Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.
A polychlorinated pesticide that is resistant to destruction by light and oxidation. Its unusual stability has resulted in difficulties in residue removal from water, soil, and foodstuffs. This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.
A wide spectrum aliphatic organophosphate insecticide widely used for both domestic and commercial agricultural purposes.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.
A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.
An organochlorine insecticide whose use has been cancelled or suspended in the United States. It has been used to control locusts, tropical disease vectors, in termite control by direct soil injection, and non-food seed and plant treatment. (From HSDB)
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
An organothiophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide and as an acaricide.
An organothiophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide.
Flies of the species Musca domestica (family MUSCIDAE), which infest human habitations throughout the world and often act as carriers of pathogenic organisms.
Compounds having the nitro group, -NO2, attached to carbon. When attached to nitrogen they are nitramines and attached to oxygen they are NITRATES.
Chemicals that, while not possessing inherent pesticidal activity, nonetheless promote or enhance the effectiveness of other pesticides when combined.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.
Articles of cloth, usually cotton or rayon and other synthetic or cotton-blend fabrics, used in households, hospitals, physicians' examining rooms, nursing homes, etc., for sheets, pillow cases, toweling, gowns, drapes, and the like.
A carbamate insecticide.
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
An insecticide synergist, especially for pyrethroids and ROTENONE.
A cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an organothiophosphorus insecticide.
Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.
Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.
Derivatives of carbamic acid, H2NC(=O)OH. Included under this heading are N-substituted and O-substituted carbamic acids. In general carbamate esters are referred to as urethanes, and polymers that include repeating units of carbamate are referred to as POLYURETHANES. Note however that polyurethanes are derived from the polymerization of ISOCYANATES and the singular term URETHANE refers to the ethyl ester of carbamic acid.
Compounds containing carbon-phosphorus bonds in which the phosphorus component is also bonded to one or more sulfur atoms. Many of these compounds function as CHOLINERGIC AGENTS and as INSECTICIDES.
Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.
The application of smoke, vapor, or gas for the purpose of disinfecting or destroying pests or microorganisms.
An organothiophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor. It has been used as an acaricide and as an insecticide.
Lightweight meshwork fabric made of cotton, silk, polyester, nylon (polyamides), or other material impregnated with insecticide, having openings too small to allow entry of mosquitoes or other insects, thereby offering protection against insect bite and insect-borne diseases.
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.
A highly poisonous organochlorine insecticide. The EPA has cancelled registrations of pesticides containing this compound with the exception of its use through subsurface ground insertion for termite control and the dipping of roots or tops of non-food plants. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A carbamate insecticide and parasiticide. It is a potent anticholinesterase agent belonging to the carbamate group of reversible cholinesterase inhibitors. It has a particularly low toxicity from dermal absorption and is used for control of head lice in some countries.
A polychlorinated compound used for controlling a variety of insects. It is practically water-insoluble, but readily adheres to clay particles and persists in soil and water for several years. Its mode of action involves repetitive nerve-discharges positively correlated to increase in temperature. This compound is extremely toxic to most fish. (From Comp Biochem Physiol (C) 1993 Jul;105(3):347-61)
Potent cholinesterase inhibitor used as an insecticide and acaricide.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous plants, insects, or other animals. This includes control of plants that serve as habitats or food sources for animal pests.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
A carbamate insecticide with anticholinesterase activity.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Several species are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.
An organochlorine insecticide that has been used as a pediculicide and a scabicide. It has been shown to cause cancer.
Poisoning due to exposure to ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS, such as ORGANOPHOSPHATES; ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHATES; and ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHONATES.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
Bugs of the family CIMICIDAE, genus Cimex. They are flattened, oval, reddish insects which inhabit houses, wallpaper, furniture, and beds. C. lectularius, of temperate regions, is the common bedbug that attacks humans and is frequently a serious pest in houses, hotels, barracks, and other living quarters. Experiments have shown that bedbugs can transmit a variety of diseases, but they are not normal vectors under natural conditions. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p272)
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.
Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
A cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as a systemic insecticide, an acaricide, and nematocide. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER and between TOGO and NIGERIA. Its capital is Porto-Novo. It was formerly called Dahomey. In the 17th century it was a kingdom in the southern area of Africa. Coastal footholds were established by the French who deposed the ruler by 1892. It was made a French colony in 1894 and gained independence in 1960. Benin comes from the name of the indigenous inhabitants, the Bini, now more closely linked with southern Nigeria (Benin City, a town there). Bini may be related to the Arabic bani, sons. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p136, 310 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p60)
Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.
An organophosphorus insecticide that inhibits ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE.
Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.
Various salts of a quaternary ammonium oxime that reconstitute inactivated acetylcholinesterase, especially at the neuromuscular junction, and may cause neuromuscular blockade. They are used as antidotes to organophosphorus poisoning as chlorides, iodides, methanesulfonates (mesylates), or other salts.
An organothiophosphate insecticide.
Phenyl esters of carbamic acid or of N-substituted carbamic acids. Structures are similar to PHENYLUREA COMPOUNDS with a carbamate in place of the urea.
A highly toxic cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an acaricide and as an insecticide.
The methyl homolog of parathion. An effective, but highly toxic, organothiophosphate insecticide and cholinesterase inhibitor.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
An organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as a pesticide.
Carbon-containing thiophosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either SULFUR atom, or the OXYGEN atom of the SPO3 core structure.
Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.
An organothiophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as a systemic and contact insecticide.
Living facilities for humans.
Carboxylesterase is a serine-dependent esterase with wide substrate specificity. The enzyme is involved in the detoxification of XENOBIOTICS and the activation of ester and of amide PRODRUGS.
Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.
A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.
A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
A republic in central Africa, bordering the Bay of Biafra, CAMEROON is to the north and GABON to the south. Its capital is Malabo.
Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
An island in the Lesser Antilles, one of the Windward Islands. Its capital is Fort-de-France. It was discovered by Columbus in 1502 and from its settlement in 1635 by the French it passed into and out of Dutch and British hands. It was made a French overseas department in 1946. One account of the name tells of native women on the shore calling "Madinina" as Columbus approached the island. The meaning was never discovered but was entered on early charts as Martinique, influenced by the name of St. Martin. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p734 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p339)
Synthetic analogs of the naturally occurring insecticides cinerin, jasmolin, and pyrethrin. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A man-made compound previously used to control termites and other insects. Even though production of heptachlor was phased out of use in the United States during the late 1980's it remains in soil and hazardous waste sites. It is clearly toxic to animals and humans but, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that heptachlor is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. (From ATSDR Public Heath Statement, April 1989)
Free-standing or supported lightweight meshwork fabric made of cotton, silk, polyester or other material, having openings too small to allow entry of mosquitoes or other insects, thereby protecting against INSECT BITES; INSECT STINGS, and insect-borne diseases.
A highly poisonous substance that was formerly used as an insecticide. The manufacture and use has been discontinued in the U.S. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.
The geographic area of the Mekong Valley in general or when the specific country or countries are not indicated. Usually includes Cambodia, Indochina, and Laos.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
A condition or physical state produced by the ingestion, injection, inhalation of or exposure to a deleterious agent.
An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.
A mitosporic fungal genus. Teleomorphs are found in the family Clavicipitaceae and include Cordyceps bassiana. The species Beauveria bassiana is a common pathogen of ARTHROPODS and is used in PEST CONTROL.
A highly chlorinated polycyclic hydrocarbon insecticide whose large number of chlorine atoms makes it resistant to degradation. It has been shown to be toxic to mammals and causes abnormal cellular changes in laboratory animals.
An organochlorophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide for the control of flies and roaches. It is also used in anthelmintic compositions for animals. (From Merck, 11th ed)
The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.
An insect growth regulator which interferes with the formation of the insect cuticle. It is effective in the control of mosquitoes and flies.
Lice of the genus Pediculus, family Pediculidae. Pediculus humanus corporus is the human body louse and Pediculus humanus capitis is the human head louse.
Infestations by PARASITES which live on, or burrow into, the surface of their host's EPIDERMIS. Most ectoparasites are ARTHROPODS.
A plant species of the genus CHRYSANTHEMUM, family ASTERACEAE. The flowers contain PYRETHRINS, cinerolones, and chrysanthemines which are powerful contact insecticides. Most in the old Pyrethrum genus are reclassified to TANACETUM; some to other ASTERACEAE genera.
A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.
A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.
A mixture of mostly avermectin H2B1a (RN 71827-03-7) with some avermectin H2B1b (RN 70209-81-3), which are macrolides from STREPTOMYCES avermitilis. It binds glutamate-gated chloride channel to cause increased permeability and hyperpolarization of nerve and muscle cells. It also interacts with other CHLORIDE CHANNELS. It is a broad spectrum antiparasitic that is active against microfilariae of ONCHOCERCA VOLVULUS but not the adult form.
BEETLES in the family Curculionidae and the largest family in the order COLEOPTERA. They have a markedly convex shape and many are considered pests.
Juvenile hormone analog and insect growth regulator used to control insects by disrupting metamorphosis. Has been effective in controlling mosquito larvae.
A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.
A group of degraded TRITERPENES in which the four terminal carbons of the C17 side chain have been removed, and the remaining portion often forming C17 furans.
Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.
Amide derivatives of phosphoric acid such as compounds that include the phosphoric triamide (P(=O)(N)(N)(N)) structure.
A genus in the family Blattidae containing several species, the most common being P. americana, the American cockroach.
A republic in central Africa, east of NIGER, west of SUDAN and south of LIBYA. Its capital is N'Djamena.
A species of gram-positive bacteria which may be pathogenic for certain insects. It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
A family of the order DIPTERA with over 700 species. Important species that may be mechanical vectors of disease include Musca domesticus (HOUSEFLIES), Musca autumnalis (face fly), Stomoxys calcitrans (stable fly), Haematobia irritans (horn fly) and Fannia spp.
A pesticide or chemical agent that kills mites and ticks. This is a large class that includes carbamates, formamides, organochlorines, organophosphates, etc, that act as antibiotics or growth regulators.
Bites and stings inflicted by insects.
Infections with the protozoa of the phylum EUGLENOZOA.
Family of spider MITES, in the superfamily Tetranychoidea, suborder Trombidiformes.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
A compound used as a topical insect repellent that may cause irritation to eyes and mucous membranes, but not to the skin.
Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.
A mitosporic fungal genus in the family Clavicipitaceae. It has teleomorphs in the family Nectriaceae. Metarhizium anisopliae is used in PESTICIDES.
Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.
An order of mostly marine CRUSTACEA containing more than 5500 species in over 100 families. Like ISOPODA, the other large order in the superorder Peracarida, members are shrimp-like in appearance, have sessile compound eyes, and no carapace. But unlike Isopoda, they possess thoracic gills and their bodies are laterally compressed.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.
A genus of PSYCHODIDAE which functions as the vector of a number of pathogenic organisms, including LEISHMANIA DONOVANI; LEISHMANIA TROPICA; Bartonella bacilliformis, and the Pappataci fever virus (SANDFLY FEVER NAPLES VIRUS).
The capability of producing eggs (OVA) from which young are hatched outside the body. While mostly referring to nonmammalian species, this does include MAMMALS of the order MONOTREMATA.
A organothiophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an anthelmintic, insecticide, and as a nematocide.
A family of wingless, blood-sucking insects of the suborder HETEROPTERA, including the bedbugs and related forms. Cimex (BEDBUGS), Heamatosiphon, and Oeciacus are medically important genera. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
An organochlorine compound that was formerly used as an insecticide. Its manufacture and use has been discontinued in the United States. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.
Carbamate derivative used as an insecticide, acaricide, and nematocide.
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
A family of insects in the order Dictyoptera (COCKROACHES), including genera Blattella, Parcoblatta, and Symploce.
Six-membered heterocycles containing an oxygen and a nitrogen.
A republic in western Africa, south and east of MALI and west of NIGER. Its capital is Ouagadougou. It was formerly called Upper Volta until 1984.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.
A republic in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA, east of ZAMBIA and ZIMBABWE, bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa.
Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
A piperidine botanical insecticide.
An organothiophosphorus insecticide that has been used to control pig mange.

An overview of the evolution of overproduced esterases in the mosquito Culex pipiens. (1/3500)

Insecticide resistance genes have developed in a wide variety of insects in response to heavy chemical application. Few of these examples of adaptation in response to rapid environmental change have been studied both at the population level and at the gene level. One of these is the evolution of the overproduced esterases that are involved in resistance to organophosphate insecticides in the mosquito Culex pipiens. At the gene level, two genetic mechanisms are involved in esterase overproduction, namely gene amplification and gene regulation. At the population level, the co-occurrence of the same amplified allele in distinct geographic areas is best explained by the importance of passive transportation at the worldwide scale. The long-term monitoring of a population of mosquitoes in southern France has enabled a detailed study to be made of the evolution of resistance genes on a local scale, and has shown that a resistance gene with a lower cost has replaced a former resistance allele with a higher cost.  (+info)

The bystander effect in the HSVtk/ganciclovir system and its relationship to gap junctional communication. (2/3500)

The bystander effect (BSE) is an interesting and important property of the herpes thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (hTK/GCV) system of gene therapy for cancer. With the BSE, not only are the hTK expressing cells killed upon ganciclovir (GCV) exposure but also neighboring wild-type tumor cells. On testing a large number of tumor cell lines in vitro, a wide range of sensitivity to bystander killing was found. Since transfer of toxic GCV metabolites from hTK-modified to wild-type tumor cells via gap junctions (GJ) seemed to be a likely mechanism of the BSE, we tested GJ function in these various tumors with a dye transfer technique and pharmacological agents known to affect GJ communication. We confirmed that mixtures of tumor cell resistant to the BSE did not show dye transfer from cell to cell while bystander-sensitive tumor cells did. Dieldrin, a drug known to decrease GJ communication, diminished dye transfer and also inhibited the BSE. Forskolin, an upregulator of cAMP did increase GJ, but directly inhibited hTK and therefore its effect on BSE could not be determined. We conclude that these observations further support port the concept that functional GJ play an important role in the BSE and further suggest that pharmacological manipulation of GJ may influence the outcome of cancer therapy with hTK/GCV.  (+info)

A toxicokinetic model to assess the risk of azinphosmethyl exposure in humans through measures of urinary elimination of alkylphosphates. (3/3500)

Azinphosmethyl (APM) is one of the most common insecticides used in fruit farming. The object of this paper is to develop a quick and practical test for assessing the risk for humans coming into contact with APM. It has been shown that the principal component of occupational and/or accidental exposure is through the skin (C. A. Franklin et al., 1981, J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 7, 715-731), but our approach is applicable to exposures via any route or a combination of routes. The method proposed in the present paper can accommodate a single-event exposure or repeated exposures over long periods. Urinary alkylphosphate (AP) metabolites are reliable bioindicators of the presence of APM in the body; they are easily accessible and can be used to estimate APM body burden. We developed a simple toxicokinetic model to link the time varying APM body burden to absorbed doses and to rates of elimination in the form of AP urinary metabolites. Using this model and data available in the literature, we are able to propose a "no observed adverse effect level" (NOAEL) for APM body levels and for corresponding absorbed doses. We have established that after a single exposure, the safe limit corresponding to the NOAEL is reached at a cumulative 0.215 mumoles AP/kg bw eliminated in urine in the first 24 hours following the beginning of exposure. For repeated daily exposures at steady state, the corresponding urinary AP metabolite level is equal to a cumulative 0.266 mumoles AP/kg bw eliminated per 24 hours.  (+info)

Involvement of two plasmids in the degradation of carbaryl by Arthrobacter sp. strain RC100. (4/3500)

A bacterium capable of utilizing carbaryl (1-naphthyl N-methylcarbamate) as the sole carbon source was isolated from carbaryl-treated soil. This bacterium was characterized taxonomically as Arthrobacter and was designated strain RC100. RC100 hydrolyzes the N-methylcarbamate linkage to 1-naphthol, which was further metabolized via salicylate and gentisate. Strain RC100 harbored three plasmids (designated pRC1, pRC2, and pRC3). Mutants unable to degrade carbaryl arose at a high frequency after treating the culture with mitomycin C. All carbaryl-hydrolysis-deficient mutants (Cah-) lacked pRC1, and all 1-naphthol-utilization-deficient mutants (Nat-) lacked pRC2. The plasmid-free strain RC107 grew on gentisate as a carbon source. These two plasmids could be transferred to Cah- mutants or Nat- mutants by conjugation, resulting in the restoration of the Cah and Nah phenotypes.  (+info)

Altered properties of neuronal sodium channels associated with genetic resistance to pyrethroids. (5/3500)

Genetic resistance to pyrethroid insecticides involves nervous system insensitivity linked to regulatory and structural genes of voltage-sensitive sodium channels. We examined the properties and relative density of sodium channels in central neurons of susceptible and pyrethroid-resistant (Pyr-R) insects that were homozygous for the amino acid substitution V421M in the I-S6 transmembrane segment. Pyr-R sodium channels show approximately 21-fold lower sensitivity to the synthetic pyrethroid permethrin and a approximately 2-fold increased sensitivity to the alpha-scorpion toxin LqhalphaIT. Pyr-R channels also exhibit altered gating properties, including a approximately 13 mV positive shift in voltage-dependent activation and approximately 7 mV positive shift in steady-state inactivation. Consistent with these changes in gating behavior, Pyr-R central neurons are less excitable, as evidenced by an approximately 11 mV elevation of action potential threshold. No differences in sodium channel density are evident. The altered properties of Pyr-R sodium channels provide a plausible molecular basis for nervous system insensitivity associated with pyrethroid resistance.  (+info)

Estrogenic potential of certain pyrethroid compounds in the MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cell line. (6/3500)

Estrogens, whether natural or synthetic, clearly influence reproductive development, senescence, and carcinogenesis. Pyrethroid insecticides are now the most widely used agents for indoor pest control, providing potential for human exposure. Using the MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cell line, we studied the estrogenic potential of several synthetic pyrethroid compounds in vitro using pS2 mRNA levels as the end point. We tested sumithrin, fenvalerate, d-trans allethrin, and permethrin. Nanomolar concentrations of either sumithrin or fenvalerate were sufficient to increase pS2 expression slightly above basal levels. At micromolar concentrations, these two pyrethroid compounds induced pS2 expression to levels comparable to those elicited by 10 nM 17ss-estradiol (fivefold). The estrogenic activity of sumithrin was abolished with co-treatment with an antiestrogen (ICI 164,384), whereas estrogenic activity of fenvalerate was not significantly diminished with antiestrogen co-treatment. In addition, both sumithrin and fenvalerate were able to induce cell proliferation of MCF-7 cells in a dose-response fashion. Neither permethrin nor d-trans allethrin affected pS2 expression. Permethrin had a noticeable effect on cell proliferation at 100 microM, whereas d-trans allethrin slightly induced MCF-7 cell proliferation at 10 microM, but was toxic at higher concentrations. Overall, our studies imply that each pyrethroid compound is unique in its ability to influence several cellular pathways. These findings suggest that pyrethroids should be considered to be hormone disruptors, and their potential to affect endocrine function in humans and wildlife should be investigated.  (+info)

Relationships between environmental organochlorine contaminant residues, plasma corticosterone concentrations, and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in Great Lakes herring gull embryos. (7/3500)

Experiments were conducted to survey and detect differences in plasma corticosterone concentrations and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in herring gull (Larus argentatus) embryos environmentally exposed to organochlorine contaminants in ovo. Unincubated fertile herring gull eggs were collected from an Atlantic coast control site and various Great Lakes sites in 1997 and artificially incubated in the laboratory. Liver and/or kidney tissues from approximately half of the late-stage embryos were analyzed for the activities of various intermediary metabolic enzymes known to be regulated, at least in part, by corticosteroids. Basal plasma corticosterone concentrations were determined for the remaining embryos. Yolk sacs were collected from each embryo and a subset was analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. Regression analysis of individual yolk sac organochlorine residue concentrations, or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs), with individual basal plasma corticosterone concentrations indicated statistically significant inverse relationships for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), non-ortho PCBs, and TEQs. Similarly, inverse relationships were observed for the activities of two intermediary metabolic enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzyme) when regressed against PCDDs/PCDFs. Overall, these data suggest that current levels of organochlorine contamination may be affecting the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and associated intermediary metabolic pathways in environmentally exposed herring gull embryos in the Great Lakes.  (+info)

Environmental contaminants and body fat distribution. (8/3500)

The effect of body mass index (BMI) and waist:hip ratio (WHR) on plasma levels of organochlorines [i.e., 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE)] was investigated in a sample of black and white women drawn from a population-based study in North Carolina. Organochlorine levels were determined in plasma samples from 99 women selected on the basis of race (black versus white) and quartile of the WHR (1st versus 4th). Of a panel of 20 organochlorine compounds tested, only DDE was detectable in most study subjects. Measurements of height, weight, and waist and hip circumferences were taken during an in-person interview. Information was elicited regarding dietary, residential, and breast-feeding histories. Results of multiple regression analyses indicate that black women had significantly higher plasma levels of DDE than white women. These levels were independent of BMI and WHR. BMI but not WHR was also found to be an independent predictor of DDE plasma level. These results suggest that black/white differences should be considered in studies that explore the relationship between environmental contaminants and various disease outcomes, such as breast cancer risk. In addition, BMI may affect circulating levels of contaminants and should also be considered a potentially important modifying factor for exposure to lipophilic substances.  (+info)

Insecticides are substances used to kill insects.[1] They include ovicides and larvicides used against insect eggs and larvae, respectively. Insecticides are used in agriculture, medicine, industry and by consumers. Insecticides are claimed to be a major factor behind the increase in the 20th-centurys agricultural productivity.[2] Nearly all insecticides have the potential to significantly alter ecosystems; many are toxic to humans and/or animals; some become concentrated as they spread along the food chain. Insecticides can be classified into two major groups: systemic insecticides, which have residual or long term activity; and contact insecticides, which have no residual activity. The mode of action describes how the pesticide kills or inactivates a pest. It provides another way of classifying insecticides. Mode of action can be important in understanding whether an insecticide will be toxic to unrelated species, such as fish, birds and mammals. Insecticides may be repellent or ...
The rapid selection of pyrethroid resistance throughout sub-Saharan Africa is a serious threat to malaria vector control. Chlorfenapyr is a pyrrole insecticide which shows no cross resistance to insecticide classes normally used for vector control and is effective on mosquito nets under experimental hut conditions. Unlike neurotoxic insecticides, chlorfenapyr owes its toxicity to disruption of metabolic pathways in mitochondria that enable cellular respiration. A series of experiments explored whether standard World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for evaluation of long-lasting insecticidal nets, developed through testing of pyrethroid insecticides, are suitable for evaluation of non-neurotoxic insecticides. The efficacy of WHO recommended cone, cylinder and tunnel tests was compared for pyrethroids and chlorfenapyr. To establish bioassay exposure times predictive of insecticide-treated net (ITN) efficacy in experimental hut trials, standard three-minute bioassays of pyrethroid and chlorfenapyr
The idea of evolution-proof insecticides is currently a hot topic in mosquito control (Read et al. 2009) because of the potential to slow down or even halt the evolution of insecticide resistance in mosquitoes. While insecticides are an effective and cheap method of controlling malaria, it is well known that mosquitoes can develop resistance and that this can happen on a surprisingly fast time scale. It was known by the end of the 1960s that the mosquito species that transmit malaria were developing resistance to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), the single insecticide that had been relied on until then (see Hemingway et al. (2002) and Kelly-Hope et al. (2008) for recent discussions on the management of insecticide resistance). Current insecticides kill extremely rapidly after contact, but their high lethality leads to intense selection for resistance because they kill young female adults. The very limited insecticide arsenal available (there are still just four classes, only one of which ...
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This project completed in December 2015.. New Insecticides for Malaria Control: Discovery Research for the Identification of New Chemical Entities for Malaria Control was a continuation of research initiated under the FNIHs Vector-based Control of Transmission: Discovery Research (VCTR) program. VCTR was itself an extension of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundations Grand Challenges in Global Health initiative. As a subset of activities under the VCTR program, the New Insecticides for Malaria Control program addressed the urgent need for new chemicals to kill mosquitoes that transmit malaria. Current efforts rely heavily on the use of available insecticides for use on bednets, for indoor residual spraying and for application of chemical larvicides. Available insecticides are limited in number and the only one class of compound (pyrethroids) can safely be used on bednets. The situation is grim as mosquitoes have evolved resistance to the compounds currently in use. This program sought to address ...
Appropriate monitoring of vector insecticide susceptibility is required to provide the rationale for optimal insecticide selection in vector control programs. In order to assess the influence of mosquito age on susceptibility to various insecticides, field-collected larvae of An. gambiae s.l. from Tiassalé were reared to adults. Females aged 1, 2, 3, 5 and 10 days were exposed to 5 insecticides (deltamethrin, permethrin, DDT, malathion and propoxur) using WHO susceptibility test kits. Outcome measures included the LT50 (exposure time required to achieve 50% knockdown), the RR (resistance ratio, i.e. a calculation of how much more resistant the wild population is compared with a standard susceptible strain) and the mortality rate following 1 hour exposure, for each insecticide and each mosquito age group. There was a positive correlation between the rate of knockdown and mortality for all the age groups and for all insecticides tested. For deltamethrin, the RR50 was highest for 2 day old and lowest for
A study of farm worker families in California has shown that by age 3.5, children born to mothers exposed to OP insecticides have lessened attention spans and are more vulnerable to attention deficit, hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Male children were more likely to be impacted.. Source: Marks, A.R., et al., Organophosphate Pesticide Exposure and Attention in Young Mexican-American Children: The CHAMACOS Study, Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 118, No. 12, December 2010. ...
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As folks consider spraying fields for soybean aphid, we want to remind everyone that soybean aphid has developed resistance to pyrethroid (Group 3A) insecticides. Currently, any populations of soybean aphid in Minnesota should be considered potentially resistant to pyrethroids. Insecticide rotations are an important part of insecticide resistance management and may help reduce the chances of further development of insecticide resistance in soybean aphid. If a field needs to be sprayed more than once, it is important to rotate to a different insecticide group for the follow-up spray. On a new webpage, we provide some guidance for insecticide rotations for pyrethroid-resistant soybean aphid ...
Both Aedes aegytpi and Ae. albopictus are major vectors of 5 important arboviruses (namely chikungunya virus, dengue virus, Rift Valley fever virus, yellow fever virus, and Zika virus), making these mosquitoes an important factor in the worldwide burden of infectious disease. Vector control using insecticides coupled with larval source reduction is critical to control the transmission of these viruses to humans but is threatened by the emergence of insecticide resistance. Here, we review the available evidence for the geographical distribution of insecticide resistance in these 2 major vectors worldwide and map the data collated for the 4 main classes of neurotoxic insecticide (carbamates, organochlorines, organophosphates, and pyrethroids). Emerging resistance to all 4 of these insecticide classes has been detected in the Americas, Africa, and Asia. Target-site mutations and increased insecticide detoxification have both been linked to resistance in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus but more work is
The Yellow Book has been published annually since 2005 with trial results and evaluations. Erin Hodgson, associate professor and extension specialist in entomology at Iowa State University, has been writing the publication since 2009.. For the first time during the 2016 growing season, insecticide failure was confirmed in Iowa. Pyrethroids are a common insecticide group, but did not have any knockdown in this commercial field.. This may force farmers to switch to a different kind of insecticide, most likely organophosphates, Hodgson said. If pyrethroid resistance becomes more common, it limits the tools that can be used and can increase input costs. Checking to make sure insecticides are working now becomes a priority.. If you are going to apply a foliar insecticide, make sure to go back and scout to insure there are no survivors after application, Hodgson said.. Hodgson will present much more information about the insecticide failure during the 2017 Iowa State University Extension and Outreach ...
A case of accidental poisoning of an adult by the misuse of an organophosphorous insecticide solution Neguvon is presented. Repeated dermal application of the compound produced moderate symptoms and the fall of the erythrocyte (56%) and...
An insecticide is any chemical that is used to control, kill or repel insects. There are four main types of insecticides: botanical, microbial, manufactured and inorganic. Botanical insecticides are plant extracts; microbial insecticides are microbe or bacterium based; manufactured insecticides are synthetic ...
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This dramatic increase in oral-based toxic load is connected to a shift toward widespread use of neonicotinoid insecticides, which are unusually toxic to bees when they are ingested, said Douglas.. The most widely used family of insecticides in the world, neonicotinoids are commonly used as seed coatings in crops, such as corn and soybean. Some of the insecticide is taken up by the growing plants and distributed throughout their tissues, while the rest is lost to the environment.. Several studies have shown that these seed treatments have negligible benefits for most crops in most regions, said Grozinger. Unfortunately, growers often dont have the option to purchase seeds without these treatments; they dont have choices in how to manage their crops.. The researchers suggest that the common method of evaluating insecticide use trends in terms of pounds of insecticides applied does not give an accurate picture of environmental impact.. The indicator we use - bee toxic load - can be ...
Of the citrus plantings, 74 per cent received no insecticide sprays and a further 18 per cent received only an oil spray (table 3). An average of 8 per cent of plantings received an organophosphate Insecticide (one spray only). Methidathion was the most commonly used insecticide.. Low insecticide use on citrus may be attributed to the effectiveness of the red scale parasite. Aphytis melinus De Bach, in the biological, or integrated (parasites and oil sprays) control of red scale, Aonidiella eurentii (Mask.). Citrus orchards are supplied with parasites regularly on a contract basis by two insectaries . The Biological Services insectary at Loxton services 750 ha of citrus throughout the Riverland (R. George, personal communication), and the Waikerie Red Scale Committee services 300 ha at Waikerie (E. J. Harnmerton, personal communication). Parasites from the serviced orchards have dispersed to surrounding areas and provide adequate control of red scale in most years.. Organophosphate insecticides ...
To serve the citizens of Maryland, the Maryland Department of Agriculture annually reviews the insecticides available for mosquito control. The recommended insecticides are selected from the list of products registered by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for mosquito control use. The Department of Agriculture bases its selection on experience and research and includes factors of risk, economy and effectiveness under Maryland conditions. The Department promotes integrated pest management of mosquitoes and advocates alternatives to insecticide application when possible. These alternatives include water management, biological control and public education.. When alternative controls are not possible to utilize or are not effective in reducing the mosquito population below a level that may cause unacceptable annoyance or constitute a public health threat, the use of insecticide is an approved option as part of an integrated pest management program.. Insecticides which control mosquito ...
sources]. Amphibian populations are declining worldwide, and pesticides and insecticides are one hypothesized cause, says Jessica Hua, lead author of the paper and a PhD candidate studying biological sciences in Relyeas laboratory. So this discovery has promising implications for the persistence of amphibian populations.. For the study, published in Evolutionary Applications, researchers examined three potential factors that might allow larval wood frogs to have a high tolerance to the insecticide: the concentration of the initial insecticide exposure, the timing of the exposure, and the populations history of exposure.. They chose to work with carbaryl, a popular household insecticide that also is used for malaria prevention.. The researchers conducted experiments with both embryos and hatchlings that were collected as newly laid eggs from four Pennsylvania ponds-two near agricultural fields and two farther away.. Both embryos and hatchlings from all four environs were first exposed to a ...
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Prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organophosphate insecticide, correlates with structural changes in the developing brain.
An experimental strategy for the study of enhanced degradation is described based on its occurrence in Midwestern corn soils. The shift from recalcitrant chlorinated hydrocarbons to biodegradable organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides has resulted in the failure of some compounds, notably carbofuran and isofenphos, to provide adequate pest control following repeated use. Enhanced degradation of an insecticide involves its rapid degradation by a population of soil microorganisms that has adapted to beneficially catabolize it following exposure to it or a similar insecticide. For enhanced degradation to be thoroughly investigated studies must be carried out to demonstrate an increased rate of degradation in soils with prior insecticide exposure, to identify the rates and products of degradation in similar soils under controlled conditions, and to elucidate the microbiological mechanisms.
Zika virus (ZIKV) is primarily transmitted to humans by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Vector-virus interactions influencing vector competence vary and depend on biological and environmental factors. A mosquitos chronological age may impact its immune response against virus infection. Insecticides, source reduction, and/or public education are currently the best defense against mosquitoes that transmit ZIKV. This study assessed the effects of a mosquitos chronological age at time of infection on its response to ZIKV infection. We exposed young (6-7 d post-emergence) and old (11-12 d post-emergence) Ae. albopictus to a sublethal dose of bifenthrin prior to oral exposure to blood meals containing ZIKV (7-day incubation period). Old mosquitoes experienced a significantly (p < 0.01) higher rate of mortality than young mosquitoes. Significantly higher ZIKV body titers (p < 0.01) were observed in the old control group compared to the young control group. Significantly higher (p < 0.01) ZIKV
Regular or long-term exposure to consumer insecticides may increase the risk of developing autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. Thats the
Analyses of bees found dead in and around hives from several apiaries over two years in Indiana showed the presence of neonicotinoid insecticides, which are commonly used to coat corn and soybean seeds before planting.
Programmatic monitoring of insecticide resistance in disease vectors is mostly done on a large scale, often focusing on differences between districts, regions or countries. However, local heterogeneities in residual malaria transmission imply the need for finer-scale data. This study reports small-scale variations of insecticide susceptibility in Anopheles arabiensis between three neighbouring villages across two seasons in Tanzania, where insecticidal bed nets are extensively used, but malaria transmission persists. WHO insecticide susceptibility assays were conducted on female and male An. arabiensis from three proximal villages, Minepa, Lupiro, and Mavimba, during dry (June-December 2015) and wet (January-May 2016) seasons. Adults emerging from wild-collected larvae were exposed to 0.05% lambda-cyhalothrin, 0.05% deltamethrin, 0.75% permethrin, 4% DDT, 4% dieldrin, 0.1% bendiocarb, 0.1% propoxur, 0.25% pirimiphos-methyl and 5% malathion. A hydrolysis probe assay was used to screen for L1014F ...
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Close We offer free delivery, in-store and curbside pick-up for most items. Product Overview. Demon ® Max insecticide provides knockdown and residual control of pests. Offering long-term protection, Demon Max was designed with an advanced pyrethroid chemistry and low vapor pressure so it is up to 200 times less soluble than other brands. Start pump to begin by-pass agitation and place end of treating tool in tank to allow circulation through hose. NOT FOR SALE TO: NY, Archer Insect Growth Regulator Demon max has a good residule and kills over 30 pests. See Demon Max label … Also, the Demon Max is a liquid and the normal Demon is a powder. Demon Max Insecticide / Termiticide, 25.3% Cypermethrin (1 Pint) Dominion 2l, Professional Termite Control Concentrate. Demon Max Insecticide Pint 25.3% Cypermethrin. Skip to content. Demon Max. Demon Max Insecticide can be used for pre and post-construction termite treatments and spot, crack and crevice, perimeter, and broadcast treatments. Insecticide; ...
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A model is developed to describe the decay of seven insecticides on stored paddy rice, maize, sunflowers and peas, and is shown to be more precise than each of six literature models on pesticide decay. It relates residues (R), as a ratio of applied concentration (R0), to time after insecticide application (t), modifying the usual first-order kinetics equation lnR=lnR0−kt by assuming that the rate constant k has a mixture of values according to a gamma distribution with mean K. The resulting equation is lnR=lnR0−Kc ln(1+t/c), where c is a constant determined empirically. For large c, this model reduces to the first-order model with K=k. The parameter K is further modelled as linear in temperature for maize and rice. The rate of loss of protectants was found not to be seriously affected by co-application with other insecticides, and this is a useful finding for future studies on rates of loss of grain protectants. The apparent rate of loss was also not seriously affected by the method of ...
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Could Common Insecticides Be Tied to Behavior Issues in Kids? THURSDAY, March 2, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Children exposed to a widely used group of insecticides may be at increased risk for behavioral problems, according to a new study. The insecticides are called pyrethroids. Theyre used on crops but can also be found in some mosquito repellents and in products used to treat head lice, scabies and fleas, the French research team explained. Like many types of insecticides, pyrethroids work by damaging...
Various microencapsulated insecticide formulations for the control of pests such as aphids and beet army worm. These formulations exhibit excellent knockdown activity towards both chewing and non-chew
The effects of insecticide application on foraging and pollination by honeybees in toria (Brassica campestris var. toria) cultivar RSPT-1 were studied at Jammu (India).Under field conditions the application of betacylfluthrin, betacyfluthrin + imidacloprid and carbaryl resulted in 100% bee mortality within one hour of spraying. After 48 hours, 100% mortality was recorded in all the treatments except malathion (94%). The post-spraying effects of the insecticides were much higher during the first hour after treatment, but after 48 hr there was 100% mortality in all treatments except imidacloprid (43%). Residual effects after spraying were high for flowers sprayed with imidacloprid (76% mortality), demeton-o-methyl, carbaryl, and ethiprole, moderate for betacyfluthrin (49%), betacyfluthrin + imidacloprid, and profenophos, and low for malathion (12%). The residual effect decreases with time and after 96 hours of spraying, the residual effect was reduced in almost all the insecticides. The number of ...
This research focused on the influence of insecticides on gas exchange, chlorophyll content, vegetative and floral development, and overall plant quality of gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii var. `Festival Salmon). Insecticides from five chemical classes were applied weekly at 1× and 4× the recommended concentrations. Insecticides used were: abamectin (Avid® 0.15 EC), acephate (Orthene® Turf, Tree & Ornamental Spray 97), bifenthrin (Talstar® Nursery Flowable), clarified hydrophobic extract of neem oil (Triact® 70), and spinosad (Conserve® SC). Phytotoxicity occurred in the form of leaf chlorosis on all acephate treatments, with the greatest damage occurring at the 4× concentration. Photosynthesis and stomatal conductance were significantly reduced in plants treated with neem oil extract. Plants treated with the neem oil extract (1× and 4×) flowered later and had reduced growth [lower shoot dry mass (DM) and total DM]. Plants that received 4× the recommended concentration of neem oil extract ...
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MICHIGAN STATE (US) - The discovery of a second molecular receptor in mosquitoes could make insecticides used to fend off malaria and dengue fever more effective.. For many years, pyrethroid insecticides have been deployed in developing countries to fend off diseases. Theyre so effective that they are the only insecticides the World Health Organization uses with their mosquito nets they distribute around the globe.. Pyrethroids are effective because they eliminate mosquitoes while having few if any side effects on humans, says Yuzhe Du, a Michigan State electrophysiologist and one of the lead authors of the study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.. Our discovery of a second receptor in the mosquitoes sodium channel gives us a better understanding of how the insecticide works at a molecular level as well as could lead to ways to stem mosquitoes resistance to pyrethroids.. [sources]. Receptors on sodium channels act as doorways. Pyrethroids work by propping ...
Phenyl phosphonothioic acid-O-ethyl-O-[4-nitrophenyl] ester (EPN) is one of the 10 most frequently used organophosphorus insecticides and causes delayed neurotoxicity in adult chickens and mallards. Small amounts of organophosphorus insecticides placed on birds eggs are embryotoxic and teratogenic. For this reason, the effects of topical egg application on EPN were examined on mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) embryo development. Mallard eggs were treated topically at 72 hr of incubation with 25 microliter of a nontoxic oil vehicle or with EPN in the vehicle at concentrations of approximately 12, 36, or 108 micrograms/g egg, equivalent to one, three, and nine times the agricultural level of application used to spray crops. Treatment with EPN resulted in 22 to 44% mortality over this dose range by 18 days of development compared with 4 and 5% for untreated and vehicle-treated controls. EPN impaired embryonic growth and was highly teratogenic: 37-42% of the surviving embryos at 18 days...
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ICD-10 Code: T602X1. Code Type: Diagnosis. Definition: Toxic effect of oth insecticides, accidental (unintentional) (Toxic effect of other insecticides, accidental (unintentional))
Ashamo disclosed that with advances in biotechnology, it is possible to solve the most difficult pest problems. According to him one major use of biotechnology is in the development of improved insect resistance plants adding that long before the advent of synthetic insecticides, plant parts i.e. leaves, fruits seeds, roots etc. have been used to protect agricultural crops and stored products from attack by insects and non-insect pests. The lecturer said unlike synthetic insecticides that kill both pests and non-target organism, natural insecticides, including botanicals of powders made from seeds, flowers, leaves, shoots, barks and roots of local medicinal plants have been demonstrated to be effective against pests of field and stored crops and also insects of medical and veterinary importance. He advocated the deliberate cultivation of medicinal plants in plantations as it has been established that many of the medicinal plants used for treating diseases of humans have effective agents for ...
BASF has received a recommendation from the World Health Organization (WHO) for Interceptor® G2, a long-lasting insecticide-treated mosquito net (LN) based on chlorfenapyr. Chlorfenapyr is a completely new insecticide class for combating mosquitoes for public health. This is the first WHO recommendation for a product based on a new insecticide class in more than 30 years.. Working with the Innovative Vector Control Consortium (IVCC) and the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine in a collaboration lasting over a decade, BASFs scientists successfully repurposed chlorfenapyr to be effective on mosquito nets and meet stringent WHO performance thresholds for public health.. Dave Malone, IVCC Technical Manager, said The collaboration with BASF gave us access to an insecticide with a rare combination of attributes: New to public health, effective against resistant mosquitoes, and able to coat polyester netting with a long-lasting formulation. Read Egon Weinmuellers blog One step closer to ...
While herbicides are the most significant product at the active ingredient level (in both dollar and pound terms), insecticides surpassed herbicides in 2015 to become the most significant category for formulated pesticide products due to the significantly higher markups seen in these products. Going forward, newer, safer, higher-value products will support the fastest gains in insecticides. These and other trends are presented in Agricultural Pesticide Market in the US, a new study from The Freedonia Group, a Cleveland-based industry research firm.. Demand for insecticide active ingredients is projected to increase 2.6 percent per year to $910 million in 2020. Volume is expected to stay flat at 57 million pounds over the same period. Even faster growth for insecticides is limited by a number of factors. The market continues to be dominated by a small handful of products, and the deregulation and introduction of new insecticides has been slow and limited. The increases in practices like ...
A class of insecticides that has been linked to Bee Colony Collapse Disorder of honey bees MAY NOT BE AS MUCH OF A CULPRIT AS THOUGHT.. Neonicotinoid Insecticides, sometimes called Neonics, are neuro-active insecticides chemically similar to nicotine.. One of them, imidacloprid, is the most widely used insecticide in the world.. Compared to organophosphates and carbamates, Neonicotinoid Insecticides CAUSE LESS TOXICITY IN BIRDS AND MAMMALS AND INSECTS.. While Neonicotinoid Insecticides can harm honey bees, a new study by Washington State University ( WSU ) researchers shows Neonicotinoid Insecticides POSE LITTLE RISK TO BEES IN REAL-WORLD SETTINGS.. A team of entomologists at Washington State University studied apiaries, collections of beehives, in urban, rural and agricultural areas in Washington looking for potential honey bee colony exposure to Neonicotinoid Insecticides from bees foraging for pollen.. After calculating the RISK based on a « dietary no observable adverse effect concentration ...
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EPA reviewed 273 tolerances for a group of ten synthetic pyrethroid insecticides in the largest pesticide tolerance assessment since the inception of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996. The action included establishing final tolerances for 47 time-limited tolerances which were due to expire on Nov. 15. The tolerances were time-limited because of the potential risk to aquatic invertebrates and fish posed by the pesticides. The class of ten insecticides include bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, zeta-cypermethrin, deltamethrin, esfenvalerate, fenpropathrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, tralomethrin, and tefluthrin. New FQPA-mandated regulations required EPA to perform complete assessments of all tolerances before renewing the chemicals conditional registrations, and to include assessments of the aggregate risks from dietary exposure, exposure in drinking water, and exposure through residential use, for which some of these insecticides are registered. Major agricultural crop uses include ...
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Progress in malaria control in the past decade can be attributed largely to a massive increase in the number of insecticide based management programmes targeting malaria carrying mosquitoes, using methods that include indoor residual spraying and insecticide impregnated bed nets. The effectiveness of these management techniques is now being compromised by insecticide resistant mosquito populations. In 2012, the UN World Health Organisation (WHO) launched a strategic plan to help fight insecticide resistance in malaria vectors. A crucial part in the management of insecticide resistant mosquito populations is access to current information on insecticide resistant populations. IR Mapper is a new interactive online mapping tool used to track insecticide resistance in mosquitoes. The tool collaborates reports of insecticide resistance in malaria vector mosquitoes into maps which aim to assist vector control strategies. Data consolidation for the programme was conducted by Swiss company Vestergaard ...
A field experiment tested the effectiveness of carbaryl and two pyrethroid insecticides, cyfluthrin and esfenvalerate, in protecting high-value Engelmann spruce trees from attack by Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby. Carbaryl suspension at the 2% registered rate and a reduced rate of 1 % were both effective in protecting Engelmann spruce from attack by D. rufipennis through two pheromone baiting periods and 24 months following insecticide application . Cyfluthrin at 0.025% rate and esfenvalerate at 0.025 and 0.05% rates provided effective protection through one pheromone baiting and 12 months following insecticide application. Only cyfluthrin at 0.008% rate was judged ineffective protection 12 months following insecticide application. A laboratory evaluation utilizing a 32-h bioassay on D. rufipennis adults determined all three insecticides were toxic by contact. Carbaryl and piperonyl butoxide bioassays testing synergism were inconclusive. The methodology presented provides a means for forest land managers
Insecticide-based vector control, which comprises use of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS), is the key method to malaria control in Madagascar. However, its effectiveness is threatened as vectors become resistant to insecticides. This study investigated the resistance status of malaria vectors in Madagascar to various insecticides recommended for use in ITNs and/or IRS. WHO tube and CDC bottle bioassays were performed on populations of Anopheles gambiae (s.l.), An. funestus and An. mascarensis. Adult female An. gambiae (s.l.) mosquitoes reared from field-collected larvae and pupae were tested for their resistance to DDT, permethrin, deltamethrin, alpha-cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, bendiocarb and pirimiphos-methyl. Resting An. funestus and An. mascarensis female mosquitoes collected from unsprayed surfaces were tested against permethrin, deltamethrin and pirimiphos-methyl. The effect on insecticide resistance of pre-exposure to the synergists piperonyl-butoxide
Malaria remains a major public health threat in Cameroon and disease prevention is facing strong challenges due to the rapid expansion of insecticide resistance in vector populations. The present review presents an overview of published data on insecticide resistance in the main malaria vectors in Cameroon to assist in the elaboration of future and sustainable resistance management strategies. A systematic search on mosquito susceptibility to insecticides and insecticide resistance in malaria vectors in Cameroon was conducted using online bibliographic databases including PubMed, Google and Google Scholar. From each peer-reviewed paper, information on the year of the study, mosquito species, susceptibility levels, location, insecticides, data source and resistance mechanisms were extracted and inserted in a Microsoft Excel datasheet. The data collected were then analysed for assessing insecticide resistance evolution. Thirty-three scientific publications were selected for the analysis. The rapid
Malaria control today is threatened by widespread insecticide resistance in vector populations. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the use of a mixture of unrelated insecticides for indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LNs) or as a combination of interventions for improved vector control and insecticide resistance management. Studies investigating the efficacy of these different strategies are necessary. The efficacy of Interceptor® G2 LN, a newly developed LN treated with a mixture of chlorfenapyr (a pyrrole) and alpha-cypermethrin (a pyrethroid), was compared to a combined chlorfenapyr IRS and Interceptor® LN (a standard alpha-cypermethrin LN) intervention in experimental huts in Cove Southern Benin, against wild, free-flying, pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae s.l. A direct comparison was also made with a pyrethroid-only net (Interceptor® LN) alone and chorfenapyr IRS alone. WHO resistance bioassays performed during the trial demonstrated a pyrethroid
The development of insecticide resistance management strategies requires a comprehensive knowledge of mechanisms by which insects evolve insecticide resistance. Helicoverpa armigera has evolved resistance to almost all chemical groups directed towards it worldwide including organophosphates, carbamates, and pyrethroids. The judicious use of chemicals can greatly help to preserve the usable life span of insecticides. This requires knowledge of mechanisms of resistance, which can prevent un-necessary use of pesticides to which insects had already evolved or can evolve resistance. The literature review on insecticide resistance, mechanisms and resistance management will help design robust and effective control strategies against H. armigera. This purpose gives such a review ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Long-term Effects of Pyrethrin and Cyfluthrin, a Type II Synthetic Pyrethroid, Insecticide Applications on Bull Reproductive Parameters. AU - Stewart, J. L.. AU - Shipley, C. F.. AU - Ireland, F. A.. AU - Jarrell, V. L.. AU - Timlin, C. L.. AU - Shike, D. W.. AU - Felix, T. L.. PY - 2016/10/1. Y1 - 2016/10/1. N2 - The objectives of this study were to determine effects of cyfluthrin and pyrethrin spray products, used in combination with cyfluthrin topical and ear tag applications, on bull reproductive parameters over 18 weeks. Angus or Angus x Simmental bulls were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: (i) no exposure to pyrethrins/cyfluthrin (CONT; n = 10), (ii) cyfluthrin ear tag and topical applications (ET; n = 10), or (iii) cyfluthrin ear tag, topical, premise spray and pyrethrin fog spray applications (ET+S; n = 8). Bull body weight was measured every 3 week, and body condition score and scrotal circumference were recorded on weeks 0, 9 and 18. Semen and serum ...
A survey was conducted in 2016 in the major onion producing areas of the Ethiopian Central Rift Valley. A structured questionnaire was used to assess farmers’ management practices with a focus on the use of insecticides. Plant samples were collected to assess species composition of thrips and their abundance. Results showed that insecticides were the only control methods for onion growers to control thrips infesting onion. The insecticides diazinon, dimethoate, profenofos, lambda-cyhalothrin and spinetoram were commonly used. Level of insecticide use was higher in Meki than Melkassa and Werer. The volume of insecticide for thrips control and thrips population was noted to be on the increase over the years. Frankliniella occidentalis and Thrips tabaci were present in all surveyed areas with T. tabaci accounting for a higher proportion. The relative species composition varied significantly with location. The highest proportion of T. tabaci was recorded at Werer, where insecticide use was
Arthropod vectors transmit organisms that cause many emerging and reemerging diseases, and their control is reliant mainly on the use of chemical insecticides. Only a few classes of insecticides are available for public health use, and the increased spread of insecticide resistance is a major threat to sustainable disease control. The primary strategy for mitigating the detrimental effects of insecticide resistance is the development of an insecticide resistance management plan. However, few examples exist to show how to implement such plans programmatically. We describe the formulation and implementation of a resistance management plan for mosquito vectors of human disease in Zambia. We also discuss challenges, steps taken to address the challenges, and directions for the future ...
Background Progress in reducing the malaria disease burden through the substantial scale up of insecticide-based vector control in recent years could be reversed by the widespread emergence of insecticide resistance. The impact of insecticide resistance on the protective effectiveness of insecticide-treated nets (ITN) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) is not known. A multi-country study was undertaken in Sudan, Kenya, India, Cameroon and Benin to quantify the potential loss of epidemiological effectiveness of ITNs and IRS due to decreased susceptibility of malaria vectors to insecticides. The design of the study is described in this paper. Methods Malaria disease incidence rates by active case detection in cohorts of children, and indicators of insecticide resistance in local vectors were monitored in each of approximately 300 separate locations (clusters) with high coverage of malaria vector control over multiple malaria seasons. Phenotypic and genotypic resistance was assessed annually. In ...
Neonicotinoid insecticides are widely used in both urban and agricultural settings around the world. Historically, neonicotinoid insecticides have been viewed as ideal replacements for more toxic compounds, like organophosphates, due in part to their perceived limited potential to affect the environment and human health. This critical review investigates the environmental fate and toxicity of neonicotinoids and their metabolites and the potential risks associated with exposure. Neonicotinoids are found to be ubiquitous in the environment, drinking water, and food, with low-level exposure commonly documented below acceptable daily intake standards. Available toxicological data from animal studies indicate possible genotoxicity, cytotoxicity, impaired immune function, and reduced growth and reproductive success at low concentrations, while limited data from ecological or cross-sectional epidemiological studies have identified acute and chronic health effects ranging from acute respiratory, cardiovascular,
Malathion Pesticide , Insecticide Spray Products, Uses ...- insecticide malathion ,Malathion is a pesticide that is mainly used to protect food-producing plants from threatening insects. Often used in agriculture, Malathion pesticides are known to combat destructive pests while maintaining low toxicity to humans.Malathion Insecticide Spray, Hi-Yield 55% Malathion Insect ...Hi-Yield 55% Malathion Insecticide Spray is for outdoor home garden use on select fruits, vegetables, and other plants to treat aphids, bagworms, thrips, spider mites, lace bugs, adult Japanese beetles, tent caterpillars, and other pests. Malathion Insecticide Spray comes in a convenient size for home garden use. Available Sizes: Hi-Yield 55% Malathion Insecticide Spray - 8 ...
Investigations on assessment of insecticide resistance in diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, Linnaeus on cabbage were undertaken at Department of Agricultural Entomology, Post Graduate Institute, MPKV, Rahuri during 2011-2013. Insecticide usage pattern in Ahmednagar, Dhule, Pune and Nashik locations against diamondback moth on cabbage was also studied. Survey results indicated that farmers relied mostly on chemical insecticides to control the diamondback moth on cabbage. The insecticides viz., chlorpyriphos, quinalphos, profenophos, cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, flubendiamide and chlorantraniliprole were the most widely used for its control. It was also observed that the most cabbage growers from all four locations followed routine or calendar spraying pattern. Majority of the farmers did sprayings at an interval of 6 to 10 days giving maximum 6 to 8 sprays. Toxicity of certain conventional insecticides against P. xylostella in western Maharashtra was studied. The populations collected ...
Field investigations were carried out to generate base line data on bioefficacy of recommended insecticides for the control of tea mosquito bug, Helopeltis theivora in combination with acaricides to combat the problem of mixed infestation of red spider mite and tea mosqqito bug in tea. The mixture of cypermethrin with propagite ana fenpyroximatea combinations of deltamethrin, alphamethrin, β-cyfluthrin, λ-cyhalothrin with fenazaquin; sulfur combinations with deltamethrin, β-cyfluthrin, thiomethoxam and deltamethrin, λ-cyhalothrin, β-cyfluthrin and endosulfan with propargite were not compatible chemically, which led to ineffectiveness in controlling the tea aosquito bug infestatian. Cypermethrih with urea, MOP and ZnSO4; fenazaquin with cypermethrin, endosulfan, thiomethoxam and imidacloprid; sulfur with endosulfan, alphamethrin, λ-cyhalothrin and imidacloprid; and propargite with λ-cyhalothrin and alphamethrin were compatible with reference to no reduction in bioefficacy of insecticides while
Mosquito resistance to the pyrethroid insecticides used to treat bednets threatens the sustainability of malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa. While the impact of target site insensitivity alleles is being widely discussed the implications of insecticide detoxification - though equally important - remains elusive. The successful development of new tools for malaria intervention and management requires a comprehensive understanding of insecticide resistance, including metabolic resistance mechanisms. Although three enzyme families (cytochrome P450s, glutathione S-transferases and carboxylesterases) have been widely associated with insecticide detoxification the role of individual enzymes is largely unknown. Here, constitutive expression patterns of genes putatively involved in conferring pyrethroid resistance was investigated in a recently colonised pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae strain from Odumasy, Southern Ghana. RNA from the resistant strain and a standard laboratory susceptible strain, of
A new technique pioneered at Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (LSTM) is improving the detection and monitoring of insecticide resistance in field populations of an important malaria-carrying mosquito.. Researchers at LSTM, led by Dr Charles Wondji have developed a new technique which encourages the female Anopheles funestus mosquitoes to lay eggs which are then reared into adult mosquitoes to provide sufficient numbers to determine levels of insecticide resistance and to characterize the underlying mechanisms.. Explaining the significance, John Morgan, who designed the technique, said: Malaria is the main cause of death in Uganda with some 12 million cases recorded annually. The Ministry of Health relies heavily on insecticide treated nets and spraying to control mosquitoes. The effectiveness of those control programs depends on the ability to detect and monitor insecticide resistance.. The An.funestus mosquito is difficult to collect and rear from the field and hence published studies of ...
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ABSTRACT. Alpha-cypermethrin (α-CYP) a synthetic pyrethroid (type-II) pesticide. Pyrethroid insecticides have been used in agricultural and home formulations for more than 30 years. Despite their extensive worldwide use, there are relatively few reports of the kinetic profile. Dissolved in alcohol was given to male albino rat for 24hr individual groups at 5, 10, 25 and 50mM dose for each group. The animals were sacrificed after 24hr duration. Biochemical studies were observed in testis. Increased the activity of alkaline phosphatase(ALP) at 24hr duration, while decreased acid phosphatase(ACP) at respective duration. Therefore low doses of alpha-cypermethrin altered testicular biomarker enzyme activities. This may interfere in the functioning of the reproductive system of albino rat.. Keywords: Alpha-cypermethrin; Albino rats; ALP; ACP. ...
|jats:title|Abstract|/jats:title||jats:p|The impact of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors is poorly understood and quantified. Here a series of geospatial datasets for insecticide resistance in malaria vectors are provided so that trends in resistance in time and space can be quantified and the impact of resistance found in wild populations on malaria transmission in Africa can be assessed. Data are also provided for common genetic markers of resistance to support analyses of whether these genetic data can improve the ability to monitor resistance in low resource settings. Specifically, data have been collated and geopositioned for the prevalence of insecticide resistance, as measured by standard bioassays, in representative samples of individual species or species complexes. Data are provided for the|jats:italic|Anopheles gambiae|/jats:italic|species complex, the|jats:italic|Anopheles funestus|/jats:italic|subgroup, and for nine individual vector species. In addition, allele frequencies for
In moths, which include many agricultural pest species, males are attracted by female-emitted sex pheromones. Although integrated pest management strategies are increasingly developed, most insect pest treatments rely on widespread use of neurotoxic chemicals, including neonicotinoid insecticides. Residual accumulation of low concentrations of these insecticides in the environment is known to be harmful to beneficial insects such as honey bees. This environmental stress probably acts as an
Summary Irrigation effects on root rot and yield  Reducing irrigation during the first 6 weeks after planting reduced root rot of sweet corn at midseason and at harvest, consistent with findings of the past two years.  Reducing the early season irrigation level increased yield of Jubilee by 20% because of an increase in the number and size of ears produced. Insecticide effects  Vapam reduced midseason radicle root rot slightly.  The number of insect bites declined as the number of insecticides applied increased.  Insecticides had no effect on root rot at the Vegetable Research Farm, the site with greatest root rot levels. Insecticides may have increased root rot ratings at the Botany farm.  There was a positive but weak correlation (R=0.57) between insect damage to Jubilee roots and nodal root rot at the Vegetable Research Farm.  Insecticides may have increased yield of Coho (at both irrigation levels) and Jubilee (at the Low irrigation level) at the Vegetable Research Farm. ...
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Long-lasting insecticide-treated mosquito nets are the most widely used intervention for preventing transmission of malaria by anopheline mosquitoes. Their effectiveness is threatened by the development of resistance to pyrethroid insecticides enabling the mosquito to survive contact with the net. Olyset Duo is a new type of bed net treated with pyrethroid and a new insecticide, pyriproxifen, that disrupts the maturation of eggs in the ovaries of blood-fed mosquitoes. Ngufor and colleagues evaluated the capacity of the Olyset Duo net to control pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes in laboratory tests and under household conditions in West Africa. The Olyset Duo net killed more pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes than did the standard pyrethroid net and also sterilized any mosquitoes that survived exposure to the net. By preventing mosquito reproduction, the new net has the potential to reduce mosquito populations and malaria transmission in areas of high pyrethroid resistance. ...
Female Glossina pallidipes Austen and G. m. morsitans Westwood (Diptera: Glossinidae) were treated with deltamethrin or pyrethrum extract through topical application or by exposure to cloth or glass treated with the same insecticides. Reproductive performance was assessed in terms of survival, pupae number and viability and reproductive deformities and abnormalities within the reproductive systems including abortions. Survival and fecundity of treated flies were significantly reduced (P<0.001). Pupae were small, mostly non-viable, and were arrested at various stages of development. Abortions of egg and all stages of larvae were observed in pregnancy cycles 1-7 following insecticide treatment. Various concentrations ranging from 1-1014 nanograms per micro litre (ng/μL) of insecticide in redistilled acetone topically applied (1μ/fly) on the dorsal thorax of the females, 24 hr after their previous blood meal, resulted in both insecticides in various concentrations causing reproductive ...
Transmission of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites occurs when nocturnal Anopheles mosquito vectors feed on human blood. In Africa, where malaria burden is highest, bednets treated with pyrethroid insecticide were highly effective in preventing mosquito bites and reducing transmission, and essential to achieving unprecedented reductions in malaria until 2015 (ref. 1). Since then, progress has stalled2, and with insecticidal bednets losing efficacy against pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles vectors3,4, methods that restore performance are urgently needed to eliminate any risk of malaria returning to the levels seen before their widespread use throughout sub-Saharan Africa5. Here, we show that the primary malaria vector Anopheles gambiae is targeted and killed by small insecticidal net barriers positioned above a standard bednet in a spatial region of high mosquito activity but zero contact with sleepers, opening the way for deploying many more insecticides on bednets than is currently possible. Tested
TY - JOUR. T1 - Vector genetics, insecticide resistance and gene drives. T2 - An agent-based modeling approach to evaluate malaria transmission and elimination. AU - Selvaraj, Prashanth. AU - Wenger, Edward A.. AU - Bridenbecker, Daniel. AU - Windbichler, Nikolai. AU - Russell, Jonathan R.. AU - Gerardin, Jaline. AU - Bever, Caitlin A.. AU - Nikolov, Milen. N1 - Publisher Copyright: The copyright holder for this preprint is the author/funder, who has granted bioRxiv a license to display the preprint in perpetuity. It is made available under a CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license. Copyright: Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2020/2/6. Y1 - 2020/2/6. N2 - Vector control has been a key component in the fight against malaria for decades, and chemical insecticides are critical to the success of vector control programs worldwide. However, increasing resistance to insecticides threatens to undermine these efforts. Understanding the evolution and propagation of resistance is thus ...
Malaria control is dependent on insecticides. Increases in prevalence of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors across Africa are well-documented. However, few attempts have been made to quantify the strength of this resistance and link it to the effectiveness of control tools. Using quantitative bioassays, we show that in Burkina Faso pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes has increased in intensity in recent years and now exceeds 1,000-fold. In laboratory assays, this level of resistance renders insecticides used to impregnate bed nets ineffective. Thus, the level of personal and community protection afforded by long-lasting insecticide-treated net campaigns will probably be reduced. Standardized methods are needed to quantify resistance levels in malaria vectors and link these levels to failure of vector control methods.
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Insecticide Suppliers - Biocides1.com- insecticides manufacturers products packaging distributors ,Biocides1.com is the international website for the worldwide Biocides Industry. This portal is an active B2B website for all Biocide Suppliers and their products like Biocides. In this section you can find 2593 Insecticide Suppliers registered on our portal. The companies are divided into suppliers for Insecticides and more. We have Insecticide Suppliers in Africa, Asia, Europe and more. This ...pest control Companies and Suppliers in EuropeORMA is a leading Italian manufacturer of pest control products. ORMA was born in 1983 with 2 products, the Air Control insecticide aerosol can and the automatic ... Fly Control - UV ...
What was killing all those honeybees in recent years? New research shows a link between an increase in the death of bees and insecticides, specifically the chemicals used to coat corn seeds.. The study, titled Assessment of the Environmental Exposure of Honeybees to Particulate Matter Containing Neonicotinoid Insecticides Coming from Corn Coated Seeds, was published in the American Chemical SocietysEnvironmental Science & Technology journal, and provides insight intocolony collapse disorder.. Colony collapse disorder, or the mass die-off of honeybees, has stumped researchers up to now. This new research may provide information that could lead to even more answers.. According to the new study, neonicotinoid insecticides are among the most widely used in the world, popular because they kill insects by paralyzing nerves but have lower toxicity for other animals.. Beekeepers immediately observed an increase in die-offs right around the time of corn planting using this particular kind of ...
Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) announced on Monday that is looking to develop mosquito insecticides from locally grown pyrethrum flowers. This is good news to Kenyas pyrethrum farmers in the country who are set to be the first hand beneficiaries of the project.. In her bid to contain the deadly malaria disease that claims nearly 23,000 lives in the East African, plans to replace the synthetic insecticides available in the country with pyrethrum-based insecticide.. KEMRI announced plans for the study after the countrys health ministry discovered from a research that the synthetic pyrethroids cannot kill 60% of the malaria-causing mosquitos. The study is also aimed and providing a lasting solution to the mosquito menace that is increasingly becoming resistant towards the available synthetic pyrethrum.. Kenyas pyrethrum farmers are set to be the major benefactors as if the study and trials are success it will mean that a Pyrethrum plant will be established by the Kenya Pyrethrum ...
Hot Shot® Insecticides can help keep bugs from feeling at home. Hot Shot® Spider & Scorpion spray will kill black widow, brown recluse, and wolf spiders. If youre having ant problems, try the Ant & Roach spray. Spray the insects you see plus any spaces where these pests might hide like under sinks or where you think they might be getting in, like window frames.. Hot Shot® Insecticides takes pride in providing homeowners with solutions that help to keep their homes free of pests. Then all you have to worry about for the holiday season is all the cooking and baking and present wrapping…. but not about pests in your house.. Be sure to like Hot Shot® Insecticides on Facebook for tips & contests.. This is a sponsored post written by me on behalf of Hot Shot® Insecticides.. ...
IVCC is to lead a consortium of partners on a ground-breaking project funded by Unitaid and the Global Fund to bring to market new versions of insecticide-treated bed nets to fight malaria-carrying mosquitoes that have become resistant to older insecticides. It is hoped that the nets will provide a stronger line of defence against malaria for millions of people.. The New Nets Project, signed in Geneva yesterday will pilot long-lasting insecticidal bed nets treated with new insecticide combinations in sub-Saharan African countries hardest hit by malaria.. The Global Fund and Unitaid will each contribute US$33 million to the four-year project. The coalition, consisting of PATH, Population Services International (PSI) / Alliance for Malaria Prevention (AMP), London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM), with support from Imperial College London, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, and Tulane University, will run between 2018 and 2022.. The project will build the evidence needed to ...
Beyond Pesticides, May 17, 2012) Rather than investing in safe, long-term solutions to prevent malaria mortality, the World Health Organization (WHO) has issued a strategic plan that calls for multiple toxic pesticides to combat mosquito resistance to insecticides that is showing up in sub-Saharan Africa. Insecticide resistance, according to the WHO report, is already rampant in 64 malaria-ridden countries and may result in as many as 26 million more cases of malaria a year, which could end up costing between $30 and $60 million annually for tests and medication. Mosquitoes in sub-Saharan African countries are becoming resistant to pyrethroid insecticides, which are used extensively for household spraying and treating bed nets, as well as to the organochloride compound DDT -which is still used in many parts of the world to control mosquitoes. In Somalia, Sudan and Turkey, resistance has spread to carbamates and organophosphates in addition to pyrethroids and organochloride pesticides. Rather ...
In some cases, the so-called resistance is due to pet owners not following treatments guidelines correctly. However, in other cases, certain flea populations have mutated to withstand commonly used insecticides.. Continuously attacking a pest population with synthetic insecticides can increase the risk of resistance developing. There have also been concerns over the impact chemically manufactured insecticides have on the environment.. Plant extracts like tea tree oil are claimed as being biodegradable and less toxic. Tea tree oil has been shown to have useful properties against pesky insects. One study showed that it successfully repelled and killed flies on cows.. Another trial revealed the oil had potent effects on head lice, blood-sucking pests which can be notoriously hard to kill on humans. One percent concentration of tea tree oil killed off 100 percent of adult head lice within 30 minutes.. The insecticidal properties of tea tree oil can differ depending on the target insect. With head ...
Recent organic fertilizer treatments (cow manure, pig slurry, composts, or green manure) simultaneously increase insecticide adsorption onto soil and the insecticide soil persistence, indicating a mechanism of slow release of insecticide into soil by the organic matter. This occurred in sugar beet crops with aldicarb, thiofanox and imidacloprid; also, in leek, cauliflower and brussels sprouts crops with chlorpyrifos and chlorfenvinphos. In contrast, organic fertilizer treatments applied once or repeatedly in the past, have no significant influence on adsorption or persistence of insecticides; the same is observed for the old soil organic matter, when its soil concentrations change in limited ranges ...
p,Neonicotinoids are a widely used class of insecticides that are commonly applied as seed coatings for agricultural crops. Such neonicotinoid use may pose a risk to non-targetinsects, including pollinators and natural enemies of crop pests, and ecosystems. This study assessed neonicotinoid residues in groundwater, surface runoff water, soil, and native plants adjacent to corn and soybean crop fields with a history of being planted with neonicotinoid-treated seeds from 2008 to 2013. Data from six sites with the same crop management history, three with and three without in-field prairie strips, were collected in 2015-2016, 2-3 years after neonicotinoid (clothianidin and imidacloprid) seed treatments were last used. Three of the six neonicotinoids analyzed were detected in at least one environmental matrix: the two applied as seed coatings on the fields (clothianidin and imidacloprid) and another widely used neonicotinoid (thiamethoxam). Sites with prairie strips generally had lower concentrations ...
Pollutants including insecticides have been recently reported to be a risk factor involved in various diseases. Permethrin, a member of the family of synthetic pyrethroids, is widely used as insecticide in agriculture and other domestic applications. To investigate possible cardiotoxicity, we had examined different concentrations of permethrin on the freshly isolated rat heart cells using the alkaline comet assay. A significant difference in % tail DNA between all concentrations of permethrin (5, 10, 20 μM) and vehicle (control) without enzymes and with Fpg-treated cells were measured. The results indicated that permethrin induced oxidative damage to purine bases in the heart cells. Pyrimidines oxidation was evaluated using Endonuclease III (Endo III), but the results did not reveal any significant changes. After permethrin exposure, cells were studied to evaluate their DNA repair capacity. A complete DNA repair at 10 and 20 μM was measured after 30 and 60 min of repair intervals. Significant ...
In Texas, our main rice pests are the rice water weevil, chinch bug, rice stink bug and stem borers - primarily the Mexican rice borer. We have tools to control all these pests, but we must use these insecticides following label instructions.. Over the years, we have lost excellent pest management tools because of misuse and abuse. FOLLOW LABEL INSTRUCTIONS TO THE LETTER! We cant afford to lose any more options for pest control.. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is currently concerned about neonicotinoid insecticides, which in some crops are linked to honeybee mortality. Neonicotinoids labeled for use in Texas rice are CruiserMaxx Rice, NipsIt Inside, Belay and Tenchu 20SG.. All these insecticides are critical to profitable/sustainable rice production in the state.. Rice is a self-pollinating plant and is not very attractive to honeybees. I have observed honeybees foraging in flowering rice, but this is rare.. My Arkansas and Mississippi colleagues - Drs. Gus Lorenz and Jeff Gore - have ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evaluation of organic insecticides for management of spotted-wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii) in berry crops. AU - Sial, Ashfaq A.. AU - Roubos, Craig R.. AU - Gautam, Bal K.. AU - Fanning, Philip D.. AU - Van Timmeren, Steven. AU - Spies, Janine. AU - Petran, Andrew. AU - Rogers, Mary A.. AU - Liburd, Oscar E.. AU - Little, Brian A.. AU - Curry, Shane. AU - Isaacs, Rufus. PY - 2019/7. Y1 - 2019/7. N2 - Spotted-wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), is an invasive pest affecting fruit production in many regions of the world. Insecticides are the primary tactic for controlling D. suzukii in organic as well as conventional production systems. Organic growers have a greater challenge because fewer insecticides are approved for use in organic agriculture. The most effective organically approved product is spinosad, but alternatives are needed because of label restrictions limiting the number of applications per year, toxicity to beneficial arthropods and the risk of ...
... insecticides are used. One bagworm species, the fangalabola (Deborrea malgassa) of Madagascar, is in some places encouraged to ...
"Insecticide! (An ecological disaster that will affect us all)". Independent.co.uk. 2008-11-15. Retrieved 2011-10-10. Sterne, ...
... insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, etc.) Mercury-containing wastes (thermometers, switches, fluorescent lighting, etc.) ...
As an insecticide, it can be sprayed on clothing or mosquito nets to kill the insects that touch them. Side effects include ... Permethrin, sold under the brand name Nix among others, is a medication and insecticide. As a medication, it is used to treat ... Permethrin is a chemical categorized in the pyrethroid insecticide group. The chemicals in the pyrethroid family are created to ... Permethrin is the most commonly used insecticide worldwide for the protection of wool from keratinophagous insects such as ...
Hilbeck, A.; Kennedy, G. G. (1996). "Predators Feeding on the Colorado Potato Beetle in Insecticide-Free Plots and Insecticide- ... Insecticides remain the main method of pest control on commercial farms. However, many chemicals are often unsuccessful when ... Bacterial insecticides can be effective if application is targeted towards the vulnerable early-instar larvae. Two strains of ... In 1994, total costs of the insecticide and crop losses in the US state of Michigan were $13.3 million, representing 13.7% of ...
The low specificity of the naturally occurring PhTX-433 has been the major obstacle in the development of PhTX-433 insecticides ... Eldefrawi ME, Anis NA, Eldefrawi AT (1993). "Glutamate receptor inhibitors as potential insecticides". Archives of Insect ...
Pyrethrins, insecticides commonly used in common bug killers, can cause a potentially deadly condition if breathed in. Many ... Exposure to insecticides within the home and herbicides outside is associated with blood cancers in children. Evidence links ... A study in North Carolina indicated that more than 30 percent of the quail tested were made sick by one aerial insecticide ... Decourtye A, Devillers J (2010). Ecotoxicity of neonicotinoid insecticides to bees. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. Advances in ...
... on systemic insecticides. Part 3: alternatives to systemic insecticides". Environmental Science and Pollution Research ... Due to its use as an insecticide and treatment of non-food producing animals, it was not deemed necessary to research the human ... Nitenpyram is a chemical frequently used as an insecticide in agriculture and veterinary medicine. The compound is an insect ... Though neonicotinoids are the largest group of insecticides used in today's agricultural world and prevalent in veterinary ...
... is a synthetic pyrethroid with the chemical formula C23H24O4S which is used as an insecticide. It is the most potent ... "Pyrethrum Flowers and Pyrethroid Insecticides" (PDF). Environmental Health Perspectives. 34: 189-202. doi:10.2307/3428960. ...
Different populations have between them developed resistance to all major classes of insecticide. The Colorado potato beetle ... Some species of beetle have evolved immunity to insecticides. For example, the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa ... "Colorado potato beetle resistance to insecticides". American Journal of Potato Research. 85 (6): 395-413. doi:10.1007/s12230- ...
aldrin (common name). A synthetic insecticide; a chlorinated hydrocarbon of not less than 95 per cent 1,2,3,4,10,10-hexachloro- ...
Boron is used in insecticides and herbicides. It is an essential trace element. As boric acid, it has antiseptic, antifungal, ... lead arsenate has been extensively used as an insecticide. Sulfur is one of the oldest of the fungicides and pesticides. ... Historical Use of Lead Arsenate Insecticides, Resulting Soil Contamination and Implications for Soil Remediation, Proceedings ...
Using insecticides with a 3- to 4-week residual activity would also eliminate emerging adult keds. Additionally, because both ... It would be most beneficial to shear before insecticide treatment. Most modern treatments used to control sheep lice will also ... Pupal stages are not susceptible to insecticides. If removed from the host, the adult lives for 7-10 days. Symbiotic ...
Yamamoto I (1999). "Nicotine to Nicotinoids: 1962 to 1997". Nicotinoid Insecticides and the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor. ...
Use of insecticide-impregnated dog collars and treatment or culling of infected dogs. Spraying houses and animal shelters with ... Using insecticide can reduce phlebotomine sandfly numbers which in turn reduces the risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis infection. ... Other measures include spraying insecticides to kill sandflies and treating people with the disease early to prevent further ... Leishmaniasis can be partly prevented by using nets treated with insecticide while sleeping. To provide good protection against ...
Bt insecticides saw expanded use and development in the 1980s as an alternative to synthetic insecticides. Beginning in the ... Soil-applied insecticides effectively control corn rootworms. Insecticide may be warranted in areas that have a history of ... As a way to reduce rootworm densities, it is more effective than insecticides. Corn rootworm larvae must feed on corn roots to ... Bt was first used as an insecticide in 1920 and spray formulations containing either Bt bacteria or Bt proteins came into use ...
... s are a class of insecticides which share the same mechanism of action as the alkaloid ryanodine. Ryanodine is a ... Usherwood, P.N.R.; Vais, H. (1995). "Towards the development of ryanoid insecticides with low mammalian toxicity". Toxicology ... Teixeira, Luís A; Andaloro, John T (2013). "Diamide insecticides: Global efforts to address insect resistance stewardship ... IRAC International MoA Working Group (March 2020). "IRAC Mode of Action Classification Scheme Version 9.4". Insecticide ...
Nelson, E. M.; Hurd-Karrer, Annie M.; Robinson, W. O. (11 August 1933). "Selenium as an Insecticide". Science. 78 (2015): 124. ...
It is used as a feedstock for insecticides. It is highly flammable and it gives off irritating or toxic fumes (or gases) in a ...
"IARC Monographs Volume 112: evaluation of five organophosphate insecticides and herbicides" (PDF) (Press release). Lyon, France ... Glyphosate, in: Some Organophosphate Insecticides and Herbicides (PDF). Lyon: IARC/WHO. pp. 321-412. "Glyphosate Listed ...
Gratz, N. (1998). "Human lice, their prevalence and resistance to insecticides". Geneva: World Health Organization (WHO). Cite ...
... is a pyrethroid insecticide. It is used externally in veterinary medicine against parasitic insects and ticks on ...
Insecticide Pakistan Limited., was nationalized and renamed Ittehad Pesticides Limited in 1973. Later, the two companies were ...
One PBT of concern includes DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane), an organochlorine that was widely used as an insecticide ... Neurotoxicological Effects And The Mode of Action of Pyrethroid Insecticides. Informa Healthcare: Critical Reviews in ... an insecticide that has DDT as an impurity. This continued use in other parts of the world is still a global problem due to the ... DDT a Banned Insecticide. Molecules of the Month. http://www.chem.ox.ac.uk/mom/ddt/ddt.html Turgut, C., Cengiz, G., Cutright, T ...
... is an organophosphate insecticide. It is a liquid with a pale yellow to amber color and a garlic-like odor. It was ... "Poisoning with the S-Alkyl organophosphorus insecticides profenofos and prothiofos". QJM. 102 (11): 785-92. doi:10.1093/qjmed/ ...
... is an organophosphate insecticide; its use is banned in the European Union and USA. Methidathion has been used as ... an insecticide in many countries to control caterpillars of Indarbela quadrinotata. In 2012, residues on common vegetables were ...
... is an organophosphate insecticide. It is acutely toxic to birds and humans, so it has been banned in the U.S., ... 2017). "Gut microbial degradation of organophosphate insecticides-induces glucose intolerance via gluconeogenesis". Genome ... the researchers demonstrated the gut microbiota mediated diabetogenic effect of organophosphate insecticides. They used ...
... is the use of insecticide on international flights and in other closed spaces for insect and disease ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "AIRCRAFT DISINFECTION INSECTICIDES" (PDF). World Health Organization. Retrieved 16 ...
This may be due to an impaired sensory system, taste, or mobility as a result of the insecticides. Insecticides also increase ... Insecticides can also be harmful to P. cespitum, with different types causing different mortality rates, ranging from 0-80%. ... Because fruit orchards are one of the main habitats of P. cespitum, they are affected by the insecticides sprayed against the ... Řezáč, Milan; Pekár, Stano; Stará, Jitka (1 August 2010). "The negative effect of some selective insecticides on the functional ...
Infestation on susceptible cotton is generally controlled with insecticides. Once a crop has been harvested, the field is ...
Synthetic insecticide and natural insecticides[edit]. A major emphasis of organic chemistry is the development of chemical ... Insecticides are used in agriculture, medicine, industry and by consumers. Insecticides are claimed to be a major factor behind ... Contact insecticides are toxic to insects upon direct contact. These can be inorganic insecticides, which are metals and ... How Insecticides Work - Has a thorough explanation on how insecticides work.. *University of California Integrated pest ...
We tested whether measured insecticide concentrations (MICs; i.e., quantified insecticide concentrations) exceed their RTLs and ... Agricultural insecticides threaten surface waters at the global scale Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... Agricultural insecticides threaten surface waters at the global scale. Sebastian Stehle and Ralf Schulz ... Insecticides, in particular, are highly biologically active substances that can threaten the ecological integrity of aquatic ...
Various microencapsulated insecticide formulations for the control of pests such as aphids and beet army worm. These ... Given the great utility and importance of encapsulated insecticides there is a pressing and on-going need for new insecticide ... In one embodiment the method comprises the steps of providing an insecticide, for example, an organophosphate insecticide, and ... The cotton insecticide residue raw data for various control and experimental formulation are presented in Table 2. The data was ...
Insecticides India Live BSE/NSE, F&O Quote of Insecticides India. Experts & Broker view on Insecticides India buy sell tips. ... Get Insecticides India news, announcements, financial report, company information widgets and more. ... Related Searches Insecticides India Stock Price, Insecticides Stock Quote, Insecticides Results , Insecticides News .. More » ...
Wholesale Various High Quality Regent Insecticide Products from Global Regent Insecticide Suppliers and Regent Insecticide ... regent insecticide ddvp insecticide fenitrothion insecticide carbaryl insecticide dichlorvos insecticide diazinon insecticide ... insecticide confidor insecticide furadan insecticide fenthion insecticide chlorfluazuron insecticide methidathion insecticide ... trichlorfon 30%EC 97%TC/ agrochemical/anti-fly/mosquitoes insecticide/ organophosphate insecticide/warehouse insecticide ...
"In other words," says Hua, "we are asking if a tolerance to one insecticide can convey cross tolerance to other insecticides ... "This is the first study to show that tadpole tolerance to insecticides can be influenced by exposure to insecticides extremely ... They are now examining whether exposure to an insecticide early in life can make amphibians more tolerant to other insecticides ... Amphibians exposed to insecticides early in life-even those not yet hatched-have a higher tolerance to those same insecticides ...
Phenylpyrazole insecticides are a class of chemically-related broad-spectrum insecticides. The chemical structures of these ... Phenylpyrazole insecticides were developed in response to increasing pesticide resistance to other chemicals. Now, along with ... Phenylpyrazole insecticides function by blocking glutamate-activated chloride channels in insects. Mammals do not have this ... Media related to phenylpyrazole insecticides at Wikimedia Commons. ...
Hindustan Insecticides Limited (HIL) is a Government of India enterprise under the Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers. It ... Venu Gopal, P N (4 July 2015). "Hindustan Insecticides to resume work amidst pollution charges". Down to Earth. Retrieved 15 ... Since then its product range has expanded to include Insecticides, Herbicides, Weedecides, and Fungicides. HIL is the worlds ... "Hindustan Insecticides plant ordered to shut". Business Line. Retrieved 24 February 2020. Description Official Website v t e. ...
Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=insecticides&oldid=55496906" ...
The use of neonicotinoid insecticides has grown considerably since their introduction in 1990s. They are used extensively for ... Golden age of insecticide research: Past, present, or future? Annu Rev Entomol 1998; 43:1-16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Neonicotinoid insecticide toxicology: Mechanisms of selective action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 2005; 45:247-68.PubMedCrossRef ... Naturally occurring insecticides. Environ Health Perspect 1976; 14:109-17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
Table of laboratory methods panels for Insecticides (Pyrethroids). Chemical. Specimen Type. 3-Phenoxybenzoic acid. CAS No. 3739 ... Urinary Concentrations of Insecticide and Herbicide Metabolites among Pregnant Women in Rural Ghana: A Pilot Study. Wylie BJ, ... Urinary biomarkers of exposure to insecticides, herbicides, and one insect repellent among pregnant women in Puerto Rico. Lewis ... chlorpyrifos metabolite concentrations in Northern California families and their relationship to indoor residential insecticide ...
Any plastic spray bottle can be used to distribute the insecticide.. Powders. Dry insecticides also help to protect plants ... Natural dry insecticides prevent bugs from devouring plants and also work as fungicides. Organic insecticides also can provide ... A natural insecticide created at home uses fewer ingredients and is inexpensive when compared to commercial options. If you use ... To make a gallon of insecticide, peel and chop three to five cloves of garlic or one small onion and mix it with water, alcohol ...
Table of laboratory methods panels for Insecticides (Organophosphates). Chemical. Specimen Type. 2-Isopropyl-4-methyl-6- ... Urinary Concentrations of Insecticide and Herbicide Metabolites among Pregnant Women in Rural Ghana: A Pilot Study. Wylie BJ, ... Urinary biomarkers of exposure to insecticides, herbicides, and one insect repellent among pregnant women in Puerto Rico. Lewis ... Urinary biomarkers of exposure to insecticides, herbicides, and one insect repellent among pregnant women in Puerto Rico. Lewis ...
Insecticides. Insecticides are agents that assist in the control of unwanted insects. Insecticides work by either killing ... Insecticides can be chemical or organic in composition. There are general-use insecticide formulas for dealing with multiple ... Insecticides, pesticides and chemical fertilizers can all play an important role in the well being of any garden or crop. ... For example, a general pesticide or insecticide may take care of an aphid infestation while also killing bees, spiders or other ...
My garlic-based insecticide was highly concentrated. Garlic was somewhat slower to cause 50% mortality but it had the second ... I tested my insecticides, each at three concentrations, on populations of greater wax moth larvae (Galleria mellonella), or ... My Eastern hemlock insecticide may have acted as a repellent to the worms. However, the pesticide started taking effect ... I surmised the Eastern hemlock might be least effective insecticide because it has not been tested before and has a mild aroma. ...
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... broad-spectrum organophosphate insecticide and acaricide (used to kill ticks and mites). Considerably less toxic to humans than ... aerial release of the insecticide malathion. The boll weevil infestation is estimated to have caused crop losses of 30 to 50 ... Malathion, also called carbophos, mercaptothion, and maldison, broad-spectrum organophosphate insecticide and acaricide (used ... and a dramatic decrease in the use of insecticides (40-100 percent), leading… ...
All posts tagged with insecticides. * Quebec is restricting use of pesticides that harm fish, bird and bee populations. ... Chemicals causing malaria outbreaks across Africa as mosquitoes grow increasingly resistant to insecticides. ... research into how these popular insecticides affect environmental and public health is still relatively new. Opinions about ... a bill that blocks new neonicotinoid insecticides while the […] ...
... insecticides, and other bioactive molecules to mitochondria Why study the biosafety of pharmaceutical drugs, insecticides, and ... 1). Addition of insecticide to the isolated mitochondria results in quenching of fluorescence at both the shoulders. Quenching ... Monitoring biosafety of pharmaceutical drugs, insecticides,and other bioactive molecules to mitochondria * 1. Atlas of Science ... 1. Fluorescence emission spectra of mitochondrial membrane proteins in the absence of insecticide (red line) and in presence of ...
Insecticides (India) Ltd News BRIEF-Insecticides (India) Sept-qtr profit rises * Sept quarter profit 361.4 million rupees ... Insecticides (India) June-qtr profit falls. Tuesday, 9 Aug 2016 Insecticides (India) Ltd : June-quarter net profit 181.3 ... Insecticides (India) Sept-qtr profit rises Monday, 20 Nov 2017 Nov 20 (Reuters) - Insecticides (India) Ltd ::Sept quarter ... Insecticides India inks deal with Momentive Performance Materials. Tuesday, 5 Jul 2016 Insecticides (India) Ltd : Signed deal ...
EM,Adam Barclay,/EM, reports on how 2,000 rice farmers in Bangladesh have stopped using insecticides without reducing yields, ... Bangladeshi farmers banish insecticides. Imagine this: 2,000 poor rice farmers, whose average farm income is around US$100 per ... Bangladeshi farmers banish insecticides. Imagine this: 2,000 poor rice farmers, whose average farm income is around US$100 per ... "I can grow rice at lower cost because I use less urea and no insecticide," Ahmad explains. "With the money I save, I help my ...
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They are among the best insecticides around and safe to use indoors. ...
Insecticide poisoning occurs when someone swallows or breathes in this substance or it is absorbed through the skin. ... Insecticide is a chemical that kills bugs. Insecticide poisoning occurs when someone swallows or breathes in this substance or ... Stronger insecticides, which a commercial greenhouse might use or someone might store in their garage, contain many dangerous ... Cannon RD, Ruha A-M. Insecticides, herbicides, and rodenticides. In: Adams JG, ed. Emergency Medicine. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA ...
Aerosol insecticides are not allowed in carry-on; however they are allowed in checked bags as long as they are not labeled as ... Aerosol insecticides are not allowed in carry-on; however they are allowed in checked bags as long as they are not labeled as ...
We caught up with Mike Levine, President and Head Monkey at developer Crackpot, to get his reactions to Insecticides reception ... Last month Crackpot and Gamecock released Insecticide, giving DS owners a mix of adventure and action gameplay. The game has an ... IGN: Reviewers of Insecticide seem to agree that half of the game works and half doesnt. What do you guys think of the reviews ... Last month Crackpot and Gamecock released Insecticide, giving Nintendo DS owners a mix of adventure and action gameplay. The ...
Chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos-methyl are insecticides to control insect pests on a range of crops. Chlorpyrifos-methyl is also ...
1. I/We _________________of ___________________hereby apply for the renewal of the licence to manufacture insecticide on the ... 2. The other details *regarding the manufacture of the insecticide continue to remain the same. ... APPLICATION FOR RENEWAL OF LICENCE TO MANUFACTURE INSECTICIDES. [Rule 9(1)]. ...
... and part of the reason is that they have grown increasingly resistant to the most common insecticides that exterminators use ... The pesky bugs, it appears, can pump out a stew of enzymes that destroy insecticides, according to the study out this week in ... Rejiggering conventional insecticides might still do enough damage to keep bedbugs at bay. "We can look at formulating things ... Besides insecticides, exterminators use a range of methods, including cold air, steam, and vacuums. But these repeated ...
How to Buy Organic Insecticides. Bugs and other creepy crawlers are a nuisance for many gardening enthusiasts, but not everyone ... Make sure the insecticide you choose is safe to use on your plants. While organic insecticides tend to be gentler than chemical ... Explore this Article Getting the Right Product Shopping around for Organic Insecticides Applying Organic Insecticides Expert Q& ... Make your own natural insecticide with garlic and dish soap. Maggie Moran, a horticulturalist, says, "Crush about 5 bulbs worth ...
Environmentalists and beekeepers are calling on the government to ban some of the countrys most widely used insect-killing chemicals. The ...
... residual insecticides for crawling insects and systemic pesticides for chewing and sucking insects. Read the label on pesticide ... Some examples of insecticides include pyrethroids for chewing insects, ... These insecticides come in granular and spray form.. Residual insecticides leave a film on the surface of the plant onto which ... Contact insecticides, including horticultural oils and soaps, kill pests when directly sprayed onto them. Some insecticides in ...
PRNewswire/ -- The Insecticides - Global Market Trajectory & Analytics report has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.coms ... Global Insecticides Market to Reach $3.8 Billion by 2027 Amid the COVID-19 crisis, the global market for Insecticides estimated ... The Insecticides market in the U.S. is estimated at US$818.9 Million in the year 2020. China, the worlds second largest ... 24, 2020 /PRNewswire/ -- The Insecticides - Global Market Trajectory & Analytics report has been added to ResearchAndMarkets. ...
... mosquitoes and invasive foreign insects threaten people and agriculture theres no getting away from the use of insecticides at ... Common insecticides used around resorts, homes, and in public and rural areas to fight Zika are the organophosphates Dichlorvos ... Instead, insecticides derived from natural sources and chemical compounds are commonly used and their applications and effect ... By the end of this year (2017) the WHO is expected to release its latest evaluation of aircraft disinsection insecticides ...
  • Mosquitocidal carbamates with low toxicity to agricultural pests: an advantageous property for insecticide resistance management. (fnih.org)
  • evaluation of cultivars and insecticides on insect pests and grain loss of rainfed cowpea (vigna unguiculata (l.) walp. (academicjournals.org)
  • Insecticide application once each at budding (35-40 DAS), flowering (50%) and podding (10 day after second spray) was effective in reducing insect pests' infestation and increased grain yield of rainfed cowpea in the Lake Chad shore area. (academicjournals.org)
  • Neem seed aqueous extract can be used as an alternative insecticide for safe, cheap and effective control of insect pests in cowpea. (academicjournals.org)
  • PQZ is a new insecticide for control of piercing and sucking insect pests in many perennial and annual agronomic crops including those insects resistant to standard chemistries. (fruitgrowersnews.com)
  • The number of pests in different crops, across the world, is rising, and there is a tremendous increase in the number of insecticide-resistant pests. (mordorintelligence.com)
  • Reliance on insecticide-based pest management of insect pests often leads to the development of insecticide resistance. (mordorintelligence.com)
  • All active ingredients that are used to control insect pests, including biological insecticides and antimicrobial insecticide, have been considered within the research scope. (mordorintelligence.com)
  • Rise in the number of resistant pests, increasing food demand, and need for increased agricultural productivity are the major factors driving the insecticides market in the Asia-Pacific region. (mordorintelligence.com)
  • Exirel insecticide protects and strengthens crops by bringing outstanding foliar protections against a cross-spectrum of sucking and chewing pests, including cabbage looper, armyworm, and spotted wing drosophila in stone fruit and blueberries. (fmc.com)
  • Exirel insecticide can be used on a wide variety of crops, and for a wide range of pests. (fmc.com)
  • Merit® is a broad spectrum, systemic insecticide which is highly effective at low use rates with excellent control of a variety of turf, ornamental and tree pests. (irfandergisi.com)
  • The technique is expected to replace many other insecticides, which are losing effectiveness due to the spread of pesticide resistance . (wikipedia.org)
  • While herbicides are the most significant product at the active ingredient level (in both dollar and pound terms), insecticides surpassed herbicides in 2015 to become the most significant category for formulated pesticide products due to the significantly higher markups seen in these products. (freedoniagroup.com)
  • A model is developed to describe the decay of seven insecticides on stored paddy rice, maize, sunflowers and peas, and is shown to be more precise than each of six literature models on pesticide decay. (edu.au)
  • The Global Insecticides Market is segmented by Chemical Type into Synthetic Insecticides and Bio-insecticides, by Insect Pest Type into Sucking Pest Insecticide and Biting and Chewing Pest Insecticides, and by Application into Grains and Cereals, Oilseed, Commercial Crops, Fruits and Vegetables, and Other Crop Types. (mordorintelligence.com)
  • Contact insecticides can also be organic insecticides, i.e. organic chemical compounds, synthetically produced, and comprising the largest numbers of pesticides used today. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bio Insecticides in India - Get top Insecticides in India and there contact details & address of Insecticides & Pesticides services in our city @ Indian Business Pages. (ibphub.com)
  • Analyses of bees found dead in and around hives from several apiaries over two years in Indiana showed the presence of neonicotinoid insecticides, which are commonly used to coat corn and soybean seeds before planting. (no-tillfarmer.com)
  • Seeds of most annual crops are coated in neonicotinoid insecticides for protection after planting. (no-tillfarmer.com)
  • As a subset of activities under the VCTR program, the New Insecticides for Malaria Control program addressed the urgent need for new chemicals to kill mosquitoes that transmit malaria. (fnih.org)
  • This program sought to address the situation by supporting research projects to identify new active ingredients with novel modes of action to safely and effectively kill mosquitoes including those resistant to existing insecticides. (fnih.org)
  • The four projects sought to characterize molecular targets in Anopheles mosquitoes that are essential for mosquito survival and to develop small molecule inhibitors of those targets as leads for insecticide development. (fnih.org)
  • Identify and characterize novel structures, pathways and enzymes in Anopheles mosquitoes as a starting point, i.e. targets, for discovery of new insecticides for malaria control. (fnih.org)
  • The use of deltamethrin, a crystalline contact insecticide and a leading tool in combatting malaria vectors, faces an uncertain future, threatened by developing resistance of mosquitoes. (nyu.edu)
  • adults derived from wild-collected larvae, there was an influence of age on insecticide susceptibility status, with younger individuals (1 to 3 days old) more resistant than older mosquitoes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Insecticide resistance in the mosquitoes that transmit malaria is increasingly recognised as one of the most important threats to malaria control. (malariaatlas.org)
  • We have applied this approach to model resistance to multiple types of insecticides that are important to mosquito control in Africa and the association among them. (malariaatlas.org)
  • However, knowledge on vector insecticide resistance status, changing trends of resistance in target vectors and their operational implications remain basic requirements to guide insecticide use in disease control programmes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One hypothesis is that insecticide resistance in the mosquito vectors is undermining the performance of bednets. (lstmed.ac.uk)
  • We are excited to add a proprietary insecticide to our product lineup and to offer growers an excellent rotational tool for their resistance management spray programs," Wildey said. (fruitgrowersnews.com)
  • For resistance management, Merit Solupak Insecticide contains a Group 4 insecticide. (irfandergisi.com)
  • Three cowpea varieties (Kanannado, Borno brown and IT98k-1312), two insecticides [cypermethrin (30 g) + dimethoate (250 g) and neem seed aqueous extract] and three spray regimes (one each at budding, flowering and podding) were evaluated for the control of pest on cowpea. (academicjournals.org)
  • The effectiveness of DDT and other insecticides when properly used as indoor residual spray (IRS) to combat malaria is not in question [1]. (up.ac.za)
  • Researchers in the Molecular Design Institute use a simple, inexpensive technique to develop a new fast-acting form of deltamethrin that may help with growing insecticide resistance. (nyu.edu)
  • Active Ingredient: Imidacloprid 17.1% Merit Insecticide = imidacloprid. (irfandergisi.com)
  • SAFETY DATA SHEET MERIT® SOLUPAK® INSECTICIDE 75% WETTABLE POWDER IN WATER SOLUBLE PACKETS 7/11 Version 2.0 / CDN Revision Date: 12/03/2018 102000007120 Print Date: 12/04/2018 Acute oral toxicity LD50 (male Rat) 2,591 mg/kg LD50 (female Rat) 1,858 mg/kg Merit through its active ingredient imidacloprid has many features that have made it the first choice for professional turf managers. (irfandergisi.com)
  • General Imidacloprid is an insecticide which is the first insecticide of its chemical family, neonicotinoids, which are modelled after nicotine, to be registered for use. (irfandergisi.com)
  • Transgenic crops that act as insecticides began in 1996 with a genetically modified potato that produced the Cry protein , derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis , which is toxic to beetle larvae such as the Colorado potato beetle . (wikipedia.org)
  • Hunt said no one factor is to blame, though scientists believe that others such as mites and insecticides are all working against the bees, which are important for pollinating food crops and wild plants. (no-tillfarmer.com)
  • The insecticides market is projected to register a CAGR of 5.1% during the forecast period, 2020-2025. (mordorintelligence.com)
  • The increases in practices like integrated pest management have hampered growth in the insecticide market, and the continued success of bioinsecticides and genetically modified plants has limited the need for conventional insecticides. (freedoniagroup.com)
  • Mode of action can be important in understanding whether an insecticide will be toxic to unrelated species, such as fish, birds and mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2,500 sites in 73 countries) that evaluates, for the first time to our knowledge on a global scale, the exposure of surface waters to particularly toxic agricultural insecticides. (pnas.org)
  • Available insecticides are limited in number and the only one class of compound (pyrethroids) can safely be used on bednets. (fnih.org)
  • Insecticide treated nets are the main tool used to prevent malaria transmission in Africa and their widespread use has led to dramatic decreases in malaria in some regions. (lstmed.ac.uk)
  • The potential drivers of selection that will be considered are the use of insecticide-treated bed nets, coverage of indoor residual sprays, and agricultural use of insecticides. (malariaatlas.org)
  • Amateur use insecticides can be applied in a number of ways including Aerosols , Sprays , Powders and Smoke Bombs . (pestfix.co.uk)
  • Standardization of test methods for monitoring insecticide resistance is important as it ensures comparability of data from different sources, for different test populations and assessment periods. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Appropriate monitoring of vector insecticide susceptibility is required to provide the rationale for optimal insecticide selection in vector control programs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This knowledge can provide a basis for selecting insecticides and for ascertaining continued susceptibility to insecticides already in use. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Store Merit Granules-Turf Insecticide in a cool, dry storage area. (irfandergisi.com)
  • Merit 0.5 Insecticide Granules are the best grub control product available. (irfandergisi.com)
  • Going forward, newer, safer, higher-value products will support the fastest gains in insecticides. (freedoniagroup.com)
  • The market continues to be dominated by a small handful of products, and the deregulation and introduction of new insecticides has been slow and limited. (freedoniagroup.com)
  • New Insecticides for Malaria Control: Discovery Research for the Identification of New Chemical Entities for Malaria Control was a continuation of research initiated under the FNIH's Vector-based Control of Transmission: Discovery Research (VCTR) program . (fnih.org)
  • Insecticide-based interventions remain the principal vector control measure in malaria endemic countries. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As the long-lasting insecticide continues to eliminate bugs, the grass is able to grow and remain healthy. (irfandergisi.com)
  • Owing to the above reasons, Asia-Pacific is the largest market in terms of insecticide consumption. (mordorintelligence.com)
  • Insecticides are distinct from non-insecticidal repellents , which repel but do not kill. (wikipedia.org)
  • To prevent resistance, it's important you DO NOT make foliar application of Exirel insecticide for a minimum of 60 days following an in-furrow or soil application or planting of seed or seed pieces treated with any Group 28 insecticide. (fmc.com)
  • Insecticides are claimed to be a major factor behind the increase in the 20th-century's agricultural productivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • This finding indicates that surface water pollution resulting from current agricultural insecticide use constitutes an excessive threat to aquatic biodiversity. (pnas.org)
  • The market under study includes insecticides applied by owners or operators and commercial applicators, to farms and facilities that are involved in the production of raw agricultural commodities, fiber, mainly food, and tobacco. (mordorintelligence.com)