospermia.

The retrieved sperm can then be used for various assisted reproductive techniques, such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), where a single sperm is injected directly into an egg to facilitate fertilization.

Asthenozoospermia is a term used in the field of andrology, which is the study of male reproductive health. It refers to a condition where the majority of sperm in a semen sample have reduced motility, meaning they do not move normally or efficiently. This can make it more difficult for the sperm to reach and fertilize an egg, potentially leading to infertility issues.

To be more specific, asthenozoospermia is defined as having less than 40% of sperm with progressive motility, which means they move forward in a straight line or in a large circle. The condition can be caused by various factors, including genetic abnormalities, environmental toxins, infections, and structural issues with the sperm themselves.

It's worth noting that asthenozoospermia is often diagnosed through a semen analysis, which is a routine test used to assess male fertility. If you or someone you know has been diagnosed with this condition, it may be helpful to consult with a reproductive endocrinologist or andrologist who can provide more information and guidance on potential treatment options.

Embryonic development is the series of growth and developmental stages that occur during the formation and early growth of the embryo. In humans, this stage begins at fertilization (when the sperm and egg cell combine) and continues until the end of the 8th week of pregnancy. During this time, the fertilized egg (now called a zygote) divides and forms a blastocyst, which then implants into the uterus. The cells in the blastocyst begin to differentiate and form the three germ layers: the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. These germ layers will eventually give rise to all of the different tissues and organs in the body.

Embryonic development is a complex and highly regulated process that involves the coordinated interaction of genetic and environmental factors. It is characterized by rapid cell division, migration, and differentiation, as well as programmed cell death (apoptosis) and tissue remodeling. Abnormalities in embryonic development can lead to birth defects or other developmental disorders.

It's important to note that the term "embryo" is used to describe the developing organism from fertilization until the end of the 8th week of pregnancy in humans, after which it is called a fetus.

Paternity is the legal or biological relationship between a father and his child. Medical definitions of paternity often refer to the biological relationship, which is established through genetic testing to identify if a man has transmitted his genetic material to a child. This is typically determined by comparing the DNA of the alleged father and the child. In contrast, legal paternity refers to the establishment of a father-child relationship through court order or other legal means, whether or not the individual is the biological father.

"Dolphins" is a common name that refers to several species of marine mammals belonging to the family Delphinidae, within the larger group Cetacea. Dolphins are known for their intelligence, social behavior, and acrobatic displays. They are generally characterized by a streamlined body, a prominent dorsal fin, and a distinctive "smiling" expression created by the curvature of their mouths.

Although "dolphins" is sometimes used to refer to all members of the Delphinidae family, it is important to note that there are several other families within the Cetacea order, including porpoises and whales. Therefore, not all small cetaceans are dolphins.

Some examples of dolphin species include:

1. Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) - This is the most well-known and studied dolphin species, often featured in aquariums and marine parks. They have a robust body and a prominent, curved dorsal fin.
2. Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis) - These dolphins are characterized by their hourglass-shaped color pattern and distinct, falcate dorsal fins. There are two subspecies: the short-beaked common dolphin and the long-beaked common dolphin.
3. Spinner Dolphin (Stenella longirostris) - Known for their acrobatic behavior, spinner dolphins have a slender body and a long, thin beak. They are named for their spinning jumps out of the water.
4. Risso's Dolphin (Grampus griseus) - These dolphins have a unique appearance, with a robust body, a prominent dorsal fin, and a distinctive, scarred skin pattern caused by social interactions and encounters with squid, their primary food source.
5. Orca (Orcinus orca) - Also known as the killer whale, orcas are the largest dolphin species and are highly intelligent and social predators. They have a distinctive black-and-white color pattern and a prominent dorsal fin.

In medical terminology, "dolphins" do not have a specific relevance, but they can be used in various contexts such as therapy, research, or education. For instance, dolphin-assisted therapy is an alternative treatment that involves interactions between patients and dolphins to improve psychological and physical well-being. Additionally, marine biologists and researchers study dolphin behavior, communication, and cognition to understand their complex social structures and intelligence better.

Ursidae is not a medical term, but rather a taxonomic category in biology. It refers to the family of mammals that includes bears. The order of these animals is Carnivora, and Ursidae is one of the eight families within this order.

The members of Ursidae are characterized by their large size, stocky bodies, strong limbs, and a plantigrade posture (walking on the entire sole of the foot). They have a keen sense of smell and most species have a diet that varies widely based on what's available in their environment.

While not directly related to medical terminology, understanding various biological classifications can be helpful in medical fields such as epidemiology or zoonotic diseases, where knowing about different animal families can provide insight into potential disease carriers or transmission patterns.

I apologize, but "sheep" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is a common animal with the scientific name Ovis aries. If you have any medical or health-related questions, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

Embryo implantation is the process by which a fertilized egg, or embryo, becomes attached to the wall of the uterus (endometrium) and begins to receive nutrients from the mother's blood supply. This process typically occurs about 6-10 days after fertilization and is a critical step in the establishment of a successful pregnancy.

During implantation, the embryo secretes enzymes that help it to burrow into the endometrium, while the endometrium responds by producing receptors for the embryo's enzymes and increasing blood flow to the area. The embryo then begins to grow and develop, eventually forming the placenta, which will provide nutrients and oxygen to the developing fetus throughout pregnancy.

Implantation is a complex process that requires precise timing and coordination between the embryo and the mother's body. Factors such as age, hormonal imbalances, and uterine abnormalities can affect implantation and increase the risk of miscarriage or difficulty becoming pregnant.

The vagina is the canal that joins the cervix (the lower part of the uterus) to the outside of the body. It also is known as the birth canal because babies pass through it during childbirth. The vagina is where sexual intercourse occurs and where menstrual blood exits the body. It has a flexible wall that can expand and retract. During sexual arousal, the vaginal walls swell with blood to become more elastic in order to accommodate penetration.

It's important to note that sometimes people use the term "vagina" to refer to the entire female genital area, including the external structures like the labia and clitoris. But technically, these are considered part of the vulva, not the vagina.

A drug implant is a medical device that is specially designed to provide controlled release of a medication into the body over an extended period of time. Drug implants can be placed under the skin or in various body cavities, depending on the specific medical condition being treated. They are often used when other methods of administering medication, such as oral pills or injections, are not effective or practical.

Drug implants come in various forms, including rods, pellets, and small capsules. The medication is contained within the device and is released slowly over time, either through diffusion or erosion of the implant material. This allows for a steady concentration of the drug to be maintained in the body, which can help to improve treatment outcomes and reduce side effects.

Some common examples of drug implants include:

1. Hormonal implants: These are small rods that are inserted under the skin of the upper arm and release hormones such as progestin or estrogen over a period of several years. They are often used for birth control or to treat conditions such as endometriosis or uterine fibroids.
2. Intraocular implants: These are small devices that are placed in the eye during surgery to release medication directly into the eye. They are often used to treat conditions such as age-related macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy.
3. Bone cement implants: These are specially formulated cements that contain antibiotics and are used to fill bone defects or joint spaces during surgery. The antibiotics are released slowly over time, helping to prevent infection.
4. Implantable pumps: These are small devices that are placed under the skin and deliver medication directly into a specific body cavity, such as the spinal cord or the peritoneal cavity. They are often used to treat chronic pain or cancer.

Overall, drug implants offer several advantages over other methods of administering medication, including improved compliance, reduced side effects, and more consistent drug levels in the body. However, they may also have some disadvantages, such as the need for surgical placement and the potential for infection or other complications. As with any medical treatment, it is important to discuss the risks and benefits of drug implants with a healthcare provider.

The cervix uteri, often simply referred to as the cervix, is the lower part of the uterus (womb) that connects to the vagina. It has an opening called the external os through which menstrual blood exits the uterus and sperm enters during sexual intercourse. During childbirth, the cervix dilates or opens to allow for the passage of the baby through the birth canal.

An endangered species is a species of animal, plant, or other organism that is at risk of becoming extinct because its population is declining or threatened by changing environmental or demographic factors. This term is defined and used in the context of conservation biology and wildlife management to identify species that need protection and preservation efforts.

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) maintains a "Red List" of species, categorizing them based on their extinction risk. The categories include "Critically Endangered," "Endangered," "Vulnerable," and "Near Threatened." A species is considered endangered if it meets certain criteria indicating that it faces a very high risk of extinction in the wild.

The primary causes for species to become endangered include habitat loss, fragmentation, degradation, pollution, climate change, overexploitation, and introduction of invasive species. Conservation efforts often focus on protecting habitats, managing threats, and implementing recovery programs to help endangered species recover their populations and reduce the risk of extinction.

Monozygotic twinning, also known as identical twinning, is a type of twin pregnancy that occurs when a single fertilized egg (ovum) splits into two embryos during the early stages of development. This results in the formation of two genetically identical individuals who share the same set of DNA and are therefore considered to be genetic clones of each other.

Monozygotic twinning is thought to occur in about 1 in every 250 pregnancies, making it less common than dizygotic (fraternal) twinning, which occurs when two separate eggs are fertilized by two different sperm. In monozygotic twinning, the timing of the split determines the type of placenta and amniotic sac each twin will have.

If the split occurs within the first few days after fertilization, the twins will typically develop in separate amniotic sacs and have their own individual placentas. If the split occurs later, the twins may share an amniotic sac (monoamniotic) or a placenta (monochorionic), or both (monochorionic-monoamniotic).

Monozygotic twinning is associated with some increased risks for pregnancy complications, such as preterm labor and delivery, low birth weight, and twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome, a rare condition in which blood flows unevenly between the twins through shared placental blood vessels. However, most monozygotic twins are born healthy and develop normally.

Sperm maturation is the process by which spermatids, immature sperm cells produced in meiosis, transform into fully developed spermatozoa capable of fertilization. This complex process occurs in the seminiferous tubules of the testes and includes several stages:

1. **Golfi formation:** The first step involves the spermatids reorganizing their cytoplasm and forming a cap-like structure called the acrosome, which contains enzymes that help the sperm penetrate the egg's outer layers during fertilization.
2. **Flagellum development:** The spermatid also develops a tail (flagellum), enabling it to move independently. This is achieved through the assembly of microtubules and other associated proteins.
3. **Nuclear condensation and elongation:** The sperm's DNA undergoes significant compaction, making the nucleus smaller and more compact. Concurrently, the nucleus elongates and aligns with the flagellum.
4. **Mitochondrial positioning:** Mitochondria, which provide energy for sperm motility, migrate to the midpiece of the sperm, close to the base of the flagellum.
5. **Chromatin packaging:** Histones, proteins that help package DNA in non-sperm cells, are replaced by transition proteins and then protamines, which further compact and protect the sperm's DNA.
6. **Sperm release (spermiation):** The mature sperm is finally released from the supporting Sertoli cells into the lumen of the seminiferous tubule, where it mixes with fluid secreted by the testicular tissue to form seminal plasma.

This entire process takes approximately 64 days in humans.

Hysteroscopy is a diagnostic procedure that allows healthcare professionals to examine the interior of the uterus (hyster(o)- and -scopy from Greek "womb" + "examination"). It is performed using a hysteroscope, which is a thin, lighted tube with a camera attached to its end. The hysteroscope is inserted through the vagina and cervix into the uterus, enabling the visualization of the uterine cavity and the detection of any abnormalities, such as polyps, fibroids, or structural issues like a septum.

Hysteroscopy can be performed in a doctor's office or an outpatient surgical center under local, regional, or general anesthesia depending on the situation and patient comfort. The procedure may also be used for minor surgical interventions, such as removing polyps or fibroids, or to assist with other procedures like laparoscopy.

In summary, hysteroscopy is a medical examination of the uterine cavity using a thin, lighted tube called a hysteroscope, which can aid in diagnosing and treating various conditions affecting the uterus.

Female homosexuality, also known as lesbianism, is a romantic and/or sexual attraction or behavior between females. It is one of the forms of human sexual orientation, which also includes heterosexuality and bisexuality. Homosexual women, like gay men, can form committed relationships, have families, and live happy and fulfilling lives. It's important to note that homosexuality is not considered a mental illness or disorder by any major medical or psychological organization, including the American Psychiatric Association and the World Health Organization.

Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS) is a medical condition characterized by the enlargement of the ovaries and the accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity, which can occur as a complication of fertility treatments that involve the use of medications to stimulate ovulation.

In OHSS, the ovaries become swollen and may contain multiple follicles (small sacs containing eggs) that have developed in response to the hormonal stimulation. This can lead to the release of large amounts of vasoactive substances, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which can cause increased blood flow to the ovaries and fluid leakage from the blood vessels into the abdominal cavity.

Mild cases of OHSS may cause symptoms such as bloating, abdominal pain or discomfort, nausea, and diarrhea. More severe cases can lead to more serious complications, including blood clots, kidney failure, and respiratory distress. In extreme cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage the symptoms of OHSS and prevent further complications.

OHSS is typically managed by monitoring the patient's symptoms and providing supportive care, such as fluid replacement and pain management. In severe cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to drain excess fluid from the abdominal cavity. Preventive measures, such as adjusting the dosage of fertility medications or canceling treatment cycles, may also be taken to reduce the risk of OHSS in high-risk patients.

'Animal structures' is a broad term that refers to the various physical parts and organs that make up animals. These structures can include everything from the external features, such as skin, hair, and scales, to the internal organs and systems, such as the heart, lungs, brain, and digestive system.

Animal structures are designed to perform specific functions that enable the animal to survive, grow, and reproduce. For example, the heart pumps blood throughout the body, delivering oxygen and nutrients to the cells, while the lungs facilitate gas exchange between the animal and its environment. The brain serves as the control center of the nervous system, processing sensory information and coordinating motor responses.

Animal structures can be categorized into different systems based on their function, such as the circulatory system, respiratory system, nervous system, digestive system, and reproductive system. Each system is made up of various structures that work together to perform a specific function.

Understanding animal structures and how they function is essential for understanding animal biology and behavior. It also has important implications for human health, as many animals serve as models for studying human disease and developing new treatments.

A mammalian embryo is the developing offspring of a mammal, from the time of implantation of the fertilized egg (blastocyst) in the uterus until the end of the eighth week of gestation. During this period, the embryo undergoes rapid cell division and organ differentiation to form a complex structure with all the major organs and systems in place. This stage is followed by fetal development, which continues until birth. The study of mammalian embryos is important for understanding human development, evolution, and reproductive biology.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

The birth rate is the number of live births that occur in a population during a specific period, usually calculated as the number of live births per 1,000 people per year. It is an important demographic indicator used to measure the growth or decline of a population over time. A higher birth rate indicates a younger population and faster population growth, while a lower birth rate suggests an older population and slower growth.

The birth rate can be affected by various factors, including socioeconomic conditions, cultural attitudes towards childbearing, access to healthcare services, and government policies related to family planning and reproductive health. It is also influenced by the age structure of the population, as women in their reproductive years (typically ages 15-49) are more likely to give birth.

It's worth noting that while the birth rate is an important indicator of population growth, it does not provide a complete picture of fertility rates or demographic trends. Other measures, such as the total fertility rate (TFR), which estimates the average number of children a woman would have during her reproductive years, are also used to analyze fertility patterns and population dynamics.

The acrosome reaction is a crucial event in the fertilization process of many species, including humans. It occurs when the sperm makes contact with and binds to the zona pellucida, the glycoprotein-rich extracellular matrix that surrounds the egg. This interaction triggers a series of molecular events leading to the exocytosis of the acrosome, a membrane-bound organelle located at the tip of the sperm head.

The acrosome contains hydrolytic enzymes that help the sperm to penetrate the zona pellucida and reach the egg's plasma membrane. During the acrosome reaction, the outer acrosomal membrane fuses with the sperm plasma membrane, releasing these enzymes and causing the release of the inner acrosomal membrane, which then reorganizes to form a structure called the acrosomal cap.

The acrosome reaction exposes new proteins on the sperm surface that can interact with the egg's plasma membrane, allowing for the fusion of the two membranes and the entry of the sperm into the egg. This event is essential for successful fertilization and subsequent embryonic development.

"Male genitalia" refers to the reproductive and sexual organs that are typically present in male individuals. These structures include:

1. Testes: A pair of oval-shaped glands located in the scrotum that produce sperm and testosterone.
2. Epididymis: A long, coiled tube that lies on the surface of each testicle where sperm matures and is stored.
3. Vas deferens: A pair of muscular tubes that transport sperm from the epididymis to the urethra.
4. Seminal vesicles: Glands that produce a fluid that mixes with sperm to create semen.
5. Prostate gland: A small gland that surrounds the urethra and produces a fluid that also mixes with sperm to create semen.
6. Bulbourethral glands (Cowper's glands): Two pea-sized glands that produce a lubricating fluid that is released into the urethra during sexual arousal.
7. Urethra: A tube that runs through the penis and carries urine from the bladder out of the body, as well as semen during ejaculation.
8. Penis: The external organ that serves as both a reproductive and excretory organ, expelling both semen and urine.

Vitrification is a process used in cryopreservation, where a liquid or semi-liquid biological material is transformed into a glass-like solid state by cooling it to extremely low temperatures at a rate that suppresses the formation of ice crystals. This technique is often used in assisted reproductive technology (ART) for preserving oocytes (human eggs), embryos, and ovarian or testicular tissues.

During vitrification, the biological material is exposed to high concentrations of cryoprotectants, which help prevent ice crystal formation and minimize cellular damage during cooling. The sample is then rapidly cooled using liquid nitrogen, achieving temperatures below -150°C (-238°F) in a matter of seconds or minutes.

The primary advantage of vitrification over traditional slow-freezing methods is the elimination of ice crystal formation, which can cause significant damage to cellular structures and organelles. Vitrified samples maintain their structural integrity and have higher survival rates upon thawing, making them more suitable for use in ART procedures.

However, it's important to note that vitrification also has potential risks, such as the toxicity of high cryoprotectant concentrations and the possibility of cracking during cooling or warming due to thermal stress. Proper technique and careful handling are crucial to ensure successful vitrification and subsequent use in clinical applications.

Buserelin is a synthetic analogue of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH or LHRH), which is a hormonal drug used in the treatment of various conditions such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, prostate cancer, and central precocious puberty.

By mimicking the action of natural GnRH, buserelin stimulates the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary gland, which in turn regulates the production of sex hormones such as estrogen and testosterone.

However, prolonged use of buserelin leads to downregulation of GnRH receptors and a decrease in FSH and LH secretion, resulting in reduced levels of sex hormones. This property is exploited in the treatment of hormone-dependent cancers such as prostate cancer, where reducing testosterone levels can help slow tumor growth.

Buserelin is available in various forms, including nasal sprays, implants, and injectable solutions, and its use should be under the supervision of a healthcare professional due to potential side effects and the need for careful monitoring of hormone levels during treatment.

I believe you are looking for a medical or scientific term that is related to elephants, as there is no medical definition for the word "elephants" itself. Elephants are large mammals of the family Elephantidae and the order Proboscidea. They are native to Africa and Asia and are known for their long trunks, large ears, and tusks.

One possible connection between elephants and medicine is the use of elephant ivory in medical equipment. In the past, elephant ivory was used to make a variety of medical instruments, such as dental tools and surgical instruments. However, due to concerns about animal welfare and the illegal trade in elephant ivory, the use of elephant ivory in medical equipment has become increasingly rare.

Another possible connection between elephants and medicine is the study of their social behavior and communication, which may provide insights into human social behavior and mental health. For example, research has shown that elephants have complex social structures and exhibit behaviors such as empathy, cooperation, and mourning, which are also important aspects of human social and emotional functioning.

Overall, while there is no specific medical definition for "elephants," these fascinating animals have contributed to our understanding of biology, medicine, and human behavior in various ways.

"Random allocation," also known as "random assignment" or "randomization," is a process used in clinical trials and other research studies to distribute participants into different intervention groups (such as experimental group vs. control group) in a way that minimizes selection bias and ensures the groups are comparable at the start of the study.

In random allocation, each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any group, and the assignment is typically made using a computer-generated randomization schedule or other objective methods. This process helps to ensure that any differences between the groups are due to the intervention being tested rather than pre-existing differences in the participants' characteristics.

Laparoscopy is a surgical procedure that involves the insertion of a laparoscope, which is a thin tube with a light and camera attached to it, through small incisions in the abdomen. This allows the surgeon to view the internal organs without making large incisions. It's commonly used to diagnose and treat various conditions such as endometriosis, ovarian cysts, infertility, and appendicitis. The advantages of laparoscopy over traditional open surgery include smaller incisions, less pain, shorter hospital stays, and quicker recovery times.

Maternal age is a term used to describe the age of a woman at the time she becomes pregnant or gives birth. It is often used in medical and epidemiological contexts to discuss the potential risks, complications, and outcomes associated with pregnancy and childbirth at different stages of a woman's reproductive years.

Advanced maternal age typically refers to women who become pregnant or give birth at 35 years of age or older. This group faces an increased risk for certain chromosomal abnormalities, such as Down syndrome, and other pregnancy-related complications, including gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and cesarean delivery.

On the other end of the spectrum, adolescent pregnancies (those that occur in women under 20 years old) also come with their own set of potential risks and complications, such as preterm birth, low birth weight, and anemia.

It's important to note that while maternal age can influence pregnancy outcomes, many other factors – including genetics, lifestyle choices, and access to quality healthcare – can also play a significant role in determining the health of both mother and baby during pregnancy and childbirth.

I'm not aware of any recognized medical term or condition specifically referred to as "turkeys." The term "turkey" is most commonly used in a non-medical context to refer to the large, bird-like domesticated fowl native to North America, scientifically known as Meleagris gallopavo.

However, if you are referring to a medical condition called "turkey neck," it is a colloquial term used to describe sagging or loose skin around the neck area, which can resemble a turkey's wattle. This condition is not a formal medical diagnosis but rather a descriptive term for an aesthetic concern some people may have about their appearance.

If you meant something else by "turkeys," please provide more context so I can give you a more accurate answer.

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Artificial insemination. Contraception 138.........................................Sterilization of women 159-208 ... Artificial organs 137-145...................................Surgery in childhood, adolescence, pregnancy, old age 151-498 ...
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Carrell, D.T.; Peterson, C.M. (eds.) (2010). Artificial insemination: intrauterine insemination. 31.3.1.2 Gonadotropins. New ...
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Semen production and artificial insemination. BAIF Development Research Foundation.[4] Howard, Connie (2000). In Gandhi's ...
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Population, vital statistics, fertility, [Artificial Insemination]. Date. :. 1946-1958. Reference. :. SA/EUG/N.62. Part of. :. ...
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A liver transplant is a complex surgical procedure that involves replacing a diseased liver with a healthy one from a donor. This option is considered when the patients liver is no longer functioning properly and has not responded to other medical treatments. There are two main types of liver transplants:. 1. Deceased Donor Liver Transplantation (DDLT): DDLT involves replacing the patients diseased liver with a healthy liver obtained from a recently deceased donor. Patients must undergo a series of tests to determine their eligibility for a transplant and are then placed on a waiting list until a suitable donor liver becomes available.. 2. Living Donor Liver Transplantation (LDLT): In this procedure, a portion of a healthy liver from a living donor, often a family member or friend, is transplanted into the patient with the diseased liver. The transplanted liver segment has the capacity to regenerate and grow to its normal size. LDLT is typically chosen when the patient requires an urgent ...
ClinicalTrials.gov: Artificial Insemination (National Institutes of Health) * ClinicalTrials.gov: Fertility (National ... Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Also in Spanish ...
Artificial insemination. No. 247 (71). 57 (61). 1.0. -. Yes. 103 (29). 37 (39). 1.0. 0.7-1.5. ...
Spontaneous pregnancy in couples waiting for artificial insemination donor because of severe male infertility. Eur J Obstet ... Cumulative conception rate following intrauterine artificial insemination with husbands spermatozoa: influence of husbands ... Higher success rate by intracytoplasmic sperm injection than by subzonal insemination. Report of a second series of 300 ...
DETECTION OF MENDELIAN AND GENOTYPE FREQUENCY OF GROWTH HORMONE GENE IN ONGOLE CROSSBRED CATTLE MATED BY THE ARTIFICIAL ... OF MENDELIAN AND GENOTYPE FREQUENCY OF GROWTH HORMONE GENE IN ONGOLE CROSSBRED CATTLE MATED BY THE ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION ...
... animal age at Artificial insemination, lactation order of animal and sire used for AI. ... Keywords : Artificial Insemination HF Crossbred Animals Logistic Regression Pregnancy Rate Uttar Pradesh State ... Pregnancy Rate in Artificial Insemination Bred HF Crossbred Cattle Under Field Conditions of Eastern Uttar Pradesh State R. L. ... Estrus Induction and Artificial Insemination in Acyclic Ewes under Field Conditions of Semi-Arid Region of Rajasthan* * ...
  • Artificial insemination techniques available include intracervical insemination (ICI) and intrauterine insemination (IUI). (wikipedia.org)
  • I recall receiving a call to see if I would perform intrauterine insemination for a lesbian couple in the late 90's. (consciencelaws.org)
  • That was when I decided to no longer perform intrauterine inseminations. (consciencelaws.org)
  • This technique is commonly employed in various fertility treatments, including intrauterine insemination (IUI) and in vitro fertilization (IVF). (artificialinseminationkit.com)
  • More recently, the injection of collagen to the bladder neck has allowed antegrade ejaculation in a patient who had previously undergone a V-Y plasty of the bladder neck and for whom pseudoephedrine and intrauterine insemination had failed. (medscape.com)
  • Patients with poor semen quality or numbers may benefit from having their semen washed and concentrated in preparation for intrauterine insemination. (medscape.com)
  • In vitro fertilization or IVF pertains to the artificial method of uniting the sperm with the egg. (stemcellthailand.org)
  • 3] ^ Jin, Hai-Xia, Zhi-Min Xin, Wen-Yan Song, Shan-Jun Dai, and Ying-Pu Sun. Effects of human cumulus cells on in vitro fertilization outcomes and its significance in short-term insemination. (stemcellthailand.org)
  • Artificial insemination is the deliberate introduction of sperm into a female's cervix or uterine cavity for the purpose of achieving a pregnancy through in vivo fertilization by means other than sexual intercourse. (wikipedia.org)
  • Artificial insemination may employ assisted reproductive technology, sperm donation and animal husbandry techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first reported case of artificial insemination by donor occurred in 1884: William H. Pancoast, a professor in Philadelphia, took sperm from his "best looking" student to inseminate an anesthetized woman without her knowledge. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 1980s, direct intraperitoneal insemination (DIPI) was occasionally used, where doctors injected sperm into the lower abdomen through a surgical hole or incision, with the intention of letting them find the oocyte at the ovary or after entering the genital tract through the ostium of the fallopian tube. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, there are still reasons why a couple would seek to use artificial insemination using the male partner's sperm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Women who have issues with the cervix - such as cervical scarring, cervical blockage from endometriosis, or thick cervical mucus - may also benefit from artificial insemination, since the sperm must pass through the cervix to result in fertilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nowadays artificial insemination in humans is mainly used as a substitute for sexual intercourse for women without a male partner who wish to have their own children and who do so where sperm from a sperm donor is used. (wikipedia.org)
  • Donor sperm may be used in other ways, such as IVF and ICSI and a woman having a baby by a sperm donor will usually also have these methods available to her as alternatives to artificial insemination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some countries have laws which restrict and regulate who can donate sperm and who is able to receive artificial insemination, and the consequences of such insemination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intracervical insemination (ICI): Sperm are introduced into the cervical canal. (tunisie-esthetic.com)
  • Artificial insemination can compensate for abnormalities in male sperm because sample preparation before the procedure helps separate viable, motile sperm from lower quality ones. (tunisie-esthetic.com)
  • The sperm necessary for artificial insemination is obtained by masturbation after 2 to 5 days of abstinence (in order to increase the level of sperm) or by puncture of the vas deferens.The sample thus obtained undergoes a special preparation in the laboratory, ie it is treated in such a way as to select and concentrate the motile spermatozoa in a sufficient volume. (tunisie-esthetic.com)
  • Insemination Procedure is a medical procedure designed to facilitate fertilization by introducing sperm into the reproductive system. (artificialinseminationkit.com)
  • The quality and quantity of sperm play a crucial role in the success of insemination. (artificialinseminationkit.com)
  • These types of kits deposit sperm at the opening of your cervix through intracervical insemination (ICI). (pherdal.com)
  • Cadmium concentrations in blood and seminal plasma: correlations with sperm number and motility in three male populations (infertility patients, artificial insemination donors, and unselected volunteers). (cdc.gov)
  • Intracervical insemination is the easiest and most common insemination technique and can be used in the home for self-insemination without medical practitioner assistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cows not repeated within 60 to 70 days post insemination were examined for pregnancy confirmation by rectal palpation. (ijlr.org)
  • These premium-quality syringes allow for easy loading of semen and precise insemination when attached to the flexible AI pipette. (k9reproduction.com)
  • Typically, there are needleless syringes or other applicators used for the insemination itself, plus accompanying cups or jars to collect the semen sample. (pherdal.com)
  • Pig semen can be collected using a technique called manual stimulation or with the use of artificial vagina devices. (reproduction-online.org)
  • Artificial vagina devices simulate the reproductive tract of a sow to collect semen during mounting. (reproduction-online.org)
  • The calls for artificial insemination received through mobile phones and animals were inseminated with frozen semen at doorstep of farmers. (ijlr.org)
  • To investigate the methods used to prepare semen from these men for insemination, semen from five HIV-infected men with hemophilia was processed in the same (Continued on page 255)laboratory using both procedures reported here. (cdc.gov)
  • one reported a couple who had conceived without HIV-1 transmission after insemination with processed semen. (cdc.gov)
  • Intraperitoneal insemination (IPI): consists of the inoculation of seminal fluid into the cavity of Douglas (between the rectum and the posterior wall of the uterus). (tunisie-esthetic.com)
  • Artificial insemination is considered when targeted intercourse (ie during days of probable ovulation) and/or drug ovarian stimulation are associated with repeated failures. (tunisie-esthetic.com)
  • Artificial insemination techniques were originally used mainly to assist heterosexual couples to conceive where they were having difficulties. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the advancement of techniques in this field, notably ICSI, the use of artificial insemination for such couples has largely been rendered unnecessary. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of such couples, before artificial insemination is turned to as the solution, doctors will require an examination of both the male and female involved in order to remove any and all physical hindrances that are preventing them from naturally achieving a pregnancy including any factors which prevent the couple from having satisfactory sexual intercourse. (wikipedia.org)
  • To assess the interest in insemination among HIV-discordant couples and the frequency of such procedures, 40 of the 222 hemophilia treatment centers in the United States were surveyed by telephone. (cdc.gov)
  • In each of the inseminations, fresh ejaculate was processed in an attempt to remove virus from spermatozoa to avoid HIV-1 transmission. (cdc.gov)
  • During my research, I heard about artificial insemination (AI) and embryo transfer. (foodformzansi.co.za)
  • Artificial insemination is a medically assisted reproduction technique used in the treatment of infertility. (tunisie-esthetic.com)
  • The infertility experience is already uncertain and irregular enough, but getting a high-quality insemination kit shouldn't be. (pherdal.com)
  • There are lots of options aside from IVF to assist in treating infertility, including at-home artificial insemination kits. (pherdal.com)
  • In the small, rural town called Soekmekaar in Limpopo, farmer Michael Makwela is slowly breaking new ground as one of only a few communal farmers to practice artificial insemination with his cattle. (foodformzansi.co.za)
  • Today my retired dad (Joseph Makwela), who takes care of the cattle, has also taken an interest in learning about artificial insemination. (foodformzansi.co.za)
  • The item "NEW PACKAGE OF 1000 ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION RODS AIl Dog Cattle Breeding" is in sale since Wednesday, November 18, 2015. (livestocksuppliescattle.com)
  • During late November, between the second and third inseminations, she noticed a nontender cervical lymph node. (cdc.gov)
  • Understanding the insemination procedure is crucial for those seeking to expand their families through assisted reproductive technologies. (artificialinseminationkit.com)
  • Understanding the factors that contribute to the success of the insemination procedure is pivotal for hopeful parents. (artificialinseminationkit.com)
  • Understanding the intricacies of the insemination procedure can alleviate anxieties and uncertainties. (artificialinseminationkit.com)
  • Getting involve into insemination procedure is a significant step towards realizing the dream of parenthood. (artificialinseminationkit.com)
  • The physician who performed the inseminations reported that in January 1990 a second HIV-1-discordant couple (i.e., seropositive husband with hemophilia, sero negative wife) underwent one insemination using the same density gradient centrifugation procedure. (cdc.gov)
  • Artificial insemination is a first-level medically assisted procreation technique (PMA). (tunisie-esthetic.com)
  • Artificial insemination is a medically assisted procreation technique that respects the normal stages of the reproductive process. (tunisie-esthetic.com)
  • In the United Kingdom, the British obstetrician Mary Barton founded one of the first fertility clinics to offer donor insemination in the 1930s, with her husband Bertold Wiesner fathering hundreds of offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • Available literature on relation of animal breed, season of artificial insemination (AI), sire used for AI, animal lactation order, animal age at the time of AI and sequence of AI etc. with pregnancy of animals is inadequate to explain the role of these factors for deciding fertility strategy at village level. (ijlr.org)
  • A pregnancy resulting from artificial insemination is no different from a pregnancy achieved by sexual intercourse. (wikipedia.org)
  • The beneficiaries of artificial insemination are women who desire to give birth to their own child who may be single, women who are in a lesbian relationship or women who are in a heterosexual relationship but with a male partner who is infertile or who has a physical impairment which prevents full intercourse from taking place. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compared with natural insemination (i.e., insemination by sexual intercourse), artificial insemination can be more expensive and more invasive, and may require professional assistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • At PherDal , we've designed an artificial insemination kit to be used on your own, at home, on your terms, with the reassurance that its contents are sterile and that those contents provide you with multiple opportunities to get pregnant thanks to proven science. (pherdal.com)
  • A proper at-home artificial insemination kit increases your chances of getting pregnant if you've been struggling to conceive. (pherdal.com)
  • Many bulls are, after all, sons of artificial insemination (AI), he commented,.But Lake still emphasized the value of AI during a presentation at the 2014 Progressive Rancher Forum in Casper. (wylr.net)
  • BAIF, Pune contributed the bulls for test inseminations. (ijlr.org)
  • Tube insemination (ITI): it is performed if the woman's tube is in perfect condition and when other techniques have failed. (tunisie-esthetic.com)
  • Conjugal artificial insemination (ACI) or homologous: involves the use of homologous gametes, i.e. say from the components of the couple. (tunisie-esthetic.com)
  • Artificial insemination is performed during the periovulatory period on a spontaneous cycle or after moderate pharmacological stimulation. (tunisie-esthetic.com)
  • PGD when combined with IVF genetic screening can allow us to screen over 130 know genetic deficiencies and diseases as early as 8 days after artificial conceptions. (stemcellthailand.org)
  • In September 1989, 3 weeks after the first insemination, she was ill for 3 days with a sore throat, tinnitus, nausea, and vomiting. (cdc.gov)
  • In December, 3 weeks after the third insemination, she developed a low-grade fever, abdominal cramps, and watery diarrhea that lasted 4-5 days. (cdc.gov)
  • In this comprehensive guide, we delve into the intricacies of the insemination process, ensuring you are well-informed every step of the way. (artificialinseminationkit.com)
  • The Complete Dog Artificial Insemination Kit from k9reproduction.com offers everything a breeder needs for a successful AI process. (k9reproduction.com)
  • Designed for easy navigation, this pipette closely mimics the natural curve of a female dog's reproductive tract, ensuring a stress-free insemination process. (k9reproduction.com)
  • Some women who live in a jurisdiction which does not permit artificial insemination in the circumstance in which she finds herself may travel to another jurisdiction which permits it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeed, for the success of artificial insemination, it is essential that the oligo-asthenospermia is mild or moderate and that the tubal function is preserved (at least unilaterally). (tunisie-esthetic.com)
  • Accurate timing is critical for insemination success. (artificialinseminationkit.com)
  • From these tests, the doctor may or may not recommend a form of artificial insemination. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first recorded case of artificial insemination was John Hunter in 1790, who helped impregnate a linen draper's wife. (wikipedia.org)
  • The professor provided donor insemination to him and his wife gave birth to a boy and they were very joyful. (who.int)
  • For breeders seeking an all-encompassing solution for dog artificial insemination, the Complete AI Kit from k9reproduction.com stands out as a top choice. (k9reproduction.com)
  • As a result, Makwela went and studied AI and ended up obtaining his artificial insemination certificate from the Agricultural Research Council. (foodformzansi.co.za)

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