Bedding and Linens
Lethal Dose 50
Pest Control, Biological
Metabolic Detoxication, Drug
Agricultural Workers' Diseases
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
Biological Control Agents
An overview of the evolution of overproduced esterases in the mosquito Culex pipiens. (1/3500)Insecticide resistance genes have developed in a wide variety of insects in response to heavy chemical application. Few of these examples of adaptation in response to rapid environmental change have been studied both at the population level and at the gene level. One of these is the evolution of the overproduced esterases that are involved in resistance to organophosphate insecticides in the mosquito Culex pipiens. At the gene level, two genetic mechanisms are involved in esterase overproduction, namely gene amplification and gene regulation. At the population level, the co-occurrence of the same amplified allele in distinct geographic areas is best explained by the importance of passive transportation at the worldwide scale. The long-term monitoring of a population of mosquitoes in southern France has enabled a detailed study to be made of the evolution of resistance genes on a local scale, and has shown that a resistance gene with a lower cost has replaced a former resistance allele with a higher cost. (+info)
The bystander effect in the HSVtk/ganciclovir system and its relationship to gap junctional communication. (2/3500)The bystander effect (BSE) is an interesting and important property of the herpes thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (hTK/GCV) system of gene therapy for cancer. With the BSE, not only are the hTK expressing cells killed upon ganciclovir (GCV) exposure but also neighboring wild-type tumor cells. On testing a large number of tumor cell lines in vitro, a wide range of sensitivity to bystander killing was found. Since transfer of toxic GCV metabolites from hTK-modified to wild-type tumor cells via gap junctions (GJ) seemed to be a likely mechanism of the BSE, we tested GJ function in these various tumors with a dye transfer technique and pharmacological agents known to affect GJ communication. We confirmed that mixtures of tumor cell resistant to the BSE did not show dye transfer from cell to cell while bystander-sensitive tumor cells did. Dieldrin, a drug known to decrease GJ communication, diminished dye transfer and also inhibited the BSE. Forskolin, an upregulator of cAMP did increase GJ, but directly inhibited hTK and therefore its effect on BSE could not be determined. We conclude that these observations further support port the concept that functional GJ play an important role in the BSE and further suggest that pharmacological manipulation of GJ may influence the outcome of cancer therapy with hTK/GCV. (+info)
A toxicokinetic model to assess the risk of azinphosmethyl exposure in humans through measures of urinary elimination of alkylphosphates. (3/3500)Azinphosmethyl (APM) is one of the most common insecticides used in fruit farming. The object of this paper is to develop a quick and practical test for assessing the risk for humans coming into contact with APM. It has been shown that the principal component of occupational and/or accidental exposure is through the skin (C. A. Franklin et al., 1981, J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 7, 715-731), but our approach is applicable to exposures via any route or a combination of routes. The method proposed in the present paper can accommodate a single-event exposure or repeated exposures over long periods. Urinary alkylphosphate (AP) metabolites are reliable bioindicators of the presence of APM in the body; they are easily accessible and can be used to estimate APM body burden. We developed a simple toxicokinetic model to link the time varying APM body burden to absorbed doses and to rates of elimination in the form of AP urinary metabolites. Using this model and data available in the literature, we are able to propose a "no observed adverse effect level" (NOAEL) for APM body levels and for corresponding absorbed doses. We have established that after a single exposure, the safe limit corresponding to the NOAEL is reached at a cumulative 0.215 mumoles AP/kg bw eliminated in urine in the first 24 hours following the beginning of exposure. For repeated daily exposures at steady state, the corresponding urinary AP metabolite level is equal to a cumulative 0.266 mumoles AP/kg bw eliminated per 24 hours. (+info)
Involvement of two plasmids in the degradation of carbaryl by Arthrobacter sp. strain RC100. (4/3500)A bacterium capable of utilizing carbaryl (1-naphthyl N-methylcarbamate) as the sole carbon source was isolated from carbaryl-treated soil. This bacterium was characterized taxonomically as Arthrobacter and was designated strain RC100. RC100 hydrolyzes the N-methylcarbamate linkage to 1-naphthol, which was further metabolized via salicylate and gentisate. Strain RC100 harbored three plasmids (designated pRC1, pRC2, and pRC3). Mutants unable to degrade carbaryl arose at a high frequency after treating the culture with mitomycin C. All carbaryl-hydrolysis-deficient mutants (Cah-) lacked pRC1, and all 1-naphthol-utilization-deficient mutants (Nat-) lacked pRC2. The plasmid-free strain RC107 grew on gentisate as a carbon source. These two plasmids could be transferred to Cah- mutants or Nat- mutants by conjugation, resulting in the restoration of the Cah and Nah phenotypes. (+info)
Altered properties of neuronal sodium channels associated with genetic resistance to pyrethroids. (5/3500)Genetic resistance to pyrethroid insecticides involves nervous system insensitivity linked to regulatory and structural genes of voltage-sensitive sodium channels. We examined the properties and relative density of sodium channels in central neurons of susceptible and pyrethroid-resistant (Pyr-R) insects that were homozygous for the amino acid substitution V421M in the I-S6 transmembrane segment. Pyr-R sodium channels show approximately 21-fold lower sensitivity to the synthetic pyrethroid permethrin and a approximately 2-fold increased sensitivity to the alpha-scorpion toxin LqhalphaIT. Pyr-R channels also exhibit altered gating properties, including a approximately 13 mV positive shift in voltage-dependent activation and approximately 7 mV positive shift in steady-state inactivation. Consistent with these changes in gating behavior, Pyr-R central neurons are less excitable, as evidenced by an approximately 11 mV elevation of action potential threshold. No differences in sodium channel density are evident. The altered properties of Pyr-R sodium channels provide a plausible molecular basis for nervous system insensitivity associated with pyrethroid resistance. (+info)
Estrogenic potential of certain pyrethroid compounds in the MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cell line. (6/3500)Estrogens, whether natural or synthetic, clearly influence reproductive development, senescence, and carcinogenesis. Pyrethroid insecticides are now the most widely used agents for indoor pest control, providing potential for human exposure. Using the MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cell line, we studied the estrogenic potential of several synthetic pyrethroid compounds in vitro using pS2 mRNA levels as the end point. We tested sumithrin, fenvalerate, d-trans allethrin, and permethrin. Nanomolar concentrations of either sumithrin or fenvalerate were sufficient to increase pS2 expression slightly above basal levels. At micromolar concentrations, these two pyrethroid compounds induced pS2 expression to levels comparable to those elicited by 10 nM 17ss-estradiol (fivefold). The estrogenic activity of sumithrin was abolished with co-treatment with an antiestrogen (ICI 164,384), whereas estrogenic activity of fenvalerate was not significantly diminished with antiestrogen co-treatment. In addition, both sumithrin and fenvalerate were able to induce cell proliferation of MCF-7 cells in a dose-response fashion. Neither permethrin nor d-trans allethrin affected pS2 expression. Permethrin had a noticeable effect on cell proliferation at 100 microM, whereas d-trans allethrin slightly induced MCF-7 cell proliferation at 10 microM, but was toxic at higher concentrations. Overall, our studies imply that each pyrethroid compound is unique in its ability to influence several cellular pathways. These findings suggest that pyrethroids should be considered to be hormone disruptors, and their potential to affect endocrine function in humans and wildlife should be investigated. (+info)
Relationships between environmental organochlorine contaminant residues, plasma corticosterone concentrations, and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in Great Lakes herring gull embryos. (7/3500)Experiments were conducted to survey and detect differences in plasma corticosterone concentrations and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in herring gull (Larus argentatus) embryos environmentally exposed to organochlorine contaminants in ovo. Unincubated fertile herring gull eggs were collected from an Atlantic coast control site and various Great Lakes sites in 1997 and artificially incubated in the laboratory. Liver and/or kidney tissues from approximately half of the late-stage embryos were analyzed for the activities of various intermediary metabolic enzymes known to be regulated, at least in part, by corticosteroids. Basal plasma corticosterone concentrations were determined for the remaining embryos. Yolk sacs were collected from each embryo and a subset was analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. Regression analysis of individual yolk sac organochlorine residue concentrations, or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs), with individual basal plasma corticosterone concentrations indicated statistically significant inverse relationships for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), non-ortho PCBs, and TEQs. Similarly, inverse relationships were observed for the activities of two intermediary metabolic enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzyme) when regressed against PCDDs/PCDFs. Overall, these data suggest that current levels of organochlorine contamination may be affecting the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and associated intermediary metabolic pathways in environmentally exposed herring gull embryos in the Great Lakes. (+info)
Environmental contaminants and body fat distribution. (8/3500)The effect of body mass index (BMI) and waist:hip ratio (WHR) on plasma levels of organochlorines [i.e., 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE)] was investigated in a sample of black and white women drawn from a population-based study in North Carolina. Organochlorine levels were determined in plasma samples from 99 women selected on the basis of race (black versus white) and quartile of the WHR (1st versus 4th). Of a panel of 20 organochlorine compounds tested, only DDE was detectable in most study subjects. Measurements of height, weight, and waist and hip circumferences were taken during an in-person interview. Information was elicited regarding dietary, residential, and breast-feeding histories. Results of multiple regression analyses indicate that black women had significantly higher plasma levels of DDE than white women. These levels were independent of BMI and WHR. BMI but not WHR was also found to be an independent predictor of DDE plasma level. These results suggest that black/white differences should be considered in studies that explore the relationship between environmental contaminants and various disease outcomes, such as breast cancer risk. In addition, BMI may affect circulating levels of contaminants and should also be considered a potentially important modifying factor for exposure to lipophilic substances. (+info)
There are several different types of malaria, including:
1. Plasmodium falciparum: This is the most severe form of malaria, and it can be fatal if left untreated. It is found in many parts of the world, including Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
2. Plasmodium vivax: This type of malaria is less severe than P. falciparum, but it can still cause serious complications if left untreated. It is found in many parts of the world, including Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
3. Plasmodium ovale: This type of malaria is similar to P. vivax, but it can cause more severe symptoms in some people. It is found primarily in West Africa.
4. Plasmodium malariae: This type of malaria is less common than the other three types, and it tends to cause milder symptoms. It is found primarily in parts of Africa and Asia.
The symptoms of malaria can vary depending on the type of parasite that is causing the infection, but they typically include:
4. Muscle and joint pain
6. Nausea and vomiting
8. Anemia (low red blood cell count)
If malaria is not treated promptly, it can lead to more severe complications, such as:
3. Respiratory failure
4. Kidney failure
5. Liver failure
6. Anemia (low red blood cell count)
Malaria is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as blood smears or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. Treatment for malaria typically involves the use of antimalarial drugs, such as chloroquine or artemisinin-based combination therapies. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications and provide supportive care.
Prevention is an important aspect of managing malaria, and this can include:
1. Using insecticide-treated bed nets
2. Wearing protective clothing and applying insect repellent when outdoors
3. Eliminating standing water around homes and communities to reduce the number of mosquito breeding sites
4. Using indoor residual spraying (IRS) or insecticide-treated wall lining to kill mosquitoes
5. Implementing malaria control measures in areas where malaria is common, such as distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS)
6. Improving access to healthcare services, particularly in rural and remote areas
7. Providing education and awareness about malaria prevention and control
8. Encouraging the use of preventive medications, such as intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) for pregnant women and children under the age of five.
Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are critical in preventing the progression of malaria and reducing the risk of complications and death. In areas where malaria is common, it is essential to have access to reliable diagnostic tools and effective antimalarial drugs.
The symptoms of organophosphate poisoning can vary depending on the severity of exposure and individual sensitivity, but may include:
1. Respiratory problems: Difficulty breathing, wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath
2. Nervous system effects: Headache, dizziness, confusion, tremors, and muscle weakness
3. Eye irritation: Redness, itching, tearing, and blurred vision
4. Skin irritation: Redness, itching, and burns
5. Gastrointestinal effects: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain
6. Cardiovascular effects: Rapid heart rate, low blood pressure, and cardiac arrhythmias
7. Neurological effects: Seizures, coma, and memory loss
Organophosphate poisoning can be caused by ingestion of contaminated food or water, inhalation of pesticides, or absorption through the skin. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as fluids and oxygen, as well as medications to counteract the effects of organophosphates on the nervous system. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the patient.
Prevention is key in avoiding organophosphate poisoning, which can be achieved by using protective clothing and equipment when handling pesticides, keeping products away from food and children, and following the recommended dosage and application instructions carefully. Regular testing of soil and water for organophosphate residues can also help prevent exposure.
In conclusion, organophosphate poisoning is a serious health hazard that can result from exposure to pesticides and insecticides. Prompt recognition of symptoms and proper treatment are essential in preventing long-term health effects and reducing the risk of fatalities. Prevention through safe handling practices and regular testing of soil and water for organophosphate residues can also help minimize the risks associated with these chemicals.
1. Pesticide poisoning: Agricultural workers who handle or apply pesticides may be at risk for poisoning, which can cause a range of symptoms including headaches, dizziness, and nausea. Prolonged exposure to pesticides has also been linked to an increased risk of cancer.
2. Lung disease: Agricultural workers who work with dusty crops or in confined spaces may be at risk for lung diseases such as bronchitis, emphysema, and asthma.
3. Heat stress: Agricultural workers who work outdoors during hot weather may be at risk for heat stress, which can lead to symptoms such as dizziness, nausea, and fatigue. In severe cases, heat stress can be fatal.
4. Noise-induced hearing loss: Agricultural workers who are exposed to loud noises, such as tractors or other machinery, may be at risk for noise-induced hearing loss.
5. Musculoskeletal disorders: Agricultural workers may be at risk for musculoskeletal disorders such as back pain, joint pain, and repetitive strain injuries due to the physical demands of their work.
6. Skin diseases: Agricultural workers who handle animals or are exposed to chemicals may be at risk for skin diseases such as allergic contact dermatitis or fungal infections.
7. Eye diseases: Agricultural workers who work with pesticides or other chemicals may be at risk for eye diseases such as conjunctivitis or cataracts.
8. Respiratory diseases: Agricultural workers who handle grain or other dusty materials may be at risk for respiratory diseases such as hypersensitivity pneumonitis or farmer's lung.
9. Infectious diseases: Agricultural workers may be at risk for infectious diseases such as Q fever, which is caused by a bacteria that can be found in the intestines of some animals.
10. Mental health disorders: The stress and isolation of agricultural work may contribute to mental health disorders such as depression, anxiety, or substance abuse.
It's important for agricultural workers to take precautions to protect their health and safety on the job, such as wearing personal protective equipment, following proper handling and application procedures for chemicals, and taking regular breaks to rest and stretch. Additionally, employers should provide a safe work environment and training on safe work practices to help prevent injuries and illnesses.
There are several types of poisoning, including:
1. Acute poisoning: This occurs when a person is exposed to a large amount of a poisonous substance over a short period of time. Symptoms can include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and difficulty breathing.
2. Chronic poisoning: This occurs when a person is exposed to a small amount of a poisonous substance over a longer period of time. Symptoms can include fatigue, weight loss, and damage to organs such as the liver or kidneys.
3. Occupational poisoning: This occurs when a worker is exposed to a poisonous substance in the course of their work. Examples include exposure to pesticides, lead, and mercury.
4. Environmental poisoning: This occurs when a person is exposed to a poisonous substance in their environment, such as through contaminated water or soil.
5. Food poisoning: This occurs when a person eats food that has been contaminated with a poisonous substance, such as bacteria or viruses. Symptoms can include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and stomach cramps.
Treatment for poisoning depends on the type of poison and the severity of the exposure. Some common treatments include activated charcoal to absorb the poison, medications to counteract the effects of the poison, and supportive care such as fluids and oxygen. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.
Prevention is key in avoiding poisoning. This includes proper storage and disposal of household chemicals, using protective gear when working with hazardous substances, and avoiding exposure to known poisons such as certain plants and animals. Education and awareness are also important in preventing poisoning, such as understanding the symptoms of poisoning and seeking medical attention immediately if suspected.
Ectoparasitic Infestations can be caused by various factors such as poor hygiene, close contact with infected individuals, or exposure to areas where the parasites are present. They can be diagnosed through physical examination and medical tests, such as blood tests or skin scrapings.
Treatment for Ectoparasitic Infestations depends on the type of parasite and the severity of the infestation. Common treatments include insecticides, medicated shampoos, and topical creams or lotions. In some cases, oral medications may be prescribed to treat more severe infestations.
Prevention is key in avoiding Ectoparasitic Infestations. This includes practicing good hygiene, using protective clothing and gear when outdoors, and avoiding close contact with individuals who have known infestations. Regularly inspecting and cleaning living spaces can also help prevent the spread of these parasites.
In conclusion, Ectoparasitic Infestations are a common health issue that can cause a range of health problems. Diagnosis and treatment depend on the type of parasite and the severity of the infestation, while prevention involves practicing good hygiene and taking precautions to avoid close contact with individuals who have known infestations.
Insects such as mosquitoes, wasps, bees, and hornets are common culprits of bites and stings that cause minor to severe reactions in humans. These reactions may cause pain, redness, swelling, itching, and burning sensations at the site of the bite or sting.
Most insect bites and stings can be treated with over-the-counter medications such as antihistamines, hydrocortisone creams, or calamine lotion. Severe allergic reactions may require medical attention and epinephrine injections to prevent anaphylaxis.
1. Malaria: Plasmodium spp., the causative agents of malaria, are members of the Euglenozoa class. These parasites are transmitted by the Anopheles mosquito and can cause fever, chills, and flu-like symptoms in humans.
2. Babesiosis: Babesia spp., which are also members of the Euglenozoa class, are parasites that can infect red blood cells in humans and animals, causing a disease known as babesiosis.
3. Eugleniasis: This is a rare condition caused by the parasite Euglena spp., which can infect the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals.
4. Crichtonsillosis: This is a condition caused by the parasite Crithidia spp., which can infect the respiratory tract of animals, particularly cattle and sheep.
5. Leucomyiasis: This is a rare condition caused by the parasite Leucomya spp., which can infect the liver and spleen of humans and animals.
These infections are typically treated with antiparasitic drugs, and the specific treatment depends on the species of Euglenozoa involved and the severity of the infection.
The symptoms of Chagas disease can vary depending on the severity of the infection and the location of the parasites in the body. In the acute phase, which typically lasts for weeks to months after infection, symptoms may include fever, fatigue, headache, joint pain, and swelling of the eyelids and neck. In some cases, the infection can spread to the heart and digestive system, leading to life-threatening complications such as heart failure, arrhythmias, and intestinal obstruction.
If left untreated, Chagas disease can enter a chronic phase, which can last for years or even decades. During this phase, symptoms may be less severe but can still include fatigue, joint pain, and cardiac problems. In some cases, the infection can reactivate during pregnancy or after exposure to stress, leading to relapses of acute symptoms.
Chagas disease is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as blood tests and imaging studies. Treatment typically involves antiparasitic drugs, which can be effective in reducing the severity of symptoms and preventing complications. However, the disease can be difficult to diagnose and treat, particularly in remote areas where medical resources are limited.
Prevention is an important aspect of managing Chagas disease. This includes controlling the population of triatomine bugs through measures such as insecticide spraying and sealing homes, as well as educating people about the risks of the disease and how to avoid infection. In addition, blood banks in areas where Chagas disease is common screen donated blood for the parasite to prevent transmission through blood transfusions.
Overall, Chagas disease is a significant public health problem in Latin America and can have severe consequences if left untreated. Early diagnosis and treatment are important to prevent complications and improve outcomes for those infected with this disease.
Some common types of scalp dermatoses include:
1. Dandruff: A chronic condition characterized by flaky, white scales on the scalp.
2. Psoriasis: An autoimmune disorder that causes red, itchy patches on the scalp.
3. Eczema: A chronic skin condition characterized by dryness, itching, and inflammation.
4. Contact dermatitis: A skin reaction caused by exposure to an allergen or irritant, leading to redness, itching, and blisters.
5. Seborrheic dermatitis: A condition characterized by a yellowish, oily discharge on the scalp.
6. Pityriasis simplex: A condition characterized by small, scaling patches on the scalp.
7. Tinea capitis: A fungal infection of the scalp that can cause itching, redness, and scaling.
8. Cradle cap (infantile seborrheic dermatitis): A condition that affects newborn babies, causing yellowish, oily scales on the scalp.
Scalp dermatoses can be diagnosed through a physical examination of the scalp and may require further testing such as blood work or skin scrapings to rule out other conditions. Treatment options vary depending on the specific condition and can include medicated shampoos, topical creams or ointments, antifungal medications, and lifestyle changes such as reducing stress and using gentle hair care products.
In summary, scalp dermatoses are conditions that affect the skin on the scalp, and can cause a range of symptoms such as itching, redness, scaling, and inflammation. Common types of scalp dermatoses include dandruff, psoriasis, eczema, contact dermatitis, pityriasis simplex, tinea capitis, and cradle cap. Diagnosis is through physical examination and may require further testing, while treatment options vary depending on the specific condition.
Black Flag (insecticide)
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- Abstract Honey is a suitable matrix for the evaluation of environmental contaminants including organochlorine insecticides . (bvsalud.org)
- The present study was conducted to evaluate residues of fifteen organochlorine insecticides in honey samples of unifloral and multifloral origins from Dir, Pakistan . (bvsalud.org)
- These metabolites are not considered toxic, but indicate an exposure to organophosphate insecticides. (cdc.gov)
- This volume of the IARC Monographs provides evaluations of the carcinogenicity of some organophosphate insecticides and herbicides, including diazinon, glyphosate, malathion, parathion, and tetrachlorvinphos. (who.int)
- Malathion is one of the oldest and most widely used organophosphate insecticides, and has a broad spectrum of applications in agriculture and public health, notably mosquito control. (who.int)
- The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) is pleased to announce that the IARC Monographs volume on Some Organophosphate Insecticides and Herbicides is now available online. (who.int)
- Several companies have developed long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) that maintain effective levels of insecticide for at least 3 years, even after repeated washing. (cdc.gov)
- In Africa, where long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets and indoor spraying are major weapons in the fight against malaria, many species of mosquitoes across the continent have developed insecticide resistance that reduces the efficacy of these key interventions. (ucsb.edu)
Dialkyl Phosphate Metabolites3
- Once they enter the body, about 75% of the organophosphorus insecticides in use in the U.S. are converted to breakdown products called dialkyl phosphate metabolites. (cdc.gov)
- Each of the six urinary dialkyl phosphate metabolites can be produced from the metabolism of more than one organophosphorus insecticide or may be present following ingestion of the specific DAP metabolite. (cdc.gov)
- Therefore, the presence of one or more dialkyl phosphate metabolites without additional information cannot be linked to exposure to a specific organophosphorus insecticide. (cdc.gov)
Conferring insecticide resistance1
- Bier also notes that adaptions conferring insecticide resistance come with an evolutionary cost, making those insects less fit in a Darwinian sense. (ucsb.edu)
- Acute neurotoxic effects during the cholinergic phase of organophosphorus insecticide poisoning and delayed neurotoxic effects appearing two to three weeks later are well recognized. (nih.gov)
Class of insecticides2
Resistance to insecticides3
- Ethiopia's malaria response, already disrupted by the impacts of COVID-19, is grappling with the multi-faceted challenges of an ongoing uptick in new cases, complicated by vector resistance to insecticides. (who.int)
- Compounded by the emergence of vector resistance to insecticides, the statistics are a disappointment for the country, says Dr. Bekele Worku, WHO's national project officer (National Professional Officer-NPO) in Ethiopia. (who.int)
- ABSTRACT Vector resistance to insecticides is becoming a major obstacle to malaria prevention measures. (who.int)
- Exposure can also occur from hand-to-mouth contact with surfaces contaminated with the insecticides. (cdc.gov)
- Farm workers, gardeners, florists, pesticide applicators, and manufacturers of these insecticides may have greater exposure than the general population. (cdc.gov)
- A sudden exposure to large amounts of organophosphorus insecticides may lead to health problems such as nausea, vomiting, irregular or slow heartbeat, difficulty breathing or tightness in the chest, salivation, weakness, paralysis, and seizures. (cdc.gov)
- Association Between Exposure to Pyrethroid Insecticides and Risk of All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality in the General US Adult Population. (nih.gov)
- Dialkyl phosphates may also occur in the environment as a result of degradation of organophosphorus insecticides, and therefore, the presence in a person's urine may reflect exposure to the metabolite itself. (cdc.gov)
- The objective of this study is to examine the effects of exposure to prevalent insecticides on neurobehavioral outcomes in a cohort of 399 children. (nih.gov)
- Biological samples will be used to assess exposure to insecticides prenatally (maternal urine, infant meconium) and postnatally (child urine). (nih.gov)
- Lifetime exposure-days to OC insecticides were calculated using additional data from a take-home questionnaire completed by 25,291 participants (44% of total). (nih.gov)
- Michael J. Hiatt, Jessica Hua Dr., Vanessa Wuerthner, and Jason Hoverman Dr., "Interaction between Insecticide Exposure and Trematode Infection across Four Wood Frog Populations" (August 7, 2014). (purdue.edu)
- Organophosphorus insecticides are chemicals used to kill many types of insects. (cdc.gov)
- Organophosphorus insecticides, which are active against a broad spectrum of insects, have accounted for a large share of all insecticides used in the United States. (cdc.gov)
- The insecticides that are used for treating bed nets kill mosquitoes, as well as other insects. (cdc.gov)
- These insecticides have been shown to pose very low health risks to humans and other mammals, but are toxic to insects and kill them. (cdc.gov)
- But in recent decades many insects have genetically adapted to become less sensitive to the potency of insecticides. (ucsb.edu)
- In the new study, the researchers used this "allelic drive" strategy to restore genetic susceptibility to insecticides, similar to insects in the wild prior to their having developed resistance. (ucsb.edu)
- Treating fields with insecticides leads to the emergence of resistant pests and reduces the diversity of beneficial insects. (ucsb.edu)
- Household insecticides are the chemicals used to control the growth of mosquitoes and other crawling & flying insects to prevent the spread of vector-borne diseases. (strategymrc.com)
- The convenience of using sprays and their ability to provide instant relief from insects are some of the factors responsible for the growth of the household insecticide market in this segment. (strategymrc.com)
- We investigated the relationship between cancer incidence and OC insecticide use among pesticide applicators enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective cohort study of 57,311 licensed applicators in Iowa and North Carolina enrolled between 1993 and 1997. (nih.gov)
- Allelic-drives can help restore insecticide susceptibility and balance natural levels of insect populations. (ucsb.edu)
- A baseline survey was carried out in Khartoum city, Sudan, during September-November 2007, to map the insecticide susceptibility status of Anopheles arabiensis and to examine the correlation with insecticide usage in urban agriculture. (who.int)
- Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) are a form of personal protection that has been shown to reduce malaria illness, severe disease, and death due to malaria in endemic regions. (cdc.gov)
- However, bed nets treated with an insecticide are much more protective than untreated nets. (cdc.gov)
- Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) are a major intervention for malaria control. (cdc.gov)
- Nets were retreated by simply dipping them in a mixture of water and insecticide and allowing them to dry in a shady place. (cdc.gov)
- To help manage resistance, some net products incorporate piperonyl butoxide (PBO) along with a pyrethroid insecticide, but there is not yet evidence that this significantly improves ITN effectiveness in areas with high levels of pyrethroid resistance, and WHO currently does not consider nets that incorporate PBO to be tools for managing pyrethroid resistance. (cdc.gov)
- Free distribution of Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs) for households in malarious areas is currently underway in Ethiopia to prevent malaria. (who.int)
- Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs) have become an coverage, assuming one ITN per household) were freely important tool in the prevention of malaria (7). (who.int)
- The insecticides also repel mosquitoes, reducing the number that enter the house and attempt to feed on people inside. (cdc.gov)
- Only a few insecticides continue to work well, with almost all conventional insecticides no longer effective against local vectors. (who.int)
- The growing threat of insecticide resistance in mosquito vectors of malaria has the potential to undermine the significant gains that have been made in the fight against the disease since the turn of the century. (ivcc.com)
- This product qualifies for exemption from EPA registration under Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act's (FIFRA) Minimum Risk Pesticides program. (horticulturesource.com)
- Southern Agricultural Insecticides, Inc. is a distributor of pesticides, fertilizers, potting soils, and horticultural supplies with locations in Florida and North Carolina. (southernag.com)
- Certain organophosphorus insecticides (e.g., malathion, naled) are also used for mosquito control in the United States. (cdc.gov)
- Heptachlor was the most prevalent insecticide with a mean level of 0.0018 mg/kg detected in 80% of the samples followed by β-HCH with a mean level of 0.0016 mg/kg detected in 71.4% of the honey samples. (bvsalud.org)
- This method involves the application of insecticides and repellents on locally-made clothing for protection against mosquito bites. (who.int)
- Given the limited range of insecticide classes available for malaria vector control the urgency to complement the current products with different classes of chemistry, as well as novel interventions, is well-recognised. (ivcc.com)
- Less common exposures include breathing in the insecticides or absorbing them through the skin. (cdc.gov)
- We are continuously testing the efficacy of insecticides and we use the most appropriate insecticide in the most appropriate place, based on that efficacy," he explains. (who.int)
- Although organophosphorus insecticides are still used for insect control on many food crops, most residential uses have been phased out in the United States as a result of implementation of the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996. (cdc.gov)
- We offer mechanical insecticides made from diatomaceous earth or clay that kill insect pests and mites, improving crop yield and keeping fruit and vegetables pest-free. (imerys.com)
- We offer a selection of mechanical insecticide products made from diatomaceous earth or clay designed to provide a physical mode of action against insect pests and mites in crop production. (imerys.com)
- The use of banned insecticides is one of the main factors responsible for the declining populations of important insect pollinators including honeybees. (bvsalud.org)
- Control of B. tabaci (and especially of Q) has been impaired by resistance to commonly used insecticides. (bioone.org)
- To find new insecticides for B. tabaci management in China, we investigated the sensitivity of eggs, larvae, and adults of laboratory strains of B and Q (named Lab-B and Lab-Q) and field strains of Q to several insecticides. (bioone.org)
- The eggs, larvae, and adults of B. tabaci Q were generally more resistant than those of B. tabaci B to the tested insecticides. (bioone.org)
- Resistance to these insecticides, often called the knockdown resistance, or " kdr, " results from mutations in the vgsc gene that no longer permit the insecticide to bind to its VGSC protein target. (ucsb.edu)
- Mortality rates and knockdown times were calculated for 8 insecticides on a total of 9820 specimens. (who.int)
- India and China are among the two major consumers in the Asia Pacific region for household insecticides, due to the presence of a large and continuously growing population and higher per capita income level. (strategymrc.com)
- Some of the key players in global Household Insecticides market are Dabur India Limited, BASF SE, HPM Chemicals and Fertilizers Ltd., S. C. Johnson & Son, Amplecta AB, Earth Chemicals co. (strategymrc.com)
- The insecticide parathion has been largely banned or restricted throughout the world due to toxicity to wildlife and humans. (who.int)
- These chemicals account for a large share of all insecticides used in the United States, including those used on food crops. (cdc.gov)
- People are exposed to organophosphorus insecticides by eating foods treated with these chemicals. (cdc.gov)
- Various insecticides contain these chemicals. (medlineplus.gov)
- Argical™ Pro is a clay with strictly preventive insecticide action against crop pests. (imerys.com)
- Insecticides : action and metabolism / R. D. O'Brien. (who.int)
- Meanwhile, in the eastern part of the country, they have discovered the new Anopheles stephensi vector, which is proving resistant to almost all conventional insecticides used for indoor residual spraying in Ethiopia. (who.int)
- A team including UC Santa Barbara researchers Craig Montell and Menglin Li , UC San Diego researchers Bhagyashree Kaduskar, Raja Kushwah and Professor Ethan Bier of UCSD's Tata Institute for Genetics and Society (TIGS) used the genetic editing tool to replace an insecticide-resistant gene in fruit flies with the normal insecticide-susceptible form. (ucsb.edu)
- The new gene-drive includes an add-on that Bier and his colleagues previously engineered to bias the inheritance of simple genetic variants (also known as alleles) by also, at the same time, cutting an undesired genetic variant (e.g., insecticide resistant) and replacing it with the preferred variant (e.g., insecticide susceptible). (ucsb.edu)
- The authors replaced a resistant kdr mutation with its normal natural counterpart that is susceptible to insecticides. (ucsb.edu)
- Starting with a population consisting of 83% kdr (resistant) alleles and 17% normal alleles (insecticide susceptible), the allelic drive system inverted that proportion to 13% resistant and 87% wild-type in 10 generations. (ucsb.edu)
- The grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, which is the dominant species of aphid in all wheat regions of China, is resistant to a variety of insecticides, including imidacloprid and chlorpyrifos. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Some of the key factors influencing the market growth include growing mosquito and bedbugs population, rising concerns about vector-borne diseases and rise in government initiatives prompting the use of household insecticides. (strategymrc.com)
- Pony XP Equine Insecticide Spray 32 oz. (pet-dog-cat-supply-store.com)
- This non-oily insecticide/repellent may be applied with a trigger spray applicator, or as a wipe. (pet-dog-cat-supply-store.com)
- Buy Pony XP Equine Insecticide Spray 32 oz. and add $91.17 more to your cart to qualify for free shipping. (pet-dog-cat-supply-store.com)
- According to researchers, the insecticides modified into the corn are being detected in streams up to 500 meters away from corn farms, and quite possibly further. (pakalertpress.com)
- Purified extracts (1μl each) were processed through Gas Chromatograph coupled with Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD) for identification and quantification of the insecticides . (bvsalud.org)
- Their achievement, described in Nature Communications , could significantly reduce the amount of insecticides used. (ucsb.edu)
- In 1988, the bacteria was placed in a fermentation broth, producing a compound that has since been formed into an insecticide with the added plus of being a biological pest control organism. (fifthseasongardening.com)
- Organochlorine (OC) insecticides have been regulated as possible human carcinogens primarily on the basis of animal studies. (nih.gov)
- Neurotoxic effects of organophosphorus insecticides. (nih.gov)
- Stronger insecticides, which a farm or commercial greenhouse might use or someone might store in their garage, contain many dangerous substances. (medlineplus.gov)
- Dezone™ is a natural and reliable insecticide for crop protection and is a powerful complimentary active ingredient to any integrated pest management program. (imerys.com)
- The class action lawsuit was filed against LaCroix's parent company alleging cockroach insecticide and other artificial ingredients are used in the drink, which is advertised as "all natural," KYW-TV reported . (fox17online.com)
- This proof-of-principle adds a new method to pest- and vector-control toolboxes since it could be used in combination with other strategies to improve insecticide-based or parasite-reducing measures to drive down the spread of malaria. (ucsb.edu)
- S. avenae adult transcriptome was assembled and characterized first, after which samples treated with insecticides for different lengths of time were compared with control samples, which revealed 602267 differentially expressed unigenes (DEUs). (unboundmedicine.com)
- Minimum levels of the tested insecticides were detected in the unifloral honey from Ziziphus jujuba Mill. (bvsalud.org)
- Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) is an insecticide used in agriculture. (cdc.gov)