The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.
A polychlorinated pesticide that is resistant to destruction by light and oxidation. Its unusual stability has resulted in difficulties in residue removal from water, soil, and foodstuffs. This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.
A pyrethroid insecticide commonly used in the treatment of LICE INFESTATIONS and SCABIES.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.
The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.
A wide spectrum aliphatic organophosphate insecticide widely used for both domestic and commercial agricultural purposes.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.
An organothiophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide.
A carbamate insecticide.
Flies of the species Musca domestica (family MUSCIDAE), which infest human habitations throughout the world and often act as carriers of pathogenic organisms.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
The geographic area of the Mekong Valley in general or when the specific country or countries are not indicated. Usually includes Cambodia, Indochina, and Laos.
Chemicals that, while not possessing inherent pesticidal activity, nonetheless promote or enhance the effectiveness of other pesticides when combined.
An organochlorine insecticide whose use has been cancelled or suspended in the United States. It has been used to control locusts, tropical disease vectors, in termite control by direct soil injection, and non-food seed and plant treatment. (From HSDB)
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER and between TOGO and NIGERIA. Its capital is Porto-Novo. It was formerly called Dahomey. In the 17th century it was a kingdom in the southern area of Africa. Coastal footholds were established by the French who deposed the ruler by 1892. It was made a French colony in 1894 and gained independence in 1960. Benin comes from the name of the indigenous inhabitants, the Bini, now more closely linked with southern Nigeria (Benin City, a town there). Bini may be related to the Arabic bani, sons. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p136, 310 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p60)
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
An island in the Lesser Antilles, one of the Windward Islands. Its capital is Fort-de-France. It was discovered by Columbus in 1502 and from its settlement in 1635 by the French it passed into and out of Dutch and British hands. It was made a French overseas department in 1946. One account of the name tells of native women on the shore calling "Madinina" as Columbus approached the island. The meaning was never discovered but was entered on early charts as Martinique, influenced by the name of St. Martin. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p734 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p339)
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
Carboxylesterase is a serine-dependent esterase with wide substrate specificity. The enzyme is involved in the detoxification of XENOBIOTICS and the activation of ester and of amide PRODRUGS.
Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.
An organothiophosphate insecticide.
Bugs of the family CIMICIDAE, genus Cimex. They are flattened, oval, reddish insects which inhabit houses, wallpaper, furniture, and beds. C. lectularius, of temperate regions, is the common bedbug that attacks humans and is frequently a serious pest in houses, hotels, barracks, and other living quarters. Experiments have shown that bedbugs can transmit a variety of diseases, but they are not normal vectors under natural conditions. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p272)
A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.
Phenyl esters of carbamic acid or of N-substituted carbamic acids. Structures are similar to PHENYLUREA COMPOUNDS with a carbamate in place of the urea.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
An organochlorine insecticide that is slightly irritating to the skin. (From Merck Index, 11th ed, p482)
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC
An organothiophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor. It has been used as an acaricide and as an insecticide.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
A republic in central Africa, bordering the Bay of Biafra, CAMEROON is to the north and GABON to the south. Its capital is Malabo.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
Derivatives of carbamic acid, H2NC(=O)OH. Included under this heading are N-substituted and O-substituted carbamic acids. In general carbamate esters are referred to as urethanes, and polymers that include repeating units of carbamate are referred to as POLYURETHANES. Note however that polyurethanes are derived from the polymerization of ISOCYANATES and the singular term URETHANE refers to the ethyl ester of carbamic acid.
An insecticide synergist, especially for pyrethroids and ROTENONE.
Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Lightweight meshwork fabric made of cotton, silk, polyester, nylon (polyamides), or other material impregnated with insecticide, having openings too small to allow entry of mosquitoes or other insects, thereby offering protection against insect bite and insect-borne diseases.
Lice of the genus Pediculus, family Pediculidae. Pediculus humanus corporus is the human body louse and Pediculus humanus capitis is the human head louse.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Free-standing or supported lightweight meshwork fabric made of cotton, silk, polyester or other material, having openings too small to allow entry of mosquitoes or other insects, thereby protecting against INSECT BITES; INSECT STINGS, and insect-borne diseases.
A mitosporic fungal genus. Teleomorphs are found in the family Clavicipitaceae and include Cordyceps bassiana. The species Beauveria bassiana is a common pathogen of ARTHROPODS and is used in PEST CONTROL.
Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.
A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
Tracts of land completely surrounded by water.
An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
Juvenile hormone analog and insect growth regulator used to control insects by disrupting metamorphosis. Has been effective in controlling mosquito larvae.
An organochlorine insecticide.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
A suborder of HEMIPTERA, called true bugs, characterized by the possession of two pairs of wings. It includes the medically important families CIMICIDAE and REDUVIIDAE. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of edible fruits such as apricot, plum, peach, cherry, and almond.
A family of winged insects of the suborder HETEROPTERA, called assassin bugs, because most prey on other insects. However one subfamily, TRIATOMINAE, attacks humans and other vertebrates and transmits Chagas disease.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A republic in western Africa, south and east of MALI and west of NIGER. Its capital is Ouagadougou. It was formerly called Upper Volta until 1984.
Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Zygote-containing cysts of sporozoan protozoa. Further development in an oocyst produces small individual infective organisms called SPOROZOITES. Then, depending on the genus, the entire oocyst is called a sporocyst or the oocyst contains multiple sporocysts encapsulating the sporozoites.
An organothiophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide and as an acaricide.
A large family of fruit flies in the order DIPTERA, comprising over 4,500 species in about 100 genera. They have patterned wings and brightly colored bodies and are found predominantly in the tropical latitudes.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
Compounds having the nitro group, -NO2, attached to carbon. When attached to nitrogen they are nitramines and attached to oxygen they are NITRATES.
A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.
Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.
A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.
Articles of cloth, usually cotton or rayon and other synthetic or cotton-blend fabrics, used in households, hospitals, physicians' examining rooms, nursing homes, etc., for sheets, pillow cases, toweling, gowns, drapes, and the like.
Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.
The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.
A cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an organothiophosphorus insecticide.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Compounds containing carbon-phosphorus bonds in which the phosphorus component is also bonded to one or more sulfur atoms. Many of these compounds function as CHOLINERGIC AGENTS and as INSECTICIDES.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
The application of smoke, vapor, or gas for the purpose of disinfecting or destroying pests or microorganisms.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous plants, insects, or other animals. This includes control of plants that serve as habitats or food sources for animal pests.
Potent cholinesterase inhibitor used as an insecticide and acaricide.
A highly poisonous organochlorine insecticide. The EPA has cancelled registrations of pesticides containing this compound with the exception of its use through subsurface ground insertion for termite control and the dipping of roots or tops of non-food plants. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.
A carbamate insecticide and parasiticide. It is a potent anticholinesterase agent belonging to the carbamate group of reversible cholinesterase inhibitors. It has a particularly low toxicity from dermal absorption and is used for control of head lice in some countries.
A polychlorinated compound used for controlling a variety of insects. It is practically water-insoluble, but readily adheres to clay particles and persists in soil and water for several years. Its mode of action involves repetitive nerve-discharges positively correlated to increase in temperature. This compound is extremely toxic to most fish. (From Comp Biochem Physiol (C) 1993 Jul;105(3):347-61)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A carbamate insecticide with anticholinesterase activity.
A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Several species are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.
An organochlorine insecticide that has been used as a pediculicide and a scabicide. It has been shown to cause cancer.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TETRACYCLINE which inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit during protein synthesis.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as a systemic insecticide, an acaricide, and nematocide. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Diseases of plants.
Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.
An organophosphorus insecticide that inhibits ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE.
Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.
Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
Various salts of a quaternary ammonium oxime that reconstitute inactivated acetylcholinesterase, especially at the neuromuscular junction, and may cause neuromuscular blockade. They are used as antidotes to organophosphorus poisoning as chlorides, iodides, methanesulfonates (mesylates), or other salts.
A highly toxic cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an acaricide and as an insecticide.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The methyl homolog of parathion. An effective, but highly toxic, organothiophosphate insecticide and cholinesterase inhibitor.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
Carbon-containing thiophosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either SULFUR atom, or the OXYGEN atom of the SPO3 core structure.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
An organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as a pesticide.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
An organothiophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as a systemic and contact insecticide.
Living facilities for humans.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.

Why are there so few resistance-associated mutations in insecticide target genes? (1/735)

The genes encoding the three major targets of conventional insecticides are: Rdl, which encodes a gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit (RDL); para, which encodes a voltage-gated sodium channel (PARA); and Ace, which encodes insect acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Interestingly, despite the complexity of the encoded receptors or enzymes, very few amino acid residues are replaced in different resistant insects: one within RDL, two within PARA and three or more within AChE. Here we examine the possible reasons underlying this extreme conservation by looking at the aspects of receptor and/or enzyme function that may constrain replacements to such a limited number of residues.  (+info)

The role of gene splicing, gene amplification and regulation in mosquito insecticide resistance. (2/735)

The primary routes of insecticide resistance in all insects are alterations in the insecticide target sites or changes in the rate at which the insecticide is detoxified. Three enzyme systems, glutathione S-transferases, esterases and monooxygenases, are involved in the detoxification of the four major insecticide classes. These enzymes act by rapidly metabolizing the insecticide to non-toxic products, or by rapidly binding and very slowly turning over the insecticide (sequestration). In Culex mosquitoes, the most common organophosphate insecticide resistance mechanism is caused by co-amplification of two esterases. The amplified esterases are differentially regulated, with three times more Est beta 2(1) being produced than Est alpha 2(1). Cis-acting regulatory sequences associated with these esterases are under investigation. All the amplified esterases in different Culex species act through sequestration. The rates at which they bind with insecticides are more rapid than those for their non-amplified counterparts in the insecticide-susceptible insects. In contrast, esterase-based organophosphate resistance in Anopheles is invariably based on changes in substrate specificities and increased turnover rates of a small subset of insecticides. The up-regulation of both glutathione S-transferases and monooxygenases in resistant mosquitoes is due to the effects of a single major gene in each case. The products of these major genes up-regulate a broad range of enzymes. The diversity of glutathione S-transferases produced by Anopheles mosquitoes is increased by the splicing of different 5' ends of genes, with a single 3' end, within one class of this enzyme family. The trans-acting regulatory factors responsible for the up-regulation of both the monooxygenase and glutathione S-transferases still need to be identified, but the recent development of molecular tools for positional cloning in Anopheles gambiae now makes this possible.  (+info)

Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and insecticide resistance in insects. (3/735)

Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are involved in many cases of resistance of insects to insecticides. Resistance has long been associated with an increase in monooxygenase activities and with an increase in cytochrome P450 content. However, this increase does not always account for all of the resistance. In Drosophila melanogaster, we have shown that the overproduction of cytochrome P450 can be lost by the fly without a corresponding complete loss of resistance. These results prompted the sequencing of a cytochrome P450 candidate for resistance in resistant and susceptible flies. Several mutations leading to amino-acid substitutions have been detected in the P450 gene CYP6A2 of a resistant strain. The location of these mutations in a model of the 3D structure of the CYP6A2 protein suggested that some of them may be important for enzyme activity of this molecule. This has been verified by heterologous expression of wild-type and mutated cDNA in Escherichia coli. When other resistance mechanisms are considered, relatively few genetic mutations are involved in insecticide resistance, and this has led to an optimistic view of the management of resistance. Our observations compel us to survey in more detail the genetic diversity of cytochrome P450 genes and alleles involved in resistance.  (+info)

An overview of the evolution of overproduced esterases in the mosquito Culex pipiens. (4/735)

Insecticide resistance genes have developed in a wide variety of insects in response to heavy chemical application. Few of these examples of adaptation in response to rapid environmental change have been studied both at the population level and at the gene level. One of these is the evolution of the overproduced esterases that are involved in resistance to organophosphate insecticides in the mosquito Culex pipiens. At the gene level, two genetic mechanisms are involved in esterase overproduction, namely gene amplification and gene regulation. At the population level, the co-occurrence of the same amplified allele in distinct geographic areas is best explained by the importance of passive transportation at the worldwide scale. The long-term monitoring of a population of mosquitoes in southern France has enabled a detailed study to be made of the evolution of resistance genes on a local scale, and has shown that a resistance gene with a lower cost has replaced a former resistance allele with a higher cost.  (+info)

Predicting insecticide resistance: mutagenesis, selection and response. (5/735)

Strategies to manage resistance to a particular insecticide have usually been devised after resistance has evolved. If it were possible to predict likely resistance mechanisms to novel insecticides before they evolved in the field, it might be feasible to have programmes that manage susceptibility. With this approach in mind, single-gene variants of the Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina, resistant to dieldrin, diazinon and malathion, were selected in the laboratory after mutagenesis of susceptible strains. The genetic and molecular bases of resistance in these variants were identical to those that had previously evolved in natural populations. Given this predictive capacity for known resistances, the approach was extended to anticipate possible mechanisms of resistance to cyromazine, an insecticide to which L. cuprina populations remain susceptible after almost 20 years of exposure. Analysis of the laboratory-generated resistant variants provides an explanation for this observation. The variants show low levels of resistance and a selective advantage over susceptibles for only a limited concentration range. These results are discussed in the context of the choice of insecticides for control purposes and of delivery strategies to minimize the evolution of resistance.  (+info)

Can anything be done to maintain the effectiveness of pyrethroid-impregnated bednets against malaria vectors? (6/735)

Pyrethroid-treated bednets are the most promising available method of controlling malaria in the tropical world. Every effort should be made to find methods of responding to, or preventing, the emergence of pyrethroid resistance in the Anopheles vectors. Some cases of such resistance are known, notably in An. gambiae in West Africa where the kdr type of resistance has been selected, probably because of the use of pyrethroids on cotton. Because pyrethroids are irritant to mosquitoes, laboratory studies on the impact of, and selection for, resistance need to be conducted with free-flying mosquitoes in conditions that are as realistic as possible. Such studies are beginning to suggest that, although there is cross-resistance to all pyrethroids, some treatments are less likely to select for resistance than others are. Organophosphate, carbamate and phenyl pyrazole insecticides have been tested as alternative treatments for nets or curtains. Attempts have been made to mix an insect growth regulator and a pyrethroid on netting to sterilize pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes that are not killed after contact with the netting. There seems to be no easy solution to the problem of pyrethroid resistance management, but further research is urgently needed.  (+info)

Altered properties of neuronal sodium channels associated with genetic resistance to pyrethroids. (7/735)

Genetic resistance to pyrethroid insecticides involves nervous system insensitivity linked to regulatory and structural genes of voltage-sensitive sodium channels. We examined the properties and relative density of sodium channels in central neurons of susceptible and pyrethroid-resistant (Pyr-R) insects that were homozygous for the amino acid substitution V421M in the I-S6 transmembrane segment. Pyr-R sodium channels show approximately 21-fold lower sensitivity to the synthetic pyrethroid permethrin and a approximately 2-fold increased sensitivity to the alpha-scorpion toxin LqhalphaIT. Pyr-R channels also exhibit altered gating properties, including a approximately 13 mV positive shift in voltage-dependent activation and approximately 7 mV positive shift in steady-state inactivation. Consistent with these changes in gating behavior, Pyr-R central neurons are less excitable, as evidenced by an approximately 11 mV elevation of action potential threshold. No differences in sodium channel density are evident. The altered properties of Pyr-R sodium channels provide a plausible molecular basis for nervous system insensitivity associated with pyrethroid resistance.  (+info)

Relationship between amount of esterase and gene copy number in insecticide-resistant Myzus persicae (Sulzer). (8/735)

Overproduction of the insecticide-degrading esterases, E4 and FE4, in peach-potato aphids, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), depends on both gene amplification and transcriptional control, the latter being associated with changes in DNA methylation. The structure and function of the aphid esterase genes have been studied but the determination of their copy number has proved difficult, a common problem with gene amplification. We have now used a combination of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and quantitative competitive PCR to determine relative esterase gene copy numbers in aphid clones with different levels of insecticide resistance (R1, R2 and R3). There are approx. 4-fold increases between susceptible, R1, R2 and R3 aphids, reaching a maximum of approx. 80 times more genes in R3; this gives proportionate increases in esterase protein relative to susceptible aphids. Thus there is no overexpression of the amplified genes, in contrast with what was thought previously. For E4 genes, the loss of 5-methylcytosine is correlated with a loss of expression, greatly decreasing the amount of enzyme relative to the copy number.  (+info)

The development of insecticide resistance management strategies requires a comprehensive knowledge of mechanisms by which insects evolve insecticide resistance. Helicoverpa armigera has evolved resistance to almost all chemical groups directed towards it worldwide including organophosphates, carbamates, and pyrethroids. The judicious use of chemicals can greatly help to preserve the usable life span of insecticides. This requires knowledge of mechanisms of resistance, which can prevent un-necessary use of pesticides to which insects had already evolved or can evolve resistance. The literature review on insecticide resistance, mechanisms and resistance management will help design robust and effective control strategies against H. armigera. This purpose gives such a review ...
Malaria remains a major public health threat in Cameroon and disease prevention is facing strong challenges due to the rapid expansion of insecticide resistance in vector populations. The present review presents an overview of published data on insecticide resistance in the main malaria vectors in Cameroon to assist in the elaboration of future and sustainable resistance management strategies. A systematic search on mosquito susceptibility to insecticides and insecticide resistance in malaria vectors in Cameroon was conducted using online bibliographic databases including PubMed, Google and Google Scholar. From each peer-reviewed paper, information on the year of the study, mosquito species, susceptibility levels, location, insecticides, data source and resistance mechanisms were extracted and inserted in a Microsoft Excel datasheet. The data collected were then analysed for assessing insecticide resistance evolution. Thirty-three scientific publications were selected for the analysis. The rapid
Background Progress in reducing the malaria disease burden through the substantial scale up of insecticide-based vector control in recent years could be reversed by the widespread emergence of insecticide resistance. The impact of insecticide resistance on the protective effectiveness of insecticide-treated nets (ITN) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) is not known. A multi-country study was undertaken in Sudan, Kenya, India, Cameroon and Benin to quantify the potential loss of epidemiological effectiveness of ITNs and IRS due to decreased susceptibility of malaria vectors to insecticides. The design of the study is described in this paper. Methods Malaria disease incidence rates by active case detection in cohorts of children, and indicators of insecticide resistance in local vectors were monitored in each of approximately 300 separate locations (clusters) with high coverage of malaria vector control over multiple malaria seasons. Phenotypic and genotypic resistance was assessed annually. In ...
Insecticide-based vector control, which comprises use of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS), is the key method to malaria control in Madagascar. However, its effectiveness is threatened as vectors become resistant to insecticides. This study investigated the resistance status of malaria vectors in Madagascar to various insecticides recommended for use in ITNs and/or IRS. WHO tube and CDC bottle bioassays were performed on populations of Anopheles gambiae (s.l.), An. funestus and An. mascarensis. Adult female An. gambiae (s.l.) mosquitoes reared from field-collected larvae and pupae were tested for their resistance to DDT, permethrin, deltamethrin, alpha-cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, bendiocarb and pirimiphos-methyl. Resting An. funestus and An. mascarensis female mosquitoes collected from unsprayed surfaces were tested against permethrin, deltamethrin and pirimiphos-methyl. The effect on insecticide resistance of pre-exposure to the synergists piperonyl-butoxide
Progress in malaria control in the past decade can be attributed largely to a massive increase in the number of insecticide based management programmes targeting malaria carrying mosquitoes, using methods that include indoor residual spraying and insecticide impregnated bed nets. The effectiveness of these management techniques is now being compromised by insecticide resistant mosquito populations. In 2012, the UN World Health Organisation (WHO) launched a strategic plan to help fight insecticide resistance in malaria vectors. A crucial part in the management of insecticide resistant mosquito populations is access to current information on insecticide resistant populations. IR Mapper is a new interactive online mapping tool used to track insecticide resistance in mosquitoes. The tool collaborates reports of insecticide resistance in malaria vector mosquitoes into maps which aim to assist vector control strategies. Data consolidation for the programme was conducted by Swiss company Vestergaard ...
Temperature plays a crucial role in the life history of insects. Recent climate change research has highlighted the importance of elevated temperature on malaria vector distribution. This study aims to examine the role of elevated temperatures on epidemiologically important life-history traits in the major malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis. Specifically, the differential effects of temperature on insecticide-resistant and susceptible strains were examined. Two laboratory strains of A. arabiensis, the insecticide-susceptible SENN and the insecticide-resistant SENN DDT strains, were used to examine the effect of elevated temperatures on larval development and adult longevity. The effects of various elevated temperatures on insecticide resistance phenotypes were also examined and the biochemical basis of the changes in insecticide resistance phenotype was assessed. SENN and SENN DDT larvae developed at similar rates at elevated temperatures. SENN DDT adult survivorship did not vary between control and
Arthropod vectors transmit organisms that cause many emerging and reemerging diseases, and their control is reliant mainly on the use of chemical insecticides. Only a few classes of insecticides are available for public health use, and the increased spread of insecticide resistance is a major threat to sustainable disease control. The primary strategy for mitigating the detrimental effects of insecticide resistance is the development of an insecticide resistance management plan. However, few examples exist to show how to implement such plans programmatically. We describe the formulation and implementation of a resistance management plan for mosquito vectors of human disease in Zambia. We also discuss challenges, steps taken to address the challenges, and directions for the future ...
|jats:title|Abstract|/jats:title||jats:p|The impact of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors is poorly understood and quantified. Here a series of geospatial datasets for insecticide resistance in malaria vectors are provided so that trends in resistance in time and space can be quantified and the impact of resistance found in wild populations on malaria transmission in Africa can be assessed. Data are also provided for common genetic markers of resistance to support analyses of whether these genetic data can improve the ability to monitor resistance in low resource settings. Specifically, data have been collated and geopositioned for the prevalence of insecticide resistance, as measured by standard bioassays, in representative samples of individual species or species complexes. Data are provided for the|jats:italic|Anopheles gambiae|/jats:italic|species complex, the|jats:italic|Anopheles funestus|/jats:italic|subgroup, and for nine individual vector species. In addition, allele frequencies for
The use of insecticides is the cornerstone of effective malaria vector control. However, the last two decades has seen the ubiquitous use of insecticides, predominantly pyrethroids, causing widespread insecticide resistance and compromising the effectiveness of vector control. Considerable efforts to develop new active ingredients and interventions are underway. However, it is essential to deploy strategies to mitigate the impact of insecticide resistance now, both to maintain the efficacy of currently available tools as well as to ensure the sustainability of new tools as they come to market. Although the World Health Organization disseminated best practice guidelines for insecticide resistance management (IRM), Rollback Malarias Vector Control Working Group identified the lack of practical knowledge of IRM as the primary gap in the translation of evidence into policy. ResistanceSim is a capacity strengthening tool designed to address this gap. The development process involved frequent stakeholder
A new technique pioneered at Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (LSTM) is improving the detection and monitoring of insecticide resistance in field populations of an important malaria-carrying mosquito.. Researchers at LSTM, led by Dr Charles Wondji have developed a new technique which encourages the female Anopheles funestus mosquitoes to lay eggs which are then reared into adult mosquitoes to provide sufficient numbers to determine levels of insecticide resistance and to characterize the underlying mechanisms.. Explaining the significance, John Morgan, who designed the technique, said: Malaria is the main cause of death in Uganda with some 12 million cases recorded annually. The Ministry of Health relies heavily on insecticide treated nets and spraying to control mosquitoes. The effectiveness of those control programs depends on the ability to detect and monitor insecticide resistance.. The An.funestus mosquito is difficult to collect and rear from the field and hence published studies of ...
Resistance in to members of all 4 major classes (pyrethroids, carbamates, organochlorines, and organophosphates) of public health insecticides limits effective control of malaria transmission in Africa. Increase in expression of detoxifying enzymes has been associated with insecticide resistance, but their direct functional validation in is still lacking. Here, we perform transgenic analysis using the GAL4/UAS system to examine insecticide resistance phenotypes conferred by increased expression of the 3 genes-, , and -most often found up-regulated in resistant We report evidence in that organophosphate and organochlorine resistance is conferred by overexpression of GSTE2 in a broad tissue profile. Pyrethroid and carbamate resistance is bestowed by similar overexpression, and confers only pyrethroid resistance when overexpressed in the same tissues. Conversely, such overexpression increases susceptibility to the organophosphate malathion, presumably due to conversion to the more toxic metabolite, ...
In spite of widespread insecticide resistance in vector mosquitoes throughout Africa, there is limited evidence that long lasting insecticidal bed nets (LLINs) are failing to protect against malaria. Here, we showed that LLIN contact in the course of host-seeking resulted in higher mortality of resistant Anopheles spp. mosquitoes than predicted from standard laboratory exposures with the same net. We also found that sub-lethal contact with an LLIN caused a reduction in blood feeding and subsequent host-seeking success in multiple lines of resistant mosquitoes from the lab and the field. Using a transmission model, we showed that when these LLIN-related lethal and sub-lethal effects were accrued over mosquito lifetimes, they greatly reduced the impact of resistance on malaria transmission potential under conditions of high net coverage. If coverage falls, the epidemiological impact is far more pronounced. Similarly, if the intensity of resistance intensifies, the loss of malaria control increases ...
Long-lasting insecticide-treated mosquito nets are the most widely used intervention for preventing transmission of malaria by anopheline mosquitoes. Their effectiveness is threatened by the development of resistance to pyrethroid insecticides enabling the mosquito to survive contact with the net. Olyset Duo is a new type of bed net treated with pyrethroid and a new insecticide, pyriproxifen, that disrupts the maturation of eggs in the ovaries of blood-fed mosquitoes. Ngufor and colleagues evaluated the capacity of the Olyset Duo net to control pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes in laboratory tests and under household conditions in West Africa. The Olyset Duo net killed more pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes than did the standard pyrethroid net and also sterilized any mosquitoes that survived exposure to the net. By preventing mosquito reproduction, the new net has the potential to reduce mosquito populations and malaria transmission in areas of high pyrethroid resistance. ...
In Anopheles gambiae, predominant heritable insecticide resistance mechanisms cause major conformational protein changes, which would be expected to impact physiological performance, including the ability to withstand parasites, because the insecticide targets are essential components of the nervous system.
In Brazil, Aedes aegypti resistance to temephos, used since 1967, was detected in several municipalities in 2000. Organophosphates were substituted by pyrethroids against adults and, in some localities, by Bti against larvae. However, high temephos resistance ratios were still detected between 2001 and 2004. Field-simulated assays confirmed a low temephos residual effect. Acethylcholinesterase and Mixed Function Oxidase profiles were not altered. In contrast, higher Esterase activity, studied with three substrates, was found in all examined populations collected in 2001. From 2001 to 2004, a slight reduction in α-Esterase (EST) and β-EST activity together with a gradual increase of p-nitrophenyl acetate (PNPA)-EST was noted. Gluthathione-S-transferase alteration was encountered only in the northeast region in 2001, spreading the entire country thereafter. In general, except for α-EST and β-EST, only one enzyme class was altered in each mosquito specimen. Data are discussed in the context of historic
Insecticide resistance is an inherited characteristic involving changes in one or more insect gene. The molecular basis of these changes are only now being fully determined, aided by the availability of the Drosophila melanogaster and Anopheles gambiae genome sequences. This paper reviews what is currently known about insecticide resistance conferred by metabolic or target site changes in mosquitoes. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.. ...
This is a multi-country prospective study to assess the impact of insecticide resistance on the effectiveness of long lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and IRS. Five countries are involved, Benin, Cameroon, India, Kenya and Sudan. The study is co-ordinated by the World Health Organization (WHO) with primary funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
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The status of insecticide resistance in some fi eld populations of Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) from the main cotton growing regions of central and south India was determined during the cropping seasons of 2001-2005. Seven... - Science - Species diversity and insecticide resistance within the Anopheles hyrcanus group in Ubon Ratchathani Province, Thailand (Parasites & Vectors)
Modeling Insecticide Resistance in Endemic Regions of Kenya. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
<p>A new WHO strategic plan aims to tackle the problem of mosquito insecticide resistance in malaria-affected regions.</p>
The 1st European workshop on testing procedures for monitoring and managing insecticide resistance in invasive mosquitoes will be held from November 18-22, 2019 at the Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Montpellier, France. Registration deadline October 20, 2019.
A method for managing resistance in a plot of pest resistant crop plants is provided herein. The method includes cultivating a first pest resistant crop plant in a plot in one planting cycle, and succ
Conflicts of interest The authors declare no conflicts of interest. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We are thankful to Andre Nóbrega Pitaluga for assistance. M.L. Colleta, C. Frizzoa, and E. Orlandina received scholarships from Universidade do Oeste de Santa Catarina (Unoesc) and CNPq (Brazilian Government Agency). REFERENCES Aguirre-Obando AO, Pietrobon AJ, Dalla Bona AC, Navarro-Silva MA, et al (2016). Contrasting patterns of insecticide resistance and knockdown resistance (kdr) in Aedes aegypti populations from Jacarezinho (Brazil) after a dengue outbreak. Rev. Bras. Entomol. 60: 94-100. Almeida Fd, Moura AS, Cardoso AF, Winter CE, et al (2011). Effects of Wolbachia on fitness of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera; Culicidae). Infect. Genet. Evol. 11: 2138-2143. Alvarez LC, Ponce G, Saavedra-Rodriguez K, Lopez B, et al (2015). Frequency of V1016I and F1534C mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene in Aedes ...
it is not a bit strange that in 3 studies WHopes made, there is no better control of P3 than of P2, but in two studies VF paid for in Nigeria, there is a better control. And here the lead scientist of these studies demand that strategies must be made to maximize its use (that means, its sales). But i do recognize that the WHO organisation is sending out confusing messages. On one side, you have Whopes directed studies that clearly says that Permanet 3 - and especially Pemanet 3 washed - is not better than P2 on resistant Anopheles and Culex. On the other side you have a new committee of WHO that says that Vf provided evidence that Permanet 3 was in a new category. When you read what this group should use as evidence, it should be transmission impact to recognize a new paradigme. But the group writes that there was NO evidence of transmission effect of P3 in areas with metabolic resistance, but still they conclude that here is a new paradigme. Maybe WHO has become so eager to show they are ...
Insecticide resistance to organophosphates and carbamates can be the result of changes in acetylcholinesterase activity conferred by the ACE-1 mutation. Detection of this altered target site mutation is important in guiding informed decisions for resistance management. In this study we compared a competitive enzyme assay with a polymerase chain reaction assay utilizing a restriction enzyme. Both assays detected the ACE-1 mutation in Culex quinquefasciatus and agreement was 100%. The costs and benefits of each assay are presented ...
In our previous research, the fitness cost of resistance of the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella found in insecticide-resistant DBM (Rc-DBM) under heat stress was based on heavier damage to wing veins when compared to insecticide-susceptible DBM (Sm-DBM). To investigate the molecular mechanism of the damage to the veins between Rc- and Sm-DBM, the full-length sequences of two related genes involved in the development of wing veins, fringe (Px-fng) and engrailed (Px-en) of DBM were cloned, and the mRNA expressions of both Px-fng and Px-en were studied. The Px-fng and Px-en cDNA contained 1038 bp and 1152 bp of open reading frames (ORFs), respectively, which encoded a putative protein comprising 345 and 383 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 39.59 kDa and 42.69 kDa. Significantly down regulated expressions of Px-fng and Px-en under heat stress were found in pupae and adults of Rc-DBM compared to Sm-DBM, and a result of higher damage to wing veins in Rc-DBM under heat stress.
This trial is entitled "Effect of Interleukin-1 [anakinra, Kineret] Receptor Antagonist on Insulin Sensitivity in Obese, Insulin Resistant
Deciphering the molecular mechanisms affecting ookinete survival in the mosquito. Vector immune responses are responsible, at least in part, for the major parasite losses during parasite development. We now know, largely from functional studies in our laboratory, that even what is called susceptible A. gambiae mosquitoes effectively kill a large number of invading ookinetes (80 %), which are most probably cleared by lysis. Two genes, LRIM1 and TEP1, were shown to be strongly involved in ookinete killing in susceptible mosquitoes (G3 strain). LRIM1 expression was strongly induced in mosquito midguts and carcasses in response to the invasion of the mosquito midgut epithelium by Plasmodium ookinetes. The transient KD of LRIM1 in susceptible mosquitoes by RNAi resulted in approximately a four-fold increase in the number of parasites that successfully develop in the mosquito midguts, suggesting that LRIM1 is involved in parasite killing. TEP1 is as a bona fide pattern-recognition receptor that ...
Deciphering the molecular mechanisms affecting ookinete survival in the mosquito. Vector immune responses are responsible, at least in part, for the major parasite losses during parasite development. We now know, largely from functional studies in our laboratory, that even what is called susceptible A. gambiae mosquitoes effectively kill a large number of invading ookinetes (80 %), which are most probably cleared by lysis. Two genes, LRIM1 and TEP1, were shown to be strongly involved in ookinete killing in susceptible mosquitoes (G3 strain). LRIM1 expression was strongly induced in mosquito midguts and carcasses in response to the invasion of the mosquito midgut epithelium by Plasmodium ookinetes. The transient KD of LRIM1 in susceptible mosquitoes by RNAi resulted in approximately a four-fold increase in the number of parasites that successfully develop in the mosquito midguts, suggesting that LRIM1 is involved in parasite killing. TEP1 is as a bona fide ...
The National Center for Biomedical Ontology was founded as one of the National Centers for Biomedical Computing, supported by the NHGRI, the NHLBI, and the NIH Common Fund under grant U54-HG004028 ...
Definition: An independent continuant [snap:IndependentContinuant] that is spatially extended whose identity is independent of that of other entities and can be maintained through time. Note: Material entity [snap:MaterialEntity] subsumes object [snap:Object], fiat object part [snap:FiatObjectPart], and object aggregate [snap:ObjectAggregate], which assume a three level theory of granularity, which is inadequate for some domains, such as biology. Examples: collection of random bacteria, a chair, dorsal surface of the body. An independent continuant [snap:IndependentContinuant] that is spatially extended whose identity is independent of that of other entities and can be maintained through time. Note: Material entity [snap:MaterialEntity] subsumes object [snap:Object], fiat object part [snap:FiatObjectPart], and object aggregate [snap:ObjectAggregate], which assume a three level theory of granularity, which is inadequate for some domains, such as biology.. ...
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The Centre for Antibiotic Resistance Research (CARe) at the University of Gothenburg presents a symposium on the theme of Ethics and Value Challenges in Antibiotic Resistance Management, Policy and Research ...
National coordination of invertebrate pest research and insecticide resistance management (Protecting Your Crop) awarded by GRAINS RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT CORP 2013 - 2018 ...
Limited chemical armoury and insecticide resistance will mean growers must practice the science of doing nothing to make crops more resilient to pest attack, according to Dr Steve Ellis, research scientist at ADAS.
corn that was planted on May 25 and on June 23 rd. The good news is that corn with above-ground Bt ... offers protection against fall armyworm. The bad news is that Bt resistance has occurred in other states ... network to help us predict the likelihood of another generation that may impact forage regrowth and .... ...
corn that was planted on May 25 and on June 23 rd. The good news is that corn with above-ground Bt ... offers protection against fall armyworm. The bad news is that Bt resistance has occurred in other states ... network to help us predict the likelihood of another generation that may impact forage regrowth and .... ... Although we have not seen any Bt resistance with fall armyworm in Ohio, we also dont often see .... ...
Scientists have found a way to make cells resistant to HIV by attaching antibodies to cell receptors, which block the virus from infecting them. Diseased cells die off and the protected cells spread the protective gene to new cells, making a resistant population.
Malaria control programs are being jeopardized by the spread of insecticide resistance in mosquito vector populations. The situation in Burkina Faso is emblematic with Anopheles gambiae populations showing high levels of resistance to most available compounds. Although the frequency of insecticide target-site mutations including knockdown resistance (kdr) and insensitive acetylcholinesterase (Ace-1R) alleles has been regularly monitored in the area, it is not known whether detoxifying enzymes contribute to the diversity of resistance phenotypes observed in the field. Here, we propose an update on the phenotypic diversity of insecticide resistance in An. gambiae populations sampled from 10 sites in Burkina Faso in 2010. Susceptibility to deltamethrin, permethrin, DDT, bendiocarb and fenithrotion was assessed. Test specimens (N = 30 per locality) were identified to species and molecular form and their genotype at the kdr and Ace-1 loci was determined. Detoxifying enzymes activities including ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Detecting Bt resistance in Illinois western corn rootworm populations. AU - Spencer, Joseph L.. AU - Tinsley, Nicholas A.. AU - Kaluf, Alexandra L.. AU - Estes, Ronald E.. AU - Gray, Michael E.. AU - Hughson, Sarah. N1 - Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting, 5-8 November 2017, Denver, CO. PY - 2017/11/8. Y1 - 2017/11/8. N2 - Bt resistance in crop rotation-resistant populations western Corn Rootworm (Dia.... AB - Bt resistance in crop rotation-resistant populations western Corn Rootworm (Dia.... KW - INHS. UR - M3 - Conference contribution. BT - Entomology 2017. PB - ESA. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Insecticide control of vector-borne diseases. T2 - When is insecticide resistance a problem?. AU - Rivero, Ana. AU - Vézilier, Julien. AU - Weill, Mylene. AU - Read, Andrew F.. AU - Gandon, Sylvain. PY - 2010/8. Y1 - 2010/8. N2 - Many of the most dangerous human diseases are transmitted by insect vectors. After decades of repeated insecticide use, all of these vector species have demonstrated the capacity to evolve resistance to insecticides. Insecticide resistance is generally considered to undermine control of vector-transmitted diseases because it increases the number of vectors that survive the insecticide treatment. Disease control failure, however, need not follow from vector control failure. Here, we review evidence that insecticide resistance may have an impact on the quality of vectors and, specifically, on three key determinants of parasite transmission: vector longevity, competence, and behaviour. We argue that, in some instances, insecticide resistance is likely to ...
1. gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in both vertebrates and invertebrates. GABAA receptors are composed of a number of different subunits that assemble to form a chloride ionophore. 2. Several subunit types, alpha, beta, gamma, delta and rho have been cloned from vertebrates, but until recently these receptors have remained uncloned from invertebrates. 3. GABAA receptors form the proposed site of action of cyclodiene insecticides. Therefore a Drosophila mutant (Rdl), resistant to cyclodienes and the GABAA receptor ligand picrotoxin (PTX), was used to clone the gene responsible for resistance as a putative invertebrate GABAA receptor. 4. Analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence and gene structure shows that Rdl codes for a receptor subunit similar to vertebrate GABAA receptors, but sufficiently different that it may represent a novel class of GABAA receptor subtype. 5. Cyclodiene insecticide resistance accounts for over 60% of reported cases of insecticide
Bubaque is the most populous island of the Bijagos archipelago, a group of malaria-endemic islands situated off the coast of Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. Malaria vector control on Bubaque relies almost exclusively on the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). However, there is little information on local vector bionomics and insecticide resistance. A survey of mosquito species composition was performed at the onset of the wet season (June/July) and the beginning of the dry season (November/December). Sampling was performed using indoor adult light-traps and larval dipping. Anopheles mosquitoes were identified to species level and assessed for kdr allele frequency by TaqMan PCR. Females were analysed for sporozoite positivity by CSP-ELISA. Resistance to permethrin and α-cypermethrin was measured using the CDC-bottle bioassay incorporating the synergist piperonyl-butoxide. Several Anopheles species were found on the island, all belonging to the Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) complex,
BACKGROUND : The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is characterized as a holoendemic malaria area with the main vectors being Anopheles funestus and members of the Anopheles gambiae complex. Due to political instability and socio-economic challenges in the region, knowledge of insecticide resistance status and resistance mechanisms in these vectors is limited. Mosquitoes were collected from a mining site in the north-eastern part of the country and, following identification, were subjected to extensive testing for the target-site and biochemical basis of resistance. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to assess a suite of 10 genes frequently involved in pyrethroid and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) resistance in An. gambiae females and males. In An. funestus, gene expression microarray analysis was carried out on female mosquitoes. RESULTS : In both species, deltamethrin resistance was recorded along with high resistance and suspected resistance to DDT in An. gambiae and An. ...
For insecticide resistance management, Transform Insecticide is a Group 4C insecticide. Some naturally occurring insect biotypes resistant to Transform Insecticide and other Group 4C insecticides may exist through normal genetic variability in any insect population. The resistant individuals can eventually dominate the insect population if Transform Insecticide and other Group 4C insecticides are used repeatedly. The effectiveness of Transform Insecticide on resistant individuals could be significantly reduced. Since occurrence of resistant individuals is difficult to detect prior to use, Dow AgroSciences Australia Limited accepts no liability for any losses that may result from the failure of Transform Insecticide to control resistant insects. Transform Insecticide may be subject to specific resistance management strategies. For further information contact your local supplier, Dow AgroSciences representative or local agricultural department agronomist.. MIXING ...
Background: Metabolic resistance to insecticides is the biggest threat to the continued effectiveness of malariavector control. However, its underlying molecular basis, crucial for successful resistance management, remainspoorly characterized.Results: Here, we demonstrate that the single amino acid change L119F in an upregulated glutathione S-transferasegene, GSTe2, confers high levels of metabolic resistance to DDT in the malaria vector Anopheles funestus. Genome-widetranscription analysis revealed that GSTe2 was the most over-expressed detoxification gene in DDT and permethrinresistantmosquitoes from Benin. Transgenic expression of GSTe2 in Drosophila melanogaster demonstrated thatover-transcription of this gene alone confers DDT resistance and cross-resistance to pyrethroids. Analysis of GSTe2polymorphism established that the point mutation is tightly associated with metabolic resistance to DDT and itsgeographical distribution strongly correlates with DDT resistance patterns across Africa. ...
The Transcriptome Profile of the Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus following Permethrin Selection. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Programmatic monitoring of insecticide resistance in disease vectors is mostly done on a large scale, often focusing on differences between districts, regions or countries. However, local heterogeneities in residual malaria transmission imply the need for finer-scale data. This study reports small-scale variations of insecticide susceptibility in Anopheles arabiensis between three neighbouring villages across two seasons in Tanzania, where insecticidal bed nets are extensively used, but malaria transmission persists. WHO insecticide susceptibility assays were conducted on female and male An. arabiensis from three proximal villages, Minepa, Lupiro, and Mavimba, during dry (June-December 2015) and wet (January-May 2016) seasons. Adults emerging from wild-collected larvae were exposed to 0.05% lambda-cyhalothrin, 0.05% deltamethrin, 0.75% permethrin, 4% DDT, 4% dieldrin, 0.1% bendiocarb, 0.1% propoxur, 0.25% pirimiphos-methyl and 5% malathion. A hydrolysis probe assay was used to screen for L1014F ...
The idea of evolution-proof insecticides is currently a hot topic in mosquito control (Read et al. 2009) because of the potential to slow down or even halt the evolution of insecticide resistance in mosquitoes. While insecticides are an effective and cheap method of controlling malaria, it is well known that mosquitoes can develop resistance and that this can happen on a surprisingly fast time scale. It was known by the end of the 1960s that the mosquito species that transmit malaria were developing resistance to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), the single insecticide that had been relied on until then (see Hemingway et al. (2002) and Kelly-Hope et al. (2008) for recent discussions on the management of insecticide resistance). Current insecticides kill extremely rapidly after contact, but their high lethality leads to intense selection for resistance because they kill young female adults. The very limited insecticide arsenal available (there are still just four classes, only one of which ...
BACKGROUND: Molecular markers of insecticide resistance can provide sensitive indicators of resistance development in malaria vector populations. Monitoring of insecticide resistance in vector populations is an important component of current malaria control programmes. Knockdown resistance (kdr) confers resistance to the pyrethroid class of insecticides with cross-resistance to DDT through single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene. METHODS: To enable detection of kdr mutations at low frequency a method was developed that uses polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based technology, allowing rapid, reliable and cost-effective testing of large numbers of individual mosquitoes. This was used to assay mosquitoes from sites in lower Moshi, Tanzania. RESULTS: Sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes (SSOP) were used for simultaneous detection of both East and West African kdr mutations with high specificity and sensitivity. ...
Insecticide resistance is a major threat to malaria control. Resistance management strategies are based on largely untested hypotheses about sources of selection pressure and fitness costs of resistance.. ...
These guidelines apply primarily to the peach-potato aphid (Myzus persicae) in potato crops as this is the aphid species with the most significant insecticide resistance issues associated with it. This species is NOT a pest on crops such as cereals, peas and beans. An updated version of these guidelilnes will be available in 2018
In conducting their investigation, researchers studied the biological fitness costs associated with the development of an insecticide resistance gene. After scientists bred resistant flies in the lab, they set up a series of competitive mating trials, comparing both courtship behavior and the impact of size on male fruit flies mating success. In general, resistant males were found to be smaller than flies that did not contain the genetic variation. However, even when larger than non-resistant males, insecticide-resistant fruit flies were less likely to be successful in the studys competitive mating trials.. While researchers indicate size played an important role in differences between mating success, they note a number of other factors were also at play. In addition to being smaller, males carrying the resistance allele also chased females and performed courtship displays at a lower rate. And after they performed a courtship display, they were less likely to make an attempt to mate. In ...
This series is about mosquitoes (Culex pipiens complex) and insecticide resistance. It ran live on the site over two weeks in 2015 as Linda Kothera, a mosquito biologist at the Center for Disease Control (CDC) in Fort Collins, Colorado answered reader questions. Mosquitoes are vectors of human and other animal diseases. For example, Culex pipiens…
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Surveillance, insecticide resistance and control of an invasive Aedes aegypti (Diptera. T2 - Culicidae) population in California. AU - Lee, Yoosook. AU - Cornel, Anthony J.. AU - Holeman, Jodi. AU - Nieman, Catelyn C.. AU - Smith, Charles. AU - Amorino, Mark. AU - Brisco, Katherine K.. AU - Barrera, Roberto. AU - Lanzaro, Gregory C. AU - Mulligan, F. Stephen. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - The invasion and subsequent establishment in California of Aedes aegypti in 2013 has created new challenges for local mosquito abatement and vector control districts. Studies were undertaken to identify effective and economical strategies to monitor the abundance and spread of this mosquito species as well as for its control. Overall, BG Sentinel (BGS) traps were found to be the most sensitive trap type to measure abundance and spread into new locations. Autocidal-Gravid-Ovitraps (AGO-B), when placed at a site for a week, performed equally to BGS in detecting the presence of female Ae. aegypti. ...
Applying two or more pesticides with different modes of action in a tank-mix or pre-pack may delay the onset of, or mitigate, existing pest resistance. Tank-mixing allows for adjusting of the ratio of pesticides to fit local pest and environmental conditions, while premixes are formulated by the manufacturer. The different pesticides in the mixture must be active against the target pest so that insects with resistance to one mode of action are controlled by a pesticide partner with a different mode of action. Theoretically, repeated use of any tank-mix or pre-pack combination may give rise to insecticide resistance, if resistance mechanisms to each insecticide in the mix arise together but the probability is very low.. Compiled by Dr. Wayne Buhler, PhD. ...
Insecticide resistance versus antimicrobial restistance : biological issues in historical perspective. Gesnerus, vol. 60. pp. 235-259 ...
Plant Health Progress, an online journal of the American Phytopathological Society with content appropriate for all plant health practitioners.
Its a natural biological process for mosquitos to mutate in response to insecticide exposure, Vazquez-Prokopec says. These mutations can occur at the molecular level, preventing the insecticide from binding to an enzymatic target site. They can also happen at the metabolic level - when a mosquitos metabolism up regulates the production of enzymes that can neutralize the toxic effects of an insecticide ...
Its a natural biological process for mosquitos to mutate in response to insecticide exposure, Vazquez-Prokopec says. These mutations can occur at the molecular level, preventing the insecticide from binding to an enzymatic target site. They can also happen at the metabolic level - when a mosquitos metabolism up regulates the production of enzymes that can neutralize the toxic effects of an insecticide ...
Organophosphate (OP) resistance among Japanese mosquitoes was first observed in 1967 in the city of Amagasaki in the larvae of Culex pipiens pallens, and since then resistant populations of the Culex...
In Mexico, Fogarty-supported researchers have for years worked with different types of intervention strategies to reduce the amount of transmission of dengue, specifically in peoples homes, said Dr. Bill Black, a professor of vector biology and parasitology at Colorado State University (CSU) and the principal investigator on a Fogarty training grant in dengue prevention and control. Since we were already down in Tapachula in southwestern Mexico working on a project on insecticide resistance when the Zika outbreak began, said Black, It was natural that the trainees should switch their projects to focus on the new threat.. One of CSUs Fogarty-supported trainees, Ph.D. candidate Farah Vera-Maloof, found a sharp increase in recent years of mutations in a gene in mosquitoes, which make an insecticide ineffective. Mosquitoes have built up strong resistance to the pyrethroid family of insecticides, which is the main tool in the Mexican governments arsenal against Aedes aegypti.. Another ...
We report a laboratory colony of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were experimentally able to salivate Zika virus (ZIKV, Flaviviridae; Flavivirus) at 16 days post infection (dpi). ZIKV RNA was detected in bodies and in saliva deposited on filter paper cards with subsequent studies demonstrating the presence of live ZIKV in saliva.
This release is available in Helicoverpa armigera : a global pest ...Larvae of the cotton bollworm ( Helicoverpa armigera ) are dreade...Resistance to pyrethroids ...Pyrethroids are synthetic substances based on compounds of the natural...,Insecticide,resistance,caused,by,recombination,of,2,genes,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
For resistance management purposes, any insect population may contain individuals naturally resistant to insecticide . If these insecticides are used repeatedly, the resistant individuals may eventually dominate the pest insect population. These resistant insects may not be controlled by that insecticides or other insecticides in same IRAC MoA group. To delay the development of resistance:…
If you have an active or new chemical group you think should be included in the IRAC Mode of Action Classification, this is where to submit it for review. Please read the Procedure for allocation of new insecticidal materials for the MoA Classification for further guidance.. ...
A key function of the IRAC groups is to communicate the Resistance Management information to the target audience.This can be done through publications and posters etc at workshops and conferences reinforcing the benefits of companies and experts working together under the umbrella of IRAC. One of the primary communication tools of course is the IRAC website. Information held on the IRAC servers can be sourced via the various web pages or searched for under the Resources Page.. ...
Eleusine indica (ELEIN) é uma espécie monocotiledônea, diploide. No Brasil, ela desenvolveu resistência aos inibidores da ACCase durante os últimos dez anos, devido ao uso intensivo e frequente desses graminicidas para controlar plantas daninhas em lavouras de soja. Experimentos de dose-resposta realizados com a planta confirmaram a resistência de um biótipo. Houve elevada tolerância aos herbicidas, com fatores de resistência da ordem de 143 (fenoxaprop), 126 (haloxyfop), 84 (sethoxydim) e 58 (fluazifop). Ensaios com a enzima ACCase in vitro indicaram a insensibilidade desta como a principal causa de suscetibilidade reduzida a esses herbicidas. Fragmentos de PCR gerados do domínio CT da enzima ACCase dos biótipos resistente e sensível de referência foram sequenciados e comparados. Foi detectada uma mutação dentro do tripleto de asparagina na posição do aminoácido 2078 (referente ao acesso número AJ310767 no EMBL), que resultou no tripleto de glicina. Esses resultados ...
New York, March 15 (IANS) Indian farmers are spending more on insecticides for genetically modified (GM) Bt cotton, say researchers, adding that the situation is worsening.
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The gains made towards eliminating malaria in endemic countries is being threatened by insecticide and antimalarial drug resistance.
One of the first things the scientist looked at was how much genetic diversity was present within the species. Mosquitoes have one of the highest levels of genetic diversity amongst eukaryotic organisms, and the results of this extensive survey supported that. Within these 765 mosquitoes, the authors identified over 50 million variations within and between populations in the accessible genome. A high level of genetic diversity is often beneficial to a species- it can help a population recover after rapid declines and provides more opportunities for adaptation when a species environment changes.. Previous authors have identified some of the genes that can lead to an individual mosquito to be resistant to insecticides. In this study, the authors found evidence of positive selection in recent history, and several genes under selection play a role in insecticide resistance. Not only did they find evidence for insecticide resistance in some individuals, but they also were able to determine that ...
Copyright © 2015 AHDB Potatoes. AHDB potatoes is a division of the Agriculture and Horticulture Development Board © Agriculture and Horticulture Development Board. Your use of this website and the information contained within it is subject to terms and conditions. ...
The world is rapidly urbanizing, and only a subset of species are able to succeed in stressful city environments. Efficient genome-enabled stress response appears to be a likely prerequisite for urban adaptation. Despite the important role ants play in the ecosytem, only the genomes of ~13 have been sequenced so far. Here, we present the draft genome assembly of the black garden ant Lasius niger - the most successful urban inhabitant of all ants - and we compare it with the genomes of other ant species, including the closely related Camponotus floridanus. Sequences from 272 M Illumina reads were assembled into 41,406 contigs with total length of 245 MB, and N50 of 16,382 bp, similar to other ant genome assemblies enabling comparative genomic analysis. Remarkably, the predicted proteome of L. niger is significantly enriched relative to other ant genomes in terms of abundance of domains involved in nucleic acid binding, DNA repair, and nucleotidyl transferase activity, reflecting transposable element
Detoxification has broad connotations ranging from spiritual to scientific and has been used to describe practices and protocols that embrace medical thought.
To address the overall risk of Bt resistance, this project evaluated the impact of various components within the current cotton belt agricultural landscape. In cooperation with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), models have been developed to address changes in Bt crops being planted, new Bt events being developed, and changes in Bt-crop refuge requirements being proposed. In particular, models have evaluated the impact of reduced refuges required for multi-gene corn coupled with increased selection pressure on corn earworm (bollworm) on the risk of developing resistance to the Bt toxins. Our model indicates that the risk of resistance from dual-gene corn using similar toxins to those found in Bt-cotton combined with reduced refuges may be somewhat higher than for single-gene corn with a larger refuge. Mixing non-Bt and Bt-plants (refuge in a bag) rather than keeping the refuge and Bt areas distinct further reduces the benefit of the refuge. As the same or similar Bt toxins are being ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Host mating system and the prevalence of disease in a plant population. AU - Koslow, Jennifer M.. AU - DeAngelis, Donald L.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. N2 - A modified susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) host-pathogen model is used to determine the influence of plant mating system on the outcome of a host-pathogen interaction. Unlike previous models describing how interactions between mating system and pathogen infection affect individual fitness, this model considers the potential consequences of varying mating systems on the prevalence of resistance alleles and disease within the population. If a single allele for disease resistance is sufficient to confer complete resistance in an individual and if both homozygote and heterozygote resistant individuals have the same mean birth and death rates, then, for any parameter set, the selling rate does not affect the proportions of resistant, susceptible or infected ...
"Insecticide resistance". Imperial College London. Retrieved 2019-03-19. "Novel mosquito net to combat insecticide resistance ... "WHO , Insecticide resistance". WHO. Archived from the original on October 11, 2014. Retrieved 2019-03-19. "World Malaria Summit ... "Ghana PPP pilots breakthrough insecticide to fight mosquito resistance". Devex. 2018-07-10. Retrieved 2019-03-20. "Trial sites ... Developed diagnostic system for malarial insecticide resistance detection and implemented within disease control programs in ...
Insecticide Resistance Action Committee. (CS1: long volume value, Insecticides). ... Teixeira, Luís A; Andaloro, John T (2013). "Diamide insecticides: Global efforts to address insect resistance stewardship ... Ryanoids are a class of insecticides which share the same mechanism of action as the alkaloid ryanodine. Ryanodine is a ... Usherwood, P.N.R.; Vais, H. (1995). "Towards the development of ryanoid insecticides with low mammalian toxicity". Toxicology ...
"Interactive MoA Classification". Insecticide Resistance Action Committee. 16 September 2020. Retrieved 1 April 2021. Sparks, ... "Insecticides, biologics and nematicides: Updates to IRAC's mode of action classification - a tool for resistance management". ... As of 2016, chlorpyrifos was the most used conventional insecticide in the US and was used in over 40 states; the top five ... "What is the Insecticide Chlorpyrifos?". National Geographic Society. 10 August 2018. US EPA Office of Pesticide Programs (20 ...
"Symbiont-mediated insecticide resistance". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 109 ... In an unusual demonstration of resistance to pesticides, 8% of insects in farm fields were found to carry a symbiotic gut ... Crocker JF, Rozee KR, Ozere RL, Digout SC, Hutzinger O (July 1974). "Insecticide and viral interaction as a cause of fatty ... Fatty changes were noted in liver and kidney in the insecticide-virus groups. The encephalopathy showed no specific central- ...
Insecticide Resistance Action Committee. Mehta, Suresh (2009). "Neuroprotective role of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 in ... Rotenone is used as a pesticide, insecticide, and as a nonselective piscicide (fish killer). It is commercialized as cubé, tuba ... In the UK, rotenone insecticides (sold under the trade name Derris) were banned for sale in 2009. Rotenone has historically ... 1948). The Mode of Action of Organic Insecticides. National Research Council, Washington DC. Ambrose, Anthony M.; Harvey B. ...
Voltage-dependent sodium channel blockers are used as insecticides, comprising Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) ... Insecticide Resistance Action Committee. Bagal, Sharan K.; Chapman, Mark L.; Marron, Brian E.; Prime, Rebecca; Ian Storer, R.; ...
"Interactive MoA Classification". Insecticide Resistance Action Committee. 2020-09-16. Retrieved 2021-04-01. United States ... FRAC (Fungicide Resistance Action Committee) (March 2021). "FRAC Code List ©*2021: Fungal control agents sorted by cross ... resistance pattern and mode of action (including coding for FRAC Groups on product labels)" (PDF). Weed Science Society of ... ". "HRAC MOA 2020 Revision Description and Master Herbicide List". Herbicide Resistance Action Committee. 2020-09-14. Retrieved ...
The Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) definition of insecticide resistance is 'a heritable change in the ... "Resistance Definition". Insecticide Resistance Action Committee. 2007. How pesticide resistance develops ... If a pest has resistance then the pesticide lacks efficacy - efficacy and resistance are inversely related. Cases of resistance ... "Insecticide resistance in the tomato pinworm Tuta absoluta: patterns, spread, mechanisms, management and outlook". Journal of ...
Insecticide Resistance Action Committee. "Australia to approve DuPont's Exirel insecticide cyantraniliprole". AgroNews. Oct 10 ... Cyantraniliprole is an insecticide of the ryanoid class, specifically a diamide insecticide (IRAC MoA group 28). It is approved ... it has activity against pests such as Diaphorina citri that have developed resistance to other classes of insecticides. ... Tiwari S, Stelinski LL (Sep 2013). "Effects of cyantraniliprole, a novel anthranilic diamide insecticide, against Asian citrus ...
... s have developed insecticide resistance to many of the common insecticides used to control them environmentally, ... Pet safe insecticides may also be an option in treating a pet with fleas, and soap is sufficient as an insecticide for adult ... Accessed 6 August 2012 Coles, Tad B.; Dryden, Michael W. (2014-01-06). "Insecticide/acaricide resistance in fleas and ticks ... Rust, Michael K. (March 2016). "Insecticide Resistance in Fleas". Insects. 7 (1): 10. doi:10.3390/insects7010010. PMC 4808790. ...
1994). "15.2.1 Insecticide resistance". The Insects: An Outline of Entomology. Chapman & Hall. pp. 404-407. ISBN 978-0-412- ... The economic cost of insecticide resistance is significant, but published data on the subject are minimal. In 1994, total costs ... Long-term increased cost to the Michigan potato industry caused by insecticide resistance in Colorado potato beetle was ... The species as a whole has evolved resistance to 56 different chemical insecticides. The mechanisms used include improved ...
... in the Pesticide Properties DataBase (PPDB) "Interactive MoA Classification". IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action ... As an insecticide it is effective for thrips and has a low dose that is lethal for these animals. The LC99,99 for suspension ... Because methiocarb is widely used as an insecticide on crops, environmental risks were also studied to establish safety risks ... Methiocarb is a carbamate pesticide (an acetylecholinesterase inhibitor) which is used as an insecticide, bird repellent, ...
"Interactive MoA Classification , Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC)". IRAC. Retrieved 2021-11-30. " ... "The evolution of insecticide resistance in the peach potato aphid, Myzus persicae". Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. ... Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) classified Flupyradifurone as 4D subset (butenolide) and it is the first ... It is used as a novel butenolide insecticide. Flupyradifurone shows efficient protection to crops and is much safer for non- ...
doi:10.1073/pnas.120204710 Heckel, D. G. (2012). Insecticide Resistance After Silent Spring. Science, 337 (6102), 1612-1614. ... He also uses this approach to study the genetic and physiological mechanisms by which insects evolve resistance to chemical and ... Heckel, D. G., Gahan, L. J., Liu, Y. B., Tabashnik, B. E. (1999). Genetic mapping of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis ... Gahan, L. J., Gould, F., Heckel, D. G. (2001). Identification of a gene associated with Bt resistance in Heliothis virescens. ...
... and to insecticides exacerbated the situation. Resistance was largely fueled by unrestricted agricultural use. Resistance and ... Insects with certain mutations in their sodium channel gene are resistant to DDT and similar insecticides. DDT resistance is ... funestus Giles, indicates an urgent need to develop a strategy of insecticide resistance management for the malaria control ... Denholm I, Devine GJ, Williamson MS (September 2002). "Insecticide resistance on the move". Science. 297 (5590): 2222-2223. doi ...
"IRAC Mode of Action Classification Scheme Version 9.4". IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee) (pdf). March 2020. ... insecticide, and nematicide. It was used as a poison gas in World War I. Its chemical structural formula is Cl3CNO2. ...
"IRAC Mode of Action Classification Scheme Version 9.4". IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee) (pdf). March 2020. ... These insecticides kill insects by reversibly inactivating the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (IRAC mode of action 1a). The ... Besides inhibiting human acetylcholinesterase (although to a lesser degree than the insect enzyme), carbamate insecticides also ... Fukuto, T. R. (1990). "Mechanism of action of organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides". Environmental Health Perspectives. ...
"IRAC Mode of Action Classification Scheme Version 9.4". IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee) (pdf). March 2020. ... the risks of resistance developing can be reduced by using a mixture of two or more insecticides which each have activity on ... regulatory bodies such as the EPA and the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC). In some cases, ... a class of synthetic insecticides that mimic the structure and properties of the naturally occurring insecticide pyrethrin ...
Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) created the new MoA Group 30 for Broflanilide. Broflanilide is a meta-diamide ... Insecticide Resistance Action Committee) (pdf). March 2020. Katsuta, Hiroyuki; Nomura, Michikazu; Wakita, Takeo; Daido, ... No cross-resistance with existing MoAs. Shows high effectiveness against wireworms. Not systemic. The EPA has stated that ... Broflanilide is a complex, polycyclic, organohalogen insecticide which provides a novel mode of action (MoA). Upon its ...
Insecticide Resistance Action Committee) (pdf). March 2020. Goodman, Brenda (21 Apr 2011). "Pesticide Exposure in Womb Linked ... The popularity of these insecticides increased after many of the organochlorine insecticides such as DDT, dieldrin, and ... According to the EPA, organophosphate use in 2004 accounts for 40% of all insecticide products used in the United States. Out ... Organophosphates (OPs) were among the most widely used insecticides until the 21st century. And until the mid 1990s, general ...
It is involved in insecticide resistance. The first member gene identified was CYP18A1, from a Drosophila melanogaster fly, ... "Detoxification enzymes associated with butene-fipronil resistance in Epacromius coerulipes". Pest Management Science. 76 (1): ...
Cyhalothrin Imiprothrin "IRAC Mode of Action Classification Scheme Version 9.4". IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee ... Cyfluthrin is a pyrethroid insecticide and common household pesticide. It is a complex organic compound and the commercial ...
Rates of insecticide resistance among triatomines are fairly low due to their long lifecycle and low genetic variability, but ... Synthetic pyrethroids are the main class of insecticides used to control triatominae infestations. Insecticide treatment is ... "History of insecticide resistance of Triatominae vectors". Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical. 48 (4): 380- ... A single treatment with insecticide typically protects against triatomine infestation for a year or more on timber walls vs. 2- ...
Some H. azteca have evolved insecticide resistance. This does however conflict with their need to adapt to climate change: ... 2020). Fitness costs of pesticide resistance in Hyalella azteca under future climate change scenarios. Science of the Total ... 2020). Recessivity of pyrethroid resistance and limited interspecies hybridization across Hyalella clades supports rapid and ... Fulton et al 2021 finds some of their mechanisms of resistance impose a fitness cost under higher temperatures. Hyalella azteca ...
Karen Todd-Jenkins (2017). "Perception Versus Reality: Insecticide Resistance in Fleas". American Veterinarian. Maddison, Jill ... As of 2017[update], there did not appear to be significant resistance among fleas to fipronil. Because of its effectiveness on ... This includes ongoing observations on possible off-target harm to humans or ecosystems as well as the monitoring of resistance ... In the United Kingdom, provisional approval for five years has been granted for fipronil use as a public hygiene insecticide. ...
Methods of resistance include thickening of the cuticle of the insect to limit permeation of the insecticide, metabolic ... World Health Organization (30 January 2016). "5.5 Resistance to insecticides". World Malaria Report 2015. World Health ... and the knockdown resistance (kdr) sodium channel mutations which render the action of insecticides ineffectual, even when co- ... meaning that deltamethrin resistance among bed bugs is currently making this insecticide obsolete. Deltamethrin belongs to a ...
Contrary to the most common mechanism of insecticide resistance evolution - selection for preexisting, low-frequency alleles - ... "Evolution of Resistance to Insecticide in Disease Vectors". In Tibayrenc, Michel (ed.). Genetics and Evolution of Infectious ... As an insecticide, it can be sprayed onto clothing or mosquito nets to kill the insects that touch them. Side effects include ... Permethrin is a medication and an insecticide. As a medication, it is used to treat scabies and lice. It is applied to the skin ...
"Insecticide resistance in the tropical bedbug Cimex hemipterus". Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology. 88 (1): 102-107. doi: ... Resistance to pyrethroids has also been reported. The primary medical concern associated with C. hemipterus is associated with ... Following widespread use of DDT in the 20th century, DDT resistance among C. hemipterus has been reported among populations in ...
Her studies on resistance management have transformed the use of insecticide by disease control programmes. Her promotion of ... Hemingway is distinguished as the international authority on insecticide resistance in insect vectors of disease. She was first ... Hemingway, J.; Ranson, H. (2000). "Insecticide Resistance in Insect Vectors of Human Disease". Annual Review of Entomology. 45 ... McCarroll, L; Hemingway, J (2002). "Can insecticide resistance status affect parasite transmission in mosquitoes?". Insect ...
Minetti, Corrado; Ingham, Victoria A; Ranson, Hilary (2020). "Effects of insecticide resistance and exposure on Plasmodium ... All three of these parasites combine with insecticides to reduce fitness - see § Insecticides below. CRISPR/Cas9 and U6-gRNA ... "Malaria Vector Control Still Matters despite Insecticide Resistance". Trends in Parasitology. 33 (8): 610-618. doi:10.1016/ ... gambiae with knockdown resistance (kdr) are more susceptible to DDT if they are first infected with Plasmodium berghei and ...
Expression is mediated by the NPR1 gene and the salicylic acid pathway, both involved in resistance to fungal and insect attack ... and enhancement of insecticides and fungicides.[42] Phaseolus vulgaris chitinase - bean chitinase, BCH - has been ... 1997). "Transgenic potato plants with enhanced resistance to the tomato moth, Lacanobia oleracea: growth room trials". ... As in plant chitinases this may be related to pathogen resistance.[24][25] ...
瘧疾的遺傳抵抗力(英语:Genetic resistance to malaria) *達菲抗原(英语:Duffy antigen) ... ref name="Noor 2009",{{Cite journal ,author=Noor AM, Mutheu JJ, Tatem AJ, Hay SI, Snow RW ,title=Insecticide-treated net ... Worldwide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN). 延伸閱讀. *. Packard RM. The Making of a Tropical Disease: A Short History of ... ref name="Hedrick 2011",{{Cite journal ,author=Hedrick PW ,title=Population genetics of malaria resistance in humans ,
Mougabure-Cueto G, Picollo MI (September 2015). "Insecticide resistance in vector Chagas disease: Evolution, machanisms, and ... Transmission rates have also risen in the Gran Chaco region due to insecticide resistance and in the Amazon basin due to oral ... Vector control in some regions has been hindered by the development of insecticide resistance among triatomine bugs.[30] In ... Prevention focuses on eliminating kissing bugs and avoiding their bites.[1] This may involve the use of insecticides or bed- ...
Inheritance of resistance to muskmelon necrotic spot virus in a melon aphid-resistant breeding line of muskmelon. J. Am. Soc. ... The chemical substances in insecticides kill the beetles, eliminating spread of the virus.[citation needed] Since MNSV is soil- ... Lastly, breeding for resistance is the most effective method of control against MNSV. Two cultivars in melon that exhibit ... Both exhibit a single recessive gene, nsv, which is reported to control the only resistance found to MNSV in melon. Although ...
... insecticide resistance and vector-borne diseases (malaria and dengue fever) BLAST searches for all covered genomes Vectors in ...
... , also called kdr, describes cases of resistance to diphenylethane (e.g. DDT) and pyrethroid insecticides ... Labbé, Pierrick; Alout, Haoues; Djogbénou, Luc; Pasteur, Nicole; Weill, Mylène (2011). "Evolution of Resistance to Insecticide ... Such mutative resistance is characterized by the presence of kdr alleles in the insect's genome. Knockdown resistance, first ... Research since 1990 has provided a wealth of new information on the molecular basis of knockdown resistance. ...
Colonel Zerbo also encountered resistance from trade unions and was overthrown two years later on November 7, 1982, by Major Dr ... and a single Air Tractor AT-802 aerial sprayer aircraft for spraying insecticides, purchased after the northern part of the ...
A larvicide (alternatively larvacide) is an insecticide that is specifically targeted against the larval life stage of an ... Temephos, marketed as Abate and ProVect, is an organophosphate which prevents mosquito larvae from developing resistance to ...
Fungi can develop resistance if the same fungicide is used repeatedly or when fungicides with the same mode of action are ... repeatedly.(package insert Alto 100Syngenta) In the U.S. Sandoz applied for registration under the Federal Insecticide, ... Development of fungal resistance can be prevented by not using cyproconazole "repeatedly alone in the same season" or by not ... Paul Esker; Richard Proost (December 2010). "Fungicide resistance management in corn, soybean, and wheat in Wisconsin NPM A3878 ...
The resistance problem demands that a renewed effort be made to seek antibacterial agents effective against pathogenic bacteria ... and defined by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, antimicrobial pesticides are used in order to control ... In parallel, there has been an alarming increase in antimicrobial resistance of bacteria, fungi, parasites and some viruses to ... Antimicrobial pesticides have the potential to be a major factor in drug resistance. Organizations such as the World Health ...
Genetic Resistance: Partial resistance to BPMV is available in some soybean varieties meaning there is less yield reductions, ... spray insecticides or treat seed with an insecticide to manage the bean leaf beetle, field history is important to consider in ... Varieties with higher resistance are in development, thus commercially unavailable at this time. Other plants in the genus ... If the virus is present but the insect vector is not, spraying insecticides will not be effective in managing the disease. ...
Understanding mosquito behaviour, evolutionary genomics and the extent, causes and impact of insecticide resistance on malaria ...
Artificial inhibitors are often used as drugs, but can also be insecticides such as malathion, herbicides such as glyphosate, ... Gualerzi CO, Brandi L, Fabbretti A, Pon CL (2013). Antibiotics: Targets, Mechanisms and Resistance. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons ... Thapa S, Lv M, Xu H (2017). "Acetylcholinesterase: A Primary Target for Drugs and Insecticides". Mini Reviews in Medicinal ... Kuhr RJ, Dorough HW (1976). Carbamate Insecticides: Chemistry, Biochemistry, and Toxicology. Cleveland: CRC Press. ISBN 978-0- ...
Insecticide is a widely used form of protection; in southern regions, farmers may have to apply insecticide to corn every day. ... A few sweet corn varieties have partial, but not complete, resistance to armyworms. The resistance comes from a unique 33-kD ... CIMMYT and its partners are using forward genetics to breed for better S. frugiperda resistance in maize. Genome-wide ... control practices and resistance breeding in Sub‐Saharan Africa". Crop Science. Crop Science Society of America (Wiley). 60 (6 ...
Moth larvae can be killed with insecticides such as permethrin or pyrethroids. However, insecticides cannot safely be used in ... The most common example for the longest time has been rainfall: Although drought stress weakens crop disease resistance, ... In ancient China, insecticides derived from plants were in use by 1200 BC to treat seeds and to fumigate plants. Chinese ... The agricultural revolution in Europe saw the introduction of effective plant-based insecticides such as pyrethrum, derris, ...
Coburn also placed a hold on a bill intended to help end hostilities in Uganda by the Lord's Resistance Army. On May 23, 2007, ... "the junk science and stigma surrounding DDT-the cheapest and most effective insecticide on the planet-have finally been ... which would help to disarm the Lord's Resistance Army, a political group accused of human rights abuses. On March 9, 2010, ... "the catalyst in the deadly worldwide stigmatization against insecticides, especially DDT." Democratic Senator Benjamin L. ...
"Drosophila melanogaster populations selected for resistances to NaCl and CuSO4 in both allopatry and sympatry", Journal of ... "Intersterility as a Consequence of Insecticide Selections in Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae)", Nature, 209 (321 ...
Casida, John E.; Durkin, Kathleen A. (2013). "Neuroactive Insecticides: Targets, Selectivity, Resistance, and Secondary Effects ... This is also the mode of action of the related insecticides, all of which can produce the dithiol corresponding to cleavage of ... 1998). "Insecticides". Chemistry and Mode of Action of Crop Protection Agents. pp. 46-73. doi:10.1039/9781847550422-00046. ISBN ... Researchers at Takeda in Japan investigated it as a possible insecticide. They subsequently developed a number of derivatives ...
"River blindness resistance fears". BBC News. 2007-06-14. Archived from the original on 2007-08-08. Retrieved 2007-06-15. Osei- ... Other efforts include those to decrease the fly population by spraying insecticides. Efforts to eradicate the disease by ... Infection reduces the host's immunity and resistance to other diseases, which results in an estimated reduction in life ... suggesting the parasite is developing resistance to the drug. A clinical trial of another anti-parasitic agent, moxidectin ( ...
... 's predecessor, Ciba-Geigy, introduced the insecticide Galecron chlordimeform in 1966, and it was removed from the ... which offers resistance to certain corn pests. Syngenta cross-licenses its proprietary genes with Dow AgroSciences and thus is ... Syngenta's primary products include pesticides, selective herbicides, non-selective herbicides, fungicides, insecticides, as ... insecticides and seed care. Three product lines for seed products include corn and soya, other field crops and vegetables.[page ...
Dadgostar P (2019-12-20). "Antimicrobial Resistance: Implications and Costs". Infection and Drug Resistance. 12: 3903-3910. doi ... Starting in World War II, DDT was used as insecticide to combat insect vectors carrying malaria, which was endemic in most ... ISBN 978-0-8135-4438-0. Webb JL (July 2011). "The first large-scale use of synthetic insecticide for malaria control in ...
Pediculicides may rapidly lose their efficacy because of the development of resistance. Resistance of head lice to insecticides ... Gratz, N. (1998), Human lice, their prevalence and resistance to insecticides (PDF), Geneva: World Health Organization (WHO), ... These fumes can ignite due to the presence of even a small spark or open flame - such as those caused by electrical appliances ... Electronic louse combs use a small electrical charge to kill lice. The metal teeth of the comb have alternating positively and ...
This system would result in increased resistance to diseases and decreased effects of erosion and loss of nutrients in soil. ... promoting the ecosystem service of biological control using nectar plants can reduce the need for insecticides by 70% whilst ... It is needed for root ramification and strength and seed formation, and can increase disease resistance. Phosphorus is found in ... texture and disease resistance of crops. It is often used in the cultivation of grains, fruits, vegetables, rice, wheat, ...
Nicotine is a chemical found in tobacco products and certain insecticides. As an obesogen, nicotine mostly acts on prenatal ... Björntorp P (September 1997). "Body fat distribution, insulin resistance, and metabolic diseases". Nutrition. 13 (9): 795-803. ... Arsenic has many applications such as in the production of insecticides, herbicides, pesticides and electronic devices. The ... and increased resistance to insulin effects. This alteration in sex steroid levels due to obesogens can vary enormously ...
Resistance is now common in India, and rates of resistance have been shown to be as high as 60% in parts of Bihar, India. The ... 3. Spray living/sleeping areas with an insecticide to kill insects. 4. If you are not sleeping in a well-screened or air- ... If possible, use a bed net that has been soaked in or sprayed with a pyrethroid-containing insecticide. The same treatment can ... as well as the risk for development of resistance against the drugs; they have been shown to be cost-effective strategies. ...
Conflicts, trends, and resistance struggles" (PDF). EJOLT. 3: 84. Vidal, J. (November 15, 2012). "The GM tree plantations bred ... Subsequently, 1.4 million Bt (insecticide) producing GM poplars were planted in China. They were planted both for their wood ... Examples include resistance to certain pests, diseases, environmental conditions, and herbicide tolerance, or the alteration of ... There are ongoing schemes that aim to foster disease resistance in trees such as the American chestnut (see Chestnut blight) ...
... which is involved in thiodicarb insecticide resistance. Subfamily CYP9A in Lepidopteran play important roles in insecticide ... Ishak, IH; Kamgang, B; Ibrahim, SS; Riveron, JM; Irving, H; Wondji, CS (January 2017). "Pyrethroid Resistance in Malaysian ... resistance, can metabolize esfenvalerate efficiently. Stevens, JL; Snyder, MJ; Koener, JF; Feyereisen, R (July 2000). " ...
Paris Green was used as an insecticide in some other areas. This unequal distribution of anti-malarial measures may explain a ... Widespread starvation and malnutrition first compromised immune systems, and reduced resistance to disease led to death by ... Chatterjee, Partha (1986). "The Colonial State and Peasant Resistance in Bengal 1920-1947". Past & Present. 110: 169-204. doi: ... the Indian National Congress launched the Quit India movement as a nationwide display of nonviolent resistance. The British ...
Insecticide ATSDR - Public Health Statement: DDT, DDE, and DDD Walker, K. C.; Goette, M. B.; Batchelor, G. S. (1954). " ... due to the latter's lack of resistance. Birds of prey, waterfowl, and song birds are more susceptible to eggshell thinning than ...
Micks, Don W. (‎1960)‎. Insecticide-resistance. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 22 (‎5)‎, 519 - 529. https://apps. ...
Micks, Don W. (‎1960)‎. Insecticide-resistance. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 22 (‎5)‎, 519 - 529. https:// ...
... insecticide resistance mosquitoes - Raising our voices to improve health around the world. ... William (Bill) Brogdon, insecticide resistance mosquitoes, mosquito, mosquito-borne disease, PMI. Tags Centers for Disease ...
His current research interests are on insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae and identifying alternative insecticides to ... funestus and necessitated a switch to an alternative class of insecticide to which there was no resistance (6). During the last ... Reduced Efficacy of Insecticide-treated Nets and Indoor Residual Spraying for Malaria Control in Pyrethroid Resistance Area, ... Reduced Efficacy of Insecticide-treated Nets and Indoor Residual Spraying for Malaria Control in Pyrethroid Resistance Area, ...
... mosquito resistance may occur. Learn the facts about mosquitoes that are insecticide resistance. ... If populations are exposed to low doses of insecticides, ... WHAT IS INSECTICIDE RESISTANCE?. Since mosquitoes have such ... HOW IS INSECTICIDE RESISTANCE TESTED?. Mosquito control programs should check for insecticide resistance/susceptibility ... SHOULD THE PUBLIC BE CONCERNED ABOUT INSECTICIDE RESISTANCE?. With regular monitoring of insecticide resistance, these issues ...
Technical consultation on the use of economics in insecticide resistance management for malaria vector control: report of a ... 2022)‏. Technical consultation on the use of economics in insecticide resistance management for malaria vector control: report ...
Malaria control and elimination , GEF projects , Assessing the impact of insecticide resistance in Anopheles arabiensis in ... Global plan for insecticide resistance management in malaria vectors [pdf 7.2Mb] ... Allele frequency of knock down resistance (kdr) in An arabiensis was higher in Galabat compared to the other areas, but a ... In Gabalat (highest transmission), there has been a reduction in prevalence in the IRS and long-lasting insecticide nets (LLINs ...
Global distribution and origin of target site insecticide resistance mutations in Tetranychus urticae Year. (2014). Authors. ...
Argentine, Joseph A., "Biochemistry and genetics of insecticide resistance in the Colorado potato beetle." (1991). Doctoral ...
The pyrethroids resistance is solely metabolic. This information could help policy-makers to plan insecticide resistance ... This paper reports the results of studies conducted to monitor the insecticide resistance of the main malaria vector, Anopheles ... The Current Insecticide Resistance in Main Malaria Vector Anopheles arabiensis in Yemen.. ... Bendiocarb is still an effective insecticide in the form of IRS. Concerning LLINS, it would be interesting to assess their ...
The resistance of An. sinensis to insecticides is an important threat to malaria control. However, few reports on insecticide ... sinensis mosquitoes demonstrated resistance to 4% DDT, with less than 72% mortality in the standard assay. The populations from ... Insecticide susceptibility bioassays were tested on wild-caught female mosquitoes of An. sinensis to 4% ... malathion by using the World Health Organization standard resistance tube assay procedure. All the tested An. ...
HomeNewsGenetic Strategy Reverses Insecticide Resistance. Genetic Strategy Reverses Insecticide Resistance. January 14, 2022 ... Using CRISPR/Cas9 technology, scientists have genetically engineered a method to reverse insecticide resistance. The gene ...
... practical resistance monitoring under relevant local conditions is needed to correlate resistance, mosquito-control efficacy, ... With standardized insecticide-resistance assays failing to inform mosquito-control efficacy due to genotype-by-environment ... Known insecticide-resistance mechanisms in mosquitoes are target-site resistance, metabolic resistance, cuticular resistance, ... target-site resistance, metabolic resistance, cuticular resistance, and behavioral resistance. Target-site resistance results ...
It is important to continue to monitor IR in PNG and develop proactive insecticide resistance management strategies in primary ... While widespread pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles and Aedes species has been described in many countries, data for Papua New ... aegypti in PNG are resistant to pyrethroids and DDT and that there was also likelihood of bendiocarb resistance. A range of ... albopictus populations exhibit low levels of resistance against pyrethroids and DDT in some areas. Pyrethroid-only bed nets are ...
... with resistance to applied insecticides making a significant contribution. With a growing number of insecticides (DDT, ... Consequently, several recent studies have focused on determining the mode of action of pyrethroid resistance in bed bug ... Correct identification of the factor(s) responsible for the increasing resistance is critical to the development of effective ... the mainstay chemistry used for bed bug control over the past few decades has been the pyrethroid insecticides. With reports of ...
Increasing insecticide resistance could herald a rebound in disease and mortality. We aimed to investigate whether insecticide ... than did non-users across a range of resistance levels. We found no evidence of an association between insecticide resistance ... Implications of insecticide resistance for malaria vector control with long-lasting insecticidal nets: a WHO-coordinated, ... 80 000 mosquitoes were assessed for insecticide resistance. Long-lasting insecticidal net users had lower infection prevalence ...
Insecticide resistance in sandflies: eliminating kala-azar by 2020. A paper published today in Infectious Diseases of Poverty ... Insecticide resistance in sandflies: eliminating kala-azar by 2020 - 14th November 2016 ... The residual efficacy of sprayed insecticide depends on the housing material of walls where insecticide is sprayed. I have seen ... Bangladesh and Nepal should share their vector control programme strategies for negating the impact of insecticide resistance ...
Molecular analysis of insecticide resistance in pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus). First cycle, G2E. Uppsala: SLU, Dept. of ... Pyrethroid resistance among pollen beetles is spread all over Sweden and also abroad and is increasing. Mapping of the gene ... Pyrethroid resistance can also be due to increased metabolism by cytochrome P450 (CYP). The experimental part with CYP aimed to ... Mutations in the gene encoding the sodium channel have proved to be a common reason for resistance against pyrethroids. ...
... researchers explore and discuss the development and implementation of a new insecticide resistance management plan in Zambia ... repeated insecticide use has led to the development of insecticide resistance among mosquitoes in many countries with ongoing ... Establish a database for insecticide resistance data. According to the authors, "[r]eliable and available resistance-monitoring ... Objective 2: Determine the mechanisms involved in insecticide resistance Data from rapid molecular assessment of local vectors ...
The use of insecticide treated cords for housefly control Cite CITE. Title : The use of insecticide treated cords for housefly ... Title : Insect resistance to insecticides Personal Author(s) : Hammerstrom, R. J. Published Date : Dec 1958 Source : Public ...
The second part of this study focused on measurement of esterase activities associated with insecticide resistance. Most such ... by applications of insecticides in agricultural and residential sites also impacts development of insecticide resistance and is ... one of the major metabolic mechanisms of insecticide resistance, using the model substrate, α-naphthyl acetate (α-NA), which ... Additionally, malathion resistance in C. quinquefasciatus was highly associated with esterase activity, both with α-NA or ...
L. 2021 Colorado Potato Beetle Insecticide Resistance Monitoring Results. Update from PEI Department of Agriculture, for Prince ...
T2 - cross-border gene flow and dispersal of insecticide resistance-associated genes in the mosquito Aedes aegypti from Brazil ... Liaisons dangereuses: cross-border gene flow and dispersal of insecticide resistance-associated genes in the mosquito Aedes ... Liaisons dangereuses: cross-border gene flow and dispersal of insecticide resistance-associated genes in the mosquito Aedes ... Dive into the research topics of Liaisons dangereuses: cross-border gene flow and dispersal of insecticide resistance- ...
Insecticide resistance in arthropods / A. W. A. Brown, R. Pal. By: Brown, Anthony William AldridgeContributor(s): Pal, Rajindar ... Insecticide resistance , ArthropodsNLM classification: WA 240Online resources: Click here to access online ...
International workshop on insecticide resistance in vectors of arboviruses, December 2016, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Share Share ... International workshop on insecticide resistance in vectors of arboviruses, December 2016, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil ...
Wonder why your insecticide treatments arent working? One major concern you may have is insecticide resistance. What is this? ... Insecticide Resistance in Common Household Pests: Are There Alternatives?. 1 Comment / Bedbugs, Cockroaches, Houseflies, ... Why Is It Important To Understand Pyrethroid Resistance In Your Area?. Leave a Comment / Mosquitoes / By Mallorie Snider ... Pyrethroid resistance greatly impacts the efficacy of all the common pyrethorid based products. Using a natural product can ...
Host Plant Resistance. *Insecticides. *Landscape Ecology. *Pollinators and Beneficial Insects. *Soybean Pests ...
Insecticide resistance status in Anopheles culicifacies in Madhya Pradesh, central India.. Authors: Mishra, A K. Chand, S K. ... Mishra A K, Chand S K, Barik T K, Dua V K, Raghavendra K. Insecticide resistance status in Anopheles culicifacies in Madhya ...
  • There are many types of insecticides that are commonly used to control adult mosquitoes. (
  • The active ingredients in different types of insecticides act in different ways (i.e. different modes of action) to incapacitate mosquitoes. (
  • After mosquitoes in a population are exposed to doses of insecticides that are too weak to kill them, mosquitoes may develop resistance to the active ingredient(s). (
  • Behavioral changes where mosquitoes may avoid insecticide-treated areas. (
  • The World Health Organization classifies a mosquito population as resistant when less than 80% of mosquitoes exposed to an insecticide die after a certain period of time. (
  • If an insecticide kills 98% to 100% of mosquitoes exposed at the diagnostic time, those mosquitoes are classified as susceptible to the insecticide. (
  • Since different insecticide active ingredients may use different modes of action to kill mosquitoes, new insecticides are continually being developed with novel modes of action. (
  • We tested Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes from Côte d'Ivoire for resistance and screened a subset The Study for target site mutations. (
  • Mosquitoes were resistant to During May-September 2011, mosquito larvae were insecticides of all approved classes. (
  • However, these gains are threatened by according to the LIVAK method ( 8 ), and a subsample of the rapid development and spread of insecticide resistance 500 mosquitoes were all found to be the M molecular form among major malaria vectors in Africa ( 3 ). (
  • Only 4 classes of insecticide, which share thirds of mosquitoes survived the diagnostic dose for 2 modes of action, are approved by the World Health 4 of the 5 insecticides tested (Table 1). (
  • resistance to DDT and pyrethroids or to organophosphates (Kisumu) mosquitoes to the pyrethroid deltamethrin or and carbamates. (
  • Mosquitoes at Ladji had higher oxidase and esterase activity than a laboratory-susceptible strain, but this fact did not seem to contribute to resistance. (
  • DNA from a subset of Aedes mosquitoes was sequenced to analyse the voltage-sensitive sodium channel ( Vssc ) region for any resistance-related mutations. (
  • Insecticide resistance (IR) monitoring in mosquitoes is important for ensuring continued efficacy of insecticide-based vector control interventions and for guiding the selection and application of the most appropriate combinations of products and active ingredients (AIs) [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • 80 000 mosquitoes were assessed for insecticide resistance. (
  • The surfaces of mud plastered or thatched households where insecticide is sprayed for control of sandflies or even mosquitoes, is not taken into account. (
  • However, despite being a central component of vector-control programs, repeated insecticide use has led to the development of insecticide resistance among mosquitoes in many countries with ongoing malaria transmission. (
  • In Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, resistance was shown to be associated with mutations in the DDT/pyrethroid target site-known as knockdown resistance ( kdr ) alleles-as well as with elevated levels of activity of P450 and glutathione S-transferase detoxification enzymes. (
  • In Anopheles funestus mosquitoes, resistance to carbamates and pyrethroids was shown to be associated with elevated levels of activity of P450. (
  • In addition to emphasizing the need to avoid pyrethroids for IRS because of widespread resistance, it recommends the use of organophosphates in rotation with DDT (where Anopheles funestus or Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes are the main vectors) to control vector populations and reduce selection pressure of any particular active ingredient. (
  • Similarly, the impact of selecting one life stage of mosquitoes on the insecticide susceptibility of different life stages is largely unknown. (
  • We based our estimate on studies that tracked, in real life conditions, the retention, physical survival (i.e., number and size of holes), and insecticide effectiveness at killing mosquitoes of two of the main brands of LLINs that AMF has purchased to date. (
  • Post-distribution net loss occurs for multiple reasons: attrition (i.e., nets were discarded due to damage, appropriated for other uses, given away, moved, or stolen), extensive holes in the net that make it permeable to mosquitoes, and decay of the net's insecticide component to the point that it is no longer effective. (
  • Fredros Okumu, the Ifakara Health Institute's research director, says mosquitoes are becoming resistant to the insecticides on bed nets. (
  • In some areas of the world, mosquitoes that carry malaria have developed resistance to insecticides. (
  • Insecticides remain the most effective vector control approach for Aedes mosquitoes. (
  • There she found a flyer for a fellowship at CDC, studying how mosquitoes that spread malaria build resistance to the insecticides used to control them. (
  • New chemicals on bed nets could beat resistance in malaria carrying mosquitoes. (
  • Kat - Is there a chance that mosquitoes could become resistant to this new insecticide as well? (
  • It's possible over the course of time the mosquitoes will develop resistance to this new chemical. (
  • Resistance to pyrethroids, the previous chemical that was used on nets, took about ten years to develop and it's been a further ten years for those mosquitoes to be prevalent in sufficient numbers to constitute a problem. (
  • A MSc in Molecular Biology of Parasites and Disease Vectors from Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, where she spent a summer collecting mosquitoes for insecticide resistance research in Burkina Faso … just to find out she was allergic to mosquito bites. (
  • But new approaches are needed due to developing resistance to malaria drugs and resistance to insecticides in mosquitoes. (
  • By the end of the study, 90 percent of the mosquitoes, on average, carried the resistance trait. (
  • Mosquito control programs should check for insecticide resistance/susceptibility periodically (e.g. beginning, middle, and end) during the mosquito season to ensure that the most effective control measures are being used. (
  • The mortality rate at the diagnostic time is recorded and the degree of resistance/susceptibility is noted. (
  • This bioassay can be repeated over time with mosquito populations from the same geographic area to determine if any changes in susceptibility/resistance occur over time. (
  • and Ace-1R alleles and unprecedentedly high levels of and Hilary Ranson phenotypic resistance to all insecticide classes available for Malaria control depends on mosquito susceptibility to malaria control. (
  • It is important to continue to monitor IR in PNG and develop proactive insecticide resistance management strategies in primary disease vectors to retain pyrethroid susceptibility especially in the malaria vectors for as long as possible. (
  • A paper published today in Infectious Diseases of Poverty reviews the existing data on susceptibility of sandflies to insecticides in Bangladesh, India and Nepal and emphasizes the need for determining the susceptility to new insecticides for better preparedness towards goal of elimination of kala-azar. (
  • Knowledge of the susceptibility of sandflies to insecticide is one thing and getting the desired result of their control in field conditions is another thing. (
  • In order to achieve the goal of elimination of kala-azar, knowledge of susceptibility status of sandfly species to the insecticide being used for spray is essential. (
  • Actions to mitigate against resistance rely on surveillance using standard susceptibility tests, but there are large gaps in the monitoring data across Africa. (
  • We have used the model to generate district-level maps for the probability that pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae s.l. exceeds the World Health Organization thresholds for susceptibility and confirmed resistance. (
  • Susceptibility to insecticides and resistance mechanisms in three populations of Aedes aegypti from Peru. (
  • These crops essentially serve as untreated refugia that likely sustains insecticide susceptibility and is the reason these products are still effective against thrips. (
  • Regional variation in insecticide susceptibility in odorous house ants, Tapinoma sessile. (
  • Insecticide Resistance in Common Household Pests: Are There Alternatives? (
  • Resistance by H. armigera and other pests to commonly used insecticides is a severe constraint to cotton production in India. (
  • Because roaches have been building up resistance to insecticides, some companies will double down - mixing multiple chemical killers to try and eliminate the pests. (
  • When dealing with some tough insect pests, organic insecticide rotation can be critical compared to repeated applications of a single AI. (
  • Cockroaches developing resistance to multiple classes of insecticides at once will make controlling these pests almost impossible with chemicals alone. (
  • For more complicated pests, like lepodoptria (moths, butterflies), there are many bacillus thuringiensis insecticides available. (
  • Management of this pest relies primarily on insecticides, such as the neonicotinoid imidacloprid, that may affect secondary pests. (
  • The opposite may hold true since pests can establish a resistance to insecticides. (
  • You likewise have to understand the best insecticide to use for various pests and how to apply it most successfully. (
  • The results show that although both imidacloprid and indoxacarb can control at least four of the five key pests tested at doses comparable to those used for organophosphorus protectants, more potent neonicotinoid or oxadiazine insecticides would be needed than either of these to provide broad spectrum protection of stored grain. (
  • Before beginning this procedure, bottles should be calibrated using known susceptible mosquito populations and/or for each regional mosquito population by determining the appropriate diagnostic dose and time for each insecticide active ingredient. (
  • However, not all control programs have the expertise and/or funding to do resistance monitoring, hence populations may go unchecked. (
  • An early experimental hut trial of ITNs in Côte d'Ivoire demonstrated a survival advantage of homozygotes for kdr resistance ( 8 ), whereas subsequent hut trials in adjacent resistant and susceptible populations showed no apparent difference in the effectiveness of ITNs between the 2 localities ( 9 ). (
  • To get a clearer understanding of the influence of kdr resistance on the effectiveness of ITN, further experimental hut trials of ITNs against kdr -resistant populations need to be conducted. (
  • Besides, tests with synergists were performed to assess the involvement of detoxifying enzyme in the phenotypic resistance of the populations of An. (
  • Monitoring local mosquito populations for insecticide resistance is critical for effective vector-borne disease control. (
  • Insecticides are widely used in public health to reduce vector populations. (
  • populations exhibit low levels of resistance against pyrethroids and DDT in some areas. (
  • The presence of super-kdr mutations and high resistance to permethrin in all the populations necessitate the reconsideration of control approaches against C. hemipterus. (
  • INTERPRETATION: Irrespective of resistance, populations in malaria endemic areas should continue to use long-lasting insecticidal nets to reduce their risk of infection. (
  • Much is known about the development of insecticide resistance associated with targeted application against insect populations. (
  • Using a natural product can help to break up the resistance cycle in local mosquito populations. (
  • The evolution of insecticide resistance mechanisms in natural populations of Anopheles malaria vectors is a major public health concern across Africa. (
  • Malaria vector control may be compromised by resistance to insecticides in vector populations. (
  • Associated patterns of insecticide resistance in field populations of malaria vectors across Africa. (
  • To understand the operational significance of resistance we require quantitative information about levels of resistance in field populations to the suite of vector control insecticides . (
  • Estimation of resistance is complicated by the sparsity of observations in field populations , variation in resistance over time and space at local and regional scales , and cross-resistance between different insecticide types. (
  • Populations living within or very near areas of heavy methyl parathion use would have an increased risk of exposure to large amounts of methyl parathion through dermal contact with contaminated plants, by inhalation of the mist formed from the applied insecticide, or by ingestion of water or food-borne residues. (
  • Incorporating selective insecticides in a rotation schedule encourages natural enemy populations to rebound after using harsher products. (
  • Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), populations exhibit varying levels of resistance to several insecticide classes, including pyrethroids. (
  • populations were evaluated: a field pyrethroid-resistant local strain (Puerto Vallarta) and an insecticide-susceptible laboratory strain (New Orleans). (
  • But, frustratingly, many mosquito populations have now developed resistance to pyrethroids, so scientists are on the lookout for alternatives. (
  • Insecticide Resistance Patterns and Mechanisms in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Populations Across Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire Reveal Emergent Pyrethroid Resistance. (
  • Mechanisms associated with pyrethroid resistance in populations of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) from the Caribbean coast of Colombia. (
  • Products that worked well in the past may be less effective due to flea populations developing resistance to the insecticide-similar to how bacteria become resistant to some antibiotics. (
  • This means they may be able to spread the malaria-resistance gene to natural populations. (
  • More studies are warranted from Bangladesh in this regard and the bordering areas of India, Bangladesh and Nepal should share their vector control programme strategies for negating the impact of insecticide resistance in sandlfy vectors. (
  • As a consequence, in 2012, the World Health Organization (WHO) published the Global Plan for Insecticide Resistance Management (GPIRM) in malaria vectors. (
  • This work has resulted in a better understanding of the resistance profiles of the major malaria vectors throughout the country," the authors note. (
  • Rdl resistance evolved in the 1950s as the first known adaptation to a large-scale insecticide-based intervention, but the evolutionary lessons from this system highlight contemporary and future dangers for management strategies designed to combat development of resistance in malaria vectors. (
  • Houseflies, vectors of enteric and ophthalmic diseases, are showing increasing resistance to insecticides. (
  • The development of insecticide resistance in African malaria vectors threatens the continued efficacy of important vector control methods that rely on a limited set of insecticides . (
  • In some countries, DDT is used in response to the development of resistance in malaria vectors against pyrethroid and carbamate insecticides. (
  • Some other countries have stopped using DDT, in compliance to the Convention, or in response to DDT resistance in malaria vectors. (
  • Development of molecular assays to detect target-site mechanisms associated with insecticide resistance in malaria vectors from Latin America. (
  • Abstract:background et objectives:Mosquito control is becoming increasingly difficult because of the developmentof resistance in vectors to conventional insecticides. (
  • The resistance in vectors warrants development of newer insecticides for mosquito control besides use of other counter-measures. (
  • The target site mutation G119S in the Ace-1 gene ( Ace-1R ) resistance management strategies must reduce the current and L1014F and L1014S kdr mutations were screened by overreliance on pyrethroids. (
  • The pyrethroids resistance is solely metabolic. (
  • in PNG are resistant to pyrethroids and DDT and that there was also likelihood of bendiocarb resistance. (
  • The escalating usage of pyrethroids has resulted in an increased awareness about resistance towards pyrethroids in insects. (
  • Mutations in the gene encoding the sodium channel have proved to be a common reason for resistance against pyrethroids. (
  • These findings confirmed that pyrethroids should no longer be used in insecticide rotations because of the metabolic mechanism of resistance. (
  • Distinguishing insecticide group will become important for future growing seasons so farmers can prolong the efficacy of pyrethroids and organophosphates. (
  • In addition, we have mapped the three criteria for the deployment of piperonyl butoxide-treated nets that mitigate against the effects of metabolic resistance to pyrethroids. (
  • For resistance to the three pyrethroids tested, deltamethrin, permethrin , and λ-cyhalothrin, we found consistent forms of covariation across sub-Saharan Africa and covariation between resistance to these pyrethroids and resistance to DDT . (
  • For pyrethroids and DDT we found significant associations between predicted mean resistance and the observed frequency of kdr mutations in the Vgsc gene in field mosquito samples, with DDT showing the strongest association . (
  • Insecticide-treated bednets are the most important tool in the fight against malaria, with chemicals called pyrethroids being the main pesticide used to treat them. (
  • Insecticide resistance intensity and efficacy of synergists with pyrethroids in Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) from Southern Togo. (
  • However, certain insects have been able to build resistance to pyrethroids. (
  • Each of these species has developed resistance to one or more protectants, including organophosphorus insecticides, synthetic pyrethroids and the juvenile hormone analogue methoprene. (
  • Prevalence of insecticide resistance in Anopheles multiple insecticide-resistance mechanisms ( 4 ). (
  • The pyrethroid knockdown resistance gene ( kdr ) has become widespread in Anopheles gambiae in West Africa. (
  • The Current Insecticide Resistance in Main Malaria Vector Anopheles arabiensis in Yemen. (
  • This paper reports the results of studies conducted to monitor the insecticide resistance of the main malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis, to the insecticides currently used in the vector control in four different locations. (
  • While widespread pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles and Aedes species has been described in many countries, data for Papua New Guinea (PNG) are limited. (
  • The two Rdl resistance mutations (296G and 296S) spread across West and Central African Anopheles via two independent hard selective sweeps that included likely compensatory nearby mutations, and were followed by a rare combination of introgression across species (from A. gambiae and A. arabiensis to A. coluzzii) and across nonconcordant karyotypes of the 2La chromosomal inversion. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Insecticide resistance status in Anopheles culicifacies in Madhya Pradesh, central India. (
  • Mishra A K, Chand S K, Barik T K, Dua V K, Raghavendra K. Insecticide resistance status in Anopheles culicifacies in Madhya Pradesh, central India. (
  • Using observations of the prevalence of resistance in mosquito species from the Anopheles gambiae complex sampled from 1,183 locations throughout Africa , we applied Bayesian geostatistical models to quantify patterns of covariation in resistance phenotypes across different insecticides . (
  • A whole transcriptomic approach provides novel insights into the molecular basis of organophosphate and pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles arabiensis from Ethiopia. (
  • Western Kenyan Anopheles gambiae showing intense permethrin resistance harbour distinct microbiota. (
  • However, widely used phenotypic assays, which are designed to monitor the emergence and spread of insecticide resistance (technical resistance), do not translate well to the efficacy of vector control products to suppress mosquito numbers in the field (practical resistance). (
  • Given the limited number of active ingredients currently available and the observed discordance between resistance and disease transmission, we conclude that additional testing guidelines are needed to determine practical resistance-the efficacy of vector control tools under relevant local conditions- in order to obtain programmatic impact. (
  • Vector control using indoor residual spray by insecticide is well-evidenced option for control of vector borne diseases. (
  • This document called for governments of malaria-endemic countries and other stakeholders to implement a strategy to combat the growing threat of insecticide resistance and to facilitate the development of innovative vector control tools and strategies. (
  • Mapping of the gene encoding the VSSC and search for mutations known to provide resistance in insects is necessary to know if that is the reason for resistance in pollen beetles. (
  • This insecticide targets fluid-feeding insects and was an option for soybean aphid before it was canceled in 2015. (
  • Use surfactants on leafy vegetables with a wax layer to increase insecticide retention on or below the leaf surface where insects hide. (
  • A German cockroach feeds on an insecticide in the laboratory portion of a Purdue University study that determined the insects are gaining cross-resistance to multiple insecticides at one time. (
  • Over time, many sythetic pesticides lose effectiveness as insects evolve resistance to them 4 . (
  • The development by insects of resistance to insecticides. (
  • Environmental damage from insecticide overuse is a major concern, particularly for conservation of "good" insects such as pollinators that ensure stable production of food crops like fruits and vegetables. (
  • An integrated crop management strategy was developed aimed at maximising profit while minimising insecticide use and the impact of insecticide resistance. (
  • During the past decade, increased use of insecticide- control paper for 1 hour, according to standard WHO treated bed nets and indoor residual spraying have made procedures ( 7 ). (
  • insecticide-treated bed nets. (
  • The 2 approaches to malaria prevention, insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and spraying (IRS), are not mutually exclusive, and in malaria-endemic areas where ITN coverage is still limited, the feasibility of introducing IRS to reduce transmission is being considered, for example, by the President's Initiative Fund ( 4 ). (
  • In Gabalat (highest transmission), there has been a reduction in prevalence in the IRS and long-lasting insecticide nets (LLINs) study group compared to the LLIN only group, following replacement of deltamethrin in 2012 to bendiocarb in 2013. (
  • We aimed to investigate whether insecticide resistance was associated with loss of effectiveness of long-lasting insecticidal nets and increased malaria disease burden. (
  • Among preventive measures, the use of insecticide treated nets at home and indoor residual spraying of insecticides are recommended for malaria. (
  • GiveWell top charity, the Against Malaria Foundation (AMF) , funds campaigns to distribute long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs). (
  • Other 'generic' brands of nets receive a WHO recommendation based on equivalent performance to a WHO-recommended product with the same chemical and physical specifications in the first phase of qualification (lab tests for textile strength and chemical analysis of the insecticide component). (
  • [1] This may involve the use of insecticides or bed-nets . (
  • Bedbugs can be eliminated through the use of permethrin insecticides, baited traps, special bedbug-free beds, and bed nets. (
  • By everyone's estimate, a huge chunk of the credit goes to the massive distribution of long-lasting, insecticide-treated nets, which not only stop a mosquito but kill the bug so it can't find another victim. (
  • Mark - we're looking at alternative insecticides to put on their nets. (
  • Kat - You've got the insecticides on the nets that kills them dead if they're sensitive to it and then you've got the insecticide that sterilizes them anyway - how effective are these nets when you test them? (
  • Kat - Many people are concerned about insecticides in the environment - how do we know that these new nets will be safe? (
  • So we're looking at, probably, at least ten years before there's significant resistance which undermine the effectiveness of the nets. (
  • Malaria drugs, insect-killing products called insecticides, and bed nets have reduced the number of malaria cases in some countries. (
  • Ms. Virginia Taona of the Mozambican Red Cross uses a PDA equipped with a GPS in a survey of insecticide-treated bed nets in rural Mozambique, February 2006. (
  • Southern Côte insecticide resistance have been restricted by the relatively low prevalence of organophosphate/carbamate resistance d'Ivoire and the limited effect that kdr mutations alone have on pyrethroid-based interventions ( 6 ). (
  • A range of Vssc resistance mutations were identified. (
  • Aedes albopictus were DDT resistant and were likely developing pyrethroid resistance, given a low frequency of Vssc mutations was observed. (
  • METHODS: We have analysed microsatellites and knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations from a trans-border region in Amazonia between the state of Amapá (Brazil) and French Guiana (overseas territory of France), to provide further knowledge on these issues. (
  • Genotyping of the kdr mutations revealed distinct patterns for Cayenne and Macapá associated with their different insecticide use history, and an admixture zone between these two patterns in Saint Georges and Oiapoque, in accordance with population genetic results. (
  • Using genome sequence data, we study the evolution of resistance mutations in the resistance to dieldrin locus (Rdl), a GABA receptor targeted by several insecticides, but most notably by the long-discontinued cyclodiene, dieldrin. (
  • Resistance-associated point mutations of organophosphate insensitive acetylcholinesterase, in the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae. (
  • Impact of deltamethrin selection on kdr mutations and insecticide detoxifying enzymes in Aedes aegypti from Mexico. (
  • Bed bug infestations often are treated with insecticides, but insecticide resistance is a problem, and excessive use of insecticides or use of insecticides contrary to label directions can raise the potential for human toxicity. (
  • A laboratory study was conducted to test the toxicity of three insecticides, Demand, Alpine, and Termidor, against workers and queens of odorous house ants, Tapinoma sessile using residual exposure assays. (
  • The combined toxicity of the insecticides and the residues from spraying the herbicides were not tested. (
  • Most of the nerve agents were originally synthesized in a search for insecticides, but because of their toxicity, they were evaluated for military use. (
  • Evidence is provided for the presence of practically relevant pyrethroid resistance in bed bugs in Germany by a new test system mimicking the practical use situation of residual insecticides. (
  • The residual efficacy of sprayed insecticide depends on the housing material of walls where insecticide is sprayed. (
  • Furthermore, the second round of spray coincides with rainy season therefore the walls of poorly maintained mud houses remain too wet and thus this thwarts the residual efficacy of insecticides. (
  • In order to achieve the effectiveness of spray, operational research on impact of housing material on residual efficacy of insecticide, best operational time of spray and educating the community about purpose of spray should be considered for getting optimum results for the elimination of kala-azar by 2020. (
  • The IRMTWG holds annual meetings, the main goal of which is to evaluate resistance data to guide decisions about which insecticides to use for indoor residual spraying (IRS) during the next spray season. (
  • Under current guidelines, a full battery of LLIN durability monitoring tracks four outcomes: attrition (survivorship), physical integrity, insecticidal activity, and residual insecticide content. (
  • Bendiocarb is still an effective insecticide in the form of IRS. (
  • or by surface coating with a polymeric binder and a thickening agent to improve the efficacy as an insect repellent .and retention of the permethrin in the fabric as an effective insecticide through successive washings of the garments. (
  • Erin is also speaking on a resistance management panel at the 2017 Iowa Soybean Research Conference on February 8, 2017. (
  • We evaluated the efficacy of aerial ultra-low-volume (ULV) insecticide spraying in field bioassays with caged Aedes aegypti in May 2017 in Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, Mexico. (
  • Aedes aegypti is highly pyrethroid resistant and also shows signs of resistance against carbamates in PNG. (
  • This study evaluated the repellence effectivity of DEET against two bed bug colonies from Argentina (a susceptible one and a field-collected pyrethroid-resistant one), under two starving periods and found different repellent effects of DEETS had a lower effect on the insecticide-resistant colony. (
  • It is demonstrated that Aprehend™ is equally effective against insecticide‐susceptible and insecticides‐resistant bed bugs and could provide pest control operators with a promising new tool for control of bed bug and insecticide resistance management. (
  • Even if only 7-10% of those is resistant to all known chemical insecticides, that's a pretty hefty infestation. (
  • This means even a small number of insecticide-resistant cockroaches could quickly spell trouble. (
  • Widespread resistance to pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides favors consideration of the newly developed fungal biopesticide Aprehend, containing Beauveria bassiana , against insecticide-resistant bedbugs. (
  • [ 38 ] Aprehend may be equally effective against insecticide-susceptible and insecticide-resistant bedbugs and represents a possible new tool for bedbug control. (
  • Entomologist Hilary Ranson at the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine said while insecticide resistance has spread rapidly, even a resistant bug pays a price when it hits a treated net. (
  • Long-lasting insecticidal net users had lower infection prevalence (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.63, 95% CI 0.51-0.78) and disease incidence (adjusted rate ratio [RR] 0.62, 0.41-0.94) than did non-users across a range of resistance levels. (
  • Phlebotomus argentipes , sandflies, the vector of visceral leishmaniasis (commonly known as kala-azar), were so sensitive to DDT insecticide that insecticidal spray for malaria vector's control resulted in reduction of kala-azar as a collateral benefit in India. (
  • To manage further development of resistance, research has focused on plant extracted essential oils (EO) with demonstrated insecticidal effects as a safer alternative to conventional synthetic insecticides. (
  • Furthermore, there has been no evidence of any relationship between malaria incidence or prevalence and phenotypic resistance in this study. (
  • METHODS: This WHO-coordinated, prospective, observational cohort study was done at 279 clusters (villages or groups of villages in which phenotypic resistance was measurable) in Benin, Cameroon, India, Kenya, and Sudan. (
  • [ 1 ] Resistance to pyrethroid insecticides is already widespread in the United States. (
  • Pyrethroid, organophosphate, carbamate and cyclodiene resistance levels for the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) have been monitored routinely at sites throughout India since 1993 using discriminating dose assays. (
  • We found no evidence of resistance interactions between carbamate and organophosphate insecticides or between these insecticides and those from other classes. (
  • Allele frequency of knock down resistance (kdr) in An arabiensis was higher in Galabat compared to the other areas, but a relationship between kdr frequency and malaria incidence (or malaria prevalence) was not apparent. (
  • We found no evidence of an association between insecticide resistance and infection prevalence (adjusted OR 0.86, 0.70-1.06) or incidence (adjusted RR 0.89, 0.72-1.10). (
  • The immediate application is assessment of insecticide effects on Asian Citrus Psyllid (Diaphorina citri) feeding to determine if an insecticide will prevent contact with the phloem, and thereby stop disease acquisition and transmission. (
  • There are two methods to scout and determine if an insecticide treatment is needed. (
  • The most vetted brands of LLINs pass three phases of testing, including long-term testing that includes three years of field monitoring for insecticide performance, and passing this test results in receiving a full recommendation from WHO and being named a 'reference class' product. (
  • In addition, the EPA has four public comment dockets open now regarding pollinator-only risk assessments for the neonicotinoid insecticides clothianidin, thiamethoxam, and dinotefuran. (
  • BACKGROUND: Scale-up of insecticide-based interventions has averted more than 500 million malaria cases since 2000. (
  • The research paper is titled "Rapid evolutionary responses to insecticide resistance management interventions by the German cockroach. (
  • Most such studies have measured esterases, one of the major metabolic mechanisms of insecticide resistance, using the model substrate, α-naphthyl acetate (α-NA), which has a chemical structure vastly different than the insecticide, malathion. (
  • This includes a critical review of the evidence for presence of cytochrome P450-mediated metabolic resistance mechanisms across Africa. (
  • This study investigated the mechanisms of reduced cuticular penetration type insecticide resistance in bed bugs and identified 62 putative bed bug cuticle protein-encoding contigs based on the presence of the Chitin-binding 4 (CB4) domain. (
  • Artificial laboratory selection was conducted to investigate mechanisms underlying fenpropathrin resistance. (
  • A number of insecticides are effective, including permethrin, and diethyltoluamide is an excellent insect repellent. (
  • Dr. Fur's Home Cleanser is a 4-in-1 concentrated Disinfectant, Insect Repellent, Insecticide and Deodorizer. (
  • This information could help policy-makers to plan insecticide resistance management. (
  • Results reported in this dissertation suggest that insecticide resistance management may be a useful tool for extending the efficacy of insecticides for control of C. lectularius. (
  • In a recent study, researchers explore and discuss the development and implementation of a new insecticide resistance management plan in Zambia between 2009 and 2014. (
  • In a recent article in Emerging Infectious Diseases, Emmanuel Chanda, PhD, Ministry of Health, Lusaka, Zambia, and colleagues discuss the development and implementation of a new insecticide resistance management plan in Zambia between 2009 and 2014. (
  • Dr. Chanda and colleagues therefore reported on the formulation and implementation of a new insecticide resistance management plan (IRMP) in Zambia between 2009 and 2014. (
  • According to the authors, Zambia's National Malaria Control Centre (NMCC) formed the Insecticide Resistance Management Technical Working Group (IRMTWG) in 2010. (
  • Learn more about insecticide groups and resistance management at the IRAC website . (
  • Given these increasing pressures on the ecosystem, there is a need to implement integrated pest management (IPM) approaches exploiting a wider range of tools (biotechnological approaches, microbial control, biological control, cultural control, and use of host plant resistance) for an alternative to chemical control. (
  • Hugh Smith, Adam Dale, and Julien Beuzelin November 28th, 2022 This publication is designed to help UF/IFAS Extension agents and members of the public understand insecticide modes of action and resistance management as they pertain to vegetables, field crops, turf, and ornamental plants. (
  • Although few cases of illnesses associated with insecticides used to control bed bugs have been reported, recommendations to prevent this problem from escalating include educating the public about effective bed bug management. (
  • It is also important because it allows us to determine potential exposure of thrips to key insecticides like Radiant and Lannate for resistance management purposes. (
  • These results provide important information on the population structure of this pest in India, which will aid in designing suitable strategies for its control and management, especially with respect to insecticide resistance. (
  • Seed treatment with a systemic insecticide that contains imidacloprid or thiamethoxam can also be used to control aphids that transmit BYD virus. (
  • The third part of this study has examined the association between expression of EST-3 gene encoding an esterase enzyme and malathion resistance in C. quinquefasciatus . (
  • Changes in the metabolism of the mosquito that help it survive insecticide exposure. (
  • Beyond this, indirect impacts of insecticide resistance and/or exposure on mosquito longevity, pathogen development, host-seeking behavior, and blood-feeding success impact disease transmission. (
  • Bedbugs feeding after insecticide exposure may alter the effects of the pesticide on bedbug mortality. (
  • Mortality and reproduction after a 2-week exposure of adults to treated wheat depended on species, dose and insecticide. (
  • While these factors have been well-studied individually, the experimental designs do not reflect real-world conditions where insecticide exposure and. (
  • Additionally, malathion resistance in C. quinquefasciatus was highly associated with esterase activity, both with α-NA or malathion. (
  • This shows that esterase activity is a suitable biomarker for malathion resistance in adult C. quinquefasciatus . (
  • A positive correlation was found between malathion resistance and expression of EST-3 in field-collected C. quinquefasciatus . (
  • Structural insect proofing can be performed to prevent the bugs from entering homes and beds, in addition to using control measures such as spraying infested buildings with insecticides such as malathion. (
  • Insecticide resistance may develop to malathion, diazinon, and λ-cyhalothrin, rendering them ineffective against bed bugs in selected geographic areas. (
  • To evaluate the resistance level of A. suspensa in South Florida, field collected flies were evaluated by topical bioassays using insecticide (i.e. methomyl) to determine the median lethal dose (LD50), which was then compared to the LD50 obtained with a susceptible lab colony to determine the resistance ratio. (
  • Watch an IRAC video on how insecticide resistance happens! (
  • Purification, molecular cloning and heterologous expression of a glutathione S-transferase involved in insecticide resistance from the rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens. (
  • worldwide, this method to 1 of 5 insecticides (0.1% bendiocarb, 1.0% fenitrothion, accounts for more than half of malaria control expenditures 0.75% permethrin, 0.05% deltamethrin, 4% DDT) or a ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • For many crops that Cameron grows organically, losing a key insecticide could mean either incurring a greater loss of his crop, or abandoning a susceptible crop from his crop rotation. (
  • The study found that more often than not, the cockroaches are still developing resistance. (
  • Cockroaches are developing a resistance to insecticides used in exterminators' bug spray and may soon be "almost impossible" to control with chemicals alone, scientists warn. (
  • According to Purdue researchers, insecticides used to control their spread come in different classes and each works differently to kill cockroaches. (
  • Since there's no poison component, cockroaches and fleas can't develop resistance to the dust. (
  • Insecticide dusts work on more than just cockroaches. (
  • Diamondback moth can quickly develop resistance to insecticides. (
  • None of these modes of action will cause the pest to develop resistance and Thyme Guard is 100% biodegradable, so you can use it as often as you need to without worry. (
  • When you need a pest control product that's going to work day and night in even the hardest-to-reach areas to eliminate all of these bugs and more, you need insecticide dust. (
  • Methyl parathion has been released to the environment mainly as a result of its use as an insecticide on crops. (
  • As a result of its use as an insecticide on cotton, fruit trees, vegetables, and other crops, methyl parathion is released directly to the atmosphere during application. (
  • In addition, Aedes aegypti pyrethroid resistance has been described in PNG. (
  • Rapid evolution of knockdown resistance haplotypes in response to pyrethroid selection in Aedes aegypti. (
  • Insecticide resistance status of Aedes aegypti in Bangladesh. (
  • The effectiveness of tank-mixes or insecticide rotations with Bts is enhanced when applications are made inside high tunnels (protection from rain) or in cooler weather (fall crop production). (
  • With the lack of varieties with acceptable levels of resistance to root rots, managing root rots is difficult. (
  • This is particularly true if soybean aphid is in the field because of recent reports of pyrethroid resistance. (
  • These results improve our capacity to understand and predict resistance patterns throughout Africa and can guide the development of monitoring strategies . (
  • Control bottles are also prepared that contain only acetone or ethanol (no insecticide). (
  • With regular monitoring of insecticide resistance, these issues can be managed to some degree and the most effective control measures can be used. (
  • In order to maximize mosquito control, programs should periodically rotate their insecticide use based on data gained from resistance monitoring. (
  • Insecticide resistance (IR) monitoring is essential for evidence-based control of mosquito-borne diseases. (
  • An over-reliance on chemical control has not only led to selection for resistance to insecticides and to a reduction of natural enemies, but has also polluted various components of ecosystem. (
  • This review synthesizes published information on insecticide resistance of S. exigua and explores alternative IPM approaches to control S. exigua. (
  • PAHO/WHO works with the governments, nonprofit organizations, initiatives and networks that support efforts in the Americas for the control and elimination of malaria: Amazon Network for the Surveillance of Antimalarial Drug Resistance and Malaria Champions of the Americas. (
  • Good insect control has been seen by alternating selective insecticides with a broad-spectrum product. (
  • Our study showed that the tested EOs have potential to be used as environmentally-friendly alternatives to conventional insecticides for control of Caribbean fruit fly. (
  • [ 32 ] However, due to the development of insecticide resistance, new tools and techniques are needed for bed bug control. (
  • For example, to control spider mites, an organic farmer might use finely ground dusting sulfur, or, to control worms and thrips, an organic farmer might use spinosad, which is an insecticide derived from a naturally occurring, soil dwelling bacterium. (
  • Acute illnesses associated with insecticides used to control bed bugs - seven states, 2003-2010. (
  • To assess the frequency of illness from insecticides used to control bed bugs, relevant cases from 2003-2010 were sought from the Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks (SENSOR)-Pesticides program and the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (NYC DOHMH). (
  • Bugs exist all day and you can use insecticides to control them. (
  • On-farm testing is recommended to help you gain experience in using new premix insecticides or rotations according to the insecticide label. (
  • Indiscriminate use of conventional or organic insecticides has resulted in many cases of insecticide resistance. (
  • Although organic farmers do not have the large selection of insecticides that are used in conventional agriculture, they do have some to choose from. (
  • However, off-target selection by applications of insecticides in agricultural and residential sites also impacts development of insecticide resistance and is understudied. (
  • Pyrethroid resistance greatly impacts the efficacy of all the common pyrethorid based products. (
  • Genetic changes or adaptations that prevent the insecticide from acting on its target within a mosquito. (
  • In addition, application of bifenthrin by commercial application on an individual residence increased the resistance frequencies to bifenthrin in five nearby residential sites, where resistance frequencies between larvae and adult were highly correlated (R 2 =0.92) suggesting that selection of adults also confers resistance to larvae. (